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1

Strategies of avoidance of host immune defenses in Asobara species.  

PubMed

Eggs and larvae of endophagous parasitoids face the host's immunity reaction once they penetrate the insect host's hemocele. In order to overcome the host's immune barrier, endoparasitoids have developed various strategies. Conformer parasitoids hide and/or get protected from the attack by the host's immunity cells without interfering with the host's immune system. Differently, regulator parasitoids directly attack the host's hemocytes, therefore totally inhibiting the immunity reaction of encapsulation in the parasitized host. Female wasps may also discriminate immunoreactive hosts from nonreactive, permissive ones before laying an egg. These different strategies coexist within the same genus of the braconids Asobara, endoparasitoids of Drosophila larvae. The physiological mechanisms underlying the conformer and regulator strategies in Asobara are exposed. The factors which may contribute to the diversity of the means developed by Asobara parasitoids to overcome the hosts' immunity defenses are discussed. PMID:19773073

Prévost, Geneviève; Doury, Géraldine; Mabiala-Moundoungou, Alix D N; Cherqui, Anas; Eslin, Patrice

2009-01-01

2

Chapter 9 Strategies of Avoidance of Host Immune Defenses in Asobara Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs and larvae of endophagous parasitoids face the host's immunity reaction once they penetrate the insect host's hemocele. In order to overcome the host's immune barrier, endoparasitoids have developed various strategies. Conformer parasitoids hide and\\/or get protected from the attack by the host's immunity cells without interfering with the host's immune system. Differently, regulator parasitoids directly attack the host's hemocytes,

Geneviève Prévost; Géraldine Doury; Alix D. N. Mabiala-Moundoungou; Anas Cherqui; Patrice Eslin

2009-01-01

3

Antibiotics, microbiota, and immune defense  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal tract microbiota contributes to the development and differentiation of the mammalian immune system. The composition of the microbiota affects immune responses and affects susceptibility to infection by intestinal pathogens and development of allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases. Antibiotic administration, while facilitating clearance of targeted infections, also perturbs commensal microbial communities and decreases host resistance to antibiotic-resistant microbes. Here, we review recent advances that begin to define the interactions between complex intestinal microbial populations and the mammalian immune system and how this relation is perturbed by antibiotic administration. We further discuss how antibiotic-induced disruption of the microbiota and immune homeostasis can lead to disease and we review strategies to restore immune defenses during antibiotic administration.

Ubeda, Carles; Pamer, Eric G.

2012-01-01

4

Defense Display Strategy and Roadmaps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense (DoD) is developing a new strategy for displays. The new displays' science and technology roadmap will incorporate urgent warfighter needs as well as investment opportunities where military advantage is foreseen. Thrusts now endi...

D. G. Hopper

2002-01-01

5

Defense attorneys discuss strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the defense in the I.G. Farben trial now before a military tribunal at Nurnberg shown discussing problems common to case. Left to right include Dr. Holmust Dix of Fischen (Schneider); Dr. Rupprecht von Keller of Tupzing boi Munich (Assistant Counsel defending von Schnitzler); Dr. Gernot Gather, of Freiberg (Assistant Counsel for Ambros); Dr. Heinz Trabandt, Fuerth (Assistant Counsel

OMGUS Military Tribunal

1947-01-01

6

Innate immune defense through RNA interference.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi, also known as RNA silencing) has recently emerged as a fundamental and widespread regulator of gene expression. New developments in this field implicate RNAi in the innate immune response to infection in plants and animals. Evidence from plants, tissue culture cells, and Caenorhabditis elegans-based systems previously suggested that RNAi plays a role in the defense against viral infection, but definitive evidence using viruses and whole animals has been lacking. Two recent reports now show that both Drosophila embryos and adult flies mount a substantial innate immune response to insect viruses that requires the RNAi machinery. This innate response is distinct from known bacterial and fungal defense systems provided by the Toll and immune deficiency (Imd) pathways, thus defining a previously unrecognized strategy to fight viral infection. Whether RNAi, aside from its function in counteracting viruses, is also used to fight bacterial infection remained enigmatic. New evidence, however, now shows that in Arabidopsis, the bacterial component, flagellin, induces the expression of a specific microRNA, which in turn leads to the down-regulation of the signaling pathways that are implicated in disease susceptibility. This down-regulation then increases the plant's resistance to infection. Whether RNAi mechanisms also exist for combating bacterial diseases in animals remains an intriguing question for future studies. PMID:16772641

Fritz, Jörg H; Girardin, Stephen E; Philpott, Dana J

2006-06-13

7

Immune defense against pneumonic plague  

PubMed Central

Summary Yersinia pestis is one of the world's most virulent human pathogens. Inhalation of this Gram-negative bacterium causes pneumonic plague, a rapidly progressing and usually fatal disease. Extensively antibiotic-resistant strains of Y. pestis exist and have significant potential for exploitation as agents of terrorism and biowarfare. Subunit vaccines comprised of the Y. pestis F1 and LcrV proteins are well-tolerated and immunogenic in humans but cannot be tested for efficacy, because pneumonic plague outbreaks are uncommon and intentional infection of humans is unethical. In animal models, F1/LcrV-based vaccines protect mice and cynomolgus macaques but have failed, thus far, to adequately protect African green monkeys. We lack an explanation for this inconsistent efficacy. We also lack reliable correlate assays for protective immunity. These deficiencies are hampering efforts to improve vaccine efficacy. Here, I review the immunology of pneumonic plague, focusing on evidence that humoral and cellular defense mechanisms collaborate to defend against pulmonary Y. pestis infection.

Smiley, Stephen T.

2009-01-01

8

Defensive Marketing Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes how a firm should adjust its marketing expenditures and its price to defend its position in an existing market from attack by a competitive new product. Our focus is to provide usable managerial recommendations on the strategy of response. In particular we show that if products can be represented by their position in a multiattribute space, consumers

John R. Hauser; Steven M. Shugan

1983-01-01

9

STEROIDAL REGULATION OF UTERINE IMMUNE DEFENSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Progesterone suppresses uterine immune defenses and predisposes postpartum animals to nonspecific uterine infections. Progesterone can also suppress the synthesis of uterine eicosanoids. This effect of progesterone seems to be an important factor in the onset of uterine infections because eicosanoid...

10

Disease Tolerance as a Defense Strategy  

PubMed Central

The immune system protects from infections primarily by detecting and eliminating the invading pathogens; however, the host organism can also protect itself from infectious diseases by reducing the negative impact of infections on host fitness. This ability to tolerate a pathogen’s presence is a distinct host defense strategy, which has been largely overlooked in animal and human studies. Introduction of the notion of “disease tolerance” into the conceptual toolkit of immunology will expand our understanding of infectious diseases and host pathogen interactions. Analysis of disease tolerance mechanisms should provide new approaches for the treatment of infections and other diseases.

Medzhitov, Ruslan; Schneider, David S.; Soares, Miguel P.

2013-01-01

11

Chemical defense strategies of marine organisms.  

PubMed

The diverse habitats of the marine environment and the adaptation required to live either in the open water or attached to a substrate resulted in various defense strategies. This review covers different ways how organisms from the plankton can maintain a chemical defense as well as the dynamic chemical defense strategies of benthic organisms. It opens with a detailed discussion of recent studies of chemical defenses among organisms floating in the open water. These defenses include the production of toxins by harmful algal blooms as well as the rapid production of defensive metabolites from non-toxic precursors upon cell disruption. A comprehensive account of recent advances in the field of dynamic chemical defense strategies of benthic organisms is then presented. It includes the known examples of activated defense based on the enzymatic transformation of storage metabolites as well as induced chemical defense strategies. These strategies depend on the recognition of signals from an herbivore or pathogen, followed by the up-regulation of the biosynthesis of metabolites involved in the chemical defense. PMID:22160234

Pohnert, Georg

2004-01-01

12

Chemical Defense Strategies of Marine Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diverse habitats of the marine environment and the adaptation required to live either in the open water or attached to\\u000a a substrate resulted in various defense strategies. This review covers different ways how organisms from the plankton can\\u000a maintain a chemical defense as well as the dynamic chemical defense strategies of benthic organisms. It opens with a detailed\\u000a discussion

Georg Pohnert

13

Immunization strategies against henipaviruses.  

PubMed

Hendra virus and Nipah virus are recently discovered and closely related emerging viruses that now comprise the genus henipavirus within the sub-family Paramyxoviridae and are distinguished by their broad species tropism and in addition to bats can infect and cause fatal disease in a wide variety of mammalian hosts including humans. The high mortality associated with human and animal henipavirus infections has highlighted the importance and necessity of developing effective immunization strategies. The development of suitable animal models of henipavirus infection and pathogenesis has been critical for testing the efficacy of potential therapeutic approaches. Several henipavirus challenge models have been used and recent successes in both active and passive immunization strategies against henipaviruses have been reported which have all targeted the viral envelope glycoproteins. PMID:22481140

Broder, Christopher C; Geisbert, Thomas W; Xu, Kai; Nikolov, Dimitar B; Wang, Lin-Fa; Middleton, Deborah; Pallister, Jackie; Bossart, Katharine N

2012-01-01

14

[The paraspecific immune defense: possibilities and limits].  

PubMed

The paraspecific defense system is the phylogenetically older part of the complex immune system. It enables the organism to immediately attack various foreign substances, infectious germs and toxins when confronted by them. In order to activate the paraspecific immune system with the help of drugs, so-called "paramunity inducers" are employed. The use of paramunization is a new way of prophylaxis and therapy, not only with regard to infections, but also with regard to different other indications. The limitations of paramunization are to be found in genetic defects of the paraspecific immune system, therefore the success of paramunization is dependent on the functioning of the paraspecific defense system. The possibility of developing paramunity inducers that are pyrogen-free, non-toxic and pleotypically effective in pre-clinical and clinical experiments is illustrated through the use of pox and parapox viruses. Inducers based on different pox virus species were effective and safe when used in humans as well as in animals in the field. PMID:8470097

Mayr, A

1993-02-01

15

Finding a Better Immunization Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of finding the best strategy to immunize a population or a computer network with a minimal number of immunization doses is of current interest. It has been accepted that the targeted strategies on most central nodes are most efficient for model and real networks. We present a newly developed graph-partitioning strategy which requires 5% to 50% fewer immunization doses compared to the targeted strategy and achieves the same degree of immunization of the network. We explicitly demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed strategy on several model networks and also on real networks.

Chen, Yiping; Paul, Gerald; Havlin, Shlomo; Liljeros, Fredrik; Stanley, H. Eugene

2008-08-01

16

Defensive Strategies of Modular Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convergences concomitant with the occurrence of modular growth among systematically remote plant and invertebrate taxa not only reflect similar optimal ways of exploiting resources such as space, but also common defensive requirements among such organisms. This paper analyses the kinds of unfavourable interspecific interactions, principally predation, epibiosis, and endobiosis, which are found among the major aquatic invertebrate groups that may

P. E. J. Dyrynda

1986-01-01

17

Immune defense at the ocular surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ocular surface is constantly exposed to a wide array of microorganisms. The ability of the outer ocular system to recognize pathogens as foreign and eliminate them is critical to retain corneal transparency, hence preservation of sight. Therefore, a combination of mechanical, anatomical, and immunological defense mechanisms has evolved to protect the outer eye. These host defense mechanisms are classified

E K Akpek; J D Gottsch

2003-01-01

18

Innate Immune Evasion Strategies by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1  

PubMed Central

Host immune components play both beneficial and pathogenic roles in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. During the initial stage of viral infection, a complex network of innate immune factors are activated. For instance, the immune cells express a number of inflammatory proteins including cytokines, chemokines, and antiviral restriction factors. These factors, specifically, interferons (IFNs) play a crucial role in antiviral defense system by modulating the downstream signaling events, by inducing maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), and by activation of macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells, and B and T cells. However, HIV-1 has evolved to utilize a number of strategies to overcome the antiviral effects of the host innate immune system. This review discusses the pathways and strategies utilized by HIV-1 to establish latent and persistent infection by defeating host's innate defense system.

Guha, Debjani; Ayyavoo, Velpandi

2013-01-01

19

A recent perspective on alcohol, immunity and host defense  

PubMed Central

Overview Multiple line of clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates that both acute, moderate and chronic, excessive alcohol use result in various abnormalities in the functions of the immune system. Altered inflammatory cell and adaptive immune responses in turn result in increased incidence and poor outcome of infections and other organ effects after alcohol use. This review article summarizes recent findings relevant to immunomodulation by alcohol and its consequences on host defense against microbial pathogens and tissue injury.

Szabo, Gyongyi; Mandrekar, Pranoti

2013-01-01

20

Immune Building Technology and Bioterrorism Defense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the wake of the 2001 anthrax scare, a research project at Pennsylvania State University has garnered significant attention. This paper introduces immune buildings, which have advanced ventilation and air filtration systems that can mitigate the danger caused by airborne pathogens. Experimental results from the project are also presented.

Bahnfleth, William P. (William Parry), 1957-; Kowalski, Wladyslaw J.

2008-01-04

21

Immune defense and biological responses induced by toxics in Annelida  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylum Annelida comprises primitive coelomates that possess specially developed cellular immunity against pathogens. Active phagocytosis by coelomocytes occurs in the struggle against bacteria in Polychaeta and Oligochaeta. Encapsulation plays an important role in defense against parasites, and experimental studies have demon- strated that cooperation between different coelomocyte populations occurs in this process. Spontaneous cytotoxicity of coelomocytes against xenogenic or

André Dhainaut; Patrick Scaps

2001-01-01

22

Defense Reform Initiative; The Business Strategy for Defense in the 21st Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To carry out our defense strategy into the 2lst century with military forces able to meet the challenges of the new era, there is no alternative to achieving fundamental reform in how the Defense Department conducts business. DoD's current organization, i...

1997-01-01

23

Filicide: Gender Bias in California Defense Attorneys' Perception of Motive And Defense Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is the first of its kind to evaluate attorneys' perception of motive and defense strategies when presented with a fictional filicide case. A vignette-based survey was designed to elicit data regarding perception of motive and willingness to use various defenses. Participants were more likely to agree that jealousy and retaliation were motivating factors when the perpetrator was male,

Jennifer Orthwein; Wendy Packman; Rebecca Jackson; Bruce Bongar

2010-01-01

24

Setting Global Defense Strategy in the Face of Uncertainty.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In today's fluid global security environment, assessing the costs, risks, and likely consequences of alternative national defense strategies is as difficult as it is essential. Two new companion RAND reports present an approach designed to help decisionma...

2008-01-01

25

Relationships between coping strategies and defense mechanisms in sport performance.  

PubMed

In an exploratory study, the relationships between two major concepts in psychological adjustment, coping strategies, and defense mechanisms were investigated. Sport competition is an example of a real-world context in which people's responses to stressful situations can be investigated. The extent to which participants reported different uses of coping strategies and defense mechanisms was assessed in terms of performance. 26 elite kayakers were classified into one of two groups, depending on the discrepancy between their standard performance and their performance in competition. Correlations were found among the coping strategies of seeking social support, positive reappraisal/planful problem solving, and mature defenses and between the coping strategy of distancing/avoidance and immature defenses. The results of multivariate and univariate analyses confirmed a significantly different use of coping strategies and defense mechanisms between the two performance groups. In light of these findings, certain recommendations in terms of methodology and application are warranted. Coping strategies and defense mechanisms should be studied to improve adjustment to sport performance. PMID:19320208

Nicolas, Michel; Jebrane, Ahmed

2008-12-01

26

Defense Strategy and Forces: Setting Future Directions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this workshop is to provide a collegial forum for a small and select group of defense strategists and force planners to formulate and recommend strategic and force choices for the future. The nation is in the sixth year of war since 9/11. T...

R. M. Lloyd W. B. Ruger

2007-01-01

27

Drosophila Thor participates in host immune defense and connects a translational regulator with innate immunity  

PubMed Central

Thor has been identified as a new type of gene involved in Drosophila host immune defense. Thor is a member of the 4E-binding protein (4E-BP) family, which in mammals has been defined as critical regulators in a pathway that controls initiation of translation through binding eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Without an infection, Thor is expressed during all developmental stages and transcripts localize to a wide variety of tissues, including the reproductive system. In response to bacterial infection and, to a lesser extent, by wounding, Thor is up-regulated. The Thor promoter has the canonical NF?B and associated GATA recognition sequences that have been shown to be essential for immune induction, as well as other sequences commonly found for Drosophila immune response genes, including interferon-related regulatory sequences. In survival tests, Thor mutants show symptoms of being immune compromised, indicating that Thor may be critical in host defense. In contrast to Thor, Drosophila eIF4E is not induced by bacterial infection. These findings for Thor provide the first evidence that a 4E-BP family member has a role in immune induction in any organism. Further, no gene in the translation initiation pathway that includes 4E-BP has been previously found to be immune induced. Our results suggest either a role for translational regulation in humoral immunity or a new, nontranslational function for 4E-BP type genes.

Bernal, Alejandro; Kimbrell, Deborah A.

2000-01-01

28

Strategies for Dealing with the Defense Budget.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines the sources of topline budget turbulence and the current process for coping with it. Several improvements to the current process are evaluated and quantitative assessments are made of mutually exclusive strategies. The study concludes ...

T. Frazier A. Fuller K. S. Masterson H. Pyzdrowski J. R. Simms

1983-01-01

29

Varicella Zoster Virus Immune Evasion Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The capacity of varicella zoster virus (VZV) to cause varicella (chickenpox) relies upon multiple steps, beginning with inoculation\\u000a of the host at mucosal sites with infectious virus in respiratory droplets. Despite the presence of a powerful immune defense\\u000a system, this virus is able to disseminate from the site of initial infection to multiple sites, resulting in the emergence\\u000a of distinctive

Allison Abendroth; Paul R. Kinchington; Barry Slobedman

30

Inverse targeting —An effective immunization strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new method to immunize populations or computer networks against epidemics which is more efficient than any continuous immunization method considered before. The novelty of our method resides in the way of determining the immunization targets. First we identify those individuals or computers that contribute the least to the disease spreading measured through their contribution to the size of the largest connected cluster in the social or a computer network. The immunization process follows the list of identified individuals or computers in inverse order, immunizing first those which are most relevant for the epidemic spreading. We have applied our immunization strategy to several model networks and two real networks, the Internet and the collaboration network of high-energy physicists. We find that our new immunization strategy is in the case of model networks up to 14%, and for real networks up to 33% more efficient than immunizing dynamically the most connected nodes in a network. Our strategy is also numerically efficient and can therefore be applied to large systems.

Schneider, C. M.; Mihaljev, T.; Herrmann, H. J.

2012-05-01

31

Missile Defense Importance Cited in New National Security Strategy Document  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new National Security Strategy of the United States of America, released in mid-March of 2006, confirms the continuing and expanding role that Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) plays in America's national security. The document explicitly cites BMD as part of its ongoing efforts to protect the nation and its citizens: \\

Howard Kleinberg

32

Defensive strategy framework in global markets : A mental models approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework for defensive strategy by integrating market entry modes and the typology of firms suggested by Day and Nedungandi, and to attempt to propose how local incumbent firms utilize their mental models in order to react against market entry of new competition in global markets. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The

Fahri Karakaya; Peter Yannopoulos

2010-01-01

33

Defense Science and Technology Strategy and Plans (January 1997) (on CD-ROM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This CD-ROM contains the basic science and technology planning documents of the Department of Defense. Included are the Defense Science and Technology Strategy, the Basic Research Plan, the Defense Technology Area Plan, the Joint Warfighting Science and T...

1997-01-01

34

Defense Science and Technology Strategy and Plans (January 1997) (on CD-ROM).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This CD-ROM contains the basic science and technology planning documents of the Department of Defense. Included are the Defense Science and Technology Strategy (May 1996), the Basic Research Plan (January 1997), the Defense Technology Area Plan (January 1...

1998-01-01

35

Defense strategies and insurance coverage issues in a Superfund case  

SciTech Connect

The handling of Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) litigation introduces a new challenge to defense attorneys and insurance claims personnel. The authors focus on those aspects of the CERCLA case which are unique in comparison to other property damage or personal injury litigation, and discuss the effect upon defense strategies and insurance coverage issues. They note in conclusion that alternative claims are often raised by the government based upon other federal and state statutes and common law. Private individuals may also file a separate but related suit.

Kaplan, H.L.; Balloun, J.E.; Stigall, S.R.

1986-10-01

36

Surrogate Immunity: The Government Contract Defense and Products Liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The government contract defense is an affirmative defense that shields a manufacturer from liability if the product causing injury complied strictly with design specifications set forth in a government procurement contract. The defense was first used by public works contractors to bar claims against them for damage to land and other property. However, in recent years, product manufacturers have invoked

Richard C. Ausness

1986-01-01

37

Efficient Immunization Strategies for Computer Networks and Populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an effective immunization strategy for computer networks and populations with broad and, in particular, scale-free degree distributions. The proposed strategy, acquaintance immunization, calls for the immunization of random acquaintances of random nodes (individuals). The strategy requires no knowledge of the node degrees or any other global knowledge, as do targeted immunization strategies. We study analytically the critical threshold for complete immunization. We also study the strategy with respect to the susceptible-infected-removed epidemiological model. We show that the immunization threshold is dramatically reduced with the suggested strategy, for all studied cases.

Cohen, Reuven; Havlin, Shlomo; Ben-Avraham, Daniel

2003-12-01

38

Nutrition, Infection, Specific Immune Responses, and Nonspecific Host Defenses: A Complex Interaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infectious illnesses deplete host nutrient stores in various ways and, reciprocally, nutritional factors influence host susceptibility to infection. Nutritional factors influence immune functions and other host defensive measures. Since acute or chronic i...

W. R. Beisel

1982-01-01

39

HIV infection and immune defense of the penis.  

PubMed

Recent evidence that circumcision decreases HIV infection in heterosexual men by 50-60% has focused research on the foreskin as a target of HIV infection. In this review article, we discuss potential mechanisms underlying the circumcision effect and re-examine the assumption that the foreskin is the principle penile HIV infection site. HIV target cells are present in the foreskin epithelium, but are also found in the epithelia of the penile shaft, glans/corona, meatus and urethral introitus. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can affect any of these sites and increase susceptibility to HIV acquisition by eroding the protective epithelial layer and by attracting and activating HIV target cells in the epithelium. The moist subpreputial cavity, which encompasses the entire penile tip in most uncircumcised men including the glans, meatus and urethral introitus, plays an important role in STI acquisition. Circumcised men have a lower rate of STIs that infect not only the foreskin but also other distal penile sites, especially the urethra. Likewise, the foreskin may trap HIV and HIV-infected cells after intercourse thereby increasing the risk of HIV acquisition not only through the inner foreskin but also other sites covered by the foreskin. The subpreputial cavity also hosts a unique microbiome that may also play a role in HIV infection. We hypothesize that the penile urethra may be the primary HIV acquisition site in circumcised men and possibly also in non-circumcised men because of the presence of superficial HIV target cells and a high incidence of STIs at this site. Both innate and adaptive immune defense mechanisms are operative in the lower male genital region. The penile urethral mucosa contains accumulations of IgA(+) plasma cells and T lymphocytes and may provide a responsive target for future mucosal vaccines to prevent HIV sexual transmission. PMID:21214659

Anderson, Deborah; Politch, Joseph A; Pudney, Jeffrey

2011-01-09

40

Strategy alternatives for homeland air and cruise missile defense.  

PubMed

Air and cruise missile defense of the U.S. homeland is characterized by a requirement to protect a large number of critical assets nonuniformly dispersed over a vast area with relatively few defensive systems. In this article, we explore strategy alternatives to make the best use of existing defense resources and suggest this approach as a means of reducing risk while mitigating the cost of developing and acquiring new systems. We frame the issue as an attacker-defender problem with simultaneous moves. First, we outline and examine the relatively simple problem of defending comparatively few locations with two surveillance systems. Second, we present our analysis and findings for a more realistic scenario that includes a representative list of U.S. critical assets. Third, we investigate sensitivity to defensive strategic choices in the more realistic scenario. As part of this investigation, we describe two complementary computational methods that, under certain circumstances, allow one to reduce large computational problems to a more manageable size. Finally, we demonstrate that strategic choices can be an important supplement to material solutions and can, in some cases, be a more cost-effective alternative. PMID:20626693

Murphy, Eric M; Payne, Michael D; Vanderwoude, Glenn W

2010-10-01

41

Immune Defense Reactions of Myriapoda — A Brief Presentation of Recent Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short review of immune defense mechanisms of diplopods and chilopods (with special ref- erence to the species Rhapidostreptus virgator (SILVESTRI), Chicobolus spec, Scolopendra spec, and Lithobius forficatus (L.)) is given. Myriapods have different types of hemocytes which are able to detect between self and non-self and phagocytize or encapsulate foreign material. As humoral defense systems myriapods have different antibacterial

Willi E. R. XYLANDER

42

Plant mating system transitions drive the macroevolution of defense strategies  

PubMed Central

Understanding the factors that shape macroevolutionary patterns in functional traits is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Alternative strategies of sexual reproduction (inbreeding vs. outcrossing) have divergent effects on population genetic structure and could thereby broadly influence trait evolution. However, the broader evolutionary consequences of mating system transitions remain poorly understood, with the exception of traits related to reproduction itself (e.g., pollination). Across a phylogeny of 56 wild species of Solanaceae (nightshades), we show here that the repeated, unidirectional transition from ancestral self-incompatibility (obligate outcrossing) to self-compatibility (increased inbreeding) leads to the evolution of an inducible (vs. constitutive) strategy of plant resistance to herbivores. We demonstrate that inducible and constitutive defense strategies represent evolutionary alternatives and that the magnitude of the resulting macroevolutionary tradeoff is dependent on the mating system. Loss of self-incompatibility is also associated with the evolution of increased specificity in induced plant resistance. We conclude that the evolution of sexual reproductive variation may have profound effects on plant–herbivore interactions, suggesting a new hypothesis for the evolution of two primary strategies of plant defense.

Campbell, Stuart A.; Kessler, Andre

2013-01-01

43

New Competitive Strategies, Tools and Methodologies. Volume 1: Review of the Department of Defense Competetive Strategies Initiative, 1986-1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the Department of Defense (DoD) Competitive Strategies Initiative (CSI) from 1986, when it was formally inaugurated by Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, to the present. The principal focus is an assessment of four major analytic ...

D. J. Andre

1990-01-01

44

Immune evasion strategies of trypanosomes: a review.  

PubMed

Trypanosomes are digenetic protozoans that infect domestic and wild animals, as well as humans. They cause important medical and veterinary diseases, making them a major public health concern. There are many species of trypanosomes that infect virtually all vertebrate taxa. They typically cycle between insect or leech vectors and vertebrate hosts, and they undergo biochemical and morphological changes in the process. Trypanosomes have received much attention in the last 4 decades because of the diseases they cause and their remarkable armamentarium of immune evasion mechanisms. The completed genome sequences of trypanosomes have revealed an extensive array of molecules that contribute to various immune evasion mechanisms. The different species interact uniquely with their vertebrate hosts with a wide range of evasion strategies and some of the most fascinating immune evasion mechanisms, including antigenic variation that was first described in the trypanosomes. This review focuses on the variety of strategies that these parasites have evolved to evade or modulate immunity of endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates. PMID:22007969

Oladiran, Ayoola; Belosevic, Miodrag

2011-10-18

45

Age and Sex Differences in Strategies of Coping and Defense Across the Life Span  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age and sex differences in the use of coping and defense strategies were examined in a life-span sample of 381 individuals. Participants responded to 2 self-report measures assessing mechanisms of coping and defense and measures assessing their level of cognitive complexity. Older adults used a combination of coping and defense strategies indicative of greater impulse control and the tendency to

Manfred Diehl; Nathan Coyle; Gisela Labouvie-Vief

1996-01-01

46

An engineered innate immune defense protects grapevines from Pierce disease.  

PubMed

We postulated that a synergistic combination of two innate immune functions, pathogen surface recognition and lysis, in a protein chimera would lead to a robust class of engineered antimicrobial therapeutics for protection against pathogens. In support of our hypothesis, we have engineered such a chimera to protect against the gram-negative Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), which causes diseases in multiple plants of economic importance. Here we report the design and delivery of this chimera to target the Xf subspecies fastidiosa (Xff), which causes Pierce disease in grapevines and poses a great threat to the wine-growing regions of California. One domain of this chimera is an elastase that recognizes and cleaves MopB, a conserved outer membrane protein of Xff. The second domain is a lytic peptide, cecropin B, which targets conserved lipid moieties and creates pores in the Xff outer membrane. A flexible linker joins the recognition and lysis domains, thereby ensuring correct folding of the individual domains and synergistic combination of their functions. The chimera transgene is fused with an amino-terminal signal sequence to facilitate delivery of the chimera to the plant xylem, the site of Xff colonization. We demonstrate that the protein chimera expressed in the xylem is able to directly target Xff, suppress its growth, and significantly decrease the leaf scorching and xylem clogging commonly associated with Pierce disease in grapevines. We believe that similar strategies involving protein chimeras can be developed to protect against many diseases caused by human and plant pathogens. PMID:22355130

Dandekar, Abhaya M; Gouran, Hossein; Ibáñez, Ana María; Uratsu, Sandra L; Agüero, Cecilia B; McFarland, Sarah; Borhani, Yasmin; Feldstein, Paul A; Bruening, George; Nascimento, Rafael; Goulart, Luiz R; Pardington, Paige E; Chaudhary, Anu; Norvell, Meghan; Civerolo, Edwin; Gupta, Goutam

2012-02-21

47

An engineered innate immune defense protects grapevines from Pierce disease  

PubMed Central

We postulated that a synergistic combination of two innate immune functions, pathogen surface recognition and lysis, in a protein chimera would lead to a robust class of engineered antimicrobial therapeutics for protection against pathogens. In support of our hypothesis, we have engineered such a chimera to protect against the Gram-negative Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), which causes diseases in multiple plants of economic importance. Here we report the design and delivery of this chimera to target the Xf subspecies fastidiosa (Xff), which causes Pierce disease in grapevines and poses a great threat to the wine-growing regions of California. One domain of this chimera is an elastase that recognizes and cleaves MopB, a conserved outer membrane protein of Xff. The second domain is a lytic peptide, cecropin B, which targets conserved lipid moieties and creates pores in the Xff outer membrane. A flexible linker joins the recognition and lysis domains, thereby ensuring correct folding of the individual domains and synergistic combination of their functions. The chimera transgene is fused with an amino-terminal signal sequence to facilitate delivery of the chimera to the plant xylem, the site of Xff colonization. We demonstrate that the protein chimera expressed in the xylem is able to directly target Xff, suppress its growth, and significantly decrease the leaf scorching and xylem clogging commonly associated with Pierce disease in grapevines. We believe that similar strategies involving protein chimeras can be developed to protect against many diseases caused by human and plant pathogens.

Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Gouran, Hossein; Ibanez, Ana Maria; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Aguero, Cecilia B.; McFarland, Sarah; Borhani, Yasmin; Feldstein, Paul A.; Bruening, George; Nascimento, Rafael; Goulart, Luiz R.; Pardington, Paige E.; Chaudhary, Anu; Norvell, Meghan; Civerolo, Edwin; Gupta, Goutam

2012-01-01

48

Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies  

SciTech Connect

Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

2006-05-01

49

Control Systems Cyber Security: Defense-in-Depth Strategies  

SciTech Connect

Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: • Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems • Access to facilities via remote data link or modem • Public facing services for customer or corporate operations • A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

Mark Fabro

2007-10-01

50

Army Air Defense for Forward Areas: Strategies and Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army's plan to modernize its air defense was set back significantly when tests demonstrated that the DIVAD gun could not adequately perform its air defense mission, and Defense Secretary Caspar W. Weinberger subsequently cancelled the program in Augus...

F. M. Lussier

1986-01-01

51

Neonatal Natural Killer Cell Function: Relevance to Antiviral Immune Defense  

PubMed Central

Neonates are particularly susceptible to various pathogens compared to adults, which is attributed in part to their immature innate and adaptive immunity. Natural killer cells provide first-line innate immune reactions against virus-infected cells without prior sensitization. This review updates phenotypic and functional deficiencies of neonatal cells compared to their adult counterparts and their clinical implications.

Lee, Yen-Chang; Lin, Syh-Jae

2013-01-01

52

Hemocyanins and the immune response: defense against the dark arts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis The innate immune response is a conserved trait shared by invertebrates and vertebrates. In crustaceans, circulating hemocytes play significant roles in the immune response, including the release of prophenoloxidases. Activated phenoloxidase (tyrosinase) participates in encapsulation and melanization of foreign organisms as well as sclerotization of the new exoskeleton after wound-repair or molting. Hemocyanin functions as a phenoloxidase under certain

Nora B. Terwilliger

2007-01-01

53

Mucosal Immunity: Its Role in Defense and Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface between the organism and the outside world, which is the site of exchange of nutrients, export of products and waste components, must be selectively permeable and at the same time, it must constitute a barrier equipped with local defense mechanisms against environmental threats (e.g. invading pathogens). The boundaries with the environment (mucosal and skin surfaces) are therefore covered

Helena Tlaskalová-Hogenová; Bozena Cukrowska; David P. Funda; Hana Kozáková; Ilja Trebichavský; Dan Sokol; Petra Fundová; Dana Horáková; Lenka Jelínková; Daniel Sánchez

2002-01-01

54

An analysis of defensive strategies used by home and away basketball teams.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to identify differences in defensive strategies used during basketball games, to compare the defensive strategies used by home and away basketball teams, and to analyze the effectiveness of home and away ball possessions when playing against each defensive strategy. The sample was composed of 10 games of the Spanish men's 2005-2006 regular basketball season (N = 1,785 ball possessions). The analyzed variables were the number of types of defenses used, points per possession, foul percentage, and turnover percentage according to the type of defensive strategy and game location. The game location main effect was significant in points per possession, with home teams having lower values than away teams. The defensive strategy main effect was significant in number of types of defenses used, with man-to-man as the most frequently utilized defense, and foul percentages with higher values in zone defenses. There was a statistically significant interaction in turnover percentages, with significantly lower values for man-to-man defense and home games. Overall, it is suggested that team performance for the studied variables changed according to the factors and, thus, it may be beneficial to change defensive (and offensive) strategies according to game location. PMID:20391881

Gómez, Miguel A; Lorenzo, Alberto; Ibáñez, Sergio J; Ortega, Enrique; Leite, Nuno; Sampaio, Jaime

2010-02-01

55

TNF\\/iNOS-Producing Dendritic Cells Mediate Innate Immune Defense against Bacterial Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DCs) present microbial antigens to T cells and provide inflammatory signals that modulate T cell differentiation. While the role of DCs in adaptive immunity is well established, their involvement in innate immune defenses is less well defined. We have identified a TNF\\/iNOS-producing (Tip)-DC subset in spleens of Listeria monocytogenes-infected mice that is absent from CCR2-deficient mice. The absence

Natalya V Serbina; Thais P Salazar-Mather; Christine A Biron; William A Kuziel; Eric G Pamer

2003-01-01

56

Oil and related toxicant effects on mallard immune defenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crude oil, a petroleum distillate, and chemically dispersed oil were tested for their effects on resistance to bacterial infection and the immune response in waterfowl. Sublethal oral doses for mallards were determined for South Louisiana crude oil, Bunker C fuel oil a dispersant-Corexit 9527, and oil\\/Corexit combinations by gizzard intubation. Resistance to bacterial challange (Pasteurella multocida) was significantly lowered

T. E. Rocke; T. M. Yuill; R. D. Hinsdill

1984-01-01

57

Relationship between Financial Measures and Contractor Pricing Strategy: Empirical Studies in the Defense Aerospace Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report includes two separate but related empirical studies of the relationship between financial measures for defense aerospace contractors and pricing strategies adopted by contractors. Two pricing strategies are identified: skimming and penetration...

O. D. Moses

1987-01-01

58

Evolution and phylogeny of defense molecules associated with innate immunity in horseshoe crab.  

PubMed

This short review describes the molecular evolution and phylogeny of various defense molecules participating in the host defense of horseshoe crab. It is well known that invertebrate animals, which lack adaptive immune systems, have developed various defense systems, so called innate immunity, that respond to common antigens on the surface of potential pathogens. The systems include hemolymph coagulation, melanization, cell agglutination, antimicrobial action, active oxygen formation, and phagocytic action. Among them, hemolymph coagulation and phenoloxidase-mediated melanization, in addition to cell agglutination, are directly induced by foreign substances, that result in the engulfment of invading microbes. The immobilized invaders are finally killed by antimicrobial substances released mainly from many kinds of hemocytes. In the past two decades, we have investigated biochemically various defense molecules, using horseshoe crab as a model animal, and established extensively their molecular structures. These results now make it possible to discuss evolution and phylogeny of the defense molecules at a molecular level, in comparison with those derived from vertebrate animals. Here, the authors will describe the present state of our knowledge concerning molecules mainly associated with innate immunity. PMID:9727083

Iwanaga, S; Kawabata, S

1998-09-01

59

Salivary Defense Proteins: Their Network and Role in Innate and Acquired Oral Immunity  

PubMed Central

There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate), periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid) and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate) may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins), are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI), BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone) proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed.

Fabian, Tibor Karoly; Hermann, Peter; Beck, Anita; Fejerdy, Pal; Fabian, Gabor

2012-01-01

60

An Application Based on Spatial-Relationship to Basketball Defensive Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper aims to develop a simulated system used for teaching and training basketball defensive strategies.  Respectively,\\u000a defensive strategies can be described within one method by editing video recorded from basketball games into desired clips\\u000a for analysis and storing them into the database. In this paper, we used Spatial-Temporal Relationships to describe the local\\u000a defensive movements by the basketball players

Su-li Chin; Chun-hong Huang; Chia-tong Tang; Jason C. Hung

2005-01-01

61

Practical strategies for defense in malpractice lawsuit: a case illustration.  

PubMed

This report describes an unprecedented malpractice litigation on a neurology case. A young woman developed multiple complications after a simple hysterectomy: pan-peritonitis, post-op deep coma with hypotension, generalized anasarca, hyponatremia, hemolysis, cerebral hypoxia and renal shutdown requiring dialysis and multiple-unit blood transfusions. She survived 43 days in Neuro-ICU, and was transferred to a regular ward where she developed status epileticus lasting for 17 hours. On examination, she had cortical blindness, which the plaintiff believed it was caused by prolonged seizures but actually hypoperfusion/hypoxia of the brain did it. Plaintiff's attorneys jumped to a lawsuit for $80+ millions, accusing defendant for failure to stop her seizures. They took the plaintiff to Honolulu and San Diego to confirm brain injury. Results: On the top of calcarine infarct, she has pseudoseizures or malingering. To inflate the claim for compensation, they cleverly included three guardians ad litem as co-plaintiffs who live in U.S. Mainland. The first court battle was denied at Guam Superior Court on the ground of exceeding one year of Statute of Limitation. Cunningly they manipulated clinical course to stretch the date of discovery of damages in order to move the statute of limitation within one year of filing to the court. They then went on to Guam Supreme Court, where it was struck down. Unconvinced, they went on all the way to the Federal Ninth Circuit Court in California where again it upheld the original decision. The plaintiff lost and never reached the trial court. After two years' legal combat, I have learned hard way defense strategies: (1) Practice defensive medicine, to keep informed consent and tracks of timing of diagnosis and treatment; (2) Avoid factors that may provoke dissatisfaction, anger, or frustration on outcome of treatment; (3) Keep ledger of ambulance chasers and good defense lawyers; (4) Never surrender at the notification from court; (5) Settle out of court, if this can be done reasonably to save time and stress; (6) Keep cool and study carefully the allegations; (7) Consultation with experts in the area involved; (8) Set up trust fund for children; (9) Buy liability insurance and take CME in medicolegal classes. PMID:19960967

Chen, Kwang-Ming

2009-09-01

62

Host defense peptides as effector molecules of the innate immune response: a sledgehammer for drug resistance?  

PubMed

Host defense peptides can modulate the innate immune response and boost infection-resolving immunity, while dampening potentially harmful pro-inflammatory (septic) responses. Both antimicrobial and/or immunomodulatory activities are an integral part of the process of innate immunity, which itself has many of the hallmarks of successful anti-infective therapies, namely rapid action and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. This gives these peptides the potential to become an entirely new therapeutic approach against bacterial infections. This review details the role and activities of these peptides, and examines their applicability as development candidates for use against bacterial infections. PMID:19865528

Steinstraesser, Lars; Kraneburg, Ursula M; Hirsch, Tobias; Kesting, Marco; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Jacobsen, Frank; Al-Benna, Sammy

2009-09-09

63

Oil and related toxicant effects on mallard immune defenses.  

PubMed

A crude oil, a petroleum distillate, and chemically dispersed oil were tested for their effects on resistance to bacterial infection and the immune response in waterfowl. Sublethal oral doses for mallards were determined for South Louisiana crude oil, Bunker C fuel oil, a dispersant--Corexit 9527, and oil/Corexit combinations by gizzard intubation. Resistance to bacterial challenge (Pasteurella multocida) was significantly lowered in mallards receiving 2.5 or 4.0 ml/kg of Bunker C fuel oil, 4.0 ml/kg of South Louisiana crude oil, and 4.0 ml/kg of a 50:1 Bunker C fuel oil/Corexit mixture daily for 28 days. Ingestion of oil or oil/Corexit mixtures had no effect on mallard antibody-producing capability as measured by the direct spleen plaque-forming assay. PMID:6714187

Rocke, T E; Yuill, T M; Hinsdill, R D

1984-04-01

64

Staphylococcal Biofilm Exopolysaccharide Protects against Caenorhabditis elegans Immune Defenses  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are leading causes of hospital-acquired infections that have become increasingly difficult to treat due to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in these organisms. The ability of staphylococci to produce biofilm is an important virulence mechanism that allows bacteria both to adhere to living and artificial surfaces and to resist host immune factors and antibiotics. Here, we show that the icaADBC locus, which synthesizes the biofilm-associated polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) in staphylococci, is required for the formation of a lethal S. epidermidis infection in the intestine of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Susceptibility to S. epidermidis infection is influenced by mutation of the C. elegans PMK-1 p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase or DAF-2 insulin-signaling pathways. Loss of PIA production abrogates nematocidal activity and leads to reduced bacterial accumulation in the C. elegans intestine, while overexpression of the icaADBC locus in S. aureus augments virulence towards nematodes. PIA-producing S. epidermidis has a significant survival advantage over ica-deficient S. epidermidis within the intestinal tract of wild-type C. elegans, but not in immunocompromised nematodes harboring a loss-of-function mutation in the p38 MAP kinase pathway gene sek-1. Moreover, sek-1 and pmk-1 mutants are equally sensitive to wild-type and icaADBC-deficient S. epidermidis. These results suggest that biofilm exopolysaccharide enhances virulence by playing an immunoprotective role during colonization of the C. elegans intestine. These studies demonstrate that C. elegans can serve as a simple animal model for studying host–pathogen interactions involving staphylococcal biofilm exopolysaccharide and suggest that the protective activity of biofilm matrix represents an ancient conserved function for resisting predation.

Begun, Jakob; Gaiani, Jessica M; Rohde, Holger; Mack, Dietrich; Calderwood, Stephen B; Ausubel, Frederick M; Sifri, Costi D

2007-01-01

65

Platelets as immune mediators: Their role in host defense responses and sepsis  

PubMed Central

Platelets occupy a central role at the interface between thrombosis and inflammation. At sites of vascular damage, adherent platelets physically and functionally interact with circulating leukocytes. Activated platelets release soluble factors into circulation that may have local and systemic effects on blood and vascular cells. Platelets can also interact with a wide variety of microbial pathogens. Emerging evidence from animal models suggests that platelets may participate in a wide variety of processes involving tissue injury, immune responses and repair that underlie diverse diseases such as atherosclerosis, autoimmune disorders, inflammatory lung and bowel disorders, host-defense responses and sepsis. In this review, we summarize the general mechanisms by which platelets may contribute to immune function, and then discuss evidence for their role in host defense responses and sepsis from preclinical and clinical studies.

Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Fanmuyi; Dunn, Steve; Gross, A. Kendall; Smyth, Susan S.

2010-01-01

66

Adolescent Humor and Its Relationship to Coping, Defense Strategies, Psychological Distress, and Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) in measuring adolescent humor, including the relationship between humor and coping style, defense style, depressive symptoms, and adjustment in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Humor, coping, defense strategies, depressive symptoms,…

Erickson, Sarah J.; Feldstein, Sarah W.

2007-01-01

67

Sugaring the Pill: Assessing Rhetorical Strategies Designed to Minimize Defensive Reactions to Group Criticism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People are considerably more defensive in the face of group criticism when the criticism comes from an out-group rather than an in-group member (the intergroup sensitivity effect). We tested three strategies that out-group critics can use to reduce this heightened defensiveness. In all studies, Australians received criticism of their country…

Hornsey, Matthew J.; Robson, Erin; Smith, Joanne; Esposo, Sarah; Sutton, Robbie M.

2008-01-01

68

Judged Effectiveness of Common Rape Prevention and Self-Defense Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

All women face the threat of rape, forcing them to (a) decide what to do to reduce their chances of being assaulted (rape prevention) and (b) how to defend themselves if assaulted (self-defense). A principal basis for such decisions should be women's estimates of the effectiveness of possible prevention and self-defense strategies for reducing the risk of rape. This study

LITA FURBY; BARUCH FISCHHOFF; MARCIA MORGAN

1989-01-01

69

National Strategy of Defense: Peace and Security for Brazil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Brazil is a peaceful country, by tradition and conviction. It lives in peace with its neighbors. It runs its international affairs, among other things, adopting the constitutional principles of non-intervention, defense of peace and peaceful resolution of...

2008-01-01

70

Interim Strategic Defense Initiative arms negotiation strategy. Research report  

SciTech Connect

Comments are presented on some of the pros and cons of the Strategic Defense Initative (SDI). Key issues discussed relate to the projected cost of SDI and the potential violation of the 1972 Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty. A solution is proposed that has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost and circumvents the treaty resulting in the deployment of a more-effective ballistic missile defense system.

Marshall, H.A.

1986-05-01

71

Oral-TPN-induced bacterial translocation and impaired immune defenses are reversed by refeeding.  

PubMed

Although certain defined diets have been shown to promote bacterial translocation (BT), the ability to reverse diet-induced BT has not previously been investigated. Furthermore, little is known about the effects of defined diets on host immune defenses. To address these questions, we measured BT and immune reactivity in rats fed a normal diet or enteral elemental (ORAL-TPN) diet. After 7 days on the elemental or normal diet, the rats were killed, and BT and mitogen responsiveness to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin were measured. In separate experiments, the effects of these diets on in vivo host defenses was measured with a Staphylococcus aureus abscess model. Additional experiments were performed to determine the time required to reverse ORAL-TPN-induced BT and impairment of host immune defenses by reinstituting normal feedings. Administration of the ORAL-TPN diet for 7 days was associated with BT to the mesenteric lymph node complex of all animals, decreased blastogenic response of blood and splenic lymphocytes to mitogens, and decreased ability to control an in vivo infectious challenge with S. aureus. Each of the derangements was reversed by the reinstitution of normal feedings. In summary, the enteral administration of an elemental diet for 7 days is associated with disruption of the gut microflora, BT, and the development of an immunocompromised state, all of which can be reversed by refeeding the animals a normal diet. PMID:1907032

Mainous, M; Xu, D Z; Lu, Q; Berg, R D; Deitch, E A

1991-08-01

72

Vaccines against Human Carcinomas: Strategies to Improve Antitumor Immune Responses  

PubMed Central

Multiple observations in preclinical and clinical studies support a role for the immune system in controlling tumor growth and progression. Various components of the innate and adaptive immune response are able to mediate tumor cell destruction; however, certain immune cell populations can also induce a protumor environment that favors tumor growth and the development of metastasis. Moreover, tumor cells themselves are equipped with various mechanisms that allow them to evade surveillance by the immune system. The goal of cancer vaccines is to induce a tumor-specific immune response that ultimately will reduce tumor burden by tipping the balance from a protumor to an antitumor immune environment. This review discusses common mechanisms that govern immune cell activation and tumor immune escape, and some of the current strategies employed in the field of cancer vaccines aimed at enhancing activation of tumor-specific T-cells with concurrent reduction of immunosuppression.

Palena, Claudia; Schlom, Jeffrey

2010-01-01

73

Natural HPV immunity and vaccination strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: the task of preventing premature death in women may be delivered by vaccinating against the high-risk papillomaviruses associated with various malignancies. Objectives: we will discuss the immune mechanisms likely to be relevant to the control of an HPV infection in the cervix and assess the limited evidence for such immune recognition in the natural history of infection. Conclusion: the

Peter L Stern; Michael Brown; Simon N Stacey; Henry C Kitchener; Ian Hampson; El-Said Abdel-Hady; Jim V Moore

2000-01-01

74

Continuous antigenic stimulation system (CASS) as a new immunization strategy.  

PubMed

Protection against diseases is mediated by a sustained immune response. Here, we describe a new immunization strategy. Mice implanted with encapsulated C2C12 myoblasts secreting human factor IX (hFIX) elicited a strong humoral response against the transgene, as compared to mice immunized with complete Freund's adjuvant (FA). Mice also had increasing IgG2a antibody titer, indicating a switch to a Th1 profile immune response. Mice developed strong hFIX-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that was detectable 213 days after implantation, demonstrating the sustained immunity elicited by encapsulated cells. Here, we propose continuous antigenic stimulation system (CASS) as a novel immunization strategy with potential application in the design of novel vaccines. PMID:15364438

Gomez-Vargas, Andrew; Rosenthal, Kenneth L; McDermott, Mark R; Hortelano, Gonzalo

2004-09-28

75

Nucleoporin MOS7/Nup88 contributes to plant immunity and nuclear accumulation of defense regulators.  

PubMed

Controlled nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is an important feature for fine-tuning signaling pathways in eukaryotic organisms. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) composed of nucleoporin proteins (Nups) are essential for the exchange of macromolecules across the nuclear envelope. A recent genetic screen in our laboratory identified a partial loss-of-function mutation in Arabidopsis MOS7/Nup88 that causes defects in basal immunity, Resistance (R) protein-mediated defense and systemic acquired resistance. In Drosophila and mammalian cells, exportin-mediated nuclear export of activated Rel/NF?B transcription factors is enhanced in nup88 mutants resulting in immune response failure. Consistent with Nup88 promoting nuclear retention of NF?B, our functional analyses revealed that MOS7/Nup88 is required for appropriate nuclear accumulation of the autoactivated R protein snc1, as well as the key immune regulators EDS1 and NPR1. These results suggest that controlling the nuclear concentrations of specific immune regulators is fundamental for defining defense outputs. PMID:21327081

Wiermer, Marcel; Germain, Hugo; Cheng, Yu Ti; García, Ana V; Parker, Jane E; Li, Xin

2010-03-30

76

A Novel Dynamic Immunization Strategy for Computer Network Epidemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Current immunization strategies for computer network epidemics are based on the assumption that the vaccines are ready before\\u000a the epidemics, and it is obviously unrealistic in computer network. Our study of the targeted immunization on Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemiological model shows the efficiency of the targeted immunization decreases sharply with time gap between the\\u000a vaccines and epidemics considered. We propose a

Zhifei Tao; Hai Jin; Zongfen Han; En Cheng

2006-01-01

77

Maritime strategy and coalition defense: a synthesis for NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) success  

SciTech Connect

Maritime strategy is an essential element underpinning the credibility of the NATO alliance. Far from hampering continental defense, the strategy enhances the deterrent posture and, should deterrence fail, increases the prospects for both preserving NATO allies and for ending hostilities on favorable terms. Execution of the global-war portion of the maritime strategy would almost certainly occur as part of a NATO defensive effort against Warsaw Pact aggression. Also, discussions about the feasibility of executing the maritime strategy have attempted to compare the us national force structure and capabilities to that of the Soviets.

Glazier, D.W.

1987-01-01

78

Recognition strategies in the innate immune system of ancestral chordates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many components of the innate immune system in vertebrates can be reliably traced to urochordates and successful strategies for the detection and elimination of pathogens are present at that level of animal evolution, but the issue of where and how the adaptive immune system emerged is still obscure. There is a paucity of evidence for a gradual transition from the

Konstantin Khalturin; Zeev Panzer; Max D. Cooper; Thomas C. G. Bosch

2004-01-01

79

New strategies in immune tolerance induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of tolerance in clinical organ transplantation that will obviate the use of chronic immunosuppression and preserve\\u000a host immune response to other antigens remains the goal of transplant research. The thymus plays a critical role in the ability\\u000a of the immune system to discriminate between self- and nonself-antigens or harmful and harmless alloantigens. We now know\\u000a that multiple factors determine

Soji F. Oluwole; Olakunle O. Oluwole; Ayotunde O. Adeyeri; Hector A. DePaz

2004-01-01

80

Adaptive Immune Regulation of Glial Homeostasis as an Immunization Strategy for Neurodegenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases, notably Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, are amongst the most devastating disorders afflicting the elderly. Currently, no curative treatments or treatments that interdict disease progression exist. Over the past decade, immunization strategies have been proposed to combat disease progression. Such strategies induce humoral immune responses against misfolded protein aggregates to facilitate their clearance. Robust adaptive immunity against misfolded proteins, however, accelerates disease progression, precipitated by induced effector T cell responses that lead to encephalitis and neuronal death. Since then, mechanisms that attenuate such adaptive neurotoxic immune responses have been sought. We propose that shifting the balance between effector and regulatory T cell activity can attenuate neurotoxic inflammatory events. This review summarizes advances in immune regulation to achieve a homeostatic glial response for therapeutic gain. Promising new ways to optimize immunization schemes and measure their clinical efficacy are also discussed.

Kosloski, Lisa M.; Ha, Duy M.; Stone, David K.; Hutter, Jessica A. L.; Pichler, Michael R.; Reynolds, Ashley D.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Mosley, R. Lee

2010-01-01

81

Innate immunity as a key element in host defense against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent reason for healthcare visits. Both pathogen and host differences likely are factors in determining the frequency of recurrent MRSA infections in otherwise normal hosts. Among such host factors are altered innate immune responses in skin and soft tissues. This review examines four selected processes of the innate immune system by which the host may prevent MRSA skin or soft tissue infections. The first involves cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) found in skin, skin organs, and leukocytes. The second requires chemotactic molecules secreted by monocytes and their derivatives. The third is CRP, a primitive opsonin and activator of complement. And the fourth includes neutrophil defenses. These last include the traditional phagocytic bacterial killing by intact neutrophils. This is an intracellular killing accomplished by reactive oxygen species (ROS), CAMPs, and microbicidal enzymes. A second recently described neutrophil defense results in extracellular killing using neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), NETs are produced as neutrophils lyse by a process known as NETosis. The balance between these and similar innate immune responses and bacterial virulence factors likely determines whether MRSA colonization/exposure results in infection of skin or soft tissue. PMID:19794376

Harrison, C J

2009-10-01

82

Is crypsis a common defensive strategy in plants?  

PubMed Central

Color is a common feature of animal defense. Herbivorous insects are often colored in shades of green similar to their preferred food plants, making them difficult for predators to locate. Other insects advertise their presence with bright colors after they sequester enough toxins from their food plants to make them unpalatable. Some insects even switch between cryptic and aposomatic coloration during development.1 Although common in animals, quantitative evidence for color-based defense in plants is rare. After all, the primary function of plant leaves is to absorb light for photosynthesis, rather than reflect light in ways that alter their appearance to herbivores. However, recent research is beginning to challenge the notion that color-based defence is restricted to animals.

2010-01-01

83

Testing the Optimality of Immunization Strategies With Transaction Costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a dynamic fixed-income portfolio selection model is developed under different stochastic and non stochastic term structure regimes. This model allows the introduction of transaction costs and shows that, in this context, the maximin strategy against interest rate risk may not be the immunization strategy but that it may consist of building up a portfolio with an initial

Eliseo Navarro; Juan M. Nave

84

Cell death and immunityApoptosis as an HIV strategy to escape immune attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses have evolved numerous mechanisms to evade the host immune system and one of the strategies developed by HIV is to activate apoptotic programmes that destroy immune effectors. Not only does the HIV genome encode pro-apoptotic proteins, which kill both infected and uninfected lymphocytes through either members of the tumour-necrosis factor family or the mitochondrial pathway, but it also creates

Marie-Lise Gougeon

2003-01-01

85

Strategies to increase vitamin C in plants: from plant defense perspective to food biofortification  

PubMed Central

Vitamin C participates in several physiological processes, among others, immune stimulation, synthesis of collagen, hormones, neurotransmitters, and iron absorption. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, whereas a limited vitamin C intake causes general symptoms, such as increased susceptibility to infections, fatigue, insomnia, and weight loss. Surprisingly vitamin C deficiencies are spread in both developing and developed countries, with the latter actually trying to overcome this lack through dietary supplements and food fortification. Therefore new strategies aimed to increase vitamin C in food plants would be of interest to improve human health. Interestingly, plants are not only living bioreactors for vitamin C production in optimal growing conditions, but also they can increase their vitamin C content as consequence of stress conditions. An overview of the different approaches aimed at increasing vitamin C level in plant food is given. They include genotype selection by “classical” breeding, bio-engineering and changes of the agronomic conditions, on the basis of the emerging concepts that plant can enhance vitamin C synthesis as part of defense responses.

Locato, Vittoria; Cimini, Sara; Gara, Laura De

2013-01-01

86

Immune evasion strategies of Porphyromonas gingivalis  

PubMed Central

Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly correlated with chronic periodontitis. Its chronic persistence in the periodontium depends on its ability to evade host immunity without inhibiting the overall inflammatory response, which is actually beneficial for this and other periodontal bacteria. Indeed, the inflammatory exudate (gingival crevicular fluid) is a source of essential nutrients, such as peptides and hemin-derived iron. In this review, I discuss how P. gingivalis can promote its adaptive fitness through instigation of subversive crosstalk signaling. These interactions involve Toll-like receptor-2, complement receptor 3, C5a anaphylatoxin receptor, and CXC-chemokine receptor 4. Their exploitation by P. gingivalis allows the pathogen to escape elimination, obtain nutrients, and collaterally inflict periodontal tissue injury.

Hajishengallis, George

2011-01-01

87

Space Strategy: Defensive Shields or Death from Above.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the last year I have heard time and time again that 'the cold war is over'. Articles were published by the NDU Press which spoke of 'US Strategy After The Cold War', and the Washington Post headlines screamed (before 2 August) of the 'Peace Dividend' ...

D. E. Kersey

1991-01-01

88

Trojan horse strategy in Agrobacterium transformation: abusing MAPK defense signaling.  

PubMed

Nuclear import of transfer DNA (T-DNA) is a central event in Agrobacterium transformation of plant cells and is thought to occur by the hijacking of certain host cell proteins. The T-DNA-associated virulence protein VirE2 mediates this process by binding to the nuclear import machinery via the host cell factor VIP1, whose role in plants has been so far unknown. Here we show that VIP1 is a transcription factor that is a direct target of the Agrobacterium-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) MPK3. Upon phosphorylation by MPK3, VIP1 relocalizes from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and regulates the expression of the PR1 pathogenesis-related gene. MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of VIP1 is necessary for VIP1-mediated Agrobacterium T-DNA transfer, indicating that Agrobacterium abuses the MAPK-targeted VIP1 defense signaling pathway for nuclear delivery of the T-DNA complex as a Trojan horse. PMID:17947581

Djamei, Armin; Pitzschke, Andrea; Nakagami, Hirofumi; Rajh, Iva; Hirt, Heribert

2007-10-19

89

A comparative assessment of immunization records in the Defense Medical Surveillance System and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System.  

PubMed

We compared immunization data in the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) and immunization data for service members with an anthrax vaccine-associated adverse event reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) during January 1998 through December 2004. Our main measure of agreement was sensitivity of the DMSS conditional on an immunization record(s) occurring in VAERS. The sensitivity of DMSS was 73% for all vaccines and 74% for the anthrax vaccine on the VAERS index immunization date. Our study is the first to quantify the agreement between immunization records in VAERS and DMSS. Our data suggest the immunization information in military VAERS reports and the DMSS is similar for anthrax and non-anthrax immunizations. PMID:17258846

McNeil, Michael M; Ma, Guihua; Aranas, Aaron; Payne, Daniel C; Rose, Charles E

2007-01-26

90

Microbial Symbiosis with the Innate Immune Defense System of the Skin  

PubMed Central

Skin protects itself against infection through a variety of mechanisms. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are major contributors to cutaneous innate immunity, and this system, combined with the unique ionic, lipid and physical barrier of the epidermis is the first line defense against invading pathogens. However, recent studies have revealed that our skin’s innate immune system is not solely of human origin. Staphylococcus epidermidis, a major constituent of the normal microflora on healthy human skin, acts as a barrier against colonization of potentially pathogenic microbes and against overgrowth of already present opportunistic pathogens. Our resident commensal microbes produce their own AMPs, act to enhance the normal production of AMPs by keratinocytes, and are beneficial to maintaining inflammatory homeostasis by suppressing excess cytokine release after minor epidermal injury. These observations indicate that the normal human skin microflora protects skin via various modes of action, a conclusion supported by many lines of evidence associating diseases such as acne, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and rosacea with an imbalance of the microflora even in the absence of classical infection. This review highlights recent observations on the importance of innate immune systems and the relationship with the normal skin microflora to maintain healthy skin.

Gallo, Richard L.; Nakatsuji, Teruaki

2011-01-01

91

Microbial symbiosis with the innate immune defense system of the skin.  

PubMed

Skin protects itself against infection through a variety of mechanisms. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are major contributors to cutaneous innate immunity, and this system, combined with the unique ionic, lipid, and physical barrier of the epidermis, is the first-line defense against invading pathogens. However, recent studies have revealed that our skin's innate immune system is not solely of human origin. Staphylococcus epidermidis, a major constituent of the normal microflora on healthy human skin, acts as a barrier against colonization of potentially pathogenic microbes and against overgrowth of already present opportunistic pathogens. Our resident commensal microbes produce their own AMPs, act to enhance the normal production of AMPs by keratinocytes, and are beneficial to maintaining inflammatory homeostasis by suppressing excess cytokine release after minor epidermal injury. These observations indicate that the normal human skin microflora protects skin by various modes of action, a conclusion supported by many lines of evidence associating diseases such as acne, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and rosacea with an imbalance of the microflora even in the absence of classical infection. This review highlights recent observations on the importance of innate immune systems and the relationship with the normal skin microflora to maintain healthy skin. PMID:21697881

Gallo, Richard L; Nakatsuji, Teruaki

2011-06-23

92

Possible new antiaging strategies related to neuroendocrine-immune interactions.  

PubMed

The aging process demonstrates gradual and spontaneous changes, resulting in maturation through childhood, puberty and young adulthood, and then decline through middle and late age. However, animals and humans are capable of reaching the extreme limit of life span characteristic for the species with a very efficient network of antiaging mechanisms. Among them, neuroendocrine-immune interactions play a pivotal role. The loss of the capacity of the organism in remodeling the neuroendocrine-immune response leads to the appearance of age-associated pathologies. We herein report some substances which can be proposed as new antiaging strategies because of their capacity to remodel some biological functions in old animals and humans. These substances are: L-deprenyl, leptin, ghrelin, carnosine and NO donors. Their role as possible antiaging strategies in healthy people in relation to neuroendocrine-immune responses and zinc ion bioavailability is reported and discussed. PMID:19047810

Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Malavolta, Marco

2008-11-26

93

Pricing Strategy, Pricing Stability and Financial Condition in the Defense Aerospace Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research is to determine if pricing strategy and pricing stability for products in the defense aerospace industry can be predicted based on a firm's financial condition. The sample for this research includes 17 contractors and 52 missi...

J. C. Johnstone P. D. Keavney

1987-01-01

94

Strategies for Enhancing Vaccine-Induced CTL Antitumor Immune Responses  

PubMed Central

Vaccine-induced cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a critical role in adaptive immunity against cancers. An important goal of current vaccine research is to induce durable and long-lasting functional CTLs that can mediate cytotoxic effects on tumor cells. To attain this goal, there are four distinct steps that must be achieved. To initiate a vaccine-induced CTL antitumor immune response, dendritic cells (DCs) must capture antigens derived from exogenous tumor vaccines in vivo or autologous DCs directly loaded in vitro with tumor antigens must be injected. Next, tumor-antigen-loaded DCs must activate CTLs in lymphoid organs. Subsequently, activated CTLs must enter the tumor microenvironment to perform their functions, at which point a variety of negative regulatory signals suppress the immune response. Finally, CTL-mediated cytotoxic effects must overcome the tolerance induced by tumor cells. Each step is a complex process that may be impeded in many ways. However, if these steps happen under appropriate regulation, the vaccine-induced CTL antitumor immune response will be more successful. For this reason, we should gain a better understanding of the basic mechanisms that govern the immune response. This paper, based on the steps necessary to induce an immune response, discusses current strategies for enhancing vaccine-induced CTL antitumor immune responses.

Yong, Xin; Xiao, Yu-Feng; Luo, Gang; He, Bin; Lu, Mu-Han; Hu, Chang-Jiang; Guo, Hong; Yang, Shi-Ming

2012-01-01

95

NOD2, an Intracellular Innate Immune Sensor Involved in Host Defense and Crohn's Disease  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is an intracellular sensor for small peptides derived from the bacterial cell wall component, peptidoglycan. Recent studies have uncovered unexpected functions of NOD2 in innate immune responses such as induction of type I IFN and facilitation of autophagy; moreover, they have disclosed extensive cross-talk between NOD2 and Toll-like receptors which plays an indispensable role both in host defense against microbial infection and in the development of autoimmunity. Of particular interest, polymorphisms of CARD15 encoding NOD2 are associated with Crohn's disease and other autoimmune states such as graft versus host disease. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding normal functions of NOD2 and discuss the mechanisms by which NOD2 polymorphisms associated with Crohn's disease lead to intestinal inflammation.

Strober, Warren; Watanabe, Tomohiro

2013-01-01

96

Immune response  

MedlinePLUS

Innate immunity; Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Immunity; Inflammatory response; Acquired (adaptive) immunity ... and usually does not react against them. INNATE IMMUNITY Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense system ...

97

Induced immunity against belowground insect herbivores- activation of defenses in the absence of a jasmonate burst.  

PubMed

Roots respond dynamically to belowground herbivore attack. Yet, little is known about the mechanisms and ecological consequences of these responses. Do roots behave the same way as leaves, or do the paradigms derived from aboveground research need to be rewritten? This is the central question that we tackle in this article. To this end, we review the current literature on induced root defenses and present a number of experiments on the interaction between the root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera and its natural host, maize. Currently, the literature provides no clear evidence that plants can recognize root herbivores specifically. In maize, mild mechanical damage is sufficient to trigger a root volatile response comparable to D. virgifera induction. Interestingly, the jasmonate (JA) burst, a highly conserved signaling event following leaf attack, is consistently attenuated in the roots across plant species, from wild tobacco to Arabidopsis. In accordance, we found only a weak JA response in D. virgifera attacked maize roots. Despite this reduction in JA-signaling, roots of many plants start producing a distinct suite of secondary metabolites upon attack and reconfigure their primary metabolism. We, therefore, postulate the existence of additional, unknown signals that govern induced root responses in the absence of a jasmonate burst. Surprisingly, despite the high phenotypic plasticity of plant roots, evidence for herbivore-induced resistance below ground is virtually absent from the literature. We propose that other defensive mechanisms, including resource reallocation and compensatory growth, may be more important to improve plant immunity below ground. PMID:22527052

Erb, Matthias; Glauser, Gaetan; Robert, Christelle A M

2012-04-12

98

Mast cells as critical effectors of host immune defense against Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Mast cells are best known as central effector cells in IgE-mediated type I allergic diseases including asthma and hay fever. An increasing amount of evidence, however, has demonstrated that mast cells are sentinel cells playing a critical role in host defense against invading microbes. Mast cells are located immediately beneath the epithelial surfaces exposed to the outer environment, such as genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts, skin, and airways. This review discusses recent studies on the critical roles of mast cells in host defense against Gram-negative bacterial infection. Mast cells are equipped with multiple receptors detecting the invading Gram-negative bacteria in both direct (opsonin-independent) and indirect (opsonin-dependent) mechanisms. The former includes Toll-like receptors (TLRs), CD48, and nucleotide-binding oligomerization (NOD) proteins, while the latter includes Fc? receptors (Fc?Rs) and complement receptors. In addition to the detecting systems, mast cells are also armed with versatile tools to combat and kill Gram-negative bacteria. In response to the recognition of the Gram-negative bacterial infection, mast cells secrete various types of mediators which either regulate host immune system or directly attack the bacteria. Mast cells can also phagocytize and subsequently display the bacterial antigens on their cell surfaces. Moreover, recent findings have revealed the formation of extra-cellular traps by mast cells. Finally this review will especially focus on recent findings on LPS signaling in mast cells, both the functional outcome and the molecular mechanisms. PMID:22360480

Matsuguchi, T

2012-01-01

99

Recurrent infections and immune evasion strategies of Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus causes purulent skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) that frequently reoccur. Staphylococal SSTIs can lead to invasive disease and sepsis, which are among the most significant causes of infectious disease mortality in both developed and developing countries. Human or animal infections with S. aureus do not elicit protective immunity against staphylococcal diseases. Here we review what is known about the immune evasive strategies of S. aureus that enable the pathogen’s escape from protective immune responses. Three secreted products are discussed in detail, staphylococcal protein A (SpA), staphylococcal binder of immunoglobulin (Sbi) and adenosine synthase A (AdsA). By forming a complex with VH3-type IgM on the surface of B cells, SpA functions as a superantigen to modulate antibody responses to staphylococcal infection. SpA also captures pathogen-specific antibodies by binding their Fc? portion. The latter activity of SpA is shared by Sbi, which also associates with complement factors 3d and factor H to promote the depletion of complement. AdsA synthesizes the immune signaling molecule adenosine, thereby dampening innate and adaptive immune responses during infection. We discuss strategies how the three secreted products of staphylococci may be exploited for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

Kim, Hwan Keun; Thammavongsa, Vilasack; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique

2012-01-01

100

DNA Immunization as an Efficient Strategy for Vaccination  

PubMed Central

The field of vaccinology provides excellent promises to control different infectious and non-infectious diseases. Genetic immunization as a new tool in this area by using naked DNA has been shown to induce humoral as well as cellular immune responses with high efficiency. This demonstrates the enormous potential of this strategy for vaccination purposes. DNA vaccines have been widely used to develop vaccines against various pathogens as well as cancer, autoimmune diseases and allergy. However, despite their successful application in many pre-clinical disease models, their potency in human clinical trials has been insufficient to provide protective immunity. Several strategies have been applied to increase the potency of DNA vaccine. Among these strategies, the linkage of antigens to Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) and the utilization of different delivery systems have been demonstrated as efficient approaches for increasing the potency of DNA vaccines. The uptake of DNA plasmids by cells upon injection is inefficient. Two basic delivery approaches including physical delivery to achieve higher levels of antigen production and formulation with microparticles to target Antigen-Presenting Cells (APCs) are effective in animal models. Alternatively, different regimens called prime-boost vaccination are also effective. In this regimen, naked DNA is utilized to prime the immune system and either recombinant viral vector or purified recombinant protein with proper adjuvant is used for boosting. In this review, we discuss recent advances in upgrading the efficiency of DNA vaccination in animal models.

Bolhassani, Azam; Yazdi, Sima Rafati

2009-01-01

101

Unilateral Preemptive Self-Defense, Has Its Time Arrived: Assessing the International Legality of Unilateral Preemptive Self-Defense in the 2002 National Security Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 2002, President Bush published his first National Security Strategy (NSS) to the U.S. Congress. In this strategy, the President asserted a new doctrine of unilateral preemptive self-defense, arguing that this new doctrine is needed to adequat...

J. L. Smith

2003-01-01

102

Origin and diversification of the L-amino oxidase family in innate immune defenses of animals.  

PubMed

L-amino acid oxidases (LAOs), because they produce hydrogen peroxide as a by-product, function in innate immune defenses of both vertebrates and mollusks. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major subfamilies of LAOs: (1) a subfamily including LAOs from vertebrates and mainly from Terrabacteria and (2) a subfamily including LAOs from mollusks and Hydrobacteria. These subfamilies thus originated early in the history of life, implying that their innate immune functions in vertebrates and mollusks have evolved separately. Mammalian LAOs were found to belong to three separate clades: (1) LAO1, (2) LAO2, and (3) IL4I1. Phylogenetic analysis supported the hypothesis that LAO1 and LAO2 arose by a gene duplication prior to the divergence of marsupials from placental mammals, while IL4I1 duplicated from the ancestor of the LAO1 and LAO2 prior to the divergence of tetrapods from bony fishes. Mammalian IL4I1 clustered with LAOs from bony fishes, and these molecules shared a number of unique sequence features, including both amino acid replacements and a unique two-codon deletion. It is certain such unique features may be functionally important, especially three unique amino acid replacements in close proximity to the putative active site. PMID:20878154

Hughes, Austin L

2010-09-28

103

An abscisic acid-independent oxylipin pathway controls stomatal closure and immune defense in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Plant stomata function in innate immunity against bacterial invasion and abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to regulate this process. Using genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that (i) the Arabidopsis thaliana nine-specific-lipoxygenase encoding gene, LOX1, which is expressed in guard cells, is required to trigger stomatal closure in response to both bacteria and the pathogen-associated molecular pattern flagellin peptide flg22; (ii) LOX1 participates in stomatal defense; (iii) polyunsaturated fatty acids, the LOX substrates, trigger stomatal closure; (iv) the LOX products, fatty acid hydroperoxides, or reactive electrophile oxylipins induce stomatal closure; and (v) the flg22-mediated stomatal closure is conveyed by both LOX1 and the mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6 and involves salicylic acid whereas the ABA-induced process depends on the protein kinases OST1, MPK9, or MPK12. Finally, we show that the oxylipin and the ABA pathways converge at the level of the anion channel SLAC1 to regulate stomatal closure. Collectively, our results demonstrate that early biotic signaling in guard cells is an ABA-independent process revealing a novel function of LOX1-dependent stomatal pathway in plant immunity. PMID:23526882

Montillet, Jean-Luc; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Mondy, Samuel; Tranchimand, Sylvain; Rumeau, Dominique; Boudsocq, Marie; Garcia, Ana Victoria; Douki, Thierry; Bigeard, Jean; Laurière, Christiane; Chevalier, Anne; Castresana, Carmen; Hirt, Heribert

2013-03-19

104

Origin and diversification of the L-amino oxidase family in innate immune defenses of animals  

PubMed Central

L-amino acid oxidases (LAOs), because they produce hydrogen peroxide as a by-product, function in innate immune defenses of both vertebrates and mollusks. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major subfamilies of LAOs: (1) a subfamily including LAOs from vertebrates and mainly from Terrabacteria and (2) a subfamily including LAOs from mollusks and Hydrobacteria. These subfamilies thus originated early in the history of life, implying that their innate immune functions in vertebrates and mollusks have evolved separately. Mammalian LAOs were found to belong to three separate clades: (1) LAO1, (2) LAO2, and (3) IL4I1. Phylogenetic analysis supported the hypothesis that LAO1 and LAO2 arose by a gene duplication prior to the divergence of marsupials from placental mammals, while IL4I1 duplicated from the ancestor of the LAO1 and LAO2 prior to the divergence of tetrapods from bony fishes. Mammalian IL4I1 clustered with LAOs from bony fishes, and these molecules shared a number of unique sequence features, including both amino acid replacements and a unique two-codon deletion. It is certain such unique features may be functionally important, especially three unique amino acid replacements in close proximity to the putative active site.

Hughes, Austin L.

2010-01-01

105

Immune-related transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki workers: the defense mechanism.  

PubMed

Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, live socially in microbial-rich habitats. To understand the molecular mechanism by which termites combat pathogenic microbes, a full-length normalized cDNA library and four Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed from termite workers infected with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana), Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, and the libraries were analyzed. From the high quality normalized cDNA library, 439 immune-related sequences were identified. These sequences were categorized as pattern recognition receptors (47 sequences), signal modulators (52 sequences), signal transducers (137 sequences), effectors (39 sequences) and others (164 sequences). From the SSH libraries, 27, 17, 22 and 15 immune-related genes were identified from each SSH library treated with M. anisopliae, B. bassiana, B. thuringiensis and E. coli, respectively. When the normalized cDNA library was compared with the SSH libraries, 37 immune-related clusters were found in common; 56 clusters were identified in the SSH libraries, and 259 were identified in the normalized cDNA library. The immune-related gene expression pattern was further investigated using quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Important immune-related genes were characterized, and their potential functions were discussed based on the integrated analysis of the results. We suggest that normalized cDNA and SSH libraries enable us to discover functional genes transcriptome. The results remarkably expand our knowledge about immune-inducible genes in C. formosanus Shiraki and enable the future development of novel control strategies for the management of Formosan subterranean termites. PMID:23874972

Hussain, Abid; Li, Yi-Feng; Cheng, Yu; Liu, Yang; Chen, Chuan-Cheng; Wen, Shuo-Yang

2013-07-16

106

Defensive applications of gene transfer technology in the face of bioterrorism: DNA-based vaccines and immune targeting.  

PubMed

Gene transfer involves the introduction of an engineered gene into a person's cells with the expectation that the protein expressed from the gene will produce a therapeutic benefit. Strategies based on this principle have led to the approval of > 600 clinical trials and enrollment of approximately 3500 subjects worldwide in attempts to treat diseases ranging from cancer to AIDS to cystic fibrosis. While gene therapy has met with limited success and still has many hurdles to overcome before it sees wide application, it may be useful as a defensive strategy against bioterrorism agents including infectious microbes and toxins. Although many defensive strategies are possible, immunological strategies are currently the most developed and are being actively applied to the development of strategies against several of the most virulent potential bio-weapons. While most of these strategies are not yet ready for human application, DNA-based vaccines appear to be among the most promising in the fight against bioterrorism. PMID:14640954

Ackley, Catherine J; Greene, Michael R; Lowrey, Christopher H

2003-12-01

107

Evaluation of mucosal and systemic immune responses elicited by GPI-0100- adjuvanted influenza vaccine delivered by different immunization strategies.  

PubMed

Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN) or the intrapulmonary (IPL) route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses. PMID:23936066

Liu, Heng; Patil, Harshad P; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

2013-07-31

108

Behavioral defense strategies of the stingless bee, Austroplebeia australis , against the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray, is a parasite of social bee colonies and has become an invasive species, raising concern of the potential threat\\u000a to native pollinators in its new ranges. Here, we report the defensive behavior strategies used by workers of the Australian\\u000a stingless bee, Austroplebeia australis Friese, against the small hive beetle. A non-destructive method was used

M. Halcroft; R. Spooner-Hart; P. Neumann

2011-01-01

109

Immunization strategies against pulmonary tuberculosis: considerations of T cell geography.  

PubMed

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health concern with an astounding 9 million new cases and 2 million deaths per year. This leading infectious cause of death remains highly prevalent with one third of the world's population latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) despite routine vaccination against TB in endemic areas. The only approved TB vaccine is the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), which provides protection against childhood miliary tuberculosis and has been administered intradermally in humans for almost a century. While effective in preventing disseminated forms of TB, the BCG has variable efficacy in providing protection against pulmonary TB. Therefore, the BCG has been unable to control the instance of adult pulmonary TB which constitutes the global disease burden. Despite the fact that mechanisms underlying the lack of pulmonary protection provided by the BCG remain poorly understood, it remains the "Gold Standard" for vaccine-mediated protection against M.tb and will continue to be used for the foreseeable future. Therefore, continued effort has been placed on understanding the mechanisms behind the failure of BCG to provide sufficient protection against M.tb in the lung and to design new vaccines to be used in conjunction with the BCG as boost strategies to install protective immunity at the site of infection. Growing evidence supports that the route of immunization dictates the geographical location of TB-reactive T cells, and it is this distribution which predicts the protective outcome of such vaccine-elicited immunity. Such vaccines that are able to localize TB-reactive T cells to the lung and airway mucosa are thought to fill the "immunological gap" in the lung that is required for enhanced protection against M.tb infection. This chapter focuses on the critical importance of T cell geography when designing new immunization strategies against pulmonary TB. PMID:23468114

Horvath, Carly N; Xing, Zhou

2013-01-01

110

DEFENDING THE INDIGENT WHITE-COLLAR CRIMINAL: FEDERAL PUBLIC DEFENDER DEFENSE STRATEGIES FOR POST-INDICTMENT REPRESENTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on white-collar criminal defense attorneys largely focuses on private attorneys. However, little is known about public defenders that represent individuals charged with white-collar crimes. In this research we conduct extensive interviews to explore the defense strategies that federal public defenders use to represent their white-collar clients. We discovered that each federal public defender relies on a devised strategy that

Jessica L. Leto; Mark R. Pogrebin; Paul B. Stretesky

2007-01-01

111

Tolerance of fungal infection in European water frogs exposed to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis after experimental reduction of innate immune defenses  

PubMed Central

Background While emerging diseases are affecting many populations of amphibians, some populations are resistant. Determining the relative contributions of factors influencing disease resistance is critical for effective conservation management. Innate immune defenses in amphibian skin are vital host factors against a number of emerging pathogens such as ranaviruses and the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Adult water frogs from Switzerland (Pelophylax esculentus and P. lessonae) collected in the field with their natural microbiota intact were exposed to Bd after experimental reduction of microbiota, skin peptides, both, or neither to determine the relative contributions of these defenses. Results Naturally-acquired Bd infections were detected in 10/51 P. lessonae and 4/19 P. esculentus, but no disease outbreaks or population declines have been detected at this site. Thus, this population was immunologically primed, and disease resistant. No mortality occurred during the 64 day experiment. Forty percent of initially uninfected frogs became sub-clinically infected upon experimental exposure to Bd. Reduction of both skin peptide and microbiota immune defenses caused frogs to gain less mass when exposed to Bd than frogs in other treatments. Microbiota-reduced frogs increased peptide production upon Bd infection. Ranavirus was undetectable in all but two frogs that appeared healthy in the field, but died within a week under laboratory conditions. Virus was detectable in both toe-clips and internal organs. Conclusion Intact skin microbiota reduced immune activation and can minimize subclinical costs of infection. Tolerance of Bd or ranavirus infection may differ with ecological conditions.

2012-01-01

112

Partitioning, repressing and derepressing: dynamic regulations in MLA immune receptor triggered defense signaling  

PubMed Central

Plants and animals have evolved intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing immune receptors (NLRs) to perceive non-self and trigger immune responses. Plant NLRs detect strain-specific pathogen effectors and activate immune signaling leading to extensive transcriptional reprogramming and termination of pathogen infection. Here we review the recent findings in barley MLA immune receptor mediated immune responses against the barley powdery mildew fungus. We focus on nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of immune receptor, bifurcation of immune signaling, transcriptional repression and derepression connecting receptor activation to immune responses. We also discuss similar findings from other plant NLRs where appropriate.

Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Ling; Shen, Qian-Hua

2013-01-01

113

Toll-like receptors are part of the innate immune defense system of sponges (demospongiae: Porifera).  

PubMed

During evolution and with the emergence of multicellular animals, the need arose to ward off foreign organisms that threaten the integrity of the animal body. Among many different receptors that participate in the recognition of microbial invaders, toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in mediating the innate immune response. After binding distinct microbial components, TLRs activate intracellular signaling cascades that result in an induced expression of diverse antimicrobial molecules. Because sponges (phylum Porifera) are filter feeders, they are abundantly exposed to microorganisms that represent a potential threat. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and deduced protein sequence from 3 major elements of the poriferan innate response (to bacterial lipopeptides): the TLR, the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-4-like protein (IRAK-4l), and a novel effector caspase from the demosponge Suberites domuncula. Each molecule shares significant sequence similarity with its homologues in higher Metazoa. Sequence homologies were found in particular within the family-specific domains toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance (TLR family), Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase domain (IRAK family), and CASc (caspase family). In addition, in situ hybridization and immunohistological analyses revealed an abundance of SDTLR (TLR) transcripts in epithelial layers of the sponge surface (exopinacoderm and endopinacoderm). Furthermore, it is shown that both SDTLR and SDIRAK-4 like (IRAK) are expressed constitutively, regardless of treatment with synthetic triacyl lipopeptide Pam(3)Cys-Ser-(Lys)(4). In contrast, SDCASL (caspase) expression is highly Pam(3)Cys-Ser-(Lys)(4) inducible. However, blocking of the lipopeptide with recombinant TLR prior to its application completely prevented the induced expression of this poriferan caspase. These results underscore that the phylogenetically oldest extant metazoan phylum is provided already with the signaling pathways of the antimicrobial host-defense system of Metazoa. PMID:17190971

Wiens, Matthias; Korzhev, Michael; Perovic-Ottstadt, Sanja; Luthringer, Bérengère; Brandt, David; Klein, Stefanie; Müller, Werner E G

2006-12-26

114

Paramyxovirus evasion of innate immunity: Diverse strategies for common targets  

PubMed Central

The paramyxoviruses are a family of > 30 viruses that variously infect humans, other mammals and fish to cause diverse outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic to lethal disease, with the zoonotic paramyxoviruses Nipah and Hendra showing up to 70% case-fatality rate in humans. The capacity to evade host immunity is central to viral infection, and paramyxoviruses have evolved multiple strategies to overcome the host interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune response through the activity of their IFN-antagonist proteins. Although paramyxovirus IFN antagonists generally target common factors of the IFN system, including melanoma differentiation associated factor 5, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I, signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 and STAT2, and IFN regulatory factor 3, the mechanisms of antagonism show remarkable diversity between different genera and even individual members of the same genus; the reasons for this diversity, however, are not currently understood. Here, we review the IFN antagonism strategies of paramyxoviruses, highlighting mechanistic differences observed between individual species and genera. We also discuss potential sources of this diversity, including biological differences in the host and/or tissue specificity of different paramyxoviruses, and potential effects of experimental approaches that have largely relied on in vitro systems. Importantly, recent studies using recombinant virus systems and animal infection models are beginning to clarify the importance of certain mechanisms of IFN antagonism to in vivo infections, providing important indications not only of their critical importance to virulence, but also of their potential targeting for new therapeutic/vaccine approaches.

Audsley, Michelle D; Moseley, Gregory W

2013-01-01

115

Role of SIRT1 in Heat Stress and Lipopolysaccharide-induced Immune and Defense Gene Expression in Human Dental Pulp Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionAlthough bacterial infection and heat stress are common causes of injury in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs), little is known about the potential defense mechanisms mediating their effects. This study examined the role of SIRT1 in mediating heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune and defense gene expression in HDPCs.

Sang-Im Lee; Kyung-San Min; Won-Jung Bae; Young-Man Lee; So-Youn Lee; Eui-Suk Lee; Eun-Cheol Kim

2011-01-01

116

Old and new strategies in the conditioning of immune responses.  

PubMed

Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning of immune responses was demonstrated by Metal'nikov and his colleagues at the Pasteur Institute in Paris during the 1920s. These experiments, although controversial, were repeated and extended, largely in the Soviet Union, by Dolin, Krylov, Flerov, Luk'yanenko and many others during the 1950s and '60s. Both immunosuppression and immunoenhancement were reported, with many antigens and in several species including man. After a long hiatus, new interest in this subject was revived in the United States, starting with the work of Ader and Cohen on one-trial association learning leading to immunosuppression, and extending again to a new wave of reports from the United States, Canada, Germany and other countries on both conditioned suppression and conditioned enhancement of several host-defense systems, including natural killer cell activity. It already has been demonstrated that conditioning in mice can slow down the growth of tumors and, in some instances, even completely reverse tumor growth. This work is briefly discussed, with emphasis on some of the more recent findings. Applications to human subjects are suggested. The doors are just being opened: the possibilities for new research, for new discoveries, and for new clinical applications are endless. PMID:2440373

Spector, N H

1987-01-01

117

Targeting an antimicrobial effector function in insect immunity as a pest control strategy.  

PubMed

Insect pests such as termites cause damages to crops and man-made structures estimated at over $30 billion per year, imposing a global challenge for the human economy. Here, we report a strategy for compromising insect immunity that might lead to the development of nontoxic, sustainable pest control methods. Gram-negative bacteria binding proteins (GNBPs) are critical for sensing pathogenic infection and triggering effector responses. We report that termite GNBP-2 (tGNBP-2) shows beta(1,3)-glucanase effector activity previously unknown in animal immunity and is a pleiotropic pattern recognition receptor and an antimicrobial effector protein. Termites incorporate this protein into the nest building material, where it functions as a nest-embedded sensor that cleaves and releases pathogenic components, priming termites for improved antimicrobial defense. By means of rational design, we present an inexpensive, nontoxic small molecule glycomimetic that blocks tGNBP-2, thus exposing termites in vivo to accelerated infection and death from specific and opportunistic pathogens. Such a molecule, introduced into building materials and agricultural methods, could protect valuable assets from insect pests. PMID:19506247

Bulmer, Mark S; Bachelet, Ido; Raman, Rahul; Rosengaus, Rebeca B; Sasisekharan, Ram

2009-06-08

118

Success of a suicidal defense strategy against infection in a structured habitat  

PubMed Central

Pathogen infection often leads to the expression of virulence and host death when the host-pathogen symbiosis seems more beneficial for the pathogen. Previously proposed explanations have focused on the pathogen's side. In this work, we tested a hypothesis focused on the host strategy. If a member of a host population dies immediately upon infection aborting pathogen reproduction, it can protect the host population from secondary infections. We tested this "Suicidal Defense Against Infection" (SDAI) hypothesis by developing an experimental infection system that involves a huge number of bacteria as hosts and their virus as pathogen, which is linked to modeling and simulation. Our experiments and simulations demonstrate that a population with SDAI strategy is successful in the presence of spatial structure but fails in its absence. The infection results in emergence of pathogen mutants not inducing the host suicide in addition to host mutants resistant to the pathogen.

Fukuyo, Masaki; Sasaki, Akira; Kobayashi, Ichizo

2012-01-01

119

Acquisition Workforce Strategy: The Challenge Department of Defense (DoD) Faces to Improve its Acquisition Workforce.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to examine the Department of Defense's (DoD's) FY 2010 Acquisition Workforce Improvement Strategy. The project will outline developments that generated the need for DoD's Acquisition Workforce Improvement Strategy and DoD'...

C. W. Chapple M. J. Faire

2011-01-01

120

Federal Defense Industrial Policy, Firm Strategy, and Regional Conversion Initiatives in Four American Aerospace Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines divergent experiences among U.S. defense regions in the post-cold war era, highlighting the interplay between shifting federal policies, large defense firm investment and location decisions, and adjustment policies implemented by regional actors. Case studies of four defense aerospace centers reveal that economic impacts were highly uneven across major defense regions. Regional conversion and diversification efforts mitigated some

Michael Oden

2000-01-01

121

IFN-?-producing PDCA-1+ Siglec-H- B cells mediate innate immune defense by activating NK cells.  

PubMed

B cells have multiple functions in adaptive immunity, including antibody production, antigen presentation and regulation of T-cell responses. Recent evidences indicate that B cells have more subsets than previously thought and may have non-classical functions, such as involvement in innate immunity and immune regulation; however, how B cells respond to microbial infection and elicit innate defense remain unclear. In this study, we identified a new subset of PDCA-1(+) Siglec-H(-) CD19(+) B cells in mice during the early period of bacterial infection with Listeria monocytogenes. PDCA-1(+) Siglec-H(-) CD19(+) B cells secreted large amounts of IFN-? and thus facilitated IFN-? production and cytotoxicity function of natural killer (NK) cells via IFN-?. B-cell-deficient Btk(-/-) mice were incapable of producing PDCA-1(+) CD19(+) B cells, and were more sensitive to L. monocytogenes infection. Adoptive transfer of PDCA-1(+) CD19(+) B cells to Btk(-/-) mice normalized their resistance to L. monocytogenes infection. Furthermore, we found that macrophages were essential for the inducible generation of PDCA-1(+) Siglec-H(-) CD19(+) B cells via CD40-CD40L ligation. Therefore, we have identified a new subset of PDCA-1(+) Siglec-H(-) CD19(+) B cells, which enhances innate immune responses against bacterial infection by activating NK cells via secretion of IFN-?. PMID:21287550

Bao, Yan; Han, Yanmei; Chen, Zhubo; Xu, Sheng; Cao, Xuetao

2011-02-01

122

Host defenses in experimental scrub typhus: role of cellular immunity in heterologous protection.  

PubMed Central

The relative contributions of cellular and humoral immunity in scrub typhus infections were studied in inbred mice employing paired strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi differing in virulence. An infectious dose (100 MID50) of the less virulent Gilliam strain resulted in heterologous immune protection against an otherwise lethal challenge (1,000 MLD50) of the virulent Karp strain. Partial heterologous protection against lethal Karp challenge was observed in animals preimmunized with the Gilliam strain as early as 3 days prior to challenge, whereas complete protection against illness and death existed in animals immunized at least 7 days prior to challenge. In the heterologous protection provided by prior Gilliam infection, the role of humoral immunity was not of primary importance for the following reasons: (i) significant levels of complement-fixing antibody against R. tsutsugamushi were not detectable until long after animals were solidly immune; (ii) antibody eventually appearing after Gilliam immunization exhibited a consistently low complement-fixing titer against the immunizing homologous (Gilliam) strain and contained no detectable activity against the heterologous challenge (Karp) strain; and (iii) passive transfer of large quantities of serum from Gilliam immune mice, themselves immune to Karp challenge, failed to protect recipients against a similar challenge. However, protection was afforded by the passive transfer of serum containing antibody against Karp, suggesting a major role for antibody in protection against homologous infection. This heterologous challenge system was particularly useful because it minimized the role of humoral immunity, at least early in the course of infection, and allowed a definitive examination of the cellular response. Cell-mediated immunity played a major role in the heterologous protection observed after Gilliam immunization. This was evidenced by the significant protection against Karp challenge afforded by the passive transfer of spleen cells from animals immunized with Gilliam 7 to 63 days previously. Of the immune spleen cells, only those which were nonadherent, presumably lymphocytes, were capable of transferring passive heterologous protection. This protective effect of nonadherent cells could be ablated by depleting the cell population of thymus-derived or T cells with anti-theta serum and complement prior to transfer but not by use of anti-immunoglobulin serum and complement, which selectively removes bone marrow-derived or B cells. These results suggested that the cell in immune spleens capable of conferring heterologous protection was a T lymphocyte.

Shirai, A; Catanzaro, P J; Phillips, S M; Osterman, J V

1976-01-01

123

Different Roles for Human Lung Dendritic Cell Subsets in Pulmonary Immune Defense Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DC) have a central role in the initiation of adequate immune responses. They recognize pathogens by means of Toll- like receptors (TLR) and link innate to adaptive immune responses by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and inducing T cell prolifer- ation. We conducted this study to evaluate the expression and function of TLR on human lung DC subsets and to

Ingel K. Demedts; Ken R. Bracke; Tania Maes; Guy F. Joos; Guy G. Brusselle

2006-01-01

124

West European and East Asian perspectives on defense, deterrence, and strategy. Volume 2. Western European perspectives on defense, deterrence, and strategy. Technical report, 1 December 1982-15 May 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of contemporary West European perspectives on defense, deterrence, and strategy, with special emphasis on the role of nuclear weapons deployed in, or assigned to, the NATO area. Changes have occurred during the past decade in the relative military strength of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, particularly as a result of the substantial growth in Soviet nuclear-capable systems and

R. L. Pfaltzgraff; J. K. Davis; J. E. Dougherty; C. M. Perry

1984-01-01

125

Genetic and phenotypic relationships between immune defense, melanism and life-history traits at different temperatures and sexes in Tenebrio molitor.  

PubMed

Insect cuticle melanism is linked to a number of life-history traits, and a positive relationship is hypothesized between melanism and the strength of immune defense. In this study, the phenotypic and genetic relationships between cuticular melanization, innate immune defense, individual development time and body size were studied in the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) using three different temperatures with a half-sib breeding design. Both innate immune defense and cuticle darkness were higher in females than males, and a positive correlation between the traits was found at the lowest temperature. The effect of temperature on all the measured traits was strong, with encapsulation ability and development time decreasing and cuticle darkness increasing with a rise in temperature, and body size showing a curved response. The analysis showed a highly integrated system sensitive to environmental change involving physiological, morphological and life-history traits. PMID:23572120

Prokkola, J; Roff, D; Kärkkäinen, T; Krams, I; Rantala, M J

2013-04-10

126

Evaluating the Case, Evaluating the Cost: Criteria for Constructing the Defense Strategy of Persons Suffering from Mental Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the challenges and problems faced by attorneys defending, in criminal courts, clients suffering from mental health problems, and who are generally socially and economically fragile. The analysis is based on 14 in-depth interviews with defense attorneys who practice criminal law at the Montreal Municipal Court. Through their descriptions, this article will explore how attorneys determine their strategies

Danielle Laberge; Daphné Morin

1998-01-01

127

The programming of individual differences in defensive responses and reproductive strategies in the rat through variations in maternal care  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are profound maternal effects on individual differences in defensive responses and reproductive strategies in species ranging literally from plants to insects to birds. Maternal effects commonly reflect the quality of the environment and are most likely mediated by the quality of the maternal provision (egg, propagule, etc.), which in turn determines growth rates and adult phenotype. In this paper,

Nicole M. Cameron; Frances A. Champagne; Carine Parent; Eric W. Fish; Kumi Ozaki-Kuroda; Michael J. Meaney

2005-01-01

128

Therapeutic Strategies Targeting the Innate Antiviral Immune Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensing the presence of pathogens and responding quickly is one of the most important tasks during the early or innate immune\\u000a response. This evolutionarily conserved immune system orchestrates the elimination of pathogens of viral, bacterial, and parasitic\\u000a nature. The host immune response can destroy the pathogen at the site of infection or act to avoid the spread of infection\\u000a until

Robert C. Tam; Zhi Hong; Miriana Moran; Andrei Varnavski; Sung-Kwon Kim

129

Inactivating a Cellular Intrinsic Immune Defense Mediated by Daxx Is the Mechanism through Which the Human Cytomegalovirus pp71 Protein Stimulates Viral Immediate-Early Gene Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) masterfully evades adaptive and innate immune responses, allowing infection to be maintained and periodically reactivated for the life of the host. Here we show that cells also possess an intrinsic immune defense against HCMV that is disarmed by the virus. In HCMV-infected cells, the promyelocytic leukemia nuclear body (PML-NB) protein Daxx silences viral immediate-early gene expression through

Ryan T. Saffert; Robert F. Kalejta

2006-01-01

130

Novel vaccine development strategies for inducing mucosal immunity  

PubMed Central

To develop protective immune responses against mucosal pathogens, the delivery route and adjuvants for vaccination are important. The host, however, strives to maintain mucosal homeostasis by responding to mucosal antigens with tolerance, instead of immune activation. Thus, induction of mucosal immunity through vaccination is a rather difficult task, and potent mucosal adjuvants, vectors or other special delivery systems are often used, especially in the elderly. By taking advantage of the common mucosal immune system, the targeting of mucosal dendritic cells and microfold epithelial cells may facilitate the induction of effective mucosal immunity. Thus, novel routes of immunization and antigen delivery systems also show great potential for the development of effective and safe mucosal vaccines against various pathogens. The purpose of this review is to introduce several recent approaches to induce mucosal immunity to vaccines, with an emphasis on mucosal tissue targeting, new immunization routes and delivery systems. Defining the mechanisms of mucosal vaccines is as important as their efficacy and safety, and in this article, examples of recent approaches, which will likely accelerate progress in mucosal vaccine development, are discussed.

Fujkuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kataoka, Kosuke; Gilbert, Rebekah S; McGhee, Jerry R; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

2012-01-01

131

Ironing Out the Wrinkles in Host Defense: Interactions between Iron Homeostasis and Innate Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron is an essential micronutrient for both microbial pathogens and their mammalian hosts. Changes in iron availability and distribution have significant effects on pathogen virulence and on the immune response to infection. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular regulation of iron metabolism have shed new light on how alterations in iron homeostasis both contribute to and influence innate

Lijian Wang; Bobby J. Cherayil

2009-01-01

132

Transgenerational effects of heavy metal pollution on immune defense of the blow fly Protophormia terraenovae.  

PubMed

Recently environmental conditions during early parental development have been found to have transgenerational effects on immunity and other condition-dependent traits. However, potential transgenerational effects of heavy metal pollution have not previously been studied. Here we show that direct exposure to heavy metal (copper) upregulates the immune system of the blow fly, Protophormia terraenovae, reared in copper contaminated food. In the second experiment, to test transgenerational effects of heavy metal, the parental generation of the P. terraenovae was reared in food supplemented with copper, and the immunocompetence of their offspring, reared on uncontaminated food, was measured. Copper concentration used in this study was, in the preliminary test, found to have no effect on mortality of the flies. Immunity was tested on the imago stage by measuring encapsulation response against an artificial antigen, nylon monofilament. We found that exposure to copper during the parental development stages through the larval diet resulted in immune responses that were still apparent in the next generation that was not exposed to the heavy metal. We found that individuals reared on copper-contaminated food developed more slowly compared with those reared on uncontaminated food. The treatment groups did not differ in their dry body mass. However, parental exposure to copper did not have an effect on the development time or body mass of their offspring. Our study suggests that heavy metal pollution has positive feedback effect on encapsulation response through generations which multiplies the harmful effects of heavy metal pollution in following generations. PMID:22719959

Pölkki, Mari; Kangassalo, Katariina; Rantala, Markus J

2012-06-12

133

Inhibiting Glutathione Metabolism in Lung Lining Fluid as a Strategy to Augment Antioxidant Defense  

PubMed Central

Glutathione is abundant in the lining fluid that bathes the gas exchange surface of the lung. On the one hand glutathione in this extracellular pool functions in antioxidant defense to protect cells and proteins in the alveolar space from oxidant injury; on the other hand, it functions as a source of cysteine to maintain cellular glutathione and protein synthesis. These seemingly opposing functions are regulated through metabolism by gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, EC 2.3.2.2). Even under normal physiologic conditions, lung lining fluid (LLF) contains a concentrated pool of GGT activity exceeding that of whole lung by about 7-fold and indicating increased turnover of glutathione at the epithelial surface of the lung. With oxidant stress LLF GGT activity is amplified even further as glutathione turnover is accelerated to meet the increased demands of cells for cysteine. Mouse models of GGT deficiency confirmed this biological role of LLF GGT activity and revealed the robust expansiveness and antioxidant capacity of the LLF glutathione pool in the absence of metabolism. Acivicin, an irreversible inhibitor of GGT, can be utilized to augment LLF fluid glutathione content in normal mice and novel GGT inhibitors have now been defined that provide advantages over acivicin. Inhibiting LLF GGT activity is a novel strategy to selectively augment the extracellular LLF glutathione pool. The enhanced antioxidant capacity can maintain lung epithelial cell integrity and barrier function under oxidant stress.

Joyce-Brady, Martin; Hiratake, Jun

2011-01-01

134

Endogenous peptide defense signals in Arabidopsis differentially amplify signaling for the innate immune response  

PubMed Central

AtPep1, a 23-aa peptide encoded by Arabidopsis PROPEP1, a member of a small, six-member gene family, activates expression of the defense gene PDF1.2 (encoding defensin) and its own precursor gene, PROPEP1, through the jasmonate/ethylene signaling pathway, mediated by a cell-surface receptor, PEPR1. Overexpression of two family members, PROPEP1 and PROPEP2, enhances resistance of Arabidopsis plants against the pathogen Pythium irregulare, and PROPEP2 and PROPEP3 are expressed at highly elevated levels in Arabidopsis in response to pathogen infections and to several pathogen-associated molecules (general elicitors). Here, we report that PDF1.2, PR-1 (pathogenesis protein), and PROPEP genes were differentially expressed in the leaves of intact plants sprayed with methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate and in excised leaves supplied through cut petioles with peptides derived from the C terminus of each of the encoded proteins. The expression of PDF1.2 and PR-1 elicited by the peptides was blocked in mutant plants deficient in the jasmonate/ethylene and salicylate pathways, and in wild-type plants by treatment with diphenylene iodonium chloride, an inhibitor of hydrogen peroxide production. PROPEP1, PROPEP 2, and PROPEP3 genes appear to have roles in a feedback loop that amplifies defense signaling pathways initiated by pathogens.

Huffaker, Alisa; Ryan, Clarence A.

2007-01-01

135

A new antigen scanning strategy for monitoring HIV1 specific T-cell immune responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delineation of the immune correlates of protection in natural infection or after vaccination is a mandatory step for vaccine development. Although the most recent techniques allow a sensitive and specific detection of the cellular immune response, a consensus on the best strategy to assess their magnitude and breadth is yet to be reached. Within the AIDS Vaccine Integrated Project (AVIP

Mauro S. Malnati; Silvia Heltai; Antonio Cosma; Peter Reitmeir; Simone Allgayer; Richard H. Glashoff; Walter Liebrich; Eftyhia Vardas; Nesrina Imami; Samantha Westrop; Silvia Nozza; Giuseppe Tambussi; Stefano Buttò; Emanuele Fanales-Belasio; Barbara Ensoli; Fabrizio Ensoli; Antonella Tripiciano; Claudio Fortis; Paolo Lusso; Guido Poli; Volker Erfle; Harvey Holmes

136

Adapting a transforming growth factor -related tumor protection strategy to enhance antitumor immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transforming growth factor (TGF-), a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates cell growth and differentiation, is secreted by many human tumors and markedly inhib- its tumor-specific cellular immunity. Tu- mors can avoid the differentiating and apoptotic effects of TGF- by expressing a nonfunctional TGF- receptor. We have determined whether this immune evasion strategy can be manipulated to shield tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

Catherine M. Bollard; Claudia Rossig; M. Julia Calonge; M. Helen; Hans-Joachim Wagner Huls; Joan Massague; Malcolm K. Brenner; Helen E. Heslop; Cliona M. Rooney

2002-01-01

137

Pivotal roles of cGAS-cGAMP signaling in antiviral defense and immune adjuvant effects.  

PubMed

Invasion of microbial DNA into the cytoplasm of animal cells triggers a cascade of host immune reactions that help clear the infection; however, self DNA in the cytoplasm can cause autoimmune diseases. Biochemical approaches led to the identification of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) as a cytosolic DNA sensor that triggers innate immune responses. Here, we show that cells from cGAS-deficient (cGas(-/-)) mice, including fibroblasts, macrophages, and dendritic cells, failed to produce type I interferons and other cytokines in response to DNA transfection or DNA virus infection. cGas(-/-) mice were more susceptible to lethal infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) than wild-type mice. We also show that cGAMP is an adjuvant that boosts antigen-specific T cell activation and antibody production in mice. PMID:23989956

Li, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Jiaxi; Gao, Daxing; Wang, Hua; Sun, Lijun; Chen, Zhijian J

2013-08-29

138

NOD2, an intracellular innate immune sensor involved in host defense and Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is an intracellular sensor for small peptides derived from the bacterial cell wall component, peptidoglycan. Recent studies have uncovered unexpected functions of NOD2 in innate immune responses such as induction of type I interferon and facilitation of autophagy; moreover, they have disclosed extensive cross-talk between NOD2 and Toll-like receptors, which has an indispensable role both

W Strober; T Watanabe

2011-01-01

139

RNAi and antiviral defense in Drosophila: Setting up a systemic immune response.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) controls gene expression in eukaryotic cells and thus, cellular homeostasis. In addition, in plants, nematodes and arthropods it is a central antiviral effector mechanism. Antiviral RNAi has been well described as a cell autonomous response, which is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules. This dsRNA is the precursor for the silencing of viral RNA in a sequence-specific manner. In plants, systemic antiviral immunity has been demonstrated, however much less is known in animals. Recently, some evidence for a systemic antiviral response in arthropods has come to light. Cell autonomous RNAi may not be sufficient to reach an efficient antiviral response, and the organism might rely on the spread and uptake of an RNAi signal of unknown origin. In this review, we offer a perspective on how RNAi-mediated antiviral immunity could confer systemic protection in insects and we propose directions for future research to understand the mechanism of RNAi-immune signal sorting, spreading and amplification. PMID:23684730

Karlikow, Margot; Goic, Bertsy; Saleh, Maria-Carla

2013-05-14

140

Common European Security and Defense Policy in the European Union: Greek Policy and Strategy on ESDP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1998, the European Union (EU) has begun to develop a Common European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP), which provides a stronger role in the security and defense areas in order to become a more important actor in these fields, Since that time, the...

M. Fakitsas

2003-01-01

141

Biomphalysin, a New ? Pore-forming Toxin Involved in Biomphalaria glabrata Immune Defense against Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Aerolysins are virulence factors belonging to the ? pore-forming toxin (?-PFT) superfamily that are abundantly distributed in bacteria. More rarely, ?-PFTs have been described in eukaryotic organisms. Recently, we identified a putative cytolytic protein in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, whose primary structural features suggest that it could belong to this ?-PFT superfamily. In the present paper, we report the molecular cloning and functional characterization of this protein, which we call Biomphalysin, and demonstrate that it is indeed a new eukaryotic ?-PFT. We show that, despite weak sequence similarities with aerolysins, Biomphalysin shares a common architecture with proteins belonging to this superfamily. A phylogenetic approach revealed that the gene encoding Biomphalysin could have resulted from horizontal transfer. Its expression is restricted to immune-competent cells and is not induced by parasite challenge. Recombinant Biomphalysin showed hemolytic activity that was greatly enhanced by the plasma compartment of B. glabrata. We further demonstrated that Biomphalysin with plasma is highly toxic toward Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts. Using in vitro binding assays in conjunction with Western blot and immunocytochemistry analyses, we also showed that Biomphalysin binds to parasite membranes. Finally, we showed that, in contrast to what has been reported for most other members of the family, lytic activity of Biomphalysin is not dependent on proteolytic processing. These results provide the first functional description of a mollusk immune effector protein involved in killing S. mansoni.

Mone, Yves; Allienne, Jean Francois; Henri, Helene; Delbecq, Stephane; Mitta, Guillaume; Gourbal, Benjamin; Duval, David

2013-01-01

142

Biomphalysin, a new ? pore-forming toxin involved in Biomphalaria glabrata immune defense against Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Aerolysins are virulence factors belonging to the ? pore-forming toxin (?-PFT) superfamily that are abundantly distributed in bacteria. More rarely, ?-PFTs have been described in eukaryotic organisms. Recently, we identified a putative cytolytic protein in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, whose primary structural features suggest that it could belong to this ?-PFT superfamily. In the present paper, we report the molecular cloning and functional characterization of this protein, which we call Biomphalysin, and demonstrate that it is indeed a new eukaryotic ?-PFT. We show that, despite weak sequence similarities with aerolysins, Biomphalysin shares a common architecture with proteins belonging to this superfamily. A phylogenetic approach revealed that the gene encoding Biomphalysin could have resulted from horizontal transfer. Its expression is restricted to immune-competent cells and is not induced by parasite challenge. Recombinant Biomphalysin showed hemolytic activity that was greatly enhanced by the plasma compartment of B. glabrata. We further demonstrated that Biomphalysin with plasma is highly toxic toward Schistosoma mansoni sporocysts. Using in vitro binding assays in conjunction with Western blot and immunocytochemistry analyses, we also showed that Biomphalysin binds to parasite membranes. Finally, we showed that, in contrast to what has been reported for most other members of the family, lytic activity of Biomphalysin is not dependent on proteolytic processing. These results provide the first functional description of a mollusk immune effector protein involved in killing S. mansoni. PMID:23555242

Galinier, Richard; Portela, Julien; Moné, Yves; Allienne, Jean François; Henri, Hélène; Delbecq, Stéphane; Mitta, Guillaume; Gourbal, Benjamin; Duval, David

2013-03-21

143

Short Toxin-like Proteins Attack the Defense Line of Innate Immunity  

PubMed Central

ClanTox (classifier of animal toxins) was developed for identifying toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes. Searching mammalian proteomes for short toxin-like proteins (coined TOLIPs) revealed a number of overlooked secreted short proteins with an abundance of cysteines throughout their sequences. We applied bioinformatics and data-mining methods to infer the function of several top predicted candidates. We focused on cysteine-rich peptides that adopt the fold of the three-finger proteins (TFPs). We identified a cluster of duplicated genes that share a structural similarity with elapid neurotoxins, such as ?-bungarotoxin. In the murine proteome, there are about 60 such proteins that belong to the Ly6/uPAR family. These proteins are secreted or anchored to the cell membrane. Ly6/uPAR proteins are associated with a rich repertoire of functions, including binding to receptors and adhesion. Ly6/uPAR proteins modulate cell signaling in the context of brain functions and cells of the innate immune system. We postulate that TOLIPs, as modulators of cell signaling, may be associated with pathologies and cellular imbalance. We show that proteins of the Ly6/uPAR family are associated with cancer diagnosis and malfunction of the immune system.

Tirosh, Yitshak; Ofer, Dan; Eliyahu, Tsiona; Linial, Michal

2013-01-01

144

Strategies to discover regulatory circuits of the mammalian immune system  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in technologies for genome- and proteome-scale measurements and perturbations promise to accelerate discovery in every aspect of biology and medicine. Although such rapid technological progress provides a tremendous opportunity, it also demands that we learn how to use these tools effectively. One application with great potential to enhance our understanding of biological systems is the unbiased reconstruction of genetic and molecular networks. Cells of the immune system provide a particularly useful model for developing and applying such approaches. Here, we review approaches for the reconstruction of signalling and transcriptional networks, with a focus on applications in the mammalian innate immune system.

Amit, Ido; Regev, Aviv; Hacohen, Nir

2013-01-01

145

Synergy of Vaccine Strategies to Amplify Antigen-specific Immune Responses and Antitumor Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several different vaccine strategies have been evaluated and combined in an attempt to amplify T-cell responses toward induction of antitumor immunity. The model tumor antigen used was carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). While initial T-cell activation studies were conducted in conven- tional mice, combined vaccine strategy studies and antitumor studies were conducted in transgenic mice in which CEA is expressed in normal

Douglas W. Grosenbach; Jacqueline C. Barrientos; Jeffrey Schlom; James W. Hodge

2001-01-01

146

Possible New Antiaging Strategies Related to Neuroendocrine-Immune Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aging process demonstrates gradual and spontaneous changes, resulting in maturation through childhood, puberty and young adulthood, and then decline through middle and late age. However, animals and humans are capable of reaching the extreme limit of life span characteristic for the species with a very efficient network of antiaging mechanisms. Among them, neuroendocrine-immune interactions play a pivotal role. The

Eugenio Mocchegiani; Marco Malavolta

2008-01-01

147

Models of contrasting strategies of rhinovirus immune manipulation.  

PubMed

Rhinoviruses, consisting of well over one hundred serotypes that cause a plurality of common colds, are completely cleared by the host immune system after causing minimal cell death, but often without inducing long-term immune memory. We develop mathematical models of two kinds of rhinoviruses, the major group and minor group, that use different receptors to enter target cells. Roughly the 90 serotypes in the major group bind to ICAM-1, a molecule that is upregulated on antigen-presenting cells, and alter the timing, location and type of the immune response. The 12 members of the minor group do not so modulate the response. Our model predicts similar virus dynamics for the major and minor groups but with quite different underlying mechanisms. Over a range of key parameters that quantify immune manipulation, disease outcomes lie within a triangle in the plane describing damage and memory, of which the major and minor group form two corners. This model of infection by a highly adapted and low virulence virus provides a starting point for understanding the development of asthma and other pathologies. PMID:23485454

Adler, Frederick R; Kim, Peter S

2013-02-26

148

Counterproliferation strategy: The influence of technology, budget, and arms control on theater missile defenses. Strategic research project  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the historical evolution of the theater missile threat during World War II and the Persian Gulf War, and analyzes current technological challenges, budgetary pressures, and arms control restraints which constrain the development and deployment of effective theater missile defenses. The impact of these trends on strategic concepts as outlined in the National Military Strategy and their implications for attaining national policy objectives is assessed. A systems approach is used to described analyze, and evaluate the effectiveness of emerging counterproliferation strategy within the framework of an ends-ways-means strategy formulation paradigm. I conclude that current trends will lead to a self-deterring strategy: resources are inadequate to support the ways we intend to achieve our national objectives. Recommendations are made to eliminate unacceptable risk and enhance the concept of `extended conventional deterrence` consistent with U.S. national values and security interests for our role in a new world order.

Parlier, G.H.

1996-05-20

149

Selective metabolism of hypothiocyanous acid by mammalian thioredoxin reductase promotes lung innate immunity and antioxidant defense.  

PubMed

The endogenously produced oxidant hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) inhibits and kills pathogens but paradoxically is well tolerated by mammalian host tissue. Mammalian high molecular weight thioredoxin reductase (H-TrxR) is evolutionarily divergent from bacterial low molecular weight thioredoxin reductase (L-TrxR). Notably, mammalian H-TrxR contains a selenocysteine (Sec) and has wider substrate reactivity than L-TrxR. Recombinant rat cytosolic H-TrxR1, mouse mitochondrial H-TrxR2, and a purified mixture of both from rat selectively turned over HOSCN (kcat = 357 ± 16 min(-1); Km = 31.9 ± 10.3 ?M) but were inactive against the related oxidant hypochlorous acid. Replacing Sec with Cys or deleting the final eight C-terminal peptides decreased affinity and turnover of HOSCN by H-TrxR. Similarly, glutathione reductase (an H-TrxR homologue lacking Sec) was less effective at HOSCN turnover. In contrast to H-TrxR and glutathione reductase, recombinant Escherichia coli L-TrxR was potently inhibited by HOSCN (IC50 = 2.75 ?M). Similarly, human bronchial epithelial cell (16HBE) lysates metabolized HOSCN, but E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lysates had little or no activity. HOSCN selectively produced toxicity in bacteria, whereas hypochlorous acid was nonselectively toxic to both bacteria and 16HBE. Treatment with the H-TrxR inhibitor auranofin inhibited HOSCN metabolism in 16HBE lysates and significantly increased HOSCN-mediated cytotoxicity. These findings demonstrate both the metabolism of HOSCN by mammalian H-TrxR resulting in resistance to HOSCN in mammalian cells and the potent inhibition of bacterial L-TrxR resulting in cytotoxicity in bacteria. These data support a novel selective mechanism of host defense in mammals wherein HOSCN formation simultaneously inhibits pathogens while sparing host tissue. PMID:23629660

Chandler, Joshua D; Nichols, David P; Nick, Jerry A; Hondal, Robert J; Day, Brian J

2013-04-29

150

Pertussis immunization in the global pertussis initiative European region: recommended strategies and implementation considerations.  

PubMed

Approaches to pertussis diagnosis, surveillance and immunization vary widely across Europe. Nonetheless most countries report high levels of vaccine coverage in infants and toddlers, and significant reductions in infant morbidity and mortality have been achieved. As a consequence of the effective protection of infants and toddlers, the absolute incidence of pertussis has substantially decreased, but the relative proportion of older age groups, adolescents and adults in particular, has increased. These groups, however, are a relevant source of infection of unimmunized or incompletely immunized infants. In addition to efficient childhood vaccination, other approaches to pertussis immunization are required. Among the various strategies evaluated, 3 were recommended by the European participants in the Global Pertussis Initiative that might be adapted to each country's specific needs: the reinforcement of implementation of current schedules, the addition of an extra dose of vaccine to current immunization schedules and the selective immunization of health care workers, which is already included in a European Commission directive. The main barriers to the acceptance of these strategies are low awareness of pertussis in immunized populations, poor recognition of the disease in adults and adolescents, lack of standardized diagnostic criteria and poor access to laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis. These obstacles have led to underreporting of pertussis and an underestimation of the disease burden. Actions to overcome these issues are crucial to the implementation of new or improved immunization strategies to combat pertussis in Europe. PMID:15876934

Wirsing von König, Carl-Heinz; Campins-Marti, Magda; Finn, Adam; Guiso, Nicole; Mertsola, Jussi; Liese, Johannes

2005-05-01

151

Identification and characterization of four ferritin subunits involved in immune defense of the Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis).  

PubMed

As a primary iron storage protein, ferritin plays a vital role in iron homeostasis and innate immunity. In this study, four ferritin subunits (PyFer1, PyFer2, PyFer3, and PyFer4) were cloned from the Yesso scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis, by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) following in silico transcriptome analysis. The full-length cDNAs of the four ferritins are 895, 920, 891, and 1400 bp in length, respectively, and each contains a putative iron response element (IRE) in its 5' UTR. Meanwhile, multiple A+U-destabilizing elements (TATT or ATTTA) are present in the 3' UTRs of PyFer2 and PyFer4. The open reading frames of the four ferritins are 522, 516, 516, and 519 bp, encoding 173, 171, 171, and 172 amino acids, respectively. These proteins have typical ferritin structures, with four long ?-helices, one short ?-helix and an L-loop. All of the predicted proteins possess both the ferroxidase center of mammalian H ferritins (E25, Y32, E59, E60, H63, E105, and Q139) and the iron nucleation site of mammalian L ferritins (H116, D129, and E132), and the recombinant proteins possess apparent ferroxidase activity. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of the four PyFers was significantly elevated at the D-shaped stage and was relatively high in the adult mantle and hepatopancreas. Furthermore, the four PyFers were significantly up-regulated by iron or bacterial challenge, and all four purified recombinant PyFers were able to inhibit the growth of the scallop pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. These results suggest that these PyFers are likely to play important roles in many fundamental biological processes in P. yessoensis, including immune defense, iron homeostasis, and shell development. PMID:23428517

Zhang, Yueyue; Zhang, Ru; Zou, Jiajun; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Zhang, Lingling; Bao, Zhenmin

2013-02-18

152

NOD2 contributes to cutaneous defense against Staphylococcus aureus through ?-toxin-dependent innate immune activation  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of community-acquired and nosocomial infections including the life-threatening conditions endocarditis, necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, and septicemia. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, a membrane-bound microbial sensor, detects staphylococcal components, but macrophages lacking TLR2 or both TLR2 and TLR4 remain S. aureus responsive, suggesting that an alternative microbial recognition receptor might be involved. The cytoplasmic sensor nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing (NOD) 2/caspase recruitment domain (CARD) 15 detects muramyl dipeptide from bacterial peptidoglycans and mediates cytokine responses to S. aureus in vitro, but the physiological significance of these observations is not well defined. Here we show that NOD2-deficient mice exhibit a delayed but ultimately exacerbated ulcerative response and impaired bacterial clearance after s.c. infection with S. aureus. NOD2-dependent recognition of S. aureus and muramyl dipeptide is facilitated by ?-toxin (?-hemolysin), a pore-forming toxin and virulence factor of the pathogen. The action of NOD2 is dependent on IL-1?-amplified production of IL-6, which promotes rapid bacterial killing by neutrophils. These results significantly broaden the physiological importance of NOD2 in innate immunity from the recognition of bacteria that primarily enter the cytoplasm to the detection of bacteria that typically reside extracellularly and demonstrate that this microbial sensor contributes to the discrimination between commensal bacteria and bacterial pathogens that elaborate pore-forming toxins.

Hruz, Petr; Zinkernagel, Annelies S.; Jenikova, Gabriela; Botwin, Gregory J.; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Karin, Michael; Nizet, Victor; Eckmann, Lars

2009-01-01

153

Staphylococcus aureus virulence is enhanced by secreted factors that block innate immune defenses.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is a leading human pathogen that causes a large variety of diseases. In vitro studies have shown that S. aureus secretes several small proteins that block specific elements of the host innate immune system, but their role in bacterial pathogenicity is unknown. For instance, the extracellular complement-binding protein (Ecb) impairs complement activation by binding to the C3d domain of C3. Its homolog, the extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb), is known to block both complement activation and neutrophil adhesion to fibrinogen. Here, we show that targeted inactivation of the genes encoding Ecb and Efb strongly attenuates S. aureus virulence in a murine infection model: mice experienced significantly higher mortality rates upon intravenous infection with wild-type bacteria (79%) than with an isogenic ?Ecb?Efb mutant (21%). In addition, Ecb and Efb are both required for staphylococcal persistence in host tissues and abscess formation in the kidneys (27% for wild-type vs. 7% for the ?Ecb?Efb mutant). During staphylococcal pneumonia, Ecb and Efb together promote bacterial survival in the lungs (p = 0.03) and block neutrophil influx into the lungs. Thus, Ecb and Efb are essential to S. aureus virulence in vivo and could be attractive targets in future vaccine development efforts. PMID:22327617

Jongerius, Ilse; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Horsburgh, Malcolm J; Ruyken, Maartje; Nizet, Victor; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M

2012-02-07

154

Strategies to improve immunization services in urban Africa.  

PubMed Central

The urban poor constitute a rapidly increasing proportion of the population in developing countries. Focusing attention on underserved urban slums and squatter settlements will contribute greatly to immunization programme goals, because these areas account for 30-50% of urban populations, usually provide low access to health services, carry a large burden of disease mortality, and act as sources of infection for the city and surrounding rural areas. Improvement of urban immunization programmes requires intersectorial collaboration, use of all opportunities to vaccinate eligible children and mothers, identification of low-coverage neighbourhoods and execution of extra activities in these neighbourhoods, and community mobilization to identify and refer persons for vaccination. Improved disease surveillance helps to identify high-risk populations and document programme impact. New developments in vaccines, such as the high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine, will allow changes in the immunization schedule that facilitate the control of specific diseases. Finally, operational research can assist managers to conduct urban situation assessments, evaluate programme performance at the "micro" level, and design and monitor interventions.

Cutts, F. T.

1991-01-01

155

Coevolution between maternal transfer of immunity and other resistance strategies against pathogens.  

PubMed

Among the wide variety of resistance mechanisms to parasitism, the transgenerational transfer of immunity from mother to offspring has largely been overlooked and never included in evolutionary or coevolutionary studies of resistance mechanisms. Here we study the evolution and coevolution of various resistance mechanisms with a special focus on maternal transfer of immunity. In particular we show that maternal transfer of immunity is only expected to evolve when cross immunity is high and when the pathogens have an intermediate virulence. We also show that the outcome of the coevolution between various resistance mechanisms depends critically on the life span of the host. We predict that short-lived species should invest in avoidance strategies, whereas long-lived species should invest in acquired resistance mechanisms. These results may help understanding the diversity of resistance strategies that have evolved in vertebrate species. Our framework also provides a general basis for the study of the evolution of other transgenerational resistance mechanisms. PMID:23025598

Garnier, Romain; Boulinier, Thierry; Gandon, Sylvain

2012-05-04

156

Immunization strategy for prevention of congenital cytomegalovirus infection.  

PubMed

Women of childbearing age are a logical target for a vaccine aimed at prevention of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. However, the impact of a CMV vaccine could likely be enhanced by considering the sources of maternal infection and characteristics of mothers of infected newborns. Contact with preschool-age children and sexual activity are important sources of CMV infection for young women. Approximately half of infants with congenital CMV infection in the U.S. are born to unmarried, adolescent mothers. To prevent CMV infection in those who are the sources of maternal infection as well as in young, unmarried mothers, universal immunization of toddlers and preteen children should be considered. PMID:8884369

Pass, R F

1996-10-01

157

Realization of cooperative strategies and swarm behavior in distributed autonomous robotic systems using artificial immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a method of cooperative control (T-cell modeling) and selection of group behavior strategy (B-cell modeling) based on the immune system in a distributed autonomous robotic system (DARS). The immune system is a living body's self-protection and self-maintenance system. These features can be applied to decision making of optimal swarm behavior in a dynamically changing environment.

Jin-Hyung Jun; Dong-Wook Lee; Kwee-Bo Sim

1999-01-01

158

DNA vaccines: developing new strategies to enhance immune responses.  

PubMed

We have focused our research on understanding the basic biology of and developing novel therapeutic and prophylactic DNA vaccines. We have among others three distinct primary areas of interest which include: 1. Enhancing in vivo delivery and transfection of DNA vaccine vectors 2. Improving DNA vaccine construct immunogenicity 3. Using molecular adjuvants to modulate and skew immune responses. Key to the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines is the presentation of expressed antigen to antigen-presenting cells. To improve expression and presentation of antigen, we have investigated various immunization methods with current focus on a combination of intramuscular injection and electroporation. To improve our vaccine constructs, we also employed methods such as RNA/codon optimization and antigen consensus to enhance expression and cellular/humoral cross-reactivity, respectively. Our lab also researches the potential of various molecular adjuvants to skew Th1/Th2 responses, enhance cellular/humoral responses, and improve protection in various animal models. Through improving our understanding of basic immunology as it is related to DNA vaccine technology, our goal is to develop the technology to the point of utility for human and animal health. PMID:19066740

Abdulhaqq, Shaheed A; Weiner, David B

2008-01-01

159

Immune evasion strategies of the human gamma-herpesviruses: implications for viral tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Two human gamma-herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 display oncogenic potential, causing benign and malignant lymphoproliferative disorders in genetically susceptible or immunosuppressed individuals. As a family of viruses that establish persistent life-long infections, herpesviruses have evolved strategies to limit innate antiviral responses and evade host immune surveillance. Herpesviruses have developed mechanisms to disrupt antigen presentation, pirate the production of immune regulating cytokines, and inhibit pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. Although these strategies are designed to facilitate the long-term persistence of herpesviruses, in certain circumstances they can contribute to viral-driven carcinogenesis. PMID:22170548

Zhang, Xiangning; Dawson, Christopher W; He, Zhiwei; Huang, Peichun

2012-02-01

160

Nuclear pore complex component MOS7/Nup88 is required for innate immunity and nuclear accumulation of defense regulators in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Plant immune responses depend on dynamic signaling events across the nuclear envelope through nuclear pores. Nuclear accumulation of certain resistance (R) proteins and downstream signal transducers are critical for their functions, but it is not understood how these processes are controlled. Here, we report the identification, cloning, and analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana modifier of snc1,7 (mos7-1), a partial loss-of-function mutation that suppresses immune responses conditioned by the autoactivated R protein snc1 (for suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1). mos7-1 single mutant plants exhibit defects in basal and R protein-mediated immunity and in systemic acquired resistance but do not display obvious pleiotropic defects in development, salt tolerance, or plant hormone responses. MOS7 is homologous to human and Drosophila melanogaster nucleoporin Nup88 and resides at the nuclear envelope. In animals, Nup88 attenuates nuclear export of activated NF-kappaB transcription factors, resulting in nuclear accumulation of NF-kappaB. Our analysis shows that nuclear accumulation of snc1 and the defense signaling components Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 and Nonexpresser of PR genes 1 is significantly reduced in mos7-1 plants, while nuclear retention of other tested proteins is unaffected. The data suggest that specifically modulating the nuclear concentrations of certain defense proteins regulates defense outputs. PMID:19700630

Cheng, Yu Ti; Germain, Hugo; Wiermer, Marcel; Bi, Dongling; Xu, Fang; García, Ana V; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Després, Charles; Parker, Jane E; Zhang, Yuelin; Li, Xin

2009-08-21

161

Department of Defense Energy Strategy: Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States has a National Security problem, energy security, in which the Department of Defense (DoD) has a unique interest. The United States imports 26% of its total energy supply and 56% of the oil it consumes. The DoD is the largest single cons...

G. J. Lengyel

2007-01-01

162

The correlates of cognitive ageing and adoption of defensive-ageing strategies among older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test the relationship between cognitive age and the adoption of defensive ageing consumption activities and its effect on life satisfaction in an Asian context. The relationship between the antecedent variables of chronological age, biological age and transitional life events and cognitive age is examined. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey method. The study was

Fon Sim Ong; Yap-Ying Lu; Masoud Abessi; David R. Phillips

2009-01-01

163

An Analysis of the Defense First Strategy in College Football Overtime Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Division 1-A college football adopted overtime rules in 1996. There have been 328 overtime games since, and only four times have coaches opted to go on offense first upon winning the coin toss. Thus, there is an accepted belief that starting on defense first is advantageous, as validated by surveying college coaches. This study examines past game data to analyze

Peter A. Rosen; Rick L. Wilson

2007-01-01

164

Immune mechanisms of new therapeutic strategies in MS: teriflunomide.  

PubMed

At present, a series of oral disease-modifying agents is being introduced for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. With the exception of laquinimod, the "new" oral compounds have already been approved for other indications such as organ transplantation (FTY720), psoriasis (dimethylfumarate), hairy cell leukemia (cladribine), and rheumatoid arthritis (leflunomide). Leflunomide is the prodrug of teriflunomide which is the latest compound that has successfully been tested in a large phase III clinical trial in relapsing MS. Due to its favorable safety profile and its efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis where the aberrant immune response is in various aspects similar to the autoimmune reaction in MS patients, teriflunomide is a promising treatment option for MS patients. Here, we review the most important cell biological and immunological modes of action of teriflunomide, report on the available data on its pharmacokinetics in humans, and summarize the recent clinical trials of teriflunomide in relapsing MS. PMID:21367665

Claussen, Malte C; Korn, Thomas

2011-03-01

165

Immune responses against virus and tumor in cervical carcinogenesis: Treatment strategies for avoiding the HPV-induced immune escape.  

PubMed

Despite the availability of prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer (CC) is still a major problem globally. It is the cancer with the second highest incidence and the third highest mortality in women worldwide, but, in less developed countries, it is an even greater problem being the second most common cause of cancer death. Although HPV infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, and high-risk HPV16 is the most frequent genotype involved, only a small number of HPV-infected women develop high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions whereas, in the remainder of the women, the virus disappears spontaneously. There is a lot of evidence to support the view that host-dependent immunologic status and HPV-induced immune evasion are responsible for persistent HPV infection and subsequent development of cervical neoplasia. Therefore, the role of the immune system, not only in viral clearance but also in tumor antigen recognition, is particularly relevant in the case of cervical carcinogenesis. A better understanding of these processes would help in the development of therapeutic vaccines. This review aims to explain which immune cells and molecules are involved in the process of viral and tumor recognition, how their failure can lead to cervical carcinoma and what are the main therapeutic strategies so far tested in preclinical models and clinical trials to stimulate the immune system in cervical carcinoma. PMID:23994536

Conesa-Zamora, Pablo

2013-08-29

166

Mucosal Immune System and M Cell-targeting Strategies for Oral Mucosal Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Vaccination is one of the most effective methods available to prevent infectious diseases. Mucosa, which are exposed to heavy loads of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, are one of the first areas where infections are established, and therefore have frontline status in immunity, making mucosa ideal sites for vaccine application. Moreover, vaccination through the mucosal immune system could induce effective systemic immune responses together with mucosal immunity in contrast to parenteral vaccination, which is a poor inducer of effective immunity at mucosal surfaces. Among mucosal vaccines, oral mucosal vaccines have the advantages of ease and low cost of vaccine administration. The oral mucosal immune system, however, is generally recognized as poorly immunogenic due to the frequent induction of tolerance against orally-introduced antigens. Consequently, a prerequisite for successful mucosal vaccination is that the orally introduced antigen should be transported across the mucosal surface into the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). In particular, M cells are responsible for antigen uptake into MALT, and the rapid and effective transcytotic activity of M cells makes them an attractive target for mucosal vaccine delivery, although simple transport of the antigen into M cells does not guarantee the induction of specific immune responses. Consequently, development of mucosal vaccine adjuvants based on an understanding of the biology of M cells has attracted much research interest. Here, we review the characteristics of the oral mucosal immune system and delineate strategies to design effective oral mucosal vaccines with an emphasis on mucosal vaccine adjuvants.

Kim, Sae-Hae; Lee, Kyung-Yeol

2012-01-01

167

Cost-effectiveness evaluation of measles immunization strategies on a college campus.  

PubMed

Since live rubeola vaccine became available in 1963, routine immunization of children at age 15 months has been the recommended strategy for eliminating measles in the United States. However, due to increasing measles outbreaks, especially among previously immunized populations, the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP) recently recommended modifying the one-dose measles vaccination policy to a two-dose schedule, one at 15 months and one at age 5 or 6 years. To address the present college population, ACIP recommended vaccinating all college students who lack proof of immunity. We used the methods of decision analysis to examine the cost effectiveness of implementing such a program in a specific college population, namely, students at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). We developed a model to examine three possible vaccination strategies: "wait," "screen," and "vaccinate all." Estimates of probabilities and cost were derived from several outbreaks at UCLA as well as statewide data. In the baseline case, the least expensive strategy is to wait until an outbreak occurs before implementing a vaccination program. The additional cost incurred by screening per measles case avoided is $122,871. However, using sensitivity analysis, we found that the overall cost of elective vaccination strategies is driven by the cost of the vaccine itself. If vaccine could be provided at a nominal cost to the university, a strategy of vaccinating all students without proof of immunity (by either history of two vaccinations or positive titer) would provide the high level of immunity needed to prevent outbreaks and still be most cost effective ($16,644 per measles case avoided). PMID:1905455

Shlian, D M; Matchar, D; Seymann, G B

1991-06-01

168

A Scallop Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) with Structure Similar to Neuronal NOS and Its Involvement in the Immune Defense  

PubMed Central

Background Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is responsible for synthesizing nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine, and involved in multiple physiological functions. However, its immunological role in mollusc was seldom reported. Methodology In the present study, an NOS (CfNOS) gene was identified from the scallop Chlamys farreri encoding a polypeptide of 1486 amino acids. Its amino acid sequence shared 50.0~54.7, 40.7~47.0 and 42.5~44.5% similarities with vertebrate neuronal (n), endothelial (e) and inducible (i) NOSs, respectively. CfNOS contained PDZ, oxygenase and reductase domains, which resembled those in nNOS. The CfNOS mRNA transcripts expressed in all embryos and larvae after the 2-cell embryo stage, and were detectable in all tested tissues with the highest level in the gonad, and with the immune tissues hepatopancreas and haemocytes included. Moreover, the immunoreactive area of CfNOS distributed over the haemocyte cytoplasm and cell membrane. After LPS, ?-glucan and PGN stimulation, the expression level of CfNOS mRNA in haemocytes increased significantly at 3 h (4.0-, 4.8- and 2.7-fold, respectively, P < 0.01), and reached the peak at 12 h (15.3- and 27.6-fold for LPS and ?-glucan respectively, P < 0.01) and 24 h (17.3-fold for PGN, P < 0.01). In addition, TNF-? also induced the expression of CfNOS, which started to increase at 1 h (5.2-fold, P < 0.05) and peaked at 6 h (19.9-fold, P < 0.01). The catalytic activity of the native CfNOS protein was 30.3 ± 0.3 U mgprot-1, and it decreased significantly after the addition of the selective inhibitors of nNOS and iNOS (26.9 ± 0.4 and 29.3 ± 0.1 U mgprot-1, respectively, P < 0.01). Conclusions These results suggested that CfNOS, with identical structure with nNOS and similar enzymatic characteristics to nNOS and iNOS, played the immunological role of iNOS to be involved in the scallop immune defense against PAMPs and TNF-?.

Jiang, Qiufen; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Yue, Feng; Wang, Jingjing; Song, Linsheng

2013-01-01

169

Transcriptome Analysis Describing New Immunity and Defense Genes in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Large-scale gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients could provide a molecular description that reflects the contribution of diverse cellular responses associated with this disease. The aim of our study was to identify peripheral blood gene expression profiles for RA patients, using Illumina technology, to gain insights into RA molecular mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings The Illumina Human-6v2 Expression BeadChips were used for a complete genome-wide transcript profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 18 RA patients and 15 controls. Differential analysis per gene was performed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and P values were adjusted to control the False Discovery Rate (FDR<5%). Genes differentially expressed at significant level between patients and controls were analyzed using Gene Ontology (GO) in the PANTHER database to identify biological processes. A differentially expression of 339 Reference Sequence genes (238 down-regulated and 101 up-regulated) between the two groups was observed. We identified a remarkably elevated expression of a spectrum of genes involved in Immunity and Defense in PBMCs of RA patients compared to controls. This result is confirmed by GO analysis, suggesting that these genes could be activated systemically in RA. No significant down-regulated ontology groups were found. Microarray data were validated by real time PCR in a set of nine genes showing a high degree of correlation. Conclusions/Significance Our study highlighted several new genes that could contribute in the identification of innovative clinical biomarkers for diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions.

Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Lasbleiz, Sandra; Jacq, Laurent; Oliveira, Catarina Resende; Hilliquin, Pascal; Gut, Ivo; Cornelis, Francois; Petit-Teixeira, Elisabeth

2009-01-01

170

A VACCINE STRATEGY THAT INDUCES PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY AGAINST HEROIN  

PubMed Central

Heroin addiction is a wide-reaching problem with a spectrum of damaging social consequences. A vaccine capable of blocking heroin's effects could provide a long-lasting and sustainable adjunct to heroin addiction therapy. Heroin, however, presents a particularly challenging immunotherapeutic target as it is metabolized to multiple psychoactive molecules. To reconcile this dilemma we examined the idea of a singular vaccine with the potential to display multiple drug-like antigens; thus two haptens were synthesized, one heroin-like and another morphine-like in chemical structure. A key feature in this approach is that immunopresentation with the heroin-like hapten is thought to be immunochemically dynamic such that multiple haptens are simultaneously presented to the immune system. We demonstrate the significance of this approach though the extremely rapid generation of robust polyclonal antibody titers with remarkable specificity. Importantly, both the antinociceptive effects of heroin and acquisition of heroin self-administration were blocked in rats vaccinated using the heroin-like hapten.

Stowe, G. Neil; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Edwards, Scott; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Misra, Kaushik K.; Schulteis, Gery; Mayorov, Alexander V.; Zakhari, Joseph S.; Koob, George F.; Janda, Kim D.

2011-01-01

171

Sympathetic Modulation of Immunity: Relevance to Disease  

PubMed Central

Optimal host defense against pathogens requires cross-talk between the nervous and immune systems. This paper reviews sympathetic-immune interaction, one major communication pathway, and its importance for health and disease. Sympathetic innervation of primary and secondary immune organs is described, as well as evidence for neurotransmission with cells of the immune system as targets. Most research thus far as focused on neural-immune modulation in secondary lymphoid organs, and have revealed complex sympathetic modulation resulting in both potentiation and inhibition of immune functions. SNS-immune interaction may enhance immune readiness during disease- or injury-induced ‘fight’ responses. Research also indicate that dysregulation of the SNS can significantly affect the progression of immune-mediated diseases. However, a better understanding of neural-immune interactions is needed to develop strategies for treatment of immune-mediated diseases that are designed to return homeostasis and restore normal functioning neural-immune networks.

Bellinger, Denise L.; Millar, Brooke A.; Perez, Sam; Carter, Jeff; Wood, Carlo; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan; Molinaro, Christine; Lubahn, Cheri; Lorton, Dianne

2008-01-01

172

Annual Defense Report 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forwarded to the President and Congress annually, the Secretary of Defense's Annual Defense Report serves as "a basic reference document for those interested in national defense issues and programs." The 350-page 2000 edition is available in HTML and .pdf formats. It covers topics such as defense strategy, the current state of the armed forces, plans for transforming the armed forces and the Department of Defense, statutory reports from the individual secretaries, and a number of appendices.

173

TNF? and IFN? contribute to F1/LcrV-targeted immune defense in mouse models of fully virulent pneumonic plague.  

PubMed

Immunization with the Yersinia pestis F1 and LcrV proteins improves survival in mouse and non-human primate models of pneumonic plague. F1- and LcrV-specific antibodies contribute to protection, however, the mechanisms of antibody-mediated defense are incompletely understood and serum antibody titers do not suffice as quantitative correlates of protection. Previously we demonstrated roles for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) and gamma-interferon (IFN?) during defense against conditionally attenuated pigmentation (pgm) locus-negative Y. pestis. Here, using intranasal challenge with fully virulent pgm-positive Y. pestis strain CO92, we demonstrate that neutralizing TNF? and IFN? interferes with the capacity of therapeutically administered F1- or LcrV-specific antibody to reduce bacterial burden and increase survival. Moreover, using Y. pestis strain CO92 in an aerosol challenge model, we demonstrate that neutralizing TNF? and IFN? interferes with protection conferred by immunization with recombinant F1-LcrV fusion protein vaccine (p<0.0005). These findings establish that TNF? and IFN? contribute to protection mediated by pneumonic plague countermeasures targeting F1 and LcrV, and suggest that an individual's capacity to produce these cytokines in response to Y. pestis challenge will be an important co-determinant of antibody-mediated defense against pneumonic plague. PMID:20840834

Lin, Jr-Shiuan; Park, Steven; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J; Hill, Jim; Bliska, James B; Cote, Christopher K; Perlin, David S; Amemiya, Kei; Smiley, Stephen T

2010-09-15

174

HDT701, a Histone H4 Deacetylase, Negatively Regulates Plant Innate Immunity by Modulating Histone H4 Acetylation of Defense-Related Genes in Rice[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Histone acetylation and deacetylation play an important role in the modification of chromatin structure and regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Chromatin acetylation status is modulated antagonistically by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs). In this study, we characterized the function of histone deacetylase701 (HDT701), a member of the plant-specific HD2 subfamily of HDACs, in rice (Oryza sativa) innate immunity. Transcription of HDT701 is increased in the compatible reaction and decreased in the incompatible reaction after infection by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Overexpression of HDT701 in transgenic rice leads to decreased levels of histone H4 acetylation and enhanced susceptibility to the rice pathogens M. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo). By contrast, silencing of HDT701 in transgenic rice causes elevated levels of histone H4 acetylation and elevated transcription of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and defense-related genes, increased generation of reactive oxygen species after pathogen-associated molecular pattern elicitor treatment, as well as enhanced resistance to both M. oryzae and Xoo. We also found that HDT701 can bind to defense-related genes to regulate their expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that HDT701 negatively regulates innate immunity by modulating the levels of histone H4 acetylation of PRR and defense-related genes in rice.

Ding, Bo; Bellizzi, Maria del Rosario; Ning, Yuese; Meyers, Blake C.; Wang, Guo-Liang

2012-01-01

175

TNF? and IFN? contribute to F1/LcrV-targeted immune defense in mouse models of fully virulent pneumonic plague  

PubMed Central

Immunization with the Yersinia pestis F1 and LcrV proteins improves survival in mouse and non-human primate models of pneumonic plague. F1- and LcrV-specific antibodies contribute to protection, however, the mechanisms of antibody-mediated defense are incompletely understood and serum antibody titers do not suffice as quantitative correlates of protection. Previously we demonstrated roles for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) and gamma-interferon (IFN?) during defense against conditionally attenuated pigmentation (pgm) locus-negative Y. pestis. Here, using intranasal challenge with fully virulent pgm-positive Y. pestis strain CO92, we demonstrate that neutralizing TNF? and IFN? interferes with the capacity of therapeutically administered F1- or LcrV-specific antibody to reduce bacterial burden and increase survival. Moreover, using Y. pestis strain CO92 in an aerosol challenge model, we demonstrate that neutralizing TNF? and IFN? interferes with protection conferred by immunization with recombinant F1-LcrV fusion protein vaccine (p<0.0005). These findings establish that TNF? and IFN? contribute to protection mediated by pneumonic plague countermeasures targeting F1 and LcrV, and suggest that an individual’s capacity to produce these cytokines in response to Y. pestis challenge will be an important co-determinant of antibody-mediated defense against pneumonic plague.

Lin, Jr-Shiuan; Park, Steven; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J.; Hill, Jim; Bliska, James B.; Cote, Christopher K.; Perlin, David S.; Amemiya, Kei; Smiley, Stephen T.

2010-01-01

176

Viral immune modulators perturb the human molecular network by common and unique strategies.  

PubMed

Viruses must enter host cells to replicate, assemble and propagate. Because of the restricted size of their genomes, viruses have had to evolve efficient ways of exploiting host cell processes to promote their own life cycles and also to escape host immune defence mechanisms. Many viral open reading frames (viORFs) with immune-modulating functions essential for productive viral growth have been identified across a range of viral classes. However, there has been no comprehensive study to identify the host factors with which these viORFs interact for a global perspective of viral perturbation strategies. Here we show that different viral perturbation patterns of the host molecular defence network can be deduced from a mass-spectrometry-based host-factor survey in a defined human cellular system by using 70 innate immune-modulating viORFs from 30 viral species. The 579 host proteins targeted by the viORFs mapped to an unexpectedly large number of signalling pathways and cellular processes, suggesting yet unknown mechanisms of antiviral immunity. We further experimentally verified the targets heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein?U, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase, the WNK (with-no-lysine) kinase family and USP19 (ubiquitin-specific peptidase 19) as vulnerable nodes in the host cellular defence system. Evaluation of the impact of viral immune modulators on the host molecular network revealed perturbation strategies used by individual viruses and by viral classes. Our data are also valuable for the design of broad and specific antiviral therapies. PMID:22810585

Pichlmair, Andreas; Kandasamy, Kumaran; Alvisi, Gualtiero; Mulhern, Orla; Sacco, Roberto; Habjan, Matthias; Binder, Marco; Stefanovic, Adrijana; Eberle, Carol-Ann; Goncalves, Adriana; Bürckstümmer, Tilmann; Müller, André C; Fauster, Astrid; Holze, Cathleen; Lindsten, Kristina; Goodbourn, Stephen; Kochs, Georg; Weber, Friedemann; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Bowie, Andrew G; Bennett, Keiryn L; Colinge, Jacques; Superti-Furga, Giulio

2012-07-26

177

Strategies for Improving Influenza Immunization Rates among Hard-to-Reach Populations  

PubMed Central

Whereas considerable attention has been devoted to achieving high levels of influenza immunization, the importance of this issue is magnified by concern over pandemic influenza. Most recommendations for vaccine administration address high risk groups such as the elderly and those with chronic diseases, but coverage for hard-to-reach (HTR) populations has had less attention. HTR populations include minorities but also include other primarily urban groups such as undocumented immigrants, substance users, the homeless, and homebound elderly. Obstacles to the provision of immunization to HTR populations are present at the patient, provider, and structural levels. Strategies at the individual level for increasing immunization coverage include community-based educational campaigns to improve attitudes and increase motivation for receiving vaccine; at the provider level, education of providers to encourage immunizations, improving patient–provider interactions, broadening the provider base to include additional nurses and pharmacists, and adoption of standing orders for immunization administration; and at the structural level, promoting wider availability of and access to vaccine. The planning process for an influenza pandemic should include community engagement and extension of strategies beyond traditional providers to involve community-based organizations addressing HTR populations.

Coady, Micaela H.; Ompad, Danielle C.; Galea, Sandro

2007-01-01

178

Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS): a mid-term analysis of progress in 50 countries.  

PubMed

Within the overall framework set out in the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) for the period 2006-2015, over 70 countries had developed comprehensive Multi-Year Plans (cMYPs) by 2008, outlining their plans for implementing the GIVS strategies and for attaining the GIVS Goals at the midpoint in 2010 or earlier. These goals are to: (1) reach ?90% and ?80% vaccination coverage at national and district level, respectively; and (2) reduce measles-related mortality by 90% compared with the 2000 level. Fifty cMYPs were analysed along the four strategic areas of the GIVS: (1) protecting more people in a changing world; (2) introducing new vaccines and technologies; (3) integrating immunization, other health interventions and surveillance in the health system context; and (4) immunizing in the context of global interdependence. By 2010, all 50 countries planned to have introduced hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine, 48 the Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine and only a few countries had firm plans to introduce pneumococcal or rotavirus vaccines. Countries seem to be inadequately prepared in terms of cold-chain requirements to deal with the expected increases in storage that will be required for vaccines, and in making provisions to establish a corresponding surveillance system for planned new vaccine introductions. Immunization contacts are used to deliver other health interventions, especially in the countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Africa Region. The cost for the planned immunization activities will double to U$27 per infant, of which U$5 per infant is the expected shortfall. Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) funding is becoming the largest contributor to immunization programmes. PMID:22411879

Kamara, Lidija; Lydon, Patrick; Bilous, Julian; Vandelaer, Jos; Eggers, Rudi; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Meaney, William; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie

2012-03-12

179

A novel treatment strategy for ovarian cancer based on immunization against zona pellucida protein (ZP) 3.  

PubMed

We tested the principle of treating malignant ovarian tumors by vaccination against their ectopically expressed protein, zona pellucida glycoprotein (ZP) 3, using as the experimental model the granulosa cell tumors that develop in transgenic mice expressing the simian virus 40 T-antigen under the inhibin-? promoter (inh?/Tag). We found high ZP3 expression in granulosa cell tumors of the transgenic mice, in human surface ovarian cancer and granulosa cell lines, and in human granulosa cell tumors and their metastases. Early preventive immunization (between 2 and 5.5 mo of age) of transgenic mice with recombinant human (rh) ZP3 prevented ovarian tumorigenesis, and delayed therapeutic immunization (between 4.5 and 7 mo) reduced weights of existing tumors by 86 and 75%, respectively (P<0.001), compared to vehicle-treated control mice. No objective side effects of the immunizations were observed. Liver metastases were found in nontreated/vehicle-treated controls (n=7/39), but none following active rhZP3 immunizations (n=0/36; P<0.05). Immunization with rhZP3 was highly effective, as demonstrated by the induction of anti-ZP3 antibodies, as well as proliferative responses to the ZP3 antigen. These results signal rhZP3 immunization as a novel strategy to be developed for the immunotherapy of ovarian granulosa cell tumors, as well as for that of other malignancies that may express ZP3. PMID:21974931

Rahman, Nafis A; Bennink, Herjan J T Coelingh; Chrusciel, Marcin; Sharp, Victoria; Zimmerman, Yvette; Dina, Roberto; Li, Xiangdong; Ellonen, Antti; Rivero-Müller, Adolfo; Dilworth, Stephen; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Vainio, Olli; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

2011-10-05

180

Seasonality influences cuticle melanization and immune defense in a cricket: support for a temperature-dependent immune investment hypothesis in insects.  

PubMed

To improve thermoregulation in colder environments, insects are expected to darken their cuticles with melanin via the phenoloxidase cascade, a phenomenon predicted by the thermal melanin hypothesis. However, the phenoloxidase cascade also plays a significant role in insect immunity, leading to the additional hypothesis that the thermal environment indirectly shapes immune function via direct selection on cuticle color. Support for the latter hypothesis comes from the cricket Allonemobius socius, where cuticle darkness and immune-related phenoloxidase activity increase with latitude. However, thermal environments vary seasonally as well as geographically, suggesting that seasonal plasticity in immunity may also exist. Although seasonal fluctuations in vertebrate immune function are common (because of flux in breeding or resource abundance), seasonality in invertebrate immunity has not been widely explored. We addressed this possibility by rearing crickets in simulated summer and fall environments and assayed their cuticle color and immune function. Prior to estimating immunity, crickets were placed in a common environment to minimize metabolic rate differences. Individuals reared under fall-like conditions exhibited darker cuticles, greater phenoloxidase activity and greater resistance to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. These data support the hypothesis that changes in the thermal environment modify cuticle color, which indirectly shapes immune investment through pleiotropy. This hypothesis may represent a widespread mechanism governing immunity in numerous systems, considering that most insects operate in seasonally and geographically variable thermal environments. PMID:23868839

Fedorka, Kenneth M; Copeland, Emily K; Winterhalter, Wade E

2013-07-18

181

Lipid Body–Phagosome Interaction in Macrophages during Infectious Diseases: Host Defense or Pathogen Survival Strategy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phagocytosis of invading microorganisms by specialized cells such as macrophages and neutrophils is a key component of the innate immune response. These cells capture and engulf pathogens and subsequently destroy them in intracellular vacuoles—the phagosomes. Pathogen phagocytosis and progression and maturation of pathogen-containing phagosomes, a crucial event to acquire microbicidal features, occurs in parallel with accentuated formation of lipid-rich organelles,

Rossana C. N. Melo; Ann M. Dvorak

2012-01-01

182

Lipid Body-Phagosome Interaction in Macrophages during Infectious Diseases: Host Defense or Pathogen Survival Strategy?  

PubMed Central

Phagocytosis of invading microorganisms by specialized cells such as macrophages and neutrophils is a key component of the innate immune response. These cells capture and engulf pathogens and subsequently destroy them in intracellular vacuoles—the phagosomes. Pathogen phagocytosis and progression and maturation of pathogen-containing phagosomes, a crucial event to acquire microbicidal features, occurs in parallel with accentuated formation of lipid-rich organelles, termed lipid bodies (LBs), or lipid droplets. Experimental and clinical infections with different pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, and viruses induce LB accumulation in cells from the immune system. Within these cells, LBs synthesize and store inflammatory mediators and are considered structural markers of inflammation. In addition to LB accumulation, interaction of these organelles with pathogen-containing phagosomes has increasingly been recognized in response to infections and may have implications in the outcome or survival of the microorganism within host cells. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on the LB-phagosome interaction within cells from the immune system, with emphasis on macrophages, and discuss the functional meaning of this event during infectious diseases.

Melo, Rossana C. N.; Dvorak, Ann M.

2012-01-01

183

Three beetles—three concepts. Different defensive strategies of congeneric myrmecophilous beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myrmecophiles, i.e., organisms associated with ants live in a variety of ecological niches in the vicinity or inside ant colonies\\u000a and employ different strategies to survive ant encounters. Because different niches are characterized by different encounter\\u000a rates with host ants, strategies used to avoid ant aggressions should depend on these niches. This hypothesis was studied\\u000a with three rove beetle species

Michael Stoeffler; Till Tolasch; Johannes L. M. Steidle

2011-01-01

184

Promiscuous restriction is a cellular defense strategy that confers fitness advantage to bacteria.  

PubMed

Most bacterial genomes harbor restriction-modification systems, encoding a REase and its cognate MTase. On attack by a foreign DNA, the REase recognizes it as nonself and subjects it to restriction. Should REases be highly specific for targeting the invading foreign DNA? It is often considered to be the case. However, when bacteria harboring a promiscuous or high-fidelity variant of the REase were challenged with bacteriophages, fitness was maximal under conditions of catalytic promiscuity. We also delineate possible mechanisms by which the REase recognizes the chromosome as self at the noncanonical sites, thereby preventing lethal dsDNA breaks. This study provides a fundamental understanding of how bacteria exploit an existing defense system to gain fitness advantage during a host-parasite coevolutionary "arms race." PMID:22509013

Vasu, Kommireddy; Nagamalleswari, Easa; Nagaraja, Valakunja

2012-04-16

185

Research on Intelligent Simulation Model of Network Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the definition of intelligent models of network defense, which is composed by neural networks structure model of network defense, immunity parameters of network defense and antibody pruning defense tactic, immunity-based neural networks model of network defense is modeled and analyzed. The antibody pruning defense tactic is pointed out that the network element, whose antibody concentration is low than zero,

Yuan Tao; Yongheng Xia; Zengliang Liu

2008-01-01

186

Networking by small-molecule hormones in plant immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants live in complex environments in which they intimately interact with a broad range of microbial pathogens with different lifestyles and infection strategies. The evolutionary arms race between plants and their attackers provided plants with a highly sophisticated defense system that, like the animal innate immune system, recognizes pathogen molecules and responds by activating specific defenses that are directed against

Antonio Leon-Reyes; Sjoerd Van der Ent; Saskia C M Van Wees; Corné M J Pieterse

2009-01-01

187

Selective rejection of H-2-deficient lymphoma variants suggests alternative immune defence strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metazoan organisms may discriminate between self and non-self not only by the presence of foreign antigens but also by the absence of normal self markers1. Mammalian adaptive immune responses use the first strategy, with the additional requirement that foreign antigens are recognized in the context of self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) products at the cell surface2. Aberrant cells which fail to

Klas Kärre; Hans Gustaf Ljunggren; Gerald Piontek; Rolf Kiessling

1986-01-01

188

Invasion of mosquito salivary glands by malaria parasites: Prerequisites and defense strategies  

PubMed Central

The interplay between vector and pathogen is essential for vector-borne disease transmission. Dissecting the molecular basis of refractoriness of some vectors may pave the way to novel disease control mechanisms. A pathogen often needs to overcome several physical barriers, such as the peritrophic matrix, midgut epithelium and salivary glands. Additionally, the arthropod vector elicites immune responses that can severely limit transmission success. One important step in the transmission of most vector-borne diseases is the entry of the disease agent into the salivary glands of its arthropod vector. The salivary glands of blood-feeding arthropods produce a complex mixture of molecules that facilitate blood feeding by inhibition of the host haemostasis, inflammation and immune reactions. Pathogen entry into salivary glands is a receptor-mediated process, which requires molecules on the surface of the pathogen and salivary gland. In most cases, the nature of these molecules remains unknown. Recent advances in our understanding of malaria parasite entry into mosquito salivary glands strongly suggests that specific carbohydrate molecules on the salivary gland surface function as docking receptors for malaria parasites.

Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Kohlhepp, Florian; Hammerschmidt, Christiane; Michel, Kristin

2010-01-01

189

Increasing adolescent immunization rates in primary care: strategies physicians use and would consider implementing.  

PubMed

Strategies to increase adolescent immunization rates have been suggested, but little is documented about which strategies clinicians actually use or would consider. In spring 2010, we surveyed primary care physicians from 2 practice-based research networks (PBRNs): Greater Rochester PBRN (GR-PBRN) and national pediatric COntinuity Research NETwork (CORNET). Network clinicians received mailed or online surveys (response rate 76%, n=148). The GR-PBRN patient population (51% suburban, 33% rural, and 16% urban) differed from that served by CORNET (85% urban). For nonseasonal vaccines recommended for adolescents, many GR-PBRN and CORNET practices reported using nurse prompts to providers at preventive visits (61% and 52%, respectively), physician education (53% and 53%), and scheduled vaccine-only visits (91% and 82%). Strategies not used that clinicians frequently indicated they would consider included patient reminder/recall and prompts to providers via nurses or electronic health records. As preventive visits and immunization recommendations grow more complex, using technology to support immunization delivery to adolescents might be effective. PMID:23580625

Humiston, Sharon G; Serwint, Janet R; Szilagyi, Peter G; Vincelli, Phyllis A; Dhepyasuwan, Nui; Rand, Cynthia M; Schaffer, Stanley J; Blumkin, Aaron K; Curtis, C Robinette

2013-04-10

190

BMD Agents: An Agent-Based Framework to Model Ballistic Missile Defense Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a model-based methodology for comparative eval- uation of the effectiveness of alternative ballistic missle de- fense strategies. The major new feature is that BMD is mod- elled as a distributed system of interacting agents in which some agents are physical (such as sensors and launch systems) and some are rule-based (such as decision makers and threat- evaluators). In

Duminda Wijesekera; James Bret Michael; Anil Nerode

191

Balancing Terrorism and Natural Disasters - Defensive Strategy with Endogenous Attacker Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we apply game theory to identify equilibrium strategies for both attacker and defender in a fully endogenous model of resource allocation for countering terrorism and natural disasters. The key features of our model include balancing protection from terrorism and natural disasters, and describing the attacker choice by a continuous level of effort rather than a discrete choice

Jun Zhuang; Vicki M. Bier

2007-01-01

192

Defensive Strategies of Local Companies Against Foreign Multinationals: Evidence from Chilean Retailers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many retailers have been expanding into foreign markets, although not all such attempts at internationalization have been successful. This study examines the actions taken by Chilean retailers that negatively affected the operations of Home Depot, Carrefour and J.C. Penney in Chile. The results show that the strategies employed by local companies have consisted in: (1) becoming informed about the company's

Constanza C. Bianchi; Carolina Reyes

2005-01-01

193

Strategies to improve the functions and redox state of the immune system in aged subjects.  

PubMed

The aging process is accompanied by an impairment of the physiological systems including the immune system. This system is an excellent indicator of health. We have also observed that several functions of the immune cells are good markers of biological age and predictors of longevity. In agreement with the oxidation-inflammation theory that we have proposed, the chronic oxidative stress that appears with age affects all cells and especially those of the regulatory systems, such as the nervous, endocrine and immune systems and the communication between them. This fact prevents an adequate homeostasis and, therefore, the preservation of health. We have also proposed an involvement of the immune system in the aging process of the organism, concretely in the rate of aging, since there is a relation between the redox state and functional capacity of the immune cells and the longevity of individuals. A confirmation of the central role of the immune system in oxi-inflamm-aging is that several lifestyle strategies such as the administration of adequate amounts of antioxidants in the diet, physical exercise, physical and mental activity through environmental enrichment and hormetic interventions improve functions of immune cells, decreasing their oxidative stress, and consequently increasing the longevity of individuals. Recent results in mice of investigations on the effects of a new environmental enrichment (bathing in waters) as well as a hormetic intervention with slight infections (caused by injection of E.coli lipopolysaccharide, LPS), on several functions and redox parameters are shown. The advantages and possible problems of the use of those interventions to achieve a healthy aging and longevity are discussed. PMID:22188449

Fuente, Monica De la; Cruces, Julia; Hernandez, Oskarina; Ortega, Eduardo

2011-12-01

194

Long-Term Strategy for Management of Savannah River Site Defense High-Level Nuclear Waste: Revision 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) nearing completion at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is the lead installation in the US Department of Energy program for ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal of large quantities of defense hig...

M. D. Boersma W. R. McDonell C. B. Goodlett S. D. Thomas S. C. Slate

1989-01-01

195

Defensive reaper - Induction of mx and Apoptosis in mosquito midgut cells as an innate immune response to baculovirus infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many vertebrate and insect viruses posses anti-apoptotic genes that are required for their infectivity. This has led to the hypothesis that apoptosis is an innate immunoresponse important for limiting virus infections. The role of apoptosis may be especially important in insect anti-viral defense ...

196

Human NKG2D-ligands: cell biology strategies to ensure immune recognition  

PubMed Central

Immune recognition mediated by the activating receptor NKG2D plays an important role for the elimination of stressed cells, including tumors and virus-infected cells. On the other hand, the ligands for NKG2D can also be shed into the sera of cancer patients where they weaken the immune response by downmodulating the receptor on effector cells, mainly NK and T cells. Although both families of NKG2D-ligands, major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain (MIC) A/B and UL16 binding proteins (ULBPs), are related to MHC molecules and their expression is increased after stress, many differences are observed in terms of their biochemical properties and cell trafficking. In this paper, we summarize the variety of NKG2D-ligands and propose that selection pressure has driven evolution of diversity in their trafficking and shedding, but not receptor binding affinity. However, it is also possible to identify functional properties common to individual ULBP molecules and MICA/B alleles, but not generally conserved within the MIC or ULBP families. These characteristics likely represent examples of convergent evolution for efficient immune recognition, but are also attractive targets for pathogen immune evasion strategies. Categorization of NKG2D-ligands according to their biological features, rather than their genetic family, may help to achieve a better understanding of NKG2D-ligand association with disease.

Fernandez-Messina, Lola; Reyburn, Hugh T.; Vales-Gomez, Mar

2012-01-01

197

West European and East Asian perspectives on defense, deterrence, and strategy. Volume 5. Chinese perspectives on defense, deterrence, and strategy. Technical report, 1 December 1982-15 May 1984  

SciTech Connect

This study assesses Chinese defense and foreign policy perspectives, especially as they influence, and are influenced by, China's strategic approach to international issues. Special emphasis is placed on China's recent perspectives on the Soviet Union, Japan, and the United States, together with other major countries, as well as the Third World. China's views on international and regional security issues are assessed with reference both to Marxist and more-traditional Chinese influences, including the perspective of Mao's Three Worlds and the revisions that have been made in this view - which might now be called a unified front strategy at the global level. This study also identified the principal members of the strategic and foreign-policy elite in the PRC and examines their perspectives on such key issues as the U.S.-Soviet strategic equation and its implications for the military balance in the Asian-Pacific region; arms control and disarmament schemes (especially with respect to nuclear weapons); the credibility of the U.S. protective guarantee for allies in East Asia; trends in the regional nuclear power balance (including the question of nuclear proliferation in Asia); and the prospects for future Sino-American cooperation.

Pfaltzgraff, R.L.; Davis, J.K.; Dougherty, J.E.; Perry, C.M.

1984-05-15

198

National immunization strategy. A model for resolving jurisdictional disputes in public health.  

PubMed

Immunization is a public health area in which the intergovernmental challenges of formulating a national policy are evident. It is also an area in which harmonization of policy across Canada is particularly critical. The National Immunization Strategy was a F/P/T initiative designed to achieve this policy goal. The combination of national guidelines and flexible federal funding via a trust has, to date, been effective in improving equality of access to vaccines in provincial/territorial programmes with limited intergovernmental discord. The long-term success of the initiative will, however, largely depend on ongoing federal financial support and provincial/territorial views on national guidelines. This approach to immunization is a model that would lend itself well to other public health areas in which there is large variability in provincial/territorial programmes, where uniformity of programmes is particularly important and where there is a reluctance or inability of the federal government to legislatively mandate the harmonization of programmes. PMID:19009919

Keelan, Jennifer; Lazar, Harvey; Wilson, Kumanan

199

Exploiting the Interplay between Innate and Adaptive Immunity to Improve Immunotherapeutic Strategies for Epstein-Barr-Virus-Driven Disorders  

PubMed Central

The recent demonstration that immunotherapeutic approaches may be clinically effective for cancer patients has renewed the interest for this strategy of intervention. In particular, clinical trials using adoptive T-cell therapies disclosed encouraging results, particularly in the context of Epstein-Barr-virus- (EBV-) related tumors. Nevertheless, the rate of complete clinical responses is still limited, thus stimulating the development of more effective therapeutic protocols. Considering the relevance of innate immunity in controlling both infections and cancers, innovative immunotherapeutic approaches should take into account also this compartment to improve clinical efficacy. Evidence accumulated so far indicates that innate immunity effectors, particularly NK cells, can be exploited with therapeutic purposes and new targets have been recently identified. We herein review the complex interactions between EBV and innate immunity and summarize the therapeutic strategies involving both adaptive and innate immune system, in the light of a fruitful integration between these immunotherapeutic modalities for a better control of EBV-driven tumors.

Martorelli, Debora; Muraro, Elena; Merlo, Anna; Turrini, Riccardo; Fae, Damiana Antonia; Rosato, Antonio; Dolcetti, Riccardo

2012-01-01

200

Cutaneous Defense Mechanisms by Antimicrobial Peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The skin actively contributes to host defense by mounting an innate immune response that includes the production of antimicrobial peptides. These peptides, which include but are not limited to the cathelicidin and defensin gene families, provide rapid, broad-spectrum defense against infection by acting as natural antibiotics and by participating in host cell processes involved in immune defense. This review discusses

Marissa H. Braff; Antoanella Bardan; Victor Nizet; Richard L. Gallo

2005-01-01

201

Modulation of Human Immune Response by Echinococcus granulosus Antigen B and Its Possible Role in Evading Host Defenses  

PubMed Central

By directly suppressing the function of certain immune cell subsets and by stimulating other cell populations related to immunopathology, parasite-derived substances play an important role in the chronic establishment of parasitic disease. Our objective was twofold: (i) to investigate further the role of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B (AgB) in the human early inflammatory response by determining its effect on polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) random migration, chemotaxis, and oxidative metabolism and (ii) to determine its action in acquired immunity by evaluating AgB and sheep hydatid fluid (SHF)-driven Th1 (gamma interferon [IFN-?] and interleukin 12 [IL-12]) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-13) cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 40 patients who had cured or stable or progressive cystic echinococcosis. AgB significantly inhibited PMN recruitment but left their random migration and oxidative metabolism unchanged. Patients' PBMC stimulated with AgB produced IL-4 and IL-13 but did not produce IL-12. They also produced significantly lower IFN-? concentrations than did PBMC stimulated with SHF (P = 10?5). AgB skewed the Th1/Th2 cytokine ratios towards a preferentially immunopathology-associated Th2 polarization, predominantly in patients with progressive disease. AgB-stimulated patients' PBMC also proliferated less than SHF-stimulated PBMC (P = 9 × 10?3). In vitro Th2 cytokine production was reflected in vivo by elevated specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgG4 antibodies binding to AgB. These findings confirm that AgB plays a role in the escape from early immunity by inhibiting PMN chemotaxis. They also add new information on the host-parasite relationship, suggesting that AgB exploits the activation of T helper cells by eliciting a nonprotective Th2 cell response.

Rigano, R.; Profumo, E.; Bruschi, F.; Carulli, G.; Azzara, A.; Ioppolo, S.; Buttari, B.; Ortona, E.; Margutti, P.; Teggi, A.; Siracusano, A.

2001-01-01

202

Regulation of plant immunity to necrotrophic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined Arabidopsis resistance mechanisms to Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola, two necrotrophic fungal pathogens with overlapping pathogenesis strategies. B. cinerea is the causal agent of gray mold whereas A. brassicicola causes the black spot disease in cruciferous plants.^ In an effort to isolate regulators of plant defense, we used functional genomics approaches to identify genes involved in immune responses

Kristin A Laluk

2010-01-01

203

A comparison study of collaborative strategies for distributed defense against Internet worms based on small-world modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prosperity of the Internet has made it attractive to hackers and malicious attackers. Internet worms have become one type of major threats to the network infrastructure. Distributed defense collaborating with single-point-deployed security applications over multiple network domains are promising. However, most of the reported collaborative schemes for distributed defense are application-specific. There is not much research that studies the

Hao Chen; Yu Chen

2010-01-01

204

Plant defense syndromes.  

PubMed

Given that a plant's defensive strategy against herbivory is never likely to be a single trait, we develop the concept of plant defense syndromes, where association with specific ecological interactions can result in convergence on suites of covarying defensive traits. Defense syndromes can be studied within communities of diverse plant species as well as within clades of closely related species. In either case, theory predicts that plant defense traits can consistently covary across species, due to shared evolutionary ancestry or due to adaptive convergence. We examined potential defense syndromes in 24 species of milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) in a field experiment. Employing phylogenetically independent contrasts, we found few correlations between seven defensive traits, no bivariate trade-offs, and notable positive correlations between trichome density and latex production, and between C:N ratio and leaf toughness. We then used a hierarchical cluster analysis to produce a phenogram of defense trait similarity among the 24 species. This analysis revealed three distinct clusters of species. The defense syndromes of these species clusters are associated with either low nutritional quality or a balance of higher nutritional quality coupled with physical or chemical defenses. The phenogram based on defense traits was not congruent, however, with a molecular phylogeny of the group, suggesting convergence on defense syndromes. Finally, we examined the performance of monarch butterfly caterpillars on the 24 milkweed species in the field; monarch growth and survival did not differ on plants in the three syndromes, although multiple regression revealed that leaf trichomes and toughness significantly reduced caterpillar growth. The discovery of convergent plant defense syndromes can be used as a framework to ask questions about how abiotic environments, communities of herbivores, and biogeography are associated with particular defense strategies of plants. PMID:16922309

Agrawal, Anurag A; Fishbein, Mark

2006-07-01

205

Immunization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contents of this double journal issue concern immunization and primary health care of children. The issue decribes vaccine storage and sterilization techniques, giving particular emphasis to the role of the cold chain, i.e., the maintenance of a specific temperature range to assure potency of vaccines as they are moved from a national storage…

Guerin, Nicole; And Others

1986-01-01

206

A Novel Immune Evasion Strategy of Candida albicans: Proteolytic Cleavage of a Salivary Antimicrobial Peptide  

PubMed Central

Oropharyngeal candidiasis is an opportunistic infection considered to be a harbinger of AIDS. The etiologic agent Candida albicans is a fungal species commonly colonizing human mucosal surfaces. However, under conditions of immune dysfunction, colonizing C. albicans can become an opportunistic pathogen causing superficial or even life-threatening infections. The reasons behind this transition, however, are not clear. In the oral cavity, salivary antimicrobial peptides are considered to be an important part of the host innate defense system in the prevention of microbial colonization. Histatin-5 specifically has exhibited potent activity against C. albicans. Our previous studies have shown histatin-5 levels to be significantly reduced in the saliva of HIV+ individuals, indicating an important role for histatin-5 in keeping C. albicans in its commensal stage. The versatility in the pathogenic potential of C. albicans is the result of its ability to adapt through the regulation of virulence determinants, most notably of which are proteolytic enzymes (Saps), involved in tissue degradation. In this study, we show that C. albicans cells efficiently and rapidly degrade histatin-5, resulting in loss of its anti-candidal potency. In addition, we demonstrate that this cellular activity is due to proteolysis by a member of the secreted aspartic proteases (Sap) family involved in C. albicans pathogenesis. Specifically, the proteolysis was attributed to Sap9, in turn identifying histatin-5 as the first host-specific substrate for that isoenzyme. These findings demonstrate for the first time the ability of a specific C. albicans enzyme to degrade and deactivate a host antimicrobial peptide involved in the protection of the oral mucosa against C. albicans, thereby providing new insights into the factors directing the transition of C. albicans from commensal to pathogen, with important clinical implications for alternative therapy. This report characterizes the first defined mechanism behind the enhanced susceptibility of HIV+ individuals to oral candidiasis since the emergence of HIV.

Meiller, Timothy F.; Hube, Bernhard; Schild, Lydia; Shirtliff, Mark E.; Scheper, Mark A.; Winkler, Robert; Ton, Amy; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

2009-01-01

207

Human and Animal Isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica Show Significant Serotype-Specific Colonization and Host-Specific Immune Defense Properties.  

PubMed

Yersinia enterocolitica is a human pathogen that is ubiquitous in livestock, especially pigs. The bacteria are able to colonize the intestinal tract of a variety of mammalian hosts, but the severity of induced gut-associated diseases (yersiniosis) differs significantly between hosts. To gain more information about the individual virulence determinants that contribute to colonization and induction of immune responses in different hosts, we analyzed and compared the interactions of different human- and animal-derived isolates of serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8, and O:9 with murine, porcine, and human intestinal cells and macrophages. The examined strains exhibited significant serotype-specific cell binding and entry characteristics, but adhesion and uptake into different host cells were not host specific and were independent of the source of the isolate. In contrast, survival and replication within macrophages and the induced proinflammatory response differed between murine, porcine, and human macrophages, suggesting a host-specific immune response. In fact, similar levels of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) were secreted by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with all tested isolates, but the equivalent interleukin-8 (IL-8) response of porcine bone marrow-derived macrophages was strongly serotype specific and considerably lower in O:3 than in O:8 strains. In addition, all tested Y. enterocolitica strains caused a considerably higher level of secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by porcine than by murine macrophages. This could contribute to limiting the severity of the infection (in particular of serotype O:3 strains) in pigs, which are the primary reservoir of Y. enterocolitica strains pathogenic to humans. PMID:23959720

Schaake, Julia; Kronshage, Malte; Uliczka, Frank; Rohde, Manfred; Knuuti, Tobias; Strauch, Eckhard; Fruth, Angelika; Wos-Oxley, Melissa; Dersch, Petra

2013-08-19

208

Pneumonia immunization in older adults: review of vaccine effectiveness and strategies  

PubMed Central

Vaccination remains the primary preventive strategy in the elderly against Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza infections. The effectiveness of this strategy in preventing pneumonia has been in doubt despite the increase in vaccination coverage among older adults. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies aimed at determining clinical outcomes and immune response following pneumococcal vaccination have yielded conflicting results. The protective efficacy of pneumococcal vaccination against pneumonia in older adults has not been firmly established due to a lack of RCTs specifically examining patients ? 65 years of age. Similarly, the reported benefits of influenza vaccination have been derived from observational data. The assessment of clinical benefit from influenza vaccination in the elderly population is complicated by varying cohorts, virulence of the influenza strain, and matching of vaccine and circulating viral strains. The presence of selection bias and use of nonspecific end points in these studies make the current evidence inconclusive in terms of overall benefit. The development of more immunogenic vaccines through new formulations or addition of adjuvants holds the promise of revolutionizing delivery and improving efficacy. Dismantling existing barriers through education, providing technology assistance predominantly to developing countries, and establishing clear regulatory guidance on pathways for approval are necessary to ensure timely production and equitable distribution.

Assaad, Usama; El-Masri, Ibrahim; Porhomayon, Jahan; El-Solh, Ali A

2012-01-01

209

Unique IL-13R?2-based HIV-1 vaccine strategy to enhance mucosal immunity, CD8(+) T-cell avidity and protective immunity.  

PubMed

We have established that mucosal immunization can generate high-avidity human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific CD8(+) T cells compared with systemic immunization, and interleukin (IL)-13 is detrimental to the functional avidity of these T cells. We have now constructed two unique recombinant HIV-1 vaccines that co-express soluble or membrane-bound forms of the IL-13 receptor ?2 (IL-13R?2), which can "transiently" block IL-13 activity at the vaccination site causing wild-type animals to behave similar to an IL-13 KO animal. Following intranasal/intramuscular prime-boost immunization, these IL-13R?2-adjuvanted vaccines have shown to induce (i) enhanced HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells with higher functional avidity, with broader cytokine/chemokine profiles and greater protective immunity using a surrogate mucosal HIV-1 challenge, and also (ii) excellent multifunctional mucosal CD8(+) T-cell responses, in the lung, genito-rectal nodes (GN), and Peyer's patch (PP). Data revealed that intranasal delivery of these IL-13R?2-adjuvanted HIV vaccines recruited large numbers of unique antigen-presenting cell subsets to the lung mucosae, ultimately promoting the induction of high-avidity CD8(+) T cells. We believe our novel IL-13R cytokine trap vaccine strategy offers great promise for not only HIV-1, but also as a platform technology against range of chronic infections that require strong sustained high-avidity mucosal/systemic immunity for protection. PMID:23403475

Ranasinghe, C; Trivedi, S; Stambas, J; Jackson, R J

2013-02-13

210

Human HER-2/neu protein immunization circumvents tolerance to rat neu: a vaccine strategy for 'self' tumour antigens.  

PubMed Central

Many newly defined tumour antigens are 'self' proteins. Immunizing cancer patients against these antigens may be difficult due to tolerance. The HER-2/neu oncogenic protein is such a 'self' tumour antigen. Rat neu is homologous with human HER-2/neu and provides a model system for studying vaccination strategies. Rats are tolerant to rat neu. Vaccination with this 'self' protein elicits no detectable immune response. The current studies evaluated whether tolerance to rat neu can be circumvented by immunizing with the highly homologous foreign human HER-2/neu protein. Rats were immunized with human HER-2/neu intracellular domain (hICD) protein that is 92% homologous to rat neu ICD. Animals immunized with hICD developed significant antibody and T-cell responses that were specific for both human HER-2/neu and rat neu. Neu-specific antibodies were present in titres of greater than 1:200,000. Analysis of the specificity of the antibody response using synthetic peptides demonstrated substantial reactivity to an epitope with 100% homology between rat and human protein. Significant T-cell responses (stimulation index > 10) to hICD and rat neu protein (stimulation index > 4) were detected. The T cells also responded to both human and rat ICD. The results imply that immunization with foreign proteins, which are highly homologous to 'self' tumour antigens, may be an effective vaccine strategy for 'self' tumour antigens. Images Figure 2 Figure 3

Disis, M L; Shiota, F M; Cheever, M A

1998-01-01

211

Immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunisation against infectious agents can be achieved either passively, by administration of preformed antibodies, or actively, by the administration of vaccines that induce humoral and\\/or cell-mediated immune responses. Vaccines in use include live attenuated vaccines such as BCG and MMR, inactivated whole-cell vaccines such as hepatitis A, toxoids such as diphtheria, and subunit vaccines such as hepatitis B. Most vaccines

Richard Bellamy; Andrew Freedman

2005-01-01

212

The politics of Soviet strategic defense: Political strategies, organization politics, and Soviet strategic thought. (Volumes I and II)  

SciTech Connect

This study formulates three different unitary rational-actor models and an organizational model that can be used to explain Soviet policy in strategic defense from 1966-1980, then tests the models to determine which most successfully explains Soviet behavior. The only rational-actor model that can explain the Soviet force posture for air defense relies on demonstrably false assumptions. A well-formulated organizational model can explain these facts, as well as some organizational pathologies shown by the Soviet National Air Defense Forces. The findings suggest that military services, even when ostensibly closely directed by civilian and military superiors, often manage to pursue their own interests rather than the requirements of higher policy. Soviet civilian leaders generally had limited control over the formulation of military doctrine or over the force posture of Soviet military services, but arms control (especially the ABM Treaty) offered a policy handle which helped them to affect doctrine and force posture to a substantial degree.

Kaufman, S.J.

1991-01-01

213

Coping Strategies of Patients with Haemophilia as a Risk Group for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Brief Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Plans are described for a 2-year project whose major focus is the identification of ways in which patients with hemophilia and their families assimilate, interpret, and act on information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Findings will be related to perceived risk, anxiety levels, and the development of coping strategies.…

Naji, Simon; And Others

1986-01-01

214

Coping Strategies of Patients with Haemophilia as a Risk Group for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Brief Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plans are described for a 2-year project whose major focus is the identification of ways in which patients with hemophilia and their families assimilate, interpret, and act on information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Findings will be related to perceived risk, anxiety levels, and the development of coping strategies.…

Naji, Simon; And Others

1986-01-01

215

Tachylectin-2: crystal structure of a specific GlcNAc/GalNAc-binding lectin involved in the innate immunity host defense of the Japanese horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus.  

PubMed

Tachylectin-2, isolated from large granules of the hemocytes of the Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus), is a 236 amino acid protein belonging to the lectins. It binds specifically to N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine and is a part of the innate immunity host defense system of the horseshoe crab. The X-ray structure of tachylectin-2 was solved at 2.0 A resolution by the multiple isomorphous replacement method and this molecular model was employed to solve the X-ray structure of the complex with N-acetylglucosamine. Tachylectin-2 is the first protein displaying a five-bladed beta-propeller structure. Five four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets of W-like topology are arranged around a central water-filled tunnel, with the water molecules arranged as a pentagonal dodecahedron. Tachylectin-2 exhibits five virtually identical binding sites, one in each beta-sheet. The binding sites are located between adjacent beta-sheets and are made by a large loop between the outermost strands of the beta-sheets and the connecting segment from the previous beta-sheet. The high number of five binding sites within the single polypeptide chain strongly suggests the recognition of carbohydrate surface structures of pathogens with a fairly high ligand density. Thus, tachylectin-2 employs strict specificity for certain N-acetyl sugars as well as the surface ligand density for self/non-self recognition. PMID:10228146

Beisel, H G; Kawabata, S; Iwanaga, S; Huber, R; Bode, W

1999-05-01

216

Tachylectin-2: crystal structure of a specific GlcNAc/GalNAc-binding lectin involved in the innate immunity host defense of the Japanese horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus.  

PubMed Central

Tachylectin-2, isolated from large granules of the hemocytes of the Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus), is a 236 amino acid protein belonging to the lectins. It binds specifically to N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine and is a part of the innate immunity host defense system of the horseshoe crab. The X-ray structure of tachylectin-2 was solved at 2.0 A resolution by the multiple isomorphous replacement method and this molecular model was employed to solve the X-ray structure of the complex with N-acetylglucosamine. Tachylectin-2 is the first protein displaying a five-bladed beta-propeller structure. Five four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets of W-like topology are arranged around a central water-filled tunnel, with the water molecules arranged as a pentagonal dodecahedron. Tachylectin-2 exhibits five virtually identical binding sites, one in each beta-sheet. The binding sites are located between adjacent beta-sheets and are made by a large loop between the outermost strands of the beta-sheets and the connecting segment from the previous beta-sheet. The high number of five binding sites within the single polypeptide chain strongly suggests the recognition of carbohydrate surface structures of pathogens with a fairly high ligand density. Thus, tachylectin-2 employs strict specificity for certain N-acetyl sugars as well as the surface ligand density for self/non-self recognition.

Beisel, H G; Kawabata, S; Iwanaga, S; Huber, R; Bode, W

1999-01-01

217

Defense without aggression  

SciTech Connect

In introducing this group of articles on nonoffensive defense the author notes that the prospect of nuclear disarmament in Europe is boosting ideas, which have been around for a decade, from theory to politics. This special section of articles looks at an emerging theory that may reduce reliance on nuclear weapons by bringing stability to the conventional standoff in central Europe. The idea is to rearrange conventional forces so that they can defend but not attack. Under such monikers as nonoffensive defense (the main term used in these articles), nonprovocative defense, defensive defense, reasonable sufficiency, and mutual defensive superiority, these proposals suggest that nations can restructure weapons, personnel, and strategy to assure their own military security without posing a threat to other nations. 5 refs.

Harvey, H. (Rocky Mountain Institute, Snowmass, CO (USA))

1988-09-01

218

Influenza Virus: Immunity and Vaccination Strategies. Comparison of the Immune Response to Inactivated and Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza virus is a globally important respiratory pathogen which causes a high degree of morbidity and mortality annually. The virus is continuously under- going antigenic change and thus bypasses the host's acquired immunity to influenza. Despite the improvement in antiviral therapy during the last decade, vaccination is still the most effective method of prophylaxis. Vaccination induces a good degree of

R. J. Cox; K. A. Brokstad; P. Ogra

2004-01-01

219

New immune systems: pathogen-specific host defence, life history strategies and hypervariable immune-response genes of invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of invertebrate immune systems is undergoing a paradigm shift. Until recently, the host defence responses of invertebrates were thought to rely on limited molecular diversity that could not tailor reactions toward specific microbes. This view is now being challenged. Highly discriminatory defence responses, and hypervariable gene systems with the potential to drive them, have been identified in a

L Bowden; NM Dheilly; DA Raftos; SV Nair

2007-01-01

220

Quiescent Innate Response to Infective Filariae by Human Langerhans Cells Suggests a Strategy of Immune Evasion  

PubMed Central

Filarial infection is initiated by mosquito-derived third-stage larvae (L3) deposited on the skin that transit through the epidermis, which contains Langerhans cells (LC) and keratinocytes (KC), among other cells. This earliest interaction between L3 and the LC likely conditions the priming of the immune system to the parasite. To determine the nature of this interaction, human LC (langerin+ E-cadherin+ CD1a+) were generated in vitro and exposed to live L3. LC exposed to live L3 for 48 h showed no alterations in the cell surface markers CD14, CD86, CD83, CD207, E-cadherin, CD80, CD40, and HLA-DR or in mRNA expression of inflammation-associated genes, such as those for interleukin 18 (IL-18), IL-18BP, and caspase 1. In contrast to L3, live tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, induced production of CXCL9, IP-10, and IL-6 in LC. Furthermore, preexposure of LC to L3 did not alter Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)- or TLR4-mediated expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1?, gamma interferon (IFN-?), IL-6, or IL-10. Interestingly, cocultures of KC and LC produced significantly more IL-18, IL-1?, and IL-8 than did cultures of LC alone, although exposure of the cocultures to live L3 did not result in altered cytokine production. Microarray examination of ex vivo LC from skin blisters that were exposed to live L3 also showed few significant changes in gene expression compared with unexposed blisters, further underscoring the relatively muted response of LC to L3. Our data suggest that failure by LC to initiate an inflammatory response to the invasive stage of filarial parasites may be a strategy for immune evasion by the filarial parasite.

Boyd, Alexis; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Wang, Yuanyuan; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Law, Melissa; Chaussabel, Damien; Nutman, Thomas B.

2013-01-01

221

Assessment of Turkish Defense Industry and Turkey's Efforts to Transfer Military Technology: Strategies for Arming the Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The end of the cold war has created a safer environment for most nations and reduced the need for fielding huge armed forces and vast investments for defense. However, due to her very special strategic position and historical responsibilities, Turkey stil...

A. M. Agdemir H. Kurtoglu

2001-01-01

222

Dendritic cells as initiators of tumor immune responses: a possible strategy for tumor immunotherapy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since all T-cell-mediated immune responses require antigen presentation, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) may be of central importance for the generation and regulation of tumor immunity. This article describes approaches used to induce tumor immunity via modulation of the presentation of tumor antigen, either by tumor-antigen-exposed dendritic cells or by tumor cells engineered to act as APCs.

Stephan Grabbe; Stefan Beissert; Thomas Schwarz; Richard D. Granstein

1995-01-01

223

The cell wall in plant cell response to trace metals: polysaccharide remodeling and its role in defense strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review paper is focused predominantly on the role of the cell wall in the defense response of plants to trace metals.\\u000a It is generally known that this compartment accumulates toxic divalent and trivalent metal cations both during their uptake\\u000a by the cell from the environment and at the final stage of their sequestration from the protoplast. However, from results

Magdalena Krzes?owska

2011-01-01

224

West European and East Asian perspectives on defense, deterrence, and strategy. Volume 6. South Korean perspectives on defense, deterrence, and strategy. Technical report, 1 December 1981-30 November 1982  

SciTech Connect

This study addresses the international security perspectives of the Republic of Korea (South Korea). Particular emphasis is placed on the way in which American, Soviet, Chinese and Japanese interests intersect on the Korean Peninsula and on their impact upon the military balance between North and South Korea. A major portion of this analysis is devoted as well to an examination of inter-Korean relations, spotlighting the varying security implications of the continued partition, as opposed to the eventual reunification of the two Koreas. The importance to South Korea of the Seoul-Washington-Tokyo relationship is discussed, as well as the effect of the Sino-Soviet dispute on South Korean defense and foreign policies. In order to clarify further the strategic perspectives of key decision makers in Seoul, the study reviewed and assessed South Korean views on such controversial issues as the expansion of Japan's self-defense forces, the withdrawal of the U.S. ground troops from the Korean peninsula, Sino-Soviet moves toward rapprochement, and the proliferation of nuclear weapons in Northeast Asia.

Pfaltzgraff, R.L.; Dougherty, J.E.; Davis, J.K.; Perry, C.M.

1984-04-11

225

A model-based design of a vaccination strategy against rubella in a non-immunized community of S?o Paulo State, Brazil.  

PubMed Central

A mixed vaccination strategy against rubella is proposed. We describe how the vaccination strategy was designed with the help of mathematical techniques. The strategy was designed for application in a non-immunized community of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and was implemented by local health authorities in 1992. This strategy comprises a pulse vaccination campaign, covering the age interval between 1 and 10 years, followed by the introduction of the vaccine in the immunization calendar at 15 months of age. The expected impact of the proposed strategy is discussed.

Massad, E.; Burattini, M. N.; de Azevedo Neto, R. S.; Yang, H. M.; Coutinho, F. A.; Zanetta, D. M.

1994-01-01

226

Brucella abortus Uses a Stealthy Strategy to Avoid Activation of the Innate Immune System during the Onset of Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo unravel the strategy by which Brucella abortus establishes chronic infections, we explored its early interaction with innate immunity.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsBrucella did not induce proinflammatory responses as demonstrated by the absence of leukocyte recruitment, humoral or cellular blood changes in mice. Brucella hampered neutrophil (PMN) function and PMN depletion did not influence the course of infection. Brucella barely induced proinflammatory cytokines

Elías Barquero-Calvo; Esteban Chaves-Olarte; David S. Weiss; Caterina Guzmán-Verri; Carlos Chacón-Díaz; Alexandra Rucavado; Ignacio Moriyón; Edgardo Moreno; David Ojcius

2007-01-01

227

Allergic Host Defenses  

PubMed Central

Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments.

Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.

2012-01-01

228

1985-1986 American defense annual  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains the following chapters: Perspectivfes; U.S. defense strategy: A debate; The Defense budget; Strategic forces; Theater forces: U.S. Defense policy in NATO: Seapower and projection forces; Manpower; Organization and management; Arms control; The Strategic Defense Initiative; and Low-intensity conflict, the strategic challenge.

G. E. Hudson; J. Kruzel

1985-01-01

229

Child Immunization Status among a Sample of Adolescent Mothers: Comparing the Validity of Measurement Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of adolescent mothers sought to identify whether a single general question asked by phone or a detailed, vaccine-specific question asked in a self-report questionnaire best captured infant immunization status at 6 months postpartum, by comparing them with immunization record books. Responses to a global question about whether infants…

Phillips, Clarissa; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Knight, Margaret; Francis, Judith; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mazerbo, Laurie

2011-01-01

230

Differential Release and Phagocytosis of Tegument Glycoconjugates in Neurocysticercosis: Implications for Immune Evasion Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS) by the metacestode of the helminth Taenia solium. The severity of the symptoms is associated with the intensity of the immune response. First, there is a long asymptomatic period where host immunity seems incapable of resolving the infection, followed by a chronic hypersensitivity reaction. Since little is known about

Jorge I. Alvarez; Jennifer Rivera; Judy M. Teale

2008-01-01

231

Child Immunization Status among a Sample of Adolescent Mothers: Comparing the Validity of Measurement Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study of adolescent mothers sought to identify whether a single general question asked by phone or a detailed, vaccine-specific question asked in a self-report questionnaire best captured infant immunization status at 6 months postpartum, by comparing them with immunization record books. Responses to a global question about whether infants…

Phillips, Clarissa; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Knight, Margaret; Francis, Judith; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mazerbo, Laurie

2011-01-01

232

Deterrence and the impact of strategic defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of strategic defense in a deterrence strategy. Deterrence theory, strategic defense, the 1972 ABM Treaty, the national military strategy and Global Protection Against Limited Strikes are reviewed. It is asserted that the roles of nuclear forces and strategic defense are complimentary and stabilizing. The options to counter the threat of future proliferation of weapons of

Lunghofer

1992-01-01

233

Immunity in Fish  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fish immune system has evolved with both non-specific (innate immunity) and acquired immune functions (humoral and cell mediated immunity) to eliminate invading foreign living and non-living agents. Fish possess a unique physical barrier (mucus and skin) that acts as the first line of defense a...

234

Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum. Part 1: Organ-specific distribution of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids.  

PubMed

A combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and modern HPLC column technology, assisted by diode array detection, was used for accurate characterization of water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in the pistils, stamens, petals, sepals, stems, leaves, roots and seeds of Geranium sylvaticum. The organs contained a large variety of polyphenols, five types of tannins (ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, gallotannins, galloyl glucoses and galloyl quinic acids) as well as flavonoids and simple phenolic acids. In all, 59 compounds were identified. Geraniin and other ellagitannins dominated in all the green photosynthetic organs. The other organs seem to produce distinctive polyphenol groups: pistils accumulated gallotannins; petals acetylglucose derivatives of galloylglucoses; stamens kaempferol glycosides, and seeds and roots accumulated proanthocyanidins. The intra-plant distribution of the different polyphenol groups may reflect the different functions and importance of various types of tannins as the defensive chemicals against herbivory. PMID:23790750

Tuominen, Anu; Toivonen, Eija; Mutikainen, Pia; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

2013-06-19

235

Immunization strategy against cervical cancer involving an alphavirus vector expressing high levels of a stable fusion protein of human papillomavirus 16 E6 and E7  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing immunization strategies against cervical carcinoma and premalignant disease, based on the use of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) encoding the oncoproteins E6 and E7 from high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV). Thus far, protein-based, as well as genetic immunization studies have demonstrated low to moderate cellular immune responses against E6 and E7. To improve these responses, we modified

T Daemen; J Regts; M Holtrop; J Wilschut

2002-01-01

236

Brokering a Difficult Marriage: Substantive Defenses under Rule 60(b)(4) Relief from Default Judgments in Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act Proceedings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Note argues that U.S. courts should allow foreign states to raise substantive defenses when using Rule 60(b)(4) to challenge the courts' jurisdiction to enter a default judg- ment. Part I of this Note analyzes the FSIA and relief from judgment under Rule 60(b). Part II analyzes the conflicting views on whether to consider substantive defenses in deter- mining subject

A. John Sutham

1990-01-01

237

Estimating the costs of achieving the WHO-UNICEF Global Immunization Vision and Strategy, 2006-2015  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To estimate the cost of scaling up childhood immunization services required to reach the WHO–UNICEF Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) goal of reducing mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases by two-thirds by 2015. Methods A model was developed to estimate the total cost of reaching GIVS goals by 2015 in 117 low- and lower-middle-income countries. Current spending was estimated by analysing data from country planning documents, and scale-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up, ingredients-based approach. Financial costs were estimated by country and year for reaching 90% coverage with all existing vaccines; introducing a discrete set of new vaccines (rotavirus, conjugate pneumococcal, conjugate meningococcal A and Japanese encephalitis); and conducting immunization campaigns to protect at-risk populations against polio, tetanus, measles, yellow fever and meningococcal meningitis. Findings The 72 poorest countries of the world spent US$ 2.5 (range: US$ 1.8–4.2) billion on immunization in 2005, an increase from US$ 1.1 (range: US$ 0.9–1.6) billion in 2000. By 2015 annual immunization costs will on average increase to about US$ 4.0 (range US$ 2.9–6.7) billion. Total immunization costs for 2006–2015 are estimated at US$ 35 (range US$ 13–40) billion; of this, US$ 16.2 billion are incremental costs, comprised of US$ 5.6 billion for system scale-up and US$ 8.7 billion for vaccines; US$ 19.3 billion is required to maintain immunization programmes at 2005 levels. In all 117 low- and lower-middle-income countries, total costs for 2006–2015 are estimated at US$ 76 (range: US$ 23–110) billion, with US$ 49 billion for maintaining current systems and $27 billion for scaling-up. Conclusion In the 72 poorest countries, US$ 11–15 billion (30%–40%) of the overall resource needs are unmet if the GIVS goals are to be reached. The methods developed in this paper are approximate estimates with limitations, but provide a roadmap of financing gaps that need to be filled to scale up immunization by 2015.

Gasse, Francois; Lee-Martin, Shook-Pui; Lydon, Patrick; Magan, Ahmed; Tibouti, Abdelmajid; Johns, Benjamin; Hutubessy, Raymond; Salama, Peter; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie

2008-01-01

238

Immune defence, parasite evasion strategies and their relevance for 'macroscopic phenomena' such as virulence  

PubMed Central

The discussion of host–parasite interactions, and of parasite virulence more specifically, has so far, with a few exceptions, not focused much attention on the accumulating evidence that immune evasion by parasites is not only almost universal but also often linked to pathogenesis, i.e. the appearance of virulence. Now, the immune evasion hypothesis offers a deeper insight into the evolution of virulence than previous hypotheses. Sensitivity analysis for parasite fitness and life-history theory shows promise to generate a more general evolutionary theory of virulence by including a major element, immune evasion to prevent parasite clearance from the host. Also, the study of dose–response relationships and multiple infections should be particularly illuminating to understand the evolution of virulence. Taking into account immune evasion brings immunological processes to the core of understanding the evolution of parasite virulence and for a range of related issues such as dose, host specificity or immunopathology. The aim of this review is to highlight the mechanism underlying immune evasion and to discuss possible consequences for the evolutionary ecology analysis of host–parasite interactions.

Schmid-Hempel, Paul

2008-01-01

239

Intranasal Immunization Strategy To Impede Pilin-Mediated Binding of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Airway Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Prevention of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections represents a critical unmet medical need for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We have examined the tenet that a mucosal immunization approach can reduce interactions of a piliated form of this opportunistic pathogen with respiratory epithelial cells. Vaccinations were performed using ntPEpilinPAK, a protein chimera composed of a nontoxic form of P. aeruginosa exotoxin A (ntPE), where the C-terminal loop amino acid sequence of the PAK strain pilin protein was inserted in place of the ntPE Ib domain. Intranasal (i.n.) immunization of BALB/c mice with ntPEpilinPAK generated both serum and saliva immune responses. A series of in vitro studies showed that diluted samples of saliva obtained from immunized mice reduced pilin-dependent P. aeruginosa binding to polarized human tracheal epithelial cells, protected human pulmonary epithelial cells from cytotoxic actions associated with bacterial challenge, and reduced exotoxin A toxicity. Overall, i.n. administration of ntPEpilinPAK induced mucosal and systemic immune responses that may be beneficial for blocking early stage adhesion and/or infection events of epithelial cell-P. aeruginosa interactions at oropharyngeal surfaces.

Hsieh, Jennifer C.; Tham, Doris M.; Feng, Weijun; Huang, Fan; Embaie, Selamawit; Liu, Keyi; Dean, Deborah; Hertle, Ralf; FitzGerald, David J.; Mrsny, Randall J.

2005-01-01

240

Does the devil facial tumour produce immunosuppressive cytokines as an immune evasion strategy?  

PubMed

A unique transmissible cancer known as the Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) is threatening the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) with extinction. This disease is highly unusual as it is one of only two naturally occurring contagious cancers. The tumour is transmitted by biting and is able to spread between genetically diverse hosts. Why the tumours are not recognised as foreign and rejected by the host immune system in unknown. One mechanism that allows human cancers to avoid immune suppression is by producing cytokines which down-regulate the hosts immune system. Four key cytokines involved in this process are TGF?1, VEGF-A, IL-10 and IL-6. In this study we investigated whether these cytokines could be involved in immune avoidance in DFTD. To do this we compared expression of these cytokines in tumour and control tissues using qPCR. We found no significant upregulation of any of these cytokines in tumour tissue. We therefore conclude that these cytokines do not play a role in the spread of DFTD. Further work will be needed to elucidate how DFTD cells avoid immune rejection. PMID:23465357

Morris, Katrina; Belov, Katherine

2013-02-13

241

Analysis of Alternatives for Reducing Outpatient Military Health Care Costs for Active Duty Members and their Families: Implementing a Recommended Savings Strategy Using Defense Acquisition Principles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rising health care costs are placing a considerable burden on Government and Department of Defense resources. At the current rate, health care costs will likely impact the overall readiness and future force structure of the Department of Defense. In effor...

J. W. Rupert R. Jaime

2007-01-01

242

Brucella abortus Uses a Stealthy Strategy to Avoid Activation of the Innate Immune System during the Onset of Infection  

PubMed Central

Background To unravel the strategy by which Brucella abortus establishes chronic infections, we explored its early interaction with innate immunity. Methodology/Principal Findings Brucella did not induce proinflammatory responses as demonstrated by the absence of leukocyte recruitment, humoral or cellular blood changes in mice. Brucella hampered neutrophil (PMN) function and PMN depletion did not influence the course of infection. Brucella barely induced proinflammatory cytokines and consumed complement, and was strongly resistant to bactericidal peptides, PMN extracts and serum. Brucella LPS (BrLPS), NH-polysaccharides, cyclic glucans, outer membrane fragments or disrupted bacterial cells displayed low biological activity in mice and cells. The lack of proinflammatory responses was not due to conspicuous inhibitory mechanisms mediated by the invading Brucella or its products. When activated 24 h post-infection macrophages did not kill Brucella, indicating that the replication niche was not fusiogenic with lysosomes. Brucella intracellular replication did not interrupt the cell cycle or caused cytotoxicity in WT, TLR4 and TLR2 knockout cells. TNF-?-induction was TLR4- and TLR2-dependent for live but not for killed B. abortus. However, intracellular replication in TLR4, TLR2 and TLR4/2 knockout cells was not altered and the infection course and anti-Brucella immunity development upon BrLPS injection was unaffected in TLR4 mutant mice. Conclusion/Significance We propose that Brucella has developed a stealth strategy through PAMPs reduction, modification and hiding, ensuring by this manner low stimulatory activity and toxicity for cells. This strategy allows Brucella to reach its replication niche before activation of antimicrobial mechanisms by adaptive immunity. This model is consistent with clinical profiles observed in humans and natural hosts at the onset of infection and could be valid for those intracellular pathogens phylogenetically related to Brucella that also cause long lasting infections.

Barquero-Calvo, Elias; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Weiss, David S.; Guzman-Verri, Caterina; Chacon-Diaz, Carlos; Rucavado, Alexandra; Moriyon, Ignacio; Moreno, Edgardo

2007-01-01

243

77 FR 3237 - Defense Science Board; Notice of Advisory Committee Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...mission of the Defense Science Board is...Secretary of Defense and the Under...Acquisition, Technology & Logistics...Department of Defense. At this...also discuss plans for future...specific strategies, tactics...Defense Science Board,...

2012-01-23

244

77 FR 26747 - Defense Science Board; Notice of Advisory Committee Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...mission of the Defense Science Board is...Secretary of Defense and the Under...Acquisition, Technology & Logistics...Department of Defense. At this...also discuss plans for future...specific strategies, tactics...Defense Science Board,...

2012-05-07

245

Assessment of Different Strategies to Determine MAP-specific Cellular Immune Responses in Cattle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Assessment of cellular immunity in cattle against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) by established methods remains unsatisfactory for diagnostic purposes. Recent studies conclude that analysis of T-cell subset responsiveness may improve diagnostic outcome. Aim of this study was to iden...

246

How not to be seen: immune-evasion strategies in gene therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of efficient and safe vectors for gene delivery paved the way for evolution of gene therapy as a new modality for treatment of various inherited disorders and for cancer. The current vectors, viral and non-viral, have their limitations. Innate and adaptive immune responses to vector particles and components may restrict the efficiency of gene transfer and the persistence

A Zaldumbide; R C Hoeben

2008-01-01

247

Possible new anti-ageing strategies related to neuroendocrine-immune interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ageing process demonstrates gradual and spontaneous changes, resulting in maturation through childhood, puberty, and young adulthood and then decline through middle and late age. However, animals and humans are capable of reaching the extreme limit of life span characteristic for the species with a very efficient network of anti-ageing mechanisms. Among them, neuroendocrine-immune interactions play a pivotal role. The

Eugenio Mocchegiani; Rainer H. Straub

2005-01-01

248

Modulating T-cell immunity to tumours: new strategies for monitoring T-cell responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in immunological monitoring provide the means to analyse the cellular immune response with greater sensitivity and precision than ever before. Novel immunological tools can be used not only to quantify the antigen-specific response, but also to analyse the phenotype and function of individual effector cells. Application of these tools to dissect the antitumour responses will lead to a greater

Philip Greenberg; Cassian Yee

2002-01-01

249

Evasion of innate immunity by Mycobacterium tuberculosis: is death an exit strategy?  

PubMed Central

Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits apoptosis and triggers necrosis of host macrophages to evade innate immunity and delay the initiation of adaptive immunity. By contrast, attenuated M. tuberculosis induces macrophage apoptosis, an innate defence mechanism that reduces bacterial viability. In this Opinion article, we describe how virulent M. tuberculosis blocks production of the eicosanoid lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 production by infected macrophages prevents mitochondrial damage and initiates plasma membrane repair, two processes that are crucial for preventing necrosis and inducing apoptosis. Thus, M. tuberculosis-mediated modulation of eicosanoid production determines the death modality of the infected macrophage, which in turn has a substantial impact on the outcome of infection.

Behar, Samuel M.; Divangahi, Maziar; Remold, Heinz G.

2011-01-01

250

HvWRKY10, HvWRKY19, and HvWRKY28 positively regulate Mla-triggered immunity and basal defense to barley powdery mildew  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

WRKY proteins represent a large family of transcription factors (TFs), involved in plant development and defense responses. So far, fifty-five unique barley TFs have been annotated that contain the WRKY domain; twenty-six of these are present on the Barley1 GeneChip. We analyzed time-course expres...

251

Immunodulation and Helminths: Towards New Strategies for Treatment of Immune-Mediated Diseases?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Parasitic helminths, and other persistent pathogens are able to produce molecules modulating the host immune response; hookworm\\u000a for example produce the so-called neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF), a protein which is the ligand of the integrin CD11b\\/CD18\\u000a present on the surface of neutrophil granulocytes, blocking the adherence of inflammatory cells to the endothelium. The cDNA\\u000a for this protein derived from Ancylostoma

Fabrizio Bruschi; Lorena Chiumiento; Gianfranco Del Prete

252

The evolution and genetics of innate immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune system provides protection from a wide range of pathogens. One component of immunity, the phylogenetically ancient innate immune response, fights infections from the moment of first contact and is the fundamental defensive weapon of multicellular organisms. The Toll family of receptors has a crucial role in immune defence. Studies in fruitflies and in mammals reveal that the defensive

Deborah A. Kimbrell; Bruce Beutler

2001-01-01

253

Invertebrate immune diversity.  

PubMed

The arms race between hosts and pathogens (and other non-self) drives the molecular diversification of immune response genes in the host. Over long periods of evolutionary time, many different defense strategies have been employed by a wide variety of invertebrates. We review here penaeidins and crustins in crustaceans, the allorecognition system encoded by fuhc, fester and Uncle fester in a colonial tunicate, Dscam and PGRPs in arthropods, FREPs in snails, VCBPs in protochordates, and the Sp185/333 system in the purple sea urchin. Comparisons among immune systems, including those reviewed here have not identified an immune specific regulatory "genetic toolkit", however, repeatedly identified sequences (or "building materials" on which the tools act) are present in a broad range of immune systems. These include a Toll/TLR system, a primitive complement system, an LPS binding protein, and a RAG core/Transib element. Repeatedly identified domains and motifs that function in immune proteins include NACHT, LRR, Ig, death, TIR, lectin domains, and a thioester motif. In addition, there are repeatedly identified mechanisms (or "construction methods") that generate sequence diversity in genes with immune function. These include genomic instability, duplications and/or deletions of sequences and the generation of clusters of similar genes or exons that appear as families, gene recombination, gene conversion, retrotransposition, alternative splicing, multiple alleles for single copy genes, and RNA editing. These commonly employed "materials and methods" for building and maintaining an effective immune system that might have been part of that ancestral system appear now as a fragmented and likely incomplete set, likely due to the rapid evolutionary change (or loss) of host genes that are under pressure to keep pace with pathogen diversity. PMID:21182860

Ghosh, Julie; Lun, Cheng Man; Majeske, Audrey J; Sacchi, Sandro; Schrankel, Catherine S; Smith, L Courtney

2010-12-21

254

A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Part II: immunization of adults.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and its consequences, including cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. In adults, ongoing HBV transmission occurs primarily among unvaccinated persons with behavioral risks for HBV transmission (e.g., heterosexuals with multiple sex partners, injection-drug users [IDUs], and men who have sex with men [MSM]) and among household contacts and sex partners of persons with chronic HBV infection. This report, the second of a two-part statement from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), provides updated recommendations to increase hepatitis B vaccination of adults at risk for HBV infection. The first part of the ACIP statement, which provided recommendations for immunization of infants, children, and adolescents, was published previously (CDC. A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices [ACIP]. Part 1: immunization of infants, children, and adolescents. MMWR 2005;54[No. RR-16]:1-33). In settings in which a high proportion of adults have risks for HBV infection (e.g., sexually transmitted disease/human immunodeficiency virus testing and treatment facilities, drug-abuse treatment and prevention settings, health-care settings targeting services to IDUs, health-care settings targeting services to MSM, and correctional facilities), ACIP recommends universal hepatitis B vaccination for all unvaccinated adults. In other primary care and specialty medical settings in which adults at risk for HBV infection receive care, health-care providers should inform all patients about the health benefits of vaccination, including risks for HBV infection and persons for whom vaccination is recommended, and vaccinate adults who report risks for HBV infection and any adults requesting protection from HBV infection. To promote vaccination in all settings, health-care providers should implement standing orders to identify adults recommended for hepatitis B vaccination and administer vaccination as part of routine clinical services, not require acknowledgment of an HBV infection risk factor for adults to receive vaccine, and use available reimbursement mechanisms to remove financial barriers to hepatitis B vaccination. PMID:17159833

Mast, Eric E; Weinbaum, Cindy M; Fiore, Anthony E; Alter, Miriam J; Bell, Beth P; Finelli, Lyn; Rodewald, Lance E; Douglas, John M; Janssen, Robert S; Ward, John W

2006-12-01

255

The human cationic host defense peptide LL37 mediates contrasting effects on apoptotic pathways in different primary cells of the innate immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human cathelicidin LL-37 is a cat- ionic host defense peptide (antimicrobial peptide) expressed primarily by neutrophils and epithelial cells. This peptide, up-regulated under conditions of inflammation, has immunomodulatory and anti- microbial functions. We demonstrate that LL-37 is a potent inhibitor of human neutrophil apoptosis, signaling through P2X7 receptors and G-protein- coupled receptors other than the formyl peptide receptor-like-1 molecule.

Peter G. Barlow; Yuexin Li; Thomas S. Wilkinson; Dawn M. E. Bowdish; Y. Elaine Lau; Celine Cosseau; Christopher Haslett; A. John Simpson; Robert E. W. Hancock; Donald J. Davidson

2006-01-01

256

Survival Strategy of Obligately Intracellular Ehrlichia chaffeensis: Novel Modulation of Immune Response and Host Cell Cycles  

PubMed Central

Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium which resides in an early endosome in monocytes. E. chaffeensis infection in a human monocyte cell line (THP1) significantly altered the transcriptional levels of 4.5% of host genes, including those coding for apoptosis inhibitors, proteins regulating cell differentiation, signal transduction, proinflammatory cytokines, biosynthetic and metabolic proteins, and membrane trafficking proteins. The transcriptional profile of the host cell revealed key themes in the pathogenesis of Ehrlichia. First, E. chaffeensis avoided stimulation of or repressed the transcription of cytokines involved in the early innate immune response and cell-mediated immune response to intracellular microbes, such as the interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-15, and IL-18 genes, which might make Ehrlichia a stealth organism for the macrophage. Second, E. chaffeensis up-regulated NF-?B and apoptosis inhibitors and differentially regulated cell cyclins and CDK expression, which may enhance host cell survival. Third, E. chaffeensis also inhibited the gene transcription of RAB5A, SNAP23, and STX16, which are involved in membrane trafficking. By comparing the transcriptional response of macrophages infected with other bacteria and that of macrophages infected with E. chaffeensis, we have identified few genes that are commonly induced and no commonly repressed genes. These results illustrate the stereotyped macrophage response to other pathogens, in contrast with the novel host response to obligate intracellular Ehrlichia, whose survival depends entirely on a long evolutionary process of outmaneuvering macrophages.

Zhang, Jian-zhi; Sinha, Mala; Luxon, Bruce A.; Yu, Xue-jie

2004-01-01

257

Is cell-mediated immunity related to the evolution of life-history strategies in birds?  

PubMed

According to life-history theory, the development of immune function should be balanced through evolutionary optimization of the allocation of resources to reproduction and through mechanisms that promote survival. We investigated interspecific variability in cell-mediated immune response (CMI), as measured by the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) assay, in relation to clutch size, longevity and other life-history traits in 50 species of birds. CMI exhibited significant repeatability within species, and PHA responses in chicks were consistently stronger than in adults. Univariate tests showed a variety of significant relationships between the CMI of both chicks and adults with respect to size, development period and lifespan, but not clutch size or prevalence of blood parasites in adults. Multivariate analyses confirmed these patterns but independent variables were too highly correlated to isolate unique influences on CMI. The positive relationship of chick CMI to nestling period is further complicated by a parallel relationship of chick CMI to the age at testing. However, multivariate analysis showed that chick CMI varies uniquely with length of the nestling period. Adult CMI was associated with a strong life-history axis of body size, development rate and longevity. Therefore, adult CMI may be associated with prevention and repair mechanisms related to long lifespan, but it also may be allometrically related to body size through other pathways. Neither chick CMI nor adult CMI was related to clutch size, contradicting previous results linking parasite-related mortality to CMI and the evolution of clutch size (reproductive investment) in birds. PMID:12028764

Tella, José L; Scheuerlein, Alex; Ricklefs, Robert E

2002-05-22

258

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Volume 54, Number RR-16, December 23, 2005. A Comprehensive Immunization Strategy to Eliminate Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Part 1: Immunization of Infants, Children, and Adolescents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the first of a two-part statement from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) that updates the strategy to eliminate hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in the United States. The report provides updated recommendations to ...

2005-01-01

259

Immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease: from anti-?-amyloid to tau-based immunization strategies.  

PubMed

The exact mechanisms leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD) are largely unknown, limiting the identification of effective disease-modifying therapies. The two principal neuropathological hallmarks of AD are extracellular ?-amyloid (A?), peptide deposition (senile plaques) and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles containing hyperphosphorylated tau protein. During the last decade, most of the efforts of the pharmaceutical industry were directed against the production and accumulation of A?. The most innovative of the pharmacological approaches was the stimulation of A? clearance from the brain of AD patients via the administration of A? antigens (active vaccination) or anti-A? antibodies (passive vaccination). Several active and passive anti-A? vaccines are under clinical investigation. Unfortunately, the first active vaccine (AN1792, consisting of preaggregate A? and an immune adjuvant, QS-21) was abandoned because it caused meningoencephalitis in approximately 6% of treated patients. Anti-A? monoclonal antibodies (bapineuzumab and solanezumab) are now being developed. The clinical results of the initial studies with bapineuzumab were equivocal in terms of cognitive benefit. The occurrence of vasogenic edema after bapineuzumab, and more rarely brain microhemorrhages (especially in Apo E ?4 carriers), has raised concerns on the safety of these antibodies directed against the N-terminus of the A? peptide. Solanezumab, a humanized anti-A? monoclonal antibody directed against the midregion of the A? peptide, was shown to neutralize soluble A? species. Phase II studies showed a good safety profile of solanezumab, while studies on cerebrospinal and plasma biomarkers documented good signals of pharmacodynamic activity. Although some studies suggested that active immunization may be effective against tau in animal models of AD, very few studies regarding passive immunization against tau protein are currently available. The results of the large, ongoing Phase III trials with bapineuzumab and solanezumab will tell us if monoclonal anti-A? antibodies may slow down the rate of deterioration of AD. Based on the new diagnostic criteria of AD and on recent major failures of anti-A? drugs in mild-to-moderate AD patients, one could argue that clinical trials on potential disease-modifying drugs, including immunological approaches, should be performed in the early stages of AD. PMID:22339463

Panza, Francesco; Frisardi, Vincenza; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Imbimbo, Bruno P; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Santamato, Andrea; Greco, Antonio; Seripa, Davide; Pilotto, Alberto

2012-02-01

260

Rituximab-based novel strategies for the treatment of immune-mediated glomerular diseases.  

PubMed

Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody to the CD20 antigen on B-cells that was initially designed and approved for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma in 1997. In the last 15years, it has emerged as a potent immunosuppressant for many immune-mediated diseases, beginning initially with rheumatoid arthritis, and now extending into several other fields, including clinical nephrology. Based on recent large clinical trials, it is FDA-approved for the treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitis and continues to be studied in off-label usage for many glomerular diseases, including membranous nephropathy, lupus nephritis, and mixed cryoglobulinemia. It has been used as a treatment in nephrotic syndrome in children and adults, including both minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Given its efficacy, tolerability and safety profile in comparison to more conventional treatment regimens, RTX is rapidly emerging as a critical treatment modality in glomerular disease. PMID:23000633

Kattah, Andrea G; Fervenza, Fernando C; Roccatello, Dario

2012-09-19

261

An improved ant colony algorithm with diversified solutions based on the immune strategy  

PubMed Central

Background Ant colony algorithm has emerged recently as a new meta-heuristic method, which is inspired from the behaviours of real ants for solving NP-hard problems. However, the classical ant colony algorithm also has its defects of stagnation and premature. This paper aims at remedying these problems. Results In this paper, we propose an adaptive ant colony algorithm that simulates the behaviour of biological immune system. The solutions of the problem are much more diversified than traditional ant colony algorithms. Conclusion The proposed method for improving the performance of traditional ant colony algorithm takes into account the polarization of the colonies, and adaptively adjusts the distribution of the solutions obtained by the ants. This makes the solutions more diverse so as to avoid the stagnation and premature phenomena.

Qin, Ling; Pan, Yi; Chen, Ling; Chen, Yixin

2006-01-01

262

Modulating the tumor immune microenvironment as an ovarian cancer treatment strategy  

PubMed Central

After more than 30 years of iterations of surgical debulking plus chemotherapy, the need for complementary ovarian cancer treatments has become clear. In the ovarian cancer microenvironment, myeloid immunosuppressive leukocytes, lymphocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells, as well as their secreted products, surface molecules and paracrine survival factors, all provide opportunities for novel interventions. The potential of targeting microenvironmental elements in ovarian cancer patients is underscored by recently successful anti-angiogenic therapies. The compartmentalized nature of ovarian cancer, its immunogenicity and its accessibility make it an ideal disease for targeting non-tumor host cells. This review discusses the ‘state-of-the-art’ of the field, with an emphasis on the potential of modulating the activity of abundant microenvironmental immune cells, which govern both angiogenesis and immunosuppression.

Scarlett, Uciane K.; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

2013-01-01

263

In vivo bioluminescence imaging and histopathopathologic analysis reveal distinct roles for resident and recruited immune effector cells in defense against invasive aspergillosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a major cause of infectious morbidity and mortality in immune compromised patients. Studies on the pathogenesis of IA have been limited by the difficulty to monitor disease progression in real-time. For real-time monitoring of the infection, we recently engineered a bioluminescent A. fumigatus strain. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate that bioluminescence imaging can track

Oumaïma Ibrahim-Granet; Grégory Jouvion; Tobias M. Hohl; Sabrina Droin-Bergère; François Philippart; Oh Yoen. Kim; Minou Adib-Conquy; Reto Schwendener; Jean-Marc Cavaillon; Matthias Brock

2010-01-01

264

Deterrence and the Impact of Strategic Defense.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the role of strategic defense in a deterrence strategy. Deterrence theory, strategic defence, the 1972 ABM Treaty, the national military strategy and Global Protection Against Limited Strikes are reviewed. It is asserted that the roles...

D. M. Lunghofer

1992-01-01

265

The distribution of the phenolic metabolites barbaloin, aloeresin and aloenin as a peripheral defense strategy in the succulent leaf parts of Aloe arborescens.  

PubMed

Aloe arborescens is a large, multi-stemmed shrub. It is used as hedge plants to protect agricultural fields or stock and as horticultural plants in gardens. In natural habitats it is one of the very common Aloe species along the Indian Ocean coast of southern Africa, from the Cape, in the south, to Zimbabwe and Malawi in the north. Secondary phenolic metabolites such as barbaloin (Rf 0.31-0.35), aloeresin (Rf 0.25-0.3) and aloenin (Rf 0.51-0.55) have been found to be distributed in the succulent leaves of Aloe arborescens in a peripheral defense strategy. The youngest leaves have the highest content. The terminal third of each leaf has the highest content and the basal third, the lowest. Along the leaf margins, on the top third and adaxial side, the content is the highest and in the base third, the lowest along the leaf center on the abaxial side. Similar relative amounts of these three secondary phenolic metabolites were found in the different leaf locations. The leaf orientation may affect the total content of these three phenols but not their relative amounts in the different parts of the leaves. It is possible that the more often the plant parts are damaged by consumption by animals such as elephants, kudu or insects, the greater the increase of their phenolic metabolites. This increase may reduce or prevent further consumption when the content of the metabolites reaches a certain level. The plants then have a chance to renew themselves. PMID:10913844

Gutterman; Chauser-Volfson

2000-11-01

266

Japanese Encephalitis Virus Activates Autophagy as a Viral Immune Evasion Strategy  

PubMed Central

In addition to manipulating cellular homeostasis and survivability, autophagy also plays a crucial role in numerous viral infections. In this study, we discover that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection results in the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) protein and GFP-LC3 puncta in vitro and an increase in autophagosomes/autolysosomes in vivo. The fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes is essential for virus replication. Knockdown of autophagy-related genes reduced JEV replication in vitro, as indicated by viral RNA and protein levels. We also note that JEV infection in autophagy-impaired cells displayed active caspases cleavage and cell death. Moreover, we find that JEV induces higher type I interferon (IFN) activation in cells deficient in autophagy-related genes as the cells exhibited increased phosphorylation and dimerization of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) aggregation. Finally, we find that autophagy is indispensable for efficient JEV replication even in an IFN-defective background. Overall, our studies provide the first description of the mechanism of the autophagic innate immune signaling pathway during JEV infection.

Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wandi; Cao, Shengbo; Chen, Rui; Jin, Hui; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shaobo; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Gengfu

2013-01-01

267

Quantal and graded stimulation of B lymphocytes as alternative strategies for regulating adaptive immune responses  

PubMed Central

Lymphocytes undergo a typical response pattern following stimulation in vivo: they proliferate, differentiate to effector cells, cease dividing and predominantly die, leaving a small proportion of long-lived memory and effector cells. This pattern results from cell-intrinsic processes following activation and the influence of external regulation. Here we apply quantitative methods to study B-cell responses in vitro. Our results reveal that B cells stimulated through two Toll-like receptors (TLRs) require minimal external direction to undergo the basic pattern typical of immunity. Altering the stimulus strength regulates the outcome in a quantal manner by varying the number of cells that participate in the response. In contrast, the T-cell-dependent CD40 activation signal induces a response where division times and differentiation rates vary in relation to stimulus strength. These studies offer insight into how the adaptive antibody response may have evolved from simple autonomous response patterns to the highly regulable state that is now observed in mammals.

Hawkins, E.D.; Turner, M.L.; Wellard, C.J.; Zhou, J.H.S.; Dowling, M.R.; Hodgkin, P.D.

2013-01-01

268

The genome of obligately intracellular Ehrlichia canis revealsthemes of complex membrane structure and immune evasion strategies  

SciTech Connect

Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, a-proteobacterium is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, and 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of non-coding sequence (27 percent). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences, and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O-glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly G:C tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified including a small group of proteins (12) with tandem repeats and another with eukaryotic-like ankyrin domains (7).

Mavromatis, K.; Kuyler Doyle, C.; Lykidis, A.; Ivanova, N.; Francino, P.; Chain, P.; Shin, M.; Malfatti, S.; Larimer, F.; Copeland,A.; Detter, J.C.; Land, M.; Richardson, P.M.; Yu, X.J.; Walker, D.H.; McBride, J.W.; Kyrpides, N.C.

2005-09-01

269

New checkpoints in stomatal defense.  

PubMed

Recent reports have revealed new guard cell signaling elements that function in stomatal defense in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). We discuss here the role of oxylipins, salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA) in stomatal immunity in response to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. PMID:23582764

Montillet, Jean-Luc; Hirt, Heribert

2013-04-11

270

Host defense, viruses and apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To thwart viral infection, the host has developed a formidable and integrated defense network that comprises our innate and adaptive immune response. In recent years, it has become clear that in an attempt to prevent viral replication, viral dissemination or persistent viral infection of the cell, many of these protective measures actually involve the induction of programmed cell death, or

G N Barber

2001-01-01

271

Note on Defensive Marketing Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many interesting aspects of the case on the Brita Products Company. Two of these issues are highlighted at the end of the case. First, Brita learns that a retailer, Target Stores, has installed a display which compares alternative filtration products on their ability to remove contaminants from wa- ter. Brita does poorly on this comparison relative to PUR.

John R. Hauser

272

Defense Science and Technology Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the Cold War, the United States faced a single overarching threat that dominated every aspect of military force planning and strategic thinking. During this era we relied upon technologically superior systems to offset the Soviet Bloc's numerically...

1997-01-01

273

Innate Immunity in the Lungs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innate immunity is a primordial system that has a primary role in lung antimicrobial defenses. Recent advances in understanding the recognition systems by which cells of the innate immune system recognize and respond to microbial products have revolutionized the understanding of host defenses in the lungs and other tissues. Theinnateimmunesystemincludeslungleukocytesandalsoepithe- lial cells lining the alveolar surface and the conducting airways.

Thomas R. Martin; Charles W. Frevert

2005-01-01

274

Impact of timing strategy of LIGHT, a new TNF superfamily on immune platform induced by HSV-1 gB DNA vaccine.  

PubMed

Although the role of various cytokines on stimulating the immune responses is characterized well, the importance of LIGHT, a member of TNF superfamily, is less clear. In the current study, we administrated LIGHT expression plasmid as an adjuvant to HSV-1 gB DNA vaccine. HSV-1 gB DNA can elicit vigorous humoral and cell mediated immunity in BALB/c mice. LIGHT could potentiate the proliferation of T lymphocytes and induction of T CD8(+) cells performing by measuring Granzyme B, a specific marker of CMI immunity and virus neutralization antibody titer. In this study, timing effect of cytokine administration on the resultant immune pattern was evaluated in three different timing groups. The group received LIGHT 3 days before DNA vaccine, demonstrated significant increase in cell mediated immunity. So, utilization of an adjuvant to DNA vaccine can significantly influences the induced immune response consequently and this phenomenon could be important to obtain the optimal response in DNA vaccine strategy. Given the growing use of plasmid-based immune adjuvants to improve the immunogenicity and efficacy of DNA vaccines, these findings support the need for further detailed study of this class of agent. PMID:20097089

Pouyanfard, Somayeh; Bamdad, Taravat; Parsania, Masoud; Hashemi, Hamidreza; Mohammadi, Masumeh Gorgian

2010-01-22

275

76 FR 6766 - Meeting of the Defense Science Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...mission of the Defense Science Board is...Secretary of Defense and the Under...Acquisition, Technology & Logistics...also discuss plans for future...specific strategies, tactics...national defense posture and...these Defense Science Board Quarterly...Acquisition, Technology and...

2011-02-08

276

76 FR 21705 - Closed Meeting of the Defense Science Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...mission of the Defense Science Board is...Secretary of Defense and the Under...Acquisition, Technology & Logistics...also discuss plans for future...specific strategies, tactics...national defense posture and...these Defense Science Board Quarterly...Acquisition, Technology and...

2011-04-18

277

75 FR 64711 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Science Board  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...mission of the Defense Science Board is...Secretary of Defense and the Under...Acquisition, Technology & Logistics...also discuss plans for future...specific strategies, tactics...national defense posture and...the Defense Science Board Quarterly...Acquisition, Technology and...

2010-10-20

278

Analysis of Strategy and Strategies of Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph explores new ideas for analyzing national defense strategy, building on concepts that enjoy credence in the defense world while borrowing other concepts from the business world. It is the companion of a longer analytical report on the same ...

D. Long D. C. Gompert P. K. Davis S. E. Johnson

2008-01-01

279

The Quadrennial Defense Review: May 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On May 19, 1997, as mandated by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1996, US Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen presented the Quadrennial Defense Review to Congress. This site contains the May 19 Defense Department news release and briefing (along with slides), the text of the report, and the legislation mandating it. The report is composed of ten sections ranging from "The Global Security Environment" to "Force Readiness" to "Achieving a 21st Century Defense Infrastructure." However, its thrust can be ascertained from a single statement by the Secretary: "The strategy devised through the QDR can be summed up in three words: shape, respond, and prepare."

Cohen, William S.

1998-01-01

280

Missile Defenses and Mother Russia: Scarecrow or Showstopper?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missile defenses will neither derail the post-Cold War political relationship between the US and Russia nor repeal the existence of mutual deterrence as between their respective nuclear arsenals. Because politics rules strategy and strategy must pay homage to the realities of physics, missile defenses will emerge into arsenals gradually, if at all. Whether missile defenses exacerbate political tensions, or can

Stephen J. Cimbala

2007-01-01

281

Disruption of sphingolipid biosynthetic gene IPT1 reduces Candida albicans adhesion and prevents activation of human gingival epithelial cell innate immune defense.  

PubMed

We demonstrated the effect of a Candida albicans sphingolipid biosynthetic gene, IPT1, on the interaction between gingival epithelial and Candida cells using monolayer cultures and engineered human oral mucosa tissue (EHOM). Disrupting the IPT1 gene greatly reduced Candida adhesion to gingival epithelial cells, compared to the wild-type and revertant strains. The yeasts adhesion to epithelial cells may activate toll-like receptors (TLRs). Cell response against Candida infection was thus investigated by evaluating TLR expression and antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production. The wild-type and revertant strains both activated TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and TLR9 gene expression in the epithelial cells, whereas the ?ipt1 mutant Candida strain had no effect on this expression. This finding was supported by an increased AMP expression (human ?-defensin HBD-2 and HBD-3) in the EHOM tissue infected with the wild-type and revertant Candida strains, and a decreased expression in the ?ipt1 mutant-infected model. HBD protein secretion confirmed the absence of any effect by the ?ipt1 on epithelial cell innate defense. This is the first study to demonstrate that a disruption of the IPT1 gene affects Candida-host interaction, thus preventing TLR activation and ?-defensin expression. PMID:21091155

Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Lattif, Ali Abdul; Curt, Sèverine; Chandra, Jyotsna; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

2010-11-22

282

Soviet strategic defense programs  

SciTech Connect

Contents include: the Soviet approach; defensive forces; ballistic missile defense; advanced technologies for defense against ballistic missiles; laser weapons, particle beam weapons, radio frequency weapons, kinetic-energy weapons, computer and sensor technology, antisatellite developments; air defense; passive defenses; Soviet statements on the US Strategic Defense Initiative; annex: offensive forces.

Not Available

1985-10-01

283

Immunity and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

1990-01-01

284

Immunity and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

1990-01-01

285

Applicability of Unmanned Aerial Systems to Homeland Defense Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Battlefield success of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) prompted Department of Defense and Department of Homeland Security leaders to examine their possible applicability to homeland defense missions within the National Strategy for Homeland Security. The Na...

J. C. DeVane

2006-01-01

286

THE FEMINIST SELF-DEFENSE MOVEMENT:A Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses feminist self-defense as a victim-prevention strategy, describes the nature and scope of the self-defense movement, examines a case history of a women's self-defense organization, and analyzes the mobilization and organizational dilemmas that confronted that organization. We compare self-defense services with victim services to help explain the development of the women's self-defense movement, and in particular, its feminist

PATRICIA SEARLES; RONALD J. BERGER

1987-01-01

287

Immunogenic characterization and protection against Streptococcus mutans infection induced by intranasal DNA prime–protein boost immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal immune responses act as the first line of defense against dental caries. In this study, an optimal vaccination strategy was developed to enhance anti-caries mucosal immune responses. Mice and rats were vaccinated intranasally firstly with plasmid pCIA-P encoding PAc antigen of Streptococcus mutans and then with rPAc, or with pCIA-P for twice, or with rPAc protein for twice, respectively.

Yu Hong Li; ShengFu Huang; MinQuan Du; Zhuan Bian; Zhi Chen; Ming Wen Fan

2010-01-01

288

West European and East Asian perspectives on defense, deterrence, and strategy. Volume 1. Main report. Technical report, 1 December 1982-15 May 1984  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a summary, analysis and categorization of the perspectives of defense elites in Western Europe, together with an examination of such perspective in the People's Republic of China, with special emphasis on nuclear capabilities and directly related security issues. In Europe, attention is focused on Great Britain, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium, The Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. As a distinctive feature of this report, four schools of strategic thought have been developed for each of the European countries under study. Based upon a comprehensive assessment of the defense views held by strategic theoreticians, prominent government policymakers, political party leaders, and others active in the defense debates of Western Europe, these schools of thought provide a unique tool for identifying and evaluating key issues and spokesmen in the West European security debate of the 1980s. The overall objective of this study is to identify and assess the continuities and discontinuities of security perspectives among West European countries (especially concerning NATO's nuclear weapons options) and, on the basis of this analysis, to examine the prospects for maintaining, or strengthening, the consensus upon which European security is based. In its assessment of Chinese security perspectives, this report focuses on the evaluation of the PRC's strategic approach to international affairs and on the effects of recent personnel and organizational changes in the Chinese hierarchy on the PRC's foreign and defense policies.

Pfaltzgraff, R.L.; Davis, J.K.; Dougherty, J.E.; Perry, C.M.

1984-05-16

289

Inhalation of PM2.5 does not modulate host defense or immune parameters in blood or lung of normal human subjects.  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that exposure of healthy volunteers to concentrated ambient air particles (CAPS) between 0.1 and 2.5 microm in diameter is associated with modulation of human alveolar macrophage (AM) function, cytokine production, and immune phenotype in both blood and lung. Thirty-eight volunteers were exposed to either filtered air or CAPS from the immediate environment of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency human studies facility in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. Particle concentrations in the chamber during the exposures ranged from 23.1 to 311.1 microg/m3. No symptoms were noted by volunteers after the exposure. Eighteen hours after exposure, analysis of cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) showed a mild increase in neutrophils in both the bronchial (8.4 +/- 2%) and alveolar fractions (4.2 +/- 1.7%) in subjects exposed to the highest concentration of CAPS compared to neutrophils in the fluids of those exposed to filtered air (bronchial fraction 2.7 +/- 0.6%; alveolar fraction 0.8 +/- 0.3%). There was no change in the percentage of lymphocytes or AMs recovered in the lavage after inhalation of the highest particle levels (mean 207 microg/m3). There was also no change in the proportion of lymphocytes in the BAL expressing CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, nor activation markers CD25 or CD69. Particle inhalation did not affect the expression of CD11b, CD64, CD16, CD14, CD71 on AM, nor was there an effect on phagocytosis or oxidant generation following stimulation with zymosan A. IL-6 and IL-8 levels detected by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay in the BAL were unrelated to inhaled particle levels. The distribution of lymphocyte subsets in blood obtained 18 hr after exposure to CAPS did not differ from that found before exposure. We conclude that ambient air particles are capable of inducing a mild inflammation in the lower respiratory tract but have no effect on immune phenotype or macrophage function under the conditions tested.

Harder, S D; Soukup, J M; Ghio, A J; Devlin, R B; Becker, S

2001-01-01

290

Mimicking microbial 'education' of the immune system: a strategy to revert the epidemic trend of atopy and allergic asthma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficient microbial stimulation of the immune system, caused by hygiene, may underly the atopy and allergic asthma epidemic\\u000a we are currently experiencing. Consistent with this 'hygiene hypothesis', research on immunotherapy of allergic diseases also\\u000a centres on bacteria-derived molecules (eg DNA immunostimulatory sequences) as adjuvants for allergen-specific type 1 immune\\u000a responses. If we understood how certain microbes physiologically 'educate' our immune

Paolo Maria Matricardi; Sergio Bonini

2000-01-01

291

Immune System: Can Your Immune System Still Defend You As You Age?  

MedlinePLUS

... system. Innate immunity is our first line of defense. It is made up of barriers and certain ... barriers, they encounter a second line of innate defense, composed of specialized cells that alert the body ...

292

A rapid and efficient strategy to generate antigen-specific human monoclonal antibody by in vitro immunization and the phage display method.  

PubMed

An in vitro immunization (IVI) protocol was developed for inducing antigen-specific immune responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). After antigen sensitization of PBMCs by IVI, B cells producing antigen-specific antibody can be propagated within a week. Here, we attempted to establish a rapid, efficient strategy to obtain antigen-specific antibody by the phage display method using in vitro immunized PBMCs. Heavy and light chain variable region genes were easily amplified from these PBMCs immunized with mite extract (ME). After generating a combinatorial phage library (1.6 x 10(5) members), 4 antigen-specific clones were selected by 5 panning rounds using biotinylated antigen and streptavidin magnetic beads. Next, we combined variable region genes of these selected clones with human IgG constant region genes and produced human IgG-type antibody. Direct and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays demonstrated that the mAb 1C11 clone bound specifically to ME. We thus established a rapid, efficient method to obtain antigen-specific human antibody genes and produce human monoclonal IgG antibody using the phage antibody library generated from in vitro immunized PBMCs. PMID:18242634

Matsumoto, Shin-ei; Yamashita, Makiko; Katakura, Yoshinori; Aiba, Yoshihiro; Tomimatsu, Kosuke; Kabayama, Shigeru; Teruya, Kiichiro; Shirahata, Sanetaka

2008-01-07

293

75 FR 14578 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Science Board; Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology & Logistics...Department of Defense. FOR FURTHER...Defense Science Board, 3140...also discuss plans for future...specific strategies, tactics...national defense posture and...these Defense Science Board Quarterly...Acquisition, Technology and...

2010-03-26

294

Discrete Markov ballistic missile defense system modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expected value is a common and useful baseline used to compare different multi-layered missile defense strategies or fire doctrines (number of interceptors fired at one target). However, expected value by itself does not render enough information to the military or national security researchers regarding the probability distribution of the effectiveness of the entire missile defense system. The objective of this

Jau-yeu Menq; Pan-chio Tuan; Ta-sheng Liu

2007-01-01

295

Tsetse immune responses and trypanosome transmission: Implications for the development of tsetse-based strategies to reduce trypanosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Tsetse flies are the medically and agriculturally important vectors of African trypanosomes. Information on the molecular and biochemical nature of the tsetse/trypanosome interaction is lacking. Here we describe three antimicrobial peptide genes, attacin, defensin, and diptericin, from tsetse fat body tissue obtained by subtractive cloning after immune stimulation with Escherichia coli and trypanosomes. Differential regulation of these genes shows the tsetse immune system can discriminate not only between molecular signals specific for bacteria and trypanosome infections but also between different life stages of trypanosomes. The presence of trypanosomes either in the hemolymph or in the gut early in the infection process does not induce transcription of attacin and defensin significantly. After parasite establishment in the gut, however, both antimicrobial genes are expressed at high levels in the fat body, apparently not affecting the viability of parasites in the midgut. Unlike other insect immune systems, the antimicrobial peptide gene diptericin is constitutively expressed in both fat body and gut tissue of normal and immune stimulated flies, possibly reflecting tsetse immune responses to the multiple Gram-negative symbionts it naturally harbors. When flies were immune stimulated with bacteria before receiving a trypanosome containing bloodmeal, their ability to establish infections was severely blocked, indicating that up-regulation of some immune responsive genes early in infection can act to block parasite transmission. The results are discussed in relation to transgenic approaches proposed for modulating vector competence in tsetse.

Hao, Zhengrong; Kasumba, Irene; Lehane, Michael J.; Gibson, Wendy C.; Kwon, Johnny; Aksoy, Serap

2001-01-01

296

Aging and Immune Function: Molecular Mechanisms to Interventions  

PubMed Central

Abstract The immune system of an organism is an essential component of the defense mechanism aimed at combating pathogenic stress. Age-associated immune dysfunction, also dubbed “immune senescence,” manifests as increased susceptibility to infections, increased onset and progression of autoimmune diseases, and onset of neoplasia. Over the years, extensive research has generated consensus in terms of the phenotypic and functional defects within the immune system in various organisms, including humans. Indeed, age-associated alterations such as thymic involution, T cell repertoire skewing, decreased ability to activate naïve T cells and to generate robust memory responses, have been shown to have a causative role in immune decline. Further, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of proteotoxic stress, DNA damage response, modulation of ubiquitin proteasome pathway, and regulation of transcription factor NF?B activation, in immune decline, have paved the way to delineating signaling pathways that cross-talk and impact immune senescence. Given the role of the immune system in combating infections, its effectiveness with age may well be a marker of health and a predictor of longevity. It is therefore believed that a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune senescence will lead to an effective interventional strategy aimed at improving the health span of individuals. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1551–1585.

Ponnappan, Subramaniam

2011-01-01

297

Defense Budget Primer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a primer for those who wish to familiarize themselves with the defense budget process. The report defines basic defense budget- related terms, describes the structure of the defense budget, briefly reviews the budgeting process within the D...

M. T. Tyszkiewicz S. Daggett

1998-01-01

298

Defense and the Economy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Institute for Defense Analyses prepared this paper for the Defense Conversion Commission to provide an assessment of the economic effects of the defense budget drawdown. Using economic simulation models, we estimate the potential long-run economic ben...

D. R. Graham A. J. Tai B. A. Bicksler

1993-01-01

299

Elements of Defense Transformation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is intended to provide an understanding of the key elements of defense transformation. To that end, this brochure seeks to answer some fundamental questions about defense transformation. What is defense transformation and what is its scope. ...

2004-01-01

300

Economic Darwinism in the Defense Industry: An Analysis of Corporate Responses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis identifies and assesses the corporate strategies adopted by the top defense companies as a result of the new defense spending environment. The model used throughout the thesis stipulates four corporate strategies: expansion, diversification. g...

T. R. Peck

1993-01-01

301

Bacterial feeding induces changes in immune-related gene expression and has trans-generational impacts in the cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Poly- and oligophagous insects are able to feed on various host plants with a wide range of defense strategies. However, diverse food plants are also inhabited by microbiota differing in quality and quantity, posing a potential challenge for immune system mediated homeostasis in the herbivore. Recent studies highlight the complex interactions between environmentally encountered microorganisms and herbivorous insects, pointing

Dalial Freitak; David G Heckel; Heiko Vogel

2009-01-01

302

Defense Co-Production: Collaborative National Defense.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis provides an analysis of the co-production of the defense function as provided by the legislative branch, Department of Defense (DoD) and the defense industry at large. The aim of the study will be to examine the evolution of the procurement an...

R. R. Richardson

2005-01-01

303

Small RNAs in plant defense responses during viral and bacterial interactions: similarities and differences  

PubMed Central

Small non-coding RNAs constitute an important class of gene expression regulators that control different biological processes in most eukaryotes. In plants, several small RNA (sRNA) silencing pathways have evolved to produce a wide range of small RNAs with specialized functions. Evidence for the diverse mode of action of the small RNA pathways has been highlighted during plant–microbe interactions. Host sRNAs and small RNA silencing pathways have been recognized as essential components of plant immunity. One way plants respond and defend against pathogen infections is through the small RNA silencing immune system. To deal with plant defense responses, pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to avoid and counterattack this defense strategy. The relevance of the small RNA-mediated plant defense responses during viral infections has been well-established. Recent evidence points out its importance also during plant–bacteria interactions. Herein, this review discusses recent findings, similarities and differences about the small RNA-mediated arms race between plants and these two groups of microbes, including the small RNA silencing pathway components that contribute to plant immune responses, the pathogen-responsive endogenous sRNAs and the pathogen-delivered effector proteins.

Pelaez, Pablo; Sanchez, Federico

2013-01-01

304

Defense conversion - Can U. S. industry adjust to peace  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented regarding the measures that companies in the U.S. defense industry are taking to convert from defense to commercial production. The U.S. defense budget is reviewed briefly with attention given to the drop in sales and the augmentation of industry revenues due to commercial sales. The two strategies examined for companies during the conversion era are: contracting

1992-01-01

305

Bacterial 'immunity' against bacteriophages  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate animals possess multiple anti-pathogen defenses. Individual mechanisms usually are differentiated into those that are immunologically adaptive vs. more “primitive” anti-pathogen phenomena described as innate responses. Here I frame defenses used by bacteria against bacteriophages as analogous to these animal immune functions. Included are numerous anti-phage defenses in addition to the adaptive immunity associated with CRISPR/cas systems. As these other anti-pathogen mechanisms are non-adaptive they can be described as making up an innate bacterial immunity. This exercise was undertaken in light of the recent excitement over the discovery that CRISPR/cas systems can serve, as noted, as a form of bacterial adaptive immunity. The broader goal, however, is to gain novel insight into bacterial defenses against phages by fitting these mechanisms into considerations of how multicellular organisms also defend themselves against pathogens. This commentary can be viewed in addition as a bid toward integrating these numerous bacterial anti-phage defenses into a more unified immunology.

2012-01-01

306

Hormonal crosstalk in plant immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA), also known as plant aspirin, and jasmonic acid (JA) play major roles in the regulation of the plant immune system. In general, SA is important for defense against pathogens with a biotrophic lifestyle, whereas JA is essential for defense against insect herbivores and pathogens with a necrotrophic lifestyle. Antagonistic and synergistic interactions between the

A. van der Does

2012-01-01

307

Celecoxib Improves Host Defense through Prostaglandin Inhibition during Histoplasma capsulatum Infection  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandins act as mediators of inflammation and, similar to cytokines, function as immune modulators during innate and adaptive immune responses. Therefore, using a pharmacological inhibitor, celecoxib, we investigated the role of prostaglandins in host defense against Histoplasma capsulatum infection in C57BL/6 mice. Our results showed that treatment with celecoxib inhibited cyclooxygenase 2, reduced the total fungal burden, and reduced the concentration of PGE2, cytokines, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells in the bronchoalveolar space and lung parenchyma. In addition, celecoxib treatment increased the synthesis of nitric oxide, IFN-?, LTB4, and the phagocytic capacity of alveolar macrophages. Moreover, celecoxib treatment increased the survival of mice after infection with a lethal inoculum of H. capsulatum. These results suggest that prostaglandins alter the host immune response and play an important role in the pathogenesis of histoplasmosis. Thus, the inhibition of prostaglandins could be a valuable immunomodulatory strategy and antifungal therapy for histoplasmosis treatment.

Pereira, Priscilla Aparecida Tartari; Trindade, Bruno Caetano; Secatto, Adriana; Nicolete, Roberto; Peres-Buzalaf, Camila; Ramos, Simone Gusmao; Sadikot, Ruxana; Bitencourt, Claudia da Silva

2013-01-01

308

Targeted Deletion of Regions Rich in Immune-Evasive Genes from the Cytomegalovirus Genome as a Novel Vaccine Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV), a ubiquitous human pathogen, is a leading cause of congenital infections and represents a serious health risk for the immunosuppressed patient. A vaccine against CMV is currently not available. CMV is characterized by its large genome and by multiple genes modulating the immunity of the host, which cluster predominantly at genome termini. Here, we tested whether the

L. Cicin-Sain; I. Bubic; M. Schnee; Z. Ruzsics; C. Mohr; S. Jonjic; U. H. Koszinowski

2007-01-01

309

Comparative genomics of defense systems in archaea and bacteria  

PubMed Central

Our knowledge of prokaryotic defense systems has vastly expanded as the result of comparative genomic analysis, followed by experimental validation. This expansion is both quantitative, including the discovery of diverse new examples of known types of defense systems, such as restriction-modification or toxin-antitoxin systems, and qualitative, including the discovery of fundamentally new defense mechanisms, such as the CRISPR-Cas immunity system. Large-scale statistical analysis reveals that the distribution of different defense systems in bacterial and archaeal taxa is non-uniform, with four groups of organisms distinguishable with respect to the overall abundance and the balance between specific types of defense systems. The genes encoding defense system components in bacterial and archaea typically cluster in defense islands. In addition to genes encoding known defense systems, these islands contain numerous uncharacterized genes, which are candidates for new types of defense systems. The tight association of the genes encoding immunity systems and dormancy- or cell death-inducing defense systems in prokaryotic genomes suggests that these two major types of defense are functionally coupled, providing for effective protection at the population level.

Makarova, Kira S.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

2013-01-01

310

Immune System Defender  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive unit demonstrates the immune system's defense mechanisms. Users will defend the human body against an infection using a "team" of white blood cells called granulocytes. The white blood cells will be used to destroy the bacteria via a fun interactive game. In the "Information Terminal" section of the interactive unit, students can read more about the immune system and its cells as well as the Nobel Prize awarded for the discovery of the phagocyte cell.

2012-06-18

311

The costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of strategies to increase coverage of routine immunizations in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review of the grey literature.  

PubMed Central

Evidence-based reviews of published literature can be subject to several biases. Grey literature, however, can be of poor quality and expensive to access. Effective search strategies also vary by topic and are rarely known in advance. This paper complements a systematic review of the published literature on the costs and effects of expanding immunization services in developing countries. The quality of data on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies to increase immunization coverage is shown to be similar across literatures, but the quality of information on costing is much lower in the grey literature. After excluding poorer quality studies from this review we found the quantity of available evidence almost doubled, particularly for more complex health-system interventions and cost or cost-effectiveness analyses. Interventions in the grey literature are more up to date and cover a different geographical spread. Consequently the conclusions of the published and grey literatures differ, although the number of papers is still too low to account for differences across types of interventions. We recommend that in future researchers consider using non-English keywords in their searches.

Batt, Katherine; Fox-Rushby, J. A.; Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela

2004-01-01

312

In Defense of Self-Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some feminist theorists have argued that emphasizing women's self-defense mistakenly emphasizes women's behavior and choices rather than male aggression as a cause of sexual violence. I argue here that such critiques of self-defense are misguided, and do not sufficiently take into account the ways in which feminist self-defense courses can constitute embodied transformations of the meanings of femininity and rape.

Ann J. Cahill

2009-01-01

313

Pathogenicity of and plant immunity to soft rot pectobacteria.  

PubMed

Soft rot pectobacteria are broad host range enterobacterial pathogens that cause disease on a variety of plant species including the major crop potato. Pectobacteria are aggressive necrotrophs that harbor a large arsenal of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes as their primary virulence determinants. These enzymes together with additional virulence factors are employed to macerate the host tissue and promote host cell death to provide nutrients for the pathogens. In contrast to (hemi)biotrophs such as Pseudomonas, type III secretion systems (T3SS) and T3 effectors do not appear central to pathogenesis of pectobacteria. Indeed, recent genomic analysis of several Pectobacterium species including the emerging pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae has shown that many strains lack the entire T3SS as well as the T3 effectors. Instead, this analysis has indicated the presence of novel virulence determinants. Resistance to broad host range pectobacteria is complex and does not appear to involve single resistance genes. Instead, activation of plant innate immunity systems including both SA (salicylic acid) and JA (jasmonic acid)/ET (ethylene)-mediated defenses appears to play a central role in attenuation of Pectobacterium virulence. These defenses are triggered by detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or recognition of modified-self such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and result in enhancement of basal immunity (PAMP/DAMP-triggered immunity or pattern-triggered immunity, PTI). In particular plant cell wall fragments released by the action of the degradative enzymes secreted by pectobacteria are major players in enhanced immunity toward these pathogens. Most notably bacterial pectin-degrading enzymes release oligogalacturonide (OG) fragments recognized as DAMPs activating innate immune responses. Recent progress in understanding OG recognition and signaling allows novel genetic screens for OG-insensitive mutants and will provide new insights into plant defense strategies against necrotrophs such as pectobacteria. PMID:23781227

Davidsson, Pär R; Kariola, Tarja; Niemi, Outi; Palva, E T

2013-06-11

314

The Host Defense of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

To combat infection, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster relies on multiple innate defense reactions, many of which are shared with higher organisms. These reactions include the use of physical bar- riers together with local and systemic immune responses. First, ep- ithelia, such as those beneath the cuticle, in the alimentary tract, and in tracheae, act both as a physical barrier

Bruno Lemaitre; Jules Hoffmann

2007-01-01

315

Innate Immune Responses of Drosophila melanogaster Are Altered by Spaceflight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alterations and impairment of immune responses in humans present a health risk for space exploration missions. The molecular mechanisms underpinning innate immune defense can be confounded by the complexity of the acquired immune system of humans. Drosophila (fruit fly) innate immunity is simpler, and shares many similarities with human innate immunity at the level of molecular and genetic pathways. The

Oana Marcu; Matthew P. Lera; Max E. Sanchez; Edina Levic; Laura A. Higgins; Alena Shmygelska; Thomas F. Fahlen; Helen Nichol; Sharmila Bhattacharya; Brian D. McCabe

2011-01-01

316

Food-Induced Immune Responses as Origin of Bowel Disease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food-induced immune responses cause or influence a number of intestinal diseases. Food antigens may either directly affect the mucosal immune system, or food modulate the intestinal flora, which may alter the immune response. The system preventing food-induced immune responses is complex: The mucosal barrier is the primary mechanism of host defense. Secondly, the innate immune system can neutralize some of

Frank Seibold

2005-01-01

317

Behavioral coping strategies in response to social stress are associated with distinct neuroendocrine, monoaminergic and immune response profiles in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual variation in behavioral coping strategies to stress implies that animals may have a distinct physiological adaptation to stress; these differences may underlie differences in vulnerability to stress-related diseases. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that different behavioral coping strategies (active vs. passive) are stable over time and that they would be associated with differences in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)

Zurine De Miguel; Oscar Vegas; Larraitz Garmendia; Amaia Arregi; Garikoitz Beitia; Arantza Azpiroz

2011-01-01

318

Rhamnolipid Biosurfactants as New Players in Animal and Plant Defense against Microbes  

PubMed Central

Rhamnolipids are known as very efficient biosurfactant molecules. They are used in a wide range of industrial applications including food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical formulations and bioremediation of pollutants. The present review provides an overview of the effect of rhamnolipids in animal and plant defense responses. We describe the current knowledge on the stimulation of plant and animal immunity by these molecules, as well as on their direct antimicrobial properties. Given their ecological acceptance owing to their low toxicity and biodegradability, rhamnolipids have the potential to be useful molecules in medicine and to be part of alternative strategies in order to reduce or replace pesticides in agriculture.

Vatsa, Parul; Sanchez, Lisa; Clement, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stephan

2010-01-01

319

Toll receptors in innate immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innate immunity is the first-line host defense of multicellular organisms that rapidly operates to limit infection upon exposure to infectious agents. In addition, the cells and molecules operating during this early stage of the immune response in vertebrates have a decisive impact on the shaping of the subsequent adaptive response. Genetic studies initially performed in the fruitfly Drosophila and later

Jean-Luc Imler; Jules A. Hoffmann

2001-01-01

320

Brassinosteroids Antagonize Gibberellin- and Salicylate-Mediated Root Immunity in Rice1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a unique class of plant steroid hormones that orchestrate myriad growth and developmental processes. Although BRs have long been known to protect plants from a suite of biotic and abiotic stresses, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still rudimentary. Aiming to further decipher the molecular logic of BR-modulated immunity, we have examined the dynamics and impact of BRs during infection of rice (Oryza sativa) with the root oomycete Pythium graminicola. Challenging the prevailing view that BRs positively regulate plant innate immunity, we show that P. graminicola exploits BRs as virulence factors and hijacks the rice BR machinery to inflict disease. Moreover, we demonstrate that this immune-suppressive effect of BRs is due, at least in part, to negative cross talk with salicylic acid (SA) and gibberellic acid (GA) pathways. BR-mediated suppression of SA defenses occurred downstream of SA biosynthesis, but upstream of the master defense regulators NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 and OsWRKY45. In contrast, BR alleviated GA-directed immune responses by interfering at multiple levels with GA metabolism, resulting in indirect stabilization of the DELLA protein and central GA repressor SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1). Collectively, these data favor a model whereby P. graminicola coopts the plant BR pathway as a decoy to antagonize effectual SA- and GA-mediated defenses. Our results highlight the importance of BRs in modulating plant immunity and uncover pathogen-mediated manipulation of plant steroid homeostasis as a core virulence strategy.

De Vleesschauwer, David; Van Buyten, Evelien; Satoh, Kouji; Balidion, Johny; Mauleon, Ramil; Choi, Il-Ryong; Vera-Cruz, Casiana; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Hofte, Monica

2012-01-01

321

77 FR 60399 - Defense Science Board; Notice of Advisory Committee Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...mission of the Defense Science Board is...Secretary of Defense and the Under...Acquisition, Technology & Logistics...also discuss plans for future...specific strategies, tactics...national defense posture and...these Defense Science Board Quarterly...Acquisition, Technology and...

2012-10-03

322

78 FR 25971 - Defense Science Board; Notice of Advisory Committee Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...mission of the Defense Science Board is...Secretary of Defense and the Under...Acquisition, Technology & Logistics...also discuss plans for future...specific strategies, tactics...national defense posture and...these Defense Science Board quarterly...Acquisition, Technology and...

2013-05-03

323

75 FR 3898 - Federal Advisory Committee; Defense Science Board; Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...mission of the Defense Science Board is...Secretary of Defense and the Under...Acquisition, Technology & Logistics...also discuss plans for future...specific strategies, tactics...national defense posture and...these Defense Science Board Quarterly...Acquisition, Technology and...

2010-01-25

324

Defense Budget and Defense Industry Finance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The defense sector's fundamentals in terms of operating margin and cash flow return on investment (CFROI) are stronger today than at any point in the past two decades due to better cash flow management, operating efficiencies, and record US defense spendi...

D. J. Berteau M. Zlatnik R. Levy

2010-01-01

325

Transcutaneous immunization: T cell responses and boosting of existing immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a novel immunization strategy by which antigen and adjuvant are applied topically to intact, hydrated skin to induce potent antibody and cell-mediated immune responses specific for both the antigen and the adjuvant. Using tetanus toxoid as a model antigen, we examined the T cell response to tetanus toxoid after topical immunization with a variety of adjuvants.

Scott A Hammond; Deborah Walwender; Carl R Alving; Gregory M Glenn

2001-01-01

326

Innate Immune Recognition of HIV-1  

PubMed Central

In contrast to the extraordinary body of knowledge gained over the past three decades on the virology, pathogenesis, and immunology of HIV-1 infection, innate sensors that detect HIV-1 had remained elusive until recently. By virtue of integration, retroviridae makes up a substantial portion of our genome. Thus, immune strategies that deal with endogenous retroviruses are, by necessity, those of self-preservation and not of virus elimination. Some of the principles of such strategies may also apply for defense against exogenous retroviruses including HIV-1. Here, I highlight several sensors that have recently been revealed to be capable of recognizing distinct features of HIV-1 infection, while taking into account the host-retrovirus relationship that converges on avoiding pathogenic inflammatory consequences.

Iwasaki, Akiko

2012-01-01

327

Human Metapneumovirus Antagonism of Innate Immune Responses  

PubMed Central

Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a recently identified RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family, which includes several major human and animal pathogens. Epidemiological studies indicate that hMPV is a significant human respiratory pathogen with worldwide distribution. It is associated with respiratory illnesses in children, adults, and immunocompromised patients, ranging from upper respiratory tract infections to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Interferon (IFN) represents a major line of defense against virus infection, and in response, viruses have evolved countermeasures to inhibit IFN production as well as IFN signaling. Although the strategies of IFN evasion are similar, the specific mechanisms by which paramyxoviruses inhibit IFN responses are quite diverse. In this review, we will present an overview of the strategies that hMPV uses to subvert cellular signaling in airway epithelial cells, the major target of infection, as well as in primary immune cells.

Kolli, Deepthi; Bao, Xiaoyong; Casola, Antonella

2012-01-01

328

Subversion and Utilization of Host Innate Defense by Leishmania amazonensis  

PubMed Central

Infection with Leishmania amazonensis and other members of the Leishmania mexicana complex can lead to diverse clinical manifestations, some of which are relatively difficult to control, even with standard chemotherapy. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a rare but severe form, and its clinical hallmark is excessive parasitic growth in infected cells accompanied by profound impairments in host immune responses to the parasites. Since these parasites also cause non-healing CL in most inbred strains of mice, these animals are valuable models for dissecting the mechanisms of persistent infection and disease pathogenesis. In comparison to other Leishmania species, L. amazonensis infections are most remarkable for their ability to repress the activation and effector functions of macrophages, dendritic cells, and CD4+ T cells, implying discrete mechanisms at work. In addition to this multilateral suppression of host innate and adaptive immunity, the activation of types I and II interferon-mediated responses and autophagic/lipid metabolic pathways actually promotes rather than restrains L. amazonensis infection. These seemingly contradictory findings reflect the remarkable adaptation of the parasites to the ancient defense machinery of the host, as well as the complex parasite–host interactions at different stages of infection, which collectively contribute to non-healing leishmaniasis in the New World. This review article highlights new evidence that reveals the strategies utilized by L. amazonensis parasites to subvert or modulate host innate defense machinery in neutrophils and macrophages, as well as the regulatory roles of host innate responses in promoting parasite survival and replication within the huge parasitophorous vacuoles. A better understanding of unique features in host responses to these parasites at early and late stages of infection is important for the rational design of control strategies for non-healing leishmaniasis.

Soong, Lynn

2012-01-01

329

Strategic Defense in Transition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Possible objectives and programs for strategic defense include third-country, accidental, or unauthorized launches; limited attacks; initial military threats; and defense value. Their essential features, technologies, and developmental programs are review...

G. H. Canavan

1988-01-01

330

Budgeting For Defense: Maintaining Today's Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report from the Congressional Budget Office provides excellent background research for the current debate between the two major Presidential candidates over the American military's state of readiness. In keeping with its nonpartisan mandate, the report makes no recommendations, but it does summarize the current threats to US security, current military strategy, and the factors that drive Defense Department budgetary requests. In addition, the report offers estimates for budgetary requirements for sustaining defense capabilities at their current levels (as well as a discussion of the limitations to these estimates) and reviews alternative budget approaches, including reducing or raising defense funding.

331

Does AIDS involve some collusion by the neuro-immune system because of positive learning of the disarmament strategy?  

PubMed

Korzybski's general semantics recommends considering living beings as organisms-as-a-whole in their environment. Our cognitive abilities, specific to the human species, have thus to be taken into account. In this framework we establish a semantic similarity between particular stressful events of the 20th century and AIDS in which the immune-deficiency-caused is semiotically seen as a biological state of disarmament of the organism. It then appears that: These observations suggest that AIDS could benefit from some collusion by the neuro-immune system because of positive learning of the semiotic concept of disarmament, thus making the terrain favorable to the germ in response to intense stress. The disease would then result from a conditioning process based on semiotics and involve some confusion at the level of the unconscious cognitive system between disarmament toward outside the body and disarmament toward inside the body. This hypothesis is discussed within a multidisciplinary perspective considering the specificities of our modern lifestyles, the cybernetic ability of signs to control metabolism and behavior, and the recent advances of epigenetics and cognition sciences. This hypothesis may explain the multiple cross-species transmissions of the immunodeficiency virus into humans during the 20th century. Further research is suggested for evaluating this hypothesis. PMID:23317541

Sandoz, Patrick

2013-01-12

332

Strategy for Homeland Defense and Defense Support of Civil Authorities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are now moving beyond traditional distinctions between homeland and national security. National security draws on the strength and resilience of our citizens, communities, and economy. This includes a determination to prevent terrorist attacks against ...

2013-01-01

333

Sublingual Immunization with a Live Attenuated Influenza A Virus Lacking the Nonstructural Protein 1 Induces Broad Protective Immunity in Mice  

PubMed Central

The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus (IAV) enables the virus to disarm the host cell type 1 IFN defense system. Mutation or deletion of the NS1 gene leads to attenuation of the virus and enhances host antiviral response making such live-attenuated influenza viruses attractive vaccine candidates. Sublingual (SL) immunization with live influenza virus has been found to be safe and effective for inducing protective immune responses in mucosal and systemic compartments. Here we demonstrate that SL immunization with NS1 deleted IAV (DeltaNS1 H1N1 or DeltaNS1 H5N1) induced protection against challenge with homologous as well as heterosubtypic influenza viruses. Protection was comparable with that induced by intranasal (IN) immunization and was associated with high levels of virus-specific antibodies (Abs). SL immunization with DeltaNS1 virus induced broad Ab responses in mucosal and systemic compartments and stimulated immune cells in mucosa-associated and systemic lymphoid organs. Thus, SL immunization with DeltaNS1 offers a novel potential vaccination strategy for the control of influenza outbreaks including pandemics.

Park, Hae-Jung; Ferko, Boris; Byun, Young-Ho; Song, Joo-Hye; Han, Gye-Yeong; Roethl, Elisabeth; Egorov, Andrej; Muster, Thomas; Seong, Baiklin; Kweon, Mi-Na; Song, Manki; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Nguyen, Huan H.

2012-01-01

334

Choosing defense attorneys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major Robert G. Schaefer, left, and Mr. L. Wartena of the Defense Information Center initiate the first steps necessary for application in the defense of the former directors of the I.G. Farben, now indicted. Here the defendants prepare to fill out their forms by which they apply for a defense attorney of their own choice. Left to right: Carl Krauch,

OMGUS Military Tribunal

1947-01-01

335

Defense against nuclear weapons  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews selected aspects of the Air Defense Initiative (ADI) program. Objectives were to provide information on whether the Department of Defense (DOD) has refocused the ADI program on the basis of the changed Soviet threat and compare the ADI program's funding and schedule with those of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), a companion program.

Inouye, D.K.

1991-09-01

336

Resistance to chytridiomycosis varies among amphibian species and is correlated with skin peptide defenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innate immune mechanisms of defense are especially important to ectothermic vertebrates in which adaptive immune responses may be slow to develop. One innate defense in amphibian skin is the release of abundant quantities of antimicrobial peptides. Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians caused by the skin fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Suscept- ibility to chytridiomycosis varies among species, and mechanisms

D. C. Woodhams; K. Ardipradja; R. A. Alford; G. Marantelli; L. K. Reinert; L. A. Rollins-Smith

2007-01-01

337

Exchange of computable patient data between the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Department of Defense (DoD): terminology mediation strategy.  

PubMed

Complete patient health information that is available where and when it is needed is essential to providers and patients and improves healthcare quality and patient safety. VA and DoD have built on their previous experience in patient data exchange to establish data standards and terminology services to enable real-time bi-directional computable (i.e., encoded) data exchange and achieve semantic interoperability in compliance with recommended national standards and the eGov initiative. The project uses RxNorm, UMLS, and SNOMED CT terminology standards to mediate codified pharmacy and allergy data with greater than 92 and 60 percent success rates respectively. Implementation of the project has been well received by users and is being expanded to multiple joint care sites. Stable and mature standards, mediation strategies, and a close relationship between healthcare institutions and Standards Development Organizations are recommended to achieve and maintain semantic interoperability in a clinical setting. PMID:18096911

Bouhaddou, Omar; Warnekar, Pradnya; Parrish, Fola; Do, Nhan; Mandel, Jack; Kilbourne, John; Lincoln, Michael J

2007-12-20

338

Non-immunological defense in an evolutionary framework.  

PubMed

After parasite infection, invertebrates activate immune system-based defenses such as encapsulation and the signaling pathways of the innate immune system. However, hosts are often able to defend against parasites without using these mechanisms. The non-immunological defenses, such as behaviors that prevent or combat infection, symbiont-mediated defense, and fecundity compensation, are often ignored but can be important in host-parasite dynamics. We review recent studies showing that heritable variation in these traits exists among individuals, and that they are costly to activate and maintain. We also discuss findings from genome annotation and expression studies to show how immune system-based and non-immunological defenses interact. Placing these studies into an evolutionary framework emphasizes their importance for future studies of host-parasite coevolution. PMID:21435735

Parker, Benjamin J; Barribeau, Seth M; Laughton, Alice M; de Roode, Jacobus C; Gerardo, Nicole M

2011-03-23

339

History and new insights into host defense against vaginal candidiasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), caused by Candida albicans, remains a significant problem in women of childbearing age. Although cell-mediated immunity is considered the predominant host defense mechanism against mucosal candidal infections, two decades of research using animal models and results from clinical studies have revealed that adaptive immunity does not play a protective role against VVC owing to putative immunoregulatory

Paul L. Fidel

2004-01-01

340

Phosphorylation of Mouse Immunity-Related GTPase (IRG) Resistance Proteins Is an Evasion Strategy for Virulent Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Virulence of complex pathogens in mammals is generally determined by multiple components of the pathogen interacting with the functional complexity and multiple layering of the mammalian immune system. It is most unusual for the resistance of a mammalian host to be overcome by the defeat of a single defence mechanism. In this study we uncover and analyse just such a case at the molecular level, involving the widespread intracellular protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii and one of its most important natural hosts, the house mouse (Mus musculus). Natural polymorphism in virulence of Eurasian T. gondii strains for mice has been correlated in genetic screens with the expression of polymorphic rhoptry kinases (ROP kinases) secreted into the host cell during infection. We show that the molecular targets of the virulent allelic form of ROP18 kinase are members of a family of cellular GTPases, the interferon-inducible IRG (immunity-related GTPase) proteins, known from earlier work to be essential resistance factors in mice against avirulent strains of T. gondii. Virulent T. gondii strain ROP18 kinase phosphorylates several mouse IRG proteins. We show that the parasite kinase phosphorylates host Irga6 at two threonines in the nucleotide-binding domain, biochemically inactivating the GTPase and inhibiting its accumulation and action at the T. gondii parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Our analysis identifies the conformationally active switch I region of the GTP-binding site as an Achilles' heel of the IRG protein pathogen-resistance mechanism. The polymorphism of ROP18 in natural T. gondii populations indicates the existence of a dynamic, rapidly evolving ecological relationship between parasite virulence factors and host resistance factors. This system should be unusually fruitful for analysis at both ecological and molecular levels since both T. gondii and the mouse are widespread and abundant in the wild and are well-established model species with excellent analytical tools available.

Steinfeldt, Tobias; Konen-Waisman, Stephanie; Tong, Lan; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Sibley, L. David; Hunn, Julia P.; Howard, Jonathan C.

2010-01-01

341

Phosphorylation of mouse immunity-related GTPase (IRG) resistance proteins is an evasion strategy for virulent Toxoplasma gondii.  

PubMed

Virulence of complex pathogens in mammals is generally determined by multiple components of the pathogen interacting with the functional complexity and multiple layering of the mammalian immune system. It is most unusual for the resistance of a mammalian host to be overcome by the defeat of a single defence mechanism. In this study we uncover and analyse just such a case at the molecular level, involving the widespread intracellular protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii and one of its most important natural hosts, the house mouse (Mus musculus). Natural polymorphism in virulence of Eurasian T. gondii strains for mice has been correlated in genetic screens with the expression of polymorphic rhoptry kinases (ROP kinases) secreted into the host cell during infection. We show that the molecular targets of the virulent allelic form of ROP18 kinase are members of a family of cellular GTPases, the interferon-inducible IRG (immunity-related GTPase) proteins, known from earlier work to be essential resistance factors in mice against avirulent strains of T. gondii. Virulent T. gondii strain ROP18 kinase phosphorylates several mouse IRG proteins. We show that the parasite kinase phosphorylates host Irga6 at two threonines in the nucleotide-binding domain, biochemically inactivating the GTPase and inhibiting its accumulation and action at the T. gondii parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Our analysis identifies the conformationally active switch I region of the GTP-binding site as an Achilles' heel of the IRG protein pathogen-resistance mechanism. The polymorphism of ROP18 in natural T. gondii populations indicates the existence of a dynamic, rapidly evolving ecological relationship between parasite virulence factors and host resistance factors. This system should be unusually fruitful for analysis at both ecological and molecular levels since both T. gondii and the mouse are widespread and abundant in the wild and are well-established model species with excellent analytical tools available. PMID:21203588

Steinfeldt, Tobias; Könen-Waisman, Stephanie; Tong, Lan; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Sibley, L David; Hunn, Julia P; Howard, Jonathan C

2010-12-21

342

Regulatory T cells and the immune pathogenesis of prenatal infection.  

PubMed

Pregnancy in placental mammals offers exceptional comprehensive benefits of in utero protection, nutrition, and metabolic waste elimination for the developing fetus. However, these benefits also require durable strategies to mitigate maternal rejection of fetal tissues expressing foreign paternal antigens. Since the initial postulate of expanded maternal immune tolerance by Sir Peter Medawar 60 years ago, an amazingly elaborate assortment of molecular and cellular modifications acting both locally at the maternal-placental interface and systemically have been shown to silence potentially detrimental maternal immune responses. In turn, simultaneously maintaining host defense against the infinite array of potential pathogens during pregnancy is equally important. Fortunately, resistance against most infections is preserved seamlessly throughout gestation. On the other hand, recent studies on pathogens with unique predisposition for prenatal infections have uncovered distinctive holes in host defense associated with the reproductive process. Using these infections to probe the response during pregnancy, the immune suppressive regulatory subset of maternal CD4 T cells has been increasingly shown to dictate the inter-workings between prenatal infection susceptibility and pathogenesis of ensuing pregnancy complications. Herein, the recent literature suggesting a necessity for maternal regulatory T cells (Tregs) in pregnancy-induced immunological shifts that sustain fetal tolerance is reviewed. Additional discussion is focused on how expansion of maternal Treg suppression may become exploited by pathogens that cause prenatal infections and the perilous potential of infection-induced immune activation that may mitigate fetal tolerance and inadvertently inject hostility into the protective in utero environment. PMID:23929902

Rowe, Jared H; Ertelt, James M; Xin, Lijun; Way, Sing Sing

2013-10-21

343

Innate immune responses to hepatitis C virus.  

PubMed

The innate immune response provides the first line of defense against invading viral pathogens. Incoming viruses are sensed by dedicated host factors that, when triggered, initiate multiple signal transduction pathways. Activation of these pathways leads to the induction of highly orchestrated transcriptional programs designed to limit virus replication and spread. In recent years, our understanding of innate immune responses targeting hepatitis C virus (HCV) has increased substantially, largely due to the development of new systems and methodologies to study HCV-host interactions in vitro and in vivo. However, significant gaps still remain. Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive view of the innate immune response to HCV, focusing primarily on knowledge gained from cell culture models of HCV infection, as well as data from human patients infected with HCV. While some paradigms of the host response to HCV revealed in cell culture translate to human infection in vivo, others are less clear. Further insight into the similarities and differences in these systems will not only reveal directions for future studies on HCV immunity, but may also guide the development of novel strategies to control HCV and other viral infections. PMID:23463203

Schoggins, John W; Rice, Charles M

2013-01-01

344

Langerhans cells in innate defense against pathogens.  

PubMed

Langerhans cells (LCs) are at the frontline in defense against mucosal infections because they line the mucosal tissues and are ideally situated to intercept pathogens. Recent data suggest that LCs have an innate anti-HIV-1 function. LCs express the LC-specific C-type lectin Langerin that efficiently captures HIV-1, which prevents HIV-1 transmission. However, immune activation of LCs changes these protective cells into HIV-1-transmitting cells, which indicates that the antiviral function of LCs depends on several factors including co-infections. In this review, we discuss the dual role of LCs in innate defense against pathogens, with a focus on HIV-1 dissemination. PMID:21030306

de Jong, Marein A W P; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B H

2010-10-26

345

The Genome of the Obligately Intracellular Bacterium Ehrlichia canis Reveals Themes of Complex Membrane Structure and Immune Evasion Strategies  

SciTech Connect

Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, {alpha}-proteobacterium, is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of noncoding sequence (27%). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly(G-C) tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Genes associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified, including a small group encoding proteins (n = 12) with tandem repeats and another group encoding proteins with eukaryote-like ankyrin domains (n = 7).

Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Doyle, C Kuyler [Center for Biodenfense and Emerging Infectious Diseases; Lykidis, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Francino, M P [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chain, Patrick S [ORNL; Shin, M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Yu, X J [Center for Biodenfense and Emerging Infectious Diseases; Walker, D H [Center for Biodenfense and Emerging Infectious Diseases; McBride, J W [Center for Biodenfense and Emerging Infectious Diseases; Kyripides, N C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute

2006-01-01

346

Independently Evolved Virulence Effectors Converge onto Hubs in a Plant Immune System Network  

PubMed Central

Plants generate effective responses to infection by recognizing both conserved and variable pathogen-encoded molecules. Pathogens deploy virulence effector proteins into host cells, where they interact physically with host proteins to modulate defense. We generated a plant-pathogen immune system protein interaction network using effectors from two pathogens spanning the eukaryote-eubacteria divergence, three classes of Arabidopsis immune system proteins and ~8,000 other Arabidopsis proteins. We noted convergence of effectors onto highly interconnected host proteins, and indirect, rather than direct, connections between effectors and plant immune receptors. We demonstrated plant immune system functions for 15 of 17 tested host proteins that interact with effectors from both pathogens. Thus, pathogens from different kingdoms deploy independently evolved virulence proteins that interact with a limited set of highly connected cellular hubs to facilitate their diverse life cycle strategies.

Mukhtar, M. Shahid; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Dreze, Matija; Epple, Petra; Steinbrenner, Jens; Moore, Jonathan; Tasan, Murat; Galli, Mary; Hao, Tong; Nishimura, Marc T.; Pevzner, Samuel J.; Donovan, Susan E.; Ghamsari, Lila; Santhanam, Balaji; Romero, Viviana; Poulin, Matthew M.; Gebreab, Fana; Gutierrez, Bryan J.; Tam, Stanley; Monachello, Dario; Boxem, Mike; Harbort, Christopher J.; McDonald, Nathan; Gai, Lantian; Chen, Huaming; He, Yijian; Vandenhaute, Jean; Roth, Frederick P.; Hill, David E.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Vidal, Marc; Beynon, Jim; Braun, Pascal; Dangl, Jeffery L.

2011-01-01

347

The innate immune system of the perinatal lung and responses to respiratory syncytial virus infection.  

PubMed

The response of the preterm and newborn lung to airborne pathogens, particles, and other insults is initially dependent on innate immune responses since adaptive responses may not fully mature and require weeks for sufficient responses to antigenic stimuli. Foreign material and microbial agents trigger soluble, cell surface, and cytoplasmic receptors that activate signaling cascades that invoke release of surfactant proteins, defensins, interferons, lactoferrin, oxidative products, and other innate immune substances that have antimicrobial activity, which can also influence adaptive responses. For viral infections such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the pulmonary innate immune responses has an essential role in defense as there are no fully effective vaccines or therapies for RSV infections of humans and reinfections are common. Understanding the innate immune response by the preterm and newborn lung may lead to preventive strategies and more effective therapeutic regimens. PMID:23528938

Derscheid, R J; Ackermann, M R

2013-03-25

348

Adverse neuro-immune-endocrine interactions in patients with active tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The nervous, endocrine and immune systems play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis and interact with each other for a successful defensive strategy against injurious agents. However, the situation is different in long-term diseases with marked inflammation, in which defensive mechanisms become altered. In the case of tuberculosis (TB), this is highlighted by several facts: an imbalance of plasma immune and endocrine mediators, that results in an adverse environment for mounting an adequate response against mycobacteria and controlling inflammation; the demonstration that dehidroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion by a human adrenal cell line can be inhibited by culture supernatants from Mycobacterium tuberculosis-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells - PBMC - of TB patients, with this effect being partly reverted when neutralizing transforming growth factor-? in such supernantants; the in vitro effects of adrenal steroids on the specific immune response of PBMC from TB patients, that is a cortisol inhibition of mycobacterial antigen-driven lymphoproliferation and interferon-? production as well as a suppression of TGF-? production in DHEA-treated PBMC; and lastly the demonstration that immune and endocrine compounds participating in the regulation of energy sources and immune activity correlated with the consumption state of TB patients. Collectively, immune-endocrine disturbances of TB patients are involved in critical components of disease pathology with implications in the impaired clinical status and unfavorable disease outcome. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Neuroinflammation in neurodegeneration and neurodysfunction'. PMID:23147110

Bottasso, Oscar; Bay, María Luisa; Besedovsky, Hugo; Del Rey, Adriana

2012-11-10

349

Butyrate enhances disease resistance of chickens by inducing antimicrobial host defense peptide gene expression.  

PubMed

Host defense peptides (HDPs) constitute a large group of natural broad-spectrum antimicrobials and an important first line of immunity in virtually all forms of life. Specific augmentation of synthesis of endogenous HDPs may represent a promising antibiotic-alternative approach to disease control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous administration of butyrate, a major type of short-chain fatty acids derived from bacterial fermentation of undigested dietary fiber, is capable of inducing HDPs and enhancing disease resistance in chickens. We have found that butyrate is a potent inducer of several, but not all, chicken HDPs in HD11 macrophages as well as in primary monocytes, bone marrow cells, and jejuna and cecal explants. In addition, butyrate treatment enhanced the antibacterial activity of chicken monocytes against Salmonella enteritidis, with a minimum impact on inflammatory cytokine production, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst capacities of the cells. Furthermore, feed supplementation with 0.1% butyrate led to a significant increase in HDP gene expression in the intestinal tract of chickens. More importantly, such a feeding strategy resulted in a nearly 10-fold reduction in the bacterial titer in the cecum following experimental infections with S. enteritidis. Collectively, the results indicated that butyrate-induced synthesis of endogenous HDPs is a phylogenetically conserved mechanism of innate host defense shared by mammals and aves, and that dietary supplementation of butyrate has potential for further development as a convenient antibiotic-alternative strategy to enhance host innate immunity and disease resistance. PMID:22073293

Sunkara, Lakshmi T; Achanta, Mallika; Schreiber, Nicole B; Bommineni, Yugendar R; Dai, Gan; Jiang, Weiyu; Lamont, Susan; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Beker, Ali; Teeter, Robert G; Zhang, Guolong

2011-11-04

350

The emerging role of microRNAs in regulating immune and inflammatory responses in the lung.  

PubMed

Chronic inflammatory diseases of the lung are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Many of these disorders can be attributed to abnormal immune responses to environmental stimuli and infections. As such, understanding the innate host defense pathways and their regulatory systems will be critical to developing new approaches to treatment. In this regard, there is increasing interest in the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulation of pulmonary innate host defense responses and the inflammatory sequelae in respiratory disease. In this review, we discuss recent findings that indicate an important role for miRNAs in the regulation in mouse models of various respiratory diseases and in host defense against bacterial and viral infection. We also discuss the potential utility and limitations of targeting these molecules as anti-inflammatory strategies and also as a means to improve pathogen clearance from the lung. PMID:23550648

Foster, Paul S; Plank, Maximilian; Collison, Adam; Tay, Hock L; Kaiko, Gerard E; Li, Jingjing; Johnston, Sebastian L; Hansbro, Philip M; Kumar, Rakesh K; Yang, Ming; Mattes, Joerg

2013-05-01

351

Molecular Mechanisms of Aging and Immune System Regulation in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Aging is a complex process that involves the accumulation of deleterious changes resulting in overall decline in several vital functions, leading to the progressive deterioration in physiological condition of the organism and eventually causing disease and death. The immune system is the most important host-defense mechanism in humans and is also highly conserved in insects. Extensive research in vertebrates has concluded that aging of the immune function results in increased susceptibility to infectious disease and chronic inflammation. Over the years, interest has grown in studying the molecular interaction between aging and the immune response to pathogenic infections. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for dissecting the genetic and genomic basis of important biological processes, such as aging and the innate immune system, and deciphering parallel mechanisms in vertebrate animals. Here, we review the recent advances in the identification of key players modulating the relationship between molecular aging networks and immune signal transduction pathways in the fly. Understanding the details of the molecular events involved in aging and immune system regulation will potentially lead to the development of strategies for decreasing the impact of age-related diseases, thus improving human health and life span.

Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Castillo, Julio Cesar

2012-01-01

352

The complex interactions between host immunity and non-biotrophic fungal pathogens of wheat leaves.  

PubMed

Significant progress has been made in elucidating the mechanisms used by plants to recognize pathogens and activate "immune" responses. A "first line" of defense can be triggered through recognition of conserved Pathogen or Microbe Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs or MAMPs), resulting in activation of basal (or non-host) plant defenses, referred to as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Disease resistance responses can also subsequently be triggered via gene-for-gene type interactions between pathogen avirulence effector genes and plant disease resistance genes (Avr-R), giving rise to effector triggered immunity (ETI). The majority of the conceptual advances in understanding these systems have been made using model systems, such as Arabidopsis, tobacco, or tomato in combination with biotrophic pathogens that colonize living plant tissues. In contrast, how these disease resistance mechanisms interact with non-biotrophic (hemibiotrophic or necrotrophic) fungal pathogens that thrive on dying host tissue during successful infection, is less clear. Several lines of recent evidence have begun to suggest that these organisms may actually exploit components of plant immunity in order to infect, successfully colonize and reproduce within host tissues. One underlying mechanism for this strategy has been proposed, which has been referred to as effector triggered susceptibility (ETS). This review aims to highlight the complexity of interactions between plant recognition and defense activation towards non-biotrophic pathogens, with particular emphasis on three important fungal diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves. PMID:20688416

Deller, Siân; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Rudd, Jason J

2010-08-04

353

Strategic air defense  

SciTech Connect

The increasing Soviet air-breathing threat to the United States and the realization that the ballistic missile threat may be reduced by arms control or technology has resulted in an in-depth strategic air defense for the United States and its allies. Strategic Air Defense examines the roles and weapons that future air defense systems might involve and how they fit into the development of broader strategic policies and programs.

Thompson, L.B.

1988-01-01

354

Regulation of adaptive immunity by the innate immune system  

PubMed Central

Twenty years after the proposal that pattern recognition receptors detect invasion by microbial pathogens, the field of immunology has witnessed several discoveries that have elucidated receptors and signaling pathways of microbial recognition systems and how they control the generation of T and B-lymphocyte-mediated immune responses. However, there are still many fundamental questions that remain poorly understood, even though sometimes the answers are assumed to be known. Here, we discuss some of these questions, including the mechanisms by which pathogen-specific innate immune recognition activates antigen-specific adaptive immune responses and the roles of different types of innate immune recognition in host defense from infection and injury.

Iwasaki, Akiko; Medzhitov, Ruslan

2013-01-01

355

Survival for Immunity: The Price of Immune System Activation for Bumblebee Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasites do not always harm their hosts because the immune system keeps an infection at bay. Ironically, the cost of using immune defenses could itself reduce host fitness. This indirect cost of parasitism is often not visible because of compensatory resource intake. Here, workers of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, were challenged with lipopolysaccharides and micro-latex beads to induce their immune

Yannick Moret; Paul Schmid-Hempel

2000-01-01

356

Forgiveness and defense style.  

PubMed

Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures of forgiveness (likelihood, presence of positive forgiveness, absence of negative forgiveness) and defense style. Among respondents, all measures of forgiveness shared a significant negative association with a neurotic defense style. The finding is discussed within the context of the consequences for those who may be experiencing barriers to forgiveness when dealing with conflict resolution in interpersonal situations. PMID:15101554

Maltby, John; Day, Liz

2004-03-01

357

Technologies for Distributed Defense  

SciTech Connect

For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of "citizen soldiers," with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

Seiders, Barbara AB; Rybka, Anthony J.

2002-07-01

358

Global Defense Marketplace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation of viewgraphs describes the global defense marketplace; topics includes industrial consolidation, industrial landscape, European missile consolidation, challenges in government, fighter aircraft market domination, and international sales...

B. Forster

2001-01-01

359

Toll-like receptor control of the adaptive immune responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of microbial infection and initiation of host defense responses is controlled by multiple mechanisms. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have recently emerged as a key component of the innate immune system that detect microbial infection and trigger antimicrobial host defense responses. TLRs activate multiple steps in the inflammatory reactions that help to eliminate the invading pathogens and coordinate systemic defenses. In

Akiko Iwasaki; Ruslan Medzhitov

2004-01-01

360

Host Defense Peptides in Wound Healing  

PubMed Central

Host defense peptides are effector molecules of the innate immune system. They show broad antimicrobial action against gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and they likely play a key role in activating and mediating the innate as well as adaptive immune response in infection and inflammation. These features make them of high interest for wound healing research. Non-healing and infected wounds are a major problem in patient care and health care spending. Increasing infection rates, growing bacterial resistance to common antibiotics, and the lack of effective therapeutic options for the treatment of problematic wounds emphasize the need for new approaches in therapy and pathophysiologic understanding. This review focuses on the current knowledge of host defense peptides affecting wound healing and infection. We discuss the current data and highlight the potential future developments in this field of research.

Steinstraesser, Lars; Koehler, Till; Jacobsen, Frank; Daigeler, Adrien; Goertz, Ole; Langer, Stefan; Kesting, Marco; Steinau, Hans; Eriksson, Elof; Hirsch, Tobias

2008-01-01

361

Structure Comparison of Human Glioma Pathogenesis-Related Protein GliPR and the Plant Pathogenesis-Related Protein P14a Indicates a Functional Link between the Human Immune System and a Plant Defense System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human glioma pathogenesis-related protein (GliPR) is highly expressed in the brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme and exhibits 35% amino acid sequence identity with the tomato pathogenesis-related (PR) protein P14a, which has an important role for the plant defense system. A molecular model of GliPR was computed with the distance geometry program DIANA on the basis of a P14a-GliPR sequence alignment

T. Szyperski; C. Fernandez; C. Mumenthaler; K. Wuthrich

1998-01-01

362

Autophagy, Immunity, and Microbial Adaptations  

PubMed Central

Autophagy adjusts cellular biomass and function in response to diverse stimuli, including infection. Autophagy plays specific roles in shaping immune system development, fueling host innate and adaptive immune responses, and directly controlling intracellular microbes as a cell-autonomous innate defense. As an evolutionary counterpoint, intracellular pathogens have evolved to block autophagic microbicidal defense and subvert host autophagic responses for their survival or growth. The ability of eukaryotic pathogens to deploy their own autophagic machinery may also contribute to microbial pathogenesis. Thus, a complex interplay between autophagy and microbial adaptations against autophagy governs the net outcome of host-microbe encounters.

Deretic, Vojo; Levine, Beth

2009-01-01

363

Ancient Chinese Precedents in China's National Defense.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the strategy embodied in China's 1998 White Paper titled China's National Defense and compare it with the strategic concepts contained in a number of military classics from ancient china. The assumption is that sinc...

R. B. Geddis

1999-01-01

364

Materialism: Matters Of Definition, Defense, and Deconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

How should the metaphysical hypothesis of materialism be\\u000a formulated? What strategies look promising for defending this hypothesis?\\u000a How good are the prospects for its successful defense, especially in light of\\u000a the infamous “hard problem” of phenomenal consciousness? I will say\\u000a something about each of these questions.

Terry Horgan

2006-01-01

365

Psychological Defense Mechanisms: A New Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approaching psychological defense mechanisms from the perspective of an evolved strategy, it is proposed that there are two basic templates—dissociation and cognitive distortions. Frequently conceived of as pathological, these psychological phenomena actually constitute overlapping spectrums with milder manifestations being common and highly functional, and more severe variants less common and typically dysfunctional. Dissociation provides the capacity to adaptively detach from

Brad Bowins

2004-01-01

366

SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative): a policy analysis  

SciTech Connect

Contents include -- Foundations of Deterrence; A Model for Stability; Analysis of SDI/Stability; Related Issues; Treatment of Implementation Factors; Historical Evolution and Trends; The Strategic Choices and Flexible Response; The Planners' Perspective; The Impact of Strategic Defense on a Strategy of Flexible Response; Synthesis.

Fought, S.O.

1987-01-01

367

Psychological self-defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small but increasingly visible number of battered women eventually kill their batterers. While most of these women plead self-defense, they are generally convicted of murder or manslaughter because their homicidal acts rarely fit the narrow legal definition of self-defense. This article (a) explains who battered women are and why they kill; (b) suggests that many, perhaps most, battered women

Charles Patrick Ewing

1990-01-01

368

Strategic defense in transition  

SciTech Connect

Possible objectives and programs for strategic defense include third-country, accidental, or unauthorized launches; limited attacks; initial military threats; and defense value. Their essential features, technologies, and developmental programs are reviewed with the goal of identifying a path that would benefit from their commonalities. 10 refs.

Canavan, G.H.

1988-10-01

369

Defensive Demeanor Profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the reports from an intensive study of videotapes of confessions given by criminal suspects to prosecutors, this focuses primarily on the body movement microanalysis of two subjects to illustrate what are called Defensive Demeanor Profiles. After a summary of the general study and its aims, a 14-step procedure for observing and interpreting defensive demeanor is described. Three levels

Martha Davis; Stan B. Walters; Neal Vorus; Brenda Connors

2000-01-01

370

In Defense against Pathogens. Both Plant Sentinels and Foot Soldiers Need to Know the Enemy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are major targets of microbes seeking a source of nutrition. A complex array of interactions between plants and microbes has evolved that re- flects both the nutrient acquisition strategies of mi- crobes and defense strategies of plants. Part of plant defense strategy includes an active offense against invading microbes using an array of antimicrobial gene products. Within the context

Paola Veronese; Maria T. Ruiz; Maria A. Coca; Agustin Hernandez-Lopez; Hyeseung Lee; Barbara Damsz; Paul M. Hasegawa; Ray A. Bressan; Meena L. Narasimhan

2003-01-01

371

Hormone defense networking in rice: tales from a different world.  

PubMed

Recent advances in plant immunity research underpin the pivotal role of small-molecule hormones in regulating the plant defense signaling network. Although most of our understanding comes from studies of dicot plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana, new studies in monocots are providing additional insights into the defense-regulatory role of phytohormones. Here, we review the roles of both classical and more recently identified stress hormones in regulating immunity in the model monocot rice (Oryza sativa) and highlight the importance of hormone crosstalk in shaping the outcome of rice-pathogen interactions. We also propose a defense model for rice that does not support a dichotomy between the pathogen lifestyle and the effectiveness of the archetypal defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). PMID:23910453

De Vleesschauwer, David; Gheysen, Godelieve; Höfte, Monica

2013-07-30

372

Immune System  

MedlinePLUS

... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih- myoon ) system, which ... Continue Things That Can Go Wrong With the Immune System Disorders of the immune system can be broken ...

373

National Strategy, Future Threats and Defense Spending.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the early 1990s, the world has seen unprecedented changes in the global security environment that have drastically altered the balance of power, and the manner in which nations of the world interact. The evolving international security environment has ...

D. M. Gerstein

1992-01-01

374

Segmenting consumers for food defense communication strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – In the light of lessons learned from recent disasters (The London subway bombings, and Hurricane Katrina), it has become increasingly clear that supply chain partners as well as government agencies need to be prepared to communicate effectively to consumers and customers before, during and after a disaster. Effective communication can minimize confusion and harm to company reputations, to

Dennis Degeneffe; Jean Kinsey; Thomas Stinson; Koel Ghosh

2009-01-01

375

Defeating Adversary Network Intelligence Efforts with Active Cyber Defense Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research was to assess the potential of dynamic network reconfiguration and decoys to defeat adversary network reconnaissance efforts, thereby improving network defense. Specifically, this study sought to determine if the strategy has ...

K. A. Repik

2008-01-01

376

Working Capital Funds Interim Migratory Accounting Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The audit objective was to evaluate the Working Capital Funds Interim Migratory Accounting Strategy established by the Defense Finance and Accounting Service and approved by the Defense Business Operations Fund Corporate Board. We reviewed the completenes...

1997-01-01

377

Small molecule perimeter defense in entomopathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Two Gram-negative insect pathogens, Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens, produce rhabduscin, an amidoglycosyl- and vinyl-isonitrile-functionalized tyrosine derivative. Heterologous expression of the rhabduscin pathway in Escherichia coli, precursor-directed biosynthesis of rhabduscin analogs, biochemical assays, and visualization using both stimulated Raman scattering and confocal fluorescence microscopy established rhabduscin’s role as a potent nanomolar-level inhibitor of phenoloxidase, a key component of the insect’s innate immune system, as well as rhabduscin’s localization at the bacterial cell surface. Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy visualized rhabduscin at the periphery of wild-type X. nematophila cells and E. coli cells heterologously expressing the rhabduscin pathway. Precursor-directed biosynthesis created rhabduscin mimics in X. nematophila pathway mutants that could be accessed at the bacterial cell surface by an extracellular bioorthogonal probe, as judged by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Biochemical assays using both wild-type and mutant X. nematophila cells showed that rhabduscin was necessary and sufficient for potent inhibition (low nM) of phenoloxidases, the enzymes responsible for producing melanin (the hard black polymer insects generate to seal off microbial pathogens). These observations suggest a model in which rhabduscin’s physical association at the bacterial cell surface provides a highly effective inhibitor concentration directly at the site of phenoloxidase contact. This class of molecules is not limited to insect pathogens, as the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae also encodes rhabduscin’s aglycone, and bacterial cell-coated immunosuppressants could be a general strategy to combat host defenses.

Crawford, Jason M.; Portmann, Cyril; Zhang, Xu; Roeffaers, Maarten B. J.; Clardy, Jon

2012-01-01

378

Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores  

PubMed Central

Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production.

War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

2012-01-01

379

Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores.  

PubMed

Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production. PMID:22895106

War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

2012-08-20

380

Functional Dissection of an Innate Immune Response by a Genome-Wide RNAi Screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The innate immune system is ancient and highly conserved. It is the first line of defense and the only recognizable immune system in the vast majority of metazoans. Signaling events that convert pathogen detection into a defense response are central to innate immunity. Drosophila has emerged as an invaluable model organism for studying this regulation. Activation of the NF-?B family

Edan Foley; Patrick H OFarrell

2004-01-01

381

Defense Infrastructure: Management Actions Needed to Ensure Effectiveness of DOD's Risk Management Approach for the Defense Industrial Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. military relies on the defense industrial base (DIB) to meet requirements to fulfill the National Military Strategy. The potential destruction, incapacitation, or exploitation of critical DIB assets by attack, crime, technological failure, natura...

2007-01-01

382

Directed energy planetary defense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asteroids and comets that cross Earth's orbit pose a credible risk of impact, with potentially severe disturbances to Earth and society. Numerous risk mitigation strategies have been described, most involving dedicated missions to a threatening object. We propose an orbital planetary defense system capable of heating the surface of potentially hazardous objects to the vaporization point as a feasible approach to impact risk mitigation. We call the system DE-STAR for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation. DE-STAR is a modular phased array of kilowatt class lasers powered by photovoltaic's. Modular design allows for incremental development, test, and initial deployment, lowering cost, minimizing risk, and allowing for technological co-development, leading eventually to an orbiting structure that would be developed in stages with both technological and target milestones. The main objective of DE-STAR is to use the focused directed energy to raise the surface spot temperature to ~3,000K, allowing direct vaporization of all known substances. In the process of heating the surface ejecting evaporated material a large reaction force would alter the asteroid's orbit. The baseline system is a DE-STAR 3 or 4 (1-10km array) depending on the degree of protection desired. A DE-STAR 4 allows for asteroid engagement starting beyond 1AU with a spot temperature sufficient to completely evaporate up to 500-m diameter asteroids in one year. Small asteroids and comets can be diverted/evaporated with a DESTAR 2 (100m) while space debris is vaporized with a DE-STAR 1 (10m).

Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Bible, Johanna; Bublitz, Jesse; Arriola, Josh; Motta, Caio; Suen, Jon; Johansson, Isabella; Riley, Jordan; Sarvian, Nilou; Clayton-Warwick, Deborah; Wu, Jane; Milich, Andrew; Oleson, Mitch; Pryor, Mark; Krogen, Peter; Kangas, Miikka

2013-09-01

383

Gamma Interferon, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, and Nitric Oxide Synthase 2, Key Elements of Cellular Immunity, Perform Critical Protective Functions during Humoral Defense against Lethal Pulmonary Yersinia pestis Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary infection by Yersinia pestis causes pneumonic plague, a rapidly progressing and often fatal disease. To aid the development of safe and effective pneumonic plague vaccines, we are deciphering mecha- nisms used by the immune system to protect against lethal pulmonary Y. pestis infection. In murine pneumonic plague models, passive transfer of convalescent-phase sera confers protection, as does active vaccination

Michelle A. Parent; Lindsey B. Wilhelm; Lawrence W. Kummer; Frank M. Szaba; Isis K. Mullarky; Stephen T. Smiley

2006-01-01

384

Vertebrate sickness behaviors: Adaptive and integrated neuroendocrine immune responses.  

PubMed

Vertebrate sickness behaviors, which include lethargy, anorexia, and decreased libido, can facilitate defense against pathogens by conserving energy for use in other immune responses and by limiting parasites' access to nutrients. Such benefits come with considerable costs, however, as lethargy decreases the time available for other fitness-enhancing activities and dampened libido directly reduces reproductive prospects. While the degree of sickness behaviors expressed varies among individuals, populations, and species, the ecological and physiological factors driving this diversity remain unclear. Here, we consider how an organism's ecological context and life-history strategy may impact the ways in which it balances the costs and benefits of sickness behaviors to enable or suppress its expression. Striking an appropriate balance requires physiological assimilation of information about external ecological conditions as well as about the status of infection and host nutrition. This integration requires multi-directional communication among the endocrine, nervous, and immune systems, the purview of the field of psychoneuroimmunology. This discipline portrays cytokines, signaling molecules originally characterized solely by their roles within the immune system, as key mediators of a brain-immune network that ensures the adaptive expression of sickness behaviors. Study of these molecules and the behaviors they coordinate in an ecological context will greatly augment our understanding of the natural variation in immune function found among wild animals. PMID:21665814

Adelman, James S; Martin, Lynn B

2009-05-29

385

Immunity to Francisella  

PubMed Central

In recent years, studies on the intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis have greatly intensified, generating a wealth of new information on the interaction of this organism with the immune system. Here we review the basic elements of the innate and adaptive immune responses that contribute to protective immunity against Francisella species, with special emphasis on new data that has emerged in the last 5?years. Most studies have utilized the mouse model of infection, although there has been an expansion of work on human cells and other new animal models. In mice, basic immune parameters that operate in defense against other intracellular pathogen infections, such as interferon gamma, TNF-?, and reactive nitrogen intermediates, are central for control of Francisella infection. However, new important immune mediators have been revealed, including IL-17A, Toll-like receptor 2, and the inflammasome. Further, a variety of cell types in addition to macrophages are now recognized to support Francisella growth, including epithelial cells and dendritic cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are clearly important for control of primary infection and vaccine-induced protection, but new T cell subpopulations and the mechanisms employed by T cells are only beginning to be defined. A significant role for B cells and specific antibodies has been established, although their contribution varies greatly between bacterial strains of lower and higher virulence. Overall, recent data profile a pathogen that is adept at subverting host immune responses, but susceptible to many elements of the immune system's antimicrobial arsenal.

Cowley, Siobhan C.; Elkins, Karen L.

2011-01-01

386

Immunization of complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Complex networks such as the sexual partnership web or the Internet often show a high degree of redundancy and heterogeneity in their connectivity properties. This peculiar connectivity provides an ideal environment for the spreading of infective agents. Here we show that the random uniform immunization of individuals does not lead to the eradication of infections in all complex networks. Namely, networks with scale-free properties do not acquire global immunity from major epidemic outbreaks even in the presence of unrealistically high densities of randomly immunized individuals. The absence of any critical immunization threshold is due to the unbounded connectivity fluctuations of scale-free networks. Successful immunization strategies can be developed only by taking into account the inhomogeneous connectivity properties of scale-free networks. In particular, targeted immunization schemes, based on the nodes' connectivity hierarchy, sharply lower the network's vulnerability to epidemic attacks.

Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

2002-03-01

387

In defense of criminal defense expenditures and plea bargaining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the continuing controversy over defendants' buying justice through defense expenditures, this paper shows that disparities in criminal defense expenditures can insure that it is the guilty and not the innocent who will be punished. Our model allows defense and prosecution expenditures to be simultaneously determined. We show that criminal defense expenditures result in lower expected penalties for the innocent

John R. Lott

1996-01-01

388

Defensive Federal Litigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This compilation of cases and materials on defensive federal litigation is designed to provide primary source material for students in The Judge Advocate General's School Graduate Course. Cases and other legal authorities are arranged to develop both the ...

1994-01-01

389

Department of Defense Instruction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Instruction consolidates, without substantive change, references (b) through (f) DoD Directive 4405.6, 'Delegation of Authority to Assistant Secretary of Defense (Installations and Logistics),' DoD Instruction 4405.11, 'Delegation of Priorities and A...

1971-01-01

390

Defense Portfolio Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project paper provides a systematic decomposition and industrial comparison of the U.S. defense decision-support process methodologies of Portfolio Analysis (PA). Included are current methods, tools, and models for ranking and evaluating strategic al...

A. Adams B. Minner E. Bala T. Woodland

2009-01-01

391

Food Defense Plan Builder  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... How do I get the Food Defense Plan Builder? ... FDA does not track or monitor its use and does not have access to any content or documents ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/fooddefense/toolseducationalmaterials

392

The Immune System - Nobel Prize Educational Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Immune System Defender educational game, with three related readings, are based on the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which was awarded for key discoveries about the immune defense system ÃÂ for identifying certain body cells that engulfe bacteria and for work on trying to explain how antibodies are formed in the body.

2009-01-01

393

Evasion of innate immunity by parasitic protozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic protozoa are a major cause of global infectious disease. These eukaryotic pathogens have evolved with the vertebrate immune system and typically produce long-lasting chronic infections. A critical step in their host interaction is the evasion of innate immune defenses. The ability to avoid attack by humoral effector mechanisms, such as complement lysis, is of particular importance to extracellular parasites,

Alan Sher; David Sacks

2002-01-01

394

Artificial immune systems: application to autonomous agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of the immune system is to protect the living body against invaders through the use of defensive mechanisms. Some previous researchers have used artificial immune systems (AIS) to solve diverse engineering problems. The purpose of the paper is to apply the AIS technique to a distributed autonomous robotics system (DARS) problem. One of the classic problems in DARS

Hossam Meshref; Hugh VanLandingham

2000-01-01

395

Essays on strategy VII  

SciTech Connect

Revolutionary developments in Europe and their global reverberations since 1989 have affected certain aspects of our national strategy. This volume presents nine essays dealing imaginatively with the issues of the post-Cold War period. One of them addresses general US strategy for the 1990s. Three focus on high-level strategic matters: the future of flexible response, antisatellite weapons, and forward, mobile defenses. The others address US chemical weapons policy, use of civilian aircraft for defense airlift, neutrality of the Panama Canal after 1999, arms sales by China, and strategic defense at reduced cost.

Gill, T.C.

1990-01-01

396

Memory in Human Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human immune system consists of a complex variety of difierent molecules and cells that together manage to defend our bodies against invaders and remember the ones that once got through the defense. The exact mechanism of the adaptive response and memory formation is not well understood at the moment, although difierent theories have been introduced. This report shortly reviews

Perttu Niemela

397

Immunity and immune suppression in human ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer are heterogeneous, independent of common features such as stage, response to therapy and grade. This disparity in outcomes warrants further exploration into tumor and host characteristics. One compelling issue is the response of the patient’s immune system to her ovarian cancer. Several studies have confirmed a prominent role for the immune system in modifying disease course. This has led to the identification and evaluation of novel immune-modulating therapeutic approaches such as vaccination and antibody therapy. Antitumor immunity, however, is often negated by immune suppression mechanisms present in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, in the future, research into immunotherapy targeting ovarian cancer will probably become increasingly focused on combination approaches that simultaneously augment immunity while preventing local immune suppression. In this article, we summarize important immunological issues that could influence ovarian cancer outcome, including tumor antigens, endogenous immune responses, immune escape and new and developing immunotherapeutic strategies.

Preston, Claudia C; Goode, Ellen L; Hartmann, Lynn C; Kalli, Kimberly R; Knutson, Keith L

2011-01-01

398

Cytosolic surveillance and antiviral immunity  

PubMed Central

Innate immune surveillance mechanisms lie at the heart of the antiviral response. A growing number of germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptors have been identified which protect the host from infection by sensing the presence of viral molecules and inducing antiviral defenses. Most compartments that viruses gain access to are under active surveillance by one or more pattern recognition receptors. Members of the Toll-like receptor family guard the extracellular milieu and endosomal compartment where they are activated by viral glycoproteins or nucleic acids, respectively. More recently, the cytosolic compartment has emerged as the frontline in the arsenal of the host’s antiviral defenses. Families of receptors in the cytosol recognize viral RNA or DNA or perturbations of cellular homeostasis and orchestrate effector responses to eliminate the invader. Here, we review this expanding area of innate immunity by focusing on the molecular mechanisms of cytosolic host-defenses.

Rathinam, Vijay AK; Fitzgerald, Katherine A

2013-01-01

399

Mechanisms of immune resolution  

PubMed Central

Initially after injury, the innate/proinflammatory and some aspects of the acquired immune response are up-regulated to maintain a defense against foreign pathogens, clear tissue debris present at the wound site, and orchestrate aspects of tissue remodeling, cell proliferation and angiogenic process, associated with the wound response. However, for proper wound healing to progress, this initial inflammatory response has to be regulated or shut down so as to allow for the reestablishment of matrix, recellularization, and tissue remodeling. Inability to properly resolve the extent of innate/acquired response at a site of injury can lead to poor wound healing, immune suppression, and recurrent infectious episodes. This review attempts to summarize information on regulatory mechanisms that are thought to be involved in controlling/resolving innate or acquired immune responses so as to provide a framework for use in thinking about the impact these processes and their manipulation may have on wound healing and its potential management.

Ayala, Alfred; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Grutkoski, Patricia S.; Song, Grace Y.

2008-01-01

400

Recognition and elimination of diversified pathogens in insect defense systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The elimination of infectious non-self by the host defense systems of multicellular organisms requires a variety of recognition and effector molecules. The diversity is generated in somatic cells or encoded in the germ-line. In adaptive immunity in jawed vertebrates, the diversity of immunoglobulins and antigen receptors is generated by gene rearrangements in somatic cells. In innate immunity, various effector molecules

Shoichiro Kurata

2006-01-01

401

Hemolin—A lepidopteran anti-viral defense factor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunity in insects has largely focused on responses towards bacteria and fungi, but recently the study of immune responses against viral infections has also received attention. In Lepidoptera, phagocytosis and encapsulation mediated by hemocytes, and apoptosis are part of the response against virus infection; however, many studies also suggest the presence of unknown factors involved in the anti-viral defense.An up-regulation

Olle Terenius

2008-01-01

402

The cell-mediated immunity of Drosophila melanogaster: Hemocyte lineages, immune compartments, microanatomy and regulation.  

PubMed

In the animal kingdom, innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. The dangers of microbial and parasitic attacks are countered by similar mechanisms, involving the prototypes of the cell-mediated immune responses, the phagocytosis and encapsulation. Work on Drosophila has played an important role in promoting an understanding of the basic mechanisms of phylogenetically conserved modules of innate immunity. The aim of this review is to survey the developments in the identification and functional definition of immune cell types and the immunological compartments of Drosophila melanogaster. We focus on the molecular and developmental aspects of the blood cell types and compartments, as well as the dynamics of blood cell development and the immune response. Further advances in the characterization of the innate immune mechanisms in Drosophila will provide basic clues to the understanding of the importance of the evolutionary conserved mechanisms of innate immune defenses in the animal kingdom. PMID:23800719

Honti, Viktor; Csordás, Gábor; Kurucz, Eva; Márkus, Róbert; Andó, István

2013-06-22

403

Improved immune genetic algorithm for JSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the information processing mechanism of immune system in life sciences, based on simple genetic algorithm, a new approach of immune genetic algorithm for job shop scheduling is proposed through combining immune algorithm with improved genetic algorithm (strategy of multiple crossover per couple with incest prevention). A immune genetic algorithm aiming at job shop scheduling is set up. The

Quanyong Ju; Jianying Zhu

2008-01-01

404

Defense Acquisitions. Missile Defense Needs a Better Balance between Flexibility and Accountability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the next 5 years the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) expects to invest $49 billion in the BMD system's development and fielding. MDA's strategy is to field new capabilities in 2-year blocks. In January 2006, MDA initiated its second block Block 2006 to ...

P. Francis

2007-01-01

405

Immunizations (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Immunizations (vaccinations) are given to initiate or augment resistance to an infectious disease. Immunizations provide a specialized form of immunity that provides long-lasting protection against specific antigens, such as certain diseases.

406

Immunizations (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Immunizations (vaccinations) are given to initiate or augment resistance to an infectious disease. Immunizations provide a specialized form of immunity that provides long-lasting protection against specific antigens, which cause disease.

407

Multiantibody Strategies for HIV  

PubMed Central

Vaccination strategies depend entirely on the appropriate responsiveness of our immune system against particular antigens. For this active immunization to be truly effective, neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) need to efficiently counter the infectivity or propagation of the pathogen. Some viruses, including HIV, are able to take advantage of this immune response in order to evade nAbs. This review focuses on viral immune evasion strategies that result directly from a robust immune response to infection or vaccination. A rationale for multi-Ab therapy to circumvent this phenomenon is discussed. Progress in the formulation, production, and regulatory approval of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is presented.

Whaley, Kevin J.

2013-01-01

408

Interaction between Yersinia pestis and the Host Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mammalian immune system comprises multiple physi- cal, chemical, and cellular components that are traditionally classified as innate and adaptive immunity. The innate immune response is the first line of host defense against pathogens, depending on barrier structures, phagocytic cells (neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs)), natural killer (NK) cells, and molecules such as complement proteins, cytokines, and antimicrobial peptides.

B. Li; R. Yang

2008-01-01

409

Dendritic Cell, Toll-Like Receptor, and The Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise a complex lineage and subset of bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells. DCs not only directly participate in the defense of microbial pathogens in the innate immune system; they also transmit the information of the invading pathogens and present pathogen antigens to T cells of the adaptive immune system and modulate subsequent immune responses. One critical factor for

Ko-Jiunn Liu

2006-01-01

410

14 CFR 375.26 - Waiver of sovereign immunity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Waiver of sovereign immunity. 375.26 Section 375.26 Aeronautics...Applicable § 375.26 Waiver of sovereign immunity. Owners and operators of aircraft...activities waive any defense of sovereign immunity from suit in any action or...

2013-01-01

411

14 CFR 380.67 - Waiver of sovereign immunity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Waiver of sovereign immunity. 380.67 Section 380.67 Aeronautics...Operators § 380.67 Waiver of sovereign immunity. By accepting an approved registration...have to assert any defense of sovereign immunity from suit in any proceeding against...

2013-01-01

412

14 CFR 297.23 - Waiver of sovereign immunity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Waiver of sovereign immunity. 297.23 Section 297.23 Aeronautics...Associations § 297.23 Waiver of sovereign immunity. By accepting an approval registration...possess to assert any defense of sovereign immunity from suit in any action or...

2013-01-01

413

14 CFR 294.80 - Waiver of sovereign immunity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Waiver of sovereign immunity. 294.80 Section 294.80 Aeronautics...Part § 294.80 Waiver of sovereign immunity. By accepting an approved registration...possess to assert any defense of sovereign immunity in any action or proceeding...

2013-01-01

414

An Empirical Study of Immune System Based On Bipartite Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immune system is the most important defense system to resist human pathogens. In this paper we present an immune model with bipartite graphs theory. We collect data through COPE database and construct an immune cell- mediators network. The act degree distribution of this network is proved to be power-law, with index of 1.8. From our analysis, we found that some

Sheng-Rong Zou; Yu-Jing Peng; Zhong-Wei Guo; Ta Zhou; Chang-gui Gu; Da-Ren He

2007-01-01

415

75 FR 32635 - Defense Acquisition Regulations System; Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Defense Acquisition Regulations System...217, 225, et al. Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplements; Proposed Rules...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252...

2010-06-08

416

The spiderweb defense  

SciTech Connect

The study group on Alternative Security Policy (SAS) has laid out the most detailed plan to date for making West German military forces strictly defensive. This group includes active soldiers, politicians, and scientific and military experts. The authors shows there that these concepts are based on sound military thinking and therefore can deter aggression. The SAS defense concept proposes a structural change in air, naval, and land forces. This article deals only with land forces, which have three components in this concept: static light infantry, light and heavy armored formations, and troops for rear area defense. The third component is not considered here because it is only of secondary importance for the military rationale of the SAS proposal. It is the interaction between the other two elements that inspired Egbert Boeker to term the SAS concept spider in the web. 6 refs.

Grin, J.; Unterseher, L. (Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1988-09-01

417

Defense against ballistic missiles  

SciTech Connect

A development history and development status evaluation is presented for weapons technologies capable of serving as defenses against nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles. The decisive turning-point in this history was the March 23, 1983 announcement by President Reagan of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Due to President Reagan's emphasis on population protection, 'global' defense systems have tended to dominate SDI design efforts. The most important SDI technical achievements to date encompass (1) miniature homig devices, (2) the upgrade of the Patriot SAM for missile-interception capabilities, (3) light exoatmospheric projectiles, such as 'Brilliant Pebbles', (4) successful laser-communications experiments, and (5) the warhead/decoy-discriminating Firepond lidar system. 7 refs.

Mark, H. (Texas, University, Austin (United States))

1992-01-01

418

Chicken scavenger receptors and their ligand-induced cellular immune responses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The (SRs) comprise structurally and functionally divergent groups of cell surface and secreted proteins that play an important role in innate immune defenses. Searching translated chicken genomic databases revealed many proteins homologous to mammalian SRs. SR mediated immune functions (oxidative ...

419

Identifying a Defective Pathway in Innate Immunity as an Immunoescape Mechanism for Breast Cancer Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The innate immune system is critical for the early detection of invading pathogens and for initiating cellular host defense counter measures, which include the production of type I interferon (IFN). Immune dysfunction develops in patients with many cancer...

G. Barber

2012-01-01

420

Host defense peptides as new weapons in cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade intensive research has been conducted to determine the role of innate immunity host defense peptides (also termed antimicrobial peptides) in the killing of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Many antimicrobial peptides damage the cellular membrane as part of their killing mechanism. However, it is not clear what makes cancer cells more susceptible to some of these peptides,

N. Papo; Y. Shai

2005-01-01

421

Interleukin17 and Lung Host Defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial pneumonia remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in immune-compromised patients. Cytokines and chemokines are critical molecules ex- pressed in response to invading pathogens and are necessary for normal lung bacterial host defenses. Here we show that in- terleukin (IL)-17, a novel cytokine produced largely by CD4 ? T cells, is produced in a compartmentalized fashion

Peng Ye; Patrick B. Garvey; Ping Zhang; Steve Nelson; Greg Bagby; Warren R. Summer; Paul Schwarzenberger; Judd E. Shellito; Jay K. Kolls

422

Language and Implicit Attributions in the Nuremberg Trials: Analyzing Prosecutors' and Defense Attorneys' Closing Speeches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates attributional implications of prosecutors' and defense attorneys' language strategies using the protocols of the historical Nuremberg trials. States that apart from more positive statements regarding the defendants being made by defense lawyers than prosecutors, both sides used a number of subtler strategies. (PA)

Schmid, Jeannette; Fiedler, Klaus

1996-01-01

423

Apoplastic immunity and its suppression by filamentous plant pathogens.  

PubMed

Microbial plant pathogens have evolved a variety of strategies to enter plant hosts and cause disease. In particular, biotrophic pathogens, which parasitize living plant tissue, establish sophisticated interactions in which they modulate the plant's metabolism to their own good. The prime decision, whether or not a pathogen can accommodate itself in its host tissue, is made during the initial phase of infection. At this stage, the plant immune system recognizes conserved molecular patterns of the invading microbe, which initiate a set of basal immune responses. Induced plant defense proteins, toxic compounds and antimicrobial proteins encounter a broad arsenal of pathogen-derived virulence factors that aim to disarm host immunity. Crucial regulatory processes and protein-protein interactions take place in the apoplast, that is, intercellular spaces, plant cell walls and defined host-pathogen interfaces which are formed between the plant cytoplasm and the specialized infection structures of many biotrophic pathogens. This article aims to provide an insight into the most important principles and components of apoplastic plant immunity and its modulation by filamentous microbial pathogens. PMID:23594392

Doehlemann, Gunther; Hemetsberger, Christoph

2013-04-17

424

Impact of timing strategy of LIGHT, a new TNF superfamily on immune platform induced by HSV1 gB DNA vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the role of various cytokines on stimulating the immune responses is characterized well, the importance of LIGHT, a member of TNF superfamily, is less clear. In the current study, we administrated LIGHT expression plasmid as an adjuvant to HSV-1 gB DNA vaccine. HSV-1 gB DNA can elicit vigorous humoral and cell mediated immunity in BALB\\/c mice. LIGHT could potentiate

Somayeh Pouyanfard; Taravat Bamdad; Masoud Parsania; Hamidreza Hashemi; Masumeh Gorgian Mohammadi

2010-01-01

425

Strategic Defense Initiative in a changing world. Study project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to dramatic changes in the global strategic environment, the United States must move from a bipolar to a multipolar defense strategy. Our emerging strategy must concentrate on both global and regional conflicts in which ballistic missiles of varying ranges and weapons of mass destruction may be employed. The proliferation of space and ballistic missile capabilities, especially into the

Peacock

1992-01-01

426

The immune response to human CMV  

PubMed Central

This review will summarize and interpret recent literature regarding the human CMV immune response, which is among the strongest measured and is the focus of attention for numerous research groups. CMV is a highly prevalent, globally occurring infection that rarely elicits disease in healthy immunocompetent hosts. The human immune system is unable to clear CMV infection and latency, but mounts a spirited immune-defense targeting multiple immune-evasion genes encoded by this dsDNA ?-herpes virus. Additionally, the magnitude of cellular immune response devoted to CMV may cause premature immune senescence, and the high frequencies of cytolytic T cells may aggravate vascular pathologies. However, uncontrolled CMV viremia and life-threatening symptoms, which occur readily after immunosuppression and in the immature host, clearly indicate the essential role of immunity in maintaining asymptomatic co-existence with CMV. Approaches for harnessing the host immune response to CMV are needed to reduce the burden of CMV complications in immunocompromised individuals.

La Rosa, Corinna; Diamond, Don J

2012-01-01

427

SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) and the US defense posture  

SciTech Connect

Issues surrounding the Strategic Defense Initiative are discussed. Comments are made on the research and development program and the effect of this program on the defensive posture of the United States.

May, M.M.

1986-07-01

428

Replication of respiratory syncytial virus is inhibited by the host defense molecule viperin.  

PubMed

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important viral pathogen of otitis media, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. As infection of the upper airways is a precondition for the development of these diseases, understanding RSV pathogenesis and the host response induced by RSV in this niche may enable the development of novel therapeutic strategies against this virus. We have used a microarray approach and showed that expression of the gene that encodes the antiviral protein viperin was significantly upregulated in the chinchilla nasopharynx up to 1 week after RSV challenge. Overexpression of human viperin in vitro diminished the ability of RSV to infect HeLa or A549 cells. Furthermore, transduction of the chinchilla airways with a recombinant adeno-associated virus vector that encodes viperin resulted in reduced titers of RSV in the nasopharyngeal lavage fluid. Collectively, these data indicated that viperin plays a significant role in the innate immune defense against RSV. PMID:23018837

McGillivary, Glen; Jordan, Zachary B; Peeples, Mark E; Bakaletz, Lauren O

2012-09-25

429

The self-defense defense and community sentiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been asserted (e.g., Gillespie, 1989) that the self-defense defense, with its objectivereasonable man standard, is unfairly biased against certain female defendants who kill a male and plead not guilty by reason of self-defense (NGRSD), and that jurors, who represent “community sentiment,” share that bias. Using three cases where a woman kills and pleads self-defense (a battered woman case,

Norman J. Finkel; Kristen H. Meister; Deirdre M. Lightfoott

1991-01-01

430

Coeducational Self-Defense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-defense is a useful method for correcting stereotyped feelings of submissiveness and dominance for all age groups and both sexes, yet teachers must take into consideration the forms and strengths of these stereotypes at each age level in order to teach effectively. (MB)

McGrath, Alice; Tegner, Bruce

1977-01-01

431

National Missile Defense.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After the terrorist attacks on September 11th, 2001, President George W. Bush gained significant public support for his administration's idea of ending the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty and for building a defense system or a missile shield to protect the ...

C. Jones

2003-01-01

432

Missile Defense in 2027  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is some uncertainty about the direction of the U.S. missile defense program, there can be little question that the threats posed by ballistic missiles and the availability of nuclear weapons to potential adversaries will continue to grow well into this century. We will need new capabilities, because, over the long term, the currently configured and planned terrestrial-based missile

Steven Lambakis

2008-01-01

433

Crimes and Defenses Deskbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CRIMES AND DEFENSES DESKBOOK JULY 1992 is designed to supplement DA Pamphlets 27-9, 27-173, 27-22, and instruction provided at The Judge Advocate General's School, U.S. Army. An effort has been made to adopt a uniform format; however, the content and styl...

1992-01-01

434

Keys to Defensive Driving  

MedlinePLUS

... as people "multitask" by talking on the phone, texting or checking messages, eating, or even watching TV as they drive. You can't control the actions of other drivers. But updating your defensive driving skills can help you avoid the dangers caused ...

435

Langerhans cell antigen capture through tight junctions confers preemptive immunity in experimental staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome.  

PubMed

Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) extend dendrites through tight junctions (TJs) to survey the skin surface, but their immunological contribution in vivo remains elusive. We show that LCs were essential for inducing IgG(1) responses to patch-immunized ovalbumin in mice that lacked skin dendritic cell subsets. The significance of LC-induced humoral responses was demonstrated in a mouse model of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), a severe blistering disease in which the desmosomal protein Dsg1 (desmoglein1) is cleaved by Staphylococcus aureus-derived exfoliative toxin (ET). Importantly, ET did not penetrate TJs, and patch immunization did not alter epidermal integrity. Nevertheless, neutralizing anti-ET IgG(1) was induced after patch immunization and abolished upon LC depletion, indicating that antigen capture through TJs by LCs induced humoral immunity. Strikingly, the ET-patched mice were protected from developing SSSS after intraperitoneal ET challenge, whereas LC-depleted mice were susceptible to SSSS, demonstrating a vital role for LC-induced IgG(1) in systemic defense against circulating toxin in vivo. Therefore, LCs elicit humoral immunity to antigens that have not yet violated the epidermal barrier, providing preemptive immunity against potentially pathogenic skin microbes. Targeting this immunological process confers protection with minimal invasiveness and should have a marked impact on future strategies for development of percutaneous vaccines. PMID:22143886

Ouchi, Takeshi; Kubo, Akiharu; Yokouchi, Mariko; Adachi, Takeya; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Kitashima, Daniela Y; Fujii, Hideki; Clausen, Björn E; Koyasu, Shigeo; Amagai, Masayuki; Nagao, Keisuke

2011-12-05

436

Blame culture and defensive medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Defensive medicine takes place when healthcare personnel (doctors and nurses) order unnecessary treatments (positive defensive\\u000a medicine) or avoid high-risk procedures or patients (negative defensive medicine) with the principle—though not exclusive—aim\\u000a of reducing their expose to damages claims. This phenomenon is directly related to the significant growth in medical malpractice\\u000a litigation over recent years. Defensive medicine increases the cost of healthcare

Maurizio Catino

2009-01-01

437

Joint stabilizing projects in defense  

SciTech Connect

Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other`s accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

1992-06-01

438

Joint stabilizing projects in defense  

SciTech Connect

Joint defensive projects could increase stability and decrease the alert rates of strategic forces. Areas include the defense of the US, Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and their allies against third world threats; protection against each other's accidental or unauthorized launches; and defense against intentional attacks. The most promising area appears to be defining interfaces for the handover of satellite warning and trajectory information, which applies to most phases of theater defense and mutual protection. 19 refs.

Canavan, G.H.; Browne, J.C.; Joseph, R.J.

1992-06-01

439

The gracefully aging immune system.  

PubMed

Prolonged life expectancy in the 20th century has been one of humankind's greatest triumphs. However, the substantial increase in the human life span has ushered in a new concern: healthy aging. Because infectious diseases prominently contribute to morbidity in the particularly vulnerable elderly population, strategies for preventing these diseases would have a clear impact on improving healthy aging. Thus, vaccines and immunization strategies tailored for the elderly population are needed, and vaccines should be developed to take into consideration the peculiar age-induced variations of immune responsiveness. The conference "Ageing and Immunity" recently held in Siena, Italy, has reviewed and discussed several possible causes of immune senescence, as well as strategies for counteracting this waning of immune responsiveness and for restoring immunocompetence. In addition, examples of diseases that should be targeted by vaccination in the senior population were considered. PMID:23677590

Boraschi, Diana; Aguado, M Teresa; Dutel, Catherine; Goronzy, Jörg; Louis, Jacques; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Rappuoli, Rino; Del Giudice, Giuseppe

2013-05-15

440

Breast Milk: Components with Immune Modulating Potential and Their Possible Role in Immune Mediated Disease Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Breast milk contains several interesting immune modulating components with specific modulating potentials, which are known\\u000a to have a clear role in immune mediated disease resistance later in life. The development and deterioration of our immune\\u000a defenses show differences as well as similarities in immunological challenges throughout life. Each phase in life puts specific\\u000a requirements on nutrition, although no clear statement

Belinda Land; Günther Boehm; Johan Garssen

441

Innate immunity and chronic immune activation in HCV\\/HIV1 co-infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innate immune responses are critical in the defense against viral infections. NK cells, myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and invariant CD1d-restricted NKT cells mediate both effector and regulatory functions in this early immune response. In chronic uncontrolled viral infections such as HCV and HIV-1, these essential immune functions are compromised and can become a double edged sword contributing to the

Veronica D. Gonzalez; Alan L. Landay; Johan K. Sandberg

2010-01-01

442

76 FR 13297 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 215 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense...

2011-03-11

443

76 FR 25 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System 48 CFR Part 252 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense...

2011-01-03

444

Chemical defense by termite soldiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemistry of the defensive secretions of termite soldiers is reviewed. The structural variety of the chemical weapons, the uses of these substances in defense, and some potential biosynthetic interrelationships are discussed. Classification of the monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and various acetate-derived compounds according to termite subfamilies places the known defense substances in a phylogenetic perspective.

Glenn D. Prestwich

1979-01-01

445

Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. Directive  

SciTech Connect

The Directive reissues DoD Directive 5141.5, February 21, 1986, and establishes, pursuant to the authority vested in the Secretary of Defense under Title 10, United States Code, and National Security Decision Directive 119, January 6, 1984, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization as an agency of the Department of Defense with responsibilities, functions, relationships, and authorities as prescribed herein.

Furtner, R.

1987-06-04

446

Strategic defense initiative: critical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as outlined by President Reagan are discussed. The principal objective for SDI is as a defense against ballistic missiles. Soviet objections and a summary of US-USSR dialogue on the subject are reviewed. Most US studies have been critical of SDI. Four critical issues are addressed in depth: are defense weapons technologically feasible

Nuckolls

1985-01-01

447

Herpes Simplex Virus as a Tool to Define the Role of Complement in the Immune Response to Peripheral Infection  

PubMed Central

A complex network of interactions exist between the innate and adaptive immune pathways, which act together to elicit a broad and durable host response following pathogen infection. The importance of the complement system in the host’s defense against viruses has become increasingly clear as a result of detailed studies using transgenic mouse models that disrupt specific components of this host immune mechanism. We have utilized herpes simplex virus and replication-defective mutant strains to examine the impact of the complement system on development and maintenance of humoral immune responses. Here we review work from our group and others that highlight the central role that complement proteins C3 and C4 and complement receptors Cr1/Cr2 play during viral infection. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of pathogen infection and current vaccine strategies.

Brockman, Mark A.; Knipe, David M.

2009-01-01

448

Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies  

SciTech Connect

Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport.

Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L.; Oylear, J.M.

1982-08-01

449

Presentation Generale des Recherches de Defense (General Presentation of Defense Research).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview is provided of defense research in France. Topics include: Research within the Ministry of Defense; Defense Research as part of the national effort (financing and accomplishment of R&D, relationship between defense research and civil defense, ...

1983-01-01

450

Gene Variants Found Associated with Human Immune System, Autoimmune Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... OD About NIH Mission The NIH Director Organization Budget History Image Bank Frequently Asked Questions The NIH ... optimal health and function. Our first line of defense, the innate immune system, includes barriers, like skin ...

451

Cellular Immune Mechanisms in Malaria and African Trypanosomiasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cell-mediated immune defense mechanisms responsible for host resistance to malaria and trypanosomiasis are poorly understood. The authors therefore examined peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Thai adults naturally infected with malaria in order t...

R. P. MacDermott

1978-01-01

452

Immune Protein Found to Block HIV Spread in Some People  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Immune Protein Found to Block HIV Spread in Some People Cells' second-line defense, found ... If we preserve A3, it could minimize HIV's spread through the body as this protein seems to ...

453

Disease resistance or growth: the role of plant hormones in balancing immune responses and fitness costs.  

PubMed

Plant growth and response to environmental cues are largely governed by phytohormones. The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) play a central role in the regulation of plant immune responses. In addition, other plant hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins, gibberellins, and brassinosteroids, that have been thoroughly described to regulate plant development and growth, have recently emerged as key regulators of plant immunity. Plant hormones interact in complex networks to balance the response to developmental and environmental cues and thus limiting defense-associated fitness costs. The molecular mechanisms that govern these hormonal networks are largely unknown. Moreover, hormone signaling pathways are targeted by pathogens to disturb and evade plant defense responses. In this review, we address novel insights on the regulatory roles of the ABA, SA, and auxin in plant resistance to pathogens and we describe the complex interactions among their signal transduction pathways. The strategies developed by pathogens to evade hormone-mediated defensive responses are also described. Based on these data we discuss how hormone signaling could be manipulated to improve the resistance of crops to pathogens. PMID:23745126

Denancé, Nicolas; Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; Goffner, Deborah; Molina, Antonio

2013-05-24

454

[Immune deficiency and infections in children having cancer].  

PubMed

Childhood cancer and its treatment weaken the immune defenses and predispose the patient to infections. The recovery of immune defences depends on the provided cancer therapy and associated complications such as the graft-versus-host reaction. Recovery takes place gradually and the spectrum of infections suffered by the patient reflects the different stages of restoration of the immune defenses. Bacterial and fungal infections dominate the early, neutropenic phase, viral infections being predominant during the later lymphocytopenic phase. In the follow-up it is essential to recognize the risk factors, to observe the recuperation of the immune system and to treat the complications. PMID:23847909

Olkinuora, Helena; Rahiala, Jaana; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Koskenvuo, Minna; Vettenranta, Kim

2013-01-01

455

Strategic Defense Initiative program  

SciTech Connect

This report is a review of the extent of foreign contracting in the Strategic Defense Initiative Program. GAO identified 67 foreign contracts valued at $297.1 million, which represents about three percent of total Strategic Defense Initiative contract awards, and 86 foreign subcontracts from U.S. companies totaling $48.4 million. The basis of award for the 67 foreign contracts was more often competitive that sole source, although sole-source awards accounted for a higher dollar amount. The basis of the award by each of the U.S. agencies administering foreign contracts varied. Israel received the largest dollar value of contracts among foreign recipients. DOD and foreign embassy officials said foreign contracts allow the United States not only to share technology with other countries but also benefit from technological developments in those countries.

Not Available

1990-03-01

456

Natural Resources Defense Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Natural Resources Defense Council, this website has the latest news from the Hill, plus information everyone needs on the state of our air, water, land and health. Initial contents include "State of Nature," a regular bulletin on environmental legislation; action guidelines; and findings on subjects ranging from children and environmental carcinogens to the pollution of U.S. coastal waters. Features in development include action alerts; consumer-oriented facts and FAQs; environmental multimedia clips; research tips; and more. The Natural Resources Defense Council is a national organization working in courtrooms, legislative chambers, regulatory agencies and the public arena to protect the world's natural resources and ensure a healthy environment for all.

1998-01-01

457

Current issues in adolescent immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the December 2006 Fondation Mérieux International Scientific Symposium, the current state of adolescent immunization is reviewed with a focus on the policy and programmatic issues that impact the acceptability, initiation, and successful implementation. Key questions are identified with proposed strategies to help achieve successful adolescent immunization programs. The role of current vaccines targeted to adolescents, such as those

Loretta Brabin; David P. Greenberg; Luc Hessel; Randall Hyer; Bernard Ivanoff; Pierre Van Damme

2008-01-01

458

The Defense Attorney  

Microsoft Academic Search

As I reflected on cases our firm has successfully defended for physicians, it occurred to me that two of the most important\\u000a elements that helped us to achieve a successful outcome were, first of all, extensive preparation, and, second, teamwork between\\u000a the defendant physician and the defense attorney. I will outline some of the techniques that we provide to our

E. Burke Giblin

459

Regulation of local immunity by airway epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epithelial cells are the first line of defense against invading microbial pathogens. They are important contributors to innate\\u000a mucosal immunity and generate various and sophisticated anti-microbial defense mechanisms, including the formation of a tight\\u000a barrier and secretion of anti-microbial substances as well as inflammatory mediators. To provide these active