The gastrointestinal tract microbiota contributes to the development and differentiation of the mammalian immune system. The composition of the microbiota affects immune responses and affects susceptibility to infection by intestinal pathogens and development of allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases. Antibiotic administration, while facilitating clearance of targeted infections, also perturbs commensal microbial communities and decreases host resistance to antibiotic-resistant microbes. Here, we review recent advances that begin to define the interactions between complex intestinal microbial populations and the mammalian immune system and how this relation is perturbed by antibiotic administration. We further discuss how antibiotic-induced disruption of the microbiota and immune homeostasis can lead to disease and we review strategies to restore immune defenses during antibiotic administration. PMID:22677185
Ubeda, Carles; Pamer, Eric G
The gastrointestinal tract microbiota contributes to the development and differentiation of the mammalian immune system. The composition of the microbiota affects immune responses and affects susceptibility to infection by intestinal pathogens and development of allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases. Antibiotic administration, while facilitating clearance of targeted infections, also perturbs commensal microbial communities and decreases host resistance to antibiotic-resistant microbes. Here, we review recent advances that begin to define the interactions between complex intestinal microbial populations and the mammalian immune system and how this relation is perturbed by antibiotic administration. We further discuss how antibiotic-induced disruption of the microbiota and immune homeostasis can lead to disease and we review strategies to restore immune defenses during antibiotic administration.
Ubeda, Carles; Pamer, Eric G.
Success in rugby union competition is dependent partly on the defensive strategies of a team. Despite this, little empirical evidence exists about effective defensive strategies used during play. This study attempted to identify defensive characteristics associated with increased likelihood of a successful outcome in rugby union, while considering the game situation. Twenty-one matches of the 2010 Super 14 competition were analysed, amounting to 2,394 coded tackle contacts. The likelihood of the defending team winning the breakdown (the post-tackle contact situation where opposing teams compete for possession of the ball) increased as the match progressed. Defensive speed, measured as the speed of the defence in response to the attacking line, was a statistically significant predictor of breakdown wins and preventing the attacking team from advancing towards the gain line. Identifying the relative effectiveness of such strategies allows understanding of rugby match behaviour and may be applied to improve organisation, design, training, teaching and learning the game. PMID:24422340
Hendricks, Sharief; Roode, Brad; Matthews, Bevan; Lambert, Michael
RNA interference (RNAi, also known as RNA silencing) has recently emerged as a fundamental and widespread regulator of gene expression. New developments in this field implicate RNAi in the innate immune response to infection in plants and animals. Evidence from plants, tissue culture cells, and Caenorhabditis elegans–based systems previously suggested that RNAi plays a role in the defense against viral infection, but definitive evidence using viruses and whole animals has been lacking. Two recent reports now show that both Drosophila embryos and adult flies mount a substantial innate immune response to insect viruses that requires the RNAi machinery. This innate response is distinct from known bacterial and fungal defense systems provided by the Toll and immune deficiency (Imd) pathways, thus defining a previously unrecognized strategy to fight viral infection. Whether RNAi, aside from its function in counteracting viruses, is also used to fight bacterial infection remained enigmatic. New evidence, however, now shows that in Arabidopsis, the bacterial component, flagellin, induces the expression of a specific microRNA, which in turn leads to the down-regulation of the signaling pathways that are implicated in disease susceptibility. This down-regulation then increases the plant's resistance to infection. Whether RNAi mechanisms also exist for combating bacterial diseases in animals remains an intriguing question for future studies.
Jorg H. Fritz (University of Toronto;Department of Immunology REV); Stephen E. Girardin (University of Toronto;Department of Immunology REV); Dana J. Philpott (University of Toronto;Department of Immunology REV)
Defense reactions of the dentin\\/pulp complex involve a variety of biological systems, in which the immune system plays a pivotal role. The knowledge of the organization and function of pulpal immunocompetent cells has been sparse, but in recent years a significant body of information of immune mechanisms in general has provided a footing for substantial new knowledge of the immune
M. Jontell; T. Okiji; U. Dahlgren; G. Bergenholtz
In September 2007, Brazil's President Lula mandated the establishment of a national defense strategy. In December 2008, the Minister of Defense, Nelson Jobim, sent that strategy to the President. In 2010, President Lula signed executive orders to implemen...
A. Fishman M. Manwaring
The Department of Defense (DoD) is developing a new strategy for displays. The new displays science and technology roadmap will incorporate urgent warfighter needs as well as investment opportunities where military advantage is foreseen. Thrusts now ending include the High Definition System (HDS) program and related initiatives, like flexible displays, at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Continuing thrusts include a variety of Serviceled programs to develop micro-displays for virtual image helmet-/rifle-mounted systems for pilots and soldiers, novel displays, materials, and basic research. New thrusts are being formulated for ultra-resolution, true 3D, and intelligent displays (integration of computers and communication functions into screens). The new strategy is Service-led.
Hopper, Darrel G.
The gastrointestinal system is a common entry point for pathogenic microbes to access the inner environment of the body. Anti-microbial factors produced by the intestinal mucosa limit the translocation of both commensal and pathogenic microbes across the intestinal epithelial cell barrier. The regulation of these host defense mechanisms largely depends on the activation of innate immune receptors by microbial molecules. Under steady-state conditions, the microbiota provides constitutive signals to the innate immune system, which helps to maintain a healthy inflammatory tone within the intestinal mucosa and, thus, enhances resistance to infection with enteric pathogens. During an acute infection, the intestinal epithelial cell barrier is breached, and the detection of microbial molecules in the intestinal lamina propria rapidly stimulates innate immune signaling pathways that coordinate early defense mechanisms. Herein, we review how microbial molecules shed by both commensal and pathogenic microbes direct host defenses at the intestinal mucosa. We highlight the signaling pathways, effector molecules, and cell populations that are activated by microbial molecule recognition and, thereby, are involved in the maintenance of homeostatic levels of host defense and in the early response to acute enteric infection. Finally, we discuss how manipulation of these host defense pathways by stimulating innate immune receptors is a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent or alleviate intestinal disease. PMID:22168416
Kinnebrew, Melissa A; Pamer, Eric G
Natural enemies including parasitoids are the major biological cause of mortality among phytophagous insects. In response to parasitism, these insects have evolved a set of defenses to protect themselves, including behavioral, morphological, physiological and immunological barriers. According to life history theory, resources are partitioned to various functions including defense, implying trade-offs among defense mechanisms. In this study we characterized the relative investment in behavioral, physical and immunological defense systems in two sympatric species of Tortricidae (Eupoecilia ambiguella, Lobesia botrana) which are important grapevine moth pests. We also estimated the parasitism by parasitoids in natural populations of both species, to infer the relative success of the investment strategies used by each moth. We demonstrated that larvae invest differently in defense systems according to the species. Relative to L. botrana, E. ambiguella larvae invested more into morphological defenses and less into behavioral defenses, and exhibited lower basal levels of immune defense but strongly responded to immune challenge. L. botrana larvae in a natural population were more heavily parasitized by various parasitoid species than E. ambiguella, suggesting that the efficacy of defense strategies against parasitoids is not equal among species. These results have implications for understanding of regulation in communities, and in the development of biological control strategies for these two grapevine pests. PMID:24662468
Vogelweith, Fanny; Thiéry, Denis; Moret, Yannick; Colin, Eloïse; Motreuil, Sébastien; Moreau, Jérôme
The causative agent of malaria, Plasmodium, has to undergo complex developmental transitions and survive attacks from the mosquito's innate immune system to achieve transmission from one host to another through the vector. Here we discuss recent findings on the role of the mosquito's innate immune signaling pathways in preventing infection by the Plasmodium parasite, the identification and mechanistic description of novel anti-parasite molecules, the role that natural bacteria harbored in the mosquito midgut might play in this immune defense, and the crucial parasite and vector molecules that mediate midgut infection.
Cirimotich, Chris M.; Dong, Yuemei; Garver, Lindsey S.; Sim, Shuzhen
Development of mucosal vaccine delivery system is an important area for improving public health. Oral vaccines have large\\u000a implications for rural and remote populations since the access to trained medical staff to administer vaccines by injection\\u000a is limited. New mucosal vaccine strategies are focused on development of non-replicating subunit vaccines, DNA, plant, and\\u000a other types of recombinant vaccines. The conjugation
Pavla Simerska; Peter Moyle; Colleen Olive; Istvan Toth
Infection by pathogenic microbes initiates a set of complex interactions between the pathogen and the host mediated by pattern recognition receptors. Innate immune responses play direct roles in host defense during the early stages of infection, and they also exert a profound influence on the generation of the adaptive immune responses that ensue. An improved understanding of the pattern recognition receptors that mediate innate responses and their downstream effects after receptor ligation has the potential to lead to new ways to improve vaccines and prevent autoimmunity. This review focuses on the control of innate immune activation and the role that innate immune receptors play in helping to maintain tissue homeostasis. PMID:24292903
Suresh, Rahul; Mosser, David M
Overview Multiple line of clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates that both acute, moderate and chronic, excessive alcohol use result in various abnormalities in the functions of the immune system. Altered inflammatory cell and adaptive immune responses in turn result in increased incidence and poor outcome of infections and other organ effects after alcohol use. This review article summarizes recent findings relevant to immunomodulation by alcohol and its consequences on host defense against microbial pathogens and tissue injury.
Szabo, Gyongyi; Mandrekar, Pranoti
In the wake of the 2001 anthrax scare, a research project at Pennsylvania State University has garnered significant attention. This paper introduces immune buildings, which have advanced ventilation and air filtration systems that can mitigate the danger caused by airborne pathogens. Experimental results from the project are also presented.
Bahnfleth, William P. (William Parry), 1957-; Kowalski, Wladyslaw J.
Background Recent genomic analyses of arthropod defense mechanisms suggest conservation of key elements underlying responses to pathogens, parasites and stresses. At the center of pathogen-induced immune responses are signaling pathways triggered by the recognition of fungal, bacterial and viral signatures. These pathways result in the production of response molecules, such as antimicrobial peptides and lysozymes, which degrade or destroy invaders. Using the recently sequenced genome of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), we conducted the first extensive annotation of the immune and stress gene repertoire of a hemipterous insect, which is phylogenetically distantly related to previously characterized insects models. Results Strikingly, pea aphids appear to be missing genes present in insect genomes characterized to date and thought critical for recognition, signaling and killing of microbes. In line with results of gene annotation, experimental analyses designed to characterize immune response through the isolation of RNA transcripts and proteins from immune-challenged pea aphids uncovered few immune-related products. Gene expression studies, however, indicated some expression of immune and stress-related genes. Conclusions The absence of genes suspected to be essential for the insect immune response suggests that the traditional view of insect immunity may not be as broadly applicable as once thought. The limitations of the aphid immune system may be representative of a broad range of insects, or may be aphid specific. We suggest that several aspects of the aphid life style, such as their association with microbial symbionts, could facilitate survival without strong immune protection.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are natural antibiotics produced by all living organisms to combat pathogens. They are important effector molecules of the immune system both in animals and plants. AMPs are diverse in structure and mode of action. Based on homology of amino acid sequences and 3D structures several AMP families have been distinguished. They are defensins, thionins, lipid transfer proteins, hevein- and knottin-like peptides, and cyclotides. AMPs display broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and thus show promise for the development of disease- resistant crops by genetic engineering and for the production of new-generation drugs. In this paper, the properties of the main AMP families (defensins and hevein-like peptides) and of a new 4-Cys plant AMP family are reviewed. PMID:22792701
Egorov, Ts A; Odintsova, T I
Host defenses against viral infections depend on a complex interplay of innate (nonspecific) and adaptive (specific) components. In the early stages of infection, innate mechanisms represent the main line of host defense, acting to limit the spread of virus in host tissues prior to the induction of the adaptive immune response. Serum and lung fluids contain a range of lectins capable of recognizing and destroying influenza A viruses (IAV). Herein, we review the mechanisms by which soluble endogenous lectins mediate anti-IAV activity, including their role in modulating IAV-induced inflammation and disease and their potential as prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatments during severe IAV-induced disease.
Ng, Wy Ching; Tate, Michelle D.; Brooks, Andrew G.; Reading, Patrick C.
There are a variety of bacterial defense strategies to survive in a hostile environment. Generation of extracellular polysaccharides has proved to be a simple but effective strategy against the host's innate immune system. A comparative genomics approach led us to identify a new protein family termed Stealth, most likely involved in the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides. This protein family is
Peter Sperisen; Christoph D. Schmid; Philipp Bucher; Olav Zilian
Salmonellae are bacterial pathogens that have evolved sophisticated strategies to evade host immune defenses. These strategies include the secretion of effector proteins into mammalian cells so as to subvert innate immune and apoptotic signaling pathways, thereby allowing Salmonella to avoid elimination. Here, we show that the secreted Salmonella typhimurium effector protein AvrA possesses acetyltransferase activity toward specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) and potently inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-kappaB signaling pathways in both transgenic Drosophila and murine models. Furthermore, we show that AvrA dampens the proapoptotic innate immune response to Salmonella at the mouse intestinal mucosa. This activity is consistent with the natural history of Salmonella in mammalian hosts, where the bacteria elicit transient inflammation but do not destroy epithelial cells. Our findings suggest that targeting JNK signaling to dampen apoptosis may be a conserved strategy for intracellular pathogens. PMID:18407067
Jones, Rheinallt M; Wu, Huixia; Wentworth, Christy; Luo, Liping; Collier-Hyams, Lauren; Neish, Andrew S
Background Recent genomic analyses of arthropod defense mechanisms suggest conservation of key elements underlying responses to pathogens,\\u000a parasites and stresses. At the center of pathogen-induced immune responses are signaling pathways triggered by the recognition\\u000a of fungal, bacterial and viral signatures. These pathways result in the production of response molecules, such as antimicrobial\\u000a peptides and lysozymes, which degrade or destroy invaders. Using
Nicole M Gerardo; Boran Altincicek; Caroline Anselme; Hagop Atamian; Seth M Barribeau; de Martin Vos; Elizabeth J Duncan; Jay D Evans; Toni Gabaldón; Murad Ghanim; Adelaziz Heddi; Isgouhi Kaloshian; Amparo Latorre; Andres Moya; Atsushi Nakabachi; Benjamin J Parker; Vincente Pérez-Brocal; Miguel Pignatelli; Yvan Rahbé; John S Ramsey; Chelsea J Spragg; Javier Tamames; Daniel Tamarit; Cecilia Tamborindeguy; Caroline Vincent-Monegat; Andreas Vilcinskas
Many immunization strategies have been proposed to prevent infectious viruses from spreading through a network. In this work, we study efficient immunization strategies to prevent a default contagion that might occur in a financial network. An essential difference from the previous studies on immunization strategy is that we take into account the possibility of serious side effects. Uniform immunization refers to a situation in which banks are “vaccinated” with a common low-risk asset. The riskiness of immunized banks will decrease significantly, but the level of systemic risk may increase due to the de-diversification effect. To overcome this side effect, we propose another immunization strategy, called counteractive immunization, which prevents pairs of banks from failing simultaneously. We find that counteractive immunization can efficiently reduce systemic risk without altering the riskiness of individual banks.
Kobayashi, Teruyoshi; Hasui, Kohei
Many immunization strategies have been proposed to prevent infectious viruses from spreading through a network. In this work, we study efficient immunization strategies to prevent a default contagion that might occur in a financial network. An essential difference from the previous studies on immunization strategy is that we take into account the possibility of serious side effects. Uniform immunization refers to a situation in which banks are ``vaccinated'' with a common low-risk asset. The riskiness of immunized banks will decrease significantly, but the level of systemic risk may increase due to the de-diversification effect. To overcome this side effect, we propose another immunization strategy, called counteractive immunization, which prevents pairs of banks from failing simultaneously. We find that counteractive immunization can efficiently reduce systemic risk without altering the riskiness of individual banks.
Kobayashi, Teruyoshi; Hasui, Kohei
Toxoplasma gondii is a highly prevalent protozoan pathogen that is transmitted through oral ingestion of infectious cysts. As such, mucosal immune defenses in the intestine constitute the first and arguably most important line of resistance against the parasite. The response to infection is now understood to involve complex three-way interactions between Toxoplasma, the mucosal immune system, and the host intestinal microbiota. Productive outcome of these interactions ensures resolution of infection in the intestinal mucosa. Nonsuccessful outcome may result in emergence of proinflammatory damage that can spell death for the host. Here, we discuss new advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning these disparate outcomes, with particular reference to initiators, effectors, and regulators of mucosal immunity stimulated by Toxoplasma in the intestine. PMID:24717355
Cohen, S B; Denkers, E Y
We study the stability of random scale-free networks to degree-dependent attacks. We present analytical and numerical results to compute the critical fraction pc of nodes that need to be removed for destroying the network under this attack for different attack parameters. We study the effect of different defense strategies, based on the addition of a constant number of links on network robustness. We test defense strategies based on adding links to either low degree, middegree or high degree nodes. We find using analytical results and simulations that the middegree nodes defense strategy leads to the largest improvement to the network robustness against degree-based attacks. We also test these defense strategies on an internet autonomous systems map and obtain similar results.
Yehezkel, Aviv; Cohen, Reuven
Thor has been identified as a new type of gene involved in Drosophila host immune defense. Thor is a member of the 4E-binding protein (4E-BP) family, which in mammals has been defined as critical regulators in a pathway that controls initiation of translation through binding eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Without an infection, Thor is expressed during all developmental stages and transcripts localize to a wide variety of tissues, including the reproductive system. In response to bacterial infection and, to a lesser extent, by wounding, Thor is up-regulated. The Thor promoter has the canonical NF?B and associated GATA recognition sequences that have been shown to be essential for immune induction, as well as other sequences commonly found for Drosophila immune response genes, including interferon-related regulatory sequences. In survival tests, Thor mutants show symptoms of being immune compromised, indicating that Thor may be critical in host defense. In contrast to Thor, Drosophila eIF4E is not induced by bacterial infection. These findings for Thor provide the first evidence that a 4E-BP family member has a role in immune induction in any organism. Further, no gene in the translation initiation pathway that includes 4E-BP has been previously found to be immune induced. Our results suggest either a role for translational regulation in humoral immunity or a new, nontranslational function for 4E-BP type genes.
Bernal, Alejandro; Kimbrell, Deborah A.
Racquetball is a constant game of cat and mouse, creating a situation where players make a transition between offensive and defensive play, or trap themselves in a game of uncertainty and misdirection because they do understand some basic racquetball fundamentals. A first step in learning the sport of racquetball is to understand terminology. This…
Strand, Brad; Albrecht, Jay; Traschel, Jamie
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans. It begins with a bite from an infected female Anopheles mosquito and leads to the development of the pre-erythrocytic and blood stages. Blood-stage infection is the exclusive cause of clinical symptoms of malaria. In contrast, the pre-erythrocytic stage is clinically asymptomatic and could be an excellent target for preventive therapies. Although the robust host immune responses limit the development of the liver stage, malaria parasites have also evolved strategies to suppress host defenses at the pre-erythrocytic stage. This paper reviews the immune evasion strategies of malaria parasites at the pre-erythrocytic stage, which could provide us with potential targets to design prophylactic strategies against malaria.
Zheng, Hong; Tan, Zhangping
Although potent antiretroviral therapy can dramatically decrease HIV replication and improve some aspects of host immunity,\\u000a incomplete immune reconstitution persists even after several years of fully suppressive therapy. In addition, long-term toxicities\\u000a of antiretroviral medications and the probability of developing multidrug-resistant virus with long-term use indicate that\\u000a alternate means of controlling viral replication are needed for more durable suppression of
Matthew R. Leibowitz; Ronald T. Mitsuyasu
Clostridium difficile infection is a major cause of nosocomial disease in Western countries. The recent emergence of hypervirulent strains resistant to most antibiotics correlates with increasing disease incidence, severity and lethal outcomes. Current treatments rely on metronidazol and vancomycin, but the limited ability of these antibiotics to cure infection and prevent relapse highlights the need for new strategies. A better knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of the disease, the host immune response and identification of key virulence factors of Clostridium difficile now permits the development of new products specifically targeting the pathogen. Immune-based strategies relying on active vaccination or passive administration of antibody products are the focus of intense research and, today, the efficacy of monoclonal antibodies and of two vaccines are evaluated clinically. This review presents recent data, discusses the different strategies and highlights the challenges linked to the development of immunization strategies against this emerging threat. PMID:22551032
Rebeaud, Fabien; Bachmann, Martin F
We present an effective immunization strategy for computer networks and populations with broad and, in particular, scale-free degree distributions. The proposed strategy, acquaintance immunization, calls for the immunization of random acquaintances of random nodes (individuals). The strategy requires no knowledge of the node degrees or any other global knowledge, as do targeted immunization strategies. We study analytically the critical threshold
Reuven Cohen; Shlomo Havlin; Daniel Ben-Avraham
This CD-ROM contains the basic science and technology planning documents of the Department of Defense. Included are the Defense Science and Technology Strategy, the Basic Research Plan, the Defense Technology Area Plan, the Joint Warfighting Science and T...
This CD-ROM contains the basic science and technology planning documents of the Department of Defense. Included are the Defense Science and Technology Strategy (May 1996), the Basic Research Plan (January 1997), the Defense Technology Area Plan (January 1...
As the basal resource in most food webs, plants have evolved myriad strategies to battle consumption by herbivores. Over the past 50 years, plant defense theories have been formulated to explain the remarkable variation in abundance, distribution, and diversity of secondary chemistry and other defensive traits. For example, classic theories of enemy-driven evolutionary dynamics have hypothesized that defensive traits escalate through the diversification process. Despite the fact that macroevolutionary patterns are an explicit part of defense theories, phylogenetic analyses have not been previously attempted to disentangle specific predictions concerning (i) investment in resistance traits, (ii) recovery after damage, and (iii) plant growth rate. We constructed a molecular phylogeny of 38 species of milkweed and tested four major predictions of defense theory using maximum-likelihood methods. We did not find support for the growth-rate hypothesis. Our key finding was a pattern of phyletic decline in the three most potent resistance traits (cardenolides, latex, and trichomes) and an escalation of regrowth ability. Our neontological approach complements more common paleontological approaches to discover directional trends in the evolution of life and points to the importance of natural enemies in the macroevolution of species. The finding of macroevolutionary escalating regowth ability and declining resistance provides a window into the ongoing coevolutionary dynamics between plants and herbivores and suggests a revision of classic plant defense theory. Where plants are primarily consumed by specialist herbivores, regrowth (or tolerance) may be favored over resistance traits during the diversification process.
Agrawal, Anurag A.; Fishbein, Mark
The government contract defense is an affirmative defense that shields a manufacturer from liability if the product causing injury complied strictly with design specifications set forth in a government procurement contract. The defense was first used by public works contractors to bar claims against them for damage to land and other property. However, in recent years, product manufacturers have invoked
Richard C. Ausness
Evolutionary ecologists have long been interested by the link between different immune defenses and fitness. Given the importance of a proper immune defense for survival, it is important to understand how its numerous components are affected by environmental heterogeneity. Previous studies targeting this question have rarely considered more than two immune markers. In this study, we measured seven immune markers (response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), hemolysis capacity, hemagglutination capacity, plasma bactericidal capacity, percentage of lymphocytes, percentage of heterophils, and percentage of eosinophils) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings raised in two types of agro-ecosystems of contrasted quality and over 2 years. First, we assessed the effect of environmental heterogeneity (spatial and temporal) on the strength and direction of correlations between immune measures. Second, we investigated the effect of an immune score integrating information from several immune markers on individual performance (including growth, mass at fledging and parasite burden). Both a multivariate and a pair-wise approach showed variation in relationships between immune measures across years and habitats. We also found a weak association between the integrated score of nestling immune function and individual performance, but only under certain environmental conditions. We conclude that the ecological context can strongly affect the interpretation of immune defenses in the wild. Given that spatiotemporal variations are likely to affect individual immune defenses, great caution should be used when generalizing conclusions to other study systems.
Pigeon, Gabriel; Belisle, Marc; Garant, Dany; Cohen, Alan A; Pelletier, Fanie
This study investigated the question 'Why are fallout shelters not a part of U.S. national defense strategy and policy ' Initial research determined that the U.S. has the technology to design and build shelters, they are effective protection from radioactive fallout, and nuclear agression against the U.S. remains a potential national threat. The research examined the physical threats posed by
Infectious illnesses deplete host nutrient stores in various ways and, reciprocally, nutritional factors influence host susceptibility to infection. Nutritional factors influence immune functions and other host defensive measures. Since acute or chronic i...
W. R. Beisel
It was postulated that people characteristically defend their beliefs by avoiding exposure to contradictory information Since the person is unmotivated to develop a defense of his belief to the extent that he considers it invulnerable, it was hypothesized that such beliefs are more effectively immunized against persuasion by preexposure to counterarguments Second, since the person is unpracticed in the defense
W. J. McGuire; D. Papageorgis
In the past, immunization programmes have focused primarily on rural areas. However, with the recognition of the increasing numbers of urban poor, it is timely to review urban immunization activities. This update addresses two questions: Is there any need to be concerned about urban immunization and, if so, is more of the same kind of rural EPI activity needed or are there specific urban issues that need specific urban strategies? Vaccine-preventable diseases have specific urban patterns that require efficacious vaccines for younger children, higher target coverage levels, and particular focus to ensure national and global eradication of poliomyelitis. Although aggregate coverage levels are higher in urban than rural areas, gaps are masked since capital cities are better covered than other urban areas and the coverage in the poorest slum and periurban areas within cities is as bad as or worse than that in rural areas. Difficult access to immunization services in terms of distance, costs, and time can still be the main barrier in some parts of the city. Mobilization and motivation strategies in urban areas should make use of the mass media and workplace networks as well as the traditional word-of-mouth strategies. Use of community health workers has been successful in some urban settings. Management issues concern integration of the needs of the poor into a coherent city health plan, coordination of different health providers, and clear lines of responsibility for addressing the needs of new, urbanizing areas.
Atkinson, S. J.; Cheyne, J.
Air and cruise missile defense of the U.S. homeland is characterized by a requirement to protect a large number of critical assets nonuniformly dispersed over a vast area with relatively few defensive systems. In this article, we explore strategy alternatives to make the best use of existing defense resources and suggest this approach as a means of reducing risk while mitigating the cost of developing and acquiring new systems. We frame the issue as an attacker-defender problem with simultaneous moves. First, we outline and examine the relatively simple problem of defending comparatively few locations with two surveillance systems. Second, we present our analysis and findings for a more realistic scenario that includes a representative list of U.S. critical assets. Third, we investigate sensitivity to defensive strategic choices in the more realistic scenario. As part of this investigation, we describe two complementary computational methods that, under certain circumstances, allow one to reduce large computational problems to a more manageable size. Finally, we demonstrate that strategic choices can be an important supplement to material solutions and can, in some cases, be a more cost-effective alternative. PMID:20626693
Murphy, Eric M; Payne, Michael D; Vanderwoude, Glenn W
Trophic mechanisms that can generate biodiversity in food webs include bottom-up (growth rate regulating) and top-down (biomass regulating) factors. The top-down control has traditionally been analyzed using the concepts of “Keystone Predation” (KP) and “Killing-the-Winner” (KtW), predominately occuring in discussions of macro- and micro-biological ecology, respectively. Here we combine the classical diamond-shaped food web structure frequently discussed in KP analyses and the KtW concept by introducing a defense strategist capable of partial defense. A formalized description of a trade-off between the defense-strategist's competitive and defensive ability is included. The analysis reveals a complex topology of the steady state solution with strong relationships between food web structure and the combination of trade-off, defense strategy and the system's nutrient content. Among the results is a difference in defense strategies corresponding to maximum biomass, production, or net growth rate of invading individuals. The analysis thus summons awareness that biomass or production, parameters typically measured in field studies to infer success of particular biota, are not directly acted upon by natural selection. Under coexistence with a competition specialist, a balance of competitive and defensive ability of the defense strategist was found to be evolutionarily stable, whereas stronger defense was optimal under increased nutrient levels in the absence of the pure competition specialist. The findings of success of different defense strategies are discussed with respect to SAR11, a highly successful bacterial clade in the pelagic ocean.
Vage, Selina; Storesund, Julia E.; Giske, Jarl; Thingstad, T. Frede
Although in recent times there has developed a wide consensus on the desirability of improving the conventional defense of Western Europe in order to reduce reliance on the early use of nuclear weapons, there are widely diverging views as to how this should be done and at what costs. Proposals have been advanced for the acquisition of new ''emerging technologies'' and the adoption of innovative ''deep strike'' and ''follow-on forces attack'' strategies. These, and others, have provoked a deepening debate about such fundamental questions as the proper assessment of the military balance in Europe and the extent to which the defense of Europe should become non-nuclear, and the five authors, recognized experts with governmental experience, present contrasting and often opposing points of view on these important issues.
We postulated that a synergistic combination of two innate immune functions, pathogen surface recognition and lysis, in a protein chimera would lead to a robust class of engineered antimicrobial therapeutics for protection against pathogens. In support of our hypothesis, we have engineered such a chimera to protect against the Gram-negative Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), which causes diseases in multiple plants of economic importance. Here we report the design and delivery of this chimera to target the Xf subspecies fastidiosa (Xff), which causes Pierce disease in grapevines and poses a great threat to the wine-growing regions of California. One domain of this chimera is an elastase that recognizes and cleaves MopB, a conserved outer membrane protein of Xff. The second domain is a lytic peptide, cecropin B, which targets conserved lipid moieties and creates pores in the Xff outer membrane. A flexible linker joins the recognition and lysis domains, thereby ensuring correct folding of the individual domains and synergistic combination of their functions. The chimera transgene is fused with an amino-terminal signal sequence to facilitate delivery of the chimera to the plant xylem, the site of Xff colonization. We demonstrate that the protein chimera expressed in the xylem is able to directly target Xff, suppress its growth, and significantly decrease the leaf scorching and xylem clogging commonly associated with Pierce disease in grapevines. We believe that similar strategies involving protein chimeras can be developed to protect against many diseases caused by human and plant pathogens.
Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Gouran, Hossein; Ibanez, Ana Maria; Uratsu, Sandra L.; Aguero, Cecilia B.; McFarland, Sarah; Borhani, Yasmin; Feldstein, Paul A.; Bruening, George; Nascimento, Rafael; Goulart, Luiz R.; Pardington, Paige E.; Chaudhary, Anu; Norvell, Meghan; Civerolo, Edwin; Gupta, Goutam
Background While the transcription of innate immunity genes in response to bacterial infection has been well-characterised in the Drosophila model, we recently demonstrated the capacity for such transcription to evolve in flies selected for improved antibacterial defense. Here we use this experimental system to examine how insects invest in constitutive versus infection-induced transcription of immunity genes. These two strategies carry with them different consequences with respect to energetic and pleiotropic costs and may be more or less effective in improving defense depending on whether the genes contribute to humoral or cellular aspects of immunity. Findings Contrary to expectation we show that selection preferentially increased the infection-induced expression of both cellular and humoral immunity genes. Given their functional roles, infection induced increases in expression were expected for the humoral genes, while increases in constitutive expression were expected for the cellular genes. We also report a restricted ability to improve transcription of immunity genes that is on the order of 2-3 fold regardless of total transcription level of the gene. Conclusions The evolved increases in infection-induced expression of the cellular genes may result from specific cross talk with humoral pathways or from generalised strategies for enhancing immunity gene transcription. A failure to see improvements in constitutive expression of the cellular genes suggests either that increases might come at too great a cost or that patterns of expression in adults are decoupled from the larval phase where increases would be most effective. The similarity in fold change increase across all immunity genes may suggest a shared mechanism for the evolution of increased transcription in small, discrete units such as duplication of cis-regulatory elements.
Summary Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remain a major cause of disease and death in humans. Among the factors that contribute to Mtb’s success as a pathogen is its ability to withstand potentially bactericidal host defenses and to resist elimination by an activated immune system. This resistance to killing by the host is in part due to the low permeability of the mycobacterial cell envelope for many toxic molecules. In addition, it depends upon the detoxification of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen molecules produced by the host, the repair of the damage these molecules cause and maintenance of a neutral intrabacterial pH within acidic environments. The latter three mechanisms are the focus of this review.
Ehrt, Sabine; Schnappinger, Dirk
Recent discoveries relating depression to inflammation and immune function may help to solve an important evolutionary puzzle: If depression carries with it so many negative consequences, including notable costs to survival and reproduction, then why is it common and heritable? What countervailing force or compensatory advantage has allowed susceptibility genes for depression to persist in the population at such high rates? A priori, compensatory advantages in combating infection are a promising candidate, given that infection has been the major cause of mortality throughout human history. Emerging evidence on deeply rooted bidirectional pathways of communication between the nervous and immune systems further supports this notion. Here we present an updated review of the "infection-defense hypothesis" of depression, which proposes that moods-with their ability to orchestrate a wide array of physical and behavioral responses-have played an adaptive role throughout human history by helping individuals fight existing infections, as well as helping both individuals and their kin avoid new ones. We discuss new evidence that supports several key predictions derived from the hypothesis, and compare it with other major evolutionary theories of depression. Specifically, we discuss how the infection-defense hypothesis helps to explain emerging data on psychoimmunological features of depression, as well as depression's associations with a diverse array of conditions and illnesses-including nutritional deficiencies, seasonal changes, hormonal fluctuations, and chronic diseases-that previous evolutionary theories of depression have not accounted for. Finally, we note the potential implications of the hypothesis for the treatment and prevention of depression. PMID:23261774
Anders, Sherry; Tanaka, Midori; Kinney, Dennis K
Plant hormones involving salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (Et), and auxin, gibberellins, and abscisic acid (ABA) are known to regulate host immune responses. However, plant hormone cytokinin has the potential to modulate defense signaling including SA and JA. It promotes plant pathogen and herbivore resistance; underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Using systems biology approaches, we unravel hub points of immune interaction mediated by cytokinin signaling in Arabidopsis. High-confidence Arabidopsis protein-protein interactions (PPI) are coupled to changes in cytokinin-mediated gene expression. Nodes of the cellular interactome that are enriched in immune functions also reconstitute sub-networks. Topological analyses and their specific immunological relevance lead to the identification of functional hubs in cellular interactome. We discuss our identified immune hubs in light of an emerging model of cytokinin-mediated immune defense against pathogen infection in plants. PMID:24558299
Naseem, Muhammad; Kunz, Meik; Dandekar, Thomas
The evidence for a relationship between life history and immune defense is equivocal, although the basic premise is intuitively\\u000a appealing: animals that live short lives and reproduce early and rapidly should not waste resources on defenses they might\\u000a never use. One possible reason for a lack of strong support for this hypothesis could be the inherent complexity of the vertebrate
Lynn B. Martin II; Dennis Hasselquist; Martin Wikelski
We consider the human body as a well-orchestrated system of interacting swarms. Utilizing swarm intelligence techniques, we\\u000a present our latest virtual simulation and experimentation environment, IMMS:VIGO::3D, to explore key aspects of the human immune system. Immune system cells and related entities (viruses, bacteria, cytokines)\\u000a are represented as virtual agents inside 3-dimensional, decentralized and compartmentalized environments that represent primary\\u000a and secondary
Christian Jacob; Scott Steil; Karel P. Bergmann
Trophic mechanisms that can generate biodiversity in food webs include bottom-up (growth rate regulating) and top-down (biomass regulating) factors. The top-down control has traditionally been analyzed using the concepts of "Keystone Predation" (KP) and "Killing-the-Winner" (KtW), predominately occuring in discussions of macro- and micro-biological ecology, respectively. Here we combine the classical diamond-shaped food web structure frequently discussed in KP analyses and the KtW concept by introducing a defense strategist capable of partial defense. A formalized description of a trade-off between the defense-strategist's competitive and defensive ability is included. The analysis reveals a complex topology of the steady state solution with strong relationships between food web structure and the combination of trade-off, defense strategy and the system's nutrient content. Among the results is a difference in defense strategies corresponding to maximum biomass, production, or net growth rate of invading individuals. The analysis thus summons awareness that biomass or production, parameters typically measured in field studies to infer success of particular biota, are not directly acted upon by natural selection. Under coexistence with a competition specialist, a balance of competitive and defensive ability of the defense strategist was found to be evolutionarily stable, whereas stronger defense was optimal under increased nutrient levels in the absence of the pure competition specialist. The findings of success of different defense strategies are discussed with respect to SAR11, a highly successful bacterial clade in the pelagic ocean. PMID:24999739
Våge, Selina; Storesund, Julia E; Giske, Jarl; Thingstad, T Frede
Dendritic cells (DCs) present microbial antigens to T cells and provide inflammatory signals that modulate T cell differentiation. While the role of DCs in adaptive immunity is well established, their involvement in innate immune defenses is less well defined. We have identified a TNF\\/iNOS-producing (Tip)-DC subset in spleens of Listeria monocytogenes-infected mice that is absent from CCR2-deficient mice. The absence
Natalya V Serbina; Thais P Salazar-Mather; Christine A Biron; William A Kuziel; Eric G Pamer
A Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDoS) is one the most dangerous attacks that can be initiated on computer systems that targets their availability. No defense technique was suggested until now to be called an absolute defense that stands against all types of DDoS attacks. In this paper, we suggest two strategies of defense mechanisms that will enhance the efficiency
Jalal Atoum; Omar Faisal
Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are leading causes of hospital-acquired infections that have become increasingly difficult to treat due to the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in these organisms. The ability of staphylococci to produce biofilm is an important virulence mechanism that allows bacteria both to adhere to living and artificial surfaces and to resist host immune factors and antibiotics. Here,
Jakob Begun; Jessica M Gaiani; Holger Rohde; Dietrich Mack; Stephen B Calderwood; Frederick M Ausubel; Costi D Sifri
There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate), periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid) and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate) may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins), are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI), BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone) proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed.
Fabian, Tibor Karoly; Hermann, Peter; Beck, Anita; Fejerdy, Pal; Fabian, Gabor
This study investigated the question 'Why are fallout shelters not a part of U.S. national defense strategy and policy ' Initial research determined that the U.S. has the technology to design and build shelters, they are effective protection from radioactive fallout, and nuclear agression against the U.S. remains a potential national threat. The research examined the physical threats posed by nuclear weapons, followed by a brief description of fallout shelters and their ability to shield against fallout radiation in terms of the ration of time in shelter to amount of exposure. Several opposing arguments from opponents and proponents of a national fallout shelter program were categorized and expressed within U.S. National Security Strategy, military, economic, and political terms. The principal argument against a national fallout shelter program, including home fallout shelters, is the momentum of over 30 years of successful deterrence. On the other hand, the relatively simple technology, the affordability, and the potential for saving millions of lives in low-risk areas that would otherwise be lost should deterrence fail, argue strongly in favor of a national home fallout shelter system.
Both anti-viral and anti-bacterial host defense mechanisms involve TRIF signaling. TRIF provides early clearance of pathogens and coordination of a local inflammatory ensemble through an interferon cascade, while it may trigger organ damage. The multipotentiality of TRIF-mediated immune machinery may direct the fate of our continuous battle with microbes.
Hyun, Jinhee; Kanagavelu, Saravana; Fukata, Masayuki
The course of microbial infection in insects is shaped by a two-stage process of immune defense. Constitutive defenses, such as engulfment and melanization, act immediately and are followed by inducible defenses, archetypically the production of antimicrobial peptides, which eliminate or suppress the remaining microbes. By applying RNAseq across a 7-day time course, we sought to characterize the long-lasting immune response to bacterial challenge in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor, a model for the biochemistry of insect immunity and persistent bacterial infection. By annotating a hybrid de novo assembly of RNAseq data, we were able to identify putative orthologs for the majority of components of the conserved insect immune system. Compared with Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a reference genome sequence and a manually curated immune system annotation, the T. molitor immune gene count was lower, with lineage-specific expansions of genes encoding serine proteases and their countervailing inhibitors accounting for the majority of the deficit. Quantitative mapping of RNAseq reads to the reference assembly showed that expression of genes with predicted functions in cellular immunity, wound healing, melanization, and the production of reactive oxygen species was transiently induced immediately after immune challenge. In contrast, expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides or components of the Toll signaling pathway and iron sequestration response remained elevated for at least 7 days. Numerous genes involved in metabolism and nutrient storage were repressed, indicating a possible cost of immune induction. Strikingly, the expression of almost all antibacterial peptides followed the same pattern of long-lasting induction, regardless of their spectra of activity, signaling possible interactive roles in vivo.
Johnston, Paul R; Makarova, Olga; Rolff, Jens
This report includes two separate but related empirical studies of the relationship between financial measures for defense aerospace contractors and pricing strategies adopted by contractors. Two pricing strategies are identified: skimming and penetration...
O. D. Moses
Studied children's attributions and evaluations concerning defense mechanisms used by other children. Children negatively evaluated the blame-externalizing defense of projection and viewed it as a masculine characteristic. The internalizing defense of self-blame was evaluated more positively and viewed as a feminine characteristic. (Author/DB)
Dollinger, Stephen J.; And Others
Although oxygen, nitrogen, and chlorine reactive species have been associated with disease pathogenesis, their partial absence is very harmful to the body's innate immune defense. Lacking of adequate release of free radicals from activated phagocytes is related to impaired ability on fungi, bacteria, and protozoa killing. We constructed an updated conceptual landmark regarding the paramount role of free radicals in phagocyte defense systems (phagocyte oxidase, myeloperoxidase, and nitric oxide/peroxynitrite system) on natural immunity. Diverse fungal, bacterial and protozoal pathogens evade the phagocytes' oxidative/nitrosative burst though antioxidant genes, enzymes and proteins. The most important evasion mechanisms were also described and discussed. These interconnected systems were reviewed and discussed on the basis of knowledge from relevant research groups around the globe. Phagocyte-derived free radicals are essential to destroy important human pathogens during the course of innate immunity. PMID:21972015
Ferrari, Carlos K B; Souto, Paula C S; França, Eduardo L; Honorio-França, Adenilda C
This report describes an unprecedented malpractice litigation on a neurology case. A young woman developed multiple complications after a simple hysterectomy: pan-peritonitis, post-op deep coma with hypotension, generalized anasarca, hyponatremia, hemolysis, cerebral hypoxia and renal shutdown requiring dialysis and multiple-unit blood transfusions. She survived 43 days in Neuro-ICU, and was transferred to a regular ward where she developed status epileticus lasting for 17 hours. On examination, she had cortical blindness, which the plaintiff believed it was caused by prolonged seizures but actually hypoperfusion/hypoxia of the brain did it. Plaintiff's attorneys jumped to a lawsuit for $80+ millions, accusing defendant for failure to stop her seizures. They took the plaintiff to Honolulu and San Diego to confirm brain injury. Results: On the top of calcarine infarct, she has pseudoseizures or malingering. To inflate the claim for compensation, they cleverly included three guardians ad litem as co-plaintiffs who live in U.S. Mainland. The first court battle was denied at Guam Superior Court on the ground of exceeding one year of Statute of Limitation. Cunningly they manipulated clinical course to stretch the date of discovery of damages in order to move the statute of limitation within one year of filing to the court. They then went on to Guam Supreme Court, where it was struck down. Unconvinced, they went on all the way to the Federal Ninth Circuit Court in California where again it upheld the original decision. The plaintiff lost and never reached the trial court. After two years' legal combat, I have learned hard way defense strategies: (1) Practice defensive medicine, to keep informed consent and tracks of timing of diagnosis and treatment; (2) Avoid factors that may provoke dissatisfaction, anger, or frustration on outcome of treatment; (3) Keep ledger of ambulance chasers and good defense lawyers; (4) Never surrender at the notification from court; (5) Settle out of court, if this can be done reasonably to save time and stress; (6) Keep cool and study carefully the allegations; (7) Consultation with experts in the area involved; (8) Set up trust fund for children; (9) Buy liability insurance and take CME in medicolegal classes. PMID:19960967
The ability to distinguish ‘self’ from ‘nonself’ is the most fundamental aspect of any immune system. The evolutionary solution in plants to the problems of perceiving and responding to pathogens involves surveillance of nonself, damaged-self and altered-self as danger signals. This is reflected in basal resistance or non-host resistance, which is the innate immune response that protects plants against the majority of pathogens. In the case of surveillance of nonself, plants utilize receptor-like proteins or -kinases (RLP/Ks) as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which can detect conserved pathogen/microbe-associated molecular pattern (P/MAMP) molecules. P/MAMP detection serves as an early warning system for the presence of a wide range of potential pathogens and the timely activation of plant defense mechanisms. However, adapted microbes express a suite of effector proteins that often interfere or act as suppressors of these defenses. In response, plants have evolved a second line of defense that includes intracellular nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR)-containing resistance proteins, which recognize isolate-specific pathogen effectors once the cell wall has been compromised. This host-immunity acts within the species level and is controlled by polymorphic host genes, where resistance protein-mediated activation of defense is based on an ‘altered-self’ recognition mechanism.
Sanabria, Natasha M; Huang, Ju-Chi
Infection of mice with Listeria monocytogenes induces a robust innate inflammatory response that restricts bacterial growth in the liver and spleen prior to the development of protective T cell responses. Ly6C(hi) monocytes contribute to the innate immune response following L. monocytogenes infection and in their absence, mice rapidly succumb to infection. Emigration of Ly6C(hi) monocytes from the bone marrow into the circulation is the first step in their recruitment to sites of L. monocytogenes infection and is triggered by CCL2- and CCL7-mediated stimulation of CCR2 chemokine receptors on monocytes. CCL2 expression by mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow, in response to TLR stimulation, drives monocyte emigration from cellular compartments into vascular sinuses of the bone marrow. In addition to TLR ligands, type I interferon-mediated signals can also drive monocyte emigration from the bone marrow during L. monocytogenes infection. Once Ly6C(hi) monocytes enter the bloodstream, trafficking to sites of infection in the liver and spleen is CCR2 independent. In the liver, CD11b on the monocyte and ICAM-1 on the surface of endothelial cells target Ly6C(hi) monocytes to foci of L. monocytogenes infection. At the site of infection, Ly6C(hi) monocytes undergo MyD88-dependent differentiation into TNF and iNOS-producing dendritic cells (TipDCs) and express MHC class II, B7.1, and CD40 on their cell surface. How TipDCs mediate bacterial clearance during early L. monocytogenes infection remains an active area of investigation. PMID:22244581
Serbina, Natalya V; Shi, Chao; Pamer, Eric G
Infection of mice with Listeria monocytogenes induces a robust innate inflammatory response that restricts bacterial growth in the liver and spleen prior to the development of protective T cell responses. Ly6Chi monocytes contribute to the innate immune response following L. monocytogenes infection and in their absence, mice rapidly succumb to infection. Emigration of Ly6Chi monocytes from the bone marrow into the circulation is the first step in their recruitment to sites of L. monocytogenes infection and is triggered by CCL2- and CCL7-mediated stimulation of CCR2 chemokine receptors on monocytes. CCL2 expression by mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow, in response to TLR stimulation, drives monocyte emigration from cellular compartments into vascular sinuses of the bone marrow. In addition to TLR ligands, type I interferon-mediated signals can also drive monocyte emigration from the bone marrow during L. monocytogenes infection. Once Ly6Chi monocytes enter the bloodstream, trafficking to sites of infection in the liver and spleen is CCR2 independent. In the liver, CD11b on the monocyte and ICAM-1 on the surface of endothelial cells target Ly6Chi monocytes to foci of L. monocytogenes infection. At the site of infection, Ly6Chi monocytes undergo MyD88-dependent differentiation into TNF and iNOS-producing dendritic cells (TipDCs) and express MHC class II, B7.1, and CD40 on their cell surface. How TipDCs mediate bacterial clearance during early L. monocytogenes infection remains an active area of investigation.
Serbina, Natalya V.; Shi, Chao; Pamer, Eric G.
The predicted increase in frequency and severity of heat waves due to climate change is expected to alter disease dynamics by reducing hosts' ability to resist infections. This could take place via two different mechanisms: (1) through general reduction in hosts' performance under harsh environmental conditions and/or (2) through altered resource allocation that reduces expression of defense traits in order to maintain other traits. We tested these alternative hypotheses by measuring the effect of an experimental heat wave (25 vs. 15°C) on the constitutive level of immune defense (hemocyte concentration, phenoloxidase [PO]-like activity, antibacterial activity of hemolymph), and life history traits (growth and number of oviposited eggs) of the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. We also manipulated the exposure time to high temperature (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11 days). We found that if the exposure to high temperature lasted <1 week, immune function was not affected. However, when the exposure lasted longer than that, the level of snails' immune function (hemocyte concentration and PO-like activity) was reduced. Snails' growth and reproduction increased within the first week of exposure to high temperature. However, longer exposures did not lead to a further increase in cumulative reproductive output. Our results show that short experimental heat waves do not alter immune function but lead to plastic responses that increase snails' growth and reproduction. Thus, although the relative expression of traits changes, short experimental heat waves do not impair snails' defenses. Negative effects on performance get pronounced when the heat waves are prolonged suggesting that high performance cannot be maintained over long time periods. This ultimately reduces the levels of defense traits. PMID:24455121
Leicht, Katja; Jokela, Jukka; Seppälä, Otto
The predicted increase in frequency and severity of heat waves due to climate change is expected to alter disease dynamics by reducing hosts' ability to resist infections. This could take place via two different mechanisms: (1) through general reduction in hosts' performance under harsh environmental conditions and/or (2) through altered resource allocation that reduces expression of defense traits in order to maintain other traits. We tested these alternative hypotheses by measuring the effect of an experimental heat wave (25 vs. 15°C) on the constitutive level of immune defense (hemocyte concentration, phenoloxidase [PO]-like activity, antibacterial activity of hemolymph), and life history traits (growth and number of oviposited eggs) of the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. We also manipulated the exposure time to high temperature (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11 days). We found that if the exposure to high temperature lasted <1 week, immune function was not affected. However, when the exposure lasted longer than that, the level of snails' immune function (hemocyte concentration and PO-like activity) was reduced. Snails' growth and reproduction increased within the first week of exposure to high temperature. However, longer exposures did not lead to a further increase in cumulative reproductive output. Our results show that short experimental heat waves do not alter immune function but lead to plastic responses that increase snails' growth and reproduction. Thus, although the relative expression of traits changes, short experimental heat waves do not impair snails' defenses. Negative effects on performance get pronounced when the heat waves are prolonged suggesting that high performance cannot be maintained over long time periods. This ultimately reduces the levels of defense traits.
Leicht, Katja; Jokela, Jukka; Seppala, Otto
Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) in measuring adolescent humor, including the relationship between humor and coping style, defense style, depressive symptoms, and adjustment in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Humor, coping, defense strategies, depressive symptoms,…
Erickson, Sarah J.; Feldstein, Sarah W.
All women face the threat of rape, forcing them to (a) decide what to do to reduce their chances of being assaulted (rape prevention) and (b) how to defend themselves if assaulted (self-defense). A principal basis for such decisions should be women's estimates of the effectiveness of possible prevention and self-defense strategies for reducing the risk of rape. This study
LITA FURBY; BARUCH FISCHHOFF; MARCIA MORGAN
The Quadrennial Defense Review and National Security Strategy of the United States call for transforming the Armed Forces to assure both allies and friends of our commitment to existing security arrangements, dissuade military competition, deter threats t...
T. B. Fargo
Prepositioned military equipment and supplies on ships and overseas on land have become an integral part of the U.S. defense strategy. However, the Army's program has faced long-standing management challenges, including equipment excesses and shortfalls, ...
Summary Background This study aimed to investigate whether the anomalies affecting the antioxidant and humoral immune defenses could start at birth and to check whether the decrease in antioxidant defenses may precede the immune abnormalities in macrosomic newborns. Material/Methods Thirty macrosomic and 30 sex-matched control newborns were recruited for a retrospective case-control study at the Maghnia Maternity Hospital of Tlemcen Department (Algeria). Results The serum IgG levels were similar in both groups. However, plasma ORAC, albumin, vitamin E, SOD, CAT and GSH-Px levels were significantly decreased in macrosomic as compared to control newborns, yet no difference was observed after adjustment for weight. Additionally, serum concentrations of complement C3, MDA and XO were significantly higher in macrosomic as compared to controls before adjustment for weight. Moreover, macrosomia was significantly associated with high levels of complement C3 (OR=8, p=0.002); whereas no association with those of IgG was observed (OR<1, p>0.05). Furthermore, macrosomia was significantly associated with low levels of ORAC (OR=4.96, p=0.027), vitamin E (OR=4.5, p=0.018), SOD (OR=6.88, p=0.020) and CAT (OR=5.67, p=0.017), and with high levels of MDA (OR=10.29, p=0.005). Conclusions Abnormalities of the humoral defense system in excessive weight could be preceded by alterations of the anti-oxidative defense and by inflammatory response and activation of innate immunity at birth. Additionally, excessive weight could be a potential factor contributing to decreased anti-oxidative capacity and increased oxidative stress.
Haddouche, Mustapha; Aribi, Mourad; Moulessehoul, Soraya; Smahi, Mohammed Chems-Eddine Ismet; Lammani, Mohammed; Benyoucef, Mohammed
The insect immune response strategy has generally been considered bipolar: either resistance or death. Lately, a much broader and subtler landscape has emerged: occurrence of tolerance and resistance has been described as a host-regulated immune response. However, little is known about the interplay between the immune response strategy mounted by the insect during infection and the damage produced by the pathogen. Based on the Matzinger model of danger/damage, we propose a quantitative model to explain the occurrence of either resistance or tolerance. We discuss the features to be analyzed and describe the terms of reference by which, with basic models, we distinguish between immune strategies. Pathogen type and mixed infections are also contemplated. We hope this analysis will give new perspective, from an evolutionary ecology standpoint, on immune response measurements in the context of insect infection, and on the importance of (non-self or self) damage. PMID:24614506
Moreno-García, Miguel; Condé, Renaud; Bello-Bedoy, Rafael; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto
Summary Autophagy was viewed until very recently primarily as a metabolic and intracellular biomass and organelle quality and quantity control pathway. It has now been recognized that autophagy represents a bona fide immunological process with a wide array of roles in immunity. The immunological functions of autophagy, as we understand them now, span both innate and adaptive immunity. They range from unique and sometimes highly specialized immunological effectors and regulatory functions (referred to here as type I immunophagy) to generic homeostatic influence on immune cells (type II immunophagy), akin to the effects on survival and homeostasis of other cell types in the body. As a concept-building tool for understanding why and how autophagy is intertwined with immunity, it is useful to consider that the presently complex picture has emerged in increments, starting in part from the realization that autophagy acts as an evolutionarily ancient microbial clearance mechanism defending eukaryotic cells against intracellular pathogens. In this review, we build a step-wise model of how the core axis of autophagy as a cell-autonomous immune defense against microbes evolved into a complex but orderly web of intersections with innate and adaptive immunity processes. The connections between autophagy and conventional immunity systems include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Nod-like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) such as HMGB1, other known innate and adaptive immunity receptors and cytokines, sequestasome (p62)-like receptors (SLR) that act as autophagy adapters, immunity related GTPase IRGM, innate and adaptive functions of macrophages and dendritic cells, and differential effects on development and homeostasis of T and B-lymphocyte subsets. The disease contexts covered here include tuberculosis, infections with human immunodeficiency virus and other viruses, Salmonella, Listeria, Shigella, Toxoplasma, and inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis.
Lymphocytes obtained from spleens or peritoneal exudates of immune donor mice were evaluated for their ability to passively confer protection on recipients subsequently challenged with virulent scrub typhus rickettsiae. Peritoneal exudate lymphocytes (PELs) injected intraperitoneally were able to transfer complete protection against rickettsial challenge by 5 days after immunization, whereas splenic lymphocytes (SpL's) required 15 days to exhibit similar resistance. When immune lymphocytes were transferred intravenously, cells from both anatomical compartments required 15 days after immunization before they were able to completely protect recipients. PELs maintained this protective capacity for 2 weeks, but the passive immunity induced by intravenously transferred SpL's rapidly diminished to insignificant levels. It was particularly interesting that the protective effect of SpL's could be dramatically reduced by the concomitant presence of a mineral oil-induced peritoneal exudate. Almost total abrogation of resistance was observed when SpL's obtained from exudate-bearing mice were transferred intravenously. The protective capacity of both PELs and SpL's was resistant to 1,200 rads of gamma radiation at 7 to 10 days after immunization, but resistance was transient and by 3 weeks was undetectable. It was not possible to determine from this study whether the transferred lymphocytes were proximate mediators of protection in scrub typhus infection of mice or whether they served to recruit the host's own defenses, or both. However, it was possible to conclude that PEL's and SpLs exhibited functional heterogeneity and that PELs were more efficient mediators of protection.
Catanzaro, Phillip J.; Shirai, Akira; Agniel, Lucien D.; Osterman, Joseph V.
Increasing scientific study and attention is being directed to mind-body interactions, particularly to the interrelationships between the brain and the immune system. This effort has created a new interdisciplinary field, psychoneuro-immunology. An overview of this new field is provided, followed by a comprehensive survey of the growing evidence suggesting that measurable immune system parameters can be influenced by biobehavioral strategies
Franklin M. Halley
Many components of the innate immune system in vertebrates can be reliably traced to urochordates and successful strategies for the detection and elimination of pathogens are present at that level of animal evolution, but the issue of where and how the adaptive immune system emerged is still obscure. There is a paucity of evidence for a gradual transition from the
Konstantin Khalturin; Zeev Panzer; Max D. Cooper; Thomas C. G. Bosch
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a frequent reason for healthcare visits. Both pathogen and host differences likely are factors in determining the frequency of recurrent MRSA infections in otherwise normal hosts. Among such host factors are altered innate immune responses in skin and soft tissues. This review examines four selected processes of the innate immune system by which the host may prevent MRSA skin or soft tissue infections. The first involves cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) found in skin, skin organs, and leukocytes. The second requires chemotactic molecules secreted by monocytes and their derivatives. The third is CRP, a primitive opsonin and activator of complement. And the fourth includes neutrophil defenses. These last include the traditional phagocytic bacterial killing by intact neutrophils. This is an intracellular killing accomplished by reactive oxygen species (ROS), CAMPs, and microbicidal enzymes. A second recently described neutrophil defense results in extracellular killing using neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), NETs are produced as neutrophils lyse by a process known as NETosis. The balance between these and similar innate immune responses and bacterial virulence factors likely determines whether MRSA colonization/exposure results in infection of skin or soft tissue. PMID:19794376
Harrison, C J
Neurodegenerative diseases, notably Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, are amongst the most devastating disorders afflicting the elderly. Currently, no curative treatments or treatments that interdict disease progression exist. Over the past decade, immunization strategies have been proposed to combat disease progression. Such strategies induce humoral immune responses against misfolded protein aggregates to facilitate their clearance. Robust adaptive immunity against misfolded proteins, however, accelerates disease progression, precipitated by induced effector T cell responses that lead to encephalitis and neuronal death. Since then, mechanisms that attenuate such adaptive neurotoxic immune responses have been sought. We propose that shifting the balance between effector and regulatory T cell activity can attenuate neurotoxic inflammatory events. This review summarizes advances in immune regulation to achieve a homeostatic glial response for therapeutic gain. Promising new ways to optimize immunization schemes and measure their clinical efficacy are also discussed.
Kosloski, Lisa M.; Ha, Duy M.; Stone, David K.; Hutter, Jessica A. L.; Pichler, Michael R.; Reynolds, Ashley D.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Mosley, R. Lee
Color is a common feature of animal defense. Herbivorous insects are often colored in shades of green similar to their preferred food plants, making them difficult for predators to locate. Other insects advertise their presence with bright colors after they sequester enough toxins from their food plants to make them unpalatable. Some insects even switch between cryptic and aposomatic coloration during development.1 Although common in animals, quantitative evidence for color-based defense in plants is rare. After all, the primary function of plant leaves is to absorb light for photosynthesis, rather than reflect light in ways that alter their appearance to herbivores. However, recent research is beginning to challenge the notion that color-based defence is restricted to animals.
The purpose of this strategy is to provide broad guidelines for planning and coordinating a Total Quality Management (TQM) education and training for the Department of Defense (DoD) work force. The strategy is organized around short-, mid-, and long-range...
C. S. Greebler J. G. Suarez
Vitamin C participates in several physiological processes, among others, immune stimulation, synthesis of collagen, hormones, neurotransmitters, and iron absorption. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, whereas a limited vitamin C intake causes general symptoms, such as increased susceptibility to infections, fatigue, insomnia, and weight loss. Surprisingly vitamin C deficiencies are spread in both developing and developed countries, with the latter actually trying to overcome this lack through dietary supplements and food fortification. Therefore new strategies aimed to increase vitamin C in food plants would be of interest to improve human health. Interestingly, plants are not only living bioreactors for vitamin C production in optimal growing conditions, but also they can increase their vitamin C content as consequence of stress conditions. An overview of the different approaches aimed at increasing vitamin C level in plant food is given. They include genotype selection by "classical" breeding, bio-engineering and changes of the agronomic conditions, on the basis of the emerging concepts that plant can enhance vitamin C synthesis as part of defense responses. PMID:23734160
Locato, Vittoria; Cimini, Sara; Gara, Laura De
Vitamin C participates in several physiological processes, among others, immune stimulation, synthesis of collagen, hormones, neurotransmitters, and iron absorption. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, whereas a limited vitamin C intake causes general symptoms, such as increased susceptibility to infections, fatigue, insomnia, and weight loss. Surprisingly vitamin C deficiencies are spread in both developing and developed countries, with the latter actually trying to overcome this lack through dietary supplements and food fortification. Therefore new strategies aimed to increase vitamin C in food plants would be of interest to improve human health. Interestingly, plants are not only living bioreactors for vitamin C production in optimal growing conditions, but also they can increase their vitamin C content as consequence of stress conditions. An overview of the different approaches aimed at increasing vitamin C level in plant food is given. They include genotype selection by “classical” breeding, bio-engineering and changes of the agronomic conditions, on the basis of the emerging concepts that plant can enhance vitamin C synthesis as part of defense responses.
Locato, Vittoria; Cimini, Sara; Gara, Laura De
We simulate the progression of the HIV-1 infection in untreated host organisms. The phenotype features of the virus are represented by the replication rate, the probability of activating the transcription, the mutation rate and the capacity to stimulate an immune response (the so-called immunogenicity). It is very difficult to study in-vivo or in-vitro how these characteristics of the virus influence the evolution of the disease. Therefore we resorted to simulations based on a computer model validated in previous studies. We observe, by means of computer experiments, that the virus continuously evolves under the selective pressure of an immune response whose effectiveness downgrades along with the disease progression. The results of the simulations show that immunogenicity is the most important factor in determining the rate of disease progression but, by itself, it is not sufficient to drive the disease to a conclusion in all cases.
Castiglione, F.; Bernaschi, M.
An efficient algorithm that can properly identify the targets to immunize or quarantine for preventing an epidemic in a population without knowing the global structural information is of obvious importance. Typically, a population is characterized by its community structure and the heterogeneity in the weak ties among nodes bridging over communities. We propose and study an effective algorithm that searches for bridge hubs, which are bridge nodes with a larger number of weak ties, as immunizing targets based on the idea of referencing to an expanding friendship circle as a self-avoiding walk proceeds. Applying the algorithm to simulated networks and empirical networks constructed from social network data of five US universities, we show that the algorithm is more effective than other existing local algorithms for a given immunization coverage, with a reduced final epidemic ratio, lower peak prevalence and fewer nodes that need to be visited before identifying the target nodes. The effectiveness stems from the breaking up of community networks by successful searches on target nodes with more weak ties. The effectiveness remains robust even when errors exist in the structure of the networks.
Gong, Kai; Tang, Ming; Hui, Pak Ming; Zhang, Hai Feng; Younghae, Do; Lai, Ying-Cheng
Lymphocytes obtained from spleens or peritoneal exudates of immune donor mice were evaluated for their ability to passively confer protection on recipients subsequently challenged with virulent scrub typhus rickettsiae. Peritoneal exudate lymphocytes (PELs) injected intraperitoneally were able to transfer complete protection against rickettsial challenge by 5 days after immunization, whereas splenic lymphocytes (SpL's) required 15 days to exhibit similar resistance. When immune lymphocytes were transferred intravenously, cells from both anatomical compartments required 15 days after immunization before they were able to completely protect recipients. PELs maintained this protective capacity for 2 weeks, but the passive immunity induced by intravenously transferred SpL's rapidly diminished to insignificant levels. It was particularly interesting that the protective effect of SpL's could be dramatically reduced by the concomitant presence of a mineral oil-induced peritoneal exudate. Almost total abrogation of resistance was observed when SpL's obtained from exudate-bearing mice were transferred intravenously. The protective capacity of both PELs and SpL's was resistant to 1,200 rads of gamma radiation at 7 to 10 days after immunization, but resistance was transient and by 3 weeks was undetectable. It was not possible to determine from this study whether the transferred lymphocytes were proximate mediators of protection in scrub typhus infection of mice or whether they served to recruit the host's own defenses, or both. However, it was possible to conclude that PEL's and SpLs exhibited functional heterogeneity and that PELs were more efficient mediators of protection. PMID:409681
Catanzaro, P J; Shiral, A; Agniel, L D; Osterman, J V
One prominent hypothesis regarding climate change and scleractinian corals is that thermal stress compromises immune competence. To test this hypothesis we tracked how the immune defenses of bleached, apparently healthy and yellow band disease (YBD) diseased Montastraea faveolata colonies varied with natural thermal stress in southwestern Puerto Rico. Colonies were monitored for 21 mo from the peak of the bleaching event in October 2005 to August 2007. Since sea surface temperature was significantly higher in summer and fall 2005 than 2006, year of collection was used as a proxy for temperature stress, and colony fragments collected in 2005 were compared with those collected in 2006. Mortality rate was high (43% overall) and all colonies (except one) either died or became infected with YBD by August 2007. YBD-infected tissue did not bleach (i.e. expel zooxanthellae) during the 2005 bleaching event, even when healthy tissue of these colonies bleached. Immune activity was assayed by measuring prophenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), lysozyme-like (LYS) and antibacterial (AB) activity. Immune activity was variable between all coral samples, but there was a significant elevation of PPO activity in bleached colonies collected in 2005 relative to apparently healthy and YBD-diseased corals in 2006. In YBD-diseased colonies, LYS and AB activity were elevated in both healthy and infected tissue, indicating a systemic response; activity levels in these colonies were higher compared to those that appeared healthy. In both these immune parameters, there was a trend for suppression of activity in corals that were bleached in 2005. These data, while complicated by between-genet variability, illustrate the complex interaction between disease and temperature stress on immune function. PMID:20095242
Mydlarz, Laura D; Couch, Courtney S; Weil, Ernesto; Smith, Garriet; Harvell, C Drew
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a strict human pathogen that causes the sexually transmitted infection termed gonorrhea. The gonococcus can survive extracellularly and intracellularly, but in both environments the bacteria must acquire iron from host proteins for survival. However, upon infection the host uses a defensive response by limiting the bioavailability of iron by a number of mechanisms including the enhanced expression of hepcidin, the master iron-regulating hormone, which reduces iron uptake from the gut and retains iron in macrophages. The host also secretes the antibacterial protein NGAL, which sequesters bacterial siderophores and therefore inhibits bacterial growth. To learn whether intracellular gonococci can subvert this defensive response, we examined expression of host genes that encode proteins involved in modulating levels of intracellular iron. We found that N. gonorrhoeae can survive in association (tightly adherent and intracellular) with monocytes and macrophages and upregulates a panel of its iron-responsive genes in this environment. We also found that gonococcal infection of human monocytes or murine macrophages resulted in the upregulation of hepcidin, NGAL, and NRAMP1 as well as downregulation of the expression of the gene encoding the short chain 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH2); BDH2 catalyzes the production of the mammalian siderophore 2,5-DHBA involved in chelating and detoxifying iron. Based on these findings, we propose that N. gonorrhoeae can subvert the iron-limiting innate immune defenses to facilitate iron acquisition and intracellular survival.
Zughaier, Susu M.; Kandler, Justin L.; Shafer, William M.
The superficial layers of the human vaginal epithelium, which form an interface between host and environment, are comprised of dead flattened cells that have undergone a terminal cell differentiation program called cornification. This entails extrusion of nuclei and intercellular organelles, and the depletion of functional DNA and RNA precluding the synthesis of new proteins. As a consequence, the terminally differentiated cells do not maintain robust intercellular junctions and have a diminished capacity to actively respond to microbial exposure, yet the vaginal stratum corneum (SC) mounts an effective defense against invasive microbial infections. The vaginal SC in reproductive-aged women is comprised of loosely connected glycogen-filled cells, which are permeable to bacterial and viral microbes as well as molecular and cellular mediators of immune defense. We propose here that the vaginal SC provides a unique microenvironment that maintains vaginal health by fostering endogenous lactobacilli and retaining critical mediators of acquired and innate immunity. A better understanding of the molecular and physicochemical properties of the vaginal SC could promote the design of more effective topical drugs and microbicides. PMID:24661416
Anderson, Deborah J; Marathe, Jai; Pudney, Jeffrey
The Brazilian military dictatorships of 1964-1985 established a national security strategy to modernize the country and populate the vast central and western areas of Brazil. Today's strategy similarly seeks to use the military as a means to advance grand...
J. L. Ham
By adopting a bold and ambitious strategy and pursuing it aggressively, the Bush administration has divided the Western alliance; altered the nature of international politics in the Gulf, South Asia, and the Middle East; and crystallized popular opposition to the U.S. in many countries. The new Bush strategy impinges on a number of critical social and military issues for the
P. Edward Haley
The immunocompetence "pace-of-life" hypothesis proposes that fast-living organisms should invest more in innate immune defenses and less in adaptive defenses compared to slow-living ones. We found some support for this hypothesis in two life-history ecotypes of the snake Thamnophis elegans; fast-living individuals show higher levels of innate immunity compared to slow-living ones. Here, we optimized a lymphocyte proliferation assay to assess the complementary prediction that slow-living snakes should in turn show stronger adaptive defenses. We also assessed the "environmental" hypothesis that predicts that slow-living snakes should show lower levels of immune defenses (both innate and adaptive) given the harsher environment they live in. Proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes of free-living individuals was on average higher in fast-living than slow-living snakes, opposing the pace-of-life hypothesis and supporting the environmental hypothesis. Bactericidal capacity of plasma, an index of innate immunity, did not differ between fast-living and slow-living snakes in this study, contrasting the previously documented pattern and highlighting the importance of annual environmental conditions as determinants of immune profiles of free-living animals. Our results do not negate a link between life history and immunity, as indicated by ecotype-specific relationships between lymphocyte proliferation and body condition, but suggest more subtle nuances than those currently proposed. PMID:23995485
Palacios, Maria G; Cunnick, Joan E; Bronikowski, Anne M
The elderly population is more susceptible to infections with higher risks of morbidity and mortality. This is caused by the accumulation of immune defects with aging. The best way to protect people against infections is vaccination. Unfortunately, the same immune defects that render the elderly susceptible to infectious diseases also prevent the development of protective immunity following immunization. A good example of this is the influenza vaccine that only protects between 40 and 60% of the vaccinees over 65 years. In the past decade, tremendous efforts have been put toward improving the influenza vaccine for the elderly. We therefore use this example to present various strategies employed to overcome these age-associated immune defects and hence make vaccines more efficacious for the aged. PMID:23764092
Lefebvre, Julie S; Haynes, Laura
The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese Defensive Pessimism Inventory (JDPI), which measures defensive pessimism in an academic achievement situation for Japanese undergraduate students and differentiates between those who are realistically pessimistic and those who are defensively pessimistic. In Study 1,695 undergraduates completed the JDPI. A factor analysis revealed that the 24 items of the JDPI comprised four factors: Pessimism, Past experience, Positive reflectivity, and Effort. In Study 2, 618 undergraduates completed the JDPI, the Test Coping Strategy Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The JDPI had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Defensive pessimists and strategic optimists had higher scores on the active coping strategy and lower scores on the avoidant-thinking coping strategy than did realistic pessimists. Furthermore, defensive pessimists and realistic pessimists had higher scores on the state anxiety and lower scores on the optimistic-thinking coping strategy than did strategic optimists. The results indicate that the JDPI had high concurrent validity. PMID:18516953
Skin protects itself against infection through a variety of mechanisms. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are major contributors to cutaneous innate immunity, and this system, combined with the unique ionic, lipid and physical barrier of the epidermis is the first line defense against invading pathogens. However, recent studies have revealed that our skin’s innate immune system is not solely of human origin. Staphylococcus epidermidis, a major constituent of the normal microflora on healthy human skin, acts as a barrier against colonization of potentially pathogenic microbes and against overgrowth of already present opportunistic pathogens. Our resident commensal microbes produce their own AMPs, act to enhance the normal production of AMPs by keratinocytes, and are beneficial to maintaining inflammatory homeostasis by suppressing excess cytokine release after minor epidermal injury. These observations indicate that the normal human skin microflora protects skin via various modes of action, a conclusion supported by many lines of evidence associating diseases such as acne, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and rosacea with an imbalance of the microflora even in the absence of classical infection. This review highlights recent observations on the importance of innate immune systems and the relationship with the normal skin microflora to maintain healthy skin.
Gallo, Richard L.; Nakatsuji, Teruaki
For the last year I have heard time and time again that 'the cold war is over'. Articles were published by the NDU Press which spoke of 'US Strategy After The Cold War', and the Washington Post headlines screamed (before 2 August) of the 'Peace Dividend' ...
D. E. Kersey
We evaluate performance of anti-virus strategies by using stochastic processes. The typical installations of anti- virus software is either at client PCs or the network gateway. By installing gateway anti-virus, many internet service providers and cooperate LANs are offering the screening service of emails to protect their users from the menace of computer viruses. At the same time, we are
As an important iron storage protein, ferritin plays a crucial role in the iron-withholding defense system. In this study, two secreted ferritin subunits (PyFerS1 and PyFerS2) were identified from the Yesso scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis. The complete DNA sequences of the two ferritins are 7101 and 5359 bp, consisting of seven and five exons, respectively. The full-length cDNAs of PyFerS1 and PyFerS2 are 960 and 956 bp in length, encoding 228 and 220 amino acids, respectively. They have typical ferritin structures, with four long ?-helices, one short ?-helix and an L-loop. Signal peptides were found at the N-terminus of both ferritins, and phylogenetic analysis showed that they both clustered with secreted mollusc ferritins. PyFerS1 possesses all seven conserved residues of the ferroxidase center, whereas PyFerS2 only has two. Real-time PCR analysis indicated high expression level of PyFerS2 in the D-shaped larvae, and PyFerS1 in both D-shaped larvae and fertilized eggs. In adult scallops, PyFerS1 was only detected in the hepatopancreas, whereas PyFerS2 was detected in both hepatopancreas and mantle. After the scallops were challenged by iron ion or bacteria Vibrio anguillarum, the expression of both PyFerS1 and PyFerS2 was significantly elevated, suggesting they may play a role in scallop innate immune defense. For the first time, secreted ferritins were cloned and comprehensively characterized in bivalve molluscs. It will assist in better understanding of the role of secreted ferritins in bivalve innate immunity. PMID:24434645
Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yueyue; Fu, Xiaoteng; Zhang, Ru; Zou, Jiajun; Wang, Shi; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lingling; Bao, Zhenmin
The purpose of this research is to determine if pricing strategy and pricing stability for products in the defense aerospace industry can be predicted based on a firm's financial condition. The sample for this research includes 17 contractors and 52 missi...
J. C. Johnstone P. D. Keavney
To counter the Chinese threat to its low Earth orbit satellites, the United States should adopt a defensive strategy focused on deterrence and recovery. China demonstrated their ability to employ an anti-satellite weapon when it destroyed one of its own w...
Cost-driven outsourcing strategies are undermining the Department of Defense (DoD). This is the inescapable conclusion we have reached in the course of our research. The effort put into Office of Management and Budget (0MB) circular A-76 (A-76) and relate...
J. J. McGuiness J. S. Spicer W. M. Anderson
This study examined differences in self-reported coping strategies across children classified according to Weinberger et al.'s (1979) adaptive style paradigm. Consistent with the larger literature, it was hypothesized that repressors (i.e. characterized by high self-reported defensiveness and low self-reported distress) would endorse fewer behaviorally and cognitively avoidant coping strategies than other adaptive style groups. Participants included 134 children, ranging in
Margaret M. Richards; Ric G. Steele
Symbiotic microorganisms influence health and disease and may contribute to the innate immune defenses of amphibians. The mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa, is currently undergoing unprecedented population declines. One cause of recent declines is the pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Skin swabs for detection of Bd, skin peptide secretions, and symbiotic skin bacteria were collected from 70 adult R.
Douglas C. Woodhams; Vance T. Vredenburg; Mary-Alice Simon; Dean Billheimer; Bashar Shakhtour; Yu Shyr; Cheryl J. Briggs; Louise A. Rollins-Smith; Reid N. Harris
Plant stomata function in innate immunity against bacterial invasion and abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to regulate this process. Using genetic, biochemical, and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that (i) the Arabidopsis thaliana nine-specific-lipoxygenase encoding gene, LOX1, which is expressed in guard cells, is required to trigger stomatal closure in response to both bacteria and the pathogen-associated molecular pattern flagellin peptide flg22; (ii) LOX1 participates in stomatal defense; (iii) polyunsaturated fatty acids, the LOX substrates, trigger stomatal closure; (iv) the LOX products, fatty acid hydroperoxides, or reactive electrophile oxylipins induce stomatal closure; and (v) the flg22-mediated stomatal closure is conveyed by both LOX1 and the mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6 and involves salicylic acid whereas the ABA-induced process depends on the protein kinases OST1, MPK9, or MPK12. Finally, we show that the oxylipin and the ABA pathways converge at the level of the anion channel SLAC1 to regulate stomatal closure. Collectively, our results demonstrate that early biotic signaling in guard cells is an ABA-independent process revealing a novel function of LOX1-dependent stomatal pathway in plant immunity.
Mondy, Samuel; Tranchimand, Sylvain; Rumeau, Dominique; Boudsocq, Marie; Garcia, Ana Victoria; Douki, Thierry; Bigeard, Jean; Lauriere, Christiane; Chevalier, Anne; Castresana, Carmen; Hirt, Heribert
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is specifically induced in germinal center B cells to carry out somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination, two processes responsible for antibody diversification. Because of its mutagenic potential, AID expression and activity are tightly regulated to minimize unwanted DNA damage. Surprisingly, AID expression has been observed ectopically during pathogenic infections. However, the function of AID outside of the germinal centers remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we demonstrate that infection of human primary naïve B cells with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) rapidly induces AID expression in a cell intrinsic manner. We find that infected cells are marked for elimination by Natural Killer cells through upregulation of NKG2D ligands via the DNA damage pathway, a pathway triggered by AID. Moreover, without having a measurable effect on KSHV latency, AID impinges directly on the viral fitness by inhibiting lytic reactivation and reducing infectivity of KSHV virions. Importantly, we uncover two KSHV-encoded microRNAs that directly regulate AID abundance, further reinforcing the role for AID in the antiviral response. Together our findings reveal additional functions for AID in innate immune defense against KSHV with implications for a broader involvement in innate immunity to other pathogens.
Bekerman, Elena; Jeon, Diana; Ardolino, Michele; Coscoy, Laurent
The importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in innate immunity was first recognized in professional phagocytes undergoing a “respiratory burst” upon activation. This robust oxygen consumption is related to a superoxide-generating enzyme, the phagocytic NADPH oxidase (Nox2 or phox). The oxidase is essential for microbial killing, since patients lacking a functional oxidase suffer from enhanced susceptibility to microbial infections. ROS derived from superoxide attack bacteria in the isolated niche of the neutrophil phagosome. The oxidase is electrogenic, alters ion currents across membranes, induces apoptosis, regulates cytokine production, influences gene expression, and promotes formation of extracellular traps. Recently, new homologues of Nox2 were discovered establishing the Nox family of NADPH oxidases that encompasses seven members. Nox1 is highly expressed in the colon epithelium, and can be induced by LPS or IFN-?. Nox4 was implicated in innate immunity since LPS induces Nox4-dependent ROS generation. Duox1 and Duox2 localize to the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells in major airways, salivary glands, and the gastrointestinal tract, and provide extracellular hydrogen peroxide to lactoperoxidase to produce antimicrobial hypothiocyanite ions. Th1 and Th2 cytokines regulate expression of Dual oxidases in human airways and may thereby act in host defense or in proinflammatory responses.
Rada, Balazs; Leto, Thomas L.
Objective This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ) in measuring adolescent humor,\\u000a including the relationship between humor and coping style, defense style, depressive symptoms, and adjustment in a non-clinical\\u000a sample of adolescents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Humor, coping, defense strategies, depressive symptoms, and adjustment were investigated in 94 adolescents aged 12–15.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results The HSQ demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Inter-scale correlational patterns
Sarah J. Erickson; Sarah W. Feldstein
In September 2002, President Bush published his first National Security Strategy (NSS) to the U.S. Congress. In this strategy, the President asserted a new doctrine of unilateral preemptive self-defense, arguing that this new doctrine is needed to adequat...
J. L. Smith
Traditional chemotherapeutics have largely failed to date to produce significant improvements in pancreatic cancer survival. One of the reasons for the resilience of pancreatic cancer towards intensive treatment is that the cancer is capable of high jacking the immune system: during disease progression the immune system is converted from a system that attacks tumor cells into a support structure for the cancer, exerting trophic actions on the cancer cells. This turn-around of immune system action is achieved through mobilization and activation of regulatory T cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages and fibroblasts, all of which suppress CD8 T cells and NK cells. This immune suppression occurs both through the expression of tolerance-inducing cell surface molecules, such as PD-L1, as well as through the production of "tolerogenic" cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-?. Based on the accumulating insight into the importance of the immune system for the outcome of pancreatic cancer patients multiple new immunotherapeutic approaches against pancreatic cancer are being currently tested in clinical trials. In this review we give an overview of both the immune escaping mechanisms of pancreatic cancer as well as the new immune related therapeutic strategies currently being tested in pancreatic cancer clinical trials. PMID:24315741
Sideras, K; Braat, H; Kwekkeboom, J; van Eijck, C H; Peppelenbosch, M P; Sleijfer, S; Bruno, M
Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN) or the intrapulmonary (IPL) route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses.
Liu, Heng; Patil, Harshad P.; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke
Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN) or the intrapulmonary (IPL) route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses. PMID:23936066
Liu, Heng; Patil, Harshad P; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke
Polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN) is a significant complication after kidney transplantation, often leading to premature graft loss. In order to identify antiviral responses of the renal tubular epithelium, we studied activation of the viral DNA and the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) sensors Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) in allograft biopsy samples of patients with PVAN, and in human collecting duct cells in culture after stimulation by the dsRNA mimic polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), cytokines, or infection with BK virus. Double staining using immunofluorescence for BK virus and TLR3 showed strong signals in epithelial cells of distal cortical tubules and the collecting duct. In biopsies microdissected to isolate tubulointerstitial lesions, TLR3 but not RIG-I mRNA expression was found to be increased in PVAN. Collecting duct cells in culture expressed TLR3 intracellularly, and activation of TLR3 and RIG-I by poly(I:C) enhanced expression of cytokine, chemokine, and IFN-? mRNA. This inflammatory response could be specifically blocked by siRNA to TLR3. Finally, infection of the collecting duct cells with BK virus enhanced the expression of cytokines and chemokines. This led to an efficient antiviral immune response with TLR3 and RIG-I upregulation without activation of IL-1? or components of the inflammasome pathway. Thus, PVAN activation of innate immune defense mechanisms through TLR3 is involved in the antiviral and anti-inflammatory response leading to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. PMID:21918500
Ribeiro, Andrea; Wörnle, Markus; Motamedi, Nasim; Anders, Hans J; Gröne, Elisabeth F; Nitschko, Hans; Kurktschiev, Peter; Debiec, Hanna; Kretzler, Matthias; Cohen, Clemens D; Gröne, Hermann J; Schlöndorff, Detlef; Schmid, Holger
Background Many insects are chemically defended against predatory vertebrates and invertebrates. Nevertheless, our understanding of the evolution and diversity of insect defenses remains limited, since most studies have focused on visual signaling of defenses against birds, thereby implicitly underestimating the impact of insectivorous insects. In the larvae of sawflies in the family Tenthredinidae (Hymenoptera), which feed on various plants and show diverse lifestyles, two distinct defensive strategies are found: easy bleeding of deterrent hemolymph, and emission of volatiles by ventral glands. Here, we used phylogenetic information to identify phylogenetic correlations among various ecological and defensive traits in order to estimate the relative importance of avian versus invertebrate predation. Results The mapping of 12 ecological and defensive traits on phylogenetic trees inferred from DNA sequences reveals the discrete distribution of easy bleeding that occurs, among others, in the genus Athalia and the tribe Phymatocerini. By contrast, occurrence of ventral glands is restricted to the monophyletic subfamily Nematinae, which are never easy bleeders. Both strategies are especially effective towards insectivorous insects such as ants, while only Nematinae species are frequently brightly colored and truly gregarious. Among ten tests of phylogenetic correlation between traits, only a few are significant. None of these involves morphological traits enhancing visual signals, but easy bleeding is associated with the absence of defensive body movements and with toxins occurring in the host plant. Easy bleeding functions through a combination of attributes, which is corroborated by an independent contrasts test indicating a statistically significant negative correlation between species-level integument mechanical resistance and hemolymph feeding deterrence against ants. Conclusions Our analyses evidence a repeated occurrence of easy bleeding, and no phylogenetic correlation including specific visual signals is significant. We conclude that the evolution of chemically-based defenses in tenthredinids may have been driven by invertebrate as much as by avian predation. The clear-cut visual signaling often encountered in the Nematinae would be linked to differential trends of habitat use by prey and predators. Further studies on (prey) insect groups should include visual signals and other traits, as well as several groups of natural enemies, to better interpret their relative significance and to refine our understanding of insect chemical defenses.
The innate immune system is one of the first lines of defense against invading pathogens. Pathogens have, in turn, evolved different strategies to counteract these responses. Recent studies have illuminated how the hemorrhagic fever viruses Ebola and Lassa fever prevent host sensing of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), a key hallmark of viral infection. The ebolavirus protein VP35 adopts a unique bimodal configuration to mask key cellular recognition sites on dsRNA. Conversely, the Lassa fever virus nucleoprotein actually digests the dsRNA signature. Collectively, these structural and functional studies shed new light on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of these viruses and provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22482712
Hastie, Kathryn M; Bale, Shridhar; Kimberlin, Christopher R; Saphire, Erica Ollmann
U.S. military aircraft are often at great risk from enemy air defenses, and the services use specialized aircraft to neutralize or destroy them. In January 2001, GAO reported that a gap existed between the services' suppression capabilities and their needs and recommended that a comprehensive strategy was needed to fix the situation. In response to GAO's report, DOD emphasized that a major study underway at the time would provide the basis for a Department-wide strategy and lead to a balanced set of acquisition programs between the services. This report updates our previous work and assesses actions that DOD has taken to improve its suppression capabilities.
Adenoviral (Ad) vectors have emerged as a promising gene delivery platform for a variety of therapeutic and vaccine purposes during last two decades. However, the presence of preexisting Ad immunity and the rapid development of Ad vector immunity still pose significant challenges to the clinical use of these vectors. Innate inflammatory response following Ad vector administration may lead to systemic toxicity, drastically limit vector transduction efficiency and significantly abbreviate the duration of transgene expression. Currently, a number of approaches are being extensively pursued to overcome these drawbacks by strategies that target either the host or the Ad vector. In addition, significant progress has been made in the development of novel Ad vectors based on less prevalent human Ad serotypes and nonhuman Ad. This review provides an update on our current understanding of immune responses to Ad vectors and delineates various approaches for eluding Ad vector immunity. Approaches targeting the host and those targeting the vector are discussed in light of their promises and limitations.
Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.
On May 2, 2006 the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (USD(AT&L)) directed the Defense Science Board to create a Task Force to examine DoD Energy Strategy Citing significant risks to both our nation and our military force...
We study tolerance and topology of random scale-free networks under attack and defense strategies that depend on the degree k of the nodes. This situation occurs, for example, when the robustness of a node depends on its degree or in an intentional attack with insufficient knowledge of the network. We determine, for all strategies, the critical fraction p(c) of nodes that must be removed for disintegrating the network. We find that, for an intentional attack, little knowledge of the well-connected sites is sufficient to strongly reduce p(c). At criticality, the topology of the network depends on the removal strategy, implying that different strategies may lead to different kinds of percolation transitions. PMID:15904414
Gallos, Lazaros K; Cohen, Reuven; Argyrakis, Panos; Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo
IRAK-M is a negative regulator of innate immunity signaling processes. Although attenuation of innate immunity may help to prevent excessive inflammation, it may also lead to compromised immune surveillance of tumor cells and contribute to tumor formation and growth. Here, we demonstrate that IRAK-M?\\/? mice are resistant to tumor growth upon inoculation with transplantable tumor cells. Immune cells from IRAK-M?\\/?
Qifa Xie; Lu Gan; Jianxia Wang; Ingred Wilson; Liwu Li
Soil-borne fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum causes major economic losses by inducing necrosis and wilting symptoms in many crop plants. Management of fusarium wilt is achieved mainly by the use of chemical fungicides which affect the soil health and their efficiency is often limited by pathogenic variability. Hence understanding the nature of interaction between pathogen and host may help to select and improve better cultivars. Current research evidences highlight the role of oxidative burst and antioxidant enzymes indicating that ROS act as an important signaling molecule in banana defense response against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The role of jasmonic acid signaling in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens is well recognized. But recent studies show that the role of salicylic acid is complex and ambiguous against necrotrophic pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, leading to many intriguing questions about its relationship between other signaling compounds. In case of banana, a major challenge is to identify specific receptors for effector proteins like SIX proteins and also the components of various signal transduction pathways. Significant progress has been made to uncover the role of defense genes but is limited to only model plants such as Arabidopsis and tomato. Keeping this in view, we review the host response, pathogen diversity, current understanding of biochemical and molecular changes that occur during host and pathogen interaction. Developing resistant cultivars through mutation, breeding, transgenic and cisgenic approaches have been discussed. This would help us to understand host defenses against Fusarium oxysporum and to formulate strategies to develop tolerant cultivars. PMID:24420701
Swarupa, V; Ravishankar, K V; Rekha, A
Background While emerging diseases are affecting many populations of amphibians, some populations are resistant. Determining the relative contributions of factors influencing disease resistance is critical for effective conservation management. Innate immune defenses in amphibian skin are vital host factors against a number of emerging pathogens such as ranaviruses and the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Adult water frogs from Switzerland (Pelophylax esculentus and P. lessonae) collected in the field with their natural microbiota intact were exposed to Bd after experimental reduction of microbiota, skin peptides, both, or neither to determine the relative contributions of these defenses. Results Naturally-acquired Bd infections were detected in 10/51 P. lessonae and 4/19 P. esculentus, but no disease outbreaks or population declines have been detected at this site. Thus, this population was immunologically primed, and disease resistant. No mortality occurred during the 64 day experiment. Forty percent of initially uninfected frogs became sub-clinically infected upon experimental exposure to Bd. Reduction of both skin peptide and microbiota immune defenses caused frogs to gain less mass when exposed to Bd than frogs in other treatments. Microbiota-reduced frogs increased peptide production upon Bd infection. Ranavirus was undetectable in all but two frogs that appeared healthy in the field, but died within a week under laboratory conditions. Virus was detectable in both toe-clips and internal organs. Conclusion Intact skin microbiota reduced immune activation and can minimize subclinical costs of infection. Tolerance of Bd or ranavirus infection may differ with ecological conditions.
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health concern with an astounding 9 million new cases and 2 million deaths per year. This leading infectious cause of death remains highly prevalent with one third of the world's population latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) despite routine vaccination against TB in endemic areas. The only approved TB vaccine is the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), which provides protection against childhood miliary tuberculosis and has been administered intradermally in humans for almost a century. While effective in preventing disseminated forms of TB, the BCG has variable efficacy in providing protection against pulmonary TB. Therefore, the BCG has been unable to control the instance of adult pulmonary TB which constitutes the global disease burden. Despite the fact that mechanisms underlying the lack of pulmonary protection provided by the BCG remain poorly understood, it remains the "Gold Standard" for vaccine-mediated protection against M.tb and will continue to be used for the foreseeable future. Therefore, continued effort has been placed on understanding the mechanisms behind the failure of BCG to provide sufficient protection against M.tb in the lung and to design new vaccines to be used in conjunction with the BCG as boost strategies to install protective immunity at the site of infection. Growing evidence supports that the route of immunization dictates the geographical location of TB-reactive T cells, and it is this distribution which predicts the protective outcome of such vaccine-elicited immunity. Such vaccines that are able to localize TB-reactive T cells to the lung and airway mucosa are thought to fill the "immunological gap" in the lung that is required for enhanced protection against M.tb infection. This chapter focuses on the critical importance of T cell geography when designing new immunization strategies against pulmonary TB. PMID:23468114
Horvath, Carly N; Xing, Zhou
Plants and animals have evolved intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing immune receptors (NLRs) to perceive non-self and trigger immune responses. Plant NLRs detect strain-specific pathogen effectors and activate immune signaling leading to extensive transcriptional reprogramming and termination of pathogen infection. Here we review the recent findings in barley MLA immune receptor mediated immune responses against the barley powdery mildew fungus. We focus on nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of immune receptor, bifurcation of immune signaling, transcriptional repression and derepression connecting receptor activation to immune responses. We also discuss similar findings from other plant NLRs where appropriate. PMID:24115952
Chang, Cheng; Zhang, Ling; Shen, Qian-Hua
Metabolic signals orchestrate plant defenses against microbial pathogen invasion. Here, we report the identification of the non-protein amino acid pipecolic acid (Pip), a common Lys catabolite in plants and animals, as a critical regulator of inducible plant immunity. Following pathogen recognition, Pip accumulates in inoculated Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, in leaves distal from the site of inoculation, and, most specifically, in petiole exudates from inoculated leaves. Defects of mutants in AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN1 (ALD1) in systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and in basal, specific, and ?-aminobutyric acid–induced resistance to bacterial infection are associated with a lack of Pip production. Exogenous Pip complements these resistance defects and increases pathogen resistance of wild-type plants. We conclude that Pip accumulation is critical for SAR and local resistance to bacterial pathogens. Our data indicate that biologically induced SAR conditions plants to more effectively synthesize the phytoalexin camalexin, Pip, and salicylic acid and primes plants for early defense gene expression. Biological priming is absent in the pipecolate-deficient ald1 mutants. Exogenous pipecolate induces SAR-related defense priming and partly restores priming responses in ald1. We conclude that Pip orchestrates defense amplification, positive regulation of salicylic acid biosynthesis, and priming to guarantee effective local resistance induction and the establishment of SAR.
Navarova, Hana; Bernsdorff, Friederike; Doring, Anne-Christin; Zeier, Jurgen
Metabolic signals orchestrate plant defenses against microbial pathogen invasion. Here, we report the identification of the non-protein amino acid pipecolic acid (Pip), a common Lys catabolite in plants and animals, as a critical regulator of inducible plant immunity. Following pathogen recognition, Pip accumulates in inoculated Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, in leaves distal from the site of inoculation, and, most specifically, in petiole exudates from inoculated leaves. Defects of mutants in AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN1 (ALD1) in systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and in basal, specific, and ?-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance to bacterial infection are associated with a lack of Pip production. Exogenous Pip complements these resistance defects and increases pathogen resistance of wild-type plants. We conclude that Pip accumulation is critical for SAR and local resistance to bacterial pathogens. Our data indicate that biologically induced SAR conditions plants to more effectively synthesize the phytoalexin camalexin, Pip, and salicylic acid and primes plants for early defense gene expression. Biological priming is absent in the pipecolate-deficient ald1 mutants. Exogenous pipecolate induces SAR-related defense priming and partly restores priming responses in ald1. We conclude that Pip orchestrates defense amplification, positive regulation of salicylic acid biosynthesis, and priming to guarantee effective local resistance induction and the establishment of SAR. PMID:23221596
Návarová, Hana; Bernsdorff, Friederike; Döring, Anne-Christin; Zeier, Jürgen
During evolution and with the emergence of multicellular animals, the need arose to ward off foreign organisms that threaten the integrity of the animal body. Among many different receptors that participate in the recognition of microbial invaders, toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in mediating the innate immune response. After binding distinct microbial components, TLRs activate intracellular signaling cascades that result in an induced expression of diverse antimicrobial molecules. Because sponges (phylum Porifera) are filter feeders, they are abundantly exposed to microorganisms that represent a potential threat. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and deduced protein sequence from 3 major elements of the poriferan innate response (to bacterial lipopeptides): the TLR, the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-4-like protein (IRAK-4l), and a novel effector caspase from the demosponge Suberites domuncula. Each molecule shares significant sequence similarity with its homologues in higher Metazoa. Sequence homologies were found in particular within the family-specific domains toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance (TLR family), Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase domain (IRAK family), and CASc (caspase family). In addition, in situ hybridization and immunohistological analyses revealed an abundance of SDTLR (TLR) transcripts in epithelial layers of the sponge surface (exopinacoderm and endopinacoderm). Furthermore, it is shown that both SDTLR and SDIRAK-4 like (IRAK) are expressed constitutively, regardless of treatment with synthetic triacyl lipopeptide Pam(3)Cys-Ser-(Lys)(4). In contrast, SDCASL (caspase) expression is highly Pam(3)Cys-Ser-(Lys)(4) inducible. However, blocking of the lipopeptide with recombinant TLR prior to its application completely prevented the induced expression of this poriferan caspase. These results underscore that the phylogenetically oldest extant metazoan phylum is provided already with the signaling pathways of the antimicrobial host-defense system of Metazoa. PMID:17190971
Wiens, Matthias; Korzhev, Michael; Perovic-Ottstadt, Sanja; Luthringer, Bérengère; Brandt, David; Klein, Stefanie; Müller, Werner E G
The oncolytic potential of measles vaccine virus (MeV) has been demonstrated in several tumor entities. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of eight sarcoma cell lines to MeV-mediated oncolysis and found five to be susceptible, whereas three proved to be resistant. In the MeV-resistant cell lines, we often observed an inhibition of viral replication along with a strong upregulation of the intracellular virus-sensing molecule RIG-I and of the interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene IFIT1. Not only expression of IFIT1 but also phosphorylation of IFN-stimulated Stat1 took place rapidly and were found to be persistent over time. In contrast, susceptible cell lines showed a much weaker, delayed, or completely missing expression of IFIT1 as well as a delayed or only transient phosphorylation of Stat1, whereas exogenic stimulation with beta interferon (IFN-?) resulted in a comparable profound activation of Stat1 and expression of IFIT1 in all cell lines. Pretreatment with IFN-? rendered three of the susceptible cell lines more resistant to MeV-mediated oncolysis. These data suggest that differences in the innate immune defense often account for different degrees of susceptibility of sarcoma cell lines to MeV-mediated oncolysis. From a therapeutic perspective, we were able to overcome resistance to MeV by increasing the multiplicity of infection (MOI) and by addition of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (FC), thereby exploiting the suicide gene function of virotherapeutic vector MeV-SCD armed with the SCD fusion protein, which consists of yeast cytosine deaminase and yeast uracil phosphoribosyltransferase.
Berchtold, Susanne; Lampe, Johanna; Weiland, Timo; Smirnow, Irina; Schleicher, Sabine; Handgretinger, Rupert; Kopp, Hans-Georg; Reiser, Jeanette; Stubenrauch, Frank; Mayer, Nora; Malek, Nisar P.; Bitzer, Michael
The oncolytic potential of measles vaccine virus (MeV) has been demonstrated in several tumor entities. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of eight sarcoma cell lines to MeV-mediated oncolysis and found five to be susceptible, whereas three proved to be resistant. In the MeV-resistant cell lines, we often observed an inhibition of viral replication along with a strong upregulation of the intracellular virus-sensing molecule RIG-I and of the interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene IFIT1. Not only expression of IFIT1 but also phosphorylation of IFN-stimulated Stat1 took place rapidly and were found to be persistent over time. In contrast, susceptible cell lines showed a much weaker, delayed, or completely missing expression of IFIT1 as well as a delayed or only transient phosphorylation of Stat1, whereas exogenic stimulation with beta interferon (IFN-?) resulted in a comparable profound activation of Stat1 and expression of IFIT1 in all cell lines. Pretreatment with IFN-? rendered three of the susceptible cell lines more resistant to MeV-mediated oncolysis. These data suggest that differences in the innate immune defense often account for different degrees of susceptibility of sarcoma cell lines to MeV-mediated oncolysis. From a therapeutic perspective, we were able to overcome resistance to MeV by increasing the multiplicity of infection (MOI) and by addition of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (FC), thereby exploiting the suicide gene function of virotherapeutic vector MeV-SCD armed with the SCD fusion protein, which consists of yeast cytosine deaminase and yeast uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. PMID:23302892
Berchtold, Susanne; Lampe, Johanna; Weiland, Timo; Smirnow, Irina; Schleicher, Sabine; Handgretinger, Rupert; Kopp, Hans-Georg; Reiser, Jeanette; Stubenrauch, Frank; Mayer, Nora; Malek, Nisar P; Bitzer, Michael; Lauer, Ulrich M
Like other pathogenic bacteria, Yersinia and Aeromonas species have been continuously co-evolving with their respective hosts. Although the former is a bonafide human pathogen, the latter has gained notararity as an emerging disease-causing agent. In response to immune cell challenges, bacterial pathogens have developed diverse mechanism(s) enabling their survival, and, at times, dominance over various host immune defense systems. The bacterial type three secretion system (T3SS) is evolutionarily derived from flagellar subunits and serves as a vehicle by which microbes can directly inject/translocate anti-host factors/effector proteins into targeted host immune cells. A large number of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens possess a T3SS empowering them to disrupt host cell signaling, actin cytoskeleton re-arrangements, and even to induce host-cell apoptotic and pyroptotic pathways. All pathogenic yersiniae and most Aeromonas species possess a T3SS, but they also possess T2- and T6-secreted toxins/effector proteins. This review will focus on the mechanisms by which the T3SS effectors Yersinia outer membrane protein J (YopJ) and an Aeromonas hydrophila AexU protein, isolated from the diarrheal isolate SSU, mollify host immune system defenses. Additionally, the mechanisms that are associated with host cell apoptosis/pyroptosis by Aeromonas T2SS secreted Act, a cytotoxic enterotoxin, and Hemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp), an A. hydrophila T6SS effector, will also be discussed. PMID:24199174
Rosenzweig, Jason A; Chopra, Ashok K
The paramyxoviruses are a family of > 30 viruses that variously infect humans, other mammals and fish to cause diverse outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic to lethal disease, with the zoonotic paramyxoviruses Nipah and Hendra showing up to 70% case-fatality rate in humans. The capacity to evade host immunity is central to viral infection, and paramyxoviruses have evolved multiple strategies to overcome the host interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune response through the activity of their IFN-antagonist proteins. Although paramyxovirus IFN antagonists generally target common factors of the IFN system, including melanoma differentiation associated factor 5, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I, signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 and STAT2, and IFN regulatory factor 3, the mechanisms of antagonism show remarkable diversity between different genera and even individual members of the same genus; the reasons for this diversity, however, are not currently understood. Here, we review the IFN antagonism strategies of paramyxoviruses, highlighting mechanistic differences observed between individual species and genera. We also discuss potential sources of this diversity, including biological differences in the host and/or tissue specificity of different paramyxoviruses, and potential effects of experimental approaches that have largely relied on in vitro systems. Importantly, recent studies using recombinant virus systems and animal infection models are beginning to clarify the importance of certain mechanisms of IFN antagonism to in vivo infections, providing important indications not only of their critical importance to virulence, but also of their potential targeting for new therapeutic/vaccine approaches.
Audsley, Michelle D; Moseley, Gregory W
Plants have evolved and diversified to reduce the damages imposed by infectious pathogens and herbivorous insects. Living in a sedentary lifestyle, plants are constantly adapting to their environment. They employ various strategies to increase performance and fitness. Thus, plants developed cost-effective strategies to defend against specific insects and pathogens. Plant defense, however, imposes selective pressure on insects and pathogens. This selective pressure provides incentives for pathogens and insects to diversify and develop strategies to counter plant defense. This results in an evolutionary arms race among plants, pathogens and insects. The ever-changing adaptations and physiological alterations among these organisms make studying plant-vector-pathogen interactions a challenging and fascinating field. Studying plant defense and plant protection requires knowledge of the relationship among organisms and the adaptive strategies each organism utilize. Therefore, this review focuses on the integral parts of plant-vector-pathogen interactions in order to understand the factors that affect plant defense and disease development. The review addresses plant-vector-pathogen co-evolution, plant defense strategies, specificity of plant defenses and plant-vector-pathogen interactions. Improving the comprehension of these factors will provide a multi-dimensional perspective for the future research in pest and disease management. PMID:23955882
Huot, Ordom Brian; Nachappa, Punya; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia
Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning of immune responses was demonstrated by Metal'nikov and his colleagues at the Pasteur Institute in Paris during the 1920s. These experiments, although controversial, were repeated and extended, largely in the Soviet Union, by Dolin, Krylov, Flerov, Luk'yanenko and many others during the 1950s and '60s. Both immunosuppression and immunoenhancement were reported, with many antigens and in several species including man. After a long hiatus, new interest in this subject was revived in the United States, starting with the work of Ader and Cohen on one-trial association learning leading to immunosuppression, and extending again to a new wave of reports from the United States, Canada, Germany and other countries on both conditioned suppression and conditioned enhancement of several host-defense systems, including natural killer cell activity. It already has been demonstrated that conditioning in mice can slow down the growth of tumors and, in some instances, even completely reverse tumor growth. This work is briefly discussed, with emphasis on some of the more recent findings. Applications to human subjects are suggested. The doors are just being opened: the possibilities for new research, for new discoveries, and for new clinical applications are endless. PMID:2440373
Spector, N H
Insect pests such as termites cause damages to crops and man-made structures estimated at over $30 billion per year, imposing a global challenge for the human economy. Here, we report a strategy for compromising insect immunity that might lead to the development of nontoxic, sustainable pest control methods. Gram-negative bacteria binding proteins (GNBPs) are critical for sensing pathogenic infection and triggering effector responses. We report that termite GNBP-2 (tGNBP-2) shows ?(1,3)-glucanase effector activity previously unknown in animal immunity and is a pleiotropic pattern recognition receptor and an antimicrobial effector protein. Termites incorporate this protein into the nest building material, where it functions as a nest-embedded sensor that cleaves and releases pathogenic components, priming termites for improved antimicrobial defense. By means of rational design, we present an inexpensive, nontoxic small molecule glycomimetic that blocks tGNBP-2, thus exposing termites in vivo to accelerated infection and death from specific and opportunistic pathogens. Such a molecule, introduced into building materials and agricultural methods, could protect valuable assets from insect pests.
Bulmer, Mark S.; Bachelet, Ido; Raman, Rahul; Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Sasisekharan, Ram
Investigating the innate immune response mediators released in milk has manifold implications, spanning from elucidation of the role played by mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in fighting microbial infections to the discovery of novel diagnostic markers for monitoring udder health in dairy animals. Here, we investigated the mammary gland response following a two-step experimental infection of lactating sheep with the mastitis-associated bacterium Streptococcus uberis. The establishment of infection was confirmed both clinically and by molecular methods, including PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization of mammary tissues. Proteomic investigation of the milk fat globule (MFG), a complex vesicle released by lactating MECs, enabled detection of enrichment of several proteins involved in inflammation, chemotaxis of immune cells, and antimicrobial defense, including cathelicidins and calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9), in infected animals, suggesting the consistent involvement of MECs in the innate immune response to pathogens. The ability of MECs to produce and release antimicrobial and immune defense proteins was then demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and confocal immunomicroscopy of cathelicidin and the calprotectin subunit S100A9 on mammary tissues. The time course of their release in milk was also assessed by Western immunoblotting along the course of the experimental infection, revealing the rapid increase of these proteins in the MFG fraction in response to the presence of bacteria. Our results support an active role of MECs in the innate immune response of the mammary gland and provide new potential for the development of novel and more sensitive tools for monitoring mastitis in dairy animals. PMID:23774600
Addis, Maria Filippa; Pisanu, Salvatore; Marogna, Gavino; Cubeddu, Tiziana; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Cacciotto, Carla; Campesi, Franca; Schianchi, Giuseppe; Rocca, Stefano; Uzzau, Sergio
Investigating the innate immune response mediators released in milk has manifold implications, spanning from elucidation of the role played by mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in fighting microbial infections to the discovery of novel diagnostic markers for monitoring udder health in dairy animals. Here, we investigated the mammary gland response following a two-step experimental infection of lactating sheep with the mastitis-associated bacterium Streptococcus uberis. The establishment of infection was confirmed both clinically and by molecular methods, including PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization of mammary tissues. Proteomic investigation of the milk fat globule (MFG), a complex vesicle released by lactating MECs, enabled detection of enrichment of several proteins involved in inflammation, chemotaxis of immune cells, and antimicrobial defense, including cathelicidins and calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9), in infected animals, suggesting the consistent involvement of MECs in the innate immune response to pathogens. The ability of MECs to produce and release antimicrobial and immune defense proteins was then demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and confocal immunomicroscopy of cathelicidin and the calprotectin subunit S100A9 on mammary tissues. The time course of their release in milk was also assessed by Western immunoblotting along the course of the experimental infection, revealing the rapid increase of these proteins in the MFG fraction in response to the presence of bacteria. Our results support an active role of MECs in the innate immune response of the mammary gland and provide new potential for the development of novel and more sensitive tools for monitoring mastitis in dairy animals.
Pisanu, Salvatore; Marogna, Gavino; Cubeddu, Tiziana; Pagnozzi, Daniela; Cacciotto, Carla; Campesi, Franca; Schianchi, Giuseppe; Rocca, Stefano
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offers currently untapped potential for carrying out high-throughput, live-animal screens of low molecular weight compound libraries to identify molecules that target a variety of cellular processes. We previously used a bacterial infection assay in C. elegans to identify 119 compounds that affect host-microbe interactions among 37,214 tested. Here we show that one of these small molecules, RPW-24, protects C. elegans from bacterial infection by stimulating the host immune response of the nematode. Using transcriptome profiling, epistasis pathway analyses with C. elegans mutants, and an RNAi screen, we show that RPW-24 promotes resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection by inducing the transcription of a remarkably small number of C. elegans genes (?1.3% of all genes) in a manner that partially depends on the evolutionarily-conserved p38 MAP kinase pathway and the transcription factor ATF-7. These data show that the immunostimulatory activity of RPW-24 is required for its efficacy and define a novel C. elegans–based strategy to identify compounds with activity against antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens.
Pukkila-Worley, Read; Feinbaum, Rhonda; Kirienko, Natalia V.; Larkins-Ford, Jonah; Conery, Annie L.; Ausubel, Frederick M.
Gastrointestinal mucosa is an early target of HIV and a site of viral replication and severe CD4+ T-cell depletion. However, effects of HIV infection on gut mucosal innate immune defense have not been fully investigated. Intestinal Paneth cell (PC)-derived ?-defensins constitute an integral part of the gut mucosal innate defense against microbial pathogens. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected rhesus macaque model of AIDS, we examined the level of expression of rhesus enteric ?-defensins (REDs) in jejunal mucosa of rhesus macaques during all stages of SIV infection, using real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. An increased expression of RED mRNAs was found in PC at the base of the crypts in jejunum at all stages of SIV infection as compared to uninfected controls. This increase correlated with active viral replication in gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Loss of RED protein accumulation in PC was seen in animals with simian AIDS (SAIDS). This was associated with the loss of secretory granules in PC, suggesting an increase in degranulation during advanced SIV disease. The ?-defensin-mediated innate mucosal immunity was maintained in PC throughout the course of SIV infection despite the mucosal CD4+ T-cell depletion. The loss of RED protein accumulation and secretion was associated with an increased incidence of opportunistic enteric infections and disease progression. Our findings suggest that local innate immune defense exerted by PC derived defensins contributes to the protection of gut mucosa from opportunistic infections during the course of SIV infection.
Zaragoza, Melinda M.; Sankaran, Sumathi; Canfield, Don R.; Hung, Jason KS; Martinez, Enrique; Ouellette, Andre J.; Dandekar, Satya
B cells have multiple functions in adaptive immunity, including antibody production, antigen presentation and regulation of T-cell responses. Recent evidences indicate that B cells have more subsets than previously thought and may have non-classical functions, such as involvement in innate immunity and immune regulation; however, how B cells respond to microbial infection and elicit innate defense remain unclear. In this study, we identified a new subset of PDCA-1(+) Siglec-H(-) CD19(+) B cells in mice during the early period of bacterial infection with Listeria monocytogenes. PDCA-1(+) Siglec-H(-) CD19(+) B cells secreted large amounts of IFN-? and thus facilitated IFN-? production and cytotoxicity function of natural killer (NK) cells via IFN-?. B-cell-deficient Btk(-/-) mice were incapable of producing PDCA-1(+) CD19(+) B cells, and were more sensitive to L. monocytogenes infection. Adoptive transfer of PDCA-1(+) CD19(+) B cells to Btk(-/-) mice normalized their resistance to L. monocytogenes infection. Furthermore, we found that macrophages were essential for the inducible generation of PDCA-1(+) Siglec-H(-) CD19(+) B cells via CD40-CD40L ligation. Therefore, we have identified a new subset of PDCA-1(+) Siglec-H(-) CD19(+) B cells, which enhances innate immune responses against bacterial infection by activating NK cells via secretion of IFN-?. PMID:21287550
Bao, Yan; Han, Yanmei; Chen, Zhubo; Xu, Sheng; Cao, Xuetao
The relative contributions of cellular and humoral immunity in scrub typhus infections were studied in inbred mice employing paired strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi differing in virulence. An infectious dose (100 MID50) of the less virulent Gilliam strain resulted in heterologous immune protection against an otherwise lethal challenge (1,000 MLD50) of the virulent Karp strain. Partial heterologous protection against lethal Karp challenge was observed in animals preimmunized with the Gilliam strain as early as 3 days prior to challenge, whereas complete protection against illness and death existed in animals immunized at least 7 days prior to challenge. In the heterologous protection provided by prior Gilliam infection, the role of humoral immunity was not of primary importance for the following reasons: (i) significant levels of complement-fixing antibody against R. tsutsugamushi were not detectable until long after animals were solidly immune; (ii) antibody eventually appearing after Gilliam immunization exhibited a consistently low complement-fixing titer against the immunizing homologous (Gilliam) strain and contained no detectable activity against the heterologous challenge (Karp) strain; and (iii) passive transfer of large quantities of serum from Gilliam immune mice, themselves immune to Karp challenge, failed to protect recipients against a similar challenge. However, protection was afforded by the passive transfer of serum containing antibody against Karp, suggesting a major role for antibody in protection against homologous infection. This heterologous challenge system was particularly useful because it minimized the role of humoral immunity, at least early in the course of infection, and allowed a definitive examination of the cellular response. Cell-mediated immunity played a major role in the heterologous protection observed after Gilliam immunization. This was evidenced by the significant protection against Karp challenge afforded by the passive transfer of spleen cells from animals immunized with Gilliam 7 to 63 days previously. Of the immune spleen cells, only those which were nonadherent, presumably lymphocytes, were capable of transferring passive heterologous protection. This protective effect of nonadherent cells could be ablated by depleting the cell population of thymus-derived or T cells with anti-theta serum and complement prior to transfer but not by use of anti-immunoglobulin serum and complement, which selectively removes bone marrow-derived or B cells. These results suggested that the cell in immune spleens capable of conferring heterologous protection was a T lymphocyte.
Shirai, A; Catanzaro, P J; Phillips, S M; Osterman, J V
The relative contributions of cellular and humoral immunity in scrub typhus infections were studied in inbred mice employing paired strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi differing in virulence. An infectious dose (100 MID50) of the less virulent Gilliam strain resulted in heterologous immune protection against an otherwise lethal challenge (1,000 MLD50) of the virulent Karp strain. Partial heterologous protection against lethal Karp challenge was observed in animals preimmunized with the Gilliam strain as early as 3 days prior to challenge, whereas complete protection against illness and death existed in animals immunized at least 7 days prior to challenge. In the heterologous protection provided by prior Gilliam infection, the role of humoral immunity was not of primary importance for the following reasons: (i) significant levels of complement-fixing antibody against R. tsutsugamushi were not detectable until long after animals were solidly immune; (ii) antibody eventually appearing after Gilliam immunization exhibited a consistently low complement-fixing titer against the immunizing homologous (Gilliam) strain and contained no detectable activity against the heterologous challenge (Karp) strain; and (iii) passive transfer of large quantities of serum from Gilliam immune mice, themselves immune to Karp challenge, failed to protect recipients against a similar challenge. However, protection was afforded by the passive transfer of serum containing antibody against Karp, suggesting a major role for antibody in protection against homologous infection. This heterologous challenge system was particularly useful because it minimized the role of humoral immunity, at least early in the course of infection, and allowed a definitive examination of the cellular response. Cell-mediated immunity played a major role in the heterologous protection observed after Gilliam immunization. This was evidenced by the significant protection against Karp challenge afforded by the passive transfer of spleen cells from animals immunized with Gilliam 7 to 63 days previously. Of the immune spleen cells, only those which were nonadherent, presumably lymphocytes, were capable of transferring passive heterologous protection. This protective effect of nonadherent cells could be ablated by depleting the cell population of thymus-derived or T cells with anti-theta serum and complement prior to transfer but not by use of anti-immunoglobulin serum and complement, which selectively removes bone marrow-derived or B cells. These results suggested that the cell in immune spleens capable of conferring heterologous protection was a T lymphocyte. PMID:820646
Shirai, A; Catanzaro, P J; Phillips, S M; Osterman, J V
The success of gene therapy strategies to cure disease relies on the control of unwanted immune responses to transgene products, genetically modified cells and\\/or to the vector. Effective treatment of an established immune response is much harder to achieve than prevention of a response before it has had a chance to develop. However, preventive strategies are not always effective in
Valder R Arruda; Patricia Favaro; Jonathan D Finn
Dendritic cells (DC) have a central role in the initiation of adequate immune responses. They recognize pathogens by means of Toll- like receptors (TLR) and link innate to adaptive immune responses by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and inducing T cell prolifer- ation. We conducted this study to evaluate the expression and function of TLR on human lung DC subsets and to
Ingel K. Demedts; Ken R. Bracke; Tania Maes; Guy F. Joos; Guy G. Brusselle
Respiratory-tract infection, specifically pneumonia, contributes substantially to the increased morbidity and mortality among elderly individuals exposed to airborne particu- late matter of <10 µm diameter (PM10). These epidemiological findings suggest that PM10 may act as an immunosuppressive factor that can undermine normal pulmonary antimi- crobial defense mechanisms. To investigate whether, and how, compromised pulmonary immunocompetence might contribute to increased mortality,
Judith T. Zelikoff; Lung Chi Chen; Mitchell D. Cohen; Kaijie Fang; Terry Gordon; Yun Li; Christine Nadziejko; Richard B. Schlesinger
The analysis attempts to measure the cost-effectiveness of immunization services based in fixed facilities and a mass campaign held during 1985 and 1986 in Ecuador. The purpose behind the campaign was to accelerate immunization activities throughout the c...
D. S. Shepard R. L. Robertson C. S. M. Cameron P. Saturno M. Pollack
Lymphocytes obtained from spleens or peritoneal exudates of immune donor mice were evaluated for their ability to passively confer protection on recipients subsequently challenged with virulent scrub typhus rickettsiae. Peritoneal exudate lymphocytes (PEL...
P. J. Catanzaro A. Shirai L. D. Agniel J. V. Osterman
The relative contributions of cellular and humoral immunity in scrub typhus infections were studied in inbred mice employing paired strains of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi differing in virulence. An infectious dose of the less virulent Gilliam strain resulted...
A. Shirai P. J. Catanzaro S. M. Phillips J. V. Osterman
The formation of extracellular traps (ETs) by phagocytic cells has been recognized as a novel and important mechanism of the\\u000a host innate immune response against infections. ETs are formed by different host immune cells such as neutrophils, mast cells,\\u000a and eosinophils after stimulation with mitogens, cytokines, or pathogens themselves, in a process dependent upon induction\\u000a of a reactive-oxygen-species-mediated signaling cascade.
Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede; Victor Nizet
How to maintain the population diversity is an important issue in designing a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm. This paper presents an enhanced nondominated neighbor-based immune algorithm in which a multipopulation coevolutionary strategy is introduced for improving the population diversity. In the proposed algorithm, subpopulations evolve independently; thus the unique characteristics of each subpopulation can be effectively maintained, and the diversity of the entire population is effectively increased. Besides, the dynamic information of multiple subpopulations is obtained with the help of the designed cooperation operator which reflects a mutually beneficial relationship among subpopulations. Subpopulations gain the opportunity to exchange information, thereby expanding the search range of the entire population. Subpopulations make use of the reference experience from each other, thereby improving the efficiency of evolutionary search. Compared with several state-of-the-art multiobjective evolutionary algorithms on well-known and frequently used multiobjective and many-objective problems, the proposed algorithm achieves comparable results in terms of convergence, diversity metrics, and running time on most test problems.
Shi, Jiao; Gong, Maoguo; Ma, Wenping; Jiao, Licheng
Whether host DNA receptors have any capacity to distinguish self from nonself at the molecular level is an outstanding question in the innate immunity of mammals. Here, by using quantitative assays and electron microscopy, we show that cooperatively assembling into filaments on dsDNA may serve as an integral mechanism by which human IFN-inducible protein-16 (IFI16) engages foreign DNA. IFI16 is essential for defense against a number of different pathogens, and its aberrant activity is also implicated in several autoimmune disorders, such as Sjögren syndrome. IFI16 cooperatively binds dsDNA in a length-dependent manner and clusters into distinct protein filaments even in the presence of excess dsDNA. Consequently, the assembled IFI16?dsDNA oligomers are clearly different from the conventional noninteracting entities resembling beads on a string. The isolated DNA-binding domains of IFI16 engage dsDNA without forming filaments and with weak affinity, and it is the non–DNA-binding pyrin domain of IFI16 that drives the cooperative filament assembly. The surface residues on the pyrin domain that mediate the cooperative DNA binding are conserved, suggesting that related receptors use a common mechanism. These results suggest that IFI16 clusters into signaling foci in a switch-like manner and that it is capable of using the size of naked dsDNA as a molecular ruler to distinguish self from nonself.
Morrone, Seamus R.; Wang, Tao; Constantoulakis, Leeza M.; Hooy, Richard M.; Delannoy, Michael J.; Sohn, Jungsan
NF-kappa B/Rel transcription factors are central regulators of mammalian immunity and are also implicated in the induction of cecropins and other antibacterial peptides in insects. We identified the gene for Relish, a compound Drosophila protein that, like mammalian p105 and p100, contains both a Rel homology domain and an I kappa B-like domain. Relish is strongly induced in infected flies, and it can activate transcription from the Cecropin A1 promoter. A Relish transcript is also detected in early embryos, suggesting that it acts in both immunity and embryogenesis. The presence of a compound Rel protein in Drosophila indicates that similar proteins were likely present in primordial immune systems and may serve unique signaling functions. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4
Dushay, M S; Asling, B; Hultmark, D
Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a component of lung surfactant, the representative of collagen-like lectines (collectines) family. It plays one of the significant roles in innate antibody-independent immune response. Structural features of SP-D, the possibility of its influence on pathogenetic componentes of inflammatory reaction, expression of inflammatory mediators and attainment of necessary balance between control of inflammatory reaction intensity and formation of the proper response to pathogens allow to consider SP-D as a part of innate immune system of the lung and endogenous regulator of inflammatory reactions in the organism. PMID:22629864
Liamina, S V; Shimshelashvili, Sh L; Malyshev, I Iu
Iron is an essential micronutrient for both microbial pathogens and their mammalian hosts. Changes in iron availability and distribution have significant effects on pathogen virulence and on the immune response to infection. Recent advances in our understanding of the molecular regulation of iron metabolism have shed new light on how alterations in iron homeostasis both contribute to and influence innate
Lijian Wang; Bobby J. Cherayil
To develop protective immune responses against mucosal pathogens, the delivery route and adjuvants for vaccination are important. The host, however, strives to maintain mucosal homeostasis by responding to mucosal antigens with tolerance, instead of immune activation. Thus, induction of mucosal immunity through vaccination is a rather difficult task, and potent mucosal adjuvants, vectors or other special delivery systems are often used, especially in the elderly. By taking advantage of the common mucosal immune system, the targeting of mucosal dendritic cells and microfold epithelial cells may facilitate the induction of effective mucosal immunity. Thus, novel routes of immunization and antigen delivery systems also show great potential for the development of effective and safe mucosal vaccines against various pathogens. The purpose of this review is to introduce several recent approaches to induce mucosal immunity to vaccines, with an emphasis on mucosal tissue targeting, new immunization routes and delivery systems. Defining the mechanisms of mucosal vaccines is as important as their efficacy and safety, and in this article, examples of recent approaches, which will likely accelerate progress in mucosal vaccine development, are discussed. PMID:22380827
Fujkuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kataoka, Kosuke; Gilbert, Rebekah S; McGhee, Jerry R; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Fujihashi, Kohtaro
Respiratory infections and diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide, and effective treatments probably require manipulating the inflammatory response to pathogenic microbes or allergens. Here, we review mechanisms controlling the production and functions of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-22, cytokines that direct several aspects of lung immunity. Innate lymphocytes (?? T cells, natural killer cells, innate lymphoid cells) are the major source of IL-17 and IL-22 during acute infections, while CD4(+) T-helper 17 (Th17) cells contribute to vaccine-induced immunity. The characterization of dendritic cell (DC) subsets has revealed their central roles in T-cell activation. CD11b(+) DCs stimulated with bacteria or fungi secrete IL-1? and IL-23, potent inducers of IL-17 and IL-22. On the other hand, recognition of viruses by plasmacytoid DCs inhibits IL-1? and IL-23 release, increasing susceptibility to bacterial superinfections. IL-17 and IL-22 primarily act on the lung epithelium, inducing antimicrobial proteins and neutrophil chemoattractants. Recent studies found that stimulation of macrophages and DCs with IL-17 also contributes to antibacterial immunity, while IL-22 promotes epithelial proliferation and repair following injury. Chronic diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been associated with IL-17 and IL-22 responses directed against innocuous antigens. Future studies will evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of targeting the IL-17/IL-22 pathway in pulmonary inflammation. PMID:24942687
McAleer, Jeremy P; Kolls, Jay K
Complement is known to be involved in protection against systemic infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, less is known about effects of complement within the lungs during pneumococcal pneumonia. By intranasally infecting transgenic mice unable to express complement C3, we investigated the role of complement in pulmonary defenses against S. pneumoniae. It was demonstrated that within the lungs, there is a requirement for C3 during the initial hours of infection. It was found that within 1 h of infection, bacterial loads decreased within lung airways of control mice as C3 protein increased. The lack of C3 resulted in the inability to control growth of wild-type or attenuated pneumococci within the lungs and bloodstream, resulting in an overwhelming inflammatory response and shorter survival times. Our results show that during the initial hours of infection with S. pneumoniae, C3 is protective within the lungs and subsequently plays an important role systemically.
Kerr, Alison R.; Paterson, Gavin K.; Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, Alan; Mitchell, Tim J.
The SdpI family consists of putative bacterial toxin immunity and signal transduction proteins. One member of the family in Bacillus subtilis, SdpI, provides immunity to cells from cannibalism in times of nutrient limitation. SdpI family members are transmembrane proteins with 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 12 putative transmembrane ?-helical segments (TMSs). These varied topologies appear to be genuine rather than artifacts due to sequencing or annotation errors. The basic and most frequently occurring element of the SdpI family has 6 TMSs. Homologues of all topological types were aligned to determine the homologous TMSs and loop regions, and the positive-inside rule was used to determine sidedness. The two most conserved motifs were identified between TMSs 1 and 2 and TMSs 4 and 5 of the 6 TMS proteins. These showed significant sequence similarity, leading us to suggest that the primordial precursor of these proteins was a 3 TMS–encoding genetic element that underwent intragenic duplication. Various deletional and fusional events, as well as intragenic duplications and inversions, may have yielded SdpI homologues with topologies of varying numbers and positions of TMSs. We propose a specific evolutionary pathway that could have given rise to these distantly related bacterial immunity proteins. We further show that genes encoding SdpI homologues often appear in operons with genes for homologues of SdpR, SdpI’s autorepressor. Our analyses allow us to propose structure–function relationships that may be applicable to most family members. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00232-010-9260-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Povolotsky, Tatyana Leonidovna; Orlova, Ekaterina; Tamang, Dorjee G.
The high incidence of emerging infectious diseases has highlighted the importance of effective immunization strategies, especially the stochastic algorithms based on local available network information. Present stochastic strategies are mainly evaluated based on classical network models, such as scale-free networks and small-world networks, and thus are insufficient. Three frequently referred stochastic immunization strategies-acquaintance immunization, community-bridge immunization, and ring vaccination-were analyzed in this work. The optimal immunization ratios for acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization strategies were investigated, and the effectiveness of these three strategies in controlling the spreading of epidemics were analyzed based on realistic social contact networks. The results show all the strategies have decreased the coverage of the epidemics compared to baseline scenario (no control measures). However the effectiveness of acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization are very limited, with acquaintance immunization slightly outperforming community-bridge immunization. Ring vaccination significantly outperforms acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization, and the sensitivity analysis shows it could be applied to controlling the epidemics with a wide infectivity spectrum. The effectiveness of several classical stochastic immunization strategies was evaluated based on realistic contact networks for the first time in this study. These results could have important significance for epidemic control research and practice. PMID:24787718
Xu, Zhijing; Zu, Zhenghu; Zheng, Tao; Zhang, Wendou; Xu, Qing; Liu, Jinjie
The high incidence of emerging infectious diseases has highlighted the importance of effective immunization strategies, especially the stochastic algorithms based on local available network information. Present stochastic strategies are mainly evaluated based on classical network models, such as scale-free networks and small-world networks, and thus are insufficient. Three frequently referred stochastic immunization strategies—acquaintance immunization, community-bridge immunization, and ring vaccination—were analyzed in this work. The optimal immunization ratios for acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization strategies were investigated, and the effectiveness of these three strategies in controlling the spreading of epidemics were analyzed based on realistic social contact networks. The results show all the strategies have decreased the coverage of the epidemics compared to baseline scenario (no control measures). However the effectiveness of acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization are very limited, with acquaintance immunization slightly outperforming community-bridge immunization. Ring vaccination significantly outperforms acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization, and the sensitivity analysis shows it could be applied to controlling the epidemics with a wide infectivity spectrum. The effectiveness of several classical stochastic immunization strategies was evaluated based on realistic contact networks for the first time in this study. These results could have important significance for epidemic control research and practice.
Xu, Zhijing; Zu, Zhenghu; Zheng, Tao; Zhang, Wendou; Xu, Qing; Liu, Jinjie
ClanTox (classifier of animal toxins) was developed for identifying toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes. Searching mammalian proteomes for short toxin-like proteins (coined TOLIPs) revealed a number of overlooked secreted short proteins with an abundance of cysteines throughout their sequences. We applied bioinformatics and data-mining methods to infer the function of several top predicted candidates. We focused on cysteine-rich peptides that adopt the fold of the three-finger proteins (TFPs). We identified a cluster of duplicated genes that share a structural similarity with elapid neurotoxins, such as ?-bungarotoxin. In the murine proteome, there are about 60 such proteins that belong to the Ly6/uPAR family. These proteins are secreted or anchored to the cell membrane. Ly6/uPAR proteins are associated with a rich repertoire of functions, including binding to receptors and adhesion. Ly6/uPAR proteins modulate cell signaling in the context of brain functions and cells of the innate immune system. We postulate that TOLIPs, as modulators of cell signaling, may be associated with pathologies and cellular imbalance. We show that proteins of the Ly6/uPAR family are associated with cancer diagnosis and malfunction of the immune system.
Tirosh, Yitshak; Ofer, Dan; Eliyahu, Tsiona; Linial, Michal
Background.?Zinc plays an important role in human immunity, and it is known that zinc deficiency in the host is linked to increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. In this study, we investigate the role of zinc efflux in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]), a human pathogen responsible for superficial infections, such as pharyngitis and impetigo, and severe invasive infections. Methods.?The clinically important M1T1 wild-type strain was used in this study, and isogenic mutants were constructed with deletions in the czcD gene (Spy0653; which encodes a putative zinc efflux pump) and adjacent gczA gene (Spy0654; which encodes a putative zinc-dependent activator of czcD). Wild-type, isogenic mutants and complemented strains were tested for resistance against zinc stress, intracellular zinc accumulation, and virulence. Results.?Both czcD and gczA mutants exhibited increased sensitivity to zinc. Transcriptional analyses indicate that GczA upregulates czcD in response to zinc. Both mutants displayed increased susceptibility to human neutrophil killing and reduced virulence in a murine infection model. Furthermore, we showed that neutrophils mobilize zinc in response to GAS. Conclusions.?These data indicate that the innate immune system may use zinc as an antimicrobial agent and that zinc efflux is an important contributor to GAS pathogenesis. PMID:24449444
Ong, Cheryl-Lynn Y; Gillen, Christine M; Barnett, Timothy C; Walker, Mark J; McEwan, Alastair G
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) was established in 1958 by the Secretary of Defense in response to the launch of Sputnik and has continued to foster innovation and pursue high-payoff, and, often, high-risk projects to assure technolo...
Ecological immunology examines the adaptive responses of animals to pathogens in relation to other environmental factors and explores the consequences of trade-offs between investment in immune function and other life-history traits. Among species of herbivorous insects, diet breadth may vary greatly, with generalists consuming a wide variety of plant families and specialists restricted to a few species. Generalists may thus be exposed to a wider range of pathogens exerting stronger selection on the innate immune system. To examine whether this produces an increase in the robustness of the immune response, we compared larvae of the generalist herbivore Heliothis virescens and the specialist Heliothis subflexa challenged by entomopathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. Heliothis virescens larvae showed lower mortality, a lower number of recoverable bacteria, lower proliferation of haemocytes and higher phagocytic activity. These results indicate a higher tolerance to entomopathogenic bacteria by the generalist, which is associated with a more efficient cell-mediated immune response by mechanisms that differ between these closely related species. Our findings provide novel insights into the consequences of diet breadth and related environmental factors, which may be significant in further studies to understand the ecological forces and investment trade-offs that shape the evolution of innate immunity. PMID:24943370
Barthel, Andrea; Kopka, Isabell; Vogel, Heiko; Zipfel, Peter; Heckel, David G; Groot, Astrid T
The success of gene therapy strategies to cure disease relies on the control of unwanted immune responses to transgene products, genetically modified cells and/or to the vector. Effective treatment of an established immune response is much harder to achieve than prevention of a response before it has had a chance to develop. However, preventive strategies are not always effective in avoiding immune responses, thus the use of drugs to induce immunosuppression (IS) is required. The growing discovery of novel drugs provides a conceptual shift from using generalized, moderately intensive immunosuppressive regimens towards a refined approach to attain the optimal balance of naive cells, effector cells, memory cells, and regulatory cells, harnessing the natural tolerance mechanisms of the body. We review several strategies based on transient IS coupled with gene therapy for sustained immune tolerance induction to the therapeutic transgene.
Arruda, Valder R; Favaro, Patricia; Finn, Jonathan D
Several different vaccine strategies have been evaluated and combined in an attempt to amplify T-cell responses toward induction of antitumor immunity. The model tumor antigen used was carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). While initial T-cell activation studies were conducted in conven- tional mice, combined vaccine strategy studies and antitumor studies were conducted in transgenic mice in which CEA is expressed in normal
Douglas W. Grosenbach; Jacqueline C. Barrientos; Jeffrey Schlom; James W. Hodge
The aging process demonstrates gradual and spontaneous changes, resulting in maturation through childhood, puberty and young adulthood, and then decline through middle and late age. However, animals and humans are capable of reaching the extreme limit of life span characteristic for the species with a very efficient network of antiaging mechanisms. Among them, neuroendocrine-immune interactions play a pivotal role. The
Eugenio Mocchegiani; Marco Malavolta
Background The Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) (2006-2015) aims to reach and sustain high levels of vaccine coverage, provide immunization services to age groups beyond infancy and to those currently not reached, and to ensure that immunization activities are linked with other health interventions and contribute to the overall development of the health sector. Objective To examine mid-term progress (through 2010) of the immunization coverage goal of the GIVS for 194 countries or territories with special attention to data from 68 countries which account for more than 95% of all maternal and child deaths. Methods We present national immunization coverage estimates for the third dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid with pertussis (DTP3) vaccine and the first dose of measles containing vaccine (MCV) during 2000, 2005 and 2010 and report the average annual relative percent change during 2000-2005 and 2005-2010. Data are taken from the WHO and UNICEF estimates of national immunization coverage, which refer to immunizations given during routine immunization services to children less than 12 months of age where immunization services are recorded. Results Globally DTP3 coverage increased from 74% during 2000 to 85% during 2010, and MCV coverage increased from 72% during 2000 to 85% during 2010. A total of 149 countries attained or were on track to achieve the 90% coverage goal for DTP3 (147 countries for MCV coverage). DTP3 coverage ? 90% was sustained between 2005 and 2010 by 99 countries (98 countries for MCV). Among 68 priority countries, 28 countries were identified as having made either insufficient or no progress towards reaching the GIVS goal of 90% coverage by 2015 for DTP3 or MCV. DTP3 and MCV coverage remained < 70% during 2010 for 16 and 21 priority countries, respectively. Conclusion Progress towards GIVS goals highlights improvements in routine immunization coverage, yet it is troubling to observe priority countries with little or no progress during the past five years. These results highlight that further efforts are needed to achieve and maintain the global immunization coverage goals.
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading human pathogen that causes a large variety of diseases. In vitro studies have shown that S. aureus secretes several small proteins that block specific elements of the host innate immune system, but their role in bacterial pathogenicity is unknown. For instance, the extracellular complement-binding protein (Ecb) impairs complement activation by binding to the C3d domain of C3. Its homolog, the extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb), is known to block both complement activation and neutrophil adhesion to fibrinogen. Here, we show that targeted inactivation of the genes encoding Ecb and Efb strongly attenuates S. aureus virulence in a murine infection model: mice experienced significantly higher mortality rates upon intravenous infection with wild-type bacteria (79%) than with an isogenic ?Ecb?Efb mutant (21%). In addition, Ecb and Efb are both required for staphylococcal persistence in host tissues and abscess formation in the kidneys (27% for wild-type vs. 7% for the ?Ecb?Efb mutant). During staphylococcal pneumonia, Ecb and Efb together promote bacterial survival in the lungs (p = 0.03) and block neutrophil influx into the lungs. Thus, Ecb and Efb are essential to S. aureus virulence in vivo and could be attractive targets in future vaccine development efforts.
Jongerius, Ilse; von Kockritz-Blickwede, Maren; Horsburgh, Malcolm J.; Ruyken, Maartje; Nizet, Victor; Rooijakkers, Suzan H.M.
This paper describes the historical evolution of the theater missile threat during World War II and the Persian Gulf War, and analyzes current technological challenges, budgetary pressures, and arms control restraints which constrain the development and deployment of effective theater missile defenses. The impact of these trends on strategic concepts as outlined in the National Military Strategy and their implications for attaining national policy objectives is assessed. A systems approach is used to described analyze, and evaluate the effectiveness of emerging counterproliferation strategy within the framework of an ends-ways-means strategy formulation paradigm. I conclude that current trends will lead to a self-deterring strategy: resources are inadequate to support the ways we intend to achieve our national objectives. Recommendations are made to eliminate unacceptable risk and enhance the concept of `extended conventional deterrence` consistent with U.S. national values and security interests for our role in a new world order.
Vaccine preventable diseases are, so far, a main focus of Public Health programmes all over the world since people still die in consequence of Dyphteria or Tetanus. Biological risk is widely represented in agriculture and animal breeding, due to environmental characteristics and to injury typology. Moreover, aged people and migrants represent a significant part of the workforce. These two groups are, for instance, more exposed to Clostridium tetani infection because not fully immunized. Among infectious diseases that can affect agricultural workers, just tetanus can be well controlled by immunization programmes. Teaching and training activities are the most important tools to get protection against Leptospira interrogans, Salmonella spp and hepatitis E Virus infection. As for every training activity, linguistic and cultural barriers have to be taken into account. PMID:21438285
Colosio, C; Somaruga, C; Vellere, F; Neri, L; Rabozzi, G; Romanó, L; Tabibi, R; Brambilla, G; Baccalini, R; d'Eril, G V Melzi; Zanetti, A; Colombi, A
We have focused our research on understanding the basic biology of and developing novel therapeutic and prophylactic DNA vaccines.\\u000a We have among others three distinct primary areas of interest which include: 1. Enhancing in vivo delivery and transfection\\u000a of DNA vaccine vectors 2. Improving DNA vaccine construct immunogenicity 3. Using molecular adjuvants to modulate and skew\\u000a immune responses. Key to the
Shaheed A. Abdulhaqq; David B. Weiner
Innate and adaptive immune responses target pathogenic fungi and provide defense against fungal infections. Recent studies demonstrate that specific host receptors recognize ligands that are unique to fungi and activate signaling cascades that lead to phagocytosis of fungi, generation of pro-inflammatory mediators, formation of reactive oxygen species, trafficking of inflammatory cells to sites of infection, and initiation of adaptive immune responses. Greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie antifungal defense has provided a framework for the investigation of protective vaccines and strategies for therapeutic adoptive cell transfer. PMID:16765580
Hohl, Tobias M; Rivera, Amariliz; Pamer, Eric G
Oligonucleotides containing CpG motifs (CpG ODN) are strong adjuvants for humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and innate defense-regulator peptides (IDRs) are known to facilitate the uptake of antigens into antigen presenting cells (APCs), but data on synergistic effects of CpG and IDRs in piglets are scarce. In this report, the combination of porcine-specific CpG ODN and HH2 (a
Ding Cao; Huazhou Li; Zhenggu Jiang; Qing Cheng; Zhaihan Yang; Chenchao Xu; Guangjun Cao; Linghua Zhang
We have studied T-cell apoptosis in animal models of human autoimmune disorders of the nervous system and in other tissues devoid of specialized immune-defense mechanisms. Our data suggest that the CNS has high potential for elimination of T-cell-dependent inflammation, whereas this mechanism is less effective in the PNS, and is almost absent in other tissues such as muscle and skin.
Ralf Gold; Hans-Peter Hartung; Hans Lassmann
Various sebum free fatty acids (FFAs) have shown antibacterial activity against a broad range of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in the suggestion that they are accountable, at least partially, for the direct antimicrobial activity of the skin surface. In this study, we examined the effects of sebum FFAs on the antimicrobial peptide (AMP)-mediated innate immune defense of human sebocytes. Incubation of lauric acid, palmitic acid, or oleic acid (OA) with human sebocytes dramatically enhanced their expression of human ?-defensin (hBD)-2, one of the predominant AMPs found in the skin, whereas remarkable increases in hBD-1, hBD-3, and human cathelicidin LL-37 were not observed. Secreted hBD-2 was detectable by western blotting in the supernatant of sebocyte culture incubated with each FFA, but not with a vehicle control. The supernatant of FFA-incubated sebocyte culture showed antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, whereas the enhanced antimicrobial activity of human sebocytes was neutralized by anti-hBD-2 IgG. In addition, the FFA-induced hBD-2 expression was suppressed by blocking the cluster of differentiation (CD)36 fatty acid translocase on the surface of sebocytes with anti-human CD36 IgG or blocking the NF-?B signaling pathway with BMS-345541, a highly selective inhibitor of inhibitory ?B kinase. These data suggest that sebum FFAs upregulate the expression of hBD-2 in human sebocytes, which may enhance the disinfecting activity of the human sebaceous gland. The FFA-induced upregulation of hBD-2 is facilitated by CD36-mediated FFA uptake and NF-?B-mediated transactivation. The upregulation of mouse ?-defensin 4, a mouse ortholog for hBD-2, was also observed in the hair follicle sebaceous glands of mouse ear skin after an epicutaneous application of OA, the most hBD-2-inducible FFA tested. This report highlights the potential of using FFAs as a multifunctional antimicrobial therapy agent for acne vulgaris treatment; FFAs may provide direct antibacterial activities against P. acnes and enhance the skin’s innate antibacterial defense by inducing the expression of hBD-2 in sebocytes as well.
Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Kao, Mandy C.; Zhang, Liangfang; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming
Recent experimental findings show that activation of the host immune system is required for the success of chemo- and radiotherapy. However, clinically apparent tumors have already developed multiple mechanisms to escape anti-tumor immunity. The fact that tumors are able to induce a state of tolerance and immunosuppression is a major obstacle in immunotherapy. Hence, there is an overwhelming need to develop new strategies that overcome this state of immune tolerance and induce an anti-tumor immune response both at primary and metastatic sites. Nanovectorized radiotherapy that combines ionizing radiation and nanodevices, is one strategy that could boost the quality and magnitude of an immune response in a predictable and designable fashion. The potential benefits of this emerging treatment may be based on the unique combination of immunostimulatory properties of nanoparticles with the ability of ionizing radiation to induce immunogenic tumor cell death. In this review, we will discuss available data and propose that the nanovectorized radiotherapy could be a powerful new strategy to induce anti-tumor immunity required for positive patient outcome.
Vanpouille-Box, Claire; Hindre, Francois
from invaders. Just as the army has soldiers trained to perform different jobs, the immune system also has many types of cells performing different jobs. The cells of the immune system circulate through every tissue of the body. When the body is infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), the immune system swings into action. The immune systems of approximately
Despite the availability of prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer (CC) is still a major problem globally. It is the cancer with the second highest incidence and the third highest mortality in women worldwide, but, in less developed countries, it is an even greater problem being the second most common cause of cancer death. Although HPV infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, and high-risk HPV16 is the most frequent genotype involved, only a small number of HPV-infected women develop high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions whereas, in the remainder of the women, the virus disappears spontaneously. There is a lot of evidence to support the view that host-dependent immunologic status and HPV-induced immune evasion are responsible for persistent HPV infection and subsequent development of cervical neoplasia. Therefore, the role of the immune system, not only in viral clearance but also in tumor antigen recognition, is particularly relevant in the case of cervical carcinogenesis. A better understanding of these processes would help in the development of therapeutic vaccines. This review aims to explain which immune cells and molecules are involved in the process of viral and tumor recognition, how their failure can lead to cervical carcinoma and what are the main therapeutic strategies so far tested in preclinical models and clinical trials to stimulate the immune system in cervical carcinoma. PMID:23994536
Background Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is responsible for synthesizing nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine, and involved in multiple physiological functions. However, its immunological role in mollusc was seldom reported. Methodology In the present study, an NOS (CfNOS) gene was identified from the scallop Chlamys farreri encoding a polypeptide of 1486 amino acids. Its amino acid sequence shared 50.0~54.7, 40.7~47.0 and 42.5~44.5% similarities with vertebrate neuronal (n), endothelial (e) and inducible (i) NOSs, respectively. CfNOS contained PDZ, oxygenase and reductase domains, which resembled those in nNOS. The CfNOS mRNA transcripts expressed in all embryos and larvae after the 2-cell embryo stage, and were detectable in all tested tissues with the highest level in the gonad, and with the immune tissues hepatopancreas and haemocytes included. Moreover, the immunoreactive area of CfNOS distributed over the haemocyte cytoplasm and cell membrane. After LPS, ?-glucan and PGN stimulation, the expression level of CfNOS mRNA in haemocytes increased significantly at 3 h (4.0-, 4.8- and 2.7-fold, respectively, P < 0.01), and reached the peak at 12 h (15.3- and 27.6-fold for LPS and ?-glucan respectively, P < 0.01) and 24 h (17.3-fold for PGN, P < 0.01). In addition, TNF-? also induced the expression of CfNOS, which started to increase at 1 h (5.2-fold, P < 0.05) and peaked at 6 h (19.9-fold, P < 0.01). The catalytic activity of the native CfNOS protein was 30.3 ± 0.3 U mgprot-1, and it decreased significantly after the addition of the selective inhibitors of nNOS and iNOS (26.9 ± 0.4 and 29.3 ± 0.1 U mgprot-1, respectively, P < 0.01). Conclusions These results suggested that CfNOS, with identical structure with nNOS and similar enzymatic characteristics to nNOS and iNOS, played the immunological role of iNOS to be involved in the scallop immune defense against PAMPs and TNF-?.
Jiang, Qiufen; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Yue, Feng; Wang, Jingjing; Song, Linsheng
At present, a series of oral disease-modifying agents is being introduced for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. With the exception of laquinimod, the "new" oral compounds have already been approved for other indications such as organ transplantation (FTY720), psoriasis (dimethylfumarate), hairy cell leukemia (cladribine), and rheumatoid arthritis (leflunomide). Leflunomide is the prodrug of teriflunomide which is the latest compound that has successfully been tested in a large phase III clinical trial in relapsing MS. Due to its favorable safety profile and its efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis where the aberrant immune response is in various aspects similar to the autoimmune reaction in MS patients, teriflunomide is a promising treatment option for MS patients. Here, we review the most important cell biological and immunological modes of action of teriflunomide, report on the available data on its pharmacokinetics in humans, and summarize the recent clinical trials of teriflunomide in relapsing MS. PMID:21367665
Claussen, Malte C; Korn, Thomas
We consider the problem of distributing a vaccine for immunizing a scale-free network against a given virus or worm. We introduce a method, based on vaccine dissemination, that seems to reflect more accurately what is expected to occur in real-world networks. Also, since the dissemination is performed using only local information, the method can be easily employed in practice. Using a random-graph framework, we analyze our method both mathematically and by means of simulations. We demonstrate its efficacy regarding the trade-off between the expected number of nodes that receive the vaccine and the network’s resulting vulnerability to develop an epidemic as the virus or worm attempts to infect one of its nodes. For some scenarios, the method is seen to render the network practically invulnerable to attacks while requiring only a small fraction of the nodes to receive the vaccine.
Stauffer, Alexandre O.; Barbosa, Valmir C.
The ability of the enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica to survive and proliferate in host tissue depends on a 70-kb plasmid known to encode a number of released Yersinia outer proteins that act as virulence factors by inducing cytotoxicity and inhibiting phagocytosis. This study demonstrates that one of the Yersinia outer proteins, the 41-kDa YopB, suppresses the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a macrophage-derived cytokine with central roles in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infection. This conclusion is based on several lines of evidence. First, in macrophage cultures, suppression of TNF-alpha mRNA expression was induced by culture supernatant (CS+) of plasmid-bearing yersiniae, the effect which was blocked by anti-YopB antiserum. Second, suppression of TNF-alpha production, but not of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6, was induced by purified YopB. Third, in Yersinia-infected mice, no increase in TNF-alpha mRNA expression was observed in Peyer's patches, the primary site of bacterial invasion, compared with IL-1 (alpha and beta) mRNA. Finally, administration of anti-YopB antiserum to mice prior to infection with Y. enterocolitica increased TNF activity levels in Peyer's patches and coincided with a reduction in bacterial growth. The results thus provide direct evidence for a secreted eubacterial virulence factor that mediates selective suppression of TNF-alpha production. Although suppression of this single cytokine response is probably not sufficient to facilitate survival of the infecting organisms, the results suggest that suppression of TNF-alpha production by YopB significantly contributes to the evasion of Y. enterocolitica from antibacterial host defense.
Beuscher, H U; Rodel, F; Forsberg, A; Rollinghoff, M
Vaccination is one of the most effective methods available to prevent infectious diseases. Mucosa, which are exposed to heavy loads of commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, are one of the first areas where infections are established, and therefore have frontline status in immunity, making mucosa ideal sites for vaccine application. Moreover, vaccination through the mucosal immune system could induce effective systemic immune responses together with mucosal immunity in contrast to parenteral vaccination, which is a poor inducer of effective immunity at mucosal surfaces. Among mucosal vaccines, oral mucosal vaccines have the advantages of ease and low cost of vaccine administration. The oral mucosal immune system, however, is generally recognized as poorly immunogenic due to the frequent induction of tolerance against orally-introduced antigens. Consequently, a prerequisite for successful mucosal vaccination is that the orally introduced antigen should be transported across the mucosal surface into the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). In particular, M cells are responsible for antigen uptake into MALT, and the rapid and effective transcytotic activity of M cells makes them an attractive target for mucosal vaccine delivery, although simple transport of the antigen into M cells does not guarantee the induction of specific immune responses. Consequently, development of mucosal vaccine adjuvants based on an understanding of the biology of M cells has attracted much research interest. Here, we review the characteristics of the oral mucosal immune system and delineate strategies to design effective oral mucosal vaccines with an emphasis on mucosal vaccine adjuvants.
Kim, Sae-Hae; Lee, Kyung-Yeol
This report examines issues involved in assuring DARPA's ability to maintain the redirection of its investment portfolio as well as its ability to remain a leader in defense technology innovation. The Terms of Reference directed that the Task Force make r...
States that an adult basic education teacher is not only a teacher of subject matter, but also a teacher of how to live, succeed, and solve problems. Provides a review of the development of typical coping and defense mechanisms used by students in response to inner and outer pressures. (NRJ)
Becker, Mary Jane; And Others
The United States has a National Security problem, energy security, in which the Department of Defense (DoD) has a unique interest. The United States imports 26% of its total energy supply and 56% of the oil it consumes. The DoD is the largest single cons...
G. J. Lengyel
Following the defeats and frustrations of the War of 1812, the United States undertook an extensive reformation of its defense establishment and a substantial build-up of its military and naval forces. Historians have often ascribed this unprecedented interest in a stronger military to the \\
Michael Stuart Fitzgerald
The Department of Defense supports the use of electronic data interchange (EDI) and the eventual move to a global EDI standard. DOD is committed to working with the standards-making bodies, other agencies, and industry to make that end a reality. The issu...
S. Luster L. Janssen K. Miller
Spreading processes represent a very efficient tool to investigate the structural properties of networks and the relative importance of their constituents, and have been widely used to this aim in static networks. Here we consider simple disease spreading processes on empirical time-varying networks of contacts between individuals, and compare the effect of several immunization strategies on these processes. An immunization strategy is defined as the choice of a set of nodes (individuals) who cannot catch nor transmit the disease. This choice is performed according to a certain ranking of the nodes of the contact network. We consider various ranking strategies, focusing in particular on the role of the training window during which the nodes' properties are measured in the time-varying network: longer training windows correspond to a larger amount of information collected and could be expected to result in better performances of the immunization strategies. We find instead an unexpected saturation in the efficiency of strategies based on nodes' characteristics when the length of the training window is increased, showing that a limited amount of information on the contact patterns is sufficient to design efficient immunization strategies. This finding is balanced by the large variations of the contact patterns, which strongly alter the importance of nodes from one period to the next and therefore significantly limit the efficiency of any strategy based on an importance ranking of nodes. We also observe that the efficiency of strategies that include an element of randomness and are based on temporally local information do not perform as well but are largely independent on the amount of information available. PMID:23871715
Starnini, Michele; Machens, Anna; Cattuto, Ciro; Barrat, Alain; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo
Toll-like receptor signaling and subsequent activation of NF-?B- and MAPK-dependent genes during infection play an important role in antimicrobial host defense. The YopJ protein of pathogenic Yersinia species inhibits NF-?B and MAPK signaling, resulting in blockade of NF-?B-dependent cytokine production and target cell death. Nevertheless, Yersinia infection induces inflammatory responses in vivo. Moreover, increasing the extent of YopJ-dependent cytotoxicity induced by Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis paradoxically leads to decreased virulence in vivo, suggesting that cell death promotes anti-Yersinia host defense. However, the specific pathways responsible for YopJ-induced cell death and how this cell death mediates immune defense against Yersinia remain poorly defined. YopJ activity induces processing of multiple caspases, including caspase-1, independently of inflammasome components or the adaptor protein ASC. Unexpectedly, caspase-1 activation in response to the activity of YopJ required caspase-8, receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 1 (RIPK1), and Fas-associated death domain (FADD), but not RIPK3. Furthermore, whereas RIPK3 deficiency did not affect YopJ-induced cell death or caspase-1 activation, deficiency of both RIPK3 and caspase-8 or FADD completely abrogated Yersinia-induced cell death and caspase-1 activation. Mice lacking RIPK3 and caspase-8 in their hematopoietic compartment showed extreme susceptibility to Yersinia and were deficient in monocyte and neutrophil-derived production of proinflammatory cytokines. Our data demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that RIPK1, FADD, and caspase-8 are required for YopJ-induced cell death and caspase-1 activation and suggest that caspase-8-mediated cell death overrides blockade of immune signaling by YopJ to promote anti-Yersinia immune defense. PMID:24799700
Philip, Naomi H; Dillon, Christopher P; Snyder, Annelise G; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Wynosky-Dolfi, Meghan A; Zwack, Erin E; Hu, Baofeng; Fitzgerald, Louise; Mauldin, Elizabeth A; Copenhaver, Alan M; Shin, Sunny; Wei, Lei; Parker, Matthew; Zhang, Jinghui; Oberst, Andrew; Green, Douglas R; Brodsky, Igor E
In this article, we discuss the advantages and progress made with heterologous prime-boost vaccination strategies. Although the consecutive use of DNA and recombinant viral vectors induce greatly enhanced and sustained levels of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity in preclinical models, the results have not yet been translated to clinical use. Despite this, there is still a high level of optimism that these strategies offer the best hope for the development of vaccines against diseases for which there are no effective vaccines currently available. In this article, we discuss how prime-boost immunization can elicit improved mucosal immunity, how 'mucosal' regimes also elicit 'high-quality' (high-avidity) T-cell responses to vaccine antigens, and the use of cytokines/chemokines as genetic adjuvants. PMID:19722891
Ranasinghe, Charani; Ramshaw, Ian A
Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a member of the herpesvirus family, has evolved to establish a long-term, latent infection of cells such that while they carry the viral genome gene expression is highly restricted. Latency is a state of cryptic viral infection associated with genomic persistence in their host and this hallmark of KSHV infection leads to several clinical–epidemiological diseases such as KS, a plasmablastic variant of multicentric Castleman’s disease, and primary effusion lymphoma upon immune suppression of infected hosts. In order to sustain efficient life-long persistency as well as their life cycle, KSHV dedicates a large portion of its genome to encode immunomodulatory proteins that antagonize its host’s immune system. In this review, we will describe our current knowledge of the immune evasion strategies employed by KSHV at distinct stages of its viral life cycle to control the host’s immune system.
Lee, Hye-Ra; Brulois, Kevin; Wong, LaiYee; Jung, Jae U.
Immunization with the Yersinia pestis F1 and LcrV proteins improves survival in mouse and non-human primate models of pneumonic plague. F1- and LcrV-specific antibodies contribute to protection, however, the mechanisms of antibody-mediated defense are incompletely understood and serum antibody titers do not suffice as quantitative correlates of protection. Previously we demonstrated roles for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?) and gamma-interferon (IFN?) during defense against conditionally attenuated pigmentation (pgm) locus-negative Y. pestis. Here, using intranasal challenge with fully virulent pgm-positive Y. pestis strain CO92, we demonstrate that neutralizing TNF? and IFN? interferes with the capacity of therapeutically administered F1- or LcrV-specific antibody to reduce bacterial burden and increase survival. Moreover, using Y. pestis strain CO92 in an aerosol challenge model, we demonstrate that neutralizing TNF? and IFN? interferes with protection conferred by immunization with recombinant F1-LcrV fusion protein vaccine (p<0.0005). These findings establish that TNF? and IFN? contribute to protection mediated by pneumonic plague countermeasures targeting F1 and LcrV, and suggest that an individual’s capacity to produce these cytokines in response to Y. pestis challenge will be an important co-determinant of antibody-mediated defense against pneumonic plague.
Lin, Jr-Shiuan; Park, Steven; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J.; Hill, Jim; Bliska, James B.; Cote, Christopher K.; Perlin, David S.; Amemiya, Kei; Smiley, Stephen T.
The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) nearing completion at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is the lead installation in the US Department of Energy program for ending interim storage and achieving permanent disposal of large quantities of defense high-level nuclear wastes in the United States. At projected processing rates, the DWPF will convert the existing SRP inventory of aqueous high-level wastes to solid glass form in steel canisters in about 20 years, with process adjustments required in a terminal campaign to handle residual waste components. Following completion of the existing inventory workoff, significantly modified facilities and procedures will be needed to accommodate the down-sized waste output of a single reactor (NPR) operation. The SRP program at this time, in contrast to the other defense waste as well as commercial waste programs, will be dominated by requirements of a small-scale technology, suitable for processing low volumes of wastes as-generated in relatively high-activity form. 19 refs., 3 figs.
Boersma, M.D.; McDonell, W.R.; Goodlett, C.B.; Thomas, S.D.; Slate, S.C. (Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Lab.; Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Plant; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))
The suppressors of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) has been identified as negative feedback inhibitors for various cytokines signaling via the JAK/STAT pathway. In the present studies, the cDNA of Eriocheir sinensis SOCS2 (designated as EsSOCS2) was cloned by expressed sequence tag (EST) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of EsSOCS2 was of 2535bp, consisting of an open reading frame (a ORF) of 1071bp encoding a polypeptide of 357 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of EsSOCS2 shared 55-62% similarity with other SOCS2 family members. There were three typical conserved SOCS family domains in EsSOCS2, including an N-terminal ESS formed from a single amphipathic helix, a central SH2 domain with a classic phosphotyrosine (pY) site and a C-terminal SOCS box. The sequence and structural similarity of EsSOCS2 with SOCS2 proteins from other organisms indicated that EsSOCS2 should be a new member of the SOCS2 family. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that EsSOCS2 was clustered with SOCS2 from the other invertebrates, and fell into the group of type II SOCS subfamily as a sister branch to CIS and SOCS2 from vertebrate, suggesting the great divergence of SOCS2 of vertebrate from invertebrate and complex evolution of SOCS2 family members. The mRNA transcript of EsSOCS2 could be detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in all examined tissues of healthy crabs, including haemocytes, hepatopancreas, gill, muscle, heart and gonad. The mRNA expression of EsSOCS2 in haemocytes was up-regulated to 3.5-fold at 8h after Listonella anguillarum challenge, 3-fold and 3.5-fold at 4 and 6h, respectively, after Micrococcus luteus challenge. These results collectively suggested that EsSOCS2 could be induced by bacteria challenge, and it was involved in the immune defense responses in E. sinensis. PMID:19686773
Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Jianmin; Zhang, Huan; Gai, Yunchao; Wang, Lingling; Li, Fengmei; Yang, Jialong; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng
Chronic generalized immune activation represents one of the most critical features determining progression to AIDS. This may result in the manifestation of malignancy, with lymphoma and Karposi's sarcoma being the first to be recognised. In this regard, the manifestation of lymphoma is very similar to that seen in transplant patients and those with graft versus host disease (GVHD) where both chronic immune activation and immune suppression are present. Unlike the latter conditions which involve HLA mismatch, the source of this phenomenon during HIV infection remains elusive. Despite a lifecycle adapted to the host and possessing a plethora of survival strategies, HIV promotes disease progression in a manner that is consistently associated with the HLA repertoire suggesting pathogenic features relating to immunological incompatibility may be at the root of disease. Here we review the influence of immune activation on progression to AIDS with particular reference to molecular mimicry and autoimmune phenomenon and highlight the therapeutic potential of non-neutralizing antibodies and strategies designed to diffuse immune activation. PMID:19055948
Cadogan, Martin; Dalgleish, Angus G
The adaptive immune system should prevent cancer cells passing from one individual to another, in much the same way that it protects against pathogens. However, in rare cases cancer cells do not die within a single individual, but successfully pass between individuals, escaping the adaptive immune response and becoming a contagious cancer. There are two naturally occurring contagious cancers, Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), found in Tasmanian devils, and Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour (CTVT), found in dogs. Despite sharing an ability to pass as allografts, these cancers have a very different impact on their hosts. While DFTD causes 100% mortality among infected devils and has had a devastating impact on the devil population, CTVT co-exists with its host in a manner that does not usually cause death of the dog. Although immune evasion strategies for CTVT have been defined, why DFTD is not rejected as an allograft is not understood. We have made progress in revealing mechanisms of immune evasion for DFTD both in vitro and in vivo, and here we compare how DFTD and CTVT interact with their respective hosts and avoid rejection. Our findings highlight factors that may be important for the evolution of contagious cancers and cancer more generally. Perhaps most importantly, this work has opened up important areas for future research, including the effect of epigenetic factors on immune escape mechanisms and the basis of a vaccine strategy that may protect Tasmanian devils against DFTD.
Siddle, Hannah V.; Kaufman, Jim
The adaptive immune system should prevent cancer cells passing from one individual to another, in much the same way that it protects against pathogens. However, in rare cases cancer cells do not die within a single individual, but successfully pass between individuals, escaping the adaptive immune response and becoming a contagious cancer. There are two naturally occurring contagious cancers, Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD), found in Tasmanian devils, and Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour (CTVT), found in dogs. Despite sharing an ability to pass as allografts, these cancers have a very different impact on their hosts. While DFTD causes 100% mortality among infected devils and has had a devastating impact on the devil population, CTVT co-exists with its host in a manner that does not usually cause death of the dog. Although immune evasion strategies for CTVT have been defined, why DFTD is not rejected as an allograft is not understood. We have made progress in revealing mechanisms of immune evasion for DFTD both in vitro and in vivo, and here we compare how DFTD and CTVT interact with their respective hosts and avoid rejection. Our findings highlight factors that may be important for the evolution of contagious cancers and cancer more generally. Perhaps most importantly, this work has opened up important areas for future research, including the effect of epigenetic factors on immune escape mechanisms and the basis of a vaccine strategy that may protect Tasmanian devils against DFTD. PMID:23200636
Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim
Background Vaccine development has been a priority in the fight against leishmaniases, which are vector-borne diseases caused by Leishmania protozoa. Among the different immunization strategies employed to date is inoculation of plasmid DNA coding for parasite antigens, which has a demonstrated ability to induce humoral and cellular immune responses. In this sense, inoculation of plasmid DNA encoding Leishmania kinetoplasmid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11) was able to confer protection against visceral leishmaniasis. However, recently the use of antigen delivery systems such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles has also proven effective for eliciting protective immune responses. Methods In the present work, we tested two immunization strategies with the goal of obtaining protection, in terms of lesion development and parasite load, against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis. One strategy involved immunization with plasmid DNA encoding L. infantum chagasi KMP-11. Alternatively, mice were primed with PLGA nanoparticles loaded with the recombinant plasmid DNA and boosted using PLGA nanoparticles loaded with recombinant KMP-11. Results Both immunization strategies elicited detectable cellular immune responses with the presence of both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines; mice receiving the recombinant PLGA nanoparticle formulations also demonstrated anti-KMP-11 IgG1 and IgG2a. Mice were then challenged with L. braziliensis, in the presence of sand fly saliva. Lesion development was not inhibited following either immunization strategy. However, immunization with PLGA nanoparticles resulted in a more prominent reduction in parasite load at the infection site when compared with immunization using plasmid DNA alone. This effect was associated with a local increase in interferon-gamma and in tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Both immunization strategies also resulted in a lower parasite load in the draining lymph nodes, albeit not significantly. Conclusion Our results encourage the pursuit of immunization strategies employing nanobased delivery systems for vaccine development against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis infection.
Santos, Diego M; Carneiro, Marcia W; de Moura, Tatiana R; Fukutani, Kiyoshi; Clarencio, Jorge; Soto, Manuel; Espuelas, Socorro; Brodskyn, Claudia; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; de Oliveira, Camila I
A more sophisticated approach to establishing hospital pricing strategies should include: Reevaluating billing policies and processes to establish payment plans and protocols for collection. Establishing a predictable and accurate pricing schedule for all services based on variables such as market, cost, and fee schedules. Leveraging IT to guide decision making Informing hospital boards of the basis for pricing strategies. PMID:17040033
Wichmann, Richard; Clark, Reatha
The purpose of this strategy is to provide broad guidelines for planning and coordinating a Total Quality Management (TQM) education and training program for the DoD acquisition work force. The strategy is organized around long-, mid-, and short-term goal...
C. Greebler G. Suarez
Plants live in complex environments in which they intimately interact with a broad range of microbial pathogens with different lifestyles and infection strategies. The evolutionary arms race between plants and their attackers provided plants with a highly sophisticated defense system that, like the animal innate immune system, recognizes pathogen molecules and responds by activating specific defenses that are directed against
Antonio Leon-Reyes; Sjoerd Van der Ent; Saskia C M Van Wees; Corné M J Pieterse
Two incidents of partner violence are investigated using qualitative methodology to discover strategies women use to protect themselves and examine women's use of violence. Data were collected from 447 women (age 18 or older) from 7 domestic violence programs and 5 substance use disorder treatment programs in a midwestern state. Women were found to have developed numerous self-protection strategies, some using nonphysical means only, others using physical means only, and others combining nonphysical and physical means. Women often used a variety of strategies in the same incident. Few women initiated violence against partners. Implications for theory and research are discussed. PMID:17179403
Downs, William R; Rindels, Barb; Atkinson, Christine
Phagocytosis of invading microorganisms by specialized cells such as macrophages and neutrophils is a key component of the innate immune response. These cells capture and engulf pathogens and subsequently destroy them in intracellular vacuoles—the phagosomes. Pathogen phagocytosis and progression and maturation of pathogen-containing phagosomes, a crucial event to acquire microbicidal features, occurs in parallel with accentuated formation of lipid-rich organelles, termed lipid bodies (LBs), or lipid droplets. Experimental and clinical infections with different pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, and viruses induce LB accumulation in cells from the immune system. Within these cells, LBs synthesize and store inflammatory mediators and are considered structural markers of inflammation. In addition to LB accumulation, interaction of these organelles with pathogen-containing phagosomes has increasingly been recognized in response to infections and may have implications in the outcome or survival of the microorganism within host cells. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge on the LB-phagosome interaction within cells from the immune system, with emphasis on macrophages, and discuss the functional meaning of this event during infectious diseases.
Melo, Rossana C. N.; Dvorak, Ann M.
Background The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Colombia has made great advances since its inception in 1979; however, by 2010 vaccination coverage rates had been declining. In 2010, the EPI commissioned a nationwide study on practices on immunization, attitudes and knowledge, perceived service quality, and barriers to childhood immunization in order to tailor EPI communication strategies. Methods Colombia’s 32 geographical departments were divided into 10 regions. Interviewers from an independent polling company administered a survey to 4802 parents and guardians of children aged <5 years in these regions. To better assess barriers to vaccination, the study was designed to have 70% of participants who had children with incomplete vaccination schedules. Explanatory factorial, principal component, and cluster analyses were performed to place participants into a group (segment) representing the primary category of reasons respondents offered for not vaccinating their children. Types of barriers were then compared to other variables, such as service quality, communication preferences, and parental attitudes on vaccination. Results Although all respondents indicated that vaccines have health benefits, and 4738 (98.7%) possessed vaccination cards for their children, attitudes and knowledge were not always favorable to immunization. Six groups of immunization barriers were identified: 1) factors related to caregivers (24.4%), 2) vaccinators (19.7%), 3) health centers (18.0%), 4) the health system (13.4%), 5) concerns about adverse events (13.1%), and 6) cultural and religious beliefs (11.4%); groups 1, 5 and 6 together represented almost half (48.9%) of users, indicating problems related to the demand for vaccines as the primary barriers to immunization. Differences in demographics, communication preferences, and reported service quality were found among participants in the six groups and among participants in the 10 regions. Additionally, differences between how participants reported receiving information on vaccination and how they believed such information should be communicated were observed. Conclusions Better understanding immunization barriers and the users of the EPI can help tailor communication strategies to increase demand for immunization services. Results of the study have been used by Colombia’s EPI to inform the design of new communication strategies.
Cyber attacks pose a major threat to modern organizations. Little is known about the social aspects of decision making among organizations that face cyber threats, nor do we have empirically-grounded models of the dynamics of cooperative behavior among vulnerable organizations. The effectiveness of cyber defense can likely be enhanced if information and resources are shared among organizations that face similar threats. Three models were created to begin to understand the cognitive and social aspects of cyber cooperation. The first simulated a cooperative cyber security program between two organizations. The second focused on a cyber security training program in which participants interact (and potentially cooperate) to solve problems. The third built upon the first two models and simulates cooperation between organizations in an information-sharing program.
Bier, Asmeret Brooke
Many viruses capable of persistent or recurrent infections have evolved strategies to evade host immunity. Viral evasion molecules target components of innate and acquired immunity, including complement proteins, natural killer cells, MHC Class I or Class II molecules and antibody. Our work focuses on HSV-1 glycoproteins gC and gE that impair antibody and complement responses. gC inhibits complement activation by binding C3b and blocking activities mediated by this pivotal complement protein, while gE binds the IgG Fc domain, blocking Fc-mediated activities, including complement activation and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. HSV-1 mutant viruses that lack the ability to bind C3b, IgG Fc, or both are much less virulent than wild-type virus in a murine model. These HSV-1 immunoevasins help explain the virus' ability to produce recurrent infections despite intact immunity. Strategies to prevent immune evasion may be required to develop successful HSV vaccines.
Friedman, Harvey M.
Metazoan organisms may discriminate between self and non-self not only by the presence of foreign antigens but also by the absence of normal self markers1. Mammalian adaptive immune responses use the first strategy, with the additional requirement that foreign antigens are recognized in the context of self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) products at the cell surface2. Aberrant cells which fail to
Klas Kärre; Hans Gustaf Ljunggren; Gerald Piontek; Rolf Kiessling
As an ideal tumor antigen, survivin has been widely used for tumor immunotherapy. Nevertheless, no effective protein vaccine targeting survivin has been reported, which may be due to its poor ability to induce cellular immunity. Thus, a suitable immunoadjuvant and optimized immunization strategy can greatly enhance the cellular immune response to this protein vaccine. DDA/MPL (monophosphoryl lipid A formulated with cationic dimethyldioctadecylammonium) has been reported to enhance the antigen uptake and presentation to T cells as an adjuvant. Meanwhile, a heterologous prime-boost strategy can enhance the cellular immunity of a protein vaccine by applying different antigen-presenting systems. Here, DDA/MPL and an adenovirus prime-protein boost strategy were applied to enhance the specific anti-tumor immunity of a truncated survivin protein vaccine. Antigen-specific IFN-?-secreting T cells were increased by 10-fold, and cytotoxic T lympohocytes (CTLs) were induced effectively when the protein vaccine was combined with the DDA/MPL adjuvant. Meanwhile, the Th1 type cellular immune response was strongly enhanced and tumor inhibition was significantly increased by 96% with the adenovirus/protein prime-boost strategy, compared to the protein homologous prime-boost strategy. Moreover, this adjuvanted heterologous prime-boost strategy combined with oxaliplatin could significantly enhance the efficiency of tumor growth inhibition through promoting the proliferation of splenocytes. Thus, our results provide a novel vaccine strategy for cancer therapy using an adenovirus prime-protein boost strategy in a murine melanoma model, and its combination with oxaliplatin may further enhance the anti-tumor efficacy while alleviating side effects of the drug. PMID:23624214
Wang, Yu-Qian; Zhang, Hai-Hong; Liu, Chen-Lu; Wu, Hui; Wang, Peng; Xia, Qiu; Zhang, Li-Xing; Li, Bo; Wu, Jia-Xin; Yu, Bin; Gu, Tie-Jun; Yu, Xiang-Hui; Kong, Wei
The interplay between vector and pathogen is essential for vector-borne disease transmission. Dissecting the molecular basis of refractoriness of some vectors may pave the way to novel disease control mechanisms. A pathogen often needs to overcome several physical barriers, such as the peritrophic matrix, midgut epithelium and salivary glands. Additionally, the arthropod vector elicites immune responses that can severely limit transmission success. One important step in the transmission of most vector-borne diseases is the entry of the disease agent into the salivary glands of its arthropod vector. The salivary glands of blood-feeding arthropods produce a complex mixture of molecules that facilitate blood feeding by inhibition of the host haemostasis, inflammation and immune reactions. Pathogen entry into salivary glands is a receptor-mediated process, which requires molecules on the surface of the pathogen and salivary gland. In most cases, the nature of these molecules remains unknown. Recent advances in our understanding of malaria parasite entry into mosquito salivary glands strongly suggests that specific carbohydrate molecules on the salivary gland surface function as docking receptors for malaria parasites.
Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Kohlhepp, Florian; Hammerschmidt, Christiane; Michel, Kristin
In this paper, we apply game theory to identify equilibrium strategies for both attacker and defender in a fully endogenous model of resource allocation for countering terrorism and natural disasters. The key features of our model include balancing protection from terrorism and natural disasters, and describing the attacker choice by a continuous level of effort rather than a discrete choice
Jun Zhuang; Vicki M. Bier
We introduce a model-based methodology for comparative eval- uation of the effectiveness of alternative ballistic missle de- fense strategies. The major new feature is that BMD is mod- elled as a distributed system of interacting agents in which some agents are physical (such as sensors and launch systems) and some are rule-based (such as decision makers and threat- evaluators). In
Duminda Wijesekera; James Bret Michael; Anil Nerode
In order to study potential antioxidant defense mechanisms, the effects of increasing concentrations of lead (Pb) on polyamines (PAs), various thiols, vitamins C and E, and proline contents in sterilized seedlings of Nymphoides peltata (S.G. mel.) Kuntze were investigated after 5 days of exposure. The levels of total putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm) decreased significantly, while the ratio of (Spd?+?Spm)/Put first increased but then declined as the concentration of Pb increased. The trends for free, perchloric acid soluble-conjugated (PS-conjugated), and perchloric acid insoluble-bound (PIS-bound) PAs were similar to the trend seen for total PAs. Moreover, reduced glutathione (GSH), nonprotein thiols (NP-SH), phytochelatins (PCs), and vitamin C were induced at high Pb concentrations. No significant change was observed in vitamin E. An initial decline in proline content was followed by an increase as the Pb concentration rose. The reduced level of Put and elevated contents of GSH, NP-SH, PCs, vitamin C, and proline were found to be associated with antioxidant efficiency, which supports the hypothesis that they could play a significant role in the adaptation mechanisms of N. peltatum under Pb stress. PMID:24705892
Qiao, Xuqiang; Shi, Guoxin; Yang, Xiaoke; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Xu, Xiaoying; Yang, Haiyan
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is major cause of invasive disease in newborn infants and the leading cause of neonatal meningitis. To gain access to the central nervous system (CNS), GBS must not only subvert host defenses in the bloodstream but also invade and survive within brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC), the principal cell layer composing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). While
Darin Quach; Nina M. van Sorge; Sascha A. Kristian; Joshua D. Bryan; Daniel W. Shelver; Kelly S. Doran
Viruses are obligate, intracellular pathogens that must manipulate and exploit host molecular mechanisms to prosper in the hostile cellular environment. Here we review the strategies used by viruses to evade the immunity controlled by 21- to 26-nt small RNAs. Viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) are encoded by genetically diverse viruses infecting plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. VSRs target key steps in the small RNA pathways by inhibiting small RNA production,sequestering small RNAs,orpreventing short- and long-distance spread of RNA silencing. However, although VSRs are required for infection, explicit data demonstrating a role of silencing suppression in virus infection are available only for a few VSRs. A subset of VSRs bind double-stranded RNA, but a distinct protein fold is revealed for each of the four VSRs examined. We propose that VSR families are evolved independently as a viral adaptation to immunity. Unresolved issues on the role of RNA silencing in virus-host interactions are highlighted.
Li, Feng; Ding, Shou-Wei
Acinetobacter baumannii is a major extensively drug-resistant lethal human nosocomial bacterium. However, the host innate immune mechanisms controlling A. baumannii are not well understood. Although viewed as an extracellular pathogen, A. baumannii can also invade and survive intracellularly. However, whether host innate immune pathways sensing intracellular bacteria contribute to immunity against A. baumannii is not known. Here, we provide evidence for the first time that intracellular antibacterial innate immune receptors Nod1 and Nod2, and their adaptor Rip2, play critical roles in the sensing and clearance of A. baumannii by human airway epithelial cells in vitro. A. baumannii infection upregulated Rip2 expression. Silencing of Nod1, Nod2, and Rip2 expression profoundly increased intracellular invasion and prolonged the multiplication and survival of A. baumannii in lung epithelial cells. Notably, the Nod1/2-Rip2 axis did not contribute to the control of A. baumannii infection of human macrophages, indicating that they play cell type-specific roles. The Nod1/2-Rip2 axis was needed for A. baumannii infection-induced activation of NF-?B but not mitogen-activated protein kinases. Moreover, the Nod1/2-Rip2 axis was critical to induce optimal cytokine and chemokine responses to A. baumannii infection. Mechanistic studies showed that the Nod1/2 pathway contributed to the innate control of A. baumannii infection through the production of ?-defensin 2 by airway epithelial cells. This study revealed new insights into the immune control of A. baumannii and may contribute to the development of effective immune therapeutics and vaccines against A. baumannii. PMID:24366254
Bist, Pradeep; Dikshit, Neha; Koh, Tse Hsien; Mortellaro, Alessandra; Tan, Thuan Tong; Sukumaran, Bindu
Caspase-1 (Casp-1) mediates the processing of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-18 to their mature forms. Casp-1-deficient mice succumb more rapidly to Salmonella challenge than do wild-type animals. Both Casp-1 substrates, IL-18 and IL-1?, are relevant for control of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We used IL-18?/? and IL-1??/? mice in addition to administration of recombinant IL-18 to Casp-1?/? mice to demonstrate that IL-18 is important for resistance to the systemic infection but not for resistance to the intestinal phase of the infection. This suggests that IL-1? is critical for the intestinal phase of the disease. Thus, we show that Casp-1 is essential for host innate immune defense against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and that Casp-1 substrates are required at distinct times and anatomical sites.
Raupach, Barbel; Peuschel, Soo-Kyung; Monack, Denise M.; Zychlinsky, Arturo
Lactoferrin (LF) is an important protein component of the innate immune system that is broadly distributed within the body fluids. LF is endowed with multiple biological activities. Talactoferrin (TLF), a recombinant human LF, is in clinical development as an anticancer agent and is entering Phase III clinical trials. Here, we show that TLF induces the maturation of human dendritic cells
Michela Spadaro; Cristiana Caorsi; Patrizia Ceruti; Atul Varadhachary; Guido Forni; Federica Pericle; Mirella Giovarelli
The hypothesis that probiotic administration protects the gut surface and could delay progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type1 (HIV-1) infection to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was proposed in 1995. Over the last five years, new studies have clarified the significance of HIV-1 infection of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) for subsequent alterations in the microflora and breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier leading to pathogenesis and development of AIDS. Current studies show that loss of gut CD4+ Th17 cells, which differentiate in response to normal microflora, occurs early in HIV-1 disease. Microbial translocation and suppression of the T regulatory (Treg) cell response is associated with chronic immune activation and inflammation. Combinations of probiotic bacteria which upregulate Treg activation have shown promise in suppressing pro inflammatory immune response in models of autoimmunity including inflammatory bowel disease and provide a rationale for use of probiotics in HIV-1/AIDS. Disturbance of the microbiota early in HIV-1 infection leads to greater dominance of potential pathogens, reducing levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus species and increasing mucosal inflammation. The interaction of chronic or recurrent infections, and immune activation contributes to nutritional deficiencies that have lasting consequences especially in the HIV-1 infected child. While effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has enhanced survival, wasting is still an independent predictor of survival and a major presenting symptom. Congenital exposure to HIV-1 is a risk factor for growth delay in both infected and non-infected infants. Nutritional intervention after 6 months of age appears to be largely ineffective. A meta analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials of infant formulae supplemented with Bifidobacterium lactis showed that weight gain was significantly greater in infants who received B. lactis compared to formula alone. Pilot studies have shown that probiotic bacteria given as a supplement have improved growth and protected against loss of CD4+ T cells. The recognition that normal bacterial flora prime neonatal immune response and that abnormal flora have a profound impact on metabolism has generated insight into potential mechanisms of gut dysfunction in many settings including HIV-1 infection. As discussed here, current and emerging studies support the concept that probiotic bacteria can provide specific benefit in HIV-1 infection. Probiotic bacteria have proven active against bacterial vaginosis in HIV-1 positive women and have enhanced growth in infants with congenital HIV-1 infection. Probiotic bacteria may stabilize CD4+ T cell numbers in HIV-1 infected children and are likely to have protective effects against inflammation and chronic immune activation of the gastrointestinal immune system.
Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna; Ahrne, Siv; Johann-Liang, Rosemary; Abuav, Rachel; Dunn-Navarra, Ann-Margaret; Grassey, Claudia; Bengmark, Stig; Cervia, Joseph S.
In the Presidential campaign of 2000, George Bush often addressed the need to transform the Armed Forces. Once elected, he gave military transformation a central role in defense strategy. The administration presented its defense budget for fiscal year 200...
D. L. Norquist
The recent demonstration that immunotherapeutic approaches may be clinically effective for cancer patients has renewed the interest for this strategy of intervention. In particular, clinical trials using adoptive T-cell therapies disclosed encouraging results, particularly in the context of Epstein-Barr-virus- (EBV-) related tumors. Nevertheless, the rate of complete clinical responses is still limited, thus stimulating the development of more effective therapeutic protocols. Considering the relevance of innate immunity in controlling both infections and cancers, innovative immunotherapeutic approaches should take into account also this compartment to improve clinical efficacy. Evidence accumulated so far indicates that innate immunity effectors, particularly NK cells, can be exploited with therapeutic purposes and new targets have been recently identified. We herein review the complex interactions between EBV and innate immunity and summarize the therapeutic strategies involving both adaptive and innate immune system, in the light of a fruitful integration between these immunotherapeutic modalities for a better control of EBV-driven tumors.
Martorelli, Debora; Muraro, Elena; Merlo, Anna; Turrini, Riccardo; Fae, Damiana Antonia; Rosato, Antonio; Dolcetti, Riccardo
Abstract In short-lived animals, innate immunity is an important component of fitness and quality. Although receivers cannot generally assess a signaler's immune function directly, sexually selected displays such as birdsong may reflect past or current condition. We investigated the degree to which song complexity and consistency, thought to reflect condition over different developmental timescales, predict multiple aspects of innate immunity in male song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). We also investigated correlations among immune measures. Noncellular components of innate immunity (soluble blood proteins including natural antibody and other protective proteins) were negatively related to cellular (phagocytosis-based) components, suggesting trade-offs within innate immune protection. This pattern underscores the risk of inferring "immunocompetence" from a single metric. Song complexity, a permanent trait in this species, was positively related to noncellular relative to cellular immune components and may thus provide information as to the singer's innate immune strategy (investment in noncellular vs. cellular activity). Such a relationship could arise through shared timing of song learning and antibody repertoire development in early life. Singing consistency, thought to track variation in current condition and measured at both whole-song and syllable scales, did not predict any immune measures. Developmental timing of signals thus appears to influence their information content. PMID:24739198
Kubli, Shawn P; Macdougall-Shackleton, Elizabeth A
The development and application of a miniaturized affinity system for the preparation and release of intact immune complexes are demonstrated. Antibodies were reversibly affinity-adsorbed on pipette tips containing protein G´ and protein A, respectively. Antigen proteins were digested with proteases and peptide mixtures were exposed to attached antibodies; forming antibody-epitope complexes, that is, immune complexes. Elution with millimolar indole propionic acid (IPA)-containing buffers under neutral pH conditions allowed to effectively isolate the intact immune complexes in purified form. Size exclusion chromatography was performed to determine the integrity of the antibody-epitope complexes. Mass spectrometric analysis identified the epitope peptides in the respective SEC fractions. His-tag-containing recombinant human glucose-6-phosphate isomerase in combination with an anti-His-tag monoclonal antibody was instrumental to develop the method. Application was extended to the isolation of the intact antibody-epitope complex of a recombinant human tripartite motif 21 (rhTRIM21) auto-antigen in combination with a rabbit polyclonal anti-TRIM21 antibody. Peptide chip analysis showed that antibody-epitope binding of rhTRIM21 peptide antibody complexes was not affected by the presence of IPA in the elution buffer. By contrast, protein G´ showed an ion charge structure by electrospray mass spectrometry that resembled a denatured conformation when exposed to IPA-containing buffers. The advantages of this novel isolation strategy are low sample consumption and short experimental duration in addition to the direct and robust methodology that provides easy access to intact antibody-antigen complexes under neutral pH and low salt conditions for subsequent investigations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25042711
Al-Majdoub, Mahmoud; Opuni, Kwabena F M; Yefremova, Yelena; Koy, Cornelia; Lorenz, Peter; El-Kased, Reham F; Thiesen, Hans-Jürgen; Glocker, Michael O
In this article, we have explored 5-year-old children's expressions when they as actors took part in an immunization situation in the Primary Child Health Care (PCHC) service in Sweden. Although children's health and development are the main concern in the PCHC service, their perspectives in such a setting have not been explored fully. To capture children's perspectives we used a hermeneutic design and video observations. The findings revealed children as competent and active participants, contributing to the construction of the PCHC situation in mutuality with the nurse and the parent. The conceptualization of children's expressions and actions revealed how they influenced and dealt with a PCHC situation by using strategies of tuning-in, affirmative negotiation, and delaying negotiation. Understanding children's actions will assist nurses to act with sensitivity when they encounter and support children. PMID:21343432
Harder, Maria; Christensson, Kyllike; Coyne, Imelda; Söderbäck, Maja
Presumably because of the selective pressure exerted by the immune system, many viruses have evolved proteins that interfere with antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. These viruses utilize a whole variety of ingenious strategies to inhibit the MHC class I pathway. Viral proteins have been characterized that exploit bottlenecks in the MHC class I pathway, such as peptide translocation by the transporter associated with antigen processing. Alternatively, viral proteins can cause the degradation or mislocalization of MHC class I molecules. This is often achieved by the subversion of the host cell's own protein degradation and trafficking pathways. As a consequence elucidation of how these viral proteins act to subvert host cell function will continue to give important insights not only into virus–host interactions but also the function and mechanism of cellular pathways.
Hewitt, Eric W
Air superiority has become a necessity of modem warfare. Airspace dominance provides overwhelming operational and tactical advantage. It is the realization of this fact that has spawned a universal effort to develop credible air defense. Almost as quickly...
D. B. Woods
Yersinia enterocolitica is a human pathogen that is ubiquitous in livestock, especially pigs. The bacteria are able to colonize the intestinal tract of a variety of mammalian hosts, but the severity of induced gut-associated diseases (yersiniosis) differs significantly between hosts. To gain more information about the individual virulence determinants that contribute to colonization and induction of immune responses in different hosts, we analyzed and compared the interactions of different human- and animal-derived isolates of serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8, and O:9 with murine, porcine, and human intestinal cells and macrophages. The examined strains exhibited significant serotype-specific cell binding and entry characteristics, but adhesion and uptake into different host cells were not host specific and were independent of the source of the isolate. In contrast, survival and replication within macrophages and the induced proinflammatory response differed between murine, porcine, and human macrophages, suggesting a host-specific immune response. In fact, similar levels of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) were secreted by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with all tested isolates, but the equivalent interleukin-8 (IL-8) response of porcine bone marrow-derived macrophages was strongly serotype specific and considerably lower in O:3 than in O:8 strains. In addition, all tested Y. enterocolitica strains caused a considerably higher level of secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by porcine than by murine macrophages. This could contribute to limiting the severity of the infection (in particular of serotype O:3 strains) in pigs, which are the primary reservoir of Y. enterocolitica strains pathogenic to humans. PMID:23959720
Schaake, Julia; Kronshage, Malte; Uliczka, Frank; Rohde, Manfred; Knuuti, Tobias; Strauch, Eckhard; Fruth, Angelika; Wos-Oxley, Melissa; Dersch, Petra
Yersinia enterocolitica is a human pathogen that is ubiquitous in livestock, especially pigs. The bacteria are able to colonize the intestinal tract of a variety of mammalian hosts, but the severity of induced gut-associated diseases (yersiniosis) differs significantly between hosts. To gain more information about the individual virulence determinants that contribute to colonization and induction of immune responses in different hosts, we analyzed and compared the interactions of different human- and animal-derived isolates of serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8, and O:9 with murine, porcine, and human intestinal cells and macrophages. The examined strains exhibited significant serotype-specific cell binding and entry characteristics, but adhesion and uptake into different host cells were not host specific and were independent of the source of the isolate. In contrast, survival and replication within macrophages and the induced proinflammatory response differed between murine, porcine, and human macrophages, suggesting a host-specific immune response. In fact, similar levels of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) were secreted by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with all tested isolates, but the equivalent interleukin-8 (IL-8) response of porcine bone marrow-derived macrophages was strongly serotype specific and considerably lower in O:3 than in O:8 strains. In addition, all tested Y. enterocolitica strains caused a considerably higher level of secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by porcine than by murine macrophages. This could contribute to limiting the severity of the infection (in particular of serotype O:3 strains) in pigs, which are the primary reservoir of Y. enterocolitica strains pathogenic to humans.
Schaake, Julia; Kronshage, Malte; Uliczka, Frank; Rohde, Manfred; Knuuti, Tobias; Strauch, Eckhard; Fruth, Angelika; Wos-Oxley, Melissa
This study formulates three different unitary rational-actor models and an organizational model that can be used to explain Soviet policy in strategic defense from 1966-1980, then tests the models to determine which most successfully explains Soviet behavior. The only rational-actor model that can explain the Soviet force posture for air defense relies on demonstrably false assumptions. A well-formulated organizational model
Plans are described for a 2-year project whose major focus is the identification of ways in which patients with hemophilia and their families assimilate, interpret, and act on information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Findings will be related to perceived risk, anxiety levels, and the development of coping strategies.…
Naji, Simon; And Others
Influenza virus is a globally important respiratory pathogen which causes a high degree of morbidity and mortality annually. The virus is continuously under- going antigenic change and thus bypasses the host's acquired immunity to influenza. Despite the improvement in antiviral therapy during the last decade, vaccination is still the most effective method of prophylaxis. Vaccination induces a good degree of
R. J. Cox; K. A. Brokstad; P. Ogra
Presents considerations and strategies for conceptualizing, recognizing, and modifying defense mechanisms through the group counseling process. Provides awareness of defense mechanisms in planning for and implementation of group counseling, describes interaction patterns for identifying defenses among group participants, and clarifies modification…
Clark, Arthur J.
Filarial infection is initiated by mosquito-derived third-stage larvae (L3) deposited on the skin that transit through the epidermis, which contains Langerhans cells (LC) and keratinocytes (KC), among other cells. This earliest interaction between L3 and the LC likely conditions the priming of the immune system to the parasite. To determine the nature of this interaction, human LC (langerin+ E-cadherin+ CD1a+) were generated in vitro and exposed to live L3. LC exposed to live L3 for 48 h showed no alterations in the cell surface markers CD14, CD86, CD83, CD207, E-cadherin, CD80, CD40, and HLA-DR or in mRNA expression of inflammation-associated genes, such as those for interleukin 18 (IL-18), IL-18BP, and caspase 1. In contrast to L3, live tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, induced production of CXCL9, IP-10, and IL-6 in LC. Furthermore, preexposure of LC to L3 did not alter Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)- or TLR4-mediated expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1?, gamma interferon (IFN-?), IL-6, or IL-10. Interestingly, cocultures of KC and LC produced significantly more IL-18, IL-1?, and IL-8 than did cultures of LC alone, although exposure of the cocultures to live L3 did not result in altered cytokine production. Microarray examination of ex vivo LC from skin blisters that were exposed to live L3 also showed few significant changes in gene expression compared with unexposed blisters, further underscoring the relatively muted response of LC to L3. Our data suggest that failure by LC to initiate an inflammatory response to the invasive stage of filarial parasites may be a strategy for immune evasion by the filarial parasite.
Boyd, Alexis; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Wang, Yuanyuan; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Law, Melissa; Chaussabel, Damien; Nutman, Thomas B.
Filarial infection is initiated by mosquito-derived third-stage larvae (L3) deposited on the skin that transit through the epidermis, which contains Langerhans cells (LC) and keratinocytes (KC), among other cells. This earliest interaction between L3 and the LC likely conditions the priming of the immune system to the parasite. To determine the nature of this interaction, human LC (langerin(+) E-cadherin(+) CD1a(+)) were generated in vitro and exposed to live L3. LC exposed to live L3 for 48 h showed no alterations in the cell surface markers CD14, CD86, CD83, CD207, E-cadherin, CD80, CD40, and HLA-DR or in mRNA expression of inflammation-associated genes, such as those for interleukin 18 (IL-18), IL-18BP, and caspase 1. In contrast to L3, live tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, induced production of CXCL9, IP-10, and IL-6 in LC. Furthermore, preexposure of LC to L3 did not alter Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)- or TLR4-mediated expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1?, gamma interferon (IFN-?), IL-6, or IL-10. Interestingly, cocultures of KC and LC produced significantly more IL-18, IL-1?, and IL-8 than did cultures of LC alone, although exposure of the cocultures to live L3 did not result in altered cytokine production. Microarray examination of ex vivo LC from skin blisters that were exposed to live L3 also showed few significant changes in gene expression compared with unexposed blisters, further underscoring the relatively muted response of LC to L3. Our data suggest that failure by LC to initiate an inflammatory response to the invasive stage of filarial parasites may be a strategy for immune evasion by the filarial parasite. PMID:23429540
Boyd, Alexis; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Wang, Yuanyuan; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Law, Melissa; Chaussabel, Damien; Nutman, Thomas B; Semnani, Roshanak Tolouei
...Hemolytic Complications of Immune Globulin Infusions; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug...Hemolytic Complications of Immune Globulin Infusions.'' The purpose of the public workshop...Globulin Intravenous (IGIV) (Human) infusion. Complications of hemolysis...
Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG ODN) are potent adjuvants to protein antigens administered by parenteral or mucosal routes to BALB/c mice. To date, there have been no studies using combined parenteral/mucosal approaches with CpG DNA as adjuvant. In this study we evaluated different parenteral prime-mucosal boost and mucosal prime-parenteral boost strategies using hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) alone or with different adjuvants: aluminum hydroxide (alum), cholera toxin (CT), CpG ODN. In addition, since CpG ODN has previously been shown to act synergistically with other adjuvants after parenteral or mucosal delivery, we also evaluated adjuvant combinations: alum+CpG ODN and CT+CpG ODN. The effects of adjuvant and administration strategy on systemic and mucosal humoral responses were measured, as well as cell-mediated immune responses (cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity). These results were compared to parenteral only or mucosal only strategies. Our findings demonstrate that parenteral immunization can prime for mucosal responses even when different lymph nodes were being targeted. HBsAg-specific immune responses (IgG in plasma, cytotoxic T lymphocytes) induced by parenteral prime could all be significantly enhanced by mucosal boosting and despite the fact that intramuscular immunization alone could not induce mucosal IgA, it could prime for a subsequent mucosal boost. In addition, the presence of adjuvant at time of boosting could influence the nature of subsequent immune responses (Th1 vs. Th2). Mice primed intranasally could have their systemic immune responses boosted with a parenteral administration and it was also possible to enhance mucosal responses induced by intranasal prime with an intramuscular boost. PMID:11934561
McCluskie, Michael J; Weeratna, Risini D; Payette, Paul J; Davis, Heather L
Since all T-cell-mediated immune responses require antigen presentation, antigen-presenting cells (APCs) may be of central importance for the generation and regulation of tumor immunity. This article describes approaches used to induce tumor immunity via modulation of the presentation of tumor antigen, either by tumor-antigen-exposed dendritic cells or by tumor cells engineered to act as APCs.
Stephan Grabbe; Stefan Beissert; Thomas Schwarz; Richard D. Granstein
B cells play an important role in the pathophysiology of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Thus, a rational approach to ITP treatment involves B-cell depletion such as with rituximab. More than 10 years after the first reports of data suggesting that anti-CD20 MoAbs could be effective treatment for ITP, we have now a clear view of its efficacy, with an overall response in about 60% of patients. The report of fatal opportunistic infections was initially a matter of concern, but to date, reassuring data have been reported and rituximab appears well tolerated with an acceptable risk of infection. In view of these data, rituximab may always be a valid option for ITP. However, relapses are frequent, and the long-term response appears modest. Therefore, strategies to ameliorate the long-term efficacy of the treatment must be developed. Several options may be tested including giving rituximab upfront or early on after ITP diagnosis, maintenance treatment with repeated infusions, and combining rituximab with other treatments able to modulate T-cell compartment to achieve a synergistic effect. New generations of B-cell targeted treatment, including new-generations anti-CD20 MoAbs, may be also tested. PMID:24636845
Godeau, Bertrand; Stasi, Roberto
Background We evaluated whether B cell-derived immune defenses of the gastro-intestinal tract are activated to produce HIV-specific antibodies in children continuously exposed to HIV via breast-feeding. Methods Couples of HIV-1-infected mothers (n?=?14) and their breastfed non HIV-infected (n?=?8) and HIV-infected (n?=?6) babies, and healthy HIV-negative mothers and breastfed babies (n?=?10) as controls, were prospectively included at the Complexe Pédiatrique of Bangui, Central African Republic. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM) and anti-gp160 antibodies from mother’s milk and stools of breastfed children were quantified by ELISA. Immunoaffinity purified anti-gp160 antibodies were characterized functionally regarding their capacity to reduce attachment and/or infection of R5- and X4- tropic HIV-1 strains on human colorectal epithelial HT29 cells line or monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM). Results The levels of total IgA and IgG were increased in milk of HIV-infected mothers and stools of HIV-exposed children, indicating the activation of B cell-derived mucosal immunity. Breast milk samples as well as stool samples from HIV-negative and HIV-infected babies exposed to HIV by breast-feeding, contained high levels of HIV-specific antibodies, mainly IgG antibodies, less frequently IgA antibodies, and rarely IgM antibodies. Relative ratios of excretion by reference to lactoferrin calculated for HIV-specific IgA, IgG and IgM in stools of HIV-exposed children were largely superior to 1, indicating active production of HIV-specific antibodies by the intestinal mucosa. Antibodies to gp160 purified from pooled stools of HIV-exposed breastfed children inhibited the attachment of HIV-1NDK on HT29 cells by 63% and on MDM by 77%, and the attachment of HIV-1JRCSF on MDM by 40%; and the infection of MDM by HIV-1JRCSF by 93%. Conclusions The intestinal mucosa of children exposed to HIV by breast-feeding produces HIV-specific antibodies harbouring in vitro major functional properties against HIV. These observations lay the conceptual basis for the design of a prophylactic vaccine against HIV in exposed children.
Moussa, Sandrine; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Gody, Jean Chrysostome; Leal, Josiane; Gresenguet, Gerard; Le Faou, Alain; Belec, Laurent
In the present study, we aimed to elucidate how strategies of reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation and the antioxidant defense system changed during transition from C? to C? photosynthesis, by using the model genus Flaveria, which contains species belonging to different steps in C? evolution. For this reason, four Flaveria species that have different carboxylation mechanisms, Flaveria robusta (C?), Flaveria anomala (C?-C?), Flaveria brownii (C?-like) and Flaveria bidentis (C?), were used. Physiological (growth, relative water content (RWC), osmotic potential), and photosynthetical parameters (stomatal conductance (g(s)), assimilation rate (A), electron transport rate (ETR)), antioxidant defense enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductases(GR)) and their isoenzymes, non-enzymatic antioxidant contents (ascorbate, glutathione), NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) content and lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS) were measured comparatively under polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) induced osmotic stress. Under non-stressed conditions, there was a correlation only between CAT (decreasing), APX and GR (both increasing) and the type of carboxylation pathways through C? to C? in Flaveria species. However, they responded differently to PEG-induced osmotic stress in regards to antioxidant defense. The greatest increase in H?O? and TBARS content was observed in C? F. robusta, while the least substantial increase was detected in C?-like F. brownii and C? F. bidentis, suggesting that oxidative stress is more effectively countered in C?-like and C? species. This was achieved by a better induced enzymatic defense in F. bidentis (increased SOD, CAT, POX, and APX activity) and non-enzymatic antioxidants in F. brownii. As a response to PEG-induced oxidative stress, changes in activities of isoenzymes and also isoenzymatic patterns were observed in all Flaveria species, which might be related to ROS produced in different compartments of cells. PMID:23920414
Uzilday, Baris; Turkan, Ismail; Ozgur, Rengin; Sekmen, Askim H
The Department of Defense's (DoD) immunization program is an integral part of DoD's force protection program. One of the biggest challenges for the military immunization program involves maintaining a comprehensive communication effort to provide informat...
Stressful conditions for plants can originate from numerous physical, chemical and biological factors, and plants have developed a plethora of survival strategies including developmental and morphological adaptations, specific signaling and defense pathways as well as innate and acquired immunity. While it has become clear in recent years that many stress responses involve epigenetic components, we are far from understanding the mechanisms and molecular interactions. Extending our knowledge is fundamental, not least for plant breeding and conservation biology. This review will highlight recent insights into epigenetic stress responses at the level of signaling, chromatin modification, and potentially heritable consequences. PMID:22960026
Gutzat, Ruben; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun
Stressful conditions for plants can originate from numerous physical, chemical and biological factors, and plants have developed a plethora of survival strategies including developmental and morphological adaptations, specific signaling and defense pathways as well as innate and acquired immunity. While it has become clear in recent years that many stress responses involve epigenetic components, we are far from understanding the mechanisms and molecular interactions. Extending our knowledge is fundamental, not least for plant breeding and conservation biology. This review will highlight recent insights into epigenetic stress responses at the level of signaling, chromatin modification, and potentially heritable consequences.
Gutzat, Ruben; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun
Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Furthermore, we suggest that allergic hypersensitivity evolved to elicit anticipatory responses and to promote avoidance of suboptimal environments.
Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.
This slide presentation reviews the program to replace several recent studies about astronaut immune systems with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling. The study will address lack of in-flight data to determine the inflight status of immune systems, physiological stress, viral immunity, to determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, and to determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.
Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarnece
Every four years, the military issues the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) Report, a document that is key in setting military goals and priorities. This 79-page report, issued September 30, 2001, is divided into seven main sections (e.g., Defense Strategy, Revitalizing the DoD Establishment) and includes a statement by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The report explains that, "Even before the attack of September 11, 2001, the senior leaders of the Defense Department set out to establish a new strategy for America's defense that would embrace uncertainty and contend with surprise, a strategy premised on the idea that to be effective abroad, America must be safe at home." In the service of that new strategy, the QDR outlines DoD's four main policy objectives: to assure allies and friends of the US' steadfastness and military capability, to dissuade adversaries from undertaking programs potentially threatening to the US, to deter threats by increasing "the capacity to swiftly defeat attacks and impose severe penalties for aggression," and when deterrence fails, to decisively defeat any adversary. A central objective of this review was to shift the basis of defense planning. The report explains that overall the strategy seeks to move the US military "from a 'threat-based' model that has dominated thinking in the past to a 'capabilities-based' model for the future."
This study of adolescent mothers sought to identify whether a single general question asked by phone or a detailed, vaccine-specific question asked in a self-report questionnaire best captured infant immunization status at 6 months postpartum, by comparing them with immunization record books. Responses to a global question about whether infants…
Phillips, Clarissa; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Knight, Margaret; Francis, Judith; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mazerbo, Laurie
This paper compares the cost per completed maternal tetanus immunization and an estimate of the cost per death averted in the routine EPI program with similar results from an experimental mass campaign in Aceh Province, Indonesia. The cost-effectiveness of the mass campaign in achieving complete immunization is similar to the routine program. However, the mass campaign is probably less cost-effective
Peter Berman; John Quinley; Burhannuddin Yusuf; Syaifuddin Anwar; Udin Mustaini; A. Azof; Iskandar
Pathogenic viruses have developed a molecular defense arsenal for their survival by counteracting the host anti-viral system known as RNA interference (RNAi). Cellular RNAi, in addition to regulating gene expression through microRNAs, also serves as a barrier against invasive foreign nucleic acids. RNAi is conserved across the biological species, including plants, animals and invertebrates. Viruses in turn, have evolved mechanisms that can counteract this anti-viral defense of the host. Recent studies of mammalian viruses exhibiting RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) activity have further advanced our understanding of RNAi in terms of host-virus interactions. Viral proteins and non-coding viral RNAs can inhibit the RNAi (miRNA/siRNA) pathway through different mechanisms. Mammalian viruses having dsRNA-binding regions and GW/WG motifs appear to have a high chance of conferring RSS activity. Although, RSSs of plant and invertebrate viruses have been well characterized, mammalian viral RSSs still need in-depth investigations to present the concrete evidences supporting their RNAi ablation characteristics. The information presented in this review together with any perspective research should help to predict and identify the RSS activity-endowed new viral proteins that could be the potential targets for designing novel anti-viral therapeutics.
Bivalkar-Mehla, Shalmali; Vakharia, Janaki; Mehla, Rajeev; Abreha, Measho; Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh; Tikoo, Akshay; Chauhan, Ashok
The field of biomaterial design has begun to focus upon methods by which materials can modulate immune response. While certain approaches appear promising, they are limited to isolated facets of inflammation. It is well documented that both bacteria and viruses have highly developed methods for evading the immune system, providing impetus for a more biomimetic approach to material design. This review presents the immune evasive tactics employed by viruses and bacteria and offers suggestions for future directions in applying these principles to biomaterial design.
Novak, Matthew T.; Bryers, James D.; Reichert, William M.
There is great interest to develop proactive methods of cyber defense, in which future attack strategies are anticipated and these insights are incorporated into defense designs; however, little has been done to place this ambitious objective on a sound s...
K. Glass R. Colbaugh
Abstract Objective To estimate the cost of scaling up childhood immunization services required to reach the WHO–UNICEF Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS) goal of reducing mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases by two-thirds by 2015. Methods A model was developed to estimate the total cost of reaching GIVS goals by 2015 in 117 low- and lower-middle-income countries. Current spending was estimated by analysing data from country planning documents, and scale-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up, ingredients-based approach. Financial costs were estimated by country and year for reaching 90% coverage with all existing vaccines; introducing a discrete set of new vaccines (rotavirus, conjugate pneumococcal, conjugate meningococcal A and Japanese encephalitis); and conducting immunization campaigns to protect at-risk populations against polio, tetanus, measles, yellow fever and meningococcal meningitis. Findings The 72 poorest countries of the world spent US$ 2.5 (range: US$ 1.8–4.2) billion on immunization in 2005, an increase from US$ 1.1 (range: US$ 0.9–1.6) billion in 2000. By 2015 annual immunization costs will on average increase to about US$ 4.0 (range US$ 2.9–6.7) billion. Total immunization costs for 2006–2015 are estimated at US$ 35 (range US$ 13–40) billion; of this, US$ 16.2 billion are incremental costs, comprised of US$ 5.6 billion for system scale-up and US$ 8.7 billion for vaccines; US$ 19.3 billion is required to maintain immunization programmes at 2005 levels. In all 117 low- and lower-middle-income countries, total costs for 2006–2015 are estimated at US$ 76 (range: US$ 23–110) billion, with US$ 49 billion for maintaining current systems and $27 billion for scaling-up. Conclusion In the 72 poorest countries, US$ 11–15 billion (30%–40%) of the overall resource needs are unmet if the GIVS goals are to be reached. The methods developed in this paper are approximate estimates with limitations, but provide a roadmap of financing gaps that need to be filled to scale up immunization by 2015.
Gasse, Francois; Lee-Martin, Shook-Pui; Lydon, Patrick; Magan, Ahmed; Tibouti, Abdelmajid; Johns, Benjamin; Hutubessy, Raymond; Salama, Peter; Okwo-Bele, Jean-Marie
Numerous studies have examined the empirical evidence concerning the influence of demographic and socio-economic factors influencing child immunization, but no documentation is available which shows the actual impact of antenatal care (ANC) visits on subsequent child immunization. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the net impact of ANC visits on subsequent utilization of child immunization after removing the presence of selection bias. Nationwide data from India’s latest National Family Health Survey conducted during 2005–06 is used for the present study. The analysis has been carried out in the two separate models, in the first model 1–2 ANC visit and in the second model three or more ANC visits has been compared with no visit. We have used propensity score matching method with a counterfactual model that assesses the actual ANC visits effect on treated (ANC visits) and untreated groups (no ANC visit), and have employed Mantel-Haenszel bounds to examine whether result would be free from hidden bias or not. Using matched sample analysis result shows that child immunization among the groups of women who have completed 1–2 ANC visits and those who had more than two visits was about 13 percent and 19 percent respectively, higher than the group of women who have not made any ANC visit. Findings of nearest neighbor matching with replacement method, which completely eliminated the bias, indicate that selection bias present in data set leads to overestimates the positive effects of ANC visits on child immunization. Result based on Mantel-Haenszel bounds method suggest that if around 19 percent bias would be involved in the result then also we could observe the true positive effect of 1–2 ANC visits on child immunization. This also indicates that antenatal clinics are the conventional platforms for educating pregnant women on the benefits of child immunization.
Dixit, Priyanka; Dwivedi, Laxmi Kant; Ram, Faujdar
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has yielded many insights into immune escape mechanisms. Both human and mouse CMV encode a diverse array of gene products, many of which appear to modulate the immune response in the host. Some deflect the host response to infection and contribute to lifelong viral persistence while others exploit immune cells that respond to infection. Here, the viral functions that modulate and mimic host major histocompatibility complex (MHC) function will be reviewed. Viral gene products related to both classical and non-classical components of the MHC system assure the virus will persist in immunocompetent individuals. Examples of host countermeasures that neutralize viral immunomodulatory functions have emerged in the characterization of viral functions that contribute to this stand-off in CMVs that infect humans, other primates and rodents. CMV-induced disease occurs when the immune system is not yet developed, such as in the developing fetus, or when it is compromised, such as in allograft transplant recipients, suggesting that the balance between virus escape and host control is central to pathogenesis. Although evidence supports the dominant role of immune escape in CMV pathogenesis and persistence, MHC-related immunomodulatory functions have been ascribed only subtle impact on pathogenesis and the immune response during natural infection. Viral gene products that interface with the MHC system may impact natural killer cell function, antigen presentation, and T lymphocyte immune surveillance. Many also interact with other cells, particularly those in the myeloid lineage, with consequences that have not been explored. Overall, the virus-encoded modulatory functions that have been acquired by CMV likely ensure survival and adaptation to the wide range of mammalian host species in which they are found. PMID:15236638
Mocarski, Edward S
Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity.
Garcia, Ana V.; Hirt, Heribert
The reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is pivotal to the cellular anti-oxidative defence strategies in most organisms. Although its production mediated by different enzyme systems has been relatively well-studied, metabolic networks dedicated to the biogenesis of NADPH have not been fully characterized. In this report, a metabolic pathway that promotes the conversion of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), a
Ranji Singh; Joseph Lemire; Ryan J. Mailloux; Vasu D. Appanna; Edathara Abraham
The reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is pivotal to the cellular anti-oxidative defence strategies in most organisms. Although its production mediated by different enzyme systems has been relatively well- studied, metabolic networks dedicated to the biogenesis of NADPH have not been fully characterized. In this report, a metabolic pathway that promotes the conversion of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH),
Ranji Singh; Joseph Lemire; Ryan J. Mailloux; Vasu D. Appanna
The discussion of host–parasite interactions, and of parasite virulence more specifically, has so far, with a few exceptions, not focused much attention on the accumulating evidence that immune evasion by parasites is not only almost universal but also often linked to pathogenesis, i.e. the appearance of virulence. Now, the immune evasion hypothesis offers a deeper insight into the evolution of virulence than previous hypotheses. Sensitivity analysis for parasite fitness and life-history theory shows promise to generate a more general evolutionary theory of virulence by including a major element, immune evasion to prevent parasite clearance from the host. Also, the study of dose–response relationships and multiple infections should be particularly illuminating to understand the evolution of virulence. Taking into account immune evasion brings immunological processes to the core of understanding the evolution of parasite virulence and for a range of related issues such as dose, host specificity or immunopathology. The aim of this review is to highlight the mechanism underlying immune evasion and to discuss possible consequences for the evolutionary ecology analysis of host–parasite interactions.
Sialic acids (Sias) are nine-carbon keto sugars primarily present on the terminal residue of cell surface glycans. Sialic acid binding immunoglobulins (Ig)-like lectins (siglecs) are generally expressed on various immune cells. They selectively recognize different linkage-specific sialic acids and undertake a variety of cellular functions. Many pathogens either synthesize or acquire sialic acids from the host. Sialylated pathogens generally use siglecs to manipulate the host immune response. The present review mainly deals with the newly developed information regarding mechanism of acquisition of sialic acids by pathogens and their biological relevance especially in the establishment of successful infection by impairing host innate immunity. The pathogens which are unable to synthesize sialic acids might adsorb these from the host as a way to engage the inhibitory siglecs. They promote association with the immune cells through sialic acids-siglec dependent manner. Such an association plays an important role to subvert host's immunity. Detailed investigation of these pathways has been discussed in this review. Particular attention has been focused on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Leishmania donovani.
Khatua, Biswajit; Roy, Saptarshi; Mandal, Chitra
A unique transmissible cancer known as the Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) is threatening the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) with extinction. This disease is highly unusual as it is one of only two naturally occurring contagious cancers. The tumour is transmitted by biting and is able to spread between genetically diverse hosts. Why the tumours are not recognised as foreign and rejected by the host immune system in unknown. One mechanism that allows human cancers to avoid immune suppression is by producing cytokines which down-regulate the hosts immune system. Four key cytokines involved in this process are TGF?1, VEGF-A, IL-10 and IL-6. In this study we investigated whether these cytokines could be involved in immune avoidance in DFTD. To do this we compared expression of these cytokines in tumour and control tissues using qPCR. We found no significant upregulation of any of these cytokines in tumour tissue. We therefore conclude that these cytokines do not play a role in the spread of DFTD. Further work will be needed to elucidate how DFTD cells avoid immune rejection. PMID:23465357
Morris, Katrina; Belov, Katherine
The European Workshop on Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases aims to exchange scientific knowledge and promote the collaboration between various disciplines (rheumatology, dermatology and gastroenterology) among physicians and scientists. This year ophthalmologists and neurologists were also present for the first time. The meeting revolved around the following topics: fibrosis, gene therapy in ophthalmology, functional genomics, challenges in human immunology, environmental factors, diabetes and metabolism, novelties in multiple sclerosis and innate lymphoid cells. The workshop was preceded by a masterclass that covered the last 15 years of IL-17/Th17 research and provided an overview on future therapeutics to battle immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:23557265
Bayry, Jagadeesh; Radstake, Timothy R
This Note examines the interrelationship between the Convention and the FISA, specifically, whether a sovereign's ratification of the Convention constitutes a waiver of immunity under section 1605(a)(1) of the FISA in actions to enforce arbitration agreements and awards. The development of sovereign immunity law in arbitration enforcement actions, pre-FISA and under the FISA's \\
Tara A. OBrien
Aberrant signaling pathways are a hallmark of cancer. A variety of strategies for inhibiting signaling pathways have been developed, but monoclonal antibodies against receptor tyrosine kinases have been amongst the most successful. A challenge for these therapies is therapeutic unresponsiveness and acquired resistance due to mutations in the receptors, upregulation of alternate growth and survival pathways or inadequate function of the monoclonal antibodies. Vaccines are able to induce polyclonal responses which can have a multitude of affects against the target molecule. We began to explore therapeutic vaccine development to antigens associated with these signaling pathways. We provide an illustrative example in developing therapeutic cancer vaccines inducing polyclonal adaptive immune responses targeting the ErbB family member HER2. Further, we will discuss new strategies to augment the clinical efficacy of cancer vaccines by enhancing vaccine immunogenicity and reversing the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.
Clay, Timothy M.; Osada, Takuya; Hartman, Zachary C.; Hobeika, Amy; Devi, Gayathri; Morse, Michael A.; Lyerly, H. Kim
Iron is an essential nutrient for both humans and pathogenic microbes. Because of its ability to exist in one of two oxidation states, iron is an ideal redox catalyst for diverse cellular processes including respiration and DNA replication. However, the redox potential of iron also contributes to its toxicity, thus iron concentration and distribution must be carefully controlled. Given the absolute requirement for iron by virtually all human pathogens, an important facet of the innate immune system is to limit iron availability to invading microbes in a process termed nutritional immunity. Successful human pathogens must therefore possess mechanisms to circumvent nutritional immunity in order to cause disease. In this review, we discuss regulation of iron metabolism in the setting of infection and delineate strategies used by human pathogens to overcome iron-withholding defenses.
Cassat, James E.; Skaar, Eric P.
Oropharyngeal candidiasis is an opportunistic infection considered to be a harbinger of AIDS. The etiologic agent Candida albicans is a fungal species commonly colonizing human mucosal surfaces. However, under conditions of immune dysfunction, colonizing C. albicans can become an opportunistic pathogen causing superficial or even life-threatening infections. The reasons behind this transition, however, are not clear. In the oral cavity,
Timothy F. Meiller; Bernhard Hube; Lydia Schild; Mark E. Shirtliff; Mark A. Scheper; Robert Winkler; Amy Ton; Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk; Geraldine Butler
Using anti-EpCAM antibody modified magnetic microbeads allowed us to simultaneously apply size-amplification and magnetic labelling of CTCs to the capture and purification of CTCs by membrane filtration and immune-magnetic separation. High purity capture (>98%), rapid (<2 hours) and simple detection of CTCs were realized. PMID:24849539
Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Qingling; Zhang, Fumiao; Tang, Bo
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein gE functions as an immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc receptor (Fc?R) that promotes immune evasion. When an IgG antibody binds by the F(ab?)2 domain to an HSV antigen, the Fc domain of some of the same antibody molecules binds to the Fc?R, which blocks Fc-mediated functions. gE is a type 1 membrane glycoprotein with a large ectodomain that is expressed on the virion envelope and infected-cell surface. Our goal was to determine if immunizing with gE protein fragments could produce antibodies that bind by the F(ab?)2 domain to gE and block the Fc?R, as measured by competitively inhibiting nonimmune human IgG binding to the Fc?R. Three gE peptides were constructed in baculovirus spanning almost the entire ectodomain and used to immunize mice and rabbits. Two fragments were highly effective at producing antibodies that bind by the F(ab?)2 domain and block the Fc?R. The most potent of these two antibodies was far more effective at blocking the Fc?R than antibodies that are only capable of binding by the Fc domains to the Fc?R, including anti-gC, anti-gD, and nonimmune IgG. These results suggest that immunizing with gE fragments has potential for preventing immune evasion by blocking activities mediated by the HSV-1 Fc?R.
Lin, Xiaoqing; Lubinski, John M.; Friedman, Harvey M.
Direct mammalian target of rapamycin (Rapa) complex 1 inhibition by short-term low-dose Rapa treatment has recently been shown to improve CD8 T cell immunological memory. Whereas these studies focused on memory development, the impact of low-dose Rapa on the primary immune response, particularly as it relates to functional effector immunity, is far less clear. In this study, we investigated the impact of acute Rapa treatment on immune effector cell function during the primary immune response to several acute infections. We found that functional CD8 T cell and macrophage responses to both viral and intracellular bacterial pathogens were depressed in mice in vivo and in humans to phorbol ester and calcium ionophore stimulation in vitro in the face of low-dose Rapa treatment. Mechanistically, the CD8 defect was linked to impaired glycolytic switch in stimulated naive cells and the reduced formation of short-lived effector cells. Therefore, more than one cell type required for a protective effector immune response is impaired by Rapa in both mice and humans, at the dose shown to improve immune memory and extend lifespan. This urges caution with regard to the relative therapeutic costs and benefits of Rapa treatment as means to improve immune memory. PMID:24913978
Goldberg, Emily L; Smithey, Megan J; Lutes, Lydia K; Uhrlaub, Jennifer L; Nikolich-Žugich, Janko
There is an urgent need for new and better vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). Current vaccine design strategies are generally focused on the enhancement of cell-mediated immunity. Antibody-based approaches are not being considered, mostly due to the paradigm that humoral immunity plays little role in the protection against intracellular pathogens. Here, we reappraise and update the increasing evidence for antibody-mediated immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, discuss the complexity of antibody responses to mycobacteria, and address mechanism of protection. Based on these findings and discussions, we challenge the common belief that immunity against M. tuberculosis relies solely on cellular defense mechanisms, and posit that induction of antibody-mediated immunity should be included in TB vaccine development strategies.
Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Casadevall, Arturo
Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits apoptosis and triggers necrosis of host macrophages to evade innate immunity and delay the initiation of adaptive immunity. By contrast, attenuated M. tuberculosis induces macrophage apoptosis, an innate defence mechanism that reduces bacterial viability. In this Opinion article, we describe how virulent M. tuberculosis blocks production of the eicosanoid lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 production by infected macrophages prevents mitochondrial damage and initiates plasma membrane repair, two processes that are crucial for preventing necrosis and inducing apoptosis. Thus, M. tuberculosis-mediated modulation of eicosanoid production determines the death modality of the infected macrophage, which in turn has a substantial impact on the outcome of infection.
Behar, Samuel M.; Divangahi, Maziar; Remold, Heinz G.
Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells residing in the connective tissue of many organs and holding great potential for tissue repair. In culture, human MSCs (hMSCs) are capable of extensive proliferation without showing chromosomal aberrations. Large numbers of hMSCs can thus be acquired from small samples of easily obtainable tissues like fat and bone marrow. MSCs can contribute to regeneration indirectly by secretion of cytokines or directly by differentiation into specialized cell types. The latter mechanism requires their long-term acceptance by the recipient. Although MSCs do not elicit immune responses in vitro, animal studies have revealed that allogeneic and xenogeneic MSCs are rejected. Methodology/Principal Findings We aim to overcome MSC immune rejection through permanent down-regulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins on the surface of these MHC class II-negative cells through the use of viral immune evasion proteins. Transduction of hMSCs with a retroviral vector encoding the human cytomegalovirus US11 protein resulted in strong inhibition of MHC class I surface expression. When transplanted into immunocompetent mice, persistence of the US11-expressing and HLA-ABC-negative hMSCs at levels resembling those found in immunodeficient (i.e., NOD/SCID) mice could be attained provided that recipients' natural killer (NK) cells were depleted prior to cell transplantation. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate the potential utility of herpesviral immunoevasins to prevent rejection of xenogeneic MSCs. The observation that down-regulation of MHC class I surface expression renders hMSCs vulnerable to NK cell recognition and cytolysis implies that multiple viral immune evasion proteins are likely required to make hMSCs non-immunogenic and thereby universally transplantable.
de la Garza-Rodea, Anabel S.; Verweij, Marieke C.; Boersma, Hester; van der Velde-van Dijke, Ietje; de Vries, Antoine A. F.; Hoeben, Rob C.; van Bekkum, Dirk W.; Wiertz, Emmanuel J. H. J.; Knaan-Shanzer, Shoshan
The Natural Immune System (NIS) is a distributed system that solves\\u000achallenging search and response problems while operating under constraints\\u000aimposed by physical space and resource availability. Remarkably, NIS search and\\u000aresponse times do not scale appreciably with the physical size of the animal in\\u000awhich its search is conducted. Many distributed systems are engineered to solve\\u000aanalogous problems, and
Soumya Banerjee; Melanie E. Moses
Background: Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Canada, with up to 7000 influenza-related deaths occurring every year. The elderly and individuals with chronic diseases are at increased risk for influenza-related morbidity and mortality. Methods: We conducted a 2-year, community cluster-randomized trial targeting elderly people and at-risk groups to assess the effectiveness of pharmacy-based influenza vaccination clinics on influenza vaccination rates. Small rural communities in interior and northern British Columbia were randomly allocated to the intervention or control. In the intervention communities, pharmacy-based influenza vaccination clinics were held and were promoted to eligible patients using personalized invitations from the pharmacists, invitations distributed opportunistically by a pharmacist to eligible patients presenting to pharmacies during the flu season and community-wide promotion using posters and the local media. The main outcome measure was a difference in the mean influenza vaccination rates. The immunization rates were calculated using the number of immunizations given in each community divided by the population size estimated from the census data. Results: Baseline influenza immunization rates in the population ?65 years of age were the same in the control (n = 10, mean 85.6% [SD 16.6]) and intervention (n = 14, mean 83.8% [SD 16.3]) communities in 2009 (p = 0.79). In 2010, the mean influenza immunization rate was 56.9% (SD 28.0) in the control communities (n = 15) and 80.1% (SD 18.4) in the intervention communities (n = 14) (p = 0.01) for those ?65 years of age. However, in 2010, for those 2 to 64 years with chronic medical conditions, the immunization rates were lower in the intervention communities (mean 16.3% [SD 7.1]) compared with the control communities (mean 21.2% [SD 5.8]) (p = 0.04). Conclusion Clinics were feasible and well attended and they resulted in increased vaccination rates for elderly residents. In contrast, vaccination rates in the younger population with comorbidities remained low and unchanged.
Kaczorowski, Janusz; Gastonguay, Louise; Marra, Carlo A.; Lynd, Larry D.; Kendall, Perry
Studies in the SIVmac macaque model have demonstrated that the extent of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses induced by vaccination prior to virus-challenge exposure correlate with viremia containment following establishment of infection. These findings led to the hypothesis that active immunization with vaccines able to induce virus-specific T-cell responses following the establishment of infection could also ameliorate the virological outcome. Here, we will review the relative effect of ART and vaccination during primary SIVmac infection of macaques. PMID:12477429
Franchini, Genoveffa; Nacsa, Janos; Hel, Zdenek; Tryniszewska, Elzbieta
The global population remains vulnerable in the face of the next pandemic influenza virus outbreak, and reformulated vaccinations are administered annually to manage seasonal epidemics. Therefore, development of a new generation of vaccines is needed to generate broad and persistent immunity to influenza viruses. Here, we describe three adjuvants that enhance the induction of stalk-directed antibodies against heterologous and heterosubtypic influenza viruses when administered with chimeric HA proteins. Addavax, an MF59-like nanoemulsion, poly(I:C), and an RNA hairpin derived from Sendai virus (SeV) Cantell were efficacious intramuscularly. The SeV RNA and poly(I:C) also proved to be effective respiratory mucosal adjuvants. Although the quantity and quality of antibodies induced by the adjuvants varied, immunized mice demonstrated comparable levels of protection against challenge with influenza A viruses on the basis of HA stalk reactivity. Finally, we present that intranasally, but not intramuscularly, administered chimeric HA proteins induce mucosal IgA antibodies directed at the HA stalk.
Goff, Peter H.; Eggink, Dirk; Seibert, Christopher W.; Hai, Rong; Martinez-Gil, Luis; Krammer, Florian; Palese, Peter
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) caused by the ubiquitous environmental fungus Aspergillus is a frequently fatal lung disease of immunocompromised humans accounting for more than 200,000 infections each year, with an associated mortality rate of 30-90%. This review addresses the current status of IPA diagnosis and treatment and the urgent need to develop accurate, non-invasive strategies for identifying pulmonary infections in the ever-expanding population of immune deficient patients at risk of acquiring opportunistic fungal infections including hematological malignancy and hematopoetic stem cell transplant patients. Recent advances in the use of an Aspergillus-specific monoclonal antibody, JF5, for point-of-care diagnosis of IPA using lateral-flow technology is examined, as is its use in PET/MRI bioimaging and radio-immunotherapy using radionuclide-labeled single chain antibody fragments, Fab fragments, and a fully humanized JF5 derivative. PMID:24689528
Thornton, Christopher R
Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, was proposed by Karaboga. It has been shown to be superior to some conventional intelligent algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA), artificial colony optimization (ACO), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). However, the ABC still has some limitations. For example, ABC can easily get trapped in the local optimum when handing in functions that have a narrow curving valley, a high eccentric ellipse, or complex multimodal functions. As a result, we proposed an enhanced ABC algorithm called EABC by introducing self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators to improve the exploitation and exploration. The simulation results tested on a suite of unimodal or multimodal benchmark functions illustrate that the EABC algorithm outperforms ACO, PSO, and the basic ABC in most of the experiments. PMID:24772023
Chen, Tinggui; Xiao, Renbin
Background Ant colony algorithm has emerged recently as a new meta-heuristic method, which is inspired from the behaviours of real ants for solving NP-hard problems. However, the classical ant colony algorithm also has its defects of stagnation and premature. This paper aims at remedying these problems. Results In this paper, we propose an adaptive ant colony algorithm that simulates the behaviour of biological immune system. The solutions of the problem are much more diversified than traditional ant colony algorithms. Conclusion The proposed method for improving the performance of traditional ant colony algorithm takes into account the polarization of the colonies, and adaptively adjusts the distribution of the solutions obtained by the ants. This makes the solutions more diverse so as to avoid the stagnation and premature phenomena.
Qin, Ling; Pan, Yi; Chen, Ling; Chen, Yixin
It is well recognized that the physiological/pathological consequences of an immune response, against a foreign or a self-antigen, are often critically dependent on the class of immunity generated. Here we focus on how antigen interacts with the cells of the immune system to determine whether antigen predominantly generates Th1 or Th2 cells. We refer to this mechanism as the 'decision criterion' controlling the Th1/Th2 phenotype of the immune response. A plausible decision criterion should account for the variables of immunization known to affect the Th1/Th2 phenotype of the ensuing immune response. Documented variables include the nature of the antigen, in terms of its degree of foreignness, the dose of antigen and the time after immunization at which the Th1/Th2 phenotype of the immune response is assessed. These are quantitative variables made at the level of the system. In addition, the route of immunization is also critical. I describe a quantitative hypothesis as to the nature of the decision criterion, referred to as the Threshold Hypothesis. This hypothesis accounts for the quantitative variables of immunization known to affect the Th1/Th2 phenotype of the immune response generated. I suggest and illustrate how this is not true of competing, contemporary hypotheses. I outline studies testing predictions of the hypothesis and illustrate its potential utility in designing strategies to prevent or treat medical situations where a predominant Th1 response is required to contain an infection, such as those caused by HIV-1 and by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or to contain cancers. PMID:24684592
Bretscher, P A
Viruses that infect bacteria are the most abundant biological agents on the planet and bacteria have evolved diverse defense mechanisms to combat these genetic parasites. One of these bacterial defense systems relies on a repetitive locus, referred to as a CRISPR (clusters of regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats). Bacteria and archaea acquire resistance to invading viruses and plasmids by integrating short fragments of foreign nucleic acids at one end of the CRISPR locus. CRISPR loci are transcribed and the long primary CRISPR transcript is processed into a library of small RNAs that guide the immune system to invading nucleic acids, which are subsequently degraded by dedicated nucleases. However, the development of CRISPR-mediated immune systems has not eradicated phages, suggesting that viruses have evolved mechanisms to subvert CRISPR-mediated protection. Recently, Bondy-Denomy and colleagues discovered several phage-encoded anti-CRISPR proteins that offer new insight into the ongoing molecular arms race between viral parasites and the immune systems of their hosts.
Respiratory pathogens encounter various lines of defenses before infection of the host is established. The innate immune response represents an important first-line protection mechanism against potentially pathogenic microorganisms during early stages of infection of the naive host. Important players in this host defense system are ‘collectins’, a class of soluble innate immune proteins. Well-characterized members of the collectin family are
Henk P. Haagsman; Astrid Hogenkamp; Martin van Eijk; Edwin J. A. Veldhuizen
Animals and plants carry recognition systems to sense bacterial flagellin. Flagellin perception in Arabidopsis involves FLS2, a Leu-rich-repeat receptor kinase. We surveyed the early transcriptional response of Arabidopsis cell cultures and seedlings within 60 min of treatment with flg22, a peptide corresponding to the most conserved domain of flagellin. Using Affymetrix microarrays, approximately 3.0% of 8,200 genes displayed transcript level changes in flg22 elicited suspension cultures and seedlings. FLARE (Flagellin Rapidly Elicited) genes mostly encode signaling components, such as transcription factors, protein kinases/phosphatases, and proteins that regulate protein turnover. Approximately 80% of flg22-induced genes were also up-regulated in Arabidopsis seedlings treated with cycloheximide. This suggests that many FLARE genes are negatively regulated by rapidly turned-over repressor proteins. Twenty-one tobacco Avr9/Cf-9 rapidly elicited (ACRE) cDNA full-length sequences were used to search for their Arabidopsis orthologs (AtACRE). We identified either single or multiple putative orthologs for 17 ACRE genes. For 13 of these ACRE genes, at least one Arabidopsis ortholog was induced in flg22-elicited Arabidopsis suspension cells and seedlings. This result revealed a substantial overlap between the Arabidopsis flg22 response and the tobacco Avr9 race-specific defense response. We also compared FLARE gene sets and genes induced in basal or gene-for-gene interactions upon different Pseudomonas syringae treatments, and infer that Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato represses the flagellin-initiated defense response.
Navarro, Lionel; Zipfel, Cyril; Rowland, Owen; Keller, Ingo; Robatzek, Silke; Boller, Thomas; Jones, Jonathan D.G.
The prognosis of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains poor and novel treatment strategies are needed. Antibody-based therapies represent such an approach. ALL cells express various surface antigens that are targets for monoclonal antibodies. This review focuses on 4 major classes of antibody therapy: (1) naked antibodies, (2) T-cell-engaging bispecific single-chain antibodies, (3) immunoconjugates/immunotoxins, and (4) chimeric antigen receptors. Preclinical and clinical data are reviewed. This area of research represents an exciting new approach to help improve the outcome of this disease. Several clinical trials are currently incorporating this therapy in the treatment of newly diagnosed and relapsed adult ALL patients. PMID:24319174
Advani, Anjali S
Ehrlichia canis, a small obligately intracellular, tick-transmitted, gram-negative, a-proteobacterium is the primary etiologic agent of globally distributed canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Complete genome sequencing revealed that the E. canis genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 1,315,030 bp predicted to encode 925 proteins, 40 stable RNA species, and 17 putative pseudogenes, and a substantial proportion of non-coding sequence (27 percent). Interesting genome features include a large set of proteins with transmembrane helices and/or signal sequences, and a unique serine-threonine bias associated with the potential for O-glycosylation that was prominent in proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions. Furthermore, two paralogous protein families associated with immune evasion were identified, one of which contains poly G:C tracts, suggesting that they may play a role in phase variation and facilitation of persistent infections. Proteins associated with pathogen-host interactions were identified including a small group of proteins (12) with tandem repeats and another with eukaryotic-like ankyrin domains (7).
Mavromatis, K.; Kuyler Doyle, C.; Lykidis, A.; Ivanova, N.; Francino, P.; Chain, P.; Shin, M.; Malfatti, S.; Larimer, F.; Copeland,A.; Detter, J.C.; Land, M.; Richardson, P.M.; Yu, X.J.; Walker, D.H.; McBride, J.W.; Kyrpides, N.C.
An estimated 2-3% of all hospitalized patients become critically ill. These patients are in a state of relative immune exhaustion, which cripples their response to infections. Patients are sicker, have many comorbidities, and undergo complex procedures. This clinical picture, combined with increasing technologies and improved survival, presents unique challenges and demands a high level of services and expertise over a prolonged period of time. Long-term acute care hospitals provide these services, and the migration of chronically critically ill patients to these institutions facilitates defining (and quantifying) the spectrum of disease and how to best manage them. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant organism colonization and infection upon arrival to long-term acute care hospitals is high. Admission screening, and appropriate isolation and infection control practices can prevent transmission of these organisms. The implementation of ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention protocols, blood stream infection prevention protocols, and minimizing Foley urinary catheter use can decrease hospital-acquired infection rates and keep them low. In addition, specific attention is required to environmental services and surface and equipment cleaning. A well organized infection control program and an antimicrobial stewardship program have become indispensable to achieve these goals. All of these key principles and recommendations are also relevant to the chronically ill patient in acute care hospital ICUs and step-down units. PMID:22663971
Cabrera-Cancio, Margarita R
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of low level of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on oxidative stress, immune reaction and inflammation response and the possible ameliorating effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (?-LA) in broilers. Birds were randomly allocated into three groups and assigned to receive different diets: basal diet, diet containing 74 ?g/kg AFB1, and 300 mg/kg ?-LA supplementation in diet containing 74 ?g/kg AFB1 for three weeks. The results showed that the serum levels of malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and interferon gamma (IFN?) in the AFB1-treated group were significantly increased than the control group. In addition, the increased expressions of interleukin 6 (IL6), TNF? and IFN? were observed in birds exposed to the AFB1-contaminated diet. These degenerative changes were inhibited by ?-LA-supplement. The activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, the levels of humoral immunity, and the expressions of nuclear factor-?B p65 and heme oxygenase-1, however, were not affected by AFB1. The results suggest that ?-LA alleviates AFB1 induced oxidative stress and immune changes and modulates the inflammatory response at least partly through changes in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines of spleen such as IL6 and TNF? in broiler chickens.
Li, Yan; Ma, Qiu-Gang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Wei, Hua; Duan, Guo-Xiang; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Ji, Cheng
The Arctic1 is at a strategic inflection point as its ice cap is diminishing more rapidly than projected2 and human activity, driven by economic opportunity ranging from oil, gas, and mineral exploration to fishing, shipping, and tourism is increasing in ...
Hormone levels shift the immune state in HIV-uninfected pregnant and breastfeeding women away from Th1 responses and toward regulation to permit fetal tolerance. Limited data exist on inflammation during pregnancy or postpartum in HIV-infected women, though certain inflammatory markers are associated with adverse health outcomes among HIV-infected persons. We measured hsCRP, D-dimer, IFN-?, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-? at 34 weeks gestation and six months postpartum in HIV-infected women from the Botswana Mashi PMTCT trial who were randomized to breastfeeding or formula-feeding. Differences in inflammatory markers between gestation and postpartum periods, and by randomized feeding method, were estimated using generalized estimating equations, adjusting for baseline plasma HIV-1 viral load, CD4 count, calendar time, and antiretroviral treatment status. Additionally, we studied the association between marker concentrations at six months postpartum and major adverse clinical events over the following 4.5 years, using case-cohort sampling and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. In 86 breastfeeding and 75 formula-feeding women, hsCRP and D-dimer decreased significantly between 34 weeks gestation and six months postpartum, while IFN-? increased. There was no significant association between inflammatory marker change and randomized feeding method after adjusting for multiple comparisons and removing outliers. In univariate analysis, TNF-?, D-dimer, and IFN-? concentrations at six months postpartum were significant predictors of subsequent clinical events, and TNF-? remained significant in multivariate analysis (HR?=?4.16, p?=?0.001). In young HIV-infected women in Botswana inflammatory marker concentrations did not differ significantly between women who breast- vs. formula-fed. However, postpartum TNF-? level was predictive of subsequent adverse clinical event. PMID:24657960
Russell, Elizabeth S; Mohammed, Terence; Smeaton, Laura; Jorowe, Baitshepi; MacLeod, Iain J; Hoffman, Risa M; Currier, Judith S; Moyo, Sikhulile; Essex, Max; Lockman, Shahin
The impact of vaccines on public health and wellbeing has been profound. Smallpox has been eradicated, polio is nearing eradication, and multiple diseases have been eliminated from certain areas of the world. Unfortunately, we now face diseases such as hepatitis C, malaria or tuberculosis, as well as new and re-emerging pathogens for which we lack effective vaccines. Empirical approaches to vaccine development have been successful in the past, but may not be up to the current infectious disease challenges facing us. New, directed approaches to vaccine design, development, and testing need to be developed. Ideally these approaches will capitalize on cutting-edge technologies, advanced analytical and modeling strategies, and up-to-date knowledge of both pathogen and host. These approaches will pay particular attention to the causes of inter-individual variation in vaccine response in order to develop new vaccines tailored to the unique needs of individuals and communities within the population. PMID:24702429
Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Lambert, Nathaniel D; Haralambieva, Iana H; Poland, Gregory A
When an artificial biomaterial (e.g., a stent or implantable pump) is exposed to blood, plasma proteins immediately adhere to the surface, creating a new interface between the biomaterial and the blood. The recognition proteins within the complement and contact activation/coagulation cascade systems of the blood will be bound to, or inserted into, this protein film and generate different mediators that will activate polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as platelets. Under clinical conditions, the ultimate outcome of these processes may be thrombotic and inflammatory reactions, and consequently the composition and conformation of the proteins in the initial layer formed on the surface will to a large extent determine the outcome of a treatment involving the biomaterial, affecting both the functionality of the material and the patient’s life quality. This review presents models of biomaterial-induced activation processes and describes various strategies to attenuate potential adverse reactions by conjugating bioactive molecules to surfaces or by introducing nanostructures.
Ekdahl, Kristina N; Lambris, John D.; Elwing, Hans; Ricklin, Daniel; Nilsson, Per H.; Teramura, Yuji; Nicholls, Ian A.; Nilsson, Bo
Suggests considerations and strategies for identifying and modifying a client's defense mechanisms in counseling. Provides definitions of individual defenses and indicators for identifying the mechanisms. Literature review focuses on counseling implications of defenses. Process of defense mechanism modification is illustrated through case example.…
Clark, Arthur J.
This presentation covers several inter-related subjects: The Growth of Soviet Power; How the Soviet Threat drives the type of forces we need; and some material to put defense spending in perspective by relating it to other U. S. expenditures.
R. A. Rosenberg
From April 17-20, 2001, the U.S. Army War College sponsored a major conference to examine the many issues and questions surrounding the transformation of the U.S. Armed Forces from a Cold War paradigm into a defense establishment ready to meet the complex...
C. C. Crane
Clinical trials with biological modifiers targeting specific inflammatory mediators associated with severe sepsis have shown no or limited survival benefit. The approach taken in studies reported here was to limit the point source of intra-abdominal infection by potentiating innate immune function, thereby lessening the severity of sepsis and improving survival. Soluble beta-glucans, glucose polymers of the fungal cell wall, have been shown to stimulate innate immune host defense in animal and human studies when administered prior to an infectious challenge. We evaluated the effects of poly-(1,6)-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-?-d-glucopyranose glucan (PGG glucan) on overall survival when administered intraperitoneally after the onset of polymicrobial infection by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Since gender-dependent differences in host immune response to infection have been reported, male and female mice were prospectively stratified for PGG glucan treatment. Outbred CD-1 mice were administered 10 mg/kg of body weight PGG glucan or the polysaccharide control, dextran, 1 h after CLP. Six hours after CLP, blood samples were obtained for cytokine measurements. Surprisingly, a gender-dependent effect on the response to PGG glucan was revealed. PGG glucan enhanced survival in female mice over a 10-day period, but survival in males was improved for only 24 h. In female mice, PGG glucan reduced interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10 levels and reduced the bacterial burden in the liver. Ovariectomy abrogated the response to PGG glucan. Together, the translational potential of these findings is the indicated use of PGG glucan given locally, rather than intravenously, for improved source control during the management of sepsis. This therapy does not require prophylactic beta-glucan administration.
Newsome, Courtni T.; Flores, Estefany; Ayala, Alfred; Gregory, Stephen; Reichner, Jonathan S.
The gastrointestinal tract is covered by mucus that has different properties in the stomach, small intestine, and colon. The large highly glycosylated gel-forming mucins MUC2 and MUC5AC are the major components of the mucus in the intestine and stomach, respectively. In the small intestine, mucus limits the number of bacteria that can reach the epithelium and the Peyer's patches. In the large intestine, the inner mucus layer separates the commensal bacteria from the host epithelium. The outer colonic mucus layer is the natural habitat for the commensal bacteria. The intestinal goblet cells secrete not only the MUC2 mucin but also a number of typical mucus components: CLCA1, FCGBP, AGR2, ZG16, and TFF3. The goblet cells have recently been shown to have a novel gate-keeping role for the presentation of oral antigens to the immune system. Goblet cells deliver small intestinal luminal material to the lamina propria dendritic cells of the tolerogenic CD103(+) type. In addition to the gel-forming mucins, the transmembrane mucins MUC3, MUC12, and MUC17 form the enterocyte glycocalyx that can reach about a micrometer out from the brush border. The MUC17 mucin can shuttle from a surface to an intracellular vesicle localization, suggesting that enterocytes might control and report epithelial microbial challenge. There is communication not only from the epithelial cells to the immune system but also in the opposite direction. One example of this is IL10 that can affect and improve the properties of the inner colonic mucus layer. The mucus and epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract are the primary gate keepers and controllers of bacterial interactions with the host immune system, but our understanding of this relationship is still in its infancy. PMID:24942678
Pelaseyed, Thaher; Bergström, Joakim H; Gustafsson, Jenny K; Ermund, Anna; Birchenough, George M H; Schütte, André; van der Post, Sjoerd; Svensson, Frida; Rodríguez-Piñeiro, Ana M; Nyström, Elisabeth E L; Wising, Catharina; Johansson, Malin E V; Hansson, Gunnar C
Colostrum intake is critical to a piglet's survival and can be measured by precipitating out the ?-immunoglobulins from serum with ammonium sulfate (immunocrit). Genetic analysis of immunocrits on 5312 piglets indicated that the heritabilities (se) for direct and maternal effects were 0.13 (0.06) and 0.53 (0.08) respectively. To identify QTL for direct genetic effects, piglets with the highest and lowest immunocrits from 470 litters were selected. Six sets of DNA pools were created based on sire of the litter. These 12 DNA pools were applied to Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChips. Normalized X and Y values were analyzed. Three different SNP selection methods were used: deviation of the mean from high vs. low pools, the deviation adjusted for variance based on binomial theory and ANOVA. The 25 highest ranking SNPs were selected from each evaluation for further study along with 12 regions selected based on a five-SNP window approach. Selected SNPs were individually genotyped in the 988 piglets included in pools as well as in 524 piglets that had intermediate immunocrits. Association analyses were conducted fitting an animal model using the estimated genetic parameters. Nineteen SNPs were nominally associated (P < 0.01) with immunocrit values, of which nine remained significant (P < 0.05) after Bonferroni correction, located in 16 genomic regions on 13 chromosomes. In conclusion, the pooling strategy reduced the cost to scan the genome by more than 80% and identified genomic regions associated with a piglet's ability to acquire ?-immunoglobulin from colostrum. Each method to rank SNPs from the pooled analyses contributed unique validated markers, suggesting that multiple analyses will reveal more QTL than a single analysis. PMID:24779640
Rohrer, G A; Rempel, L A; Miles, J R; Keele, J W; Wiedmann, R T; Vallet, J L
Blood transfusion is associated with well-known risks. We investigated the difference between a restrictive versus a liberal transfusion strategy on the immune response, as expressed by the production of inflammatory mediators, in patients subjected to major abdominal surgery procedures. Fifty-eight patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were randomized preoperatively to either a restrictive transfusion protocol or a liberal transfusion protocol (with transfusion if hemoglobin dropped below 7.7?g?dL?1 or 9.9?g?dL?1, respectively). In a subgroup of 20 patients randomly selected from the original allocation groups, blood was sampled for measurement of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF?. Postoperative levels of IL-10 were higher in the liberal transfusion group on the first postoperative day (49.82 ± 29.07 vs. 15.83 ± 13.22?pg?mL?1, P < 0.05). Peak postoperative IL-10 levels correlated with the units of blood transfused as well as the mean duration of storage and the storage time of the oldest unit transfused (r2 = 0.38, P = 0.032, r2 = 0.52, P = 0.007, and r2 = 0.68, P<0.001, respectively). IL-10 levels were elevated in patients with a more liberal red blood cell transfusion strategy. The strength of the association between anti-inflammatory IL-10 and transfusion variables indicates that IL-10 may be an important factor in transfusion-associated immunomodulation. This trial is registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02020525.
Markatou, Maria; Rizos, Demetrios; Fassoulaki, Argyro
The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…
Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole
Contents include: the Soviet approach; defensive forces; ballistic missile defense; advanced technologies for defense against ballistic missiles; laser weapons, particle beam weapons, radio frequency weapons, kinetic-energy weapons, computer and sensor technology, antisatellite developments; air defense; passive defenses; Soviet statements on the US Strategic Defense Initiative; annex: offensive forces.
This article discusses feminist self-defense as a victim-prevention strategy, describes the nature and scope of the self-defense movement, examines a case history of a women's self-defense organization, and analyzes the mobilization and organizational dilemmas that confronted that organization. We compare self-defense services with victim services to help explain the development of the women's self-defense movement, and in particular, its feminist
PATRICIA SEARLES; RONALD J. BERGER
The overarching goal is to develop novel technologies to elucidate molecular mechanisms of the innate immune response in host cells to pathogens such as bacteria and viruses including the mechanisms used by pathogens to subvert\\/suppress\\/obfuscate the immune response to cause their harmful effects. Innate immunity is our first line of defense against a pathogenic bacteria or virus. A comprehensive 'system-level'
Jens Fredrich Poschet; Amanda Carroll-Portillo; Meiye Wu; Ronald Paul Manginell; Amy Elizabeth Herr; Anthony A. Martino; Thomas D. Perroud; Catherine Branda; Nimisha Srivastava; Michael B. Sinclair; Matthew Wallace Moorman; Christopher Alan Apblett; Kenneth L. Sale; Conrad D. James; Elizabeth L. Carles; Diane S. Lidke; Mark Hilary Van Benthem; Roberto Rebeil; Julie Kaiser; William Seaman; Susan Rempe; Susan Marie Brozik; Howland D. T. Jones; Paul Gemperline; Daniel J. Throckmorton; Milind Misra; Jaclyn K. Murton; Bryan D. Carson; Zhaoduo Zhang; Steven James Plimpton; Ronald F. Renzi; Elsa Ndiaye-Dulac; Anup K. Singh; David Michael Haaland; Jean-Loup Michel Faulon; Ryan W. Davis; James Bryce Ricken; Steven S. Branda; Kamlesh D. Patel; Jaewook Joo; Glenn D. Kubiak; James S. Brennan; Shawn Bryan Martin; Allan Brasier
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that causes serious infections which have become increasingly difficult to treat due to antimicrobial resistance and natural virulence strategies. Bacterial sortase enzymes are important virulence factors and good targets for future antibiotic development. It has recently been shown that sortase enzymes are integral to bacterial survival of phagocytosis, an underappreciated, but vital, step in S. aureus pathogenesis. Of note, the reaction mechanism of sortases relies on a solvent-accessible cysteine for transpeptidation. Due to the common strategy of oxidative damage employed by professional phagocytes to kill pathogens, it is possible that this cysteine may be oxidized inside the phagosome, thereby inhibiting the enzyme. This study addresses this apparent paradox by assessing the ability of physiological reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorite, to inhibit sortase A (SrtA) from S. aureus. Surprisingly, we found that SrtA is highly resistant to oxidative inhibition, both in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of resistance to oxidative damage is likely mediated by maintaining a high reduction potential of the catalytic cysteine residue, Cys184. This is due to the unusual active site utilized by S. aureus SrtA, which employs a reverse protonation mechanism for transpeptidation, resulting in a high pKa as well as reduction potential for Cys184. The results of this study suggest that S. aureus SrtA is able to withstand the extreme conditions encountered in the phagosome and maintain function, contributing to survival of phagocytotic killing.
Melvin, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Christine F.; Dubois, Laura G.; Thompson, J. Will; Moseley, M. Arthur; McCafferty, Dewey G.
Considering the control difficulties of a hydro-viscous soft start (HVSS) device of a belt conveyor, a fuzzy-immune control algorithm was derived. A fuzzy-immune PID controller was designed based on immune feedback regulations and adaptability of the fuzzy logic inference. Using MATLAB software, we simulated the controller and compared the HVSS device with a conventional PID controller and a fuzzy PID
Fang-wei XIE; You-fu HOU; Zhi-peng XU; Rui ZHAO
A wide array of immunologic tests are available for immune monitoring in cancer vaccine trials, and the number of novel assays and technical modifications continues to burgeon. Because only a small fraction of all proposed vaccine trials tested in phase I-II trials, for practical reasons, will ultimately move forward to be tested in phase III trials, there must be a system of establishing the most promising immunization strategies. This evaluation of cancer vaccine will require standardization of the immune assays and statistical methods used in immunologic monitoring. Furthermore, the use of a systematic approach to evaluating and adopting novel technologies for immunologic assessment would likely lead to timely implementation of more reliable, practical and cost-effective methods of immune. It should be the goal and expectation that this rational approach to immune monitoring will allow the critical appraisal of the most promising vaccine candidates in the context of pivotal, multi-center trials. PMID:16211879
Mosca, Paul J; Clay, Timothy M; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim
Abstract Human adenoviruses are the most widely used vectors in gene medicine, with applications ranging from oncolytic therapies to vaccinations, but adenovirus vectors are not without side effects. In addition, natural adenoviruses pose severe risks for immunocompromised people, yet infections are usually mild and self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals. Here we describe how adenoviruses are recognized by the host innate defense system during entry and replication in immune and nonimmune cells. Innate defense protects the host and represents a major barrier to using adenoviruses as therapeutic interventions in humans. Innate response against adenoviruses involves intrinsic factors present at constant levels, and innate factors mounted by the host cell upon viral challenge. These factors exert antiviral effects by directly binding to viruses or viral components, or shield the virus, for example, soluble factors, such as blood clotting components, the complement system, preexisting immunoglobulins, or defensins. In addition, Toll-like receptors and lectins in the plasma membrane and endosomes are intrinsic factors against adenoviruses. Important innate factors restricting adenovirus in the cytosol are tripartite motif-containing proteins, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like inflammatory receptors, and DNA sensors triggering interferon, such as DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41 and cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase. Adenovirus tunes the function of antiviral autophagy, and counters innate defense by virtue of its early proteins E1A, E1B, E3, and E4 and two virus-associated noncoding RNAs VA-I and VA-II. We conclude by discussing strategies to engineer adenovirus vectors with attenuated innate responses and enhanced delivery features. PMID:24512150
Hendrickx, Rodinde; Stichling, Nicole; Koelen, Jorien; Kuryk, Lukasz; Lipiec, Agnieszka; Greber, Urs F
Historically cancer vaccines have yielded suboptimal clinical results. We have developed a novel strategy for eliciting antitumor immunity based upon homology between neoplastic tissue and the developing placenta. Placenta formation shares several key processes with neoplasia, namely: angiogenesis, activation of matrix metalloproteases, and active suppression of immune function. Immune responses against xenoantigens are well known to break self-tolerance. Utilizing xenogeneic
Zhaohui Zhong; Kornel P Kusznieruk; Igor A Popov; Neil H Riordan; Hamid Izadi; Li Yijian; Salman Sher; Orest M Szczurko; Michael G Agadjanyan; Richard H Tullis; Amir Harandi; Boris N Reznik; Grigor V Mamikonyan; Thomas E Ichim
In spite of several attempts over many years at developing a HIV vaccine based on classical strategies, none has convincingly succeeded to date. As HIV is transmitted primarily by the mucosal route, particularly through sexual intercourse, understanding antiviral immunity at mucosal sites is of major importance. An ideal vaccine should elicit HIV-specific antibodies and mucosal CD8 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) as a first line of defense at a very early stage of HIV infection, before the virus can disseminate into the secondary lymphoid organs in mucosal and systemic tissues. A primary focus of HIV preventive vaccine research is therefore the induction of protective immune responses in these crucial early stages of HIV infection. Numerous approaches are being studied in the field, including building upon the recent RV144 clinical trial. In this article, we will review current strategies and briefly discuss the use of adjuvants in designing HIV vaccines that induce mucosal immune responses. PMID:25009956
Pavot, Vincent; Rochereau, Nicolas; Lawrence, Philip; Girard, Marc P; Genin, Christian; Verrier, Bernard; Paul, Stéphane
In contrast to animals, plants do not have a circulatory system as well as mobile immune cells that allow them to protect themselves against pathogens. Instead, plants exclusively depend on the innate immune system to defend against pathogens. As typically observed in the animal innate immunity, plant immune responses are composed of pathogen detection, defense signaling which includes transcriptional reprogramming, and secretion of antimicrobial compounds. Although knowledge on recognition and subsequent signaling of pathogen-derived molecules called elicitors is now expanding, the mechanisms of how these immune molecules are excreted are yet poorly understood. Therefore, current understandings of how plants secrete defense products especially via exocytosis will be discussed in this review.
Abstract The immune system of an organism is an essential component of the defense mechanism aimed at combating pathogenic stress. Age-associated immune dysfunction, also dubbed “immune senescence,” manifests as increased susceptibility to infections, increased onset and progression of autoimmune diseases, and onset of neoplasia. Over the years, extensive research has generated consensus in terms of the phenotypic and functional defects within the immune system in various organisms, including humans. Indeed, age-associated alterations such as thymic involution, T cell repertoire skewing, decreased ability to activate naïve T cells and to generate robust memory responses, have been shown to have a causative role in immune decline. Further, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of proteotoxic stress, DNA damage response, modulation of ubiquitin proteasome pathway, and regulation of transcription factor NF?B activation, in immune decline, have paved the way to delineating signaling pathways that cross-talk and impact immune senescence. Given the role of the immune system in combating infections, its effectiveness with age may well be a marker of health and a predictor of longevity. It is therefore believed that a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune senescence will lead to an effective interventional strategy aimed at improving the health span of individuals. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1551–1585.
This review summarizes experimental findings that highlight the complex roles of the immune system in atherogenesis. Immune\\u000a activation can have either proatherogenic or atheroprotective effects. Immune-modulation therapy via an active or passive\\u000a immunization strategy aims to exploit the atheroprotective aspects of the immune system to modulate atherosclerosis. Several\\u000a experimental studies have demonstrated that such an approach is feasible and effective,
Kuang-Yuh Chyu; Jan Nilsson; Prediman K. Shah
Dengue viruses (DENVs) cause approximately 390 million cases of DENV infections annually and over 3 billion people worldwide are at risk of infection. No dengue vaccine is currently available nor is there an antiviral therapy for DENV infections. We have developed a tetravalent live-attenuated DENV vaccine tetravalent dengue vaccine (TDV) that consists of a molecularly characterized attenuated DENV-2 strain (TDV-2) and three chimeric viruses containing the pre-membrane and envelope genes of DENV-1, -3, and -4 expressed in the context of the TDV-2 genome. To impact dengue vaccine delivery in endemic areas and immunize travelers, a simple and rapid immunization strategy (RIS) is preferred. We investigated RIS consisting of two full vaccine doses being administered subcutaneously or intradermally on the initial vaccination visit (day 0) at two different anatomical locations with a needle-free disposable syringe jet injection delivery devices (PharmaJet) in non-human primates. This vaccination strategy resulted in efficient priming and induction of neutralizing antibody responses to all four DENV serotypes comparable to those elicited by the traditional prime and boost (2?months later) vaccination schedule. In addition, the vaccine induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IFN-?, IL-2, and TNF-?, and targeting the DENV-2 NS1, NS3, and NS5 proteins. Moreover, vaccine-specific T cells were cross-reactive with the non-structural NS3 and NS5 proteins of DENV-4. When animals were challenged with DENV-2 they were protected with no detectable viremia, and exhibited sterilizing immunity (no increase of neutralizing titers post-challenge). RIS could decrease vaccination visits and provide quick immune response to all four DENV serotypes. This strategy could increase vaccination compliance and would be especially advantageous for travelers into endemic areas.
Ambuel, Yuping; Young, Ginger; Brewoo, Joseph N.; Paykel, Joanna; Weisgrau, Kim L.; Rakasz, Eva G.; Haller, Aurelia A.; Royals, Michael; Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Capuano, Saverio; Stinchcomb, Dan T.; Partidos, Charalambos D.; Osorio, Jorge E.
Tsetse flies are the medically and agriculturally important vectors of African trypanosomes. Information on the molecular and biochemical nature of the tsetse/trypanosome interaction is lacking. Here we describe three antimicrobial peptide genes, attacin, defensin, and diptericin, from tsetse fat body tissue obtained by subtractive cloning after immune stimulation with Escherichia coli and trypanosomes. Differential regulation of these genes shows the tsetse immune system can discriminate not only between molecular signals specific for bacteria and trypanosome infections but also between different life stages of trypanosomes. The presence of trypanosomes either in the hemolymph or in the gut early in the infection process does not induce transcription of attacin and defensin significantly. After parasite establishment in the gut, however, both antimicrobial genes are expressed at high levels in the fat body, apparently not affecting the viability of parasites in the midgut. Unlike other insect immune systems, the antimicrobial peptide gene diptericin is constitutively expressed in both fat body and gut tissue of normal and immune stimulated flies, possibly reflecting tsetse immune responses to the multiple Gram-negative symbionts it naturally harbors. When flies were immune stimulated with bacteria before receiving a trypanosome containing bloodmeal, their ability to establish infections was severely blocked, indicating that up-regulation of some immune responsive genes early in infection can act to block parasite transmission. The results are discussed in relation to transgenic approaches proposed for modulating vector competence in tsetse.
Hao, Zhengrong; Kasumba, Irene; Lehane, Michael J.; Gibson, Wendy C.; Kwon, Johnny; Aksoy, Serap
Invertebrate self/non-self recognition, defense responses, mating and development share innate immune surveillance and functions challenged by competition and linked to fitness. Independent evolutionary branches of immune responses may use conserved gene traits. On the other hand immunity genes may be conserved due to their role in development. Finally, upregulation of innate immunity genes during ascidian metamorphosis supports the danger hypothesis.
Efficient delivery of antigen to mucosal associated lymphoid tissue is a first and critical step for successful induction of mucosal immunity by vaccines. Considering its potential transcytotic capability, M cell has become a more and more attractive target for mucosal vaccines. In this research, we designed an M cell-targeting strategy by which mucosal delivery system chitosan (CS) was endowed with M cell-targeting ability via conjugating with a CPE30 peptide, C terminal 30 amino acids of clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), and then evaluated its immune-enhancing ability in the context of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-specific mucosal vaccine consisting of CS and a plasmid encoding CVB3 predominant antigen VP1. It had shown that similar to CS-pVP1, M cell-targeting CPE30-CS-pVP1 vaccine appeared a uniform spherical shape with about 300nm diameter and +22mV zeta potential, and could efficiently protect DNA from DNase I digestion. Mice were orally immunized with 4 doses of CPE30-CS-pVP1 containing 50?g pVP1 at 2-week intervals and challenged with CVB3 4 weeks after the last immunization. Compared with CS-pVP1 vaccine, CPE30-CS-pVP1 vaccine had no obvious impact on CVB3-specific serum IgG level and splenic T cell immune responses, but significantly increased specific fecal SIgA level and augmented mucosal T cell immune responses. Consequently, much milder myocarditis and lower viral load were witnessed in CPE30-CS-pVP1 immunized group. The enhanced immunogenicity and immunoprotection were associated with the M cell-targeting ability of CPE30-CS-pVP1 which improved its mucosal uptake and transcytosis. Our findings indicated that CPE30-CS-pVP1 may represent a novel prophylactic vaccine against CVB3-induced myocarditis, and this M cell-targeting strategy indeed could be applied as a promising and universal platform for mucosal vaccine development. PMID:24958702
Ye, Ting; Yue, Yan; Fan, Xiangmei; Dong, Chunsheng; Xu, Wei; Xiong, Sidong
This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Integrated Immune Experiment. The objectives include: 1) Address significant lack of data regarding immune status during flight; 2) Replace several recent immune studies with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling; 3) Determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation; 4) Determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and 5) Determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.
Immunotherapy is a growing therapeutic strategy in oncology based on the stimulation of innate and adaptive immune systems to induce the death of tumour cells. In this paper, we have developed a population semi-mechanistic model able to characterize the mechanisms implied in tumour growth dynamic after the administration of CyaA-E7, a vaccine able to target antigen to dendritic cells, thus triggering a potent immune response. The mathematical model developed presented the following main components: (1) tumour progression in the animals without treatment was described with a linear model, (2) vaccine effects were modelled assuming that vaccine triggers a non-instantaneous immune response inducing cell death. Delayed response was described with a series of two transit compartments, (3) a resistance effect decreasing vaccine efficiency was also incorporated through a regulator compartment dependent upon tumour size, and (4) a mixture model at the level of the elimination of the induced signal vaccine (k 2) to model tumour relapse after treatment, observed in a small percentage of animals (15.6%). The proposed model structure was successfully applied to describe antitumor effect of IL-12, suggesting its applicability to different immune-stimulatory therapies. In addition, a simulation exercise to evaluate in silico the impact on tumour size of possible combination therapies has been shown. This type of mathematical approaches may be helpful to maximize the information obtained from experiments in mice, reducing the number of animals and the cost of developing new antitumor immunotherapies. PMID:23605806
Parra-Guillen, Zinnia P; Berraondo, Pedro; Grenier, Emmanuel; Ribba, Benjamin; Troconiz, Iñaki F
Small non-coding RNAs constitute an important class of gene expression regulators that control different biological processes in most eukaryotes. In plants, several small RNA (sRNA) silencing pathways have evolved to produce a wide range of small RNAs with specialized functions. Evidence for the diverse mode of action of the small RNA pathways has been highlighted during plant–microbe interactions. Host sRNAs and small RNA silencing pathways have been recognized as essential components of plant immunity. One way plants respond and defend against pathogen infections is through the small RNA silencing immune system. To deal with plant defense responses, pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to avoid and counterattack this defense strategy. The relevance of the small RNA-mediated plant defense responses during viral infections has been well-established. Recent evidence points out its importance also during plant–bacteria interactions. Herein, this review discusses recent findings, similarities and differences about the small RNA-mediated arms race between plants and these two groups of microbes, including the small RNA silencing pathway components that contribute to plant immune responses, the pathogen-responsive endogenous sRNAs and the pathogen-delivered effector proteins.
Pelaez, Pablo; Sanchez, Federico
Plant-pathogen interactions involve sophisticated action and counteraction strategies from both parties. Plants can recognize pathogen derived molecules, such as conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and effector proteins, and subsequently activate PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), respectively. However, pathogens can evade such recognitions and suppress host immunity with effectors, causing effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS). The differences among PTI, ETS, and ETI have not been completely understood. Toward a better understanding of PTI, ETS, and ETI, we systematically examined various defense-related phenotypes of Arabidopsis infected with different Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326 strains, using the virulence strain DG3 to induce ETS, the avirulence strain DG34 that expresses avrRpm1 (recognized by the resistance protein RPM1) to induce ETI, and HrcC- that lacks the type three secretion system to activate PTI. We found that plants infected with different strains displayed dynamic differences in the accumulation of the defense signaling molecule salicylic acid, expression of the defense marker gene PR1, cell death formation, and accumulation/localization of the reactive oxygen species, H2O2. The differences between PTI, ETS, and ETI are dependent on the doses of the strains used. These data support the quantitative nature of PTI, ETS, and ETI and they also reveal qualitative differences between PTI, ETS, and ETI. Interestingly, we observed the induction of large cells in the infected leaves, most obviously with HrcC- at later infection stages. The enlarged cells have increased DNA content, suggesting a possible activation of endoreplication. Consistent with strong induction of abnormal cell growth by HrcC-, we found that the PTI elicitor flg22 also activates abnormal cell growth, depending on a functional flg22-receptor FLS2. Thus, our study has revealed a comprehensive picture of dynamic changes of defense phenotypes and cell fate determination during Arabidopsis-P. syringae interactions, contributing to a better understanding of plant defense mechanisms.
Hamdoun, Safae; Liu, Zhe; Gill, Manroop; Yao, Nan; Lu, Hua
Homeland security was restored as the number one goal of U.S. national security strategy following 9/11. The evolution of U.S. national security strategy from the Cold War years into the post-9/11 years demonstrates a historical reliance on three key elem...
DNA vaccines have frequently been associated with poor efficacy in large animals. In the present study, one administration of an inactivated marker vaccine to cattle considerably boosted both humoral and cellular arms of the immune response primed with Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) DNA vaccines encoding glycoprotein D (gD) or gC+gD. Calves vaccinated according to the DNA prime-inactivated boost also showed significantly enhanced virological protection as compared to controls. The 4-logarithms reduction of virus shedding observed in primed-boosted animals was comparable to the one previously reported in calves immunized twice with marker vaccines. Intradermal immunization of cattle with DNA vaccines promoted a Th2-biased immune response but also primed a cellular component that was further boosted by the inactivated vaccine. Individual IgG2 titers of vaccinated calves were significantly correlated to IFN-gamma production. The immunization protocol described in the present study demonstrates the complementarity between DNA and conventional marker vaccines. PMID:16024138
Toussaint, J F; Letellier, C; Paquet, D; Dispas, M; Kerkhofs, P
This interactive unit demonstrates the immune system's defense mechanisms. Users will defend the human body against an infection using a "team" of white blood cells called granulocytes. The white blood cells will be used to destroy the bacteria via a fun interactive game. In the "Information Terminal" section of the interactive unit, students can read more about the immune system and its cells as well as the Nobel Prize awarded for the discovery of the phagocyte cell.
Soft rot pectobacteria are broad host range enterobacterial pathogens that cause disease on a variety of plant species including the major crop potato. Pectobacteria are aggressive necrotrophs that harbor a large arsenal of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes as their primary virulence determinants. These enzymes together with additional virulence factors are employed to macerate the host tissue and promote host cell death to provide nutrients for the pathogens. In contrast to (hemi)biotrophs such as Pseudomonas, type III secretion systems (T3SS) and T3 effectors do not appear central to pathogenesis of pectobacteria. Indeed, recent genomic analysis of several Pectobacterium species including the emerging pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae has shown that many strains lack the entire T3SS as well as the T3 effectors. Instead, this analysis has indicated the presence of novel virulence determinants. Resistance to broad host range pectobacteria is complex and does not appear to involve single resistance genes. Instead, activation of plant innate immunity systems including both SA (salicylic acid) and JA (jasmonic acid)/ET (ethylene)-mediated defenses appears to play a central role in attenuation of Pectobacterium virulence. These defenses are triggered by detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or recognition of modified-self such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and result in enhancement of basal immunity (PAMP/DAMP-triggered immunity or pattern-triggered immunity, PTI). In particular plant cell wall fragments released by the action of the degradative enzymes secreted by pectobacteria are major players in enhanced immunity toward these pathogens. Most notably bacterial pectin-degrading enzymes release oligogalacturonide (OG) fragments recognized as DAMPs activating innate immune responses. Recent progress in understanding OG recognition and signaling allows novel genetic screens for OG-insensitive mutants and will provide new insights into plant defense strategies against necrotrophs such as pectobacteria.
Davidsson, Par R.; Kariola, Tarja; Niemi, Outi; Palva, E. T.
Antimicrobial peptides are diverse and evolutionarily ancient molecules produced by all living organisms. Peptides belonging\\u000a to the cathelicidin and defensin gene families exhibit an immune strategy as they defend against infection by inhibiting microbial\\u000a survival, and modify hosts through triggering tissue-specific defense and repair events. A variety of processes have evolved\\u000a in microbes to evade the action of antimicrobial peptides,
Richard L. Gallo; Victor Nizet
This is a study of strategy implementation rather than strategy formulation. This paper will describe factors leading to strategic changes within the Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS) since its inception in 1991. It will discuss the context in...
R. N. Freckleton
BACKGROUND: Members of the genus Nocardia are ubiquitous environmental saprophytes capable to cause human pulmonary, disseminated and cutaneous nocardiosis or bovine mastitis. Innate immunity appears to play an important role in early defense against Nocardia species. To elucidate the contribution of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in innate defense against Nocardia, the activity of human ?-defensins human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) 1-3, human
Siegbert Rieg; Benjamin Meier; Eva Fähnrich; Anja Huth; Dirk Wagner; Winfried V Kern; Hubert Kalbacher
Evidence-based reviews of published literature can be subject to several biases. Grey literature, however, can be of poor quality and expensive to access. Effective search strategies also vary by topic and are rarely known in advance. This paper complements a systematic review of the published literature on the costs and effects of expanding immunization services in developing countries. The quality of data on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strategies to increase immunization coverage is shown to be similar across literatures, but the quality of information on costing is much lower in the grey literature. After excluding poorer quality studies from this review we found the quantity of available evidence almost doubled, particularly for more complex health-system interventions and cost or cost-effectiveness analyses. Interventions in the grey literature are more up to date and cover a different geographical spread. Consequently the conclusions of the published and grey literatures differ, although the number of papers is still too low to account for differences across types of interventions. We recommend that in future researchers consider using non-English keywords in their searches.
Batt, Katherine; Fox-Rushby, J. A.; Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela
To combat infection, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster relies on multiple innate defense reactions, many of which are shared with higher organisms. These reactions include the use of physical bar- riers together with local and systemic immune responses. First, ep- ithelia, such as those beneath the cuticle, in the alimentary tract, and in tracheae, act both as a physical barrier
Bruno Lemaitre; Jules Hoffmann
Defense, as a key factor of life, shares the biological tendencies of simplicity and energy saving. We propose that, like the mind, defense tends to rely on shortcuts via immune memes. Also, response repetition may induce the formation of virtual 'modules' [toolkits] to simplify and perfect performance. Engaged modules may expand by proliferating or by capturing immune components from the 'dormant' and even perhaps from active ones. With regard to recovery and/or survival, complexity of the integrated defense system (IDS) (1) requires to be inside of what we call the 'functional window'. In contrast to the physiological and common disease repair, energy is squandered when IDS perceives real danger. Our concern is the uncertain transition to conditions that do not fit into the IDS routine and, even worse, that are outside the functional window where the system is lacking. PMID:11000052
Rewald, E; Francischetti, M M
Acute virus infection induces a cell-intrinsic innate immune response comprising our first line of immunity to limit virus replication and spread, but viruses have developed strategies to overcome these defenses. HIV-1 is a major public health problem; however, the virus-host interactions that regulate innate immune defenses against HIV-1 are not fully defined. We have recently identified the viral protein Vpu to be a key determinant responsible for HIV-1 targeting and degradation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a central transcription factor driving host cell innate immunity. IRF3 plays a major role in pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) signaling of innate immunity to drive the expression of type I interferon (IFN) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including a variety of HIV restriction factors, that serve to limit viral replication directly and/or program adaptive immunity. Here we interrogate the cellular responses to target cell infection with Vpu-deficient HIV-1 strains. Remarkably, in the absence of Vpu, HIV-1 triggers a potent intracellular innate immune response that suppresses infection. Thus, HIV-1 can be recognized by PRRs within the host cell to trigger an innate immune response, and this response is unmasked only in the absence of Vpu. Vpu modulation of IRF3 therefore prevents virus induction of specific innate defense programs that could otherwise limit infection. These observations show that HIV-1 can indeed be recognized as a pathogen in infected cells and provide a novel and effective platform for defining the native innate immune programs of target cells of HIV-1 infection.
Doehle, Brian P.; Chang, Kristina; Fleming, Lamar; McNevin, John; Hladik, Florian; McElrath, M. Juliana
Although socioecological theory predicts that differences in male and female parental investment will be reflected in their behavior during intergroup encounters, the strategies actually pursued by adults of each sex during intergroup encounters remain poorly known for most primate species. Over an 11-month period, I examined the functions of adult male and female participation in intergroup aggression in five groups
Peter J. Fashing
Preterm infants are especially susceptible to late-onset sepsis that is often due to Gram-positive bacterial infections resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Herein, we will describe neonatal innate immunity to Staphylococcus spp. comparing differences between preterm and full-term newborns with adults. Newborn innate immunity is distinct demonstrating diminished skin integrity, impaired Th1-polarizing responses, low complement levels, and diminished expression of plasma antimicrobial proteins and peptides, especially in preterm newborns. Characterization of distinct aspects of the neonatal immune response is defining novel approaches to enhance host defense to prevent and/or treat staphylococcal infection in this vulnerable population.
Power Coombs, Melanie R.; Kronforst, Kenny; Levy, Ofer
RNA interference (RNAi) is an ancient, natural process conserved among species from different kingdoms. RNAi is a transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism in which, double-stranded RNA or hairpin RNA is cleaved by an RNase III-type enzyme called Dicer into small interfering RNA duplex. This subsequently directs sequence-specific, homology dependent, Watson-Crick base-pairing post-transcriptional gene silencing by binding to its complementary RNA and initiating its elimination through degradation or by persuading translational inhibition. In plants, worms, and insects, RNAi is the main and strong antiviral defense mechanism. It is clear that RNAi silencing, contributes in restriction of viral infection in vertebrates. In a short period, RNAi has progressed to become a significant experimental tool for the analysis of gene function and target validation in mammalian systems. In addition, RNA silencing has then been found to be involved in translational repression, transcriptional inhibition, and DNA degradation. RNAi machinery required for robust RNAi-mediated antiviral response are conserved throughout evolution in mammals and plays a crucial role in antiviral defense of invertebrates, but despite these important functions RNAi contribution to mammalian antiviral innate immune defense has been underestimated and disputed. In this article, we review the literature concerning the roles of RNAi as components of innate immune system in mammals and how, the RNAi is currently one of the most hopeful new advances toward disease therapy. This review highlights the potential of RNAi as a therapeutic strategy for viral infection and gene regulation to modulate host immune response to viral infection. PMID:25022288
Sidahmed, Abubaker; Abdalla, Shaza; Mahmud, Salahedin; Wilkie, Bruce
Insects have developed an efficient host defense against microorganisms, which involves humoral and cellular mechanisms. Numerous data highlight similarities between defense responses of insects and innate immunity of mammals. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a favorable model system for the analysis of the first line defense against microorganisms. Taking advantages of improvements in mass spectrometry (MS), two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and bioinformatics, differential analyses of blood content (hemolymph) from immune-challenged versus control Drosophila were performed. Two strategies were developed: (i) peptidomic analyses through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS and high performance liquid chromatography for molecules below 15 kDa, and (ii) proteomic studies based on 2D gel electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF fingerprinting and database searches, for compounds of greater molecular masses. The peptidomic strategy led to the detection of a large number of peptides induced in the hemolymph of challenged flies as compared to controls. Of these, 28 were characterized, amongst which were antimicrobial peptides. The 2D gel electrophoresis strategy led to the detection of 70 spots differentially regulated by at least fivefold after microbial infection. This approach yielded the identity of a series of proteins that were related to the Drosophila immune response, such as proteases, protease inhibitors, prophenoloxydase-activating enzymes, serpins and a Gram-negative binding protein-like protein. This strategy also brought to light new candidates with a potential function in the immune response (odorant-binding protein, peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase and transferrin). Interestingly, several molecules resulting from the cleavage of proteins were detected after a fungal infection. Together, peptidomic and proteomic analyses represent new tools to characterize molecules involved in the innate immune reactions of Drosophila. PMID:15556270
Levy, Francine; Rabel, David; Charlet, Maurice; Bulet, Philippe; Hoffmann, Jules A; Ehret-Sabatier, Laurence
Strategis is a web site developed by Industry Canada to provide business information resources to Canadian businesses. Resources available include a searchable database of Canadian companies, business information for each sector, a list of business support services, and a guide to business laws and regulation. The International Business Information Network offers information about business opportunities abroad; Trade Data Online provides Canadian and US trade data. A collection of research publications by Industry Canada and monthly economic indicators on the economy are additional economic resources found at this site. Users can view this site in French or English.
The Defense Telecommunications Service, Washington, provides telecommunications equipment, facilities, and services, including support for command, control, communications, and intelligence organizations for the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Militar...
The 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR) seeks to adapt, reshape, and rebalance our military to prepare for the strategic challenges and opportunities we face in the years ahead. Building on the 2012 Defense Strategic Guidance, the QDR prioritizes three ...
Innate immunity that protects against pathogens in the tissues and circulation is the first line of defense in the immune reaction, where macrophages have a critical role in directing the fate of the infection. We recently demonstrated that kefir modulates the immune response in mice, increasing the number of IgA+ cells in the intestinal and bronchial mucosa and the phagocytic
Gabriel Vinderola; Gabriela Perdigon; Jairo Duarte; Deepa Thangavel; Edward Farnworth; Chantal Matar
A development history and development status evaluation is presented for weapons technologies capable of serving as defenses against nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles. The decisive turning-point in this history was the March 23, 1983 announcement by President Reagan of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Due to President Reagan's emphasis on population protection, 'global' defense systems have tended to dominate SDI design efforts.
Previous studies with adults have found that males and females differ in their choice of defense mechanisms in a manner consistent with Erikson's theory. Males use defenses that externalize the conflict, whereas females are more likely to deal with conflict internally. The present study found that a tendency toward such differentiation in defense choice is present in young adolescents (M
Traces Japan's attitude toward and preparation for national defense from the 1930s to 1978. Topics discussed include Japan's indifference to defense since World War II, America's responsibility to defend Japan in case of military attack, the possibility of a Soviet attack on Japan, and public opinion about defense in Japan. Journal availability:…
This paper reviews selected aspects of the Air Defense Initiative (ADI) program. Objectives were to provide information on whether the Department of Defense (DOD) has refocused the ADI program on the basis of the changed Soviet threat and compare the ADI program's funding and schedule with those of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), a companion program.
The intestinal immune system and the epithelium are the first line of defense in the gut. Constantly exposed to microorganisms from the environment, the gut has complex defense mechanisms to prevent infections, as well as regulatory pathways to tolerate commensal bacteria and food antigens. Intestinal pathogens have developed strategies to regulate intestinal immunity and inflammation in order to establish or prolong infection. The organisms that employ a type III secretion system use a molecular syringe to deliver effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells. These effectors target the host cell cytoskeleton, cell organelles and signaling pathways. This review addresses the multiple mechanisms by which the type III secretion system targets the intestinal immune response, with a special focus on pathogenic E. coli.
Protein antigens have drawn a lot of attention from investigators working on tuberculosis vaccines. These proteins can be used to improve the immunogenicity of the new generation BCG vaccines or even replace them completely. Recombinant technology is used to insure the production of pure mycobacterial antigens in high quantities. Mycolyl transferase 85B (Ag85B) is a potent, mycobacterial antigen that significantly stimulates immune responses. Since Ag85B is an apolar protein, production of the water-soluble antigen is of interest. In this work, we report a systematic optimization strategy concerning cloning systems and purification methods, aiming at increasing the yield of recombinant Ag85B. Our optimized method resulted in a yield of 8 mg of recombinant Ag85B from 1 liter of induced culture (400 ?g/ml) by using pET32a(+), Escherichia coli Rosseta-gami™(DE3) pLysS and a Ni-NTA agarose-based procedure and on-column re-solubilization. The purified recombinant Ag85B showed strong immunostimulating properties by inducing high levels of TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-12, and IgG2a in immunized mice, therefore it can effectively be applied in TB vaccine researches. PMID:24619477
Aghababa, Haniyeh; Mohabati Mobarez, Ashraf; Khoramabadi, Nima; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Tebianian, Majid; Nejati, Mehdi
Virulence of complex pathogens in mammals is generally determined by multiple components of the pathogen interacting with the functional complexity and multiple layering of the mammalian immune system. It is most unusual for the resistance of a mammalian host to be overcome by the defeat of a single defence mechanism. In this study we uncover and analyse just such a case at the molecular level, involving the widespread intracellular protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii and one of its most important natural hosts, the house mouse (Mus musculus). Natural polymorphism in virulence of Eurasian T. gondii strains for mice has been correlated in genetic screens with the expression of polymorphic rhoptry kinases (ROP kinases) secreted into the host cell during infection. We show that the molecular targets of the virulent allelic form of ROP18 kinase are members of a family of cellular GTPases, the interferon-inducible IRG (immunity-related GTPase) proteins, known from earlier work to be essential resistance factors in mice against avirulent strains of T. gondii. Virulent T. gondii strain ROP18 kinase phosphorylates several mouse IRG proteins. We show that the parasite kinase phosphorylates host Irga6 at two threonines in the nucleotide-binding domain, biochemically inactivating the GTPase and inhibiting its accumulation and action at the T. gondii parasitophorous vacuole membrane. Our analysis identifies the conformationally active switch I region of the GTP-binding site as an Achilles' heel of the IRG protein pathogen-resistance mechanism. The polymorphism of ROP18 in natural T. gondii populations indicates the existence of a dynamic, rapidly evolving ecological relationship between parasite virulence factors and host resistance factors. This system should be unusually fruitful for analysis at both ecological and molecular levels since both T. gondii and the mouse are widespread and abundant in the wild and are well-established model species with excellent analytical tools available.
Steinfeldt, Tobias; Konen-Waisman, Stephanie; Tong, Lan; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Sibley, L. David; Hunn, Julia P.; Howard, Jonathan C.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can establish life-long airways chronic infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with pathogenic variants distinguished from initially acquired strain. Here, we analysed chemical and biological activity of P. aeruginosa Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) in clonal strains, including mucoid and non-mucoid phenotypes, isolated during a period of up to 7.5 years from a CF patient. Chemical structure by MS spectrometry defined lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lipid A and peptidoglycan (PGN) muropeptides with specific structural modifications temporally associated with CF lung infection. Gene sequence analysis revealed novel mutation in pagL, which supported lipid A changes. Both LPS and PGN had different potencies when activating host innate immunity via binding TLR4 and Nod1. Significantly higher NF-kB activation, IL-8 expression and production were detected in HEK293hTLR4/MD2-CD14 and HEK293hNod1 after stimulation with LPS and PGN respectively, purified from early P. aeruginosa strain as compared to late strains. Similar results were obtained in macrophages-like cells THP-1, epithelial cells of CF origin IB3-1 and their isogenic cells C38, corrected by insertion of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). In murine model, altered LPS structure of P. aeruginosa late strains induces lower leukocyte recruitment in bronchoalveolar lavage and MIP-2, KC and IL-1? cytokine levels in lung homogenates when compared with early strain. Histopathological analysis of lung tissue sections confirmed differences between LPS from early and late P. aeruginosa. Finally, in this study for the first time we unveil how P. aeruginosa has evolved the capacity to evade immune system detection, thus promoting survival and establishing favourable conditions for chronic persistence. Our findings provide relevant information with respect to chronic infections in CF.
Ierano, Teresa; Lore, Nicola Ivan; Bianconi, Irene; Silipo, Alba; Cozzolino, Flora; Lanzetta, Rosa; Molinaro, Antonio; Bernardini, Maria Lina; Bragonzi, Alessandra
Complete patient health information that is available where and when it is needed is essential to providers and patients and improves healthcare quality and patient safety. VA and DoD have built on their previous experience in patient data exchange to establish data standards and terminology services to enable real-time bi-directional computable (i.e., encoded) data exchange and achieve semantic interoperability in compliance with recommended national standards and the eGov initiative. The project uses RxNorm, UMLS, and SNOMED CT terminology standards to mediate codified pharmacy and allergy data with greater than 92 and 60 percent success rates respectively. Implementation of the project has been well received by users and is being expanded to multiple joint care sites. Stable and mature standards, mediation strategies, and a close relationship between healthcare institutions and Standards Development Organizations are recommended to achieve and maintain semantic interoperability in a clinical setting.
Bouhaddou, Omar; Warnekar, Pradnya; Parrish, Fola; Do, Nhan; Mandel, Jack; Kilbourne, John; Lincoln, Michael J.
Aberrant signaling pathways are a hallmark of cancer. A variety of strategies for inhibiting signaling pathways have been\\u000a developed, but monoclonal antibodies against receptor tyrosine kinases have been among the most successful. A challenge for\\u000a these therapies is therapeutic unresponsiveness and acquired resistance due to mutations in the receptors, upregulation of\\u000a alternate growth and survival pathways, or inadequate function of
Timothy M. Clay; Takuya Osada; Zachary C. Hartman; Amy Hobeika; Gayathri Devi; Michael A. Morse; H. Kim Lyerly
Plant defense traits can be shaped by evolutionary and physiological constraints, as well as local ecological selection. We assessed the relative importance of these factors in shaping defense trait variation across the wild tomato clade (a group of 13 closely related species) using an herbivore bioassay (Manduca sexta). With phylogenetic comparative methods, we evaluated patterns of constitutive and induced defense variation, and the extent of coupling between alternative defense strategies. We detected substantial variation among species and found no evidence for phylogenetic conservatism among defensive traits, unlike for two other ecologically relevant (reproductive) traits. In addition, constitutive and induced defense syndromes were unassociated. These data indicate that, in this group, there is no evidence for either phylogenetic conservatism of shared consumer guilds that shape defense traits, or for constraints on defense trait evolution, including mechanistic trade-offs between defense strategies. Our data suggest that defense trait variation in this clade instead results from rapid responses to local ecological conditions. PMID:25039227
Haak, David C; Ballenger, Blake A; Moyle, Leonie C
The response of the preterm and newborn lung to airborne pathogens, particles, and other insults is initially dependent on innate immune responses since adaptive responses may not fully mature and require weeks for sufficient responses to antigenic stimuli. Foreign material and microbial agents trigger soluble, cell surface, and cytoplasmic receptors that activate signaling cascades that invoke release of surfactant proteins, defensins, interferons, lactoferrin, oxidative products, and other innate immune substances that have antimicrobial activity, which can also influence adaptive responses. For viral infections such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the pulmonary innate immune responses has an essential role in defense as there are no fully effective vaccines or therapies for RSV infections of humans and reinfections are common. Understanding the innate immune response by the preterm and newborn lung may lead to preventive strategies and more effective therapeutic regimens. PMID:23528938
Derscheid, R J; Ackermann, M R
Plants generate effective responses to infection by recognizing both conserved and variable pathogen-encoded molecules. Pathogens deploy virulence effector proteins into host cells, where they interact physically with host proteins to modulate defense. We generated a plant-pathogen immune system protein interaction network using effectors from two pathogens spanning the eukaryote-eubacteria divergence, three classes of Arabidopsis immune system proteins and ~8,000 other Arabidopsis proteins. We noted convergence of effectors onto highly interconnected host proteins, and indirect, rather than direct, connections between effectors and plant immune receptors. We demonstrated plant immune system functions for 15 of 17 tested host proteins that interact with effectors from both pathogens. Thus, pathogens from different kingdoms deploy independently evolved virulence proteins that interact with a limited set of highly connected cellular hubs to facilitate their diverse life cycle strategies.
Mukhtar, M. Shahid; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Dreze, Matija; Epple, Petra; Steinbrenner, Jens; Moore, Jonathan; Tasan, Murat; Galli, Mary; Hao, Tong; Nishimura, Marc T.; Pevzner, Samuel J.; Donovan, Susan E.; Ghamsari, Lila; Santhanam, Balaji; Romero, Viviana; Poulin, Matthew M.; Gebreab, Fana; Gutierrez, Bryan J.; Tam, Stanley; Monachello, Dario; Boxem, Mike; Harbort, Christopher J.; McDonald, Nathan; Gai, Lantian; Chen, Huaming; He, Yijian; Vandenhaute, Jean; Roth, Frederick P.; Hill, David E.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Vidal, Marc; Beynon, Jim; Braun, Pascal; Dangl, Jeffery L.
...the Secretary of Defense. The members are eminent authorities in the fields of defense, management, leadership, academia, national military strategy or joint planning at all levels of war, joint doctrine, joint command and control, or...
Populations of Drosophila melanogaster face significant mortality risks from parasitoid wasps that use species-specific strategies to locate and survive in hosts. We tested the hypothesis that parasitoids with different strategies select for alternative host defense characteristics and in doing so contribute to the maintenance of fitness variation and produce trade-offs among traits. We characterized defense traits of Drosophila when exposed to parasitoids with different host searching behaviors (Aphaereta sp. and Leptopilina boulardi). We used host larvae with different natural alleles of the gene Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc), a gene controlling the production of dopamine and known to influence the immune response against parasitoids. Previous population genetic analyses indicate that our focal alleles are maintained by balancing selection. Genotypes exhibited a trade-off between the immune response against Aphaereta sp. and the ability to avoid parasitism by L. boulardi. We also identified a trade off between the ability to avoid parasitism by L. boulardi and larval competitive ability as indicated by differences in foraging and feeding behavior. Genotypes differed in dopamine levels potentially explaining variation in these traits. Our results highlight the potential role of parasitoid biodiversity on host fitness variation and implicate Ddc as an antagonistic pleiotropic locus influencing larval fitness traits.
Hodges, Theresa K.; Laskowsk, Kate L.; Squadrito, Giuseppe L.; Luca, Maria De; Leips, Jeff
This thesis describes the treatment of metastatic melanoma (MM) and non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from an immunotherapeutic approach. The purpose of the first part of the thesis was to assess how treatment with Temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy affects the immune system in patients with metastatic MM. Our results showed that the number of T lymphocytes was significantly reduced after 3 treatment cycles. Furthermore, the induced lymphopenia was positive correlated to achievement of clinical benefit. We demonstrated that the proportion of CD4+ and Treg lymphocytes decreased whereas the CD8+ T cells increased. In particular, we demonstrated that mature CD8+ T cells increased during treatment. Analyses of peripheral blood before and after treatment showed that T cell responses against common viral epitopes were conserved despite chemotherapy. Surprisingly, we found a significant increase in T cell responses against well-known MM tumour specific antigens. Overall, we have verified that TMZ in addition to being an alkylating and cytotoxic chemotherapy, also possess immune modulatory effect in MM patients treated with standard dosage of TMZ. In the second part of the thesis we examined how treatment with Interferon alfa-2b and Interleukin 2 (IFN?/IL2) affects the immune system. We demonstrated a significant induced lymphocytosis during treatment. Furthermore, we showed that the percentage increase in lymphocytes was positively correlated to clinical outcome. Moreover, we have seen that IFN?/IL2 leads to significant increase in NK and Treg cells in both patients with and without clincal effect. In general, T cell responses against common viral epitopes and well-known melanoma tumour specific antigens were low. Furthermore, the study confirmed that elevated LDH is negatively correlated with both treatment response and median overall survival. Overall, we have characterized changes of immune cells and correlated them with clinical efficacy during the couse of IFN?/IL2 used in standard dosage. In the third part we investigated if vaccination with a peptide derived from IDO was feasible in patients with metastatic NSCLC. This "First in Man" trial was safe and showed modest side effects only. Since IDO was expressed in NSCLC tissues it was found to be a relevant target. One patient achieved significant regression of liver metastases (confirmed partial response) and another 6/15 patients achieved prolonged disease stabilization. Furthermore, median overall survival was 25.9 months demonstrating a better survival in vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated comparable NSCLC patients. The presence of IDO specific CD8+ T cells were detected by IFNy Elispot. In patients with clinical effect of the vaccine IDO-specific CD8+ T cells at pre-treatment was significanctly increased. Moreover, low-frequent IDO positive tetramer CD8+ T cells were detected and led to effective killing of an IDO+ HLA-A2 positive cancer cell line (SW480) in 1 patient. Moreover, flow cytometry was performed and in general no significant changes in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were seen, although patients with clinical response showed a trend towards increased mature CD8+ T cells during treatment. In addition, we found lower levels of Tregs as well as an increased level of NK cells after 6 vaccinations. Elevated Kyn/Trp ratio is suggested to mirror IDO activity. In 8/11 patients the level after the 6th vaccine was stable compared to baseline. No differences between patients with clinical benefit (4/5) and patients with progressive disease (4/6) were demonstrated. Two patients had an increase in Kyn/Trp ration meanwhile demonstrating a high expression of IDO. In 2 patients with clinical response long-term stabilization of Kyn/Trp was observed. Overall, the vaccine was well tolerated with no adverse toxicity. Median overall survival was 25.9 months with long term disease stabilization achieved in 47% of the treated patients. Based on the promising clinical results achieved in the vaccine trial for NSCLC patients, we launched a new clinical trial for MM patients (on
Iversen, Trine Zeeberg
Healthy individuals initiate an immediate immune response to microbes by using a set of germline-encoded receptors that recognize common molecular patterns found on the surface of pathogens that are distinct from self-antigens. This innate immune response is the first line of defense against microorganisms in vertebrates, and constitutes the only immune response in plants and invertebrates. The innate immune system
Clemens Esche; Cristiana Stellato; Lisa A. Beck
Parasites do not always harm their hosts because the immune system keeps an infection at bay. Ironically, the cost of using immune defenses could itself reduce host fitness. This indirect cost of parasitism is often not visible because of compensatory resource intake. Here, workers of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, were challenged with lipopolysaccharides and micro-latex beads to induce their immune
Yannick Moret; Paul Schmid-Hempel
Discusses the defense mechanisms and immune reaction found in invertebrates, and examines the wealth of related biological problems that need study and many of the leads that have recently been developed. (JR)
Bang, Frederik B.
Infections due to mucormycetes have a poor outcome, in particular in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In order to evaluate the cellular host response against mucormycetes, we enriched and cultivated anti-Rhizopus oryzae T cells from healthy individuals. These cells were characterized as memory/effector T(H)1 cells, they proliferated upon restimulation, they exhibited cross-reactivity to some but not all Mucorales species tested, and they increased the activity of phagocytes. Compared with the original cell fraction, the generated cells exhibited significant lower alloreactivity. Our data may form the basis for further investigations, which may ultimately lead to adoptive immunotherapeutic strategies for allogeneic HSCT recipients suffering from mucormycosis. PMID:22529315
Schmidt, Stanislaw; Tramsen, Lars; Perkhofer, Susanne; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Röger, Frauke; Schubert, Ralf; Lehrnbecher, Thomas
This presentation of viewgraphs describes the global defense marketplace; topics includes industrial consolidation, industrial landscape, European missile consolidation, challenges in government, fighter aircraft market domination, and international sales...
For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of "citizen soldiers," with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.
Seiders, Barbara AB; Rybka, Anthony J.
Although a variety of virus species can infect amphibians, diseases caused by ranaviruses ([RVs]; Iridoviridae) have become prominent, and are a major concern for biodiversity, agriculture and international trade. The relatively recent and rapid increase in prevalence of RV infections, the wide range of host species infected by RVs, the variability in host resistance among population of the same species and among different developmental stages, all suggest an important involvement of the amphibian immune system. Nevertheless, the roles of the immune system in the etiology of viral diseases in amphibians are still poorly investigated. We review here the current knowledge of antiviral immunity in amphibians, focusing on model species such as the frog Xenopus and the salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), and on recent progress in generating tools to better understand how host immune defenses control RV infections, pathogenicity, and transmission.
Chen, Guangchun; Robert, Jacques
Autophagy adjusts cellular biomass and function in response to diverse stimuli, including infection. Autophagy plays specific roles in shaping immune system development, fueling host innate and adaptive immune responses, and directly controlling intracellular microbes as a cell-autonomous innate defense. As an evolutionary counterpoint, intracellular pathogens have evolved to block autophagic microbicidal defense and subvert host autophagic responses for their survival or growth. The ability of eukaryotic pathogens to deploy their own autophagic machinery may also contribute to microbial pathogenesis. Thus, a complex interplay between autophagy and microbial adaptations against autophagy governs the net outcome of host-microbe encounters.
Deretic, Vojo; Levine, Beth
Contents include -- Foundations of Deterrence; A Model for Stability; Analysis of SDI/Stability; Related Issues; Treatment of Implementation Factors; Historical Evolution and Trends; The Strategic Choices and Flexible Response; The Planners' Perspective; The Impact of Strategic Defense on a Strategy of Flexible Response; Synthesis.
Approaching psychological defense mechanisms from the perspective of an evolved strategy, it is proposed that there are two basic templates—dissociation and cognitive distortions. Frequently conceived of as pathological, these psychological phenomena actually constitute overlapping spectrums with milder manifestations being common and highly functional, and more severe variants less common and typically dysfunctional. Dissociation provides the capacity to adaptively detach from
It is less than five years since the Berlin Wall was breached and less than three since the Soviet Union collapsed. Thus no one should be surprised that the United States has yet to formulate a coherent defense strategy for itself, let alone organize a fr...
Skunk Defensive Secretion is a interesting site maintained by William F. Wood from the Department of Chemistry at Humboldt State University. He explains how to remove skunk odor, the chemistry of skunk spray, the history of skunk defensive secretion research, skunk pictures, and even how to happily coexist with skunks. This is a fun, informative, and potentially olfactory friendly site.
Wood, William F.
The present status of the Soviet program suggests several observations that have a bearing on predicting the future of the Soviet strategic defense program and its implications for the US: 1. The Soviet Union appears to have a continuing interest in ABM defenses, although ASATs seem to be a much lower priority. 2. The Soviet technology fielded to date was
This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…
Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.
A small but increasingly visible number of battered women eventually kill their batterers. While most of these women plead self-defense, they are generally convicted of murder or manslaughter because their homicidal acts rarely fit the narrow legal definition of self-defense. This article (a) explains who battered women are and why they kill; (b) suggests that many, perhaps most, battered women
Charles Patrick Ewing
Innate immune response is the first line of antiviral defense resulting, in most cases, in pathogen clearance with minimal clinical consequences. Viruses have developed diverse strategies to subvert host defense mechanisms and increase their survival. In the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) as a model, we previously reported that accessory gene 7 counteracts the host antiviral response by associating with the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c). In the present work, the effect of the absence of gene 7 on the host cell, during infection, was further analyzed by transcriptomic analysis. The pattern of gene expression of cells infected with a recombinant mutant TGEV, lacking gene 7 expression (rTGEV-?7), was compared to that of cells infected with the parental virus (rTGEV-wt). Genes involved in the immune response, the interferon response, and inflammation were upregulated during TGEV infection in the absence of gene 7. An exacerbated innate immune response during infection with rTGEV-?7 virus was observed both in vitro and in vivo. An increase in macrophage recruitment and activation in lung tissues infected with rTGEV-?7 virus was observed compared to cells infected with the parental virus. In summary, the absence of protein 7 both in vitro and in vivo led to increased proinflammatory responses and acute tissue damage after infection. In a porcine animal model, which is immunologically similar to humans, we present a novel example of how viral proteins counteract host antiviral pathways to determine the infection outcome and pathogenesis.
Cruz, Jazmina L. G.; Becares, Martina; Sola, Isabel; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Zuniga, Sonia
Considers the impact of defensive marketing on a firm’s competitive ability in the marketplace. Examines telecommunications as an important means through which many companies are creating several competitive advantages for themselves through a defensive marketing strategy. Defines defensive marketing in the context of its counterpart, offensive marketing. Discusses several competitive advantages resulting from defensive marketing and its use of telecommunications
D. Eric Boyd
According to the traditional view, atherosclerosis results from a passive buildup of cholesterol in the artery wall. Yet, burgeoning evidence implicates inflammation and immune effector mechanisms in the pathogenesis of this disease. Both innate and adaptive immunity operate during atherogenesis and link many traditional risk factors to altered arterial functions. Inflammatory pathways have become targets in the quest for novel preventive and therapeutic strategies against cardiovascular disease, a growing contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Here we review current experimental and clinical knowledge of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis through an immunological lens and how host defense mechanisms essential for survival of the species actually contribute to this chronic disease but also present new opportunities for its mitigation.
Libby, Peter; Lichtman, Andrew H.; Hansson, Goran K.
Plants are major targets of microbes seeking a source of nutrition. A complex array of interactions between plants and microbes has evolved that re- flects both the nutrient acquisition strategies of mi- crobes and defense strategies of plants. Part of plant defense strategy includes an active offense against invading microbes using an array of antimicrobial gene products. Within the context
Paola Veronese; Maria T. Ruiz; Maria A. Coca; Agustin Hernandez-Lopez; Hyeseung Lee; Barbara Damsz; Paul M. Hasegawa; Ray A. Bressan; Meena L. Narasimhan
At the same time that the Department of Defense (DoD) has leveraged Network Centric Warfare concepts to increase the operational effectiveness of U.S. military forces and to gain decision superiority over adversaries, the DoD has become increasingly depen...
J. D. Cloud
This chapter will examine the role of vitamin D in the innate immune system as a mediator of human host defense mechanisms\\u000a microbial disease, focusing on tuberculosis. The first section will examine tuberculosis and the innate immune response to\\u000a the intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.\\u000a tuberculosis), the causative agent of tuberculosis. This is followed by a discussion of the known
Philip Liu; Martin Hewison; John S. Adams
Two Gram-negative insect pathogens, Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens, produce rhabduscin, an amidoglycosyl- and vinyl-isonitrile-functionalized tyrosine derivative. Heterologous expression of the rhabduscin pathway in Escherichia coli, precursor-directed biosynthesis of rhabduscin analogs, biochemical assays, and visualization using both stimulated Raman scattering and confocal fluorescence microscopy established rhabduscin’s role as a potent nanomolar-level inhibitor of phenoloxidase, a key component of the insect’s innate immune system, as well as rhabduscin’s localization at the bacterial cell surface. Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy visualized rhabduscin at the periphery of wild-type X. nematophila cells and E. coli cells heterologously expressing the rhabduscin pathway. Precursor-directed biosynthesis created rhabduscin mimics in X. nematophila pathway mutants that could be accessed at the bacterial cell surface by an extracellular bioorthogonal probe, as judged by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Biochemical assays using both wild-type and mutant X. nematophila cells showed that rhabduscin was necessary and sufficient for potent inhibition (low nM) of phenoloxidases, the enzymes responsible for producing melanin (the hard black polymer insects generate to seal off microbial pathogens). These observations suggest a model in which rhabduscin’s physical association at the bacterial cell surface provides a highly effective inhibitor concentration directly at the site of phenoloxidase contact. This class of molecules is not limited to insect pathogens, as the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae also encodes rhabduscin’s aglycone, and bacterial cell-coated immunosuppressants could be a general strategy to combat host defenses.
Crawford, Jason M.; Portmann, Cyril; Zhang, Xu; Roeffaers, Maarten B. J.; Clardy, Jon
Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production.
War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand
Aspergillus fumigatus is an important fungal pathogen of the immunocompromised host. Innate inflammatory and adaptive T cell responses contribute to defense against this pathogen. Toll-like receptors are involved in the activation of innate immune defenses against fungal spores and hyphae and contribute to the recruitment of inflammatory cells to sites of infection. T cell responses to A. fumigatus are rapid and robust, and their differentiation is influenced by the metabolic activity of spores. Ongoing investigations of immune responses to A. fumigatus are likely to provide opportunities to enhance defenses against this pathogen in the immunocompromised host. PMID:16399584
Rivera, Amariliz; Hohl, Tobias; Pamer, Eric G
Interleukin12 (IL12) and IL18 Are Important in Innate Defense against Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection in Mice but Are Not Required for the Development of Acquired Gamma Interferon-Mediated Protective Immunity
Using a combination of gene-targeted mice and neutralizing antibodies, we showed that interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18 are important in the innate control of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection but were not found to be critical, either singly or in combination, for the development of a protective gamma interferon- mediated immune response.
ALI M. HARANDI; BO SVENNERHOLM; JAN HOLMGREN; KRISTINA ERIKSSON
In this book the author addresses the new strategic realities - the Asian economic revolution, changing patterns of raw material dependency, development of a Soviet bluewater navy, and the decline of U.S. industrial capacity - and advances the importance of technology in maintaining a sufficient naval capacity.
J. F. Jr
Phishing attacks attempt to fraudulently solicit sensitive information from a user by masquerading as a known trustworthy agent. They commonly use spoofed emails in association with fake websites in order to coerce a user into revealing personal financial data. Phishing is now a serious problem with criminals adopting the well-developed and well-known techniques to exploit Internet users with sophisticated attacks.
Wireless sensor networks are built upon a shared medium that makes it easy for adversaries to conduct radio interference, or jamming, attacks that effectively cause a denial of service of either transmission or reception functionalities. These attacks can easily be accomplished by an adversary by either bypassing MAC-layer protocols or emitting a radio signal targeted at jamming a particular channel.
Wenyuan Xu; Ke Ma; Wade Trappe; Yanyong Zhang
Asteroids and comets that cross Earth's orbit pose a credible risk of impact, with potentially severe disturbances to Earth and society. Numerous risk mitigation strategies have been described, most involving dedicated missions to a threatening object. We propose an orbital planetary defense system capable of heating the surface of potentially hazardous objects to the vaporization point as a feasible approach to impact risk mitigation. We call the system DE-STAR for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation. DE-STAR is a modular phased array of kilowatt class lasers powered by photovoltaic's. Modular design allows for incremental development, test, and initial deployment, lowering cost, minimizing risk, and allowing for technological co-development, leading eventually to an orbiting structure that would be developed in stages with both technological and target milestones. The main objective of DE-STAR is to use the focused directed energy to raise the surface spot temperature to ~3,000K, allowing direct vaporization of all known substances. In the process of heating the surface ejecting evaporated material a large reaction force would alter the asteroid's orbit. The baseline system is a DE-STAR 3 or 4 (1-10km array) depending on the degree of protection desired. A DE-STAR 4 allows for asteroid engagement starting beyond 1AU with a spot temperature sufficient to completely evaporate up to 500-m diameter asteroids in one year. Small asteroids and comets can be diverted/evaporated with a DESTAR 2 (100m) while space debris is vaporized with a DE-STAR 1 (10m).
Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Bible, Johanna; Bublitz, Jesse; Arriola, Josh; Motta, Caio; Suen, Jon; Johansson, Isabella; Riley, Jordan; Sarvian, Nilou; Clayton-Warwick, Deborah; Wu, Jane; Milich, Andrew; Oleson, Mitch; Pryor, Mark; Krogen, Peter; Kangas, Miikka
Understanding fungal pathogenesis and host-pathogen immune interaction at various stages of infection is critical to examine strategies for bolstering antifungal immune defenses. Recombinant myeloid growth factors, especially granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and the protagonist T helper (Th) 1 cytokine, interferon-?, are most frequently used in patients with refractory invasive aspergillosis. These cytokines are given alone or in combination and have also been used together in neutropenic patients receiving donor granulocyte transfusions. Recently, a number of investigators have presented provoking data regarding auxiliary effect of conventional antifungal drugs on hosts’ immune response and pathogen’s susceptibility for antifungal immune defenses. Antifungal immunotherapy and its ameliorative role in treatment for Aspergillus disease will need clinical trials that 1) consider well-characterized fungal disease; 2) illustrate underlying immune defect(s) (such as Th1 vs Th2, vs Th17 and functional status of natural killer and effector scavenger cells); 3) include a more specific patient population; 4) include standardized antifungal drug therapy; and importantly 5) consider its impact on hosts’ immune response and changes in pathogen’s susceptibility and virulence. At present, immunotherapy is reserved for patients with life-threatening invasive fungal disease in whom conventional antifungal drug therapy has failed, or for patients with advanced fungal disease and with factors associated with high probability of failure of conventional therapy alone.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the intracellular pathogen that causes the disease, tuberculosis. Chemokines and chemokine receptors are key regulators in immune cell recruitment to sites of infection and inflammation. This review highlights our recent advances in understanding the role of chemokines and chemokine receptors in cellular recruitment of immune cells to the lung, role in granuloma formation and host defense against Mtb infection.
Slight, Samantha R.; Khader, Shabaana A.
Pathogenic microbes can devastate populations of marine plants and animals. Yet, many sessile organisms such as seaweeds and sponges suffer remarkably low levels of microbial infection, despite lacking cell-based immune systems. Antimicrobial defenses of marine organisms are largely uncharacterized, although from a small number of studies it appears that chemical defenses may improve host resistance. In this study, we asked whether the common seaweed Lobophora variegata is chemically defended against potentially deleterious microorganisms. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, we isolated and characterized a 22-membered cyclic lactone, lobophorolide (1), of presumed polyketide origin, with sub-?M activity against pathogenic and saprophytic marine fungi. Deterrent concentrations of 1 were found in 46 of 51 samples collected from 10 locations in the Bahamas over a 4-year period. Lobophorolide (1) is structurally unprecedented, yet parts of the molecule are related to tolytoxin, the scytophycins, and the swinholides, macrolides previously isolated from terrestrial cyanobacteria and from marine sponges and gastropods. Until now, compounds of this structural class have not been associated with marine macrophytes. Our findings suggest that seaweeds use targeted antimicrobial chemical defense strategies and that secondary metabolites important in the ecological interactions between marine macroorganisms and microorganisms could be a promising source of novel bioactive compounds.
Kubanek, Julia; Jensen, Paul R.; Keifer, Paul A.; Sullards, M. Cameron; Collins, Dwight O.; Fenical, William
Clinical outcomes in ovarian cancer are heterogeneous, independent of common features such as stage, response to therapy and grade. This disparity in outcomes warrants further exploration into tumor and host characteristics. One compelling issue is the response of the patient’s immune system to her ovarian cancer. Several studies have confirmed a prominent role for the immune system in modifying disease course. This has led to the identification and evaluation of novel immune-modulating therapeutic approaches such as vaccination and antibody therapy. Antitumor immunity, however, is often negated by immune suppression mechanisms present in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, in the future, research into immunotherapy targeting ovarian cancer will probably become increasingly focused on combination approaches that simultaneously augment immunity while preventing local immune suppression. In this article, we summarize important immunological issues that could influence ovarian cancer outcome, including tumor antigens, endogenous immune responses, immune escape and new and developing immunotherapeutic strategies.
Preston, Claudia C; Goode, Ellen L; Hartmann, Lynn C; Kalli, Kimberly R; Knutson, Keith L
By testing for structural breaks in defense expenditures, the dates of change in the pattern of defense expenditures for the NATO allies are determined. If NATO members are responding to a common threat, the breaks should be similar, in both direction and dates, for defense expenditures. The breaks should occur during major NATO strategy shifts. The results of the structural
To meet the constitutional objective of providing for the common defense requires strategic thinking. Strategies must ponder how the nation can use its capabilities, especially its military power, to meet its political objectives. To do so, they must see ...
Infection in insects stimulates a complex defensive response. Recognition of pathogens may be accomplished by plasma or hemocyte proteins that bind specif- ically to bacterial or fungal polysaccharides. Several morphologically distinct hemocyte cell types cooperate in the immune response. Hemocytes attach to invading organisms and then isolate them by phagocytosis, by trapping them in hemocyte aggregates called nodules, or by
Jeremy P. Gillespie; Michael R. Kanost; Tina Trenczek
This compilation of cases and materials on defensive federal litigation is designed to provide primary source material for students in The Judge Advocate General's School Graduate Course. Cases and other legal authorities are arranged to develop both the ...
No net assessment of the overall military capabilities of one nation vs those of another nation would be meaningful without a detailed evaluation of the defense manpower of both nations -- their major characteristics, similarities, dissimilarities, streng...
R. D. Minckler R. N. Ginsburgh R. G. Rebh
Transitional deployments permit the rational evolution of increasing capability in each defensive layer. Boost-phase and midcourse transitions are discussed; a key feature is the need for balance between deployment and development. 31 refs., 1 fig.
Transitional deployments permit the rational evolution of increasing capability in each defensive layer. Boost-phase and midcourse transitions are discussed; a key feature is the need for balance between deployment and development. 31 refs., 1 fig. (ERA c...
G. H. Canavan
Plants generate effective responses to infection by recognizing both conserved and variable pathogen-encoded molecules. Pathogens deploy virulence effector proteins into host cells, where they interact physically with host proteins to modulate defense. We generated an interaction network of plant-pathogen effectors from two pathogens spanning the eukaryote-eubacteria divergence, three classes of Arabidopsis immune system proteins, and ~8000 other Arabidopsis proteins. We noted convergence of effectors onto highly interconnected host proteins and indirect, rather than direct, connections between effectors and plant immune receptors. We demonstrated plant immune system functions for 15 of 17 tested host proteins that interact with effectors from both pathogens. Thus, pathogens from different kingdoms deploy independently evolved virulence proteins that interact with a limited set of highly connected cellular hubs to facilitate their diverse life-cycle strategies. PMID:21798943
Mukhtar, M Shahid; Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Dreze, Matija; Epple, Petra; Steinbrenner, Jens; Moore, Jonathan; Tasan, Murat; Galli, Mary; Hao, Tong; Nishimura, Marc T; Pevzner, Samuel J; Donovan, Susan E; Ghamsari, Lila; Santhanam, Balaji; Romero, Viviana; Poulin, Matthew M; Gebreab, Fana; Gutierrez, Bryan J; Tam, Stanley; Monachello, Dario; Boxem, Mike; Harbort, Christopher J; McDonald, Nathan; Gai, Lantian; Chen, Huaming; He, Yijian; Vandenhaute, Jean; Roth, Frederick P; Hill, David E; Ecker, Joseph R; Vidal, Marc; Beynon, Jim; Braun, Pascal; Dangl, Jeffery L
Eukaryotes have evolved complex defense pathways to combat invading pathogens. Here, we investigated the role of the Arabidopsis thaliana heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP-Q) LIF2 in the plant innate immune response. We show that LIF2 loss-of-function in A. thaliana leads to changes in the basal expression of the salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)- dependent defense marker genes PR1 and PDF1.2, respectively. Whereas the expression of genes involved in SA and JA biosynthesis and signaling was also affected in the lif2-1 mutant, no change in SA and JA hormonal contents was detected. In addition, the composition of glucosinolates, a class of defense-related secondary metabolites, was altered in the lif2-1 mutant in the absence of pathogen challenge. The lif2-1 mutant exhibited reduced susceptibility to the hemi-biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and the necrotrophic ascomycete Botrytis cinerea. Furthermore, the lif2-1 sid2-2 double mutant was less susceptible than the wild type to P. syringae infection, suggesting that the lif2 response to pathogens was independent of SA accumulation. Together, our data suggest that lif2-1 exhibits a basal primed defense state, resulting from complex deregulation of gene expression, which leads to increased resistance to pathogens with various infection strategies. Therefore, LIF2 may function as a suppressor of cell-autonomous immunity. Similar to its human homolog, NSAP1/SYNCRIP, a trans-acting factor involved in both cellular processes and the viral life cycle, LIF2 may regulate the conflicting aspects of development and defense programs, suggesting that a conserved evolutionary trade-off between growth and defense pathways exists in eukaryotes.
Le Roux, Clementine; Del Prete, Stefania; Boutet-Mercey, Stephanie; Perreau, Francois; Balague, Claudine; Roby, Dominique; Fagard, Mathilde; Gaudin, Valerie
This book is an unclassified version of the classified report that reviews the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization's program for developing Brilliant Pebbles, the space-based weapon system for the Phase I Strategic Defense System. The report suggests that the Congress consider whether the concurrency in the program is justified by the President's need to make a decision by the summer of 1993 on whether to begin full-scale development and deployment.
Different from immunization strategy of single-chipped computer, this paper proposes the network-based immune system which takes the entire network as integrated one by the advantage of collaboration of the network. To grasp the main factors that effect the virus' spreading, the paper first constructs a discrete model for the virus. Based on the model, the paper presents two immune strategies:
Lansheng Han; Fan Hong; Bing Peng
Eradication of HCV infection requires a complex and coordinated interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses that, when it fails, leads to chronic infection. Increasing evidence suggest that defects in innate immune recognition and in innate immunity-induced activation of adaptive immune responses play a critical role in failure of HCV clearance. The evolutionarily preserved receptors of viral recognition in immune cells and in hepatocytes sense invading pathogens that results in induction of Type I IFNs, the central players in antiviral immunity. In this review the innate immune mechanisms by which HCV is sensed and by which HCV undermines host defense are discussed. The critical role of dendritic cells in antigen presentation/T cell activation and IFN?-production as well as interference of HCV with innate immune cell functions are reviewed. Finally, current and emerging therapeutic approaches targeting innate immune pathways will be evaluated.
Szabo, Gyongyi; Dolganiuc, Angela
Recent clinical and pre-clinical studies suggest that both active and passive immunization strategies targeting A? amyloid may have clinical benefit in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we demonstrate that vaccination of APPswePSEN1dE9 mice with SDPM1, an engineered non-native A? amyloid-specific binding peptide, lowers brain A? amyloid plaque burden and brain A?1-40 and A?1-42 peptide levels, improves cognitive learning and memory in Morris water maze tests and increases the expression of synaptic brain proteins. This was the case in young mice immunized prior to development of significant brain amyloid burden, and in older mice, where brain amyloid was already present. Active immunization was optimized using ALUM as an adjuvant to stimulate production of anti-SDPM1 and anti-A? amyloid antibodies. Intracerebral injection of P4D6, an SDPM1 peptide-mimotope antibody, also lowered brain amyloid plaque burden in APPswePSEN1dE9 mice. Additionally, P4D6 inhibited A? amyloid-mediated toxicity in cultured neuronal cells. The protein sequence of the variable domain within the P4D6 heavy chain was found to mimic a multimer of the SDPM1 peptide motif. These data demonstrate the efficacy of active and passive vaccine strategies to target A? amyloid oligomers using an engineered peptide-mimotope strategy. PMID:24021662
Camboni, Marybeth; Wang, Chiou-Miin; Miranda, Carlos; Yoon, Jung Hae; Xu, Rui; Zygmunt, Deborah; Kaspar, Brian K; Martin, Paul T
According to the information processing mechanism of immune system in life sciences, based on simple genetic algorithm, a new approach of immune genetic algorithm for job shop scheduling is proposed through combining immune algorithm with improved genetic algorithm (strategy of multiple crossover per couple with incest prevention). A immune genetic algorithm aiming at job shop scheduling is set up. The
Quanyong Ju; Jianying Zhu
The critical metabolic functions of the liver often eclipse any perception of its role as an immune organ. However, the liver\\u000a as a mediator of systemic and local innate immunity and an important site of immune regulation is now an accepted concept.\\u000a Complex repertoires of lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells are key to hepatic defense and immunoregulation. Hepatic cells of myeloid
Eszter Nemeth; Alan W. Baird; Cliona O’Farrelly
Populations of Drosophila melanogaster face significant mortality risks from parasitoid wasps that use species-specific strategies to locate and survive in hosts. We tested the hypothesis that parasitoids with different strategies select for alternative host defense characteristics and in doing so contribute to the maintenance of fitness variation and produce trade-offs among traits. We characterized defense traits of Drosophila when exposed to parasitoids with different host searching behaviors (Aphaereta sp. and Leptopilina boulardi). We used host larvae with different natural alleles of the gene Dopa decarboxylase (Ddc), a gene controlling the production of dopamine and known to influence the immune response against parasitoids. Previous population genetic analyses indicate that our focal alleles are maintained by balancing selection. Genotypes exhibited a trade-off between the immune response against Aphaereta sp. and the ability to avoid parasitism by L. boulardi. We also identified a trade-off between the ability to avoid parasitism by L. boulardi and larval competitive ability as indicated by differences in foraging and feeding behavior. Genotypes differed in dopamine levels potentially explaining variation in these traits. Our results highlight the potential role of parasitoid biodiversity on host fitness variation and implicate Ddc as an antagonistic pleiotropic locus influencing larval fitness traits. PMID:23461325
Hodges, Theresa K; Laskowski, Kate L; Squadrito, Giuseppe L; De Luca, Maria; Leips, Jeff
Revolutionary developments in Europe and their global reverberations since 1989 have affected certain aspects of our national strategy. This volume presents nine essays dealing imaginatively with the issues of the post-Cold War period. One of them addresses general US strategy for the 1990s. Three focus on high-level strategic matters: the future of flexible response, antisatellite weapons, and forward, mobile defenses. The others address US chemical weapons policy, use of civilian aircraft for defense airlift, neutrality of the Panama Canal after 1999, arms sales by China, and strategic defense at reduced cost.
Lactation and stressor exposure both influence the activity of the immune system, but the interaction of both factors on the immune defense is poorly understood. The aim was therefore to investigate in lactating Long–Evans rats the effect of social stress on aspects of cellular immunity in the blood and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Acute social stress (2h) was induced in
Katrin M. Jaedicke; Marco D. Fuhrmann; Volker Stefanski
In the last few years, the number of bacteria with enhanced resistance to conventional antibiotics has dramatically increased. Most of such bacteria belong to regular microbial flora, becoming a real challenge, especially for immune-depressed patients. Since the treatment is sometimes extremely expensive, and in some circumstances completely inefficient for the most severe cases, researchers are still determined to discover novel compounds. Among them, host-defense peptides (HDPs) have been found as the first natural barrier against microorganisms in nearly all living groups. This molecular class has been gaining attention every day for multiple reasons. For decades, it was believed that these defense peptides had been involved only with the permeation of the lipid bilayer in pathogen membranes, their main target. Currently, it is known that these peptides can bind to numerous targets, as well as lipids including proteins and carbohydrates, from the surface to deep within the cell. Moreover, by using in vivo models, it was shown that HDPs could act both in pathogens and cognate hosts, improving immunological functions as well as acting through multiple pathways to control infections. This review focuses on structural and functional properties of HDP peptides and the additional strategies used to select them. Furthermore, strategies to avoid problems in large-scale manufacture by using molecular and biochemical techniques will also be explored. In summary, this review intends to construct a bridge between academic research and pharmaceutical industry, providing novel insights into the utilization of HDPs against resistant bacterial strains that cause infections in humans.
Silva, Osmar N.; Mulder, Kelly C. L.; Barbosa, Aulus E. A. D.; Otero-Gonzalez, Anselmo J.; Lopez-Abarrategui, Carlos; Rezende, Taia M. B.; Dias, Simoni C.; Franco, Octavio L.
This essay was originally written two decades ago as a seminar paper. A substantial portion of it addresses what were then only the first steps toward the establishment of a community of professional civilian defense analysts in the Soviet Union. Throughout most of the intervening period, that community found itself mired in immobilism as jurisdiction over such key Soviet national security inputs as military doctrine, force requirements, resource needs, and to a considerable degree, arms negotiating positions remained an exclusive prerogative of the Defense Ministry and the General Staff. Today, this former military monopoly has come to be challenged with increasing success by a host of newcomers to the Soviet defense scene, including the Foreign Ministry, the Supreme Soviet, and an ambitious cadre of civilian analysts attached to the social science research institutes of the Academy of Sciences. These individuals are making a determined bid for greater influence over Soviet defense policy, with the express encouragement of President Gorbachev and his supporters. The result has been an unprecedented infusion of pluralism into Soviet defense politics and a significant change in the content and goals of Soviet military policy.
The human immune response is arguably among the most difficult processes for an EMS provider to understand. The immune system provides front-line defense to any potentially inflammatory process, with the goal of destroying or inactivating pathogens, abnormal cells and foreign substances. The system includes the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, lymphoid tissues (as in the GI tract and bone marrow), macrophages, lymphocytes, including B and T cells, and antibodies, among others. On the surface, the skin and stomach acid serve as physical barriers to invasion. This article will primarily concentrate on the immune response to allergies, but will discuss some other immune disorders to illustrate the role of the immune system in common disease processes. PMID:18810959
Krost, William S; Mistovich, Joseph J; Limmer, Daniel D
The causative agent of anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, is capable of circumventing the humoral and innate immune defense of the host and modulating the blood chemistry in circulation to initiate a productive infection. It has been shown that the pathogen employs a number of strategies against immune cells using secreted pathogenic factors such as toxins. However, interference of B. anthracis with the innate immune system through specific interaction of the spore surface with host proteins such as the complement system has heretofore attracted little attention. In order to assess the mechanisms by which B. anthracis evades the defense system, we employed a proteomic analysis to identify human serum proteins interacting with B. anthracis spores, and found that plasminogen (PLG) is a major surface-bound protein. PLG efficiently bound to spores in a lysine- and exosporium-dependent manner. We identified ?-enolase and elongation factor tu as PLG receptors. PLG-bound spores were capable of exhibiting anti-opsonic properties by cleaving C3b molecules in vitro and in rabbit bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, resulting in a decrease in macrophage phagocytosis. Our findings represent a step forward in understanding the mechanisms involved in the evasion of innate immunity by B. anthracis through recruitment of PLG resulting in the enhancement of anti-complement and anti-opsonization properties of the pathogen.
Chung, Myung-Chul; Tonry, Jessica H.; Narayanan, Aarthi; Manes, Nathan P.; Mackie, Ryan S.; Gutting, Bradford; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V.; Popova, Taissia G.; Kashanchi, Fatah; Bailey, Charles L.; Popov, Serguei G.
Vaccination strategies depend entirely on the appropriate responsiveness of our immune system against particular antigens. For this active immunization to be truly effective, neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) need to efficiently counter the infectivity or propagation of the pathogen. Some viruses, including HIV, are able to take advantage of this immune response in order to evade nAbs. This review focuses on viral immune evasion strategies that result directly from a robust immune response to infection or vaccination. A rationale for multi-Ab therapy to circumvent this phenomenon is discussed. Progress in the formulation, production, and regulatory approval of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is presented. PMID:23840243
Hiatt, Andrew; Zeitlin, Larry; Whaley, Kevin J
Vaccination strategies depend entirely on the appropriate responsiveness of our immune system against particular antigens. For this active immunization to be truly effective, neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) need to efficiently counter the infectivity or propagation of the pathogen. Some viruses, including HIV, are able to take advantage of this immune response in order to evade nAbs. This review focuses on viral immune evasion strategies that result directly from a robust immune response to infection or vaccination. A rationale for multi-Ab therapy to circumvent this phenomenon is discussed. Progress in the formulation, production, and regulatory approval of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is presented.
Whaley, Kevin J.
Chemerin is a widely distributed multifunctional secreted protein implicated in immune cell migration, adipogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, angiogenesis, myogenesis, and glucose homeostasis. Chemerin message is regulated by nuclear receptor agonists, metabolic signaling proteins and intermediates, and proinflammatory cytokines. Following translation chemerin is secreted as an inactive pro-protein, and its secretion can be regulated depending on cell type. Chemerin bioactivity is largely dependent on carboxyl-terminal proteolytic processing and removal of inhibitory residues. Chemerin is abundant in human epidermis where it is well-placed to provide barrier protection. In host defense, chemerin plays dual roles as a broad spectrum antimicrobial protein and as a leukocyte attractant for macrophages, dendritic cells, and NK cells. Here we review the mechanisms underlying chemerin regulation and its function in host defense.
Zabel, Brian A; Kwitniewski, Mateusz; Banas, Magdalena; Zabieglo, Katarzyna; Murzyn, Krzysztof; Cichy, Joanna
In the last decade intensive research has been conducted to determine the role of innate immunity host defense peptides (also termed antimicrobial peptides) in the killing of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Many antimicrobial peptides damage the cellular membrane as part of their killing mechanism. However, it is not clear what makes cancer cells more susceptible to some of these peptides,
N. Papo; Y. Shai
A development history and development status evaluation is presented for weapons technologies capable of serving as defenses against nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles. The decisive turning-point in this history was the March 23, 1983 announcement by President Reagan of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Due to President Reagan's emphasis on population protection, 'global' defense systems have tended to dominate SDI design efforts. The most important SDI technical achievements to date encompass (1) miniature homig devices, (2) the upgrade of the Patriot SAM for missile-interception capabilities, (3) light exoatmospheric projectiles, such as 'Brilliant Pebbles', (4) successful laser-communications experiments, and (5) the warhead/decoy-discriminating Firepond lidar system. 7 refs.
Mark, H. (Texas, University, Austin (United States))
Active suppression of tumor-specific T lymphocytes can limit the immune-mediated destruction of cancer cells. Of the various strategies used by tumors to counteract immune attacks, myeloid suppressors recruited by growing cancers are particularly efficient, often resulting in the induction of systemic T lymphocyte dysfunction. We have previously shown that the mechanism by which myeloid cells from tumor-bearing hosts block immune defense strategies involves two enzymes that metabolize L-arginine: arginase and nitric oxide (NO) synthase. NO-releasing aspirin is a classic aspirin molecule covalently linked to a NO donor group. NO aspirin does not possess direct antitumor activity. However, by interfering with the inhibitory enzymatic activities of myeloid cells, orally administered NO aspirin normalized the immune status of tumor-bearing hosts, increased the number and function of tumor-antigen-specific T lymphocytes, and enhanced the preventive and therapeutic effectiveness of the antitumor immunity elicited by cancer vaccination. Because cancer vaccines and NO aspirin are currently being investigated in independent phase I/II clinical trials, these findings offer a rationale to combine these treatments in subjects with advanced neoplastic diseases. arginase | immunosuppression | myeloid cells | nitric oxide | immunotherapy
de Santo, Carmela; Serafini, Paolo; Marigo, Ilaria; Dolcetti, Luigi; Bolla, Manlio; del Soldato, Piero; Melani, Cecilia; Guiducci, Cristiana; Colombo, Mario P.; Iezzi, Manuela; Musiani, Piero; Zanovello, Paola; Bronte, Vincenzo
This review will summarize and interpret recent literature regarding the human CMV immune response, which is among the strongest measured and is the focus of attention for numerous research groups. CMV is a highly prevalent, globally occurring infection that rarely elicits disease in healthy immunocompetent hosts. The human immune system is unable to clear CMV infection and latency, but mounts a spirited immune-defense targeting multiple immune-evasion genes encoded by this dsDNA ?-herpes virus. Additionally, the magnitude of cellular immune response devoted to CMV may cause premature immune senescence, and the high frequencies of cytolytic T cells may aggravate vascular pathologies. However, uncontrolled CMV viremia and life-threatening symptoms, which occur readily after immunosuppression and in the immature host, clearly indicate the essential role of immunity in maintaining asymptomatic co-existence with CMV. Approaches for harnessing the host immune response to CMV are needed to reduce the burden of CMV complications in immunocompromised individuals.
La Rosa, Corinna; Diamond, Don J
Background Due to potential advantages, human adenoviral vectors have been evaluated pre-clinically as recombinant vaccine vectors against several cancers and infectious diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The V3 loop of HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120) contains important neutralizing epitopes and plays key roles in HIV entry and infectivity. Methods In order to investigate the humoral immune response development against portions of the V3 loop, we sought to generate four versions of adenovirus (Ad)-based V3 vectors by incorporating four different antigen inserts into the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of human adenovirus type 5 (hAd5) hexon. The strategy whereby antigens are incorporated within the adenovirus capsid is known as the “Antigen Capsid-Incorporation” strategy. Results Of the four recombinant vectors, Ad-HVR1-lgs-His6-V3 and Ad-HVR1-long-V3 had the capability to present heterologous antigens on capsid surface, while maintaining low viral particle to infectious particle (VP/IP) ratios. The VP/IP ratios indicated both high viability and stability of these two vectors, as well as the possibility that V3 epitopes on these two vectors could be presented to immune system. Furthermore, both Ad-HVR1-lgs-His6-V3 and Ad-HVR1-long-V3 could, to some extent escape the neutralization by anti-adenovirus polyclonal antibody (PAb), but rather not the immunity by anti-gp120 (902) monoclonal antibody (MAb). The neutralization assay together with the whole virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) suggested that these two vectors could present V3 epitopes similar to the natural V3 presence in native HIV virions. However, subsequent mice immunizations clearly showed that only Ad-HVR1-lgs-His6-V3 elicited strong humoral immune response against V3. Isotype ELISAs identified IgG2a and IgG2b as the dominant IgG isotypes, while IgG1 comprised the minority. Conclusions Our findings demonstrated that human adenovirus (hAd) vectors which present HIV antigen via the “Antigen Capsid-Incorporation” strategy could successfully elicit antigen-specific humoral immune responses, which could potentially open an avenue for the development of Ad-based HIV V3 vaccines.
Investigates attributional implications of prosecutors' and defense attorneys' language strategies using the protocols of the historical Nuremberg trials. States that apart from more positive statements regarding the defendants being made by defense lawyers than prosecutors, both sides used a number of subtler strategies. (PA)