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Sample records for immunodeficiency virus infected

  1. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N C; Yamamoto, J K; Ishida, T; Hansen, H

    1989-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (formerly feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus or FTLV) was first isolated from a group of cats in Petaluma, California in 1986. The virus is a typical lentivirus in gross and structural morphology. It replicates preferentially but not exclusively in feline T-lymphoblastoid cells, where it causes a characteristic cytopathic effect. The major structural proteins are 10, 17 (small gag), 28 (major core), 31 (endonuclease?), 41 (transmembrane?), 52 (core precursor polyprotein), 54/62 (reverse transcriptase?), and 110/130 (major envelope) kilodaltons in size. The various proteins are antigenically distinguishable from those of other lentiviruses, although serum from EIAV-infected horses will cross-react with some FIV antigens. Kittens experimentally infected with FIV manifest a transient (several days to 2 weeks) fever and neutropenia beginning 4 to 8 weeks after inoculation. This is associated with a generalized lymphadenopathy that persists for up to 9 months. Most cats recover from this initial phase of the disease and become lifelong carriers of the virus. Complete recovery does not occur to any extent in nature or in the laboratory setting. One experimentally infected cat died from a myeloproliferative disorder several months after infection. The terminal AIDS-like phase of the illness has been seen mainly in naturally infected cats. It appears a year or more following the initial infection in an unknown proportion of infected animals. FIV has been identified in cats from all parts of the world. It is most prevalent in high density populations of free roaming cats (feral and pet), and is very uncommon in closed purebred catteries. Male cats are twice as likely to become infected as females. Older male cats adopted as feral or stray animals are at the highest risk of infection, therefore. The infection rate among freely roaming cats rises throughout life, and reaches levels ranging from less than 1% to 12% or more depending on the

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A ... weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can cause AIDS ( ...

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Eirini; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a serious and relatively frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that may associate with increased morbidity and mortality and may prove difficult to manage, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:25337392

  4. Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Domachowske, J B

    1996-01-01

    In the past decade, an increase in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has had a substantial impact on childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The vertical transmission of HIV from mother to infant accounts for the vast majority of these cases. Identification of HIV-infected pregnant women needs to be impoved so that appropriate therapy can be initiated for both mothers and infants. While recent data demonstrate a dramatic decrease in HIV transmission from a subset of women treated with zidovudine during pregnancy, further efforts at reducing transmission are desperately needed. This review focuses on vertically transmitted HIV infection in children, its epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, natural history, and clinical manifestations including infectious and noninfectious complications. An overview of the complex medical management of these children ensues, including the use of antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infection prophylaxis is reviewed, along with the important role of other supportive therapies. PMID:8894346

  5. Adolescents and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    1992-12-01

    As of March 31, 1992, individuals 13 to 19 years of age had been diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; over one third were diagnosed in the past 2 years alone. Because of the long incubation period from initial infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis, the majority of young adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were probably initially infected as adolescents. In 1991, 34% of adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were female, and their predominant mode of transmission was heterosexual contact. Human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence studies of adolescents show a male-to-female ratio approaching 1:1, with many human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescent women identifying none of the standard risk. Factors such as sexual and drug experimentation, risk taking, and sense of invulnerability so characteristic of adolescence put adolescents at special risk for human immunodeficiency virus. There is no published information on if or how clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus disease in adolescents might differ from those seen in adults. Medical care should be broad-based and should include access to clinical trials for new drug treatments. General knowledge levels about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are high among US adolescents, but behavioral changes have lagged behind. All adolescents should be targeted for intensive education about human immunodeficiency virus along with interventions designed to enhance their general coping, communication, and decision-making skills. PMID:1450349

  6. The Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasner, Peter D.; Kaslow, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews epidemiology and natural history of human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Discusses early and late clinical manifestations, diagnosis of infection, incubation and latency periods, and survival time. Reviews data from published literature on distribution of HIV infection in adult United States population and factors that…

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the liver

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Megan; Iser, David; Lewin, Sharon R

    2012-01-01

    Liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals encompasses the spectrum from abnormal liver function tests, liver decompensation, with and without evidence of cirrhosis on biopsy, to non-alcoholic liver disease and its more severe form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular cancer. HIV can infect multiple cells in the liver, leading to enhanced intrahepatic apoptosis, activation and fibrosis. HIV can also alter gastro-intestinal tract permeability, leading to increased levels of circulating lipopolysaccharide that may have an impact on liver function. This review focuses on recent changes in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of liver disease in HIV-infected patients, in the absence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, with a specific focus on issues relevant to low and middle income countries. PMID:22489261

  8. Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J A

    1993-01-01

    The lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS by interacting with a large number of different cells in the body and escaping the host immune response against it. HIV is transmitted primarily through blood and genital fluids and to newborn infants from infected mothers. The steps occurring in infection involve an interaction of HIV not only with the CD4 molecule on cells but also with other cellular receptors recently identified. Virus-cell fusion and HIV entry subsequently take place. Following virus infection, a variety of intracellular mechanisms determine the relative expression of viral regulatory and accessory genes leading to productive or latent infection. With CD4+ lymphocytes, HIV replication can cause syncytium formation and cell death; with other cells, such as macrophages, persistent infection can occur, creating reservoirs for the virus in many cells and tissues. HIV strains are highly heterogeneous, and certain biologic and serologic properties determined by specific genetic sequences can be linked to pathogenic pathways and resistance to the immune response. The host reaction against HIV, through neutralizing antibodies and particularly through strong cellular immune responses, can keep the virus suppressed for many years. Long-term survival appears to involve infection with a relatively low-virulence strain that remains sensitive to the immune response, particularly to control by CD8+ cell antiviral activity. Several therapeutic approaches have been attempted, and others are under investigation. Vaccine development has provided some encouraging results, but the observations indicate the major challenge of preventing infection by HIV. Ongoing research is necessary to find a solution to this devastating worldwide epidemic. Images PMID:8464405

  9. 78 FR 33848 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus... availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing... guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing Antiretroviral...

  10. Ocular syphilis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John P; Huang, Lynn L; Rosberger, Daniel F

    2015-06-01

    As Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease (AIDS) turns thirty-years old, much progress has been made. 56,000 new cases of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are expected in Americans this year. At least half or more will be in African Americans. Reports of the association between syphilis and HIV infection are well documented. We present a case of bilateral optic neuritis and panuveitis as the initial presentation in a previously undiagnosed patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. PMID:27269502

  11. Bacterial Respiratory Infections Complicating Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections of the lower respiratory tract, most commonly those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii, remain the major causes of mortality in those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bacterial respiratory pathogens most prevalent in those infected with HIV, other than M. tuberculosis, represent the primary focus of the current review with particular emphasis on the pneumococcus, the leading cause of mortality due to HIV infection in the developed world. Additional themes include (1) risk factors; (2) the predisposing effects of HIV-mediated suppression on pulmonary host defenses, possibly intensified by smoking; (3) clinical and laboratory diagnosis, encompassing assessment of disease severity and outcome; and (4) antibiotic therapy. The final section addresses current recommendations with respect to pneumococcal immunization in the context of HIV infection, including an overview of the rationale underpinning the current "prime-boost" immunization strategy based on sequential administration of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23. PMID:26974299

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is clearly one of the most serious health-care crises in the professional lives of contemporary physicians. It cannot be regarded as a curiosity to be dealt with by inner-city infectious-disease experts, but rather must be considered a problem for all health-care providers and a problem in which the obstetrician-gynecologist has a special role to play. PMID:18475370

  13. Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, and Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Piggott, Damani A; Carroll, Karen C; Lim, Michael; Melia, Michael T

    2016-04-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and stroke are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with increased risk in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. We report a rare case of ischemic stroke associated with Salmonella enteritidis subdural empyema in an older HIV-infected patient with multimorbidity, despite surgery and treatment with susceptible antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27419176

  14. Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, and Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Piggott, Damani A.; Carroll, Karen C.; Lim, Michael; Melia, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and stroke are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with increased risk in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. We report a rare case of ischemic stroke associated with Salmonella enteritidis subdural empyema in an older HIV-infected patient with multimorbidity, despite surgery and treatment with susceptible antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27419176

  15. Neuromuscular complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection and antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R G

    1994-01-01

    At least 4 distinct peripheral neuropathy syndromes occur in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. The most common, painful sensory neuropathy, may be related to the viral infection or may be medication induced and is treated symptomatically. The other 3, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex (some patients), and the progressive polyradiculopathies related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may all respond to appropriate therapy. Both inflammatory myopathy and zidovudine myopathy also abate with early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:8048229

  16. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)

  17. Antiviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, E

    1995-01-01

    Depending on the stage of their intervention with the viral replicative cycle, human immunodeficiency virus inhibitors could be divided into the following groups: (i) adsorption inhibitors (i.e., CD4 constructs, polysulfates, polysulfonates, polycarboxylates, and polyoxometalates), (ii) fusion inhibitors (i.e., plant lectins, succinylated or aconitylated albumins, and betulinic acid derivatives), (iii) uncoating inhibitors (i.e., bicyclams), (iv) reverse transcription inhibitors acting either competitively with the substrate binding site (i.e., dideoxynucleoside analogs and acyclic nucleoside phosphonates) or allosterically with a nonsubstrate binding site (i.e., non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), (v) integration inhibitors, (vi) DNA replication inhibitors, (vii) transcription inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and Tat antagonists), (viii) translation inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and ribozymes), (ix) maturation inhibitors (i.e., protease inhibitors, myristoylation inhibitors, and glycosylation inhibitors), and finally, (x) budding (assembly/release) inhibitors. Current knowledge, including the therapeutic potential, of these various inhibitors is discussed. In view of their potential clinical the utility, the problem of virus-drug resistance and possible strategies to circumvent this problem are also addressed. PMID:7542558

  18. Spatial Analysis of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cougars

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A.; Biek, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large predatory feline found widely in the Americas that is susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a fast-evolving lentivirus found in wild feline species that is analogous to simian immunodeficiency viruses in wild primates and belongs to the same family of viruses as human immunodeficiency virus. FIV infection in cougars can lead to a weakened immune system that creates opportunities for other infecting agents. FIV prevalence and lineages have been studied previously in several areas in the western United States, but typically without spatially explicit statistical techniques. To describe the distribution of FIV in a sample of cougars located in the northern Rocky Mountain region of North America, we first used kernel density ratio estimation to map the log relative risk of FIV. The risk surface showed a significant cluster of FIV in northwestern Montana. We also used Bayesian cluster models for genetic data to investigate the spatial structure of the feline immunodeficiency virus with virus genetic sequence data. A result of the models was two spatially distinct FIV lineages that aligned considerably with an interstate highway in Montana. Our results suggest that the use of spatial information and models adds novel insight when investigating an infectious animal disease. The results also suggest that the influence of landscape features likely plays an important role in the spatiotemporal spread of an infectious disease within wildlife populations. PMID:21197421

  19. Aquagenic urticaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection: treatment with stanozolol.

    PubMed

    Fearfield, L A; Gazzard, B; Bunker, C B

    1997-10-01

    We report the first case of aquagenic urticaria in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This is a rare physical urticaria not previously described in this context. The disorder proved unamenable to conventional treatment with antihistamines, but did respond dramatically to stanozolol, suggesting a novel indication for this anabolic steroid. PMID:9390343

  20. Update on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Yesufu, Omobolaji T.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) occurs mainly in West Africa, but an increasing number of cases have been recognized in Europe, India, and the United States. In this era of global integration, clinicians must be aware of when to consider the diagnosis of HIV-2 infection and how to test for this virus. Although there is debate regarding when therapy should be initiated and which regimen should be chosen, recent trials have provided important information on treatment options for HIV-2 infection. In this review, we present information on recent clinical advances in our understanding of HIV-2 infection and highlight remaining diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. PMID:21367732

  1. Macrophages in Progressive Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, Sarah R; Hirsch, Vanessa M; Brenchley, Jason M

    2016-09-01

    The cells that are targeted by primate lentiviruses (HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) are of intense interest given the renewed effort to identify potential cures for HIV. These viruses have been reported to infect multiple cell lineages of hematopoietic origin, including all phenotypic and functional CD4 T cell subsets. The two most commonly reported cell types that become infected in vivo are memory CD4 T cells and tissue-resident macrophages. Though viral infection of CD4 T cells is routinely detected in both HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected Asian macaques, significant viral infection of macrophages is only routinely observed in animal models wherein CD4 T cells are almost entirely depleted. Here we review the roles of macrophages in lentiviral disease progression, the evidence that macrophages support viral replication in vivo, the animal models where macrophage-mediated replication of SIV is thought to occur, how the virus can interact with macrophages in vivo, pathologies thought to be attributed to viral replication within macrophages, how viral replication in macrophages might contribute to the asymptomatic phase of HIV/SIV infection, and whether macrophages represent a long-lived reservoir for the virus. PMID:27307568

  2. Total knee arthroplasty in human immunodeficiency virus-infected hemophiliacs.

    PubMed

    Unger, A S; Kessler, C M; Lewis, R J

    1995-08-01

    Twenty-six knee arthroplasties were performed in 15 patients with hemophilia A and human immunodeficiency virus infection from 1984 to 1991. Patient age range was 27 to 48 years. After an average follow-up period of 6.4 years (range, 1-9 years) all patients were alive and none of the implants had become infected. T4 lymphocyte counts showed some deterioration, which was not clinically significant. All of the patients were improved following surgery. Nineteen implants were rated excellent, four good, and three fair. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus did not adversely affect the clinical outcome of knee arthroplasty at follow-up periods up to 9 years. PMID:8523002

  3. Economic consequences for Medicaid of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Baily, Mary Ann; Bilheimer, Linda; Wooldridge, Judith; well, Kathryn Lang; Greenberg, Warren

    1990-01-01

    Medicaid is currently a major source of financing for health care for those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and to a lesser extent, for those with other manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is likely to become even more important in the future. This article focuses on the structure of Medicaid in the context of the HIV epidemic, covering epidemiological issues, eligibility, service coverage and use, and reimbursement. A simple methodology for estimating HI\\'-related Medicaid costs under alternative assumptions about the future is also explained. PMID:10113503

  4. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-02-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus (the CD4 molecule). HIV also has tropism for the brain leading to neuropsychiatric abnormalities. Besides inducing cell death, HIV can interfere with T4 cell function by various mechanisms. The monocyte serves as a reservoir for HIV and is relatively refractory to its cytopathic effects. HIV can exist in a latent or chronic form which can be converted to a productive infection by a variety of inductive signals.

  5. [Lopinavir/ritonavir in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women].

    PubMed

    Téllez, María Jesús

    2014-11-01

    There are clear sex-related biological differences between men and women. Diseases that affect the two sexes differently are studied separately. However, some diseases affect both men and women, but their incidence or outcome are clearly different. In human immunodeficiency virus infection, the potential differences in the effects of antiretroviral therapy are poorly characterized and few studies have been designed to elucidate these differences. Moreover, women are usually poorly represented in clinical trials of antiretroviral drugs. PMID:25542872

  6. Neurocysticercosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chianura, Leonardo; Sberna, Maurizio; Moioli, Cristina; Villa, Maria Riccarda; Orcese, Carloandrea; Causarano, Renzo

    2006-01-01

    Ecuador is considered a holoendemic high-risk area for the transmission of cysticercosis. Moreover, the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) occurs worldwide. We present a case of simultaneous diagnosis of cysticercosis and HIV infection in a 22-year-old Ecuadorian immigrant. We would postulate that with the increasing HIV incidence in endemic areas of cysticercosis, the simultaneous diagnosis of both diseases is an event to be expected. PMID:17107432

  7. [Pulmonary complications in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Brockmann V, Pablo; Viviani S, Támara; Peña D, Anamaría

    2007-08-01

    Pulmonary complications in children infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common and may be the first manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of our study was to review pulmonary diseases and complications in pediatric patients with HIV infection in a large tertiary hospital in Santiago, Chile. We performed a retrospective, descriptive analysis of 17 patients with HIV infection controlled at the Hospital Dr. Sótero del Rio. Respiratory complications/diseases were: overall pneumonia (n: 14), recurrent pneumonia (n: 10), citomegalovirus associated pneumonia (n: 4), Pneumocystis jiroveci associated pneumonia (n: 1) pulmonary tuberculosis (n: 1), lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (n: 3) and chronic pulmonary disease (n: 7). Microorganisms isolated were mostly atypical and frequently associated with severe and chronic pulmonary damage. A high degree of suspicion is required to detect atypical microorganisms promptly, in order to rapidly implement pathogen targeted therapy that could potentially decrease the possibility of sequelae. PMID:17728918

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Infants Affected by Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Capretti, Maria Grazia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Faldella, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies are rare inherited disorders that may lead to frequent and often severe acute respiratory infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequent pathogens during early infancy and the infection is more severe in immunocompromised infants than in healthy infants, as a result of impaired T- and B-cell immune response unable to efficaciously neutralize viral replication, with subsequent increased viral shedding and potentially lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Several authors have reported a severe clinical course after RSV infections in infants and children with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. Environmental prophylaxis is essential in order to reduce the infection during the epidemic season in hospitalized immunocompromised infants. Prophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the RSV F protein, is currently recommended in high-risk infants born prematurely, with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. Currently however the prophylaxis is not routinely recommended in infants with primary immunodeficiency, although some authors propose the extension of prophylaxis to this high risk population. PMID:25089282

  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: The Spectrum Beyond AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Brain C.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1981, the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as the major infectious epidemic of our time. It is the most profound manifestation of infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Since 1984, serologic methods have existed to detect antibody to HIV. Several other clinical entities have been detected and are attributable to HIV infection. Appropriate counsel must accompany antibody testing. The author discusses the acute seroconversion event, as well as asymptomatic carrier status, including generalized lymphadenopathy. He also reviews the symptomatic states that do not meet the surveillance definition of AIDS, including treatments where available. PMID:21263801

  10. Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Kalapila, Aley G; Marrazzo, Jeanne

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is considered a chronic medical condition. Several new drugs are available, including fixed-dose combination tablets, that have greatly simplified combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens to treat HIV, while increasing the life-expectancy of infected individuals. In the last decade, multiple well-regarded studies have established the benefits of using ART in high-risk, HIV-negative persons to prevent HIV acquisition. The primary care provider must not only understand commonly encountered issues pertaining to ART, such as toxicities and drug interactions, but also needs to be aware of using ART for HIV prevention. PMID:27235622

  11. Care of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Menopausal Woman

    PubMed Central

    Cejtin, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    More women than ever before are both Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected and menopausal, because of increased survival and more frequent diagnosis in older women. Such a woman has the combined burden of her infection, its treatment, comorbid conditions, and aging. Thus she is at risk for a variety of problems such as disorders of bone mineral density and deficiencies in cognitive functioning. In addition to this, she experiences menopause in a unique fashion, with more symptoms and perhaps at an earlier age. The clinician caring for her must take a proactive approach to this multitude of factors that may affect her health and well-being. PMID:22284959

  12. Inflammatory joint disease and human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Forster, S M; Seifert, M H; Keat, A C; Rowe, I F; Thomas, B J; Taylor-Robinson, D; Pinching, A J; Harris, J R W

    1988-01-01

    Nine men positive for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who developed peripheral, non-erosive arthritis were followed up. The clinical features were compatible with reactive arthritis but were atypical in several respects: the joint symptoms were generally severe, persistent, and unresponsive to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The onset of arthritis was associated with various infections, none of which are known to be associated with the development of reactive arthritis. HLA typing was performed for three patients, all of whom were positive for HLA-B27. HIV was isolated from the synovial fluid of one patient. No patient had AIDS before developing arthritis, but four progressed to having AIDS after a mean of 7·5 months, and two died. Arthritis resolved in only one patient. The possibility of HIV infection should be considered in all patients with conditions suggesting reactive arthritis. Synovitis in patients with severe immunodeficiency has important pathogenetic implications. PMID:3135044

  13. Absence of Active Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clinics in Zambia and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Wandeler, Gilles; Mulenga, Lloyd; Hobbins, Michael; Joao, Candido; Sinkala, Edford; Hector, Jonas; Aly, Musa; Chi, Benjamin H.; Egger, Matthias; Vinikoor, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Among 1812 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus, no patient in rural Mozambique and 4 patients in urban Zambia were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Of these, none had confirmed HCV replication. PMID:27047986

  14. Zinc status in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, R.M. Jr.; Oster, M.H.; Lee, T.J.; Flynn, N.; Keen, C.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Plasma zinc and copper concentrations, erythrocyte zinc concentration, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity and urinary zinc concentrations were determined for control subjects and individuals with AIDS, ARC, or asymptomatic HIV infection. Significant differences among the population groups were not noted for the above parameters with the exception of plasma copper which was higher in the AIDS group than in other patient groups. These results do not support the idea that zinc deficiency is a common contributory factor of HIV infectivity or clinical expression, nor that HIV infection induces a zinc deficiency.

  15. Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Coogan, Maeve M; Greenspan, John; Challacombe, Stephen J

    2005-09-01

    This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Oral manifestations are among the earliest and most important indicators of infection with HIV. Seven cardinal lesions, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated, and are seen in both developed and developing countries. They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV-infected people. Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions. The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. Oral health is strongly associated with physical and mental health and there are significant increases in oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in relation to periodontal diseases. International collaboration is needed to ensure that oral aspects of HIV disease are taken into account in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with the general care of the patient. It is important that all health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection. PMID:16211162

  16. Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Coogan, Maeve M.; Greenspan, John; Challacombe, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Oral manifestations are among the earliest and most important indicators of infection with HIV. Seven cardinal lesions, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated, and are seen in both developed and developing countries. They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV-infected people. Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions. The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. Oral health is strongly associated with physical and mental health and there are significant increases in oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in relation to periodontal diseases. International collaboration is needed to ensure that oral aspects of HIV disease are taken into account in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with the general care of the patient. It is important that all health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection. PMID:16211162

  17. Bacterial vaginosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Gregory T; St John, Elizabeth; Zariffard, M Reza

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common alteration of lower genital tract flora in women, is associated with increased susceptibility to HIV infection. Other recent studies show that HIV is detected more frequently and at higher levels in the lower genital tract of HIV-seropositive women with BV. In vitro studies show that genital tract secretions from women with BV or flora associated with BV induce HIV expression in infected cells. The increased HIV expression appears to be due at least in part to activation through Toll-like receptors (TLR), specifically TLR2. Further research is needed to elucidate how BV contributes to HIV acquisition and transmission. PMID:17953761

  18. Renal involvement in feline immunodeficiency virus infection: a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Poli, A; Abramo, F; Taccini, E; Guidi, G; Barsotti, P; Bendinelli, M; Malvaldi, G

    1993-01-01

    Renal tissues from 15 cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were examined histologically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. Renal function and urinary proteins were also studied. Kidney abnormalities were found in 12 cats and were characterized by mesangial widening with segmental to diffuse glomerulosclerosis and presence of IgM and C3, and scanty IgG deposits in the mesangium. Tubulointerstitial lesions were also present. In 6 cats the lesions were severe enough to cause marked increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, and heavy glomerular nonselective proteinuria. These findings suggest that a renal involvement is a frequent occurrence in FIV-infected cats. As the histopathological features observed were similar to those described in HIV-infected patients, FIV-infected cats may represent a valuable model for a better understanding of HIV-associated nephropathy in humans. PMID:8321363

  19. Perinatally infected adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (perinatally human immunodeficiency virus)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maria Leticia S; Cardoso, Claudete A

    2015-01-01

    The availability of highly potent antiretroviral treatment during the last decades has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic disease. Children that were diagnosed during the first months or years of life and received treatment, are living longer and better and are presently reaching adolescence and adulthood. Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIV) and young adults may present specific clinical, behavior and social characteristics and demands. We have performed a literature review about different aspects that have to be considered in the care and follow-up of PHIV. The search included papers in the MEDLINE database via PubMed, located using the keywords “perinatally HIV-infected” AND “adolescents”. Only articles published in English or Portuguese from 2003 to 2014 were selected. The types of articles included original research, systematic reviews, and quantitative or qualitative studies; case reports and case series were excluded. Results are presented in the following topics: “Puberal development and sexual maturation”, “Growth in weight and height”, “Bone metabolism during adolescence”, “Metabolic complications”, “Brain development, cognition and mental health”, “Reproductive health”, “Viral drug resistance” and “Transition to adult outpatient care”. We hope that this review will support the work of pediatricians, clinicians and infectious diseases specialists that are receiving these subjects to continue treatment. PMID:26279988

  20. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pakfetrat, Atessa; Falaki, Farnaz; Delavarian, Zahra; Dalirsani, Zohreh; Sanatkhani, Majid; Zabihi Marani, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration. Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%). The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+. Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. PMID:25745611

  1. Eosinophilia in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Andrew; Serpa, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilia is not uncommonly encountered in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); particularly at initiation of care or among those with advanced disease. The clinical manifestation most commonly associated with eosinophilia in this patient population is skin rash. Management of these patients is challenging due to a paucity of data evaluating diagnostic testing and therapeutic strategies. Patients born in or with significant travel to parasite-endemic countries are more likely to have tissue-invasive helminthes, such as Strongyloides or Schistosoma. Patients without such risk factors are unlikely to have parasitic infections and frequently will have self-resolution of eosinophilia. When a detailed history, physical exam and diagnostic work-up is unrevealing, we sometimes consider empirical therapy with ivermectin. Praziquantel may also be considered for those at risk for schistosomiasis. PMID:26126686

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Host Defense in the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Charles, Tysheena P; Shellito, Judd E

    2016-04-01

    Immunosuppression associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection impacts all components of host defense against pulmonary infection. Cells within the lung have altered immune function and are important reservoirs for HIV infection. The host immune response to infected lung cells further compromises responses to a secondary pathogenic insult. In the upper respiratory tract, mucociliary function is impaired and there are decreased levels of salivary immunoglobulin A. Host defenses in the lower respiratory tract are controlled by alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. As HIV infection progresses, lung CD4 T cells are reduced in number causing a lack of activation signals from CD4 T cells and impaired defense by macrophages. CD8 T cells, on the other hand, are increased in number and cause lymphocytic alveolitis. Specific antibody responses by B-lymphocytes are decreased and opsonization of microorganisms is impaired. These observed defects in host defense of the respiratory tract explain the susceptibility of HIV-infected persons for oropharyngeal candidiasis, bacterial pneumonia, Pneumocystis pneumonia, and other opportunistic infections. PMID:26974294

  3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of Neural Xenografts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovich, Therese A.; Lazar, Eliot; Blumberg, Benjamin M.; Saito, Yoshihiro; Eskin, Thomas A.; Reichman, Richard; Baram, David A.; del Cerro, Coca; Gendelman, Howard E.; del Cerro, Manuel; Epstein, Leon G.

    1992-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is highly specific for its human host. To study HIV-1 infection of the human nervous system, we have established a small animal model in which second-trimester (11 to 17.5 weeks) human fetal brain or neural retina is transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye of immunosuppressed adult rats. The human xenografts vascularized, formed a blood-brain barrier, and differentiated, forming neurons and glia. The xenografts were infected with cell-free HIV-1 or with HIV-1-infected human monocytes. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction revealed HIV-1 sequences in DNA from xenograft tissue exposed to HIV-1 virions, and in situ hybridization demonstrated HIV-1 mRNA localized in macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Pathological damage was observed only in neural xenografts containing HIV-1-infected human monocytes, supporting the hypothesis that these cells mediate neurotoxicity. This small animal model allows the study of direct and indirect effects of HIV-1 infection on developing human fetal neural tissues, and it should prove useful in evaluating antiviral therapies, which must ultimately target HIV-1 infection of the brain.

  4. Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Marc; Masur, Henry; Kovacs, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The presentation of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in previously healthy men having sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco and New York City in 1981 heralded the beginning of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Despite a decreasing incidence of PCP among patients with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s, PCP remains one of the most common AIDS-defining opportunistic infections in the United States and Western Europe. Newer molecular diagnostic tests in conjunction with standard immunofluorescent or colorimetric tests have allowed for more rapid and accurate diagnosis. Although several effective oral and intravenous therapies exist to treat PCP, mortality rates in HIV-infected individuals remain unacceptably high, especially in those with advanced AIDS. The identification of specific mutations in Pneumocystis genes targeted by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has raised concerns about the development of resistance to the drug of choice and may ultimately lead to greater utilization of alternative therapies to treat PCP in the future. PMID:26974301

  5. Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Staitieh, Bashar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS. Its profound impact on the immune system leaves the host vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic infections not seen in individuals with a competent immune system. Pulmonary infections dominated the presentations in the early years of the epidemic, and infectious and noninfectious lung diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV despite the development of effective antiretroviral therapy. In addition to the long known immunosuppression and infection risks, it is becoming increasingly recognized that HIV promotes the risk of noninfectious pulmonary diseases through a number of different mechanisms, including direct tissue toxicity by HIV-related viral proteins and the secondary effects of coinfections. Diseases of the airways, lung parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature, as well as pulmonary malignancies, are either more frequent in persons living with HIV or have atypical presentations. As the pulmonary infectious complications of HIV are generally well known and have been reviewed extensively, this review will focus on the breadth of noninfectious pulmonary diseases that occur in HIV-infected individuals as these may be more difficult to recognize by general medical physicians and subspecialists caring for this large and uniquely vulnerable population. PMID:24992395

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of the brain.

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, W J; Berger, J R; Kaderman, R; Tornatore, C S; Major, E O

    1993-01-01

    Direct infection of the central nervous system by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of AIDS, was not appreciated in the early years of the AIDS epidemic. Neurological complications associated with AIDS were largely attributed to opportunistic infections that arose as a result of the immunocompromised state of the patient and to depression. In 1985, several groups succeeded in isolating HIV-1 directly from brain tissue. Also that year, the viral genome was completely sequenced, and HIV-1 was found to belong to a neurotropic subfamily of retrovirus known as the Lentivirinae. These findings clearly indicated that direct HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system played a role in the development of AIDS-related neurological disease. This review summarizes the clinical manifestations of HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system and the related neuropathology, the tropism of HIV-1 for specific cell types both within and outside of the nervous system, the possible mechanisms by which HIV-1 damages the nervous system, and the current strategies for diagnosis and treatment of HIV-1-associated neuropathology. Images PMID:8269391

  7. Impact of simian immunodeficiency virus infection on chimpanzee population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rudicell, Rebecca S; Holland Jones, James; Wroblewski, Emily E; Learn, Gerald H; Li, Yingying; Robertson, Joel D; Greengrass, Elizabeth; Grossmann, Falk; Kamenya, Shadrack; Pintea, Lilian; Mjungu, Deus C; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Mosser, Anna; Lehman, Clarence; Collins, D Anthony; Keele, Brandon F; Goodall, Jane; Hahn, Beatrice H; Pusey, Anne E; Wilson, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Like human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) can cause CD4+ T cell loss and premature death. Here, we used molecular surveillance tools and mathematical modeling to estimate the impact of SIVcpz infection on chimpanzee population dynamics. Habituated (Mitumba and Kasekela) and non-habituated (Kalande) chimpanzees were studied in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Ape population sizes were determined from demographic records (Mitumba and Kasekela) or individual sightings and genotyping (Kalande), while SIVcpz prevalence rates were monitored using non-invasive methods. Between 2002-2009, the Mitumba and Kasekela communities experienced mean annual growth rates of 1.9% and 2.4%, respectively, while Kalande chimpanzees suffered a significant decline, with a mean growth rate of -6.5% to -7.4%, depending on population estimates. A rapid decline in Kalande was first noted in the 1990s and originally attributed to poaching and reduced food sources. However, between 2002-2009, we found a mean SIVcpz prevalence in Kalande of 46.1%, which was almost four times higher than the prevalence in Mitumba (12.7%) and Kasekela (12.1%). To explore whether SIVcpz contributed to the Kalande decline, we used empirically determined SIVcpz transmission probabilities as well as chimpanzee mortality, mating and migration data to model the effect of viral pathogenicity on chimpanzee population growth. Deterministic calculations indicated that a prevalence of greater than 3.4% would result in negative growth and eventual population extinction, even using conservative mortality estimates. However, stochastic models revealed that in representative populations, SIVcpz, and not its host species, frequently went extinct. High SIVcpz transmission probability and excess mortality reduced population persistence, while intercommunity migration often rescued infected communities, even when immigrating females had a chance of being SIVcpz infected

  8. Neutralization Properties of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses Infecting Chimpanzees and Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Barbian, Hannah J.; Decker, Julie M.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Galimidi, Rachel P.; West, Anthony P.; Learn, Gerald H.; Parrish, Nicholas F.; Iyer, Shilpa S.; Li, Yingying; Pace, Craig S.; Song, Ruijiang; Huang, Yaoxing; Denny, Thomas N.; Mouquet, Hugo; Martin, Loic; Acharya, Priyamvada; Zhang, Baoshan; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Verrips, C. Theo; Strokappe, Nika M.; Rutten, Lucy; McCoy, Laura E.; Weiss, Robin A.; Brown, Corrine S.; Jackson, Raven; Silvestri, Guido; Connors, Mark; Burton, Dennis R.; Shaw, George M.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Ho, David D.; Farzan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) represent powerful tools to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Here, we examined whether HIV-1-specific bNabs are capable of cross-neutralizing distantly related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting central (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) (SIVcpzPtt) and eastern (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (SIVcpzPts) chimpanzees (n = 11) as well as western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (SIVgor) (n = 1). We found that bNabs directed against the CD4 binding site (n = 10), peptidoglycans at the base of variable loop 3 (V3) (n = 5), and epitopes at the interface of surface (gp120) and membrane-bound (gp41) envelope glycoproteins (n = 5) failed to neutralize SIVcpz and SIVgor strains. In addition, apex V2-directed bNabs (n = 3) as well as llama-derived (heavy chain only) antibodies (n = 6) recognizing both the CD4 binding site and gp41 epitopes were either completely inactive or neutralized only a fraction of SIVcpzPtt strains. In contrast, one antibody targeting the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 (10E8), functional CD4 and CCR5 receptor mimetics (eCD4-Ig, eCD4-Igmim2, CD4-218.3-E51, and CD4-218.3-E51-mim2), as well as mono- and bispecific anti-human CD4 (iMab and LM52) and CCR5 (PRO140, PRO140-10E8) receptor antibodies neutralized >90% of SIVcpz and SIVgor strains with low-nanomolar (0.13 to 8.4 nM) potency. Importantly, the latter antibodies blocked virus entry not only in TZM-bl cells but also in Cf2Th cells expressing chimpanzee CD4 and CCR5 and neutralized SIVcpz in chimpanzee CD4+ T cells, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 3.6 to 40.5 nM. These findings provide new insight into the protective capacity of anti-HIV-1 bNabs and identify candidates for further development to combat SIVcpz infection. PMID:25900654

  9. Update on kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients.

    PubMed

    Nashar, Khaled; Sureshkumar, Kalathil K

    2016-07-01

    Improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with chronic kidney disease following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy resulted in the need to revisit the topic of kidney transplantation in these patients. Large cohort studies have demonstrated favorable outcomes and proved that transplantation is a viable therapeutic option. However, HIV-infected recipients had higher rates of rejection. Immunosuppressive therapy did not negatively impact the course of HIV infection. Some of the immunosuppressive drugs used following transplantation exhibit antiretroviral effects. A close collaboration between infectious disease specialists and transplant professionals is mandatory in order to optimize transplantation outcomes in these patients. Transplantation from HIV(+) donors to HIV(+) recipients has been a subject of intense debate. The HIV Organ Policy Equity act provided a platform to research this area further and to develop guidelines. The first HIV(+) to HIV(+) kidney transplant in the United States and the first HIV(+) to HIV(+) liver transplant in the world were recently performed at the Johns Hopkins University Medical Center. PMID:27458559

  10. Update on kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients

    PubMed Central

    Nashar, Khaled; Sureshkumar, Kalathil K

    2016-01-01

    Improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with chronic kidney disease following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy resulted in the need to revisit the topic of kidney transplantation in these patients. Large cohort studies have demonstrated favorable outcomes and proved that transplantation is a viable therapeutic option. However, HIV-infected recipients had higher rates of rejection. Immunosuppressive therapy did not negatively impact the course of HIV infection. Some of the immunosuppressive drugs used following transplantation exhibit antiretroviral effects. A close collaboration between infectious disease specialists and transplant professionals is mandatory in order to optimize transplantation outcomes in these patients. Transplantation from HIV+ donors to HIV+ recipients has been a subject of intense debate. The HIV Organ Policy Equity act provided a platform to research this area further and to develop guidelines. The first HIV+ to HIV+ kidney transplant in the United States and the first HIV+ to HIV+ liver transplant in the world were recently performed at the Johns Hopkins University Medical Center. PMID:27458559

  11. Perioperative concerns in neurosurgical patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Jyotsna; Ganjoo, Pragati; Hansda, Upendra; Sharma, Megha U.; Tandon, Monica S.; Singh, Daljit

    2016-01-01

    Background: The perioperative management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients undergoing neurosurgery is challenging due to the presence of HIV-related multi-system derangements, opportunistic infections and malignancies, history of substance abuse, and adverse effects of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), together with the inherent risks of neurosurgery. The possible adverse impact of HIV disease on the anesthetic outcome due to the associated co-morbidities, and conversely, the role of surgery and anesthesia in HIV disease progression due to their immunosuppressive effects, and also, the fear of HIV transmission among the attending medical personnel are the important perioperative concerns in such surgeries. Aim: To present our experience in the perioperative management of HIV-infected patients who underwent neurosurgery at our institute in the past 5 years and highlight the relevant perioperative issues. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the records of HIV-infected neurosurgical patients was undertaken to determine their HIV status and ART, anesthesia and surgery details, perioperative complications, and instances of postoperative worsening of HIV disease or its transmission, if any. Results: Seven HIV infected patients with variable severity of HIV infection and systemic disease underwent neurosurgery for different indications. Their perioperative management was modified in accordance with the co-morbidities and the type of neurosurgery. There was no obvious adverse impact of the HIV disease on the anesthetic outcome, no obvious clinical evidence of post-surgery worsening of the HIV disease, and no instance of HIV transmission in our patients. Conclusion: A goodunderstanding of the HIV disease and its perioperative implications during neurosurgery helps in better patient management and enables a safe outcome. PMID:27057214

  12. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in the Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Keyvani, Hossein; Esghaei, Maryam; Zare-Karizi, Shohreh; Dermenaki-Farahani, Sahar-Sadat; Hesami-Zadeh, Khashayar; Fakhim, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new form of chronic HCV infection described by the presence of the genomic HCV-RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples, and undetectable levels or absence of HCV-RNA and in the absence or presence of anti HCV antibodies in the plasma specimens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of occult HCV infection (OCI) among Iranian subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using RT-nested PCR. From March 2014 until April 2015, 109 Iranian patients with established HIV infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After extraction of viral RNA from the plasma and PBMC samples, HCV-RNA status was examined by RT-nested PCR using primers from the 5'-NTR. HCV genotyping was conducted using RFLP analysis. For the confirmation of HCV genotyping by RFLP method, the PCR products were sequenced. Of the 109 patients, 50 were positive for antibodies against HCV. The HCV-RNA was detected in PBMC specimens in 6 (10.2%) out of the total 59 patients negative for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA and also from 4 (8.0%) out of the total 50 patients positive for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA. HCV genotyping analysis showed that 6 (60.0%) patients were infected with HCV subtype 3a, 3 (30.0%) were infected with HCV subtype 1a and 1 (10.0%) patient was infected with HCV subtype 1b. This study revealed the incidence of OCI (9.2%) in HIV-infected Iranian patients. Hence, designing prospective studies focusing on the detection of OCI in these patients would provide more information. J. Med. Virol. 88:1960-1966, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27463051

  13. Conditional Immune Escape during Chronic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gellerup, Dane D.; Balgeman, Alexis J.; Nelson, Chase W.; Ericsen, Adam J.; Scarlotta, Matthew; Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anti-HIV CD8 T cells included in therapeutic treatments will need to target epitopes that do not accumulate escape mutations. Identifying the epitopes that do not accumulate variants but retain immunogenicity depends on both host major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genetics and the likelihood for an epitope to tolerate variation. We previously found that immune escape during acute SIV infection is conditional; the accumulation of mutations in T cell epitopes is limited, and the rate of accumulation depends on the number of epitopes being targeted. We have now tested the hypothesis that conditional immune escape extends into chronic SIV infection and that epitopes with a preserved wild-type sequence have the potential to elicit epitope-specific CD8 T cells. We deep sequenced simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCMs) that were homozygous and heterozygous for the M3 MHC haplotype and had been infected with SIV for about 1 year. When interrogating variation within individual epitopes restricted by M3 MHC alleles, we found three categories of epitopes, which we called categories A, B, and C. Category B epitopes readily accumulated variants in M3-homozygous MCMs, but this was less common in M3-heterozygous MCMs. We then determined that chronic CD8 T cells specific for these epitopes were more likely preserved in the M3-heterozygous MCMs than M3-homozygous MCMs. We provide evidence that epitopes known to escape from chronic CD8 T cell responses in animals that are homozygous for a set of MHC alleles are preserved and retain immunogenicity in a host that is heterozygous for the same MHC alleles. IMPORTANCE Anti-HIV CD8 T cells that are part of therapeutic treatments will need to target epitopes that do not accumulate escape mutations. Defining these epitope sequences is a necessary precursor to designing approaches that enhance the functionality of CD8 T cells with the potential to control virus replication during chronic

  14. Exercise and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, DeSales; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1995-01-01

    The human immune system is highly efficient and remarkably protective when functioning properly. Similar to other physiological systems, it functions best when the body is maintained with a balanced diet, sufficient rest and a moderately stress-free lifestyle. It can be disrupted by inappropriate drug use and extreme emotion or exertion. The functioning of normal or compromised immune systems can be enhanced by properly prescribed moderate exercise conditioning regimens in healthy people, and in some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients but not in others who unable to complete an interval training program. Regular exercise conditioning in healthy people reduces cardiovascular risk factors, increases stamina, facilitates bodyweight control, and reduces stress by engendering positive feelings of well-being. Certain types of cancer may also be suppressed by appropriate exercise conditioning. Various exercise regimens are being evaluated as adjunct treatments for medicated patients with the HIV-1 syndrome. Limited anecdotal evidence from patients suggests that moderate exercise conditioning is per se responsible for their survival well beyond expectancy. HIV-1-infected patients respond positively, both physiologically and psychologically, to moderate exercise conditioning. However, the effectiveness of any exercise treatment programme depends on its mode, frequency, intensity and duration when prescribed o complement the pathological condition of the patient. The effectiveness of exercise conditioning regimens in patients with HIV-1 infection is reviewed in this article. In addition, we discuss mechanisms and pathways, involving the interplay of psychological and physiological factors, through which the suppressed immune system can be enhanced. The immune modulators discussed are endogenous opioids, cytokines, neurotransmitters and other hormones. Exercise conditioning treatment appears to be more effective when combined with other stress management

  15. Novel inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infectivity.

    PubMed

    Beach, Lauren B; Rawson, Jonathan M; Kim, Baek; Patterson, Steven E; Mansky, Louis M

    2014-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infects about two million people worldwide. HIV-2 has fewer treatment options than HIV-1, yet may evolve drug resistance more quickly. We have analysed several novel drugs for anti-HIV-2 activity. It was observed that 5-azacytidine, clofarabine, gemcitabine and resveratrol have potent anti-HIV-2 activity. The EC50 values for 5-azacytidine, clofarabine and resveratrol were found to be significantly lower with HIV-2 than with HIV-1. A time-of-addition assay was used to analyse the ability of these drugs to interfere with HIV-2 replication. Reverse transcription was the likely target for antiretroviral activity. Taken together, several novel drugs have been discovered to have activity against HIV-2. Based upon their known activities, these drugs may elicit enhanced HIV-2 mutagenesis and therefore be useful for inducing HIV-2 lethal mutagenesis. In addition, the data are consistent with HIV-2 reverse transcriptase being more sensitive than HIV-1 reverse transcriptase to dNTP pool alterations. PMID:25103850

  16. Selective Destruction Of Cells Infected With The Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2006-03-28

    Compositions and methods for selectively killing a cell containing a viral protease are disclosed. The composition is a varient of a protein synthesis inactivating toxin wherein a viral protease cleavage site is interposed between the A and B chains. The variant of the type II ribosome-inactivating protein is activated by digestion of the viral protease cleavage site by the specific viral protease. The activated ribosome-inactivating protein then kills the cell by inactivating cellular ribosomes. A preferred embodiment of the invention is specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and uses ricin as the ribosome-inactivating protein. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein is modified by attachment of one or more hydrophobic agents. The hydrophobic agent facilitates entry of the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein into cells and can lead to incorporation of the ribosome-inactivating protein into viral particles. Still another preferred embodiment of the invention includes a targeting moiety attached to the variants of the ribosome-inactivating protein to target the agent to HIV infectable cells.

  17. Selective destruction of cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2003-09-30

    Compositions and methods for selectively killing a cell containing a viral protease are disclosed. The composition is a variant of a protein synthesis inactivating toxin wherein a viral protease cleavage site is interposed between the A and B chains. The variant of the type II ribosome-inactivating protein is activated by digestion of the viral protease cleavage site by the specific viral protease. The activated ribosome-inactivating protein then kills the cell by inactivating cellular ribosomes. A preferred embodiment of the invention is specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and uses ricin as the ribosome-inactivating protein. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein is modified by attachment of one or more hydrophobic agents. The hydrophobic agent facilitates entry of the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein into cells and can lead to incorporation of the ribosome-inactivating protein into viral particles. Still another preferred embodiment of the invention includes a targeting moiety attached to the variants of the ribosome-inactivating protein to target the agent to HIV infectable cells.

  18. REVIEW OF CONTROL OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Dami, N; Shehu, N Y; Dami, S; Iroezindu, M O

    2015-01-01

    The global scourge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is inundating, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular Nigeria which is home to 10% of the world's HIV-infected persons. The target of the millennium development goal 6 is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. HIV control in Nigeria was initially shrouded in denial and apathy. Subsequently, a more pragmatic approach was launched during the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo. Several policies were formulated. The national prevalence of HIV witnessed some progressive decline and is currently 4.1%. There is now improvement in both HIV awareness and counselling and testing. Greater access to antiretroviral therapy and other support services have also been witnessed with over 300,000 persons currently on drugs. Notable achievements have been recorded in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC). However, with increased access to antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral drug resistance has become inevitable. Acquired drug resistance is high-82% and transmitted drug resistance ranges between 0.7 and 4.5%. The achievements were largely facilitated by international partnerships which have become more streamlined in recent years. A sustained shift to indigenously sourced financial and manpower resource has become imperative. It is also important to integrate HIV facilities with other existing health care facilities for sustainability and cost-effectiveness. In an attempt to strengthen the national response, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan launched the President's Comprehensive Response Plan for HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It is hoped that this well-articulated policy would be well implemented to significantly reverse the epidemic. PMID:27487603

  19. Antiretroviral treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection: Swedish recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Eric; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Ahlqvist-Rastad, Jane; Bratt, Göran; Berglund, Torsten; Gisslén, Magnus; Lindbäck, Stefan; Morfeldt, Linda; Ståhle, Lars; Sönnerborg, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The Swedish guidelines (SwG) for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have several important roles. A major task involves the promotion of a uniformly high standard of care in all HIV treatment clinics in Sweden and the identification of strengths, weaknesses and relevance of recent research findings. CD4+ T-cell counts < 200 cells/microl are clear indications for the initiation of treatment, whereas high viral loads serve as an indication for increased vigilance rather than a criterion for therapy. It is recommended that the first regimen consists of 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with 1 protease inhibitor or 1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The definition of treatment failure is rigorous. Treatment change should be considered if the viral load has not fallen by at least 1.5 log in 4 weeks or is undetectable within 3-4 months. Resistance testing is endorsed at primary infection, in the event of treatment failure and in pregnant women. Interaction with experts in HIV resistance testing is emphasized. Therapeutic drug monitoring is advocated. Patients with treatment failure should be handled individually and the decision on therapeutic strategy should be based on treatment history, resistance testing and other clinical facts. The SwG do not give recommendations for some important issues such as prolonged drug holidays and preferences in initial treatment regimens. More scientific data are likely to be available soon and the SwG will be refined accordingly. The present guidelines are translated from Swedish; they are published on the Medical Products Agency (MPA) and Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) websites (www.mpa.se and www.rav.nu.se), including 7 separate papers based on a thorough literature search. A complete reference list is available on request from the MPA. PMID:12751710

  20. Chronic kidney disease in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Fabian, J; Katz, I; Gerntholtz, T; Goetsch, S; Naicker, S

    2007-06-01

    The number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide was estimated to be 39.5 million in 2006, 2.6 million more than in 2004. The manifestations of HIV infection in the kidney are multiple and varied, highlighting the complexity of the disease process. There is a wide spectrum of renal disease that occurs in the course of HIV infection. Biopsy studies reveal varying frequencies of histological patterns. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is most common. A biopsy study at Chris Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, South Africa showed that HIVAN was present in 27% and immune complex disease in 21%. Han et al. studied HIV-positive patients in Durban, South Africa and screened for proteinuria, including microalbuminuria. They found persistent proteinuria in 6%; HIVAN in 21/30 (72.4%) and the prevalence of HIVAN in patients with persistent microalbuminuria was 85.7%. Studies in black patients have shown a higher prevalence of both severe glomerular lesions (focal glomerulosclerosis) and nephrotic range proteinuria with renal dysfunction in the presence of normo-hypotension. There have been no prospective randomised controlled studies with any form of therapy for HIVAN to date. Therapy of HIVAN has included corticosteroids, cyclosporine and antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART appears to be a logical choice in the management of HIV-associated renal disease. Regimens containing protease inhibitors have been shown to be associated with significant slowing of the decline in creatinine clearance. Both peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis are appropriate treatment modalities for HIV-infected patients with end stage renal disease. The choice of dialysis modality between haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis is not a factor in predicting survival, if patients are stable on ART. Preliminary short-term data in case reports and small cohorts of liver, kidney, and heart transplant recipients suggest that patient survival rates may be similar to those in HIV

  1. Metabolic stress in infected cells may represent a therapeutic target for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Menéndez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge

    2013-07-01

    Worldwide, there are thousands of new cases of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection per day. The effectiveness of current combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is relative; to prioritize finding vaccines and/or cure-oriented initiatives should be reinforced because there is little room, if any, for procrastination. Basic and clinical findings on HIV-1 reservoirs suggest that disruption of virus latency is feasible. Because the goal is curing HIV-1 infection, we should be aware that the challenge is to eradicate the viruses of every single infected cell and consequently acting upon virus latency is necessary but not sufficient. The large majority of the virus reservoir, CD4(+) T lymphocytes, is readily accessible but other minor reservoirs, where ART does not diffuse, require innovative strategies. The situation closely resembles that currently faced in the treatment of cancer. Exploiting the fact that histone deacetylase inhibitors, mainly vorinostat, may disrupt the latency of HIV-1, we propose to supplement this effect with a programmed interference in the metabolic stress of infected cells. Metformin and chloroquine are cheap and accessible modulators of pro-survival mechanisms to which viruses are constantly confronted to generate alternative energy sources and maximize virus production. Metformin restrains the use of the usurped cellular biosynthetic machinery by viral genes and chloroquine contributes to death of infected cells. We suggest that the combination of vorinostat, chloroquine and metformin should be combined with ART to pursue viral eradication in infected cells. PMID:23639282

  2. Quantitation of Productively Infected Monocytes and Macrophages of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Claudia R.; Price, Sarah L.; Forsyth, Ellen R.; Pin, Julia N.; Shirk, Erin N.; Bullock, Brandon T.; Queen, Suzanne E.; Li, Ming; Gellerup, Dane; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Zink, M. Christine; Mankowski, Joseph L.; Gama, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a lifelong infection because of latent viral reservoirs in infected patients. The contribution of CD4+ T cells to infection and disease progression has been extensively studied. However, during early HIV infection, macrophages in brain and other tissues are infected and contribute to tissue-specific diseases, such as encephalitis and dementia in brain and pneumonia in lung. The extent of infection of monocytes and macrophages has not been rigorously assessed with assays comparable to those used to study infection of CD4+ T cells and to evaluate the number of CD4+ T cells that harbor infectious viral genomes. To assess the contribution of productively infected monocytes and macrophages to HIV- and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected cells in vivo, we developed a quantitative virus outgrowth assay (QVOA) based on similar assays used to quantitate CD4+ T cell latent reservoirs in HIV- and SIV-infected individuals in whom the infection is suppressed by ART. Myeloid cells expressing CD11b were serially diluted and cocultured with susceptible cells to amplify virus. T cell receptor β RNA was measured as a control to assess the potential contribution of CD4+ T cells in the assay. Virus production in the supernatant was quantitated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Productively infected myeloid cells were detected in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lungs, spleen, and brain, demonstrating that these cells persist throughout SIV infection and have the potential to contribute to the viral reservoir during ART. IMPORTANCE Infection of CD4+ T cells and their role as latent reservoirs have been rigorously assessed; however, the frequency of productively infected monocytes and macrophages in vivo has not been similarly studied. Myeloid cells, unlike lymphocytes, are resistant to the cytopathic effects of HIV. Moreover, tissue

  3. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  4. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  5. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  6. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  7. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  8. Persistent infection of chimpanzees with human immunodeficiency virus: serological responses and properties of reisolated viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Nara, P L; Robey, W G; Arthur, L O; Asher, D M; Wolff, A V; Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C; Fischinger, P J

    1987-01-01

    Persistent infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in the chimpanzee may be valuable for immunopathologic and potential vaccine evaluation. Two HIV strains, the tissue culture-derived human T-cell lymphotropic virus type IIIB (HTLV-IIIB) and in vivo serially passaged lymphadenopathy-associated virus type 1 (LAV-1), were injected intravenously into chimpanzees. Two animals received HTLV-IIIB as either virus-infected H9 cells or cell-free virus. A third animal received chimpanzee-passaged LAV-1. Evaluation of their sera for virus-specific serologic changes, including neutralizations, was done during a 2-year period. During this period all animals had persistently high titers of antibodies to viral core and envelope antigens. All three animals developed a progressively increasing type-specific neutralizing LAV-1 versus HTLV-IIIB antibody titer during the 2-year observation period which broadened in specificity to include HTLV-HIRF, HTLV-IIIMN, and HTLV-IIICC after 6 to 12 months. The antibody titers against both viruses were still increasing by 2 years after experimental virus inoculation. Sera from all animals were capable of neutralizing both homologously and heterologously reisolated virus from chimpanzees. A slightly more rapid type-specific neutralizing response was noted for the animal receiving HTLV-IIIB-infected cells compared with that for cell-free HTLV-IIIB. Sera from all persistently infected chimpanzees were capable of mediating group-specific antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytolysis of HIV-infected cells derived from all isolates tested. Viruses reisolated from all three animals at 20 months after inoculation revealed very similar peptide maps of their respective envelope gp120s, as determined by two-dimensional chymotrypsin oligopeptide analysis. One peptide, however, from the original HTLV-IIIB-inoculated virus was deleted in viruses from all three animals, and in addition, we noted the appearance of a new or modified peptide which

  9. Persistent infection of chimpanzees with human immunodeficiency virus: serological responses and properties of reisolated viruses.

    PubMed

    Nara, P L; Robey, W G; Arthur, L O; Asher, D M; Wolff, A V; Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C; Fischinger, P J

    1987-10-01

    Persistent infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in the chimpanzee may be valuable for immunopathologic and potential vaccine evaluation. Two HIV strains, the tissue culture-derived human T-cell lymphotropic virus type IIIB (HTLV-IIIB) and in vivo serially passaged lymphadenopathy-associated virus type 1 (LAV-1), were injected intravenously into chimpanzees. Two animals received HTLV-IIIB as either virus-infected H9 cells or cell-free virus. A third animal received chimpanzee-passaged LAV-1. Evaluation of their sera for virus-specific serologic changes, including neutralizations, was done during a 2-year period. During this period all animals had persistently high titers of antibodies to viral core and envelope antigens. All three animals developed a progressively increasing type-specific neutralizing LAV-1 versus HTLV-IIIB antibody titer during the 2-year observation period which broadened in specificity to include HTLV-HIRF, HTLV-IIIMN, and HTLV-IIICC after 6 to 12 months. The antibody titers against both viruses were still increasing by 2 years after experimental virus inoculation. Sera from all animals were capable of neutralizing both homologously and heterologously reisolated virus from chimpanzees. A slightly more rapid type-specific neutralizing response was noted for the animal receiving HTLV-IIIB-infected cells compared with that for cell-free HTLV-IIIB. Sera from all persistently infected chimpanzees were capable of mediating group-specific antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytolysis of HIV-infected cells derived from all isolates tested. Viruses reisolated from all three animals at 20 months after inoculation revealed very similar peptide maps of their respective envelope gp120s, as determined by two-dimensional chymotrypsin oligopeptide analysis. One peptide, however, from the original HTLV-IIIB-inoculated virus was deleted in viruses from all three animals, and in addition, we noted the appearance of a new or modified peptide which

  10. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among Mexican human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Torres-Ibarra, Rocio; Gutierrez-Escolano, Fernanda; Vazquez-Rosales, Guillermo; Gomez, Alejandro; Muñoz, Onofre; Torres, Javier; Lira, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the frequency of occult hepatitis B infection (OHBI) in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1+/ hepatitis B surface antigen negative (HBsAg)- patients from Mexico. METHODS: We investigated the presence of OHBI in 49 HIV-1+/HBsAg- patients. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was analyzed using nested PCR to amplify the Core (C) region and by real-time PCR to amplify a region of the S and X genes. The possible associations between the variables and OHBI were investigated using Pearson’s χ2 and/or Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS: We found that the frequency of OHBI was 49% among the group of 49 HIV-1+/HBsAg- patients studied. The presence of OHBI was significantly associated with the HIV-1 RNA viral load [odds ratio (OR) = 8.75; P = 0.001; 95%CI: 2.26-33.79] and with HIV-antiretroviral treatment with drugs that interfere with HBV replication (lamivudine, tenofovir or emtricitabine) (OR = 0.25; P = 0.05; 95%CI: 0.08-1.05). CONCLUSION: The OHBI frequency is high among 49 Mexican HIV-1+/HBsAg- patients and it was more frequent in patients with detectable HIV RNA, and less frequent in patients who are undergoing HIV-ARV treatment with drugs active against HBV. PMID:25309083

  11. Insights into human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis B virus co-infection in India

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Runu; Pal, Ananya

    2015-01-01

    Shared routes of transmission lead to frequent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection in a host which results in about 10% of HIV positive individuals to have chronic hepatitis B infection worldwide. In post-antiretroviral therapy era, liver diseases have emerged as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals and HBV co-infection have become the major health issue among this population particularly from the regions with endemic HBV infection. In setting of HIV-HBV co-infection, HIV significantly impacts the natural history of HBV infection, its disease profile and the treatment outcome in negative manner. Moreover, the epidemiological pattern of HBV infection and the diversity in HBV genome (genotypic and phenotypic) are also varied in HIV co-infected subjects as compared to HBV mono-infected individuals. Several reports on the abovementioned issues are available from developed parts of the world as well as from sub-Saharan African countries. In contrast, most of these research areas remained unexplored in India despite having considerable burden of HIV and HBV infections. This review discusses present knowledge from the studies on HIV-HBV co-infection in India and relevant reports from different parts of the world. Issues needed for the future research relevant to HIV-HBV co-infection in India are also highlighted here, including a call for further investigations on this field of study. PMID:26279986

  12. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, Sneha; Shah, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles), Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis. PMID:26985424

  13. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Sneha; Shah, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles), Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis. PMID:26985424

  14. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Infection and Sensing Capacity during Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jochems, Simon P.; Jacquelin, Beatrice; Chauveau, Lise; Huot, Nicolas; Petitjean, Gaël; Lepelley, Alice; Liovat, Anne-Sophie; Ploquin, Mickaël J.; Cartwright, Emily K.; Bosinger, Steven E.; Silvestri, Guido; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Lebon, Pierre; Schwartz, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in macaques (MAC) lead to chronic inflammation and AIDS. Natural hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM), are protected against SIV-induced chronic inflammation and AIDS. Here, we report that AGM plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) express extremely low levels of CD4, unlike MAC and human pDC. Despite this, AGM pDC efficiently sensed SIVagm, but not heterologous HIV/SIV isolates, indicating a virus-host adaptation. Moreover, both AGM and SM pDC were found to be, in contrast to MAC pDC, predominantly negative for CCR5. Despite such limited CD4 and CCR5 expression, lymphoid tissue pDC were infected to a degree similar to that seen with CD4+ T cells in both MAC and AGM. Altogether, our finding of efficient pDC infection by SIV in vivo identifies pDC as a potential viral reservoir in lymphoid tissues. We discovered low expression of CD4 on AGM pDC, which did not preclude efficient sensing of host-adapted viruses. Therefore, pDC infection and efficient sensing are not prerequisites for chronic inflammation. The high level of pDC infection by SIVagm suggests that if CCR5 paucity on immune cells is important for nonpathogenesis of natural hosts, it is possibly not due to its role as a coreceptor. IMPORTANCE The ability of certain key immune cell subsets to resist infection might contribute to the asymptomatic nature of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in its natural hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM). This relative resistance to infection has been correlated with reduced expression of CD4 and/or CCR5. We show that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) of natural hosts display reduced CD4 and/or CCR5 expression, unlike macaque pDC. Surprisingly, this did not protect AGM pDC, as infection levels were similar to those found in MAC pDC. Furthermore, we show that AGM pDC did not consistently produce type I

  15. Intraoral herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alessandro; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2013-10-01

    We report a challenging case of an atypical presentation of recrudescent herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency. Oral infections in immunosuppressed patients may present with unusual clinical features that can mimic non-infectious diseases. This report discusses the diagnostic steps necessary for definitive diagnosis and to guide appropriate and effective management. PMID:23933299

  16. Cutaneous Co-infected Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Perigenital Ulcers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Jason; Cannon, Sarah; Cam, Kristin; Keller, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    There is uncertainty regarding the pathogenic nature of cytomegalovirus in cutaneous lesions co-infected with herpes simplex virus. It is widely believed that herpes simplex virus is the main pathogenic factor in such lesions and that cytomegalovirus plays little if any role. There are, however, isolated case reports that describe cytomegalovirus as an important driving pathogen in such lesions. The authors present two human immunodeficiency virus patients who have cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus co-infected perigenital ulcers, one of whom improved on valacyclovir, while the other, who was already on valacyclovir for chronic herpes simplex virus suppression, showed no improvement with a single dose of cidofovir. He only showed rapid improvement when treated with valganciclovir. The latter patient underscores the viewpoint that at least in some cases, cytomegalovirus may be an important driving force behind the formation of such lesions. The authors therefore recommend that clinicians be aware of the possible pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus in these ulcers, and, in nonhealing ulcers, use anti-cytomegalovirus agents to prevent the onset of systemic disease. These results warrant further study of the pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus in co-infected herpes simplex virus ulcers. PMID:24155993

  17. Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Disruption through Altered Mucosal MicroRNA Expression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gaulke, Christopher A.; Porter, Matthew; Han, Yan-Hong; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Grishina, Irina; George, Michael D.; Dang, Angeline T.; Ding, Shou-Wei; Jiang, Guochun; Korf, Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epithelial barrier dysfunction during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has largely been attributed to the rapid and severe depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although it is known that changes in mucosal gene expression contribute to intestinal enteropathy, the role of small noncoding RNAs, specifically microRNA (miRNA), has not been investigated. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primate model of HIV pathogenesis, we investigated the effect of viral infection on miRNA expression in intestinal mucosa. SIV infection led to a striking decrease in the expression of mucosal miRNA compared to that in uninfected controls. This decrease coincided with an increase in 5′-3′-exoribonuclease 2 protein and alterations in DICER1 and Argonaute 2 expression. Targets of depleted miRNA belonged to molecular pathways involved in epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and immune response. Decreased expression of several miRNA involved in maintaining epithelial homeostasis in the gut was localized to the proliferative crypt region of the intestinal epithelium. Our findings suggest that SIV-induced decreased expression of miRNA involved in epithelial homeostasis, disrupted expression of miRNA biogenesis machinery, and increased expression of XRN2 are involved in the development of epithelial barrier dysfunction and gastroenteropathy. IMPORTANCE MicroRNA (miRNA) regulate the development and function of intestinal epithelial cells, and many viruses disrupt normal host miRNA expression. In this study, we demonstrate that SIV and HIV disrupt expression of miRNA in the small intestine during infection. The depletion of several key miRNA is localized to the proliferative crypt region of the gut epithelium. These miRNA are known to control expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell death, and epithelial maturation. Our data indicate that this disruption might be caused by altered expression of mi

  18. Shedding of Hepatitis C Virus in Semen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Samuel S.; Gianella, Sara; Yip, Marcus J-S.; van Seggelen, Wouter O.; Gillies, Robert D.; Foster, Andrew L.; Barbati, Zachary R.; Smith, Davey M.; Fierer, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The epidemic of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) has been documented for over a decade. Despite this, there is no consensus as to the risk factors for sexual acquisition of HCV in these men. Methods. We obtained paired semen and blood samples at 2-week intervals from HIV-infected MSM with recent and chronic HCV infection and quantified HCV in semen. Results. Hepatitis C virus was quantified in 59 semen specimens from 33 men. Hepatitis C virus was shed in 16 (27%) of semen specimens from 11 (33%) of the men. Median HCV viral load (VL) in semen was 1.49 log10 IU/mL. Hepatitis C virus VL in blood was significantly higher at the time of HCV shedding in semen than when HCV shedding in semen was not detected (P = .002). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the HCV VL in blood and semen overall (rs = 0.41; P = .001), and in the subgroup with recent HCV infection (rs = 0.37; P = .02), but not in the subgroup with chronic HCV infection (rs = 0.34; P = .1). Conclusions. One third of HIV-infected MSM coinfected with HCV shed HCV into their semen. Based on the HCV VL in semen in this study, an average ejaculate would deliver up to 6630 IU of virus into the rectum of the receptive partner. Therefore, our data strongly support that condoms should be used during anal intercourse among MSM to prevent transmission of HCV. PMID:27186582

  19. Hepatitis B virus coinfection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hsin-Yun; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Tsai, Mao-Song; Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Due to the shared modes of transmission, coinfection with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not uncommon. It is estimated that 10% of HIV-infected patients worldwide are coinfected with HBV. In areas where an HBV vaccination program is implemented, the HBV seroprevalence has declined significantly. In HIV/HBV-coinfected patients, HBV coinfection accelerates immunologic and clinical progression of HIV infection and increases the risk of hepatotoxicity when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is initiated, while HIV infection increases the risk of hepatitis events, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease related to chronic HBV infection. With the advances in antiviral therapy, concurrent, successful long-term suppression of HIV and HBV replication can be achieved in the cART era. To reduce the disease burden of HBV infection among HIV-infected patients, adoption of safe sex practices, avoidance of sharing needles and diluent, HBV vaccination and use of cART containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine or lamivudine are the most effective approaches. However, due to HIV-related immunosuppression, using increased doses of HBV vaccine and novel approaches to HBV vaccination are needed to improve the immunogenicity of HBV vaccine among HIV-infected patients. PMID:25356024

  20. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Mason, Andrew; Luftig, Ronald B; Bautista, Abraham P

    2002-07-01

    Approximately 400,000 individuals in the United States are co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and it is likely that almost one in two of these subjects consumes alcohol. The majority of these patients suffer an accelerated course of liver disease as manifested by the onset of cirrhosis within 5 to 10 years of developing HCV infection, as well as an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is thought that chronic alcohol abuse mediates liver damage as a result of increased production of free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines. In the setting of chronic HCV infection, alcohol ingestion has an additional effect of diminishing immune clearance and increasing viral burden to hasten the onset of cirrhosis and HCC. Likewise, chronic HCV and HIV-1 co-infection results in a net increase in HCV burden; higher prevalence rates of HCV transmission to sexual partners and offspring, as well as an accelerated progression to end stage liver disease as compared to individuals with HCV infection alone. Thus, the synergistic effects of alcohol abuse and HIV-1 greatly impact on the morbidity and mortality for patients with HCV coinfection. Ultimately, this cumulative disease process will require far more aggressive management with abstinence and counseling for alcohol abuse; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection and combination anti-viral therapy for HCV infection to stem the rapid progression to end stage liver disease. PMID:12086918

  1. Inhibition of apoptosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells enhances virus production and facilitates persistent infection.

    PubMed Central

    Antoni, B A; Sabbatini, P; Rabson, A B; White, E

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis is one of several mechanisms by which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exerts its cytopathic effects. CD4+ Jurkat T-cell lines overexpressing the adenovirus E1B 19K protein, a potent inhibitor of apoptosis, were used to examine the consequences of inhibition of apoptosis during acute and chronic HIV-1 infections. E1B 19K protein expression inhibited HIV-induced apoptosis, enhanced virus production, and established high levels of persistent viral infection. One E1B 19K-expressing line appeared to undergo HIV-induced death via a nonapoptotic mechanism, illustrating that HIV infection results in lymphocyte depletion through multiple pathways. Increased virus production associated with sustained cell viability suggests that therapeutic approaches involving inhibition of HIV-induced programmed cell death may be problematic. PMID:7884884

  2. Quality of life among human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected and human immunodeficiency virus-1/hepatitis C virus co-infected individuals in Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Sabouri, Sarah; Delavar, Ali; Jabbari, Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the quality of life (QOL) of people infected with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The study design was a cross sectional descriptive survey, using self administered questionnaires. Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 242 patients (131 of them HIV/HCV), Iranian adults (aged 18–57) living with HIV/AIDS, was recruited from outpatient referring to Imam Khomeini Hospital behavioral counseling center in Tehran city, Iran. The instruments included the Multidimensional QOL HIV (MQoL HIV) and a demographic section. Results: The majority of the samples were male and single. The mean age was 36.52 years (standard deviation = 8.5). HIV mono infected patients reported higher scores in social support and physical functioning, but lower scores in physical health compared with HIV/HCV co infected individuals. There was no significant difference in overall MQOL HIV score between HIV and HIV/HCV patients. Conclusion: Future studies will need to explore the impact of HCV on HIV infected individuals' QOL.

  3. Evaluation of Serum Creatinine Changes With Integrase Inhibitor Use in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lindeman, Tara A.; Duggan, Joan M.; Sahloff, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective chart review evaluated changes in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance (CrCl) after initiation of an integrase inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimen as initial treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Serum creatinine and CrCl changes were similar to those seen in clinical trials for INSTIs. No renal-related serious adverse events or discontinuations occurred. PMID:27092314

  4. Syphilis? An Unusual Cause of Surgical Emergency in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Man

    PubMed Central

    Bender Ignacio, Rachel A.; Koch, Lisa L.; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Charmie Godornes, B.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a human immunodeficiency virus-infected man undergoing urgent anorectal surgery, with multi-centimeter fungating masses discovered inside the anus. Initial pathology was inconclusive. After the patient developed a disseminated rash postoperatively determined to be secondary syphilis, the anorectal pathology was reviewed and Treponema pallidum DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the mass. PMID:26213693

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection despite prior immunization with a recombinant envelope vaccine regimen.

    PubMed Central

    McElrath, M J; Corey, L; Greenberg, P D; Matthews, T J; Montefiori, D C; Rowen, L; Hood, L; Mullins, J I

    1996-01-01

    With efforts underway to develop a preventive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine, it remains unclear which immune responses are sufficient to protect against infection and whether prior HIV-1 immunity can alter the subsequent course of HIV-1 infection. We investigated these issues in the context of a volunteer who received six HIV-1LAI envelope immunizations and 10 weeks thereafter acquired HIV-1 infection through a high-risk sexual exposure. In contrast to nonvaccinated acutely infected individuals, anamnestic HIV-1-specific B- and T-cell responses appeared within 3 weeks in this individual, and neutralizing antibody preceded CD8+ cytotoxic responses. Despite an asymptomatic course and an initial low level of detectable infectious virus, a progressive CD4+ cell decline and dysfunction occurred within 2 years. Although vaccination elicited immunity to HIV-1 envelope, which was recalled upon HIV-1 exposure, it was insufficient to prevent infection and subsequent immunodeficiency. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8633000

  6. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infections in a cat with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shelton, G H; McKim, K D; Cooley, P L; Dice, P F; Russell, R G; Grant, C K

    1989-01-15

    Lymphoma was diagnosed in a 7-year-old domestic cat found to be infected with FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The cat was affected by chronic disorders suggestive of immunosuppression, including gingivitis, periodontitis, keratitis, and abscesses. Despite treatment, peripheral keratitis of the left eye progressed, resulting in uveitis, chronic glaucoma, and eventual corneal rupture. Microscopic retinal and optic disk pathologic processes also were suspected. Abnormal jaw movements that were believed to be indicative of neurologic disease were observed. Approximately 17 months later, the cat developed generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and bilateral renomegaly. Lymphoblastic lymphoma and glomerulonephritis were diagnosed histologically. Manganese- and magnesium-dependent reverse transcriptase activity were detected in supernatants from lymph node and spleen mononuclear cell cultures, suggesting T-lymphocyte infection with FeLV and FIV. PMID:2537274

  7. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  8. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  9. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  10. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  11. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  12. Reevaluation of possible outcomes of infections with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Tamalet, C; Colson, P; Decroly, E; Dhiver, C; Ravaux, I; Stein, A; Raoult, D

    2016-04-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that HIV infection can result in several possible incomes, including a very small proportion of individuals whose HIV replication is controlled after treatment interruption (known as HIV posttreatment controllers) or spontaneously without any treatment (known as HIV elite controllers). Both types of individuals are HIV RNA negative but HIV DNA positive, with living virus which can be stimulated ex vivo. A review was conducted to assess the literature on yet rarer cases with detectable integrated HIV DNA without HIV infectious virus in HIV-seropositive or -negative individuals. Three categories of patients were identified: (a) HIV-seropositive individuals with apparent spontaneous cure from their HIV infection, (b) HIV-seronegative children born to HIV-infected mothers and (c) highly exposed seronegative adults. Validity criteria were proposed to assess the presence of integrated HIV DNA as possible or unquestionable in these three categories. Only three articles among the 22 ultimately selected fulfilled these criteria. Among the highly exposed seronegative subjects, some individuals were described as being without integrated HIV DNA, probably because these subjects were not investigated using relevant, highly sensitive methods. Finally, we propose a definition of spontaneous cure of HIV infection based on clinical, immunologic and virologic criteria. PMID:26794031

  13. Natural History of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Children of Mothers Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Jenson, Hal; McIntosh, Kenneth; Pitt, Jane; Husak, Scott; Tan, Ming; Bryson, Yvonne; Easley, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in 556 infants born to 517 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1–infected mothers was studied in a prospective, multicenter, cohort study. HIV-1–infected children had a cumulative EBV infection rate similar to HIV-1–uninfected children at age 3 years (77.8% vs. 84.9%) but had more frequent oropharyngeal EBV shedding (50.4% vs. 28.2%; P < .001). The probability of shedding decreased with longer time from EBV seroconversion and was similar to that of HIV-1–uninfected children 3 years after seroconversion. HIV-1–infected children identified as rapid progressors shed EBV more frequently than nonrapid progressors (69.4% vs.41.0%; P = .01). HIV-1–infected children with EBV infection had higher mean CD8 cell counts. EBV infection did not have an independent effect on mean CD4 cell counts, percent CD4, IgG levels, HIV-1 RNA levels, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, or splenomegaly. Early EBV infection is common in children born to HIV-1–infected mothers. Children with rapidly progressive HIV-1 disease have more frequent EBV shedding. PMID:10228060

  14. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/µl and a poor adherence to HAART. PMID:26933317

  15. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/µl and a poor adherence to HAART. PMID:26933317

  16. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started. PMID:25948844

  17. Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus during early infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M A; Kingsley, L A; Atchison, R W; Belle, S; Breinig, M C; Ho, M; Rinaldo, C R

    1991-01-01

    Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was investigated in 49 homosexual men who seroconverted to HIV (cases) as compared with 49 matched controls who remained seronegative to HIV during a longitudinal study. EBV infection was reactivated in cases 6 months, but not 12 months, prior to HIV seroconversion as compared with controls and remained reactivated during 18 months of follow-up after HIV seroconversion, as shown by increases in immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody titers to EBV early antigen. Antibody titers to EBV viral capsid antigen did not differ between cases and controls prior to the time of seroconversion to HIV but were significantly increased among cases by the first seropositive study visit and remained elevated during the 18 months after HIV seroconversion. Total serum IgG levels were increased in cases at the visit of seroconversion, and during 18 months of follow-up, but did not correlate with enhanced IgG production specific for EBV antigens. Significant decreases in numbers of CD4+ cells and increases in numbers of CD8+ cells during this early phase of HIV infection were not associated with changes in patterns of EBV antibody responses. Reactivation of EBV beginning 6 months before HIV seroconversion may have implications regarding the role of this herpesvirus in the pathogenesis of HIV. PMID:1650790

  18. Lymphadenopathy in macaques experimentally infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).

    PubMed Central

    Chalifoux, L. V.; Ringler, D. J.; King, N. W.; Sehgal, P. K.; Desrosiers, R. C.; Daniel, M. D.; Letvin, N. L.

    1987-01-01

    A T-cell tropic lentivirus of macaques the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), has morphologic, growth, and antigenic properties that indicate that it is related to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the etiologic agent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. Six juvenile macaques developed persistent lymphadenopathy (greater than 3 months in duration) after inoculation with SIV. The histologic appearance of the lymph nodes was characterized by marked follicular hyperplasia with abundant proliferative B cells infiltrating into the paracortex. The number of T8-positive lymphocytes equaled or exceeded the number of T4-positive lymphocytes in the paracortex. These findings, in association with immunologic abnormalities and a previously observed fatal immunodeficiency syndrome in SIV-infected macaques, provide further evidence of the importance of SIV-induced disease in macaques as a model for the study of AIDS. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3037910

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    PubMed

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  20. Antiviral drugs other than zidovudine and immunomodulating therapies in human immunodeficiency virus infection. An overview.

    PubMed

    Clumeck, N; Hermans, P

    1988-08-29

    Although the management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infections has focused on the treatment of opportunistic infections, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related cancers in end stages of the disease, therapies now aim at preventing the natural progression of the underlying disease. In addition to zidovudine many investigational drugs are proposed to treat AIDS-related complex patients. Most of these therapies can be divided into two major groups: (1) The first group includes agents with antiretroviral properties: nucleoside analogues, such as 2'-3'-dideoxycytidine and ribavirin, suramin, antimoniotungstate (heteropolyanion-23), foscarnet (phosphonoformate), interferons, peptide T, castanospermine, dextran sulfate, AL721, or ampligen. (2) The second group aims to restore the defective immune system; it includes thymosin (thymopentin), interleukin-2, cyclosporine, plasmapheresis, bone marrow transplantation, inosine, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, methionine-enkephalin and carrisyn. At present, no drug other than zidovudine has proved as monotherapy to lengthen survival of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. PMID:2457313

  1. Delayed Infection after Immunization with a Peptide from the Transmembrane Glycoprotein of the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, J.; Moraillon, A.; Crespeau, F.; Baud, S.; Sonigo, P.; Pancino, G.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in the quantitative assessment of viral burden, by permitting the extension of criteria applied to assess the efficacy of vaccines from all-or-none protection to diminution of the viral burden, may allow the identification of original immunogens of value in combined vaccines. Peptides corresponding to three domains of the envelope glycoproteins of feline immunodeficiency virus that are recognized during natural infection were used to immunize cats. After challenge with a primary isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus, the development of acute infection was monitored by quantitative assessment of the viral burden in plasma and tissues by competitive reverse transcription-PCR, by measurement of the humoral response developed to viral components, and by lymphocyte subset analysis. Whereas immunization with two peptides derived from the surface glycoprotein had no effect on the early course of infection, immunization with a peptide derived from the transmembrane glycoprotein delayed infection, as reflected by a diminished viral burden in the early phase of primary infection and delayed seroconversion. This peptide, located in the membrane-proximal region of the extracellular domain, has homology to an epitope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recognized by a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that lentivirus transmembrane glycoproteins share a determinant in the juxtamembrane ectodomain which could be of importance in the design of vaccines against AIDS. PMID:9499101

  2. Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with expansion of the enteric virome

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Scott; Thackray, Larissa B.; Zhao, Guoyan; Presti, Rachel; Miller, Andrew; Droit, Lindsay; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Stanley, Kelly; Kramer, Joshua; Macri, Sheila C.; Permar, Sallie R.; Schmitz, Joern E.; Mansfield, Keith; Brenchley, Jason M.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Wang, David; Barouch, Dan H.; Virgin, Herbert W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with enteropathy which likely contributes to AIDS progression. To identify candidate etiologies for AIDS enteropathy, we used next generation sequencing to define the enteric virome during SIV infection in nonhuman primates. Pathogenic, but not non-pathogenic, SIV infection was associated with significant expansion of the enteric virome. We identified at least 32 previously undescribed enteric viruses during pathogenic SIV infection and confirmed their presence using viral culture and PCR testing. We detected unsuspected mucosal adenovirus infection associated with enteritis as well as parvovirus viremia in animals with advanced AIDS, indicating the pathogenic potential of SIV-associated expansion of the enteric virome. No association between pathogenic SIV infection and the family-level taxonomy of enteric bacteria was detected. Thus, enteric viral infections may contribute to AIDS enteropathy and disease progression. These findings underline the importance of metagenomic analysis of the virome for understanding AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:23063120

  3. Plasma viral RNA load predicts disease progression in accelerated feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, L J; Mathiason-Dubard, C K; O'Neil, L L; Hoover, E A

    1996-01-01

    Viral RNA load has been shown to indicate disease stage and predict the rapidity of disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. We had previously demonstrated that feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) RNA levels in plasma correlate with disease stage in infected cats. Here we expand upon those observations by demonstrating that plasma virus load is 1 to 2 logs higher in cats with rapidly progressive FIV disease than in long-term survivors. Differences in plasma FIV RNA levels are evident by 1 to 2 weeks after infection and are consistent throughout infection. We also evaluated humoral immune responses in FIV-infected cats for correlation with survival times. Total anti-FIV antibody titers did not differ between cats with rapidly progressive FIV disease and long-term survivors. These findings indicate that virus replication plays an important role in FIV disease progression, as it does in HIV-1 disease progression. The parallels in virus loads and disease progressions between HIV-1 and FIV support the idea that the accelerated disease model is well suited for the study of therapeutic agents directed at reducing lentiviral replication. PMID:8642679

  4. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected infant

    PubMed Central

    McCollum, E. D.; Smith, A.; Golitko, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY World Health Organization-classified very severe pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jirovecii infection is recognized as a life-threatening condition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected infants. We recount the use of nasal bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) in an HIV-infected African infant with very severe pneumonia and treatment failure due to suspected infection with P. jirovecii. We also examine the potential implications of BCPAP use in resource-poor settings with a high case index of acute respiratory failure due to HIV-related pneumonia, but limited access to mechanical ventilation. PMID:21396221

  5. [Non-dermatophytic moulds: onychomycosis in four patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    de Magalhães Lima, Kedma; Machado Barbosa de Castro, Célia Maria; Fonsêca Nogueira Cambuim, Idalina Inês; Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Jeferson; Delgado, Marília; Sette de Melo Rego, Rossana

    2008-03-01

    Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a risk group for onychomycosis, fungal infections caused mainly by dermatophytes and yeast. However, non-dermatohytic moulds are becoming common agents for nail infections in this population of patients. We report four cases of onychomycosis caused by non-dermatophytic moulds (Aspergillus niger, Scytalidium hyalinum, Scytalidium dimidiatum and Fusarium solani) in patients infected with HIV from Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Onychomicosis by non-dermatophytic species in HIV-positive patients requires special attention in the clinical and the laboratory. A proper diagnosis is necessary to establish the specific and adequate treatment, preventing fungal invasion. PMID:18338928

  6. Efficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection of cells lacking PDZD8.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shijian; Sodroski, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    PDZD8 can bind the capsid proteins of different retroviruses, and transient knockdown of PDZD8 results in a decrease in the efficiency of an early, post-entry event in the retrovirus life cycle. Here we used the CRISPR-CAS9 system to create cell lines in which PDZD8 expression is stably eliminated. The PDZD8-knockout cell lines were infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and murine leukemia virus as efficiently as the parental PDZD8-expressing cells. These results indicate that PDZD8 is not absolutely necessary for HIV-1 infection and diminishes its attractiveness as a potential target for intervention. PMID:25771112

  7. Biology of anemia, differential diagnosis, and treatment options in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Claster, Susan

    2002-05-15

    Anemia is the most common hematologic manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The causes of HIV-related anemia are multifactorial and include direct and indirect effects of HIV infection. HIV-related anemia generally is due to reduced red blood cell (RBC) production, secondary to a variety of causes, but it may also involve nutritional deficiencies, increased RBC destruction, or a combination of these problems. Evaluation of hemoglobin level, reticulocyte count, bilirubin, and mean corpuscular volume value and review of the peripheral blood smear are necessary for diagnosis. Treatment of HIV-related anemia should address the correctable underlying causes of this disorder, such as modifications of offending medications, nutritional deficiencies, and parvovirus infection. Patients with HIV infection have a blunted erythropoietin response to anemia. Therapeutic modalities for anemia that is not amenable to correction include blood transfusion and recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin alfa). PMID:12001030

  8. Sweat gland carcinoma in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Toi, M; Kauffman, L; Peterson, L; Golitz, L; Myers, A

    1995-02-01

    Eccrine (sweat gland) carcinoma is a rare form of skin cancer that may be locally destructive. It is known to recur after resection and can metastasize to regional or distant lymph nodes. There have been two reported cases in association with patients immunocompromised as the result of organ transplantation (I. Penn: Prog Allergy. 37: 259, 1986). We report here the first case of sweat gland carcinoma in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:7539911

  9. The cytoplasmic domain of simian immunodeficiency virus transmembrane protein modulates infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, L; Emerman, M; Tiollais, P; Sonigo, P

    1989-01-01

    A striking characteristic of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is the presence of a nonsense mutation in the env gene resulting in the synthesis of a truncated transmembrane protein lacking the cytoplasmic domain. By mutagenesis of an infectious molecular clone of SIVmac142, we investigated the function of the cytoplasmic domain and the significance of the env nonsense mutation. When the nonsense codon (TAG) was replaced by a glutamine codon (CAG), the virus infected HUT78 cells with markedly delayed kinetics. This negative effect was counterselected in vitro as reversion of the slow phenotype frequently occurred. The sequencing of one revertant revealed the presence of a new stop codon three nucleotides 5' to the original mutation. Deletions or an additional nonsense mutation introduced 3' to the original stop codon did not modify SIV infectivity. In contrast, the same deletions or nonsense mutation introduced in the clone in which the stop codon was replaced by CAG abolished infectivity. These results indicated that the envelope domain located 3' to the stop codon is not necessary for in vitro replication. However, the presence of this domain in SIV transmembrane protein leads to a reduced infectivity. This negative effect might correspond to a function controlling the rate of spread of the virus during in vivo infection. Images PMID:2778881

  10. Small-Molecule Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection by Virus Capsid Destabilization▿

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiong; Zhou, Jing; Shah, Vaibhav B.; Aiken, Christopher; Whitby, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is dependent on the proper disassembly of the viral capsid, or “uncoating,” in target cells. The HIV-1 capsid consists of a conical multimeric complex of the viral capsid protein (CA) arranged in a hexagonal lattice. Mutations in CA that destabilize the viral capsid result in impaired infection owing to defects in reverse transcription in target cells. We describe here the mechanism of action of a small molecule HIV-1 inhibitor, PF-3450074 (PF74), which targets CA. PF74 acts at an early stage of HIV-1 infection and inhibits reverse transcription in target cells. We show that PF74 binds specifically to HIV-1 particles, and substitutions in CA that confer resistance to the compound prevent binding. A single point mutation in CA that stabilizes the HIV-1 core also conferred strong resistance to the virus without inhibiting compound binding. Treatment of HIV-1 particles or purified cores with PF74 destabilized the viral capsid in vitro. Furthermore, the compound induced the rapid dissolution of the HIV-1 capsid in target cells. PF74 antiviral activity was promoted by binding of the host protein cyclophilin A to the HIV-1 capsid, and PF74 and cyclosporine exhibited mutual antagonism. Our data suggest that PF74 triggers premature HIV-1 uncoating in target cells, thereby mimicking the activity of the retrovirus restriction factor TRIM5α. This study highlights uncoating as a step in the HIV-1 life cycle that is susceptible to small molecule intervention. PMID:20962083

  11. Complete genome analysis of hepatitis B virus in human immunodeficiency virus infected and uninfected South Africans.

    PubMed

    Gededzha, Maemu P; Muzeze, Muxe; Burnett, Rosemary J; Amponsah-Dacosta, Edina; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Selabe, Selokela G

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are highly endemic in South Africa. Data on the complete genome sequences of HBV in HIV-positive patients in South Africa are scanty. This study characterized the complete HBV genome isolated from both HIV-positive and negative patients at the Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH), Pretoria. Serum samples from nine (five HIV-positive and four HIV-negative) patients attending the DGMAH from 2007 to 2011 were serologically tested, amplified, and sequenced for complete genome. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA6.0. Mutations were analyzed by comparing the sequences with genotype-matched GenBank references. Eight patients were HBsAg positive, with only one from the HIV positive group being negative. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome sequences classified them into five genotypes; A1 (n = 4), A2 (n = 1), C1 (n = 2), D1 (n = 1), and D3 (n = 1). Deletions up to 35 nucleotides in length were identified in this study. No drug resistance mutations were identified in the P ORF, while the L217R mutation was identified in one subgenotype A2 sequence. The double (A1762T/G1764A) and triple (T1753C/A1762T/G1764A) mutations in the Basal core promoter were identified in four and two sequences, respectively. In the core region, mutation G1888A was identified in four of the subgenotype A1 sequences. In conclusion, this study has added to the limited South African data on HBV genotypes and mutations in HBV/HIV co-infected and HBV mono-infected patients, based on complete HBV genome analysis. Subgenotype A1 was predominant, and no drug-resistant mutants were detected in the study. J. Med. Virol. 88:1560-1566, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890489

  12. Small-molecule inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection by virus capsid destabilization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiong; Zhou, Jing; Shah, Vaibhav B; Aiken, Christopher; Whitby, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is dependent on the proper disassembly of the viral capsid, or "uncoating," in target cells. The HIV-1 capsid consists of a conical multimeric complex of the viral capsid protein (CA) arranged in a hexagonal lattice. Mutations in CA that destabilize the viral capsid result in impaired infection owing to defects in reverse transcription in target cells. We describe here the mechanism of action of a small molecule HIV-1 inhibitor, PF-3450074 (PF74), which targets CA. PF74 acts at an early stage of HIV-1 infection and inhibits reverse transcription in target cells. We show that PF74 binds specifically to HIV-1 particles, and substitutions in CA that confer resistance to the compound prevent binding. A single point mutation in CA that stabilizes the HIV-1 core also conferred strong resistance to the virus without inhibiting compound binding. Treatment of HIV-1 particles or purified cores with PF74 destabilized the viral capsid in vitro. Furthermore, the compound induced the rapid dissolution of the HIV-1 capsid in target cells. PF74 antiviral activity was promoted by binding of the host protein cyclophilin A to the HIV-1 capsid, and PF74 and cyclosporine exhibited mutual antagonism. Our data suggest that PF74 triggers premature HIV-1 uncoating in target cells, thereby mimicking the activity of the retrovirus restriction factor TRIM5α. This study highlights uncoating as a step in the HIV-1 life cycle that is susceptible to small molecule intervention. PMID:20962083

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C co-infection in sub-Saharan West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mboto, C I; Davies, A; Fielder, M; Jewell, A P

    2006-01-01

    Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is becoming a major global problem, leading to increased morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Co-existence in sub-Saharan West Africa of a high prevalence of HIV and HCV, which share similar behavioural risk factors and modes of transmission, must be seen in the broader context of an emerging third epidemic of HIV and HCV co-infection, as many factors that may affect the spread of HIV and HCV co-infection are endemic in the continent, including host factors such as sexual behaviour, presence of other sexually transmitted diseases, female and male circumcision status, percutaneous and perinatal exposure, and poverty. This review examines the epidemiology, risk factors and transmission of HIV and HCV co-infection and draws attention to the possible emergence of an epidemic of HIV and HCV co-infection in the region. PMID:16613141

  14. [Gastric uptake of gallium67 in the human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Escalera Temprado, T; Banzo Marraco, J; Abós Olivares, M D; Olave Rubio, M T; Prats Rivera, E; García López, F; Razola Alba, P

    2004-02-01

    Nowadays, the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is a chronic disease. In the frequent clinical situations with fever, lymph nodes and loss weight it is necessary to determine their etiology, for establishing a specific treatment. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections or gastric lymphomatous or sarcomatous process, which can accumulate Ga67, may be present in the patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report 2 cases with gastric uptake in which endoscopy and biopsy was obtained. In the first one, with previous treatment with omeprazol and almalgate for gastroesophagic reflux, endoscopy and biopsy were normal and in the second patient an Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed. We think that gastric uptake of Ga67 in HIV patients, must indicate to the clinician to rule out associated pathologies. PMID:14974895

  15. Domestic cats infected with lion or puma lentivirus develop anti-feline immunodeficiency virus immune responses.

    PubMed

    VandeWoude, Sue; Hageman, Catherine L; Hoover, Edward A

    2003-09-01

    Attenuated live viral strains have afforded significant protection against virus challenge in HIV vaccine models. Although both cellular and humoral immunity are assumed to be vital for protection, specific parameters consistently associated with control of infection have been elusive. Our previous studies have shown that lentiviruses from 2 nondomestic feline species--lion (Pathera leo) and puma (Felis concolor)--persistently but nonpathogenetically infect domestic cats (Felis domestica). Moreover, infection with either the puma lentivirus (PLV) or lion lentivirus (LLV) conferred partial protection against superinfection with virulent feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), the feline equivalent of HIV. To determine whether domestic cats infected by the lentiviruses of pumas or lions generate cross-reactive immune responses, we infected groups of 5 domestic cats with PLV, LLV, or a sham control and then monitored virus load, hematologic parameters, antibody protection, proliferative responses, and the ability of blood mononuclear cells to inhibit LLV, PLV, and FIV replication in vitro. All cats inoculated with LLV or PLV developed persistent infection, and low-level cell-associated viremia has been previously described. Infected cats also generated robust antibody titers and lymphocytes that proliferated in response to viral antigens and downregulated PLV, LLV, and FIV replication in vitro. This latter activity was CD8 cell associated for PLV and LLV inhibition but not for FIV inhibition. Thus, cats infected with the phylogenetically more ancient and less pathogenic feline lentiviruses generated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses reactive against both the homologous viruses and the heterologous FIV of domestic cats, which correlated with decreased viral load. These results are analogous to protection studies with attenuated primate immunodeficiency viruses and provide a system by which to examine adaptation, interference, and cross protection among

  16. Whole body positron emission tomography imaging of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Scharko, A M; Perlman, S B; Hinds PW2nd; Hanson, J M; Uno, H; Pauza, C D

    1996-01-01

    Pathogenesis of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques begins with acute viremia and then progresses to a distributed infection in the solid lymphoid tissues, which is followed by a process of cellular destruction leading to terminal disease and death. Blood and tissue specimens show the progress of infection at the cellular level but do not reveal the pattern of infection and host responses occurring throughout the body. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with intravenous 2-18F-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) could identify activated lymphoid tissues in a living animal and whether this pattern would reflect the extent of SIV infection. PET images from SIV-infected animals were distinguishable from uninfected controls and revealed a pattern consistent with widespread lymphoid tissue activation. Significant FDG accumulation in colon along with mesenteric and ileocaecal lymph nodes was found in SIV infection, especially during terminal disease stages. Areas of elevated FDG uptake in the PET images were correlated with productive SIV infection using in situ hybridization as a test for virus replication. PET-FDG images of SIV-infected animals correlated sites of virus replication with high FDG accumulation. These data show that the method can be used to evaluate the distribution and activity of infected tissues in a living animal without biopsy. Fewer tissues had high FDG uptake in terminal animals than midstage animals, and both were clearly distinguishable from uninfected animal scans. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8692831

  17. Molecular Evolution Analysis of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope in Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques: Implications for Challenge Dose Selection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Mariana; Landskron, Lisa; Lai, Rachel P. J.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Bogers, Willy M.; Verschoor, Ernst J.; Dubbes, Rob; Barnett, Susan W.; Frost, Simon D. W.; Heeney, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Since the demonstration that almost 80% of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections result from the transmission of a single variant from the donor, biological features similar to those of HIV mucosal transmission have been reported for macaques inoculated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Here we describe the early diversification events and the impact of challenge doses on viral kinetics and on the number of variants transmitted in macaques infected with the chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIVsf162p4. We show that there is a correlation between the dose administered and the number of variants transmitted and that certain inoculum variants are preferentially transmitted. This could provide insight into the viral determinants of transmission and could aid in vaccine development. Challenge through the mucosal route with high doses results in the transmission of multiple variants in all the animals. Such an unrealistic scenario could underestimate potential intervention measures. We thus propose the use of molecular evolution analysis to aid in the determination of challenge doses that better mimic the transmission dynamics seen in natural HIV-1 infection. PMID:21795341

  18. Human Discs Large Is a New Negative Regulator of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Perugi, Fabien; Muriaux, Delphine; Ramirez, Bertha Cecilia; Chabani, Sabah; Decroly, Etienne; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Blot, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication is positively or negatively regulated through multiple interactions with host cell proteins. We report here that human Discs Large (Dlg1), a scaffold protein recruited beneath the plasma membrane and involved in the assembly of multiprotein complexes, restricts HIV-1 infectivity. The endogenous Dlg1 and HIV-1 Gag polyprotein spontaneously interact in HIV-1-chronically infected T cells. Depleting endogenous Dlg1 in either adherent cells or T cells does not affect Gag maturation, production, or release, but it enhances the infectivity of progeny viruses five- to sixfold. Conversely, overexpression of Dlg1 reduces virus infectivity by ∼80%. Higher virus infectivity upon Dlg1 depletion correlates with increased Env content in cells and virions, whereas the amount of virus-associated Gag or genomic RNA remains identical. Dlg1 knockdown is also associated with the redistribution and colocalization of Gag and Env toward CD63 and CD82 positive vesicle-like structures, including structures that seem to still be connected to the plasma membrane. This study identifies both a new negative regulator that targets the very late steps of the HIV-1 life cycle, and an assembly pathway that optimizes HIV-1 infectivity. PMID:18946087

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and diffuse polyneuropathy. Implications for rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Mukand, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    Patients at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection require rehabilitation services. These patients present problems for each of the disciplines in a rehabilitation team, and all team members must confront the psychosocial and ethical issues involved with the disease. Patients with HIV infection may have polyneuropathy with multisystem involvement, including dysphagia, autonomic dysfunction, respiratory failure, bowel and bladder dysfunction, generalized weakness, a painful sensory neuropathy, and depression. Guidelines are presented for determining if inpatient rehabilitation or other settings are appropriate. Case management is a valuable strategy for the rehabilitation of patients with this complicated disorder. PMID:1866948

  20. Visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Ara, M; Maillo, C; Peón, G; Clavel, A; Cuesta, J; Grasa, M P; Carapeto, F J

    1998-07-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) with cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The cutaneous lesions consisted of erythematous papules on the legs. Biopsy of one lesion showed abundant Leishmania amastigotes within epithelial cells of an eccrine sweat gland in the dermis. Leishmania organisms were also found in a blood smear. Rapid and complete clearance of the cutaneous lesions was achieved after antimony therapy. Cutaneous lesions in VL are being reported increasingly frequently in patients with HIV infection and their significance remains in discussion. PMID:9764161

  1. Bilateral Peripheral Facial Palsy in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Su; Yoon, Hee Jung; Kim, Hai Jin; Nam, Ji Sun; Choi, Sung Ho; Kim, June Myung

    2006-01-01

    Neurological complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. They can occur at any stage of the disease and can affect any level of the central or peripheral nervous systems. In the literature, several cases of HIV-associated facial paralysis have been reported; however, bilateral facial palsy is rarely reported. In this paper, we present the first case in Korea, of a bilateral facial palsy occurring as the first clinical manifestation of HIV infection. PMID:17066521

  2. CD4-independent infection of human neural cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Harouse, J M; Kunsch, C; Hartle, H T; Laughlin, M A; Hoxie, J A; Wigdahl, B; Gonzalez-Scarano, F

    1989-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that central nervous system-derived cells can be infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To determine whether CD4, the receptor for HIV-1 in lymphoid cells, was responsible for infection of neural cells, we characterized infectable human central nervous system tumor lines and primary fetal neural cells and did not detect either CD4 protein or mRNA. We then attempted to block infection with anti-CD4 antibodies known to block infection of lymphoid cells; we noted no effect on any of these cultured cells. The results indicate that CD4 is not the receptor for HIV-1 infection of the glioblastoma line U373-MG, medulloblastoma line MED 217, or primary human fetal neural cells. Images PMID:2786088

  3. Critical Care in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Akgün, Kathleen M; Miller, Robert F

    2016-04-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) survival has been improved significantly for HIV-infected patients since the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Non-AIDS conditions account for the majority of ICU admission diagnoses in areas with access to ART. However, opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia still account for a significant proportion of ICU admissions, particularly in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients, and are associated with increased ICU mortality. We discuss risk factors and outcomes for HIV-infected admitted to the ICU in the current ART era. We review the changing patterns in ICU admission diagnoses over time and how common ICU conditions are managed in HIV-infected compared with uninfected patients. We next address issues specific to the care for HIV-infected patients in the ICU, focusing on immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, ART continuation or initiation, and some common and potentially life-threatening ART-associated toxicities. PMID:26974306

  4. A Patient Presenting with Tuberculous Encephalopathy and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jason; Afroz, Suraiya; French, Eric; Mehta, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 33 Final Diagnosis: Tuberculous meningitis, human immunodeficiency virus infection Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Lumbar puncture Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: In the USA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is more likely to be found in foreign-born individuals, and those co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more likely to have tuberculous meningitis. The literature is lacking in details about the clinical workup of patients presenting with tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features who are co-infected with HIV. This report demonstrates a clinical approach to diagnosis and management of tuberculous meningitis. Case Report: A 33-year-old Ecuadorean man presented with altered consciousness and constitutional symptoms. During the workup he was found to have tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features and concurrent HIV infection. Early evidence for tuberculosis meningitis included lymphocytic pleocytosis and a positive interferon gamma release assay. A confirmatory diagnosis of systemic infection was made based on lymph node biopsy. Imaging studies of the neck showed scrofula and adenopathy, and brain imaging showed infarctions, exudates, and communicating hydrocephalus. Treatment was started for tuberculous meningitis, while antiretroviral therapy for HIV was started 5 days later in combination with prednisone, given the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Conclusions: A clinical picture consistent with tuberculous meningitis includes constitutional symptoms, foreign birth, lymphocytic pleocytosis, specific radiographic findings, and immunodeficiency. Workup for tuberculous meningitis should include MRI, HIV screening, and cerebral spinal fluid analysis. It is essential to treat co-infection with HIV and to assess for IRIS. PMID:27302013

  5. Syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection.

    PubMed Central

    Funnyé, Allen S.; Akhtar, Abbasi J.

    2003-01-01

    Co-infection of syphilis and AIDS has profound implications for the African American community. The purpose of this review is to: evaluate the historical background of HIV and syphilis and their similarities in pathogenesis; review the epidemiology of syphilis and HIV co-infection, and implications for continued prevention efforts; examine the effect of syphilis on HIV transmission and acquisition; and, to examine the effects of HIV infection on syphilis transmission, diagnostic and serologic changes, clinical course, and treatment. The prevalence of HIV is higher in those with syphilis; moreover, the prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection is highest in African Americans. There may be humoral and cellular immune similarities. HIV may affect the transmission of syphilis, alter its serologic diagnosis, and accelerate and change the clinical course and response to treatment. In conclusion, combined infection of HIV and syphilis may alter the clinical presentation and course of either disease. There are historical and immunologic similarities and the high prevalence in African Americans compared to other groups is of great importance for prevention efforts. PMID:12793793

  6. Cardiac Complications in Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Starc, Thomas J.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Kaplan, Samuel; Easley, Kirk A.; Bricker, J. Timothy; Colan, Steven D.; Lai, Wyman W.; Gersony, Welton M.; Sopko, George; Moodie, Douglas S.; Schluchter, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although numerous cardiac abnormalities have been reported in HIV-infected children, precise estimates of the incidence of cardiac disease in these children are not well-known. The objective of this report is to describe the 2-year cumulative incidence of cardiac abnormalities in HIV-infected children. Methodology: Design Prospective cohort (Group I) and inception cohort (Group II) study design. Setting A volunteer sample from 10 university and public hospitals. Participants Group I consisted of 205 HIV vertically infected children enrolled at a median age of 22 months. This group was comprised of infants and children already known to be HIV-infected at the time of enrollment in the study. Most of the children were African-American or Hispanic and 89% had symptomatic HIV infection at enrollment. The second group included 611 neonates born to HIV-infected mothers, enrolled during fetal life or before 28 days of age (Group II). In contrast to the older Group I children, all the Group II children were enrolled before their HIV status was ascertained. Interventions According to the study protocol, children underwent a series of cardiac evaluations including two-dimensional echocardiogram and Doppler studies of cardiac function every 4 to 6 months. They also had a 12-or 15-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG), 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, and a chest radiograph every 12 months. Outcome Measures Main outcome measures were the cumulative incidence of an initial episode of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, cardiac enlargement, and congestive heart failure (CHF). Because cardiac abnormalities tended to cluster in the same patients, we also determined the number of children who had cardiac impairment which we defined as having either left ventricular fractional shortening (LV FS) ≤25% after 6 months of age, CHF, or treatment with cardiac medications. Results: Cardiac Abnormalities In Group I children (older cohort), the prevalence of decreased LV function

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and its association with sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Pinto Neto, Lauro Ferreira da Silva; Sales, Marina Cerqueira; Scaramussa, Eduarda Sobral; da Paz, Clara Junia Calazans; Morelato, Renato Lirio

    2016-01-01

    Presarcopenia and sarcopenia were evaluated in HIV-infected individuals and in healthy elderly controls according to the consensus definitions of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Bioelectrical impedance, a hydraulic hand dynamometer, and gait speed were used to evaluate muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, respectively. Adjusted and unadjusted binary logistic regression predicted the risk of sarcopenia. Predictor contribution was assessed by the Wald test. Significance was established at p≤0.05. The HIV-infected group consisted of 33 patients on treatment (42.4% women; mean age 59±7 years; mean BMI 25±6kg/m(2); viral load undetectable in 30 cases). The HIV-uninfected group consisted of 60 individuals (71.7% women; mean age 70±7 years; mean BMI 28±6kg/m(2)). Of the controls, 4 (6.7%) individuals had presarcopenia and 4 (6.7%) sarcopenia compared to 4 (12.1%) and 8 (24.2%), respectively, in the HIV-infected group. The HIV-infected patients had a 4.95 higher risk (95% CI: 1.34-18.23) for sarcopenia compared to the controls. It should be pointed out that the control group was on average 10 years older. This risk increased further (RR=5.20; 95% CI: 1.40-19.20) after adjusting for age and BMI. HIV-infected patients were shown to be at a greater risk of sarcopenia, an indicator of frailty, even following adjustment for age and BMI. PMID:26626165

  8. A Patient Presenting with Tuberculous Encephalopathy and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Jason; Afroz, Suraiya; French, Eric; Mehta, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the USA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is more likely to be found in foreign-born individuals, and those co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more likely to have tuberculous meningitis. The literature is lacking in details about the clinical workup of patients presenting with tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features who are co-infected with HIV. This report demonstrates a clinical approach to diagnosis and management of tuberculous meningitis. CASE REPORT A 33-year-old Ecuadorean man presented with altered consciousness and constitutional symptoms. During the workup he was found to have tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features and concurrent HIV infection. Early evidence for tuberculosis meningitis included lymphocytic pleocytosis and a positive interferon gamma release assay. A confirmatory diagnosis of systemic infection was made based on lymph node biopsy. Imaging studies of the neck showed scrofula and adenopathy, and brain imaging showed infarctions, exudates, and communicating hydrocephalus. Treatment was started for tuberculous meningitis, while anti-retroviral therapy for HIV was started 5 days later in combination with prednisone, given the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). CONCLUSIONS A clinical picture consistent with tuberculous meningitis includes constitutional symptoms, foreign birth, lymphocytic pleocytosis, specific radiographic findings, and immunodeficiency. Workup for tuberculous meningitis should include MRI, HIV screening, and cerebral spinal fluid analysis. It is essential to treat co-infection with HIV and to assess for IRIS. PMID:27302013

  9. Retinal blood flow indices in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Yung, C W; Harris, A; Massicotte, S; Chioran, G; Krombach, G; Danis, R; Wolf, S

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Abnormal blood flow dynamics are believed to contribute to the development of retinal microvascular disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this study, the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) was used, combined with fluorescein angiography, to measure retinal blood flow indices in HIV seropositive patients. METHODS: Arteriovenous passage time (AVP) and perifoveal capillary blood flow velocity (CFV) were measured in 23 HIV infected patients and 23 control subjects with SLO fluorescein angiography. RESULTS: No significant difference in AVP was found between the two groups. However, CFV was significantly reduced in HIV infected patients (p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Patients infected with HIV show abnormal haemodynamics at the level of the perifoveal capillaries. PMID:8949717

  10. CD4+ T Cell Depletion in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Role of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Février, Michèle; Dorgham, Karim; Rebollo, Angelita

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is principally a mucosal disease and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the major site of HIV replication. Loss of CD4+ T cells and systemic immune hyperactivation are the hallmarks of HIV infection. The end of acute infection is associated with the emergence of specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and the establishment of a chronic phase of infection. Abnormal levels of immune activation and inflammation persist despite a low steady state level of viremia. Although the causes of persistent immune hyperactivation remain incompletely characterized, physiological alterations of gastrointestinal tract probably play a major role. Failure to restore Th17 cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) might impair the recovery of the gut mucosal barrier. This review discusses recent advances on understanding the contribution of CD4+ T cell depletion to HIV pathogenesis. PMID:21994747

  11. Epidemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among intravenous drug users (IVDU).

    PubMed Central

    D'Aquila, R. T.; Williams, A. B.

    1987-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is epidemic among intravenous drug users (IVDU), particularly in the northeastern United States. IVDU are playing a critical role in the spread of HIV by infecting their heterosexual partners and children, as well as their needle-sharing partners. The epidemiology of HIV infection among IVDU is reviewed here, including a compilation of seroprevalence data. Relevant determinants of the future spread of HIV among IVDU are discussed, including the major risk factors for HIV seropositivity, the modes of HIV transmission, and aspects of the natural history of HIV infection in IVDU. The public health policy implications of these issues include the need for education of adolescents and the general public about the risks of drug injection and heterosexual intercourse with IVDU, as well as motivation of IVDU to stop injecting, never share injection paraphernalia, or, at least, clean needles effectively. PMID:3324506

  12. Progressive immune dysfunction in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Torten, M; Franchini, M; Barlough, J E; George, J W; Mozes, E; Lutz, H; Pedersen, N C

    1991-01-01

    Within 6 months of infection with the Petaluma isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus, specific-pathogen-free domestic cats exhibited a decrease in the percentage and number of circulating CD4+ lymphocytes and in the CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio, along with a marginally significant depression of pokeweed mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. There was no loss of responsiveness to concanavalin A during this stage, and the cats were capable of mounting a satisfactory antibody response to a T-dependent, synthetic polypeptide immunogen. The pokeweed mitogen response deficit became clearly demonstrable by 11 to 12 months postinfection. A decline in the lymphocyte proliferative response to concanavalin A and a diminished ability to mount an in vivo antibody response to the T-dependent immunogen evolved by 25 to 44 months postinfection. Virus infection did not affect the ability of cats to mount an antibody response to a T-independent synthetic polypeptide immunogen. These data indicate that feline immunodeficiency virus produces a slowly progressive deterioration of T-cell function but does not affect the ability of B cells to recognize and respond to a T-independent antigenic stimulus. PMID:1673159

  13. Antibodies to CD4 in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, M; Ardman, B; Basiripour, L; Lu, Y C; Blohm, D; Haseltine, W; Sodroski, J

    1989-01-01

    The attachment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to target cells is mediated by a specific interaction between the viral envelope glycoprotein (gp120) and the CD4 receptor. Here we report that approximately 10% of HIV-1-infected individuals produce antibodies that recognize the extracellular portion of the CD4 molecule. Carboxyl-terminal deletions of CD4 that do not affect HIV-1 gp120 binding eliminate recognition of CD4 by patient antisera. In contrast, mutations in the amino-terminal domain of CD4 that attenuate HIV-1 gp120 binding do not diminish CD4 recognition by patient antisera. These results suggest that HIV-1 infection can generate antibodies directed against a region of the viral receptor distinct from the virus-binding domain. Images PMID:2541442

  14. The gut microbiome in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Zmora, Niv; Itav, Shlomik; Bashiardes, Stavros; Elinav, Hila; Elinav, Eran

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS causes severe dysfunction of the immune system through CD4+ T cell depletion, leading to dysregulation of both the adaptive and innate immune arms. A primary target for viral infection is the gastrointestinal tract, which is a reservoir of CD4+ T cells. In addition to being a major immune hub, the human gastrointestinal tract harbors trillions of commensal microorganisms, the microbiota, which have recently been shown to play critical roles in health. Alterations in the composition and function of microbiota have been implicated in a variety of 'multi-factorial' disorders, including infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, and neoplastic disorders. It is widely accepted that, in addition to its direct role in altering the gastrointestinal CD4+ T cell compartment, HIV infection is characterized by gut microbiota compositional and functional changes. Herein, we review such alterations and discuss their potential local and systemic effects on the HIV-positive host, as well as potential roles of novel microbiota-targeting treatments in modulating HIV progression and associated adverse systemic manifestations. PMID:27256449

  15. Decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates in Kombolcha, Ethiopia: a 10-year data review

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Sinishaw, Mulusew Alemneh; Yesuf, Yohannes Amede

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is one of the most serious public health and development challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. A particular challenge for prevention strategies has been the emergence of hotspot areas. Therefore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome programs should not be based on national level statistics, but need to be more focused geographically. Kombolcha is one of the high spot areas with different projects and development corridors. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the trend of HIV infection rates among patients who visited Africa Service Committee clinic from 2005 to 2014. Methods An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to January 30, 2016. All records of new patients enrolled from February 8, 2005 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed. Data on sociodemographic information, risky sexual behavior, and HIV test result were collected from each study participant using data collection format. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors of HIV infection. Results The overall HIV infection was 10.8% (2,233/20,674). The rate of infection varied from 13.3% in 2005 to 4.5% in 2014, and its trend had significantly declined from 2008 to 2014. Urban residence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–5.25), patients who ever had intercourse with penetration (AOR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.11–28.57), and those who had marriage experience (AOR: 11.65; 95% CI: 4.2–32.3) were more infected with HIV. Conclusion The trend of HIV infection significantly reduced in the last 10 years in Kombolcha area. However, the HIV infection still remains high (4.5%) that needs intervention of those who had marriage experience, risky sexual behavior, and urban dwellers. PMID:27462177

  16. A rare case of verrucous carcinoma of penis in an human immunodeficiency virus- infected patient

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Tonita Mariola; Girisha, Banavasi S.; Bhat, Shubha P.; Christy, Carol M.; Handattu, Sripathi; Fernandes, Michelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. Verrucous carcinoma is a peculiarly slow evolving, but relentlessly expanding variant of epidermoid carcinoma that is extremely reluctant to metastasize. A 60-year-old unmarried male patient presented with urethral discharge of 3 weeks duration. Dorsal slit of the prepuce revealed an ulceroproliferative growth measuring 3 cm × 3 cm arising from prepuce and involving glans. Biopsy from the growth in the prepuce showed histopathological features of verrucous carcinoma. Partial amputation of the penis was done. Human papillomavirus DNA by polymerase chain reaction was negative. The patient was started on antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26692616

  17. Cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A true or perceived risk?

    PubMed Central

    Shahbaz, Shima; Manicardi, Marcella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raggi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    After the successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral agents the survival of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developed countries has increased substantially. This has allowed the surfacing of several chronic diseases among which cardiovascular disease (CVD) is prominent. The pathogenesis of CVD in HIV is complex and involves a combination of traditional and HIV related factors. An accurate assessment of risk of CVD in these patients is still elusive and as a consequence the most appropriate preventive and therapeutic interventions remain controversial. PMID:26516417

  18. Toxic epidermal necrolysis caused by fluconazole in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    George, Jacob; Sharma, Arun; Dixit, Ramakant; Chhabra, Naveen; Sharma, Smita

    2012-07-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare but serious dermatologic disorders. These grave conditions present as medical emergency, requiring prompt diagnosis and management. These are often drug induced and various groups of drugs, such as sulfa drugs, NSAIDS, etc., have been implicated as to cause TEN. Fluconazole is a commonly used drug with mild side effects. TEN caused by fluconazole is rare, and till now only few cases have been reported in the literature. We present a case of TEN in a human immunodeficiency virus infected man following fluconazole therapy in view of its rare occurrence. PMID:23129968

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. PMID:22028995

  20. Living Related Donor Renal Transplant in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patient: Case Reports from Tertiary Care Hospital in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Sonal; Patel, Atul K; Patel, Ketan K; Shukla, Ketan D; Darji, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Renal transplantation (TX) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasingly performed in developed countries in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Management of HIV infected patients during and post-transplant is very complex and challenging due to drug interaction, infection risk and associated co-infections. We described our experience with living related donor renal TX in three HIV infected patients. PMID:25191053

  1. Living related donor renal transplant in human immunodeficiency virus infected patient: case reports from tertiary care hospital in Western India.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Sonal; Patel, Atul K; Patel, Ketan K; Shukla, Ketan D; Darji, Prakash

    2014-07-01

    Renal transplantation (TX) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasingly performed in developed countries in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Management of HIV infected patients during and post-transplant is very complex and challenging due to drug interaction, infection risk and associated co-infections. We described our experience with living related donor renal TX in three HIV infected patients. PMID:25191053

  2. Broadly Neutralizing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibody Gene Transfer Protects Nonhuman Primates from Mucosal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Kevin O.; Wang, Lingshu; Joyce, M. Gordon; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Balazs, Alejandro B.; Cheng, Cheng; Ko, Sung-Youl; Kong, Wing-Pui; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Duan, Lijie; Foulds, Kathryn E.; Donaldson, Mitzi; Xu, Ling; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Todd, John-Paul; Baltimore, David; Roederer, Mario; Haase, Ashley T.; Kwong, Peter D.; Rao, Srinivas S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) can prevent lentiviral infection in nonhuman primates and may slow the spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Although protection by passive transfer of human bnAbs has been demonstrated in monkeys, durable expression is essential for its broader use in humans. Gene-based expression of bnAbs provides a potential solution to this problem, although immune responses to the viral vector or to the antibody may limit its durability and efficacy. Here, we delivered an adeno-associated viral vector encoding a simianized form of a CD4bs bnAb, VRC07, and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy. The expressed antibody circulated in macaques for 16 weeks at levels up to 66 μg/ml, although immune suppression with cyclosporine (CsA) was needed to sustain expression. Gene-delivered simian VRC07 protected against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in monkeys 5.5 weeks after treatment. Gene transfer of an anti-HIV antibody can therefore protect against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when the host immune responses are controlled. IMPORTANCE Sustained interventions that can prevent HIV-1 infection are needed to halt the spread of the HIV-1 pandemic. The protective capacity of anti-HIV antibody gene therapy has been established in mouse models of HIV-1 infection but has not been established for primates. We show here a proof-of-concept that gene transfer of anti-HIV antibody genes can protect against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when host immune responses are controlled. PMID:26041300

  3. Productive Infection of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: Implications for Vector Development

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, James; Power, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus causing immune suppression and neurological disease in cats. Like primate lentiviruses, FIV utilizes the chemokine receptor CXCR4 for infection. In addition, FIV gene expression has been demonstrated in immortalized human cell lines. To investigate the extent and mechanism by which FIV infected primary and immortalized human cell lines, we compared the infectivity of two FIV strains, V1CSF and Petaluma, after cell-free infection. FIV genome was detected in infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and macrophages at 21 and 14 days postinfection, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis of FIV-infected human PBMC indicated that antibodies to FIV p24 recognized 12% of the cells. Antibodies binding the CCR3 chemokine receptor maximally inhibited infection of human PBMC by both FIV strains compared to antibodies to CXCR4 or CCR5. Reverse transcriptase levels increased in FIV-infected human PBMC, with detection of viral titers of 101.3 to 102.1 50% tissue culture infective doses/106 cells depending on the FIV strain examined. Cell death in human PBMC infected with either FIV strain was significantly elevated relative to uninfected control cultures. These findings indicate that FIV can productively infect primary human cell lines and that viral strain specificity should be considered in the development of an FIV vector for gene therapy. PMID:9971834

  4. Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    De, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4+ cell count drops below 200 cells/μl, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections. PMID:23961436

  5. School placement for human immunodeficiency virus-infected children: the Baltimore City experience.

    PubMed

    Santelli, J S; Birn, A E; Linde, J

    1992-05-01

    Over the past 6 years, the city of Baltimore has successfully implemented a school placement policy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Both policy and specific procedures are based on nationally promulgated guidelines. School placement policy is part of an overall AIDS policy that includes education of students and staff and adoption of universal precautions to prevent transmission of communicable diseases in school. Implementation has been marked by excellent collaboration between the departments of health and education. Important policy components include expedited clinical investigation of each case, an interagency review panel, strict protection of confidentiality, a restricted setting for certain children, a school site visit for each placement, and continued monitoring of the school placement by school nurses. Many HIV-infected students need special educational services and/or school health services. The Baltimore City school placement process has avoided the exaggerated publicity endured by some communities, where media reporting has aggravated community fears and invaded the lives of families with HIV-infected children. Baltimore City has succeeded in ensuring access to education, protecting families' confidentiality, and providing special care for HIV-infected students. Local communities should emphasize national guidelines in designing school placement policies for HIV-infected children. School placement policies work best in the context of a comprehensive policy incorporating AIDS education and care. PMID:1579392

  6. Pros and cons of liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients

    PubMed Central

    Baccarani, Umberto; Righi, Elda; Adani, Gian Luigi; Lorenzin, Dario; Pasqualucci, Alberto; Bassetti, Matteo; Risaliti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Before the introduction of combined highly active antiretroviral therapy, a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serological status represented an absolute contraindication for solid organ transplant (SOT). The advent of highly effective combined antiretroviral therapy in 1996 largely contributed to the increased demand for SOT in HIV-positive individuals due to increased patients’ life expectancy associated with the increasing prevalence of end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Nowadays, liver failure represents a frequent cause of mortality in the HIV-infected population mainly due to coinfection with hepatitis viruses sharing the same way of transmission. Thus, liver transplantation (LT) represents a reasonable approach in HIV patients with stable infection and ESLD. Available data presently supports with good evidence the practice of LT in the HIV-positive population. Thus, the issue is no longer “whether it is correct to transplant HIV-infected patients”, but “who are the patients who can be safely transplanted” and “when is the best time to perform LT”. Indeed, the benefits of LT in HIV-infected patients, especially in terms of mid- and long-term patient and graft survivals, are strictly related to the patients’ selection and to the correct timing for transplantation, especially when hepatitis C virus coinfection is present. Aim of this article is to review the pros and cons of LT in the cohort of HIV infected recipients. PMID:24833865

  7. Iron supplementation during human immunodeficiency virus infection: a double-edged sword?

    PubMed

    Clark, T D; Semba, R D

    2001-10-01

    Although iron supplementation is considered beneficial for groups at risk for anemia, concern has been raised that it could be harmful during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Studies suggest: (1) faster HIV disease progression in thalassemia major patients receiving inadequate doses of iron-chelating drug; (2) higher mortality among patients receiving iron supplementation with dapsone compared with aerosolized pentamidine for prophylaxis against Pneumocytis carinii pneumonia; (3) higher iron stores and mortality among patients with haptoglobin Hp 2-2 phenotype; and (4) shorter survival among patients with high bone marrow iron deposition. These studies largely involved men in developed countries. Among HIV-infected pregnant women in Africa with a high prevalence of iron deficiency, no relationship was found between indicators of iron status and HIV disease severity. The available data do not contraindicate the current practice of iron supplementation in developing countries where there is a high prevalence of both HIV infection and iron deficiency. PMID:11601873

  8. Isolated and bilateral simultaneous facial palsy disclosing early human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Sathirapanya, Pornchai

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral lower motor neuron type facial palsy is an unusual neurological disorder. There are few reports that associate it with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on initial presentation. A 51-year-old married woman, who was previously healthy and had no risk of HIV infection, presented solely with bilateral simultaneous facial palsy. A positive HIV serology test was confirmed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Following a short course of oral prednisolone, the patient recovered completely from facial palsy in three months, even though an antiretroviral treatment was suspended. Exclusion of HIV infection in patients with bilateral facial palsy is essential for early diagnosis and management of HIV. PMID:26106247

  9. Human colon epithelial cells productively infected with human immunodeficiency virus show impaired differentiation and altered secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Fantini, J; Yahi, N; Baghdiguian, S; Chermann, J C

    1992-01-01

    Selected strains of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 are able to infect human colon epithelial cells in vitro, suggesting a mechanism for the anal route of HIV transmission. In some cases, HIV is not produced by infected colon cells but can be rescued after coculture with T-lymphoid cells. One of the HIV strains (HIV1-NDK) replicated well in colonic cells. A transmission electron microscope study demonstrated two major structural perturbations in producer colon cells: an unusual number of secretion bodies and the appearance of intracellular lumina with disorganized microvilli, indicating a defect in brush border assembly and differentiation. Either abnormality could account for HIV-induced enteropathy consisting of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption in the absence of enteric pathogens. Moreover, HT29 cells infected with HIV provide a unique model for selection of enterotropic HIV strains. Images PMID:1727501

  10. Visualization and quantification of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected cells using non-invasive molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiasheng; Cai, Zhengxin; White, Alexander G; Jin, Tao; Wang, Xiaolei; Kadayakkara, Deepak; Anderson, Carolyn J; Ambrose, Zandrea; Young, Won-Bin

    2015-10-01

    In vivo imaging can provide real-time information and three-dimensional (3D) non-invasive images of deep tissues and organs, including the brain, whilst allowing longitudinal observation of the same animals, thus eliminating potential variation between subjects. Current in vivo imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI), can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of target cells, which is urgently needed for revealing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dissemination in real-time and HIV-1 reservoirs during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). To demonstrate that in vivo imaging can be used to visualize and quantify simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-transduced cells, we genetically engineered SIV to carry different imaging reporters. Based on the expression of the reporter genes, we could visualize and quantify the SIV-transduced cells via vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyping in a mouse model using BLI, PET-CT or MRI. We also engineered a chimeric EcoSIV for in vivo infection study. Our results demonstrated that BLI is sensitive enough to detect as few as five single cells transduced with virus, whilst PET-CT can provide 3D images of the spatial location of as few as 10 000 SIV-infected cells. We also demonstrated that MRI can provide images with high spatial resolution in a 3D anatomical context to distinguish a small population of SIV-transduced cells. The in vivo imaging platform described here can potentially serve as a powerful tool to visualize lentiviral infection, including when and where viraemia rebounds, and how reservoirs are formed and maintained during latency or suppressive ART. PMID:26297664

  11. Quality of different in-clinic test systems for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Katrin; Griessmayr, Pascale; Schulz, Bianka; Greene, Craig E; Vidyashankar, Anand N; Jarrett, Os; Egberink, Herman F

    2007-12-01

    Many new diagnostic in-house tests for identification of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) infection have been licensed for use in veterinary practice, and the question of the relative merits of these kits has prompted comparative studies. This study was designed to define the strengths and weaknesses of seven FIV and eight FeLV tests that are commercially available. In this study, 536 serum samples from randomly selected cats were tested. Those samples reacting FIV-positive in at least one of the tests were confirmed by Western blot, and those reacting FeLV-positive were confirmed by virus isolation. In addition, a random selection of samples testing negative in all test systems was re-tested by Western blot (100 samples) and by virus isolation (81 samples). Specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values of each test and the quality of the results were compared. PMID:17604205

  12. Contrasting clinical outcomes in two cohorts of cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M.; Litster, Annette; Lin, Tsang Long; Mellor, Dominic J.; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite over 25 years of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) research, relatively little is known about the longitudinal course of FIV infection following natural infection. In contrast to published reports of experimental infections using lethal strains of the virus, clinical signs of naturally acquired FIV infection can be mild or inapparent, rather than life-threatening. In this prospective, longitudinal controlled study, based in Chicago, IL (n = 17) and Memphis, TN (n = 27), we investigated two cohorts of privately owned, naturally infected cats kept under different housing conditions. Cats in the Chicago cohort (Group 1) were kept in households of ≤2 cats, while the Memphis cohort (Group 2) comprised part of a large multi-cat household of over 60 cats kept indoors only, with unrestricted access to one another. The majority of cats from Group 1 did not display clinical signs consistent with immunodeficiency during the 22-month observation period. In contrast, the outcome of infection in Group 2 was dramatically different; 17/27 (63%) of cats lost a median of 51.3% of their bodyweight (P < 0.0005) and died during the study period, with lymphoma being the most common cause of mortality. Although the decrease in CD4+ T cell count between enrolment and terminal disease was significant (P = 0.0017), the CD4:CD8 ratio at the time of enrolment did not reliably distinguish FIV-positive cats classified as ‘healthy’ and ‘not healthy’ at either cohort. FIV load at enrolment was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P < 0.0001), but there were no significant differences at enrolment between healthy and not healthy cats at either group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that management and housing conditions impact on disease progression and survival times of FIV-positive cats. PMID:25595267

  13. The paradox of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in sooty mangabeys: active viral replication without disease progression.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Lisa A

    2004-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm causes an asymptomatic infection in its natural host, the sooty mangabey, but induces an immunodeficiency syndrome very similar to human AIDS when transferred to a new host species such as the rhesus macaque. Unexpectedly, SIVsm replication dynamics is comparable in the two species, with rapid accumulation of viral mutations and a high viral load detected in both mangabeys and macaques. In contrast, clear differences are observed in immune parameters. Pathogenic SIV infection in macaques is associated with decreased CD4+ T cell numbers and signs of generalized immune activation, such as increased numbers of cycling and apoptotic T cells, hyperplasic lymphoid tissues, and exacerbated immune responses. Mangabeys with asymptomatic SIV infection show normal T cell regeneration parameters and signs of a moderate immune response, appropriate in the setting of chronic viral infection. The comparative analysis of simian models thus suggests that viral load alone cannot account for progression to disease, and that the capacity of primate lentiviruses to induce abnormal immune activation underlies AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:14766388

  14. Multiple Simultaneous Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Del Pilar-Morales, Esteban A; Cardona-Rodríguez, Zaydalee; Bertrán-Pasarell, Jorge; Soto-Malave, Ruth; De León-Borras, Rafeal

    2016-06-01

    Patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at high risk for gastrointestinal infections causing diarrhea, particularly when those infections are parasitic in nature. This propensity is more pronounced in AIDS, where opportunistic parasitic infections may cause severe diarrhea, marked absorptive dysfunction, and significant risk of mortality. There are scant data regarding parasitic infections among HIV patients in the developed world; most studies and research come from povertystricken areas of South Africa, India, Iran, and the South Pacific. Although multiple infections with the same or different parasites have been reported, simultaneous infections are rare. We present the case of a 35-year-old man who developed a co-infection with Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Strongyloides, simultaneously, the diagnosis being made after the judicious evaluation of a stool sample. Given the associated morbidity, prompt diagnosis and treatment are needed to avoid further complications in patients with HIV. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of triple parasitic infection in a patient with HIV. PMID:27232872

  15. Antigenic stimulation specifically reactivates the replication of archived simian immunodeficiency virus genomes in chronically infected macaques.

    PubMed

    Renoux, Céline; Wain-Hobson, Simon; Hurtrel, Bruno; Cheynier, Rémi

    2005-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) diversification is a direct consequence of viral replication and occurs principally in secondary lymphoid organs where CD4(+) T cells are activated and proliferate. However, the evolution of viral quasispecies may also be driven by various nonexclusive mechanisms, including adaptation to specific immune responses and modification of viral fitness. Analysis of viral quasispecies in SIV-infected macaques subjected to repeated antigenic stimulations allowed us to demonstrate transient expansions of SIV populations that were highly dependent upon activation of antigen-specific T cells. T-cell clones expanded in response to a particular antigen were infected by a specific viral population and persisted for prolonged periods. Upon a second stimulation by encounter with the same antigen, these specific genomes were at the origin of a new burst of replication, leading to rapid but transient replacement of the viral quasispecies in blood. Finally, longitudinal analysis of SIV sequence variation during and between antigenic stimulations revealed that viral evolution is mostly constrained to periods of strong immunological activity. PMID:16103175

  16. Efavirenz Therapy in Rhesus Macaques Infected with a Chimera of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Containing Reverse Transcriptase from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Michael J.; Higgins, Joanne; Matthews, Timothy B.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Tan, Chalet; Schinazi, Raymond F.; North, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    The specificity of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs) for the RT of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has prevented the use of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the study of NNRTIs and NNRTI-based highly active antiretroviral therapy. However, a SIV-HIV-1 chimera (RT-SHIV), in which the RT from SIVmac239 was replaced with the RT-encoding region from HIV-1, is susceptible to NNRTIs and is infectious to rhesus macaques. We have evaluated the antiviral activity of efavirenz against RT-SHIV and the emergence of efavirenz-resistant mutants in vitro and in vivo. RT-SHIV was susceptible to efavirenz with a mean effective concentration of 5.9 ± 4.5 nM, and RT-SHIV variants selected with efavirenz in cell culture displayed 600-fold-reduced susceptibility. The efavirenz-resistant mutants of RT-SHIV had mutations in RT similar to those of HIV-1 variants that were selected under similar conditions. Efavirenz monotherapy of RT-SHIV-infected macaques produced a 1.82-log-unit decrease in plasma viral-RNA levels after 1 week. The virus load rebounded within 3 weeks in one treated animal and more slowly in a second animal. Virus isolated from these two animals contained the K103N and Y188C or Y188L mutations. The RT-SHIV-rhesus macaque model may prove useful for studies of antiretroviral drug combinations that include efavirenz. PMID:15328115

  17. Viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infections in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria I

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affect many people in Asian countries, although there are geographic differences. Both HBV and HIV (HBV/HIV) and HCV/HIV co-infections are highly prevalent in Asia. Hetero- and homosexual, injection drug use, and geographic area are strong predictors of HBV, HCV, and HIV serostatus. In HBV endemic regions, the prevalence and genotype distribution of HBV/HIV co-infection is almost comparable with that in the general population. In Japan, where HBV has low endemicity, the prevalence of HBV/HIV co-infection is approximately 10-fold higher than that in the general population, and HBV Ae is the most common subgenotype among HIV infected individuals. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is an effective treatment for HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Lamivudine, a component of HAART, is an effective treatment for HBV, HIV, and HBV/HIV co-infection; however, cost, emerging drug resistance, antiretroviral-associated liver toxicity and liver-related morbidity due to HCV progression are particular concerns. HCV/HIV co-infection may accelerate the clinical progression of both HCV and HIV. The high prevalence of HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV co-infections in Asia underscores the need to improve prevention and control measures, as fewer evidence-based prevention strategies are available (compared with Western countries). In this review, the most recent publications on the prevalence of HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV co-infections and related issues, such as therapy and problems in Asia, are updated and summarized. PMID:25964874

  18. An Update on Heart Transplantation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Agüero, F; Castel, M A; Cocchi, S; Moreno, A; Mestres, C A; Cervera, C; Pérez-Villa, F; Tuset, M; Cartañà, R; Manzardo, C; Guaraldi, G; Gatell, J M; Miró, J M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases have become a significant cause of morbidity in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Heart transplantation (HT) is a well-established treatment of end-stage heart failure (ESHF) and is performed in selected HIV-infected patients in developed countries. Few data are available on the prognosis of HIV-infected patients undergoing HT in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) because current evidence is limited to small retrospective cohorts, case series, and case reports. Many HT centers consider HIV infection to be a contraindication for HT; however, in the era of cART, HT recipients with HIV infection seem to achieve satisfactory outcomes without developing HIV-related events. Consequently, selected HIV-infected patients with ESHF who are taking effective cART should be considered candidates for HT. The present review provides epidemiological data on ESHF in HIV-infected patients from all published experience on HT in HIV-infected patients since the beginning of the epidemic. The practical management of these patients is discussed, with emphasis on the challenging issues that must be addressed in the pretransplant (including HIV criteria) and posttransplant periods. Finally, proposals are made for future management and research priorities. PMID:26523614

  19. Water, electrolytes, and acid-base alterations in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients.

    PubMed

    Musso, Carlos G; Belloso, Waldo H; Glassock, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated disease has changed significantly over the past decade, mainly due to the wide availability and improvement of combination antiretroviral therapy regiments. Serious complications associated with profound immunodeficiency are nowadays fortunately rare in patients with adequate access to care and treatment. However, HIV infected patients, and particularly those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, are predisposed to a host of different water, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders (sometimes with opposite characteristics), since they have a modified renal physiology (reduced free water clearance, and relatively increased fractional excretion of calcium and magnesium) and they are also exposed to infectious, inflammatory, endocrinological, oncological variables which promote clinical conditions (such as fever, tachypnea, vomiting, diarrhea, polyuria, and delirium), and may require a variety of medical interventions (antiviral medication, antibiotics, antineoplastic agents), whose combination predispose them to undermine their homeostatic capability. As many of these disturbances may remain clinically silent until reaching an advanced condition, high awareness is advisable, particularly in patients with late diagnosis, concomitant inflammatory conditions and opportunistic diseases. These disorders contribute to both morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. PMID:26788462

  20. Water, electrolytes, and acid-base alterations in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Musso, Carlos G; Belloso, Waldo H; Glassock, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated disease has changed significantly over the past decade, mainly due to the wide availability and improvement of combination antiretroviral therapy regiments. Serious complications associated with profound immunodeficiency are nowadays fortunately rare in patients with adequate access to care and treatment. However, HIV infected patients, and particularly those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, are predisposed to a host of different water, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders (sometimes with opposite characteristics), since they have a modified renal physiology (reduced free water clearance, and relatively increased fractional excretion of calcium and magnesium) and they are also exposed to infectious, inflammatory, endocrinological, oncological variables which promote clinical conditions (such as fever, tachypnea, vomiting, diarrhea, polyuria, and delirium), and may require a variety of medical interventions (antiviral medication, antibiotics, antineoplastic agents), whose combination predispose them to undermine their homeostatic capability. As many of these disturbances may remain clinically silent until reaching an advanced condition, high awareness is advisable, particularly in patients with late diagnosis, concomitant inflammatory conditions and opportunistic diseases. These disorders contribute to both morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. PMID:26788462

  1. The epidemiology of cancers in human immunodeficiency virus infection and after organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Grulich, Andrew E; Vajdic, Claire M

    2015-04-01

    The authors provide an update on the association between immune deficiency and cancer risk in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and in solid organ transplant recipients. Over the past decade, it has become clear that a wider range of about 20 mostly infection-related cancers occur at increased rates in people with immune deficiency. The human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)-related cancers of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are most closely related to level of immune deficiency. Transplant recipients also have a greatly increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin, related to direct carcinogenic effects of the pharmaceuticals used for immune suppression. For those three cancer types, the increased cancer risk is largely reversed when immune deficiency is decreased by treatment of HIV or by reduction of iatrogenic immune suppression. Other infection-related cancers also occur at increased rates, but it is not clear whether reduction of immune deficiency reduces cancer risk. Prostate and breast cancer do not occur at increased rates, providing strong evidence that these cancers are unlikely to be related to infection. Epidemiological and clinical trends in these two populations have led to substantial recent changes in cancer occurrence. PMID:25843729

  2. Very low prevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus infection in western Canadian cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, G C; Johnston, J B; Nickel, D D; Jacobs, R M; Olson, M; Power, C

    2001-01-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) is a lentivirus that causes disease in cattle. Despite the large cattle industry in western Canada, the presence of BIV has not been examined to date. Genomic DNA, derived from semen and buffy coat samples, was analyzed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers for the gag, pol, and env genes of BIV. Despite utilizing a procedure that detected a minimum of 10 proviral copies, BIV sequences were not amplified in any of 317 buffy coat and 50 semen samples that were obtained from an archive that included 27 cattle breeds, collected from different sources in Alberta (1980-1999). In the 367 DNA samples examined, there was no evidence of BIV infection, suggesting that the prevalence of BIV infection was very low. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:11227201

  3. Rifampin Reduces Concentrations of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole in Serum in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ribera, Esteban; Pou, Leonor; Fernandez-Sola, Antoni; Campos, Francisco; Lopez, Rosa M.; Ocaña, Imma; Ruiz, Isabel; Pahissa, Albert

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether rifampin reduces concentrations of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in serum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, levels of these agents were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography before and after more than 12 days of standard antituberculosis treatment for 10 patients who had been taking one double-strength tablet of co-trimoxazole once daily for more than 1 month. Statistically significant, 47 and 23% decreases in TMP and SMX mean areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24), respectively, were observed after administration of rifampin. N-Acetyl-SMX profiles without and with rifampin were similar. The steady-state AUC0–24 metabolite/parent drug ratio increased by 32% with rifampin administration. Our study shows that rifampin reduces profiles of TMP and SMX in serum of HIV-infected patients. PMID:11600390

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a child presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Tullu, Milind S; Patil, Dhananjay P; Muranjan, Mamta N; Kher, Archana S; Lahiri, Keya R

    2011-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an extremely rare occurrence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We describe an 8-year-old male child who presented with weakness of both lower limbs for 10 days and focal convulsions for 2 days. The child had left, upper motor neuron facial palsy, lower limb hypotonia, and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies for HIV tested positive and the CD4 count was 109 cells/µL. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, brain) revealed extensive confluent hyperintensities (on T2-weighted images) in left parietal, right temporal, and right occipital regions of the white matter, and similar signals were seen in right lentiform nucleus and right posterior thalami, suggesting acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. There was transient improvement with intravenous methyl prednisolone. The patient succumbed to the illness. Perinatally transmitted pediatric HIV infection presenting with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis has not yet been reported in the medical literature. PMID:20656677

  5. Passive immunotherapy in the treatment of advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J M; Colman, N; Ostrow, N A; Simson, R W; Tomesch, D; Marlin, L; Rao, M; Mills, J L; Clemens, J; Prince, A M

    1993-08-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of passive immunotherapy for advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of human anti-HIV hyperimmune plasma was conducted. Sixty-three subjects with stage IV HIV disease (AIDS) were randomized to received 250 mL of either HIV-immune plasma or HIV antibody-negative plasma every 4 weeks. Although nonsignificant trends toward improved survival and delayed occurrence of a new opportunistic infection were noted, no significant effects on absolute CD4 lymphocyte counts or quantitative HIV viremia were seen. The only notable toxicity was the allergenicity to be expected from infusing plasma products, usually manifesting as urticaria. Thus, results do not rule out the potential usefulness of passive immunization with different preparations, but did fail to demonstrate clinical benefit of the product studied. PMID:8101550

  6. Safety, tolerance, and efficacy of atevirdine in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Been-Tiktak, A M; Williams, I; Vrehen, H M; Richens, J; Aldam, D; van Loon, A M; Loveday, C; Boucher, C A; Ward, P; Weller, I V; Borleffs, J C

    1996-01-01

    Atevirdine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In this study we investigated the effect of atevirdine in asymptomatic antiretroviral naive HIV-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts of between 200 and 750 cells per mm3. Patients were randomized to receive 600 mg of atevirdine (n = 15) or a placebo (n = 15) three times a day for 12 weeks. There was no statistically significant effect of atevirdine on viral loads (HIV p24 antigen and HIV-1 RNA levels by PCR) or CD4+ cell counts. The data do not support the use of atevirdine as a monotherapy in the treatment of HIV-infected patients. PMID:8913487

  7. Glycaemic profile changes by highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Duro, M; Rebelo, I; Barreira, S; Sarmento-Castro, R; Medeiros, R; Almeida, C

    2015-10-01

    To study dysglycaemia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients we conducted a retrospective cohort study of the glucose profile in HIV-infected patients. The fasting blood glucose was analysed taking into consideration conventional risk factors as well as HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). One hundred seventy-three cases were selected for this study. Five risk factors had significant effects (p < 0.05) on glucose levels: age, body mass index (BMI), hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus (HCV/HBV) co-infection, viral load (VL), and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count. Fasting blood glucose levels increased with age (0.59 mg/dL/year), decreased with the VL (-4.1 × 10(-6 )mg/dL/number of viral RNA copies) and the CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count (-0.016 mg/dL/cell count). Furthermore, obese patients and those co-infected with HCV/HBV were more prone to develop dysglycaemia having, on average, 15.4 mg/dL and 13.8 mg/dL higher levels, respectively, of fasting blood glucose. Despite an increase of 1.0% and 8.4% in the glucose levels noticed among HIV patients treated with non-nucleotide inhibitors of reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors, respectively, HAART did not prove to be a significant predictor of fasting glucose levels as well as lipodystrophy and male gender. Age, BMI, HCV/HBV co-infection and HIV-related (VL and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count) factors seem to be the most influential on fasting blood glucose levels in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:25281540

  8. Foci of Endemic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Wild-Living Eastern Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Mario L.; Lukasik, Magdalena; Kamenya, Shadrack; Li, Yingying; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Bailes, Elizabeth; Muller, Martin N.; Emery, Melissa; Goldenberg, David A.; Lwanga, Jeremiah S.; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Nerrienet, Eric; McClure, Harold M.; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Watts, David P.; Pusey, Anne E.; Collins, D. Anthony; Wrangham, Richard W.; Goodall, Jane; Brookfield, John F. Y.; Sharp, Paul M.; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2003-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) is the immediate precursor to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), yet remarkably, the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz in wild ape populations are unknown. Studies of SIVcpz infection rates in wild chimpanzees are complicated by the species' endangered status and by its geographic location in remote areas of sub-Saharan Africa. We have developed sensitive and specific urine and fecal tests for SIVcpz antibody and virion RNA (vRNA) detection and describe herein the first comprehensive prevalence study of SIVcpz infection in five wild Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii communities in east Africa. In Kibale National Park in Uganda, 31 (of 52) members of the Kanyawara community and 39 (of ∼145) members of the Ngogo community were studied; none were found to be positive for SIVcpz infection. In Gombe National Park in Tanzania, 15 (of 20) members of the Mitumba community, 51 (of 55) members of the Kasekela community, and at least 10 (of ∼20) members of the Kalande community were studied. Seven individuals were SIVcpz antibody and/or vRNA positive, and two others had indeterminate antibody results. Based on assay sensitivities and the numbers and types of specimens analyzed, we estimated the prevalence of SIVcpz infection to be 17% in Mitumba (95% confidence interval, 10 to 40%), 5% in Kasekela (95% confidence interval, 4 to 7%), and 30% in Kalande (95% confidence interval, 15 to 60%). For Gombe as a whole, the SIVcpz prevalence was estimated to be 13% (95% confidence interval, 7 to 25%). SIVcpz infection was confirmed in five chimpanzees by PCR amplification of partial pol and gp41/nef sequences which revealed a diverse group of viruses that formed a monophyletic lineage within the SIVcpzPts radiation. Although none of the 70 Kibale chimpanzees tested SIVcpz positive, we estimated the likelihood that a 10% or higher prevalence existed but went undetected because of sampling and assay limitations; this

  9. Plasma Proteomic Analysis of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Wiederin, Jayme L.; Donahoe, Robert M.; Anderson, James R.; Yu, Fang; Fox, Howard S.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Ciborowski, Pawel S.

    2012-01-01

    Lentiviral replication in its target cells affects a delicate balance between cellular co-factors required for virus propagation and immunoregulation for host defense. To better elucidate cellular proteins linked to viral infection we tested plasma from rhesus macaques infected with the simian immunodeficiency viral strain SIVsmm9, prior to, 10 days (acute) and 49 weeks (chronic) after viral infection. Changes in plasma protein content were measured by quantitative mass spectrometry by isobaric Tags for Absolute and Relative Quantitation (iTRAQ) methods. An 81 and 232% increase in SERPINA1 was seen during acute and chronic infection, respectively. Interestingly, gelsolin, vitamin D binding protein and histidine rich glycoprotein were decreased by 45% in acute conditions but returned to baseline during chronic infection. When compared to uninfected controls, a 48–103% increase in leucine rich alpha 2-glycoprotein, vitronectin and ceruloplasmin was observed during chronic viral infection. Observed changes in plasma proteins expression likely represent a compensatory host response to persistent viral infection. PMID:20677826

  10. Simian immunodeficiency virus selectively infects proliferating CD4+ T cells in neonatal rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolei; Xu, Huanbin; Pahar, Bapi; Alvarez, Xavier; Green, Linda C.; Dufour, Jason; Moroney-Rasmussen, Terri; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Infants infected with HIV have a more severe course of disease and persistently higher viral loads than HIV-infected adults. However, the underlying pathogenesis of this exacerbation remains obscure. Here we compared the rate of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation in intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues of neonatal and adult rhesus macaques, and of normal and age-matched simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)–infected neonates. The results demonstrate infant primates have much greater rates of CD4+ T-cell proliferation than adult macaques, and that these proliferating, recently “activated” CD4+ T cells are infected in intestinal and other lymphoid tissues of neonates, resulting in selective depletion of proliferating CD4+ T cells in acute infection. This depletion is accompanied by a marked increase in CD8+ T-cell activation and production, particularly in the intestinal tract. The data indicate intestinal CD4+ T cells of infant primates have a markedly accelerated rate of proliferation and maturation resulting in more rapid and sustained production of optimal target cells (activated memory CD4+ T cells), which may explain the sustained “peak” viremia characteristic of pediatric HIV infection. Eventual failure of CD4+ T-cell turnover in intestinal tissues may indicate a poorer prognosis for HIV-infected infants. PMID:20716768

  11. Modulation by Morphine of Viral Set Point in Rhesus Macaques Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Torres, Cynthia; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Rodriguez, Idia; Martinez, Melween; Staprans, Silvija; Donahoe, Robert M.; Kraiselburd, Edmundo; Stephens, Edward B.; Kumar, Anil

    2004-01-01

    Six rhesus macaques were adapted to morphine dependence by injecting three doses of morphine (5 mg/kg of body weight) for a total of 20 weeks. These animals along with six control macaques were infected intravenously with mixture of simian-human immunodeficiency virus KU-1B (SHIVKU-1B), SHIV89.6P, and simian immunodeficiency virus 17E-Fr. Levels of circulating CD4+ T cells and viral loads in the plasma and the cerebrospinal fluid were monitored in these macaques for a period of 12 weeks. Both morphine and control groups showed precipitous loss of CD4+ T cells. However this loss was more prominent in the morphine group at week 2 (P = 0.04). Again both morphine and control groups showed comparable peak plasma viral load at week 2, but the viral set points were higher in the morphine group than that in the control group. Likewise, the extent of virus replication in the cerebral compartment was more pronounced in the morphine group. These results provide a definitive evidence for a positive correlation between morphine and levels of viral replication. PMID:15452267

  12. [An epidemiological and immunological study of human immunodeficiency virus infection in the southern area of Madrid].

    PubMed

    Cervero, M; Medina Asensio, J; Rubio, R; Costa, J R

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics and immunological parameters are characterized in different groups of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients infected by HIV, and the prognostic markers of survival in patients diagnosed of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study was carried out in 312 patients from June 1984 to March 1989. The most common risk group was intravenous drug addicts (IVDA) 80.9%. We observed that during the last years there was an increase in the number of cases of heterosexual transmission. Through follow up, 17.6% of patients developed acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS). The incidence rate for AIDS was higher amongst homosexuals than IVDA (35.4/14.6). Esophageal candidiasis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis were the AIDS indicators most frequently encountered. Once the study period was over, with a follow up of 19.3 +/- 3.4 months, the probability of survival after 12 months was 70 +/- 0.07% and after 24 months was 42% +/- 0.09%. The risk group (homosexuals), the appearance of a neoplasia as the first diagnosis of AIDS, and the immunological parameters (CD3 less than 500, CD4 less than 400, CD4/CD8 ratio less than 0.5 and total lymphocyte count of less than 1700 were the markers with worst prognosis which correlated with survival rates (p less than 0.01). We confirmed that when comparing immunologic parameters amongst HIV infection groups, IgA levels were higher (p less than 0.05); the total number of lymphocytes, the number of helper lymphocytes and the CD4/CD8 ratio were lower (p less than 0.01) in IV and AIDS group with respect to group II and III, in patients with AIDS with respect to group IV-non-AIDS and in those who died with relation to AIDS. PMID:2063023

  13. [Bovine immunodeficiency virus: short review].

    PubMed

    Bouillant, A M; Archambault, D

    1990-01-01

    A bovine visna-like virus was isolated by Van Der Maaten et al (1972) but it did not draw attention since, at that time, most efforts were directed towards research on bovine leukemia virus. However, new interest was shown on the bovine visna-like virus after the isolation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), because of the urgent need for developing animal models for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this paper is to describe the different stages of the identification of the bovine virus and to up-date knowledge about it. The bovine visna-like virus has recently been named the bovine immuno-deficiency-like virus (BIV) and is the sole bovine lentivirus known to-date. BIV shares morphologic, antigenic and genomic characteristics with other lentiviruses. It grows and induces large syncytia in vitro and generates virus-productive and latent infections in cell culture. It causes persistent infection and slow progressive disease in cattle and probably in sheep. As target cells of the virus are leukocytes, the type of which is unknown, perturbations of the immune system are expected. Consequently, BIV may potentiate the occurrence of secondary infections and play a role in retroviral, multiple infections. It is not oncogenic. Transmission appears to occur in cattle by contact, but evidence of transmission in human beings has not been shown. Finally, BIV may be a potential model in vitro and in vivo for HIV and AIDS. PMID:1963056

  14. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island are infected with feline immunodeficiency virus but not other common feline and canine viruses.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Samuel P; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue

    2008-07-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

  15. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island Are Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus but Not Other Common Feline and Canine Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Samuel P.; Kays, Roland W.; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

  16. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Shares Features of Both Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Lentiviral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Edward J. D.; Schmidt, Fabian; Kondova, Ivanela; Niphuis, Henk; Hodara, Vida L.; Clissold, Leah; McLay, Kirsten; Guerra, Bernadette; Redrobe, Sharon; Giavedoni, Luis D.; Lanford, Robert E.; Murthy, Krishna K.; Rouet, François; Heeney, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    The virus-host relationship in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected chimpanzees is thought to be different from that found in other SIV infected African primates. However, studies of captive SIVcpz infected chimpanzees are limited. Previously, the natural SIVcpz infection of one chimpanzee, and the experimental infection of six chimpanzees was reported, with limited follow-up. Here, we present a long-term study of these seven animals, with a retrospective re-examination of the early stages of infection. The only clinical signs consistent with AIDS or AIDS associated disease was thrombocytopenia in two cases, associated with the development of anti-platelet antibodies. However, compared to uninfected and HIV-1 infected animals, SIVcpz infected animals had significantly lower levels of peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells. Despite this, levels of T-cell activation in chronic infection were not significantly elevated. In addition, while plasma levels of β2 microglobulin, neopterin and soluble TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (sTRAIL) were elevated in acute infection, these markers returned to near-normal levels in chronic infection, reminiscent of immune activation patterns in ‘natural host’ species. Furthermore, plasma soluble CD14 was not elevated in chronic infection. However, examination of the secondary lymphoid environment revealed persistent changes to the lymphoid structure, including follicular hyperplasia in SIVcpz infected animals. In addition, both SIV and HIV-1 infected chimpanzees showed increased levels of deposition of collagen and increased levels of Mx1 expression in the T-cell zones of the lymph node. The outcome of SIVcpz infection of captive chimpanzees therefore shares features of both non-pathogenic and pathogenic lentivirus infections. PMID:26360709

  17. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of chronic kidney disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Minoru; Yanagisawa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related deaths and opportunistic infectious diseases. This has resulted in prolonged survival of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, this improvement in survival has been accompanied by an increase in the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease. CKD is now epidemic among HIV-infected populations in both Western and Eastern countries. Risk factors associated with CKD in HIV-infected populations include aging, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, co-infection with hepatitis C virus, a low CD4 cell count, and a high HIV viral load. Clinical experience has shown that HIV-infected individuals often have one or more concurrent risk factors for CKD. The cumulative effect of multiple risk factors on the development of CKD should be noted in this population. Glomerular disease directly related to HIV infection, so-called HIV-associated nephropathy, remains an important cause of CKD among a limited HIV population of African descent, but is less likely to be common among other urban HIV populations. The impact of exposure to nephrotoxic antiretroviral agents on the development of kidney disease is both an old and a new concern. In particular, the association of tenofovir with kidney tubular injury has been an area of great interest. The findings regarding tenofovir’s adverse effect on long-term kidney function vary among studies. The early identification and treatment of CKD is recommended for reducing the burden of patients requiring dialysis in HIV-infected populations. Periodic monitoring of urinary concentrations of albumin, protein, and tubular injury markers such as low-molecular-weight proteins may be useful for the early diagnosis of patients at risk for incident CKD. This review focuses on recent epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of CKD in a contemporary HIV-infected population. PMID:26167463

  18. PATHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) INFECTION IN WILD AFRICAN LIONS

    PubMed Central

    Roelke, Melody E.; Brown, Meredith A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Winterbach, Hanlie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Hemson, Graham; Smith, Dahlem; Johnson, Randall C.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roca, Alfred L.; Alexander, Katherine; Klein, Lin; Martinelli, Paulo; Krishnasamu, Karthiuani; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes AIDS in the domestic cat (Felis catus) but has not been explicitly associated with AIDS pathology in any of the eight free-ranging species of Felidae that are endemic with circulating FIV strains. African lion (Panthera leo) populations are infected with lion-specific FIV strains (FIVple), yet there remains uncertainty about the degree to which FIV infection impacts their health. Reported CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in FIVple infected lions and anecdotal reports of lion morbidity associated with FIV sero-prevalence emphasize the concern as to whether FIVple is innocuous or pathogenic. Here we monitored clinical, biochemical, histological and serological parameters among FIVple-positive (N=47) as compared to FIVple negative (N=17) lions anesthetized and sampled on multiple occasions between 1999 and 2006 in Botswana. Relative to uninfected lions, FIVple infected lions displayed a significant elevation in the prevalence of AIDS defining conditions: lymphandenopathy, gingivitis, tongue papillomas, dehydration, and poor coat condition, as well as displaying abnormal red blood cell parameters and elevated liver enzymes and serum proteins. Spleen and lymph node laparoscopic biopsies from free-ranging FIVple infected lions (N=8) revealed evidence of lymphoid depletion, the hallmark pathology documented in immunodefieciency virus infections of humans (HIV-1), macaques, and domestic cats. We conclude that over time FIVple infections in free-ranging lions can lead to adverse clinical, immunological, and pathological outcomes in some individuals that parallel sequelae caused by lentivirus infection in humans (HIV), Asian macaques (SIV) and domestic cats (FIVfca). PMID:19464039

  19. Evaluation of Coxsackievirus Infection in Children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Associated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jenson, Hal B.; Gauntt, Charles J.; Easley, Kirk A.; Pitt, Jane; Lipshultz, Steven E.; McIntosh, Kenneth; Shearer, William T.

    2015-01-01

    In a matched case-control study of the association between coxsackieviruses and cardiac impairment, 24 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1–infected children with cardiac impairment were compared with 24 HIV-1–infected control subjects. Serologic evidence of coxsackievirus infection was present in all children, with no significant difference in geometric mean antibody titers between case patients and control subjects. Conditional logistic regression to test for an association between coxsackievirus antibody titer and the presence or absence of cardiac impairment, by any indicator, showed an odds ratio of 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.58–2.10; P = .75), indicating no association between coxsackievirus infection and cardiac impairment. Coxsackievirus antibody titers correlated positively with total IgG levels in nonrapid progressors but not in rapid progressors. Paired serum samples taken before and after diagnosis of cardiac impairment in 5 patients showed no evidence of intervening coxsackievirus infection. These results do not identify a causal role for coxsackieviruses for cardiomyopathy in HIV-1–infected children. PMID:12085328

  20. Survival Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis Co-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Sabouri Ghannad, Masoud; Saatchi, Mohammad; Khazaei, Salman; Mirzaei, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: At present, limited clinical data is available regarding survival rates of patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on the survival chances of active TB adults who disclosed their symptoms of TB in this part of Iran. Patients and Methods: The records and data of 807 patients only infected with TB and 21 co-infected patients with HIV/TB, who were admitted to primary health care units in Iran, were evaluated. Their survival time was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier Estimator, Log-rank test and SPSS version 16. Results: Cox regression analysis showed that co-infection with HIV significantly affects the survival rate of TB patients so that the rate of death was 20.7 (8.1-53) times more than TB infected patients alone. Also, married patients with tuberculosis were 2.7 times more at risk of death than single subjects. We also confirmed that in HIV/TB positive patients, married individuals were more prone to death than single subjects (P value < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results denote the need to progress diagnostic and preventive measures in this part of Iran. PMID:25371800

  1. Rapid evolution of the env gene leader sequence in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Joseph; Biek, Roman; Litster, Annette; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysing the evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) at the intra-host level is important in order to address whether the diversity and composition of viral quasispecies affect disease progression. We examined the intra-host diversity and the evolutionary rates of the entire env and structural fragments of the env sequences obtained from sequential blood samples in 43 naturally infected domestic cats that displayed different clinical outcomes. We observed in the majority of cats that FIV env showed very low levels of intra-host diversity. We estimated that env evolved at a rate of 1.16×10−3 substitutions per site per year and demonstrated that recombinant sequences evolved faster than non-recombinant sequences. It was evident that the V3–V5 fragment of FIV env displayed higher evolutionary rates in healthy cats than in those with terminal illness. Our study provided the first evidence that the leader sequence of env, rather than the V3–V5 sequence, had the highest intra-host diversity and the highest evolutionary rate of all env fragments, consistent with this region being under a strong selective pressure for genetic variation. Overall, FIV env displayed relatively low intra-host diversity and evolved slowly in naturally infected cats. The maximum evolutionary rate was observed in the leader sequence of env. Although genetic stability is not necessarily a prerequisite for clinical stability, the higher genetic stability of FIV compared with human immunodeficiency virus might explain why many naturally infected cats do not progress rapidly to AIDS. PMID:25535323

  2. Alternating versus continuous drug regimens in combination chemotherapy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Mazzulli, T; Rusconi, S; Merrill, D P; D'Aquila, R T; Moonis, M; Chou, T C; Hirsch, M S

    1994-01-01

    We compared the in vitro efficacies of two-, three-, and four-drug combinations given continuously or in alternating regimens against a clinical isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In H9 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, at the drug concentrations used in this study, there was greater suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection as the number of drugs in the regimen was increased from one to four simultaneously administered agents. Although alternating drug regimens were effective, they were not better than continuous administration of either single drugs or combinations of agents and were less effective than giving all drugs of an alternating regimen simultaneously. PMID:8031028

  3. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around ...

  4. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    PubMed

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  5. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  6. Enhancement of feline immunodeficiency virus infection after immunization with envelope glycoprotein subunit vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Siebelink, K H; Tijhaar, E; Huisman, R C; Huisman, W; de Ronde, A; Darby, I H; Francis, M J; Rimmelzwaan, G F; Osterhaus, A D

    1995-01-01

    Cats were immunized three times with different recombinant feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) candidate vaccines. Recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV)-expressed envelope glycoprotein with (vGR657) or without (vGR657 x 15) the cleavage site and an FIV envelope bacterial fusion protein (beta-Galactosidase-Env) were incorporated into immune-stimulating complexes or adjuvanted with Quil A. Although all immunized cats developed antibodies against the envelope protein, only the cats vaccinated with the rVV-expressed envelope glycoproteins developed antibodies which neutralized FIV infection of Crandell feline kidney cells. These antibodies failed to neutralize infection of thymocytes with a molecularly cloned homologous FIV. After the third immunization the cats were challenged with homologous FIV. Two weeks after challenge the cell-associated viral load proved to be significantly higher in the cats immunized with vGR657 and vGR657 x 15 than in the other cats. The cats immunized with vGR657 and vGR657 x 15 also developed antibodies against the Gag proteins more rapidly than the cats immunized with beta-Galactosidase-Env or the control cats. This suggested that immunization with rVV-expressed glycoprotein of FIV results in enhanced infectivity of FIV. It was shown that the observed enhancement could be transferred to naive cats with plasma collected at the day of challenge. PMID:7745719

  7. Proteomic landscape of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Elizabeth V.; Crothers, Kristina; Chow, Yu-Hua; Park, David R.; Goodlett, David R.; Schnapp, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    The lung is an important reservoir of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Individuals infected with HIV are more prone to pulmonary infections and chronic lung disorders. We hypothesized that comprehensively profiling the proteomic landscape of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with HIV would provide insights into how this virus alters the lung milieu and contributes to pathogenesis of HIV-related lung diseases. BALF was obtained from five HIV-negative (HIV−) and six asymptomatic HIV-positive (HIV+) subjects not on antiretroviral therapy. Each sample underwent shotgun proteomic analysis based on HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Differentially expressed proteins between the groups were identified using statistical methods based on spectral counting. Mechanisms of disease were explored using functional annotation to identify overlapping and distinct pathways enriched between the BALF proteome of HIV+ and HIV− subjects. We identified a total of 318 unique proteins in BALF of HIV− and HIV+ subjects. Of these, 87 were differentially up- or downregulated between the two groups. Many of these differentially expressed proteins are known to interact with key HIV proteins. Functional analysis of differentially regulated proteins implicated downregulation of immune responses in lungs of HIV+ patients. Combining shotgun proteomic analysis with computational methods demonstrated that the BALF proteome is significantly altered during HIV infection. We found that immunity-related pathways are underrepresented in HIV+ patients. These findings implicate mechanisms whereby HIV invokes local immunosuppression in the lung and increases the susceptibility of HIV+ patients to develop a wide range of infectious and noninfectious pulmonary diseases. PMID:24213920

  8. IL-21-producer CD4+ T cell kinetics during primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shoi; Seki, Sayuri; Matano, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    IL-21 signaling is important for T cell and B cell-mediated clearance of chronic viral infections. While non-cognate follicular helper CD4+ T cells (TFH) are indicated to be pivotal in providing IL-21-mediated help to activated B cells within germinal centers, how this signaling may be disrupted in early AIDS virus infection is not clear. In this study, we assessed the lineage and kinetics of peripheral blood IL-21-producing CD4+ T cells in primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques. After SIV challenge, antigen-nonspecific IL-21 production was observed in Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells with Th1 dominance. While IL-21+ Th2 and IL-21+ Th17 showed variable kinetics, an increase in total IL-21+ CD4+ T cells and IL-21+ Th1 from week 3 to week 8 was observed, preceding plasma SIV-specific IgG development from week 5 to week 12. SIV Gag-specific IL-21+ CD4+ T cells detectable at week 2 were decreased in frequencies at week 5. Results imply that kinetics of IL-21+ CD4+ T cells comprised of multiple lineages, potentially targeted by SIV with a bias of existing frequencies during their precursor stage, associate with availability of cooperative B-cell help provided through a proportionate precursor pool developing into TFH and subsequent anti-SIV antibody responses. PMID:23791954

  9. Colorectal Disorders in Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Panichsillapakit, Theppharit; Patel, Derek; Santangelo, Joanne; Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Smith, Davey M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is important in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report a case series of lower GI endoscopic and histopathologic findings of HIV-infected individuals after presentation with acute infection. Methods. We performed a retrospective case review of individuals infected with HIV who enrolled between August 2010 and April 2013 in a primary infection treatment trial. All participants started the trial during acute infection and underwent colonoscopy with biopsies at baseline and after the start of antiretroviral treatment. Results. Twenty acutely infected individuals were included in the study (mean age, 33 years; range, 20–54 years). All participants were male who reported having receptive anal sex as an HIV risk factor. Nine individuals (45%) had at least 1 finding by colorectal pathology; 1 person had 2 diagnoses (diverticulosis and focal active proctitis). The histopathological findings revealed anal dysplasia in 3 cases: 2 had high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and 1 had low-grade AIN. Two persons had a colorectal polyp, 1 hyperplastic and 1 adenomatous. Three persons were diagnosed with diverticulosis, and 2 persons were diagnosed with proctitis, including 1 with focal active proctitis and 1 with cytomegalovirus proctitis. Conclusions. To our knowledge, this is the first case series report of lower GI disorders in acute HIV-infected individuals. Although the causal relationship remains uncertain, we describe the endoscopic findings that were observed during acute HIV infection among men who have sex with men. Understanding the prevalence of these pathologies may likely shed light on how acute HIV infection damages the lower GI tract. PMID:26925432

  10. Variable course of primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection in lymph nodes: relation to disease progression.

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, L; Cumont, M C; Montagnier, L; Hurtrel, B

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics of spread of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the lymphoid organs, we sequentially analyzed the viral burden in lymph nodes (LN) of eight rhesus macaques inoculated intravenously with a high or low dose of the pathogenic SIVmac 251 isolate. For each animal, four axillary or inguinal LN were collected during the first weeks of infection and a fifth LN was taken 6 or 8 months later to estimate disease progression. Measurement of SIV RNA by in situ hybridization showed that all of the macaques studied had a phase of acute viral replication in LN between 7 and 14 days postinoculation which paralleled that observed in the blood. In a second phase, productive infection was controlled and viral particles were trapped in the germinal centers that developed in LN. While the peaks of productive infection were similar for the eight animals, marked differences in the numbers of productively infected cells that persisted in LN after primary infection were seen. Differences were less pronounced in the blood, where productive infection was efficiently controlled in all cases. The persistence of productively infected cells in LN after primary infection was found to be associated with more rapid disease progression, as measured by the decrease of the T4/T8 ratio and the occurrence of clinical signs. However, the persistence of a significant level of viral particles in germinal centers was observed even in animals that remained healthy over a 1- to 2-year observation period. This study indicates that the course of primary SIV infection in LN is variable, and it suggests that the initial capacity of the host to control productive infection in LN may determine the rate of disease progression. Images PMID:7916061

  11. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-visceral leishmaniasis-co-infection.

    PubMed

    Naufal Spir, Patrícia Rodrigues; Zampieri D'Andrea, Lourdes Aparecida; Fonseca, Elivelton Silva; Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel

    2016-04-01

    In Brazil, the rates of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased from 20% to 1-2% in some regions. However, the country contains 90% of individuals infected with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Latin America, and the west region of São Paulo state faces an alarming expansion of the disease. We describe the epidemiological aspects of the expanding infection of VL and a case report of an HIV-VL-co-infected child from the west region of São Paulo state. The patient was an AIDS-C3 with low levels of CD4, high viral load, severe diarrhea, oral and perineal candidiasis, severe thrombocytopenia, and protein-caloric malnourishment. She evolved with sepsis, renal and cardiac failure. An rK rapid diagnosis test, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and bone marrow aspirate were performed for VL. Her symptoms improved significantly after liposomal amphotericin B administration. From the 45 municipalities that compose the Regional Health Department of Presidente Prudente, Lutzomyia longipalpis vectors were found in 58% of them. VL infected dogs were found in 33% of those municipalities, infected dogs and humans were found in 29%, 20% are starting and 33% of the municipalities are preparing VL investigation. It is likely, in this patient, that VL advanced the clinical progression of the HIV disease and the development of AIDS severity. Supported by favorable conditions, the region becomes a new frontier of VL in Brazil. PMID:23834783

  12. Antiretroviral therapy and drug resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infection.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-Arias, Luis; Alvarez, Mar

    2014-02-01

    One to two million people worldwide are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), with highest prevalences in West African countries, but also present in Western Europe, Asia and North America. Compared to HIV-1, HIV-2 infection undergoes a longer asymptomatic phase and progresses to AIDS more slowly. In addition, HIV-2 shows lower transmission rates, probably due to its lower viremia in infected individuals. There is limited experience in the treatment of HIV-2 infection and several antiretroviral drugs used to fight HIV-1 are not effective against HIV-2. Effective drugs against HIV-2 include nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (e.g. zidovudine, tenofovir, lamivudine, emtricitabine, abacavir, stavudine and didanosine), protease inhibitors (saquinavir, lopinavir and darunavir), and integrase inhibitors (raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir). Maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist blocking coreceptor binding during HIV entry, is active in vitro against CCR5-tropic HIV-2 but more studies are needed to validate its use in therapeutic treatments against HIV-2 infection. HIV-2 strains are naturally resistant to a few antiretroviral drugs developed to suppress HIV-1 propagation such as nonnucleoside RT inhibitors, several protease inhibitors and the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide. Resistance selection in HIV-2 appears to be faster than in HIV-1. In this scenario, the development of novel drugs specific for HIV-2 is an important priority. In this review, we discuss current anti-HIV-2 therapies and mutational pathways leading to drug resistance. PMID:24345729

  13. Slow Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infectivity Correlated with Low HIV Coreceptor Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Cynthia L.

    2001-01-01

    The absolute number of CD4+ lymphocytes in blood is prognostic for disease progression, yet the cell surface density of CD4 receptors or chemokine receptors on a single cell has not previously been found to be predictive of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity outcome. It has recently been shown that human leukocyte elastase (HLE) and its ligand α1 proteinase inhibitor (α1PI; α1 antitrypsin) act as HIV fusion cofactors. The present study shows that decreased HIV infectivity is significantly correlated with decreased cell surface density of HLE but not with decreased CD4 nor chemokine receptors. In vitro HIV infectivity outcome in this study was predicted by the surface density of HLE on mononuclear phagocytes but not on lymphocytes. The set point HLE surface density was in part determined by α1PI. Decreased circulating α1PI was correlated with increased cell surface HLE and with increased HIV infectivity. The correlation of HIV infectivity outcome with surface HLE and circulating α1PI supports the utility of these HIV cofactors in diagnostic analysis and therapeutic intervention. PMID:11527806

  14. Comparison of hydroxychloroquine with zidovudine in asymptomatic patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Sperber, K; Chiang, G; Chen, H; Ross, W; Chusid, E; Gonchar, M; Chow, R; Liriano, O

    1997-01-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an antimalarial agent used to treat patients with autoimmune diseases, has been shown to suppress human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in T cells and monocytes in vitro by inhibiting posttranscriptional modification of the virus. An initial randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in 38 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients who had CD4+ counts between 200 and 500 cells/mm3 demonstrated that the amount of recoverable virus declined significantly in the HCQ group compared with the placebo group over the 8-week study period. These preliminary observations were expanded into a second 16-week clinical trial comparing the efficacy of HCQ with that of zidovudine (ZDV) in 72 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients with CD4+ counts between 200 and 500 cells/mm3. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either HCQ 800 mg/d (n = 35) or ZDV 500 mg/d (n = 37) for 16 weeks. No adverse reactions to the study medications were observed in either the HCQ or ZDV group. Patients in both groups had reduced levels of recoverable HIV-1 RNA in the plasma, reduced levels of cultured virus, and reduced levels of serum p24 antigen after the 16-week study period. However, no difference was noted in absolute CD4+ counts between the two groups. Interleukin-6 and serum immunoglobulin G levels were significantly reduced in the HCQ group but not in the ZDV group. These findings support the results of the previous clinical trial. Thus HCQ may be potentially useful in the treatment of patients with HIV-1 infection. PMID:9385480

  15. Bispecific Antibodies that Mediate Killing of Cells Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus of Any Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Jorg; Lotscher, Erika; Steimer, Kathelyn S.; Capon, Daniel J.; Baenziger, Jurg; Jack, Hans-Martin; Wabl, Matthias

    1991-06-01

    Although AIDS patients lose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T cells, their remaining CD8-positive T lymphocytes maintain cytotoxic function. To exploit this fact we have constructed bispecific antibodies that direct cytotoxic T lymphocytes of any specificity to cells that express gp120 of HIV. These bispecific antibodies comprise one heavy/light chain pair from an antibody to CD3, linked to a heavy chain whose variable region has been replaced with sequences from CD4 plus a second light chain. CD3 is part of the antigen receptor on T cells and is responsible for signal transduction. In the presence of these bispecific antibodies, T cells of irrelevant specificity effectively lyse HIV-infected cells in vitro.

  16. [Practical considerations for high resolution anoscopy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Iribarren-Díaz, Mauricio; Ocampo Hermida, Antonio; González-Carreró Fojón, Joaquín; Alonso-Parada, María; Rodríguez-Girondo, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Anal cancer is uncommon in the general population, however its incidence is increasing significantly in certain risk groups, mainly in men who have sex with men, and particularly those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. High resolution anoscopy technique is currently considered the standard in the diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia, but at present there is no agreed standard method between health areas. High resolution anoscopy is an affordable technique that can be critical in the screening of anal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, but is not without difficulties. We are currently studying the most effective strategy for managing premalignant anal lesions, and with this article we attempt to encourage other groups interested in reducing the incidence of an increasing neoplasia. PMID:24182418

  17. Widespread geographic distribution of oral Candida dubliniensis strains in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, D; Haynes, K; Bille, J; Boerlin, P; Rodero, L; Lloyd, S; Henman, M; Coleman, D

    1997-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a recently identified chlamydospore-positive yeast species associated with oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+) patients and is closely related to Candida albicans. Several recent reports have described atypical oral Candida isolates with phenotypic and genetic properties similar to those of C. dubliniensis. In this study 10 atypical chlamydospore-positive oral isolates from HIV+ patients in Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Argentina and 1 isolate from an HIV-negative Irish subject were compared to reference strains of C. albicans and Candida stellatoidea and reference strains of C. dubliniensis recovered from Irish and Australian HIV+ individuals. All 11 isolates were phenotypically and genetically similar to and phylogenetically identical to C. dubliniensis. These findings demonstrate that the geographical distribution of C. dubliniensis is widespread, and it is likely that it is a significant constituent of the normal oral flora with the potential to cause oral candidiasis, particularly in immunocompromised patients. PMID:9157162

  18. Epstein-Barr virus-driven lymphomagenesis in the context of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Petrara, Maria R; Freguja, Riccardo; Gianesin, Ketty; Zanchetta, Marisa; De Rossi, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human γ-herpes virus which establishes a life-long asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected patients, the impaired immunosurveillance against EBV may favor the development of EBV-related diseases, ranging from lymphoproliferative disorders to B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly modified the natural course of HIV-1 infection, resulting in decreased HIV-1 plasmaviremia, increased CD4 lymphocytes, and decreased opportunistic infections, indicating a restoration of immune functions. However, the impact of ART appears to be less favorable on EBV-related malignancies than on other AIDS-defining tumors, such as Kaposi's sarcoma, and NHL remains the most common cancer during the ART era. EBV-driven tumors are associated with selective expression of latent oncogenic proteins, but uncontrolled lytic cycle with virus replication and/or reactivation may favor cell transformation, at least in the early phases. Several host's factors may promote EBV reactivation and replication; besides immunodepression, inflammation/chronic immune stimulation may play an important role. Microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns, through Toll-like receptors, activate the immune system and may promote EBV reactivation and/or polyclonal expansion of EBV-infected cells. A body of evidence suggests that chronic immune stimulation is a hallmark of HIV-1 pathogenesis and may persist even in ART-treated patients. This review focuses on lymphomagenesis driven by EBV both in the context of the natural history of HIV-1 infection and in ART-treated patients. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the expansion of EBV-infected cells is a premise for the identification of prognostic markers of EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:24151490

  19. Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Paul D.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; Peng, Rong Sheng; White, Zoe S.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are at high risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. However, little is known of the EBV DNA loads in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrated that significantly more HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART than HIV-1-uninfected volunteers had detectable EBV DNA in blood (57 [81%] of 70 vs. 11 [16%] of 68 patients; P=.001) and saliva (55 [79%] of 68 vs. 37 [54%] of 68 patients; P=.002). The mean EBV loads in blood and saliva samples were also higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers (P=.001). The frequency of EBV detection in blood was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts (P=.03) among HIV-1-infected individuals, although no differences were observed in the EBV DNA loads in blood or saliva samples in the HIV-1-infected group. Additional studies are needed to determine whether EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV in HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART.

  20. Shared alterations in NK cell frequency, phenotype, and function in chronic human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections.

    PubMed

    Meier, Ute-Christiane; Owen, Rachel E; Taylor, Elizabeth; Worth, Andrew; Naoumov, Nikolai; Willberg, Christian; Tang, Kwok; Newton, Phillipa; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Klenerman, Paul; Borrow, Persephone

    2005-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause clinically important persistent infections. The effects of virus persistence on innate immunity, including NK cell responses, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the frequency, phenotype, and function of peripheral blood CD3- CD56+ NK subsets in HIV+ and HCV+ patients and identified significantly reduced numbers of total NK cells and a striking shift in NK subsets, with a marked decrease in the CD56(dim) cell fraction compared to CD56(bright) cells, in both infections. This shift influenced the phenotype and functional capacity (gamma interferon production, killing) of the total NK pool. In addition, abnormalities in the functional capacity of the CD56(dim) NK subset were observed in HIV+ patients. The shared NK alterations were found to be associated with a significant reduction in serum levels of the innate cytokine interleukin 15 (IL-15). In vitro stimulation with IL-15 rescued NK cells of HIV+ and HCV+ patients from apoptosis and enhanced proliferation and functional activity. We hypothesize that the reduced levels of IL-15 present in the serum during HIV and HCV infections might impact NK cell homeostasis, contributing to the common alterations of the NK pool observed in these unrelated infections. PMID:16160163

  1. Immunization of children at risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Moss, William J.; Clements, C. John; Halsey, Neal A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the English language literature on the safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) of vaccines currently recommended by WHO for use in national immunization programmes. Immunization is generally safe and beneficial for children infected with HIV, although HIV-induced immune suppression reduces the benefit compared with that obtained in HIV-uninfected children. However, serious complications can occur following immunization of severely immunocompromised children with bacillus Calmette-Gu rin (BCG) vaccine. The risk of serious complications attributable to yellow fever vaccine in HIV-infected persons has not been determined. WHO guidelines for immunizing children with HIV infection and infants born to HIV-infected women differ only slightly from the general guidelines. BCG and yellow fever vaccines should be withheld from symptomatic HIV-infected children. Only one serious complication (fatal pneumonia) has been attributed to measles vaccine administered to a severely immunocompromised adult. Although two HIV-infected infants have developed vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis, several million infected children have been vaccinated and the evidence does not suggest that there is an increased risk. The benefits of measles and poliovirus vaccines far outweigh the potential risks in HIV-infected children. The policy of administering routine vaccines to all children, regardless of possible HIV exposure, has been very effective in obtaining high immunization coverage and control of preventable diseases. Any changes in this policy would have to be carefully examined for a potential negative impact on disease control programmes in many countries. PMID:12640478

  2. CD4-Independent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Involves Participation of Endocytosis and Cathepsin B

    PubMed Central

    Yoshii, Hiroaki; Kamiyama, Haruka; Goto, Kensuke; Oishi, Kazunori; Katunuma, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Hayashi, Hideki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Sato, Hironori; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2011-01-01

    During a comparison of the infectivity of mNDK, a CD4-independent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain, to various cell lines, we found that HeLa cells were much less susceptible than 293T and TE671 cells. Hybridoma cells between HeLa and 293T cells were as susceptible as 293T cells, suggesting that cellular factors enhance the mNDK infection in 293T cells. By screening a cDNA expression library in HeLa cells, cystatin C was isolated as an enhancer of the mNDK infection. Because cathepsin B protease, a natural ligand of cystatin C, was upregulated in HeLa cells, we speculated that the high levels of cathepsin B activities were inhibitory to the CD4-independent infection and that cystatin C enhanced the infection by impairing the excessive cathepsin B activity. Consistent with this idea, pretreatment of HeLa cells with 125 µM of CA-074Me, a cathepsin B inhibitor, resulted in an 8-fold enhancement of the mNDK infectivity. Because cathepsin B is activated by low pH in acidic endosomes, we further examined the potential roles of endosomes in the CD4-independent infection. Suppression of endosome acidification or endocytosis by inhibitors or by an Eps15 dominant negative mutant reduced the infectivity of mNDK in which CD4-dependent infections were not significantly impaired. Taken together, these results suggest that endocytosis, endosomal acidification, and cathepsin B activity are involved in the CD4-independent entry of HIV-1. PMID:21541353

  3. A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Izumi, Taisuke; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Ren, Fengrong; Carpenter, Michael A.; Ikeda, Terumasa; Münk, Carsten; Harris, Reuben S.; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) DNA cytosine deaminases can be incorporated into progeny virions and inhibit lentiviral replication. On the other hand, viral infectivity factor (Vif) of lentiviruses antagonizes A3-mediated antiviral activities by degrading A3 proteins. It is known that domestic cat (Felis catus) APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), the ortholog of human APOBEC3H, potently suppresses the infectivity of vif-defective feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Although a recent report has shown that domestic cat encodes 7 haplotypes (hap I to hap VII) of A3Z3, the relevance of A3Z3 polymorphism in domestic cats with FIV Vif has not yet been addressed. In this study, we demonstrated that these feline A3Z3 variants suppress vif-defective FIV infectivity. We also revealed that codon 65 of feline A3Z3 is a positively selected site and that A3Z3 hap V is subject to positive selection during evolution. It is particularly noteworthy that feline A3Z3 hap V is resistant to FIV Vif-mediated degradation and still inhibits vif-proficient viral infection. Moreover, the side chain size, but not the hydrophobicity, of the amino acid at position 65 determines the resistance to FIV Vif-mediated degradation. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses have led to the inference that feline A3Z3 hap V emerged approximately 60,000 years ago. Taken together, these findings suggest that feline A3Z3 hap V may have been selected for escape from an ancestral FIV. This is the first evidence for an evolutionary “arms race” between the domestic cat and its cognate lentivirus. IMPORTANCE Gene diversity and selective pressure are intriguing topics in the field of evolutionary biology. A direct interaction between a cellular protein and a viral protein can precipitate an evolutionary arms race between host and virus. One example is primate APOBEC3G, which potently restricts the replication of primate lentiviruses (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus type 1

  4. Effects of Soluble CD4 on Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of CD4-Positive and CD4-Negative Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schenten, Dominik; Marcon, Luisa; Karlsson, Gunilla B.; Parolin, Cristina; Kodama, Toshiaki; Gerard, Norma; Sodroski, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of the CD4 receptor (sCD4) can either enhance or inhibit the infection of cells by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus. We investigated the basis for these varying effects by studying the entry of three SIV isolates into CD4-positive and CD4-negative cells expressing different chemokine receptors. Infection of CD4-negative cells depended upon the viral envelope glycoproteins and upon the chemokine receptor, with CCR5 and gpr15 being more efficient than STRL33. Likewise, enhancement of infection by sCD4 was observed when CCR5- and gpr15-expressing target cells were used but not when those expressing STRL33 were used. The sCD4-mediated enhancement of virus infection of CD4-negative, CCR5-positive cells was related to the sCD4-induced increase in binding of the viral gp120 envelope glycoprotein to CCR5. Inhibitory effects of sCD4 could largely be explained by competition for virus attachment to cellular CD4 rather than other detrimental effects on virus infectivity (e.g., disruption of the envelope glycoprotein spike). Consistent with this, the sCD4-activated SIV envelope glycoprotein intermediate on the virus was long-lived. Thus, the net effect of sCD4 on SIV infectivity appears to depend upon the degree of enhancement of chemokine receptor binding and upon the efficiency of competition for cellular CD4. PMID:10364284

  5. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... incisions made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Immune System: ...

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of human macrophages modulates the cytokine response to Pneumocystis carinii.

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, O; Fishman, J A; Koziel, H; Pinkston, P; Rose, R M; Remold, H G

    1994-01-01

    The present studies examined production of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and IL-6 by human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to Pneumocystis carinii in vitro and the impact of concurrent macrophage infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on these cytokine responses. Macrophages were infected with the HIV-1 BaL monocytotropic strain for 10 to 14 days and then exposed to P. carinii. At various times following P. carinii treatment, culture supernatants were harvested to assess the cytokine profile. Addition of P. carinii to HIV-uninfected macrophages resulted in augmented production of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta protein. By contrast, in HIV-infected macrophages exposed to P. carinii, only the release of IL-6 was increased compared with that for HIV-uninfected macrophages, while the levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta decreased. This altered response was confirmed at the molecular level for TNF-alpha mRNA. Preventing physical contact between P. carinii and macrophages by a membrane filter inhibited all cytokine release. Substituting P. carinii with a preparation of P. carinii 95- to 115-kDa major membrane glycoprotein A yielded a response similar to that obtained by addition of intact P. carinii. These results suggest that HIV-1 infection of human macrophages modulates cytokine responses to P. carinii. Images PMID:8300221

  7. "Frontal systems" behaviors in comorbid human immunodeficiency virus infection and methamphetamine dependency.

    PubMed

    Marquine, María J; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Morgan, Erin E; Brown, Gregory G; Letendre, Scott L; Ellis, Ronald J; Deutsch, Reena; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K

    2014-01-30

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and methamphetamine (MA) dependence are associated with neural injury preferentially involving frontostriatal circuits. Little is known, however, about how these commonly comorbid conditions impact behavioral presentations typically associated with frontal systems dysfunction. Our sample comprised 47 HIV-uninfected/MA-nondependent; 25 HIV-uninfected/MA-dependent; 36 HIV-infected/MA-nondependent; and 28 HIV-infected/MA-dependent subjects. Participants completed self-report measures of "frontal systems" behaviors, including impulsivity/disinhibition, sensation-seeking, and apathy. They also underwent comprehensive neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric assessments that allowed for detailed characterization of neurocognitive deficits and comorbid/premorbid conditions, including lifetime Mood and Substance Use Disorders, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. Multivariable regression models adjusting for potential confounds (i.e., demographics and comorbid/premorbid conditions) showed that MA dependence was independently associated with increased impulsivity/disinhibition, sensation-seeking and apathy, and HIV infection with greater apathy. However, we did not see synergistic/additive effects of HIV and MA on frontal systems behaviors. Global neurocognitive impairment was relatively independent of the frontal systems behaviors, which is consistent with the view that these constructs may have relatively separable biopsychosocial underpinnings. Future research should explore whether both neurocognitive impairment and frontal systems behaviors may independently contribute to everyday functioning outcomes relevant to HIV and MA. PMID:24290100

  8. Molecular Characterization of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Women and Their Vertically Infected Children.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Sara Nunes; Giovanetti, Marta; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; Oliveira, Tulio de; Danaviah, Siva; Gonçalves, Maria Luiza Freire; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Brites, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 35 million people worldwide are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) around 3.2 million of whom are children under 15 years. Mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 accounts for 90% of all infections in children. Despite great advances in the prevention of MTCT in Brazil, children are still becoming infected. Samples from 19 HIV-1-infected families were collected. DNA was extracted and fragments from gag, pol, and env were amplified and sequenced directly. Phylogenetic reconstruction was performed. Drug resistance analyses were performed in pol and env sequences. We found 82.1% of subtype B and 17.9% of BF recombinants. A prevalence of 43.9% drug resistance-associated mutations in pol sequences was identified. Of the drug-naive children 33.3% presented at least one mutation related to protease inhibitor/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (PI/NRTI/NNRTI) resistance. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations was 4.9%. On env we found a low prevalence of HR1 (4.9%) and HR2 (14.6%) mutations. PMID:26200738

  9. Species distribution in human immunodeficiency virus-related mycobacterial infections: implications for selection of initial treatment.

    PubMed

    Montessori, V; Phillips, P; Montaner, J; Haley, L; Craib, K; Bessuille, E; Black, W

    1996-06-01

    Management of mycobacterial infection is species specific; however, treatment is prompted by positive smears or cultures, often several weeks before species identification. The objective of this study was to determine the species distribution of mycobacterial isolates from various body sites in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All mycobacterial isolates recovered at St. Paul's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) from April 1989 to March 1993 were reviewed. Among 357 HIV-positive patients with mycobacterial infections, 64% (96) of the sputum isolates were Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), 18% were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 17% were Mycobacterium kansasii. Lymph node involvement (25 patients) was due to either MAC (72%) or M. tuberculosis (24%). Two hundred ninety-eight episodes of mycobacteremia were due to MAC (98%), M. tuberculosis (1%), and M. kansasii (1%). Similarly, cultures of 84 bone marrow biopsy specimens (99%), 19 intestinal biopsy specimens (100%), and 30 stool specimens (97%) yielded predominantly MAC. These results have implications for initial therapy, particularly in areas where rapid methods for species identification are not readily available. Because of considerable geographic variation, development of guidelines for selection of initial therapy depends on regional determination of species distribution in HIV-related mycobacterial infections. PMID:8783698

  10. Tropical Diseases Screening in Immigrant Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Fernando; Molina, Israel; Sulleiro, Elena; Burgos, Joaquín; Curran, Adrián; den Eynde, Eva Van; Villar del Saz, Sara; Navarro, Jordi; Crespo, Manuel; Ocaña, Inma; Ribera, Esteve; Falcó, Vicenç; Pahissa, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Latent parasitic infections can reactivate because of immunosuppression. We conducted a prospective observational study of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected immigrants who visited the Infectious Diseases Department of the Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain, during June 2010–May 2011. Screening of the most prevalent tropical diseases (intestinal parasitosis, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis) was performed according to geographic origin. A total of 190 patients were included: 141 (74.2%) from Latin America, 41 (21.6%) from sub-Saharan Africa, and 8 (4.2%) from northern Africa. Overall, 36.8% (70 of 190) of the patients had at least one positive result for any parasitic disease: 5 patients with positive Trypanosoma cruzi serology, 11 patients with positive Schistosoma mansoni serology, 35 patients with positive Strongyloides stercoralis serology, 7 patients with positive Leishmania infantum serology, intestinal parasitosis were detected in 37 patients, malaria was diagnosed in one symptomatic patient. We propose a screening and management strategy of latent parasitic infections in immigrant patients infected with HIV. PMID:23509119

  11. Dual Simian Foamy Virus/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections in Persons from Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Tang, Shaohua; Zheng, HaoQiang; Shankar, Anupama; Sprinkle, Patrick S.; Sullivan, Vickie; Granade, Timothy C.; Heneine, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in West-Central Africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). While simian foamy virus (SFV) and simian T- lymphotropic virus (STLV)-like infection were reported in healthy persons exposed to nonhuman primates (NHPs) in West-Central Africa, less is known about the distribution of these viruses in Western Africa and in hospitalized populations. We serologically screened for SFV and STLV infection using 1,529 specimens collected between 1985 and 1997 from Côte d’Ivoire patients with high HIV prevalence. PCR amplification and analysis of SFV, STLV, and HIV/SIV sequences from PBMCs was used to investigate possible simian origin of infection. We confirmed SFV antibodies in three persons (0.2%), two of whom were HIV-1-infected. SFV polymerase (pol) and LTR sequences were detected in PBMC DNA available for one HIV-infected person. Phylogenetic comparisons with new SFV sequences from African guenons showed infection likely originated from a Chlorocebus sabaeus monkey endemic to Côte d’Ivoire. 4.6% of persons were HTLV seropositive and PCR testing of PBMCs from 15 HTLV seroreactive persons identified nine with HTLV-1 and one with HTLV-2 LTR sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two persons had STLV-1-like infections, seven were HTLV-1, and one was an HTLV-2 infection. 310/858 (53%), 8/858 (0.93%), and 18/858 (2.1%) were HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-positive but undifferentiated by serology, respectively. No SIV sequences were found in persons with HIV-2 antibodies (n = 1) or with undifferentiated HIV results (n = 7). We document SFV, STLV-1-like, and dual SFV/HIV infection in Côte d’Ivoire expanding the geographic range for zoonotic simian retrovirus transmission to West Africa. These findings highlight the need to define the public health consequences of these infections. Studying dual HIV-1/SFV infections in

  12. Dual Simian Foamy Virus/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections in Persons from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Switzer, William M; Tang, Shaohua; Zheng, HaoQiang; Shankar, Anupama; Sprinkle, Patrick S; Sullivan, Vickie; Granade, Timothy C; Heneine, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in West-Central Africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). While simian foamy virus (SFV) and simian T- lymphotropic virus (STLV)-like infection were reported in healthy persons exposed to nonhuman primates (NHPs) in West-Central Africa, less is known about the distribution of these viruses in Western Africa and in hospitalized populations. We serologically screened for SFV and STLV infection using 1,529 specimens collected between 1985 and 1997 from Côte d'Ivoire patients with high HIV prevalence. PCR amplification and analysis of SFV, STLV, and HIV/SIV sequences from PBMCs was used to investigate possible simian origin of infection. We confirmed SFV antibodies in three persons (0.2%), two of whom were HIV-1-infected. SFV polymerase (pol) and LTR sequences were detected in PBMC DNA available for one HIV-infected person. Phylogenetic comparisons with new SFV sequences from African guenons showed infection likely originated from a Chlorocebus sabaeus monkey endemic to Côte d'Ivoire. 4.6% of persons were HTLV seropositive and PCR testing of PBMCs from 15 HTLV seroreactive persons identified nine with HTLV-1 and one with HTLV-2 LTR sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two persons had STLV-1-like infections, seven were HTLV-1, and one was an HTLV-2 infection. 310/858 (53%), 8/858 (0.93%), and 18/858 (2.1%) were HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-positive but undifferentiated by serology, respectively. No SIV sequences were found in persons with HIV-2 antibodies (n = 1) or with undifferentiated HIV results (n = 7). We document SFV, STLV-1-like, and dual SFV/HIV infection in Côte d'Ivoire expanding the geographic range for zoonotic simian retrovirus transmission to West Africa. These findings highlight the need to define the public health consequences of these infections. Studying dual HIV-1/SFV infections in

  13. IL-4 increases Simian immunodeficiency virus replication despite enhanced SIV immune responses in infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Boyer, J D; Nath, B; Schumann, K; Curley, E; Manson, K; Kim, J; Weiner, D B

    2002-05-01

    It is widely believed that a Th1 type CD4 response is critical for enhancement of CD8 immunity and for controlling HIV-1 infection. Th2 type responses, such as what might be seen in a chronic parasitic infection, would sacrifice cellular immunity and thus benefit the virus at the expense of the host. However, there has been little direct examination of the hypothesis in a primate model system. Accordingly, the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected rhesus macaque model was used to investigate the impact of immunisation with SIV expressing DNA constructs and co-injection with IL-4 on the SIV specific immunological responses, lymphocyte cell counts, as well as the impact on viral load. IL-4 is a Th2 type cytokine, which enhances antibody production and inhibits a CD4 Th1 phenotype. Rhesus macaques were infected with 10 AID50 of SIVmac239 and treated with 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA) 9 weeks post-infection. During PMPA treatment, animals were immunised with plasmids that expressed the SIV proteins, env, rev, gag and pol. In addition, they were immunised with a construct that encoded the gene for IL-4. IL-4 co-immunisation increased the neutralizing antibody titres in this group. Importantly, the viral loads in animals vaccinated with IL-4 expressing plasmid increased during the immunisation regimens despite the higher neutralizing antibody titres. In addition, neutralizing antibodies did not correlate with viral set point prior to PMPA treatment, however, there was a correlation between viral loads and antibody titres following the treatment with PMPA. Antibody titres decreased following the suppression of viral load. Importantly, vaccination in the absence of IL-4 protected CD4 levels without increasing viral load. The data support the hypothesis that inappropriate immune bias toward a Th2 pathway would ultimately enhance disease progression. PMID:11943227

  14. Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search AAAAI Breadcrumb navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Library ▸ Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies Share | Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI ...

  15. Severe Viral Infections and Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jeffrey I.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with severe viral infections are often not thoroughly evaluated for immunodeficiencies. In this review, we summarize primary immunodeficiencies that predispose individuals to severe viral infections. Some immunodeficiencies enhance susceptibility to disease with a specific virus or family of viruses, whereas others predispose to diseases with multiple viruses in addition to disease with other microbes. Although the role of cytotoxic T cells in controlling viral infections is well known, a number of immunodeficiencies that predispose to severe viral diseases have recently been ascribed to defects in the Toll-like receptor–interferon signaling pathway. These immunodeficiencies are rare, but it is important to identify them both for prognostic information and for genetic counseling. Undoubtedly, additional mutations in proteins in the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system will be identified in the future, which will reveal the importance of these proteins in controlling infections caused by viruses and other pathogens. PMID:21960712

  16. The oral and conjunctival microbiotas in cats with and without feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Weese, Scott J; Nichols, Jamieson; Jalali, Mohammad; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The oral and conjunctival microbiotas likely play important roles in protection from opportunistic infections, while also being the source of potential pathogens. Yet, there has been limited investigation in cats, and the impact of comorbidities such as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has not been reported. Oral and conjunctival swabs were collected from cats with FIV infection and FIV-uninfected controls, and subjected to 16S rRNA gene (V4) PCR and next generation sequencing. 9,249 OTUs were identified from conjunctival swabs, yet the most common 20 (0.22%) OTUs accounted for 76% of sequences. The two most abundant OTUs both belonged to Staphylococcus, and accounted for 37% of sequences. Cats with FIV infection had significantly lower relative abundances of Verrucomicrobia, Fibrobacteres, Spirochaetes, Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes, and a higher relative abundance of Deinococcus-Thermus. There were significant differences in both community membership (P = 0.006) and community structure (P = 0.02) between FIV-infected and FIV-uninfected cats. FIV-infected cats had significantly higher relative abundances of Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria in the oral cavity, and significantly higher relative abundances of several bacterial classes including Fusobacteria (0.022 vs 0.007, P = 0.006), Actinobacteria (0.017 vs 0.003, P = 0.003), Sphingobacteria (0.00015 vs 0.00003, P = 0.0013) and Flavobacteria (0.0073 vs 0.0034, P = 0.030). The feline conjunctival and oral microbiotas are complex polymicrobial communities but dominated by a limited number of genera. There is an apparent impact of FIV infection on various components of the microbiota, and assessment of the clinical relevance of these alterations in required. PMID:25879465

  17. Normal T-cell turnover in sooty mangabeys harboring active simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, L A; Lewin, S R; Zhang, L; Gettie, A; Luckay, A; Martin, L N; Skulsky, E; Ho, D D; Cheng-Mayer, C; Marx, P A

    2000-02-01

    Sooty mangabeys naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) remain healthy though they harbor viral loads comparable to those in rhesus macaques that progress to AIDS. To assess the immunologic basis of disease resistance in mangabeys, we compared the effect of SIV infection on T-cell regeneration in both monkey species. Measurement of the proliferation marker Ki-67 by flow cytometry showed that mangabeys harbored proliferating T cells at a level of 3 to 4% in peripheral blood irrespective of their infection status. In contrast, rhesus macaques demonstrated a naturally high fraction of proliferating T cells (7%) that increased two- to threefold following SIV infection. Ki-67(+) T cells were predominantly CD45RA(-), indicating increased proliferation of memory cells in macaques. Quantitation of an episomal DNA product of T-cell receptor alpha rearrangement (termed alpha1 circle) showed that the concentration of recent thymic emigrants in blood decreased with age over a 2-log unit range in both monkey species, consistent with age-related thymic involution. SIV infection caused a limited decrease of alpha1 circle numbers in mangabeys as well as in macaques. Dilution of alpha1 circles by T-cell proliferation likely contributed to this decrease, since alpha1 circle numbers and Ki-67(+) fractions correlated negatively. These findings are compatible with immune exhaustion mediated by abnormal T-cell proliferation, rather than with early thymic failure, in SIV-infected macaques. Normal T-cell turnover in SIV-infected mangabeys provides an explanation for the long-term maintenance of a functional immune system in these hosts. PMID:10627531

  18. A Retrospective Analysis of 7 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Infants Infected by Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen; Qiu, Ye; Lu, DeCheng; Zhang, Jianquan; Zhong, Xiaoning; Liu, Guangnan

    2015-08-01

    Infection with Penicillium marneffei has rarely been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative infants. We aimed to determine the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, and immunological characteristics of 7 HIV-negative infants infected by P. marneffei, and to provide insights into its diagnosis and treatment.We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 7 HIV-negative infants infected by P. marneffei who presented to the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University between January 1, 2003 and December 1, 2014. The infants' median age was 23.43 months (SD = 8.34), and all lived in Guangxi Province in China, where P. marneffei is endemic. The median time from disease onset to diagnosis was 2.29 months (SD = 2.12). Of the cases studied, 5 (71.43%) had medical histories that included frequent pneumonia or bronchopneumonia, thrush, congenital megacolon, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and hemophagocytic syndrome. The most common symptoms were fever, cough, and anemia, followed by lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and being underweight. Four patients had slightly elevated white blood cell counts. The lymphocyte and CD4 T-cell counts were normal. The CD8 T-cell counts, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G titer, and serum IgA titer were low in 5 patients, and the serum IgM titers were high in 3 infants. Caseous necrosis was observed in 3 patients whose lymph nodes were affected. One case who received intravenous amphotericin B and 3 cases who received intravenous voriconazole improved, and these patients were cured after continual treatment with oral voriconazole for 6 or 12 months. The remaining patients died before they received antifungal treatment.P. marneffei causes severe disease and disseminated infections, and it has high mortality rates in HIV-negative infants in endemic areas. P. marneffei susceptibility may be associated with immunodeficiencies or immune disorders. In endemic areas, clinicians should aware of disseminated

  19. Co-Infection Burden of Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus among Injecting Heroin Users at the Kenyan Coast

    PubMed Central

    Mwatelah, Ruth S.; Lwembe, Raphael M.; Osman, Saida; Ogutu, Bernhards R.; Aman, Rashid; Kitawi, Rose C.; Wangai, Laura N.; Oloo, Florence A.; Kokwaro, Gilbert O.; Ochieng, Washingtone

    2015-01-01

    Background Injection drug use is steadily rising in Kenya. We assessed the prevalence of both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among injecting heroin users (IHUs) at the Kenyan Coast. Methods A total of 186 IHUs (mean age, 33 years) from the Omari rehabilitation center program in Malindi were consented and screened for HIV-1 and HCV by serology and PCR and their CD4 T-cells enumerated by FACS. Results Prevalence of HIV-1 was 87.5%, that of HCV was 16.4%, co-infection was 17.9% and 18/152 (11.8%) were uninfected. Only 5.26% of the HIV-1 negative injectors were HCV positive. Co-infection was higher among injectors aged 30 to 40 years (20.7%) and among males (22.1%) than comparable groups. About 35% of the injectors were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Co-infection was highest among injectors receiving D4T (75%) compared to those receiving AZT (21.6%) or TDF (10.5%) or those not on ART (10.5%). Mean CD4 T-cells were 404 (95% CI, 365 - 443) cells/mm3 overall, significantly lower for co-infected (mean, 146; 95% CI 114 – 179 cells/mm3) than HIV mono infected (mean, 437, 95% CI 386 – 487 cells/mm3, p<0.001) or uninfected (mean, 618, 95% CI 549 – 687 cells/mm3, p<0.001) injectors and lower for HIV mono-infected than uninfected injectors (p=0.002). By treatment arm, CD4 T-cells were lower for injectors receiving D4T (mean, 78; 95% CI, 0.4 – 156 cells/mm3) than TDF (mean 607, 95% CI, 196 – 1018 cells/mm3, p=0.005) or AZT (mean 474, 95% CI -377 – 571 cells/mm3, p=0.004). Conclusion Mono and dual infections with HIV-1 and HCV is high among IHUs in Malindi, but ART coverage is low. The co-infected IHUs have elevated risk of immunodeficiency due to significantly depressed CD4 T-cell numbers. Coinfection screening, treatment-as-prevention for both HIV and HCV and harm reduction should be scaled up to alleviate infection burden. PMID:26208212

  20. Two Orphan Seven-Transmembrane Segment Receptors Which Are Expressed in CD4-positive Cells Support Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Michael; Choe, Hyeryun; Martin, Kathleen; Marcon, Luisa; Hofmann, Wolfgang; Karlsson, Gunilla; Sun, Ying; Barrett, Peter; Marchand, Nathalie; Sullivan, Nancy; Gerard, Norma; Gerard, Craig; Sodroski, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Clinical isolates of primate immunodeficiency viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), enter target cells by sequential binding to CD4 and the chemokine receptor CCR5, a member of the seven-transmembrane receptor family. HIV-1 variants which use additional chemokine receptors are present in the central nervous system or emerge during the course of infection. Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) have been shown to use CCR5 as a coreceptor, but no other receptors for these viruses have been identified. Here we show that two orphan seven-transmembrane segment receptors, gpr1 and gpr15, serve as coreceptors for SIV, and are expressed in human alveolar macrophages. The more efficient of these, gpr15, is also expressed in human CD4+ T lymphocytes and activated rhesus macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The gpr15 and gpr1 proteins lack several hallmarks of chemokine receptors, but share with CCR5 an amino-terminal motif rich in tyrosine residues. These results underscore the potential diversity of seven-transmembrane segment receptors used as entry cofactors by primate immunodeficiency viruses, and may contribute to an understanding of viral variation and pathogenesis. PMID:9236192

  1. Infectious and Non-infectious Etiologies of Cardiovascular Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chastain, Daniel B.; King, Travis S.; Stover, Kayla R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing rates of HIV have been observed in women, African Americans, and Hispanics, particularly those residing in rural areas of the United States. Although cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly decreased following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy on a global scale, in many rural areas, residents face geographic, social, and cultural barriers that result in decreased access to care. Despite the advancements to combat the disease, many patients in these medically underserved areas are not linked to care, and fewer than half achieve viral suppression. Methods: Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed publications reporting infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Relevant articles cited in the retrieved publications were also reviewed for inclusion. Results: A variety of outcomes studies and literature reviews were included in the analysis. Relevant literature discussed the manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Conclusion: In these medically underserved areas, it is vital that clinicians are knowledgeable in the manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CV complications in patients with untreated HIV. This review summarizes the epidemiology and causes of CV complications associated with untreated HIV and provide recommendations for management of these complications. PMID:27583063

  2. Adherence to directly observed antiretroviral therapy among human immunodeficiency virus-infected prison inmates.

    PubMed

    Wohl, David A; Stephenson, Becky L; Golin, Carol E; Kiziah, C Nichole; Rosen, David; Ngo, Bich; Liu, Honghu; Kaplan, Andrew H

    2003-06-15

    Directly observed therapy (DOT) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is commonly used in correctional settings; however, the efficacy of DOT for treating HIV infection has not been determined. We prospectively assessed adherence to antiretroviral therapy regimens among 31 HIV-infected prison inmates who were receiving >or=1 antiretrovirals via DOT. Adherence was measured by self-report, pill count, electronic monitoring caps, and, for DOT only, medication administration records. Overall, median adherence was 90%, as measured by pill count; 86%, by electronic monitoring caps; and 100%, by self-report. Adherence, as measured by electronic monitoring caps, was >90% in 32% of the subjects. In 91% of cases, adherence, as measured by medication administration records, was greater than that recorded by electronic monitoring caps for the same medications administered by DOT. Objective methods of measurement revealed that adherence to antiretroviral regimens administered wholly or in part by DOT was

  3. Spatial analysis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus among pregnant women1

    PubMed Central

    de Holanda, Eliane Rolim; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Paiva, Simone de Sousa; de Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the spatial distribution of reported cases of pregnant women infected by the human immunodeficiency virus and to identify the urban areas with greater social vulnerability to the infection among pregnant women. METHOD: ecological study, developed by means of spatial analysis techniques of area data. Secondary data were used from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System for the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Birth data were obtained from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births and socioeconomic data from the 2010 Demographic Census. RESULTS: the presence of spatial self-correlation was verified. Moran's Index was significant for the distribution. Clusters were identified, considered as high-risk areas, located in grouped neighborhoods, with equally high infection rates among pregnant women. A neighborhood located in the Northwest of the city was distinguished, considered in an epidemiological transition phase. CONCLUSION: precarious living conditions, as evidenced by the indicators illiteracy, absence of prenatal care and poverty, were relevant for the risk of vertical HIV transmission, converging to the grouping of cases among disadvantaged regions. PMID:26155005

  4. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Harimurti, Kuntjoro; Saldi, Siti R F; Dewiasty, Esthika; Khoeri, Miftahuddin M; Yunihastuti, Evi; Putri, Tiara; Tafroji, Wisnu; Safari, Dodi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Specimens of nasopharyngeal swab were collected from 200 HIV infected adults aged 21 to 63 years. Identification of S. pneumoniae was done by optochin susceptibility test and PCR for the presence of psaA and lytA genes. Serotyping was performed with sequential multiplex PCR and antibiotic susceptibility with the disk diffusion method. S. pneumoniae strains were carried by 10% adults with serotype 6A/B 20% was common serotype among cultured strains in 20 adults. Most of isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (80%) followed by clindamycin (75%), erythromycin (75%), penicillin (55%), and tetracycline (50%). This study found resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was most common with only 15% of strains being susceptible. High non-susceptibility to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in S. pneumoniae strains carried by HIV infected adults in Jakarta, Indonesia. PMID:26896285

  5. The Roles of Genetic Polymorphisms and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Elaine Regina Delicato; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Flauzino, Tamires; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2013-01-01

    Dyslipidemia has been frequently observed among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and factors related to HIV-1, the host, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are involved in this phenomenon. This study reviews the roles of genetic polymorphisms, HIV-1 infection, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in lipid metabolism. Lipid abnormalities can vary according to the HAART regimen, such as those with protease inhibitors (PIs). However, genetic factors may also be involved in dyslipidemia because not all patients receiving the same HAART regimen and with comparable demographic, virological, and immunological characteristics develop variations in the lipid profile. Polymorphisms in a large number of genes are involved in the synthesis of structural proteins, and enzymes related to lipid metabolism account for variations in the lipid profile of each individual. As some genetic polymorphisms may cause dyslipidemia, these allele variants should be investigated in HIV-1-infected patients to identify individuals with an increased risk of developing dyslipidemia during treatment with HAART, particularly during therapy with PIs. This knowledge may guide individualized treatment decisions and lead to the development of new therapeutic targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia in these patients. PMID:24319689

  6. JC virus/human immunodeficiency virus 1 co-infection in the Brazilian Amazonian region.

    PubMed

    Cayres-Vallinoto, Izaura Maria Vieira; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Pena, Giselle Priscila Dos Anjos; Azevedo, Vânia Nakauth; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães; Ishak, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is a member of the Polyomaviridae family and is associated to a severe disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, PML, which is gradually increasing in incidence as an opportunistic infection among AIDS patients. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of JCV among HIV-1 carriers including their types and molecular subtypes and the possible association with disease. Urine samples from 66 HIV-1 infected subjects were investigated for the presence of the virus by amplifying VP1 (215bp) and IG (610bp) regions using the polymerase chain reaction. JCV was detected in 32% of the samples. The results confirmed the occurrence of type B (subtype Af2); in addition, another polyomavirus, BKV, was also detected in 1.5% of samples of the HIV-1 infected subjects. Apparently, there was no significant difference between mono- (HIV-1 only) and co-infected (HIV-1/JCV) subjects regarding their TCD4(+)/TCD8(+) lymphocyte counts or HIV-1 plasma viral load. Self admitted seizures, hearing and visual loses were not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:27266589

  7. Simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Brazilian women by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Souza, Raquel P; de Abreu, André L P; Ferreira, Érika C; Rocha-Brischiliari, Sheila C; de B Carvalho, Maria D; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2013-12-01

    We determined the prevalence of seven clinically important pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], HSV-2, and Treponema pallidum), by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) in samples from Brazilian woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and uninfected Brazilian women (controls). The M-PCR assay identified all STIs tested for and surprisingly, occurred association between the control and STIs. This association was probably caused by excellent HIV infection control and regular monitoring in these women established by public health strategies in Brazil to combat HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Studies using this M-PCR in different populations may help to better elucidate the roles of STIs in several conditions. PMID:24080632

  8. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among TB patients in Port Harcourt Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Erhabor, O; Jeremiah, Z A; Adias, T C; Okere, CE

    2010-01-01

    The joint statement by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends that all patients with tuberculosis (TB) undergo testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection after counseling. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of HIV infection among 120 patients diagnosed with microbiologically proven TB aged 18 to 54 years with a mean age of 39.5 years (standard deviation 6.75). The subjects studied were 36 male (30%) and 84 females (70%). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used to screen for HIV infection among the subjects. Of the 120 TB patients tested 30 (25%) were positive for HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV was higher in females 24 (80%) compared to males 6 (20%) and among singles (66.7%) compared to married subjects (33.3%) (χ2 = 83.5 and χ2 = 126.2, respectively P = 0.001). HIV-1 was the predominant viral subtype. HIV prevalence was significantly higher in subjects in the 38–47 year and 28–37 year age groups (both 40%) followed by the 18–28 year age group (20%) (χ2 = 42.6, P = 0.05). The mean CD4 lymphocyte count of the HIV-infected TB subjects was significantly lower (195 ± 40.5 cells/μL) compared to the non-HIV infected (288 ± 35.25 cells/μL P = 0.01). This study has shown a high prevalence of HIV among TB patients. Reactivation of TB among people living with HIV can be reduced by TB preventive therapy and by universal access to antiretroviral therapy. PMID:22096379

  9. Factors associated with prevalent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chmiel, J S; Detels, R; Kaslow, R A; Van Raden, M; Kingsley, L A; Brookmeyer, R

    1987-10-01

    Interviews regarding medical history, life-style, specific drug taking and sexual activities, and physical examinations were administered to 4,955 homosexual men who volunteered for the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study in Baltimore, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Pittsburgh. Overall, the prevalence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in these men was 38.0%. The factor most strongly associated with prevalent HIV infection according to a multiple logistic regression model was rectal trauma, a composite variable which included receptive anal fisting, enemas before sex, reporting of blood around the rectum, and the observation of scarring, fissures or fistulas on rectal examination. Receptive anal intercourse also was strongly associated with HIV infection in the model. The multivariate relative odds for HIV antibody positivity was 7.72 for the highest level of rectal trauma and 3.04 for receptive anal intercourse. Symptoms reported to occur in some persons who subsequently develop acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were frequent among HIV seropositive men (12.9%) but were reported in 8.4% of seronegative men as well. Generalized lymphadenopathy was observed significantly more often in seropositive men (48.8%) compared with seronegative men (11.4%). The prevalence of HIV antibodies was inversely related to the number of T-helper cells and directly related (to a lesser extent) to the number of T-suppressor cells. The results suggest that disruption of the rectal mucosa provides access by HIV to the blood stream and to specific immunologic cells. Since symptoms and generalized lymphadenopathy were often reported among seronegative men, they probably also occur among some seropositive men not currently progressing to AIDS. PMID:3651095

  10. Intestinal Parasite Co-infection among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a Rural County in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites in humans have not been extensively investigated in China. A cross-section study was conducted in a rural county of Henan Province, China. Pulmonary TB (PTB) case-patients receiving treatment for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and healthy controls matched for geographic area, age, and sex were surveyed by using questionnaires. Fecal and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal parasites, routine blood examination, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. A total of 369 persons with PTB and 366 healthy controls were included; all participants were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in persons with PTB was 14.9%, including intestinal protozoa (7.9%) and helminthes (7.6%). The infection spectrum of intestinal parasites was Entamoeba spp. (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (6.2%), Trichomonas hominis (0.3%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), and hookworm (4.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites showed no significant difference between persons with PTB and healthy controls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. There was no factor that affected infection rates for intestinal parasites between the two groups. Infection with intestinal parasites of persons with PTB was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.17), body mass index ≤ 19 (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.47–6.20), and anemia (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.17–5.03). Infection of healthy controls was only associated with an annual labor time in farmlands > 2 months (AOR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.03–10.00). In addition, there was no significant trend between rates of infection with

  11. Resistance of previously infected chimpanzees to successive challenges with a heterologous intraclade B strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, R; Siemon, C; Cho, M W; Arthur, L O; Nigida, S M; Matthews, T; Sawyer, L A; Schultz, A; Murthy, K K; Israel, Z; Javadian, A; Frost, P; Kennedy, R C; Lane, H C; Martin, M A

    1996-01-01

    To test whether the protective effects of attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines in macaques were applicable to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-chimpanzee system, two groups of animals, previously infected with HIV-1(IIIB) or HIV-1(SF2) were each challenged with a heterologous clade B virus, HIV-1(DH12). Following challenge, the parameters measured included virus isolation (from plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and lymph node tissue); quantitative DNA PCR using primers capable of distinguishing HIV-1(IIIB), HIV-1(SF2), and HIV-1(DH12) from one another; and serologic assays to monitor changes in binding and neutralizing antibodies. In contrast to an HIV-1-naive chimpanzee that rapidly became infected following the inoculation of HIV-1(DH12), the two chimpanzees previously infected with HIV-1(IIIB) resisted repeated and escalating inoculations of HIV-1(DH12), as monitored by virus isolation and PCR. The two animals previously infected with HIV-1(SF2) became infected with HIV-1(DH12) but in contrast to the case with the HIV-1-naive chimpanzee, no cell-free viral RNA was detected in the plasma by the branched DNA procedure and levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell-associated viral DNA were reduced 35- to 50-fold. PMID:8676459

  12. Bioluminescent imaging of vaccinia virus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats as a model for human smallpox.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Fan, Changfa; Zhou, Shuya; Guo, Yanan; Zuo, Qin; Ma, Jian; Liu, Susu; Wu, Xi; Peng, Zexu; Fan, Tao; Guo, Chaoshe; Shen, Yuelei; Huang, Weijin; Li, Baowen; He, Zhengming; Wang, Youchun

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing concern of using smallpox virus as biological weapons for terrorist attack, there is renewed interest in studying the pathogenesis of human smallpox and development of new therapies. Animal models are highly demanded for efficacy and safety examination of new vaccines and therapeutic drugs. Here, we demonstrated that both wild type and immunodeficient rats infected with an engineered vaccinia virus carrying Firefly luciferase reporter gene (rTV-Fluc) could recapitulate infectious and clinical features of human smallpox. Vaccinia viral infection in wild type Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats displayed a diffusible pattern in various organs, including liver, head and limbs. The intensity of bioluminescence generated from rTV-Fluc correlated well with viral loads in tissues. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies had a protective effect against virus reinfection. The recombination activating gene 2 (Rag2) knockout rats generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) technology were further used to examine the infectivity of the rTV-Fluc in immunodeficient populations. Here we demonstrated that Rag2-/- rats were more susceptible to rTV-Fluc than SD rats with a slower virus clearance rate. Therefore, the rTV-Fluc/SD rats and rTV-Fluc/Rag2-/- rats are suitable visualization models, which recapitulate wild type or immunodeficient populations respectively, for testing human smallpox vaccine and antiviral drugs. PMID:26235050

  13. Bioluminescent imaging of vaccinia virus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats as a model for human smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Fan, Changfa; Zhou, Shuya; Guo, Yanan; Zuo, Qin; Ma, Jian; Liu, Susu; Wu, Xi; Peng, Zexu; Fan, Tao; Guo, Chaoshe; Shen, Yuelei; Huang, Weijin; Li, Baowen; He, Zhengming; Wang, Youchun

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing concern of using smallpox virus as biological weapons for terrorist attack, there is renewed interest in studying the pathogenesis of human smallpox and development of new therapies. Animal models are highly demanded for efficacy and safety examination of new vaccines and therapeutic drugs. Here, we demonstrated that both wild type and immunodeficient rats infected with an engineered vaccinia virus carrying Firefly luciferase reporter gene (rTV-Fluc) could recapitulate infectious and clinical features of human smallpox. Vaccinia viral infection in wild type Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats displayed a diffusible pattern in various organs, including liver, head and limbs. The intensity of bioluminescence generated from rTV-Fluc correlated well with viral loads in tissues. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies had a protective effect against virus reinfection. The recombination activating gene 2 (Rag2) knockout rats generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) technology were further used to examine the infectivity of the rTV-Fluc in immunodeficient populations. Here we demonstrated that Rag2-/- rats were more susceptible to rTV-Fluc than SD rats with a slower virus clearance rate. Therefore, the rTV-Fluc/SD rats and rTV-Fluc/Rag2-/- rats are suitable visualization models, which recapitulate wild type or immunodeficient populations respectively, for testing human smallpox vaccine and antiviral drugs. PMID:26235050

  14. Localization of human immunodeficiency virus antigens in infected cells by scanning/transmission-immunogold techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, M.I.; Santa Maria, I.; de Andres, R.; Najera, R.

    1988-01-01

    An application of high resolution scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and gold-labelling techniques for the rapid detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in infected cells has been developed. Experimental in vitro studies for detecting two HIV structural proteins, gp41 and p17, were performed following an indirect labeling procedure that uses monoclonal anti-p17 and anti-gp41 antibodies as primary antibodies and 40 nm gold-linked goat antimouse IgG as secondary antibodies. The cells were then studied by STEM in the scanning mode. Unambiguous localization of the viral antigens was possible by combining the three-dimensional image provided by the secondary electron image and the atomic number-dependent backscattered electron image for the identification of the gold marker. This technique combines both the morphological information and the rapid procedures of scanning electron microscopy with the precise and sensitive antigen detection provided by the use of STEM and immunological methods. The preliminary results of its application to the study of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from four anti-HIV-seropositive patients showing the presence of specific labeling in all of them suggest that it might prove useful for early detection of HIV infection before seroconversion, as well as for quantitative studies.

  15. Can antiretroviral therapy be tailored to each human immunodeficiency virus-infected individual? Role of pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Asensi, Victor; Collazos, Julio; Valle-Garay, Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics refers to the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within human genes on drug therapy outcome. Its study might help clinicians to increase the efficacy of antiretroviral drugs by improving their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and by decreasing their side effects. HLAB*5701 genotyping to avoid the abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) is a cost-effective diagnostic tool, with a 100% of negative predictive value, and, therefore, it has been included in the guidelines for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HALDRB*0101 associates with nevirapine-induced HSR. CYP2B6 SNPs modify efavirenz plasma levels and their genotyping help decreasing its central nervous system, hepatic and HSR toxicities. Cytokines SNPs might influence the development of drug-associated lipodystrophy. APOA5, APOB, APOC3 and APOE SNPs modify lipids plasma levels and might influence the coronary artery disease risk of HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy. UGT1A1*28 and ABCB1 (MDR1) 3435C > T SNPs modify atazanavir plasma levels and enhance hyperbilirubinemia. Much more effort needs to be still devoted to complete large prospective studies with multiple SNPs genotyping in order to reveal more clues about the role played by host genetics in antiretroviral drug efficacy and toxicity. PMID:26279978

  16. Increased suppressor T cells in probable transmitters of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Seage, G R; Horsburgh, C R; Hardy, A M; Mayer, K H; Barry, M A; Groopman, J E; Jaffe, H W; Lamb, G A

    1989-12-01

    To evaluate behavioral and immunologic factors related to transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by homosexual intercourse, we studied a population of 329 homosexual/bisexual men (155 partner-pairs) seen in a community health center and medical outpatient clinic. Logistic regression analysis showed that behavioral risk factors for infection in the 130 HIV-infected men included: receptive anal intercourse (OR 4.6, 95% CI-1.8, 12.1); receptive fisting (OR 2.5, CI-1.1, 7.0); nitrite use (OR 2.3, CI-1.2, 4.6); history of gonorrhea or syphilis (OR 2.3, CI-1.4, 3.9); and history of sexual contact with men from areas with many AIDS cases (OR 1.9, CI-1.0, 3.5). Comparing seven men who were probable transmitters of HIV and 11 men who had not transmitted HIV to their uninfected partners despite unprotected insertive anal intercourse, we found no differences in HIV isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, circulating HIV antigen detection, or presence of neutralizing antibody to HIV. Helper T-cell numbers were not significantly different between the two groups, but transmitters had more suppressor T-cells than did nontransmitters. PMID:2530906

  17. Evaluation of a dipstick method for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Beristain, C N; Rojkin, L F; Lorenzo, L E

    1995-01-01

    Serology has been a fundamental tool to prevent post-transfusional infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and for epidemiological surveys, the first step to attempt control of the pandemia. Enzyme immunoassay is in widespread use. Nevertheless, simpler methods are needed in many countries, where laboratory facilities and trained personnel are limited, and HIV prevalence is high. The evaluation of a simple and noninstrumented HIV antibody test is presented here. The test employs synthetic antigens of HIV-1 and HIV-2 attached to the teeth of a polystyrene comb, which fit into the wells of standard microtiter plates where samples are diluted. Captured antibodies are developed with colloidal gold-labeled Protein A. Three seroconversion panels plus 662 samples were tested, including HIV-1 and HIV-2-infected individuals, normal blood donors, and a noninfected baby born to a seroreactive mother. When compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot, the dipstick showed 100% sensitivity and 98.7% specificity. The simplicity of result evaluations and excellent reagent stability make the dipstick suitable for small blood banks and for epidemiological surveys. PMID:8587001

  18. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: Extremely rare presentation of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Kailash Chandra; Shirolkar, Mukund S; Ghane, Vaishali R

    2014-01-01

    Acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a 10-year-old child, presenting with monoparesis, progressing to triplegia over 4 weeks is an extremely rare feature. The child had left upper motor neurone facial palsy with left hemiplegia, paralyzed right lower limb, grade zero power, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes and bilateral extensor plantars. Child tested positive for HIV by ELISA. CD3+ absolute count was 431. CD3+ CD4 count was 28, and CD45 absolute count was 478. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain and spine showed multiple ill-defined foci of hyperintensity in white matter suggestive of ADEM. Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an extremely rare presenting feature of perinatally acquired HIV infection in paediatrics. Clinically child remained same even with methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, antituberculosis therapy, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis and supportive therapy. Child had sudden clinical deterioration and death before antiretroviral therapy could be initiated. This case emphasizes that pediatricians and neurophysicians should suspect HIV as an etiology of ADEM in cases with atypical clinical presentation and social risk factors, in spite of its very rare occurrence. PMID:25250073

  19. CENTRAL ACTIVATION, MUSCLE PERFORMANCE, AND PHYSICAL FUNCTION IN MEN INFECTED WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Wayne B.; Oursler, Krisann K.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Ryan, Alice S.; Russ, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of muscle mass and limitations in activity have been reported in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), even those who are otherwise asymptomatic. The extent to which factors other than muscle atrophy impair muscle performance has not been addressed in depth. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of neuromuscular activation of the knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors of 27 men infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy and its relationship to muscle performance. The central activation ratio (CAR) was determined using superimposed electrical stimulation during maximum voluntary contractions. In addition to force and power measurements, muscle cross-sectional area and composition was evaluated using computed tomography. Aerobic capacity was determined from treadmill exercise testing. Eleven of the subjects had an impaired ability to activate the knee extensors (CAR = 0.72 ± 0.12) that was associated with weakness and decreased specific force. The reduced central activation was not associated with muscle area, body composition, aerobic capacity, CD4 count, or medication regimen. Those individuals with low central activation had higher HIV-1 viral loads and were more likely to have a history of AIDS-defining illness. These results suggest the possibility of a different mechanism contributing to muscle impairment in the current treatment era that is associated with impairment of central motor function rather than atrophy. Further investigation is warranted in a larger, more diverse population before more definitive claims are made. PMID:17554797

  20. [Socioeconomic aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Gentilini, M; Chieze, F

    1990-11-01

    The assessment of the socio-economical aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is difficult because of the relative scarcity of information. This study addresses mainly the socio-economic aspects of the AIDS pandemic in the inter-tropical zone of Africa, which, at the moment, constitutes the epicenter of the disease. In the absence of a possible radical treatment, the HIV infection prevalence should range between 25 and 30 million individuals by the year 2000 in the world, and the number of cases of AIDS, between 5 and 6 million, among which 4 to 5 million in the developing world alone. At the current rate, the overmortality rate related to AIDS in Africa is estimated at 0.1%, which should result in a drop by 30% of the Gross National Products advance (GNP). Each case of AIDS in Africa leads to a loss of productivity of 8.8 years. Already, losses caused by AIDS screening and its medical treatment in five countries of Central Africa should exceed the total amount of the foreign assistance received by each country. The estimated economic weight of the AIDS attendance is 15 to 20 times more heavy for a developing country than for an industralized one. Overcoming economically the cost of AIDS is an objective impossible to reach for deprived countries. PMID:2094555

  1. Frequency of hepatitis B, C and D and human immunodeficiency virus infections in multi-transfused thalassemics.

    PubMed

    Amarapurkar, D N; Kumar, A; Vaidya, S; Murti, P; Bichile, S K; Kalro, R H; Desai, H G

    1992-04-01

    Of forty multi-transfused thalassemia patients (26 males, 14 females; mean age 8.1 +/- 5.3 years, range 1-35) with no clinical or biochemical evidence of liver disease, HBsAg, anti-hepatitis C virus and anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibodies were present in 18 (45%), 7 (17.5%) and 1 (2.5%) cases respectively. Three of the 18 (16.7%) HBsAg positive patients were anti-delta antibody positive. Our results indicate that more than 50% of multi-transfused thalassemia patients show serological evidence of one or more of hepatitis B, C and D and human immunodeficiency virus infection. PMID:1428037

  2. Productive infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in dendritic cells requires fusion-mediated viral entry

    SciTech Connect

    Janas, Alicia M.; Dong, Chunsheng; Wang Jianhua; Wu Li

    2008-06-05

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enters dendritic cells (DCs) through endocytosis and viral receptor-mediated fusion. Although endocytosis-mediated HIV-1 entry can generate productive infection in certain cell types, including human monocyte-derived macrophages, productive HIV-1 infection in DCs appears to be dependent on fusion-mediated viral entry. It remains to be defined whether endocytosed HIV-1 in DCs can initiate productive infection. Using HIV-1 infection and cellular fractionation assays to measure productive viral infection and entry, here we show that HIV-1 enters monocyte-derived DCs predominately through endocytosis; however, endocytosed HIV-1 cannot initiate productive HIV-1 infection in DCs. In contrast, productive HIV-1 infection in DCs requires fusion-mediated viral entry. Together, these results provide functional evidence in understanding HIV-1 cis-infection of DCs, suggesting that different pathways of HIV-1 entry into DCs determine the outcome of viral infection.

  3. Lymphocyte Activation during Acute Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIV89.6PD Infection in Macaques†

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Marianne; Waterman, Paul M.; Mitchen, Jacque L.; Djavani, Mahmoud; Brown, Charles; Trivedi, Parul; Horejsh, Douglas; Dykhuizen, Marta; Kitabwalla, Moiz; Pauza, C. David

    1999-01-01

    Host-virus interactions control disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus-infected human beings and in nonhuman primates infected with simian or simian/human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV). These interactions evolve rapidly during acute infection and are key to the mechanisms of viral persistence and AIDS. SHIV89.6PD infection in rhesus macaques can deplete CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood, spleen, and lymph nodes within 2 weeks after exposure and is a model for virulent, acute infection. Lymphocytes isolated from blood and tissues during the interval of acute SHIV89.6PD infection have lost the capacity to proliferate in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA). T-cell unresponsiveness to mitogen occurred within 1 week after mucosal inoculation yet prior to massive CD4+ T-cell depletion and extensive virus dissemination. The lack of mitogen response was due to apoptosis in vitro, and increased activation marker expression on circulating T cells in vivo coincided with the appearance of PHA-induced apoptosis in vitro. Inappropriately high immune stimulation associated with rapid loss of mature CD4+ T cells suggested that activation-induced cell death is a mechanism for helper T-cell depletion in the brief period before widespread virus dissemination. Elevated levels of lymphocyte activation likely enhance SHIV89.6PD replication, thus increasing the loss of CD4+ T cells and diminishing the levels of virus-specific immunity that remain after acute infection. The level of surviving immunity may dictate the capacity to control virus replication and disease progression. We describe this level of immune competence as the host set point to show its pivotal role in AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:10559340

  4. The Connections between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Implications for Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Fox, Ashley; Ferro, Carol; Khawaja, Shazia; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2005-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted with 28 women who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in order to examine (1) the challenges generated by the experience of sexual abuse and related coping strategies, (2) the impact of the HIV diagnosis on their coping strategies, and (3) the links…

  5. Malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients in India: Initial experience in the HAART era

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Soneja, Manish; Ranjan, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Limited data are available on malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients from India. We undertook this study to assess the frequency and spectrum of malignancies in HIV-infected adult patients during the first eight years of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) rollout under the National ART Programme at a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India. Methods: Retrospective analysis of records of patients registered at the ART clinic between May 2005 and December 2013 was done. Results: The study included 2598 HIV-infected adult patients with 8315 person-years of follow up. Malignancies were diagnosed in 26 patients with a rate of 3.1 (IQR 2.1-4.5) cases per 1000 person-years. The median age for those diagnosed with malignancy was 45 (IQR 36-54) yr, which was significantly (P<0.01) higher compared with those not developing malignancies 35 (IQR 30-40) yr. The median baseline CD4+ T-cell count in patients with malignancy was 135 (IQR 68-269) cells/µl compared to 164 (IQR 86-243) cells/µl in those without malignancies. AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) were seen in 19 (73%) patients, while non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) were observed in seven (27%) patients. Malignancies diagnosed included non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (16), carcinoma cervix (3), Hodgkin's lymphoma (2), carcinoma lung (2), hepatocellular carcinoma (1), and urinary bladder carcinoma (1). One patient had primary central nervous system lymphoma. There was no case of Kaposi's sarcoma. Interpretation & conclusions: Malignancies in HIV-infected adult patients were infrequent in patients attending the clinic. Majority of the patients presented with advanced immunosuppression and the ADCs, NHL in particular, were the commonest malignancies. PMID:26658591

  6. A new look at human immunodeficiency virus infection and stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Luchuo, Engelbert Bain

    2016-01-01

    Stroke and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are major causes of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with disease burdens being amongst the highest worldwide. HIV infection has emerged as an important risk factor for stroke. The remarkable development in the treatment of HIV infection which occurred in recent decades has allowed the survival of a large number of patients. This therapeutic success which allows patients to live longer has facilitated the emergence of a new population of adults with increased risk for cardiovascular disease including stroke due to aging, the direct effects of HIV infection and combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART). Preventive strategies to decrease the burden of stroke amongst this specific patient population remain understudied in this region of the world. Lack of early diagnosis (CT scans) and poor record keeping make appreciation of the burden difficult. There is indisputable evidence that early diagnosis and early placement on cART therapy reduce HIV associated morbidity and mortality in this region of the world. However, the emergence of a new population of patients at risk for developing stroke (HIV patients) who fortunately live longer deserves a keener attention. Long term effects of cART regimens on cardiovascular and metabolic profiles remain uncertain, and specific cohort studies to properly ascertain its consequences are needed. The evidence and specific guidelines with regards to anti-platelet therapies and statin use, though potentially beneficial, in this patient sub group remains scarce. African specific cohort studies including HIV positive patients in our opinion should constitute a top research priority, to properly ascertain the potential roles of anti-platelet therapies and statins with regards to primary and secondary prevention of stroke, as well as long term effects of cART on their cardiovascular and metabolic profiles. PMID:27429969

  7. A new look at human immunodeficiency virus infection and stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Luchuo, Engelbert Bain; Nkoke, Clovis

    2016-06-01

    Stroke and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are major causes of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with disease burdens being amongst the highest worldwide. HIV infection has emerged as an important risk factor for stroke. The remarkable development in the treatment of HIV infection which occurred in recent decades has allowed the survival of a large number of patients. This therapeutic success which allows patients to live longer has facilitated the emergence of a new population of adults with increased risk for cardiovascular disease including stroke due to aging, the direct effects of HIV infection and combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART). Preventive strategies to decrease the burden of stroke amongst this specific patient population remain understudied in this region of the world. Lack of early diagnosis (CT scans) and poor record keeping make appreciation of the burden difficult. There is indisputable evidence that early diagnosis and early placement on cART therapy reduce HIV associated morbidity and mortality in this region of the world. However, the emergence of a new population of patients at risk for developing stroke (HIV patients) who fortunately live longer deserves a keener attention. Long term effects of cART regimens on cardiovascular and metabolic profiles remain uncertain, and specific cohort studies to properly ascertain its consequences are needed. The evidence and specific guidelines with regards to anti-platelet therapies and statin use, though potentially beneficial, in this patient sub group remains scarce. African specific cohort studies including HIV positive patients in our opinion should constitute a top research priority, to properly ascertain the potential roles of anti-platelet therapies and statins with regards to primary and secondary prevention of stroke, as well as long term effects of cART on their cardiovascular and metabolic profiles. PMID:27429969

  8. Induction Immunosuppression and Clinical Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Recipients Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Kucirka, L M; Durand, C M; Bae, S; Avery, R K; Locke, J E; Orandi, B J; McAdams-DeMarco, M; Grams, M E; Segev, D L

    2016-08-01

    There is an increased risk of acute rejection (AR) in human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) kidney transplant (KT) recipients. Induction immunosuppression is standard of care for those at high risk of AR; however, use in HIV+ patients is controversial, given fears of increased infection rates. We sought to compare clinical outcomes between HIV+ KT recipients who were treated with (i) anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), (ii) IL-2 receptor blocker, and (iii) no induction. We studied 830 HIV+ KT recipients between 2000 and 2014, as captured in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, and compared rates of delayed graft function (DGF), AR, graft loss and death. Infections and hospitalizations were ascertained by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes in a subset of 308 patients with Medicare. Compared with no induction, neither induction agent was associated with an increased risk of infection (weighted hazard ratio [wHR] 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-1.18). HIV+ recipients who received induction spent fewer days in the hospital (weighted relative risk [wRR] 0.70, 95% CI 0.52-0.95), had lower rates of DGF (wRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.51-0.84), less graft loss (wHR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24-0.89) and a trend toward lower mortality (wHR 0.60, 95% CI 0.24-1.28). Those who received induction with ATG had lower rates of AR (wRR 0.59, 95% CI 0.35-0.99). Induction in HIV+ KT recipients was not associated with increased infections; in fact, those receiving ATG, the most potent agent, had the lowest rates. In light of the high risk of AR in this population, induction therapy should be strongly considered. PMID:27111897

  9. Kinetics of cytokine expression during primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed Central

    Graziosi, C; Gantt, K R; Vaccarezza, M; Demarest, J F; Daucher, M; Saag, M S; Shaw, G M; Quinn, T C; Cohen, O J; Welbon, C C; Pantaleo, G; Fauci, A S

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we have determined the kinetics of constitutive expression of a panel of cytokines [interleukin (IL) 2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)] in sequential peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from nine individuals with primary human immunodeficiency virus infection. Expression of IL-2 and IL-4 was barely detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, substantial levels of IL-2 expression were found in mononuclear cells isolated from lymph node. Expression of IL-6 was detected in only three of nine patients, and IL-6 expression was observed when transition from the acute to the chronic phase had already occurred. Expression of IL-10 and TNF-alpha was consistently observed in all patients tested, and levels of both cytokines were either stable or progressively increased over time. Similar to IL-10 and TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma expression was detected in all patients; however, in five of nine patients, IFN-gamma expression peaked very early during primary infection. The early peak in IFN-gamma expression coincided with oligoclonal expansions of CD8+ T cells in five of six patients, and CD8+ T cells mostly accounted for the expression of this cytokine. These results indicate that high levels of expression of proinflammatory cytokines are associated with primary infection and that the cytokine response during this phase of infection is strongly influenced by oligoclonal expansions of CD8+ T cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8633076

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus receptor and coreceptor expression on human uterine epithelial cells: regulation of expression during the menstrual cycle and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeaman, Grant R; Howell, Alexandra L; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; O'Connell, Denise M; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. Identification of cell populations within the female reproductive tract that are initially infected, and the events involved in transmission of infection to other cells, remain to be established. In this report, we evaluated expression of HIV receptors and coreceptors on epithelial cells in the uterus and found they express several receptors critical for HIV infection including CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 and galactosylceramide (GalC). Moreover, expression of these receptors varied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of CD4 and CCR5 on uterine epithelial cells is high throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle when blood levels of oestradiol are high. In contrast, CXCR4 expression increased gradually throughout the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase of the cycle when both oestradiol and progesterone are elevated, CD4 and CCR5 expression decreased whereas CXCR4 expression remained elevated. Expression of GalC on endometrial glands is higher during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Because epithelial cells line the female reproductive tract and express HIV receptors and coreceptors, it is likely that they are one of the first cell types to become infected. The hormonal regulation of HIV receptor expression may affect a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection during her menstrual cycle. Moreover, selective coreceptor expression could account for the preferential transmission of R5-HIV-1 strains to women. In addition, these studies provide evidence that the uterus, and potentially the entire upper reproductive tract, are important sites for the initial events involved in HIV infection. PMID:12709027