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Sample records for immunodeficiency virus infected

  1. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N C; Yamamoto, J K; Ishida, T; Hansen, H

    1989-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (formerly feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus or FTLV) was first isolated from a group of cats in Petaluma, California in 1986. The virus is a typical lentivirus in gross and structural morphology. It replicates preferentially but not exclusively in feline T-lymphoblastoid cells, where it causes a characteristic cytopathic effect. The major structural proteins are 10, 17 (small gag), 28 (major core), 31 (endonuclease?), 41 (transmembrane?), 52 (core precursor polyprotein), 54/62 (reverse transcriptase?), and 110/130 (major envelope) kilodaltons in size. The various proteins are antigenically distinguishable from those of other lentiviruses, although serum from EIAV-infected horses will cross-react with some FIV antigens. Kittens experimentally infected with FIV manifest a transient (several days to 2 weeks) fever and neutropenia beginning 4 to 8 weeks after inoculation. This is associated with a generalized lymphadenopathy that persists for up to 9 months. Most cats recover from this initial phase of the disease and become lifelong carriers of the virus. Complete recovery does not occur to any extent in nature or in the laboratory setting. One experimentally infected cat died from a myeloproliferative disorder several months after infection. The terminal AIDS-like phase of the illness has been seen mainly in naturally infected cats. It appears a year or more following the initial infection in an unknown proportion of infected animals. FIV has been identified in cats from all parts of the world. It is most prevalent in high density populations of free roaming cats (feral and pet), and is very uncommon in closed purebred catteries. Male cats are twice as likely to become infected as females. Older male cats adopted as feral or stray animals are at the highest risk of infection, therefore. The infection rate among freely roaming cats rises throughout life, and reaches levels ranging from less than 1% to 12% or more depending on the

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A ... weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can cause AIDS ( ...

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Eirini; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a serious and relatively frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that may associate with increased morbidity and mortality and may prove difficult to manage, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:25337392

  4. Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Domachowske, J B

    1996-01-01

    In the past decade, an increase in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has had a substantial impact on childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The vertical transmission of HIV from mother to infant accounts for the vast majority of these cases. Identification of HIV-infected pregnant women needs to be impoved so that appropriate therapy can be initiated for both mothers and infants. While recent data demonstrate a dramatic decrease in HIV transmission from a subset of women treated with zidovudine during pregnancy, further efforts at reducing transmission are desperately needed. This review focuses on vertically transmitted HIV infection in children, its epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, natural history, and clinical manifestations including infectious and noninfectious complications. An overview of the complex medical management of these children ensues, including the use of antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infection prophylaxis is reviewed, along with the important role of other supportive therapies. PMID:8894346

  5. Adolescents and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R

    1992-12-01

    As of March 31, 1992, individuals 13 to 19 years of age had been diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; over one third were diagnosed in the past 2 years alone. Because of the long incubation period from initial infection to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis, the majority of young adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were probably initially infected as adolescents. In 1991, 34% of adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were female, and their predominant mode of transmission was heterosexual contact. Human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence studies of adolescents show a male-to-female ratio approaching 1:1, with many human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescent women identifying none of the standard risk. Factors such as sexual and drug experimentation, risk taking, and sense of invulnerability so characteristic of adolescence put adolescents at special risk for human immunodeficiency virus. There is no published information on if or how clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus disease in adolescents might differ from those seen in adults. Medical care should be broad-based and should include access to clinical trials for new drug treatments. General knowledge levels about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are high among US adolescents, but behavioral changes have lagged behind. All adolescents should be targeted for intensive education about human immunodeficiency virus along with interventions designed to enhance their general coping, communication, and decision-making skills. PMID:1450349

  6. The Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasner, Peter D.; Kaslow, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews epidemiology and natural history of human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Discusses early and late clinical manifestations, diagnosis of infection, incubation and latency periods, and survival time. Reviews data from published literature on distribution of HIV infection in adult United States population and factors that…

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the liver

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Megan; Iser, David; Lewin, Sharon R

    2012-01-01

    Liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals encompasses the spectrum from abnormal liver function tests, liver decompensation, with and without evidence of cirrhosis on biopsy, to non-alcoholic liver disease and its more severe form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular cancer. HIV can infect multiple cells in the liver, leading to enhanced intrahepatic apoptosis, activation and fibrosis. HIV can also alter gastro-intestinal tract permeability, leading to increased levels of circulating lipopolysaccharide that may have an impact on liver function. This review focuses on recent changes in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of liver disease in HIV-infected patients, in the absence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, with a specific focus on issues relevant to low and middle income countries. PMID:22489261

  8. Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J A

    1993-01-01

    The lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS by interacting with a large number of different cells in the body and escaping the host immune response against it. HIV is transmitted primarily through blood and genital fluids and to newborn infants from infected mothers. The steps occurring in infection involve an interaction of HIV not only with the CD4 molecule on cells but also with other cellular receptors recently identified. Virus-cell fusion and HIV entry subsequently take place. Following virus infection, a variety of intracellular mechanisms determine the relative expression of viral regulatory and accessory genes leading to productive or latent infection. With CD4+ lymphocytes, HIV replication can cause syncytium formation and cell death; with other cells, such as macrophages, persistent infection can occur, creating reservoirs for the virus in many cells and tissues. HIV strains are highly heterogeneous, and certain biologic and serologic properties determined by specific genetic sequences can be linked to pathogenic pathways and resistance to the immune response. The host reaction against HIV, through neutralizing antibodies and particularly through strong cellular immune responses, can keep the virus suppressed for many years. Long-term survival appears to involve infection with a relatively low-virulence strain that remains sensitive to the immune response, particularly to control by CD8+ cell antiviral activity. Several therapeutic approaches have been attempted, and others are under investigation. Vaccine development has provided some encouraging results, but the observations indicate the major challenge of preventing infection by HIV. Ongoing research is necessary to find a solution to this devastating worldwide epidemic. Images PMID:8464405

  9. 78 FR 33848 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus... availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing... guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing Antiretroviral...

  10. Ocular syphilis in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John P; Huang, Lynn L; Rosberger, Daniel F

    2015-06-01

    As Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease (AIDS) turns thirty-years old, much progress has been made. 56,000 new cases of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are expected in Americans this year. At least half or more will be in African Americans. Reports of the association between syphilis and HIV infection are well documented. We present a case of bilateral optic neuritis and panuveitis as the initial presentation in a previously undiagnosed patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis. PMID:27269502

  11. Bacterial Respiratory Infections Complicating Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections of the lower respiratory tract, most commonly those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii, remain the major causes of mortality in those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bacterial respiratory pathogens most prevalent in those infected with HIV, other than M. tuberculosis, represent the primary focus of the current review with particular emphasis on the pneumococcus, the leading cause of mortality due to HIV infection in the developed world. Additional themes include (1) risk factors; (2) the predisposing effects of HIV-mediated suppression on pulmonary host defenses, possibly intensified by smoking; (3) clinical and laboratory diagnosis, encompassing assessment of disease severity and outcome; and (4) antibiotic therapy. The final section addresses current recommendations with respect to pneumococcal immunization in the context of HIV infection, including an overview of the rationale underpinning the current "prime-boost" immunization strategy based on sequential administration of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23. PMID:26974299

  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic is clearly one of the most serious health-care crises in the professional lives of contemporary physicians. It cannot be regarded as a curiosity to be dealt with by inner-city infectious-disease experts, but rather must be considered a problem for all health-care providers and a problem in which the obstetrician-gynecologist has a special role to play. PMID:18475370

  13. Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, and Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Piggott, Damani A.; Carroll, Karen C.; Lim, Michael; Melia, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and stroke are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with increased risk in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. We report a rare case of ischemic stroke associated with Salmonella enteritidis subdural empyema in an older HIV-infected patient with multimorbidity, despite surgery and treatment with susceptible antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27419176

  14. Nontyphoidal Salmonellosis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, and Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Piggott, Damani A; Carroll, Karen C; Lim, Michael; Melia, Michael T

    2016-04-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection and stroke are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with increased risk in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. We report a rare case of ischemic stroke associated with Salmonella enteritidis subdural empyema in an older HIV-infected patient with multimorbidity, despite surgery and treatment with susceptible antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27419176

  15. Neuromuscular complications of human immunodeficiency virus infection and antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R G

    1994-01-01

    At least 4 distinct peripheral neuropathy syndromes occur in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. The most common, painful sensory neuropathy, may be related to the viral infection or may be medication induced and is treated symptomatically. The other 3, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex (some patients), and the progressive polyradiculopathies related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may all respond to appropriate therapy. Both inflammatory myopathy and zidovudine myopathy also abate with early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:8048229

  16. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)

  17. Antiviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, E

    1995-01-01

    Depending on the stage of their intervention with the viral replicative cycle, human immunodeficiency virus inhibitors could be divided into the following groups: (i) adsorption inhibitors (i.e., CD4 constructs, polysulfates, polysulfonates, polycarboxylates, and polyoxometalates), (ii) fusion inhibitors (i.e., plant lectins, succinylated or aconitylated albumins, and betulinic acid derivatives), (iii) uncoating inhibitors (i.e., bicyclams), (iv) reverse transcription inhibitors acting either competitively with the substrate binding site (i.e., dideoxynucleoside analogs and acyclic nucleoside phosphonates) or allosterically with a nonsubstrate binding site (i.e., non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), (v) integration inhibitors, (vi) DNA replication inhibitors, (vii) transcription inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and Tat antagonists), (viii) translation inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and ribozymes), (ix) maturation inhibitors (i.e., protease inhibitors, myristoylation inhibitors, and glycosylation inhibitors), and finally, (x) budding (assembly/release) inhibitors. Current knowledge, including the therapeutic potential, of these various inhibitors is discussed. In view of their potential clinical the utility, the problem of virus-drug resistance and possible strategies to circumvent this problem are also addressed. PMID:7542558

  18. Spatial Analysis of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cougars

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A.; Biek, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The cougar (Puma concolor) is a large predatory feline found widely in the Americas that is susceptible to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a fast-evolving lentivirus found in wild feline species that is analogous to simian immunodeficiency viruses in wild primates and belongs to the same family of viruses as human immunodeficiency virus. FIV infection in cougars can lead to a weakened immune system that creates opportunities for other infecting agents. FIV prevalence and lineages have been studied previously in several areas in the western United States, but typically without spatially explicit statistical techniques. To describe the distribution of FIV in a sample of cougars located in the northern Rocky Mountain region of North America, we first used kernel density ratio estimation to map the log relative risk of FIV. The risk surface showed a significant cluster of FIV in northwestern Montana. We also used Bayesian cluster models for genetic data to investigate the spatial structure of the feline immunodeficiency virus with virus genetic sequence data. A result of the models was two spatially distinct FIV lineages that aligned considerably with an interstate highway in Montana. Our results suggest that the use of spatial information and models adds novel insight when investigating an infectious animal disease. The results also suggest that the influence of landscape features likely plays an important role in the spatiotemporal spread of an infectious disease within wildlife populations. PMID:21197421

  19. Aquagenic urticaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection: treatment with stanozolol.

    PubMed

    Fearfield, L A; Gazzard, B; Bunker, C B

    1997-10-01

    We report the first case of aquagenic urticaria in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This is a rare physical urticaria not previously described in this context. The disorder proved unamenable to conventional treatment with antihistamines, but did respond dramatically to stanozolol, suggesting a novel indication for this anabolic steroid. PMID:9390343

  20. Update on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Yesufu, Omobolaji T.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) occurs mainly in West Africa, but an increasing number of cases have been recognized in Europe, India, and the United States. In this era of global integration, clinicians must be aware of when to consider the diagnosis of HIV-2 infection and how to test for this virus. Although there is debate regarding when therapy should be initiated and which regimen should be chosen, recent trials have provided important information on treatment options for HIV-2 infection. In this review, we present information on recent clinical advances in our understanding of HIV-2 infection and highlight remaining diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. PMID:21367732

  1. Macrophages in Progressive Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, Sarah R; Hirsch, Vanessa M; Brenchley, Jason M

    2016-09-01

    The cells that are targeted by primate lentiviruses (HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) are of intense interest given the renewed effort to identify potential cures for HIV. These viruses have been reported to infect multiple cell lineages of hematopoietic origin, including all phenotypic and functional CD4 T cell subsets. The two most commonly reported cell types that become infected in vivo are memory CD4 T cells and tissue-resident macrophages. Though viral infection of CD4 T cells is routinely detected in both HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected Asian macaques, significant viral infection of macrophages is only routinely observed in animal models wherein CD4 T cells are almost entirely depleted. Here we review the roles of macrophages in lentiviral disease progression, the evidence that macrophages support viral replication in vivo, the animal models where macrophage-mediated replication of SIV is thought to occur, how the virus can interact with macrophages in vivo, pathologies thought to be attributed to viral replication within macrophages, how viral replication in macrophages might contribute to the asymptomatic phase of HIV/SIV infection, and whether macrophages represent a long-lived reservoir for the virus. PMID:27307568

  2. Total knee arthroplasty in human immunodeficiency virus-infected hemophiliacs.

    PubMed

    Unger, A S; Kessler, C M; Lewis, R J

    1995-08-01

    Twenty-six knee arthroplasties were performed in 15 patients with hemophilia A and human immunodeficiency virus infection from 1984 to 1991. Patient age range was 27 to 48 years. After an average follow-up period of 6.4 years (range, 1-9 years) all patients were alive and none of the implants had become infected. T4 lymphocyte counts showed some deterioration, which was not clinically significant. All of the patients were improved following surgery. Nineteen implants were rated excellent, four good, and three fair. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus did not adversely affect the clinical outcome of knee arthroplasty at follow-up periods up to 9 years. PMID:8523002

  3. Economic consequences for Medicaid of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Baily, Mary Ann; Bilheimer, Linda; Wooldridge, Judith; well, Kathryn Lang; Greenberg, Warren

    1990-01-01

    Medicaid is currently a major source of financing for health care for those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and to a lesser extent, for those with other manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is likely to become even more important in the future. This article focuses on the structure of Medicaid in the context of the HIV epidemic, covering epidemiological issues, eligibility, service coverage and use, and reimbursement. A simple methodology for estimating HI\\'-related Medicaid costs under alternative assumptions about the future is also explained. PMID:10113503

  4. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-02-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus (the CD4 molecule). HIV also has tropism for the brain leading to neuropsychiatric abnormalities. Besides inducing cell death, HIV can interfere with T4 cell function by various mechanisms. The monocyte serves as a reservoir for HIV and is relatively refractory to its cytopathic effects. HIV can exist in a latent or chronic form which can be converted to a productive infection by a variety of inductive signals.

  5. Neurocysticercosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chianura, Leonardo; Sberna, Maurizio; Moioli, Cristina; Villa, Maria Riccarda; Orcese, Carloandrea; Causarano, Renzo

    2006-01-01

    Ecuador is considered a holoendemic high-risk area for the transmission of cysticercosis. Moreover, the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) occurs worldwide. We present a case of simultaneous diagnosis of cysticercosis and HIV infection in a 22-year-old Ecuadorian immigrant. We would postulate that with the increasing HIV incidence in endemic areas of cysticercosis, the simultaneous diagnosis of both diseases is an event to be expected. PMID:17107432

  6. [Lopinavir/ritonavir in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women].

    PubMed

    Téllez, María Jesús

    2014-11-01

    There are clear sex-related biological differences between men and women. Diseases that affect the two sexes differently are studied separately. However, some diseases affect both men and women, but their incidence or outcome are clearly different. In human immunodeficiency virus infection, the potential differences in the effects of antiretroviral therapy are poorly characterized and few studies have been designed to elucidate these differences. Moreover, women are usually poorly represented in clinical trials of antiretroviral drugs. PMID:25542872

  7. [Pulmonary complications in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Brockmann V, Pablo; Viviani S, Támara; Peña D, Anamaría

    2007-08-01

    Pulmonary complications in children infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common and may be the first manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of our study was to review pulmonary diseases and complications in pediatric patients with HIV infection in a large tertiary hospital in Santiago, Chile. We performed a retrospective, descriptive analysis of 17 patients with HIV infection controlled at the Hospital Dr. Sótero del Rio. Respiratory complications/diseases were: overall pneumonia (n: 14), recurrent pneumonia (n: 10), citomegalovirus associated pneumonia (n: 4), Pneumocystis jiroveci associated pneumonia (n: 1) pulmonary tuberculosis (n: 1), lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (n: 3) and chronic pulmonary disease (n: 7). Microorganisms isolated were mostly atypical and frequently associated with severe and chronic pulmonary damage. A high degree of suspicion is required to detect atypical microorganisms promptly, in order to rapidly implement pathogen targeted therapy that could potentially decrease the possibility of sequelae. PMID:17728918

  8. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Infants Affected by Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Capretti, Maria Grazia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Faldella, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies are rare inherited disorders that may lead to frequent and often severe acute respiratory infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequent pathogens during early infancy and the infection is more severe in immunocompromised infants than in healthy infants, as a result of impaired T- and B-cell immune response unable to efficaciously neutralize viral replication, with subsequent increased viral shedding and potentially lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Several authors have reported a severe clinical course after RSV infections in infants and children with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. Environmental prophylaxis is essential in order to reduce the infection during the epidemic season in hospitalized immunocompromised infants. Prophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the RSV F protein, is currently recommended in high-risk infants born prematurely, with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. Currently however the prophylaxis is not routinely recommended in infants with primary immunodeficiency, although some authors propose the extension of prophylaxis to this high risk population. PMID:25089282

  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: The Spectrum Beyond AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Brain C.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1981, the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as the major infectious epidemic of our time. It is the most profound manifestation of infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Since 1984, serologic methods have existed to detect antibody to HIV. Several other clinical entities have been detected and are attributable to HIV infection. Appropriate counsel must accompany antibody testing. The author discusses the acute seroconversion event, as well as asymptomatic carrier status, including generalized lymphadenopathy. He also reviews the symptomatic states that do not meet the surveillance definition of AIDS, including treatments where available. PMID:21263801

  10. Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Kalapila, Aley G; Marrazzo, Jeanne

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is considered a chronic medical condition. Several new drugs are available, including fixed-dose combination tablets, that have greatly simplified combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens to treat HIV, while increasing the life-expectancy of infected individuals. In the last decade, multiple well-regarded studies have established the benefits of using ART in high-risk, HIV-negative persons to prevent HIV acquisition. The primary care provider must not only understand commonly encountered issues pertaining to ART, such as toxicities and drug interactions, but also needs to be aware of using ART for HIV prevention. PMID:27235622

  11. Care of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Menopausal Woman

    PubMed Central

    Cejtin, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    More women than ever before are both Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected and menopausal, because of increased survival and more frequent diagnosis in older women. Such a woman has the combined burden of her infection, its treatment, comorbid conditions, and aging. Thus she is at risk for a variety of problems such as disorders of bone mineral density and deficiencies in cognitive functioning. In addition to this, she experiences menopause in a unique fashion, with more symptoms and perhaps at an earlier age. The clinician caring for her must take a proactive approach to this multitude of factors that may affect her health and well-being. PMID:22284959

  12. Inflammatory joint disease and human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Forster, S M; Seifert, M H; Keat, A C; Rowe, I F; Thomas, B J; Taylor-Robinson, D; Pinching, A J; Harris, J R W

    1988-01-01

    Nine men positive for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who developed peripheral, non-erosive arthritis were followed up. The clinical features were compatible with reactive arthritis but were atypical in several respects: the joint symptoms were generally severe, persistent, and unresponsive to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The onset of arthritis was associated with various infections, none of which are known to be associated with the development of reactive arthritis. HLA typing was performed for three patients, all of whom were positive for HLA-B27. HIV was isolated from the synovial fluid of one patient. No patient had AIDS before developing arthritis, but four progressed to having AIDS after a mean of 7·5 months, and two died. Arthritis resolved in only one patient. The possibility of HIV infection should be considered in all patients with conditions suggesting reactive arthritis. Synovitis in patients with severe immunodeficiency has important pathogenetic implications. PMID:3135044

  13. Absence of Active Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Clinics in Zambia and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Wandeler, Gilles; Mulenga, Lloyd; Hobbins, Michael; Joao, Candido; Sinkala, Edford; Hector, Jonas; Aly, Musa; Chi, Benjamin H.; Egger, Matthias; Vinikoor, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of replicating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Among 1812 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus, no patient in rural Mozambique and 4 patients in urban Zambia were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Of these, none had confirmed HCV replication. PMID:27047986

  14. Zinc status in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, R.M. Jr.; Oster, M.H.; Lee, T.J.; Flynn, N.; Keen, C.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Plasma zinc and copper concentrations, erythrocyte zinc concentration, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity and urinary zinc concentrations were determined for control subjects and individuals with AIDS, ARC, or asymptomatic HIV infection. Significant differences among the population groups were not noted for the above parameters with the exception of plasma copper which was higher in the AIDS group than in other patient groups. These results do not support the idea that zinc deficiency is a common contributory factor of HIV infectivity or clinical expression, nor that HIV infection induces a zinc deficiency.

  15. Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Coogan, Maeve M.; Greenspan, John; Challacombe, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Oral manifestations are among the earliest and most important indicators of infection with HIV. Seven cardinal lesions, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated, and are seen in both developed and developing countries. They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV-infected people. Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions. The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. Oral health is strongly associated with physical and mental health and there are significant increases in oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in relation to periodontal diseases. International collaboration is needed to ensure that oral aspects of HIV disease are taken into account in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with the general care of the patient. It is important that all health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection. PMID:16211162

  16. Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Coogan, Maeve M; Greenspan, John; Challacombe, Stephen J

    2005-09-01

    This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Oral manifestations are among the earliest and most important indicators of infection with HIV. Seven cardinal lesions, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated, and are seen in both developed and developing countries. They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV-infected people. Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions. The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. Oral health is strongly associated with physical and mental health and there are significant increases in oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in relation to periodontal diseases. International collaboration is needed to ensure that oral aspects of HIV disease are taken into account in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with the general care of the patient. It is important that all health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection. PMID:16211162

  17. Bacterial vaginosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Gregory T; St John, Elizabeth; Zariffard, M Reza

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common alteration of lower genital tract flora in women, is associated with increased susceptibility to HIV infection. Other recent studies show that HIV is detected more frequently and at higher levels in the lower genital tract of HIV-seropositive women with BV. In vitro studies show that genital tract secretions from women with BV or flora associated with BV induce HIV expression in infected cells. The increased HIV expression appears to be due at least in part to activation through Toll-like receptors (TLR), specifically TLR2. Further research is needed to elucidate how BV contributes to HIV acquisition and transmission. PMID:17953761

  18. Renal involvement in feline immunodeficiency virus infection: a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Poli, A; Abramo, F; Taccini, E; Guidi, G; Barsotti, P; Bendinelli, M; Malvaldi, G

    1993-01-01

    Renal tissues from 15 cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) were examined histologically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. Renal function and urinary proteins were also studied. Kidney abnormalities were found in 12 cats and were characterized by mesangial widening with segmental to diffuse glomerulosclerosis and presence of IgM and C3, and scanty IgG deposits in the mesangium. Tubulointerstitial lesions were also present. In 6 cats the lesions were severe enough to cause marked increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, and heavy glomerular nonselective proteinuria. These findings suggest that a renal involvement is a frequent occurrence in FIV-infected cats. As the histopathological features observed were similar to those described in HIV-infected patients, FIV-infected cats may represent a valuable model for a better understanding of HIV-associated nephropathy in humans. PMID:8321363

  19. Perinatally infected adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (perinatally human immunodeficiency virus)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maria Leticia S; Cardoso, Claudete A

    2015-01-01

    The availability of highly potent antiretroviral treatment during the last decades has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic disease. Children that were diagnosed during the first months or years of life and received treatment, are living longer and better and are presently reaching adolescence and adulthood. Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIV) and young adults may present specific clinical, behavior and social characteristics and demands. We have performed a literature review about different aspects that have to be considered in the care and follow-up of PHIV. The search included papers in the MEDLINE database via PubMed, located using the keywords “perinatally HIV-infected” AND “adolescents”. Only articles published in English or Portuguese from 2003 to 2014 were selected. The types of articles included original research, systematic reviews, and quantitative or qualitative studies; case reports and case series were excluded. Results are presented in the following topics: “Puberal development and sexual maturation”, “Growth in weight and height”, “Bone metabolism during adolescence”, “Metabolic complications”, “Brain development, cognition and mental health”, “Reproductive health”, “Viral drug resistance” and “Transition to adult outpatient care”. We hope that this review will support the work of pediatricians, clinicians and infectious diseases specialists that are receiving these subjects to continue treatment. PMID:26279988

  20. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pakfetrat, Atessa; Falaki, Farnaz; Delavarian, Zahra; Dalirsani, Zohreh; Sanatkhani, Majid; Zabihi Marani, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration. Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%). The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+. Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. PMID:25745611

  1. Eosinophilia in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Andrew; Serpa, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilia is not uncommonly encountered in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); particularly at initiation of care or among those with advanced disease. The clinical manifestation most commonly associated with eosinophilia in this patient population is skin rash. Management of these patients is challenging due to a paucity of data evaluating diagnostic testing and therapeutic strategies. Patients born in or with significant travel to parasite-endemic countries are more likely to have tissue-invasive helminthes, such as Strongyloides or Schistosoma. Patients without such risk factors are unlikely to have parasitic infections and frequently will have self-resolution of eosinophilia. When a detailed history, physical exam and diagnostic work-up is unrevealing, we sometimes consider empirical therapy with ivermectin. Praziquantel may also be considered for those at risk for schistosomiasis. PMID:26126686

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Host Defense in the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Charles, Tysheena P; Shellito, Judd E

    2016-04-01

    Immunosuppression associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection impacts all components of host defense against pulmonary infection. Cells within the lung have altered immune function and are important reservoirs for HIV infection. The host immune response to infected lung cells further compromises responses to a secondary pathogenic insult. In the upper respiratory tract, mucociliary function is impaired and there are decreased levels of salivary immunoglobulin A. Host defenses in the lower respiratory tract are controlled by alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. As HIV infection progresses, lung CD4 T cells are reduced in number causing a lack of activation signals from CD4 T cells and impaired defense by macrophages. CD8 T cells, on the other hand, are increased in number and cause lymphocytic alveolitis. Specific antibody responses by B-lymphocytes are decreased and opsonization of microorganisms is impaired. These observed defects in host defense of the respiratory tract explain the susceptibility of HIV-infected persons for oropharyngeal candidiasis, bacterial pneumonia, Pneumocystis pneumonia, and other opportunistic infections. PMID:26974294

  3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of Neural Xenografts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovich, Therese A.; Lazar, Eliot; Blumberg, Benjamin M.; Saito, Yoshihiro; Eskin, Thomas A.; Reichman, Richard; Baram, David A.; del Cerro, Coca; Gendelman, Howard E.; del Cerro, Manuel; Epstein, Leon G.

    1992-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is highly specific for its human host. To study HIV-1 infection of the human nervous system, we have established a small animal model in which second-trimester (11 to 17.5 weeks) human fetal brain or neural retina is transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye of immunosuppressed adult rats. The human xenografts vascularized, formed a blood-brain barrier, and differentiated, forming neurons and glia. The xenografts were infected with cell-free HIV-1 or with HIV-1-infected human monocytes. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction revealed HIV-1 sequences in DNA from xenograft tissue exposed to HIV-1 virions, and in situ hybridization demonstrated HIV-1 mRNA localized in macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Pathological damage was observed only in neural xenografts containing HIV-1-infected human monocytes, supporting the hypothesis that these cells mediate neurotoxicity. This small animal model allows the study of direct and indirect effects of HIV-1 infection on developing human fetal neural tissues, and it should prove useful in evaluating antiviral therapies, which must ultimately target HIV-1 infection of the brain.

  4. Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Marc; Masur, Henry; Kovacs, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The presentation of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in previously healthy men having sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco and New York City in 1981 heralded the beginning of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Despite a decreasing incidence of PCP among patients with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s, PCP remains one of the most common AIDS-defining opportunistic infections in the United States and Western Europe. Newer molecular diagnostic tests in conjunction with standard immunofluorescent or colorimetric tests have allowed for more rapid and accurate diagnosis. Although several effective oral and intravenous therapies exist to treat PCP, mortality rates in HIV-infected individuals remain unacceptably high, especially in those with advanced AIDS. The identification of specific mutations in Pneumocystis genes targeted by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has raised concerns about the development of resistance to the drug of choice and may ultimately lead to greater utilization of alternative therapies to treat PCP in the future. PMID:26974301

  5. Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Staitieh, Bashar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS. Its profound impact on the immune system leaves the host vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic infections not seen in individuals with a competent immune system. Pulmonary infections dominated the presentations in the early years of the epidemic, and infectious and noninfectious lung diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV despite the development of effective antiretroviral therapy. In addition to the long known immunosuppression and infection risks, it is becoming increasingly recognized that HIV promotes the risk of noninfectious pulmonary diseases through a number of different mechanisms, including direct tissue toxicity by HIV-related viral proteins and the secondary effects of coinfections. Diseases of the airways, lung parenchyma and the pulmonary vasculature, as well as pulmonary malignancies, are either more frequent in persons living with HIV or have atypical presentations. As the pulmonary infectious complications of HIV are generally well known and have been reviewed extensively, this review will focus on the breadth of noninfectious pulmonary diseases that occur in HIV-infected individuals as these may be more difficult to recognize by general medical physicians and subspecialists caring for this large and uniquely vulnerable population. PMID:24992395

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of the brain.

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, W J; Berger, J R; Kaderman, R; Tornatore, C S; Major, E O

    1993-01-01

    Direct infection of the central nervous system by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of AIDS, was not appreciated in the early years of the AIDS epidemic. Neurological complications associated with AIDS were largely attributed to opportunistic infections that arose as a result of the immunocompromised state of the patient and to depression. In 1985, several groups succeeded in isolating HIV-1 directly from brain tissue. Also that year, the viral genome was completely sequenced, and HIV-1 was found to belong to a neurotropic subfamily of retrovirus known as the Lentivirinae. These findings clearly indicated that direct HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system played a role in the development of AIDS-related neurological disease. This review summarizes the clinical manifestations of HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system and the related neuropathology, the tropism of HIV-1 for specific cell types both within and outside of the nervous system, the possible mechanisms by which HIV-1 damages the nervous system, and the current strategies for diagnosis and treatment of HIV-1-associated neuropathology. Images PMID:8269391

  7. Impact of simian immunodeficiency virus infection on chimpanzee population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rudicell, Rebecca S; Holland Jones, James; Wroblewski, Emily E; Learn, Gerald H; Li, Yingying; Robertson, Joel D; Greengrass, Elizabeth; Grossmann, Falk; Kamenya, Shadrack; Pintea, Lilian; Mjungu, Deus C; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Mosser, Anna; Lehman, Clarence; Collins, D Anthony; Keele, Brandon F; Goodall, Jane; Hahn, Beatrice H; Pusey, Anne E; Wilson, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Like human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) can cause CD4+ T cell loss and premature death. Here, we used molecular surveillance tools and mathematical modeling to estimate the impact of SIVcpz infection on chimpanzee population dynamics. Habituated (Mitumba and Kasekela) and non-habituated (Kalande) chimpanzees were studied in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Ape population sizes were determined from demographic records (Mitumba and Kasekela) or individual sightings and genotyping (Kalande), while SIVcpz prevalence rates were monitored using non-invasive methods. Between 2002-2009, the Mitumba and Kasekela communities experienced mean annual growth rates of 1.9% and 2.4%, respectively, while Kalande chimpanzees suffered a significant decline, with a mean growth rate of -6.5% to -7.4%, depending on population estimates. A rapid decline in Kalande was first noted in the 1990s and originally attributed to poaching and reduced food sources. However, between 2002-2009, we found a mean SIVcpz prevalence in Kalande of 46.1%, which was almost four times higher than the prevalence in Mitumba (12.7%) and Kasekela (12.1%). To explore whether SIVcpz contributed to the Kalande decline, we used empirically determined SIVcpz transmission probabilities as well as chimpanzee mortality, mating and migration data to model the effect of viral pathogenicity on chimpanzee population growth. Deterministic calculations indicated that a prevalence of greater than 3.4% would result in negative growth and eventual population extinction, even using conservative mortality estimates. However, stochastic models revealed that in representative populations, SIVcpz, and not its host species, frequently went extinct. High SIVcpz transmission probability and excess mortality reduced population persistence, while intercommunity migration often rescued infected communities, even when immigrating females had a chance of being SIVcpz infected

  8. Neutralization Properties of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses Infecting Chimpanzees and Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Barbian, Hannah J.; Decker, Julie M.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Galimidi, Rachel P.; West, Anthony P.; Learn, Gerald H.; Parrish, Nicholas F.; Iyer, Shilpa S.; Li, Yingying; Pace, Craig S.; Song, Ruijiang; Huang, Yaoxing; Denny, Thomas N.; Mouquet, Hugo; Martin, Loic; Acharya, Priyamvada; Zhang, Baoshan; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Verrips, C. Theo; Strokappe, Nika M.; Rutten, Lucy; McCoy, Laura E.; Weiss, Robin A.; Brown, Corrine S.; Jackson, Raven; Silvestri, Guido; Connors, Mark; Burton, Dennis R.; Shaw, George M.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Ho, David D.; Farzan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) represent powerful tools to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Here, we examined whether HIV-1-specific bNabs are capable of cross-neutralizing distantly related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting central (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) (SIVcpzPtt) and eastern (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (SIVcpzPts) chimpanzees (n = 11) as well as western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (SIVgor) (n = 1). We found that bNabs directed against the CD4 binding site (n = 10), peptidoglycans at the base of variable loop 3 (V3) (n = 5), and epitopes at the interface of surface (gp120) and membrane-bound (gp41) envelope glycoproteins (n = 5) failed to neutralize SIVcpz and SIVgor strains. In addition, apex V2-directed bNabs (n = 3) as well as llama-derived (heavy chain only) antibodies (n = 6) recognizing both the CD4 binding site and gp41 epitopes were either completely inactive or neutralized only a fraction of SIVcpzPtt strains. In contrast, one antibody targeting the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 (10E8), functional CD4 and CCR5 receptor mimetics (eCD4-Ig, eCD4-Igmim2, CD4-218.3-E51, and CD4-218.3-E51-mim2), as well as mono- and bispecific anti-human CD4 (iMab and LM52) and CCR5 (PRO140, PRO140-10E8) receptor antibodies neutralized >90% of SIVcpz and SIVgor strains with low-nanomolar (0.13 to 8.4 nM) potency. Importantly, the latter antibodies blocked virus entry not only in TZM-bl cells but also in Cf2Th cells expressing chimpanzee CD4 and CCR5 and neutralized SIVcpz in chimpanzee CD4+ T cells, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 3.6 to 40.5 nM. These findings provide new insight into the protective capacity of anti-HIV-1 bNabs and identify candidates for further development to combat SIVcpz infection. PMID:25900654

  9. Update on kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients.

    PubMed

    Nashar, Khaled; Sureshkumar, Kalathil K

    2016-07-01

    Improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with chronic kidney disease following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy resulted in the need to revisit the topic of kidney transplantation in these patients. Large cohort studies have demonstrated favorable outcomes and proved that transplantation is a viable therapeutic option. However, HIV-infected recipients had higher rates of rejection. Immunosuppressive therapy did not negatively impact the course of HIV infection. Some of the immunosuppressive drugs used following transplantation exhibit antiretroviral effects. A close collaboration between infectious disease specialists and transplant professionals is mandatory in order to optimize transplantation outcomes in these patients. Transplantation from HIV(+) donors to HIV(+) recipients has been a subject of intense debate. The HIV Organ Policy Equity act provided a platform to research this area further and to develop guidelines. The first HIV(+) to HIV(+) kidney transplant in the United States and the first HIV(+) to HIV(+) liver transplant in the world were recently performed at the Johns Hopkins University Medical Center. PMID:27458559

  10. Update on kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients

    PubMed Central

    Nashar, Khaled; Sureshkumar, Kalathil K

    2016-01-01

    Improved survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with chronic kidney disease following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy resulted in the need to revisit the topic of kidney transplantation in these patients. Large cohort studies have demonstrated favorable outcomes and proved that transplantation is a viable therapeutic option. However, HIV-infected recipients had higher rates of rejection. Immunosuppressive therapy did not negatively impact the course of HIV infection. Some of the immunosuppressive drugs used following transplantation exhibit antiretroviral effects. A close collaboration between infectious disease specialists and transplant professionals is mandatory in order to optimize transplantation outcomes in these patients. Transplantation from HIV+ donors to HIV+ recipients has been a subject of intense debate. The HIV Organ Policy Equity act provided a platform to research this area further and to develop guidelines. The first HIV+ to HIV+ kidney transplant in the United States and the first HIV+ to HIV+ liver transplant in the world were recently performed at the Johns Hopkins University Medical Center. PMID:27458559

  11. Perioperative concerns in neurosurgical patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Jyotsna; Ganjoo, Pragati; Hansda, Upendra; Sharma, Megha U.; Tandon, Monica S.; Singh, Daljit

    2016-01-01

    Background: The perioperative management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients undergoing neurosurgery is challenging due to the presence of HIV-related multi-system derangements, opportunistic infections and malignancies, history of substance abuse, and adverse effects of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), together with the inherent risks of neurosurgery. The possible adverse impact of HIV disease on the anesthetic outcome due to the associated co-morbidities, and conversely, the role of surgery and anesthesia in HIV disease progression due to their immunosuppressive effects, and also, the fear of HIV transmission among the attending medical personnel are the important perioperative concerns in such surgeries. Aim: To present our experience in the perioperative management of HIV-infected patients who underwent neurosurgery at our institute in the past 5 years and highlight the relevant perioperative issues. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the records of HIV-infected neurosurgical patients was undertaken to determine their HIV status and ART, anesthesia and surgery details, perioperative complications, and instances of postoperative worsening of HIV disease or its transmission, if any. Results: Seven HIV infected patients with variable severity of HIV infection and systemic disease underwent neurosurgery for different indications. Their perioperative management was modified in accordance with the co-morbidities and the type of neurosurgery. There was no obvious adverse impact of the HIV disease on the anesthetic outcome, no obvious clinical evidence of post-surgery worsening of the HIV disease, and no instance of HIV transmission in our patients. Conclusion: A goodunderstanding of the HIV disease and its perioperative implications during neurosurgery helps in better patient management and enables a safe outcome. PMID:27057214

  12. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in the Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Keyvani, Hossein; Esghaei, Maryam; Zare-Karizi, Shohreh; Dermenaki-Farahani, Sahar-Sadat; Hesami-Zadeh, Khashayar; Fakhim, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new form of chronic HCV infection described by the presence of the genomic HCV-RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples, and undetectable levels or absence of HCV-RNA and in the absence or presence of anti HCV antibodies in the plasma specimens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of occult HCV infection (OCI) among Iranian subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using RT-nested PCR. From March 2014 until April 2015, 109 Iranian patients with established HIV infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After extraction of viral RNA from the plasma and PBMC samples, HCV-RNA status was examined by RT-nested PCR using primers from the 5'-NTR. HCV genotyping was conducted using RFLP analysis. For the confirmation of HCV genotyping by RFLP method, the PCR products were sequenced. Of the 109 patients, 50 were positive for antibodies against HCV. The HCV-RNA was detected in PBMC specimens in 6 (10.2%) out of the total 59 patients negative for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA and also from 4 (8.0%) out of the total 50 patients positive for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA. HCV genotyping analysis showed that 6 (60.0%) patients were infected with HCV subtype 3a, 3 (30.0%) were infected with HCV subtype 1a and 1 (10.0%) patient was infected with HCV subtype 1b. This study revealed the incidence of OCI (9.2%) in HIV-infected Iranian patients. Hence, designing prospective studies focusing on the detection of OCI in these patients would provide more information. J. Med. Virol. 88:1960-1966, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27463051

  13. Conditional Immune Escape during Chronic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gellerup, Dane D.; Balgeman, Alexis J.; Nelson, Chase W.; Ericsen, Adam J.; Scarlotta, Matthew; Hughes, Austin L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anti-HIV CD8 T cells included in therapeutic treatments will need to target epitopes that do not accumulate escape mutations. Identifying the epitopes that do not accumulate variants but retain immunogenicity depends on both host major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genetics and the likelihood for an epitope to tolerate variation. We previously found that immune escape during acute SIV infection is conditional; the accumulation of mutations in T cell epitopes is limited, and the rate of accumulation depends on the number of epitopes being targeted. We have now tested the hypothesis that conditional immune escape extends into chronic SIV infection and that epitopes with a preserved wild-type sequence have the potential to elicit epitope-specific CD8 T cells. We deep sequenced simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCMs) that were homozygous and heterozygous for the M3 MHC haplotype and had been infected with SIV for about 1 year. When interrogating variation within individual epitopes restricted by M3 MHC alleles, we found three categories of epitopes, which we called categories A, B, and C. Category B epitopes readily accumulated variants in M3-homozygous MCMs, but this was less common in M3-heterozygous MCMs. We then determined that chronic CD8 T cells specific for these epitopes were more likely preserved in the M3-heterozygous MCMs than M3-homozygous MCMs. We provide evidence that epitopes known to escape from chronic CD8 T cell responses in animals that are homozygous for a set of MHC alleles are preserved and retain immunogenicity in a host that is heterozygous for the same MHC alleles. IMPORTANCE Anti-HIV CD8 T cells that are part of therapeutic treatments will need to target epitopes that do not accumulate escape mutations. Defining these epitope sequences is a necessary precursor to designing approaches that enhance the functionality of CD8 T cells with the potential to control virus replication during chronic

  14. Exercise and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, DeSales; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1995-01-01

    The human immune system is highly efficient and remarkably protective when functioning properly. Similar to other physiological systems, it functions best when the body is maintained with a balanced diet, sufficient rest and a moderately stress-free lifestyle. It can be disrupted by inappropriate drug use and extreme emotion or exertion. The functioning of normal or compromised immune systems can be enhanced by properly prescribed moderate exercise conditioning regimens in healthy people, and in some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients but not in others who unable to complete an interval training program. Regular exercise conditioning in healthy people reduces cardiovascular risk factors, increases stamina, facilitates bodyweight control, and reduces stress by engendering positive feelings of well-being. Certain types of cancer may also be suppressed by appropriate exercise conditioning. Various exercise regimens are being evaluated as adjunct treatments for medicated patients with the HIV-1 syndrome. Limited anecdotal evidence from patients suggests that moderate exercise conditioning is per se responsible for their survival well beyond expectancy. HIV-1-infected patients respond positively, both physiologically and psychologically, to moderate exercise conditioning. However, the effectiveness of any exercise treatment programme depends on its mode, frequency, intensity and duration when prescribed o complement the pathological condition of the patient. The effectiveness of exercise conditioning regimens in patients with HIV-1 infection is reviewed in this article. In addition, we discuss mechanisms and pathways, involving the interplay of psychological and physiological factors, through which the suppressed immune system can be enhanced. The immune modulators discussed are endogenous opioids, cytokines, neurotransmitters and other hormones. Exercise conditioning treatment appears to be more effective when combined with other stress management

  15. Selective Destruction Of Cells Infected With The Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2006-03-28

    Compositions and methods for selectively killing a cell containing a viral protease are disclosed. The composition is a varient of a protein synthesis inactivating toxin wherein a viral protease cleavage site is interposed between the A and B chains. The variant of the type II ribosome-inactivating protein is activated by digestion of the viral protease cleavage site by the specific viral protease. The activated ribosome-inactivating protein then kills the cell by inactivating cellular ribosomes. A preferred embodiment of the invention is specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and uses ricin as the ribosome-inactivating protein. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein is modified by attachment of one or more hydrophobic agents. The hydrophobic agent facilitates entry of the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein into cells and can lead to incorporation of the ribosome-inactivating protein into viral particles. Still another preferred embodiment of the invention includes a targeting moiety attached to the variants of the ribosome-inactivating protein to target the agent to HIV infectable cells.

  16. Selective destruction of cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2003-09-30

    Compositions and methods for selectively killing a cell containing a viral protease are disclosed. The composition is a variant of a protein synthesis inactivating toxin wherein a viral protease cleavage site is interposed between the A and B chains. The variant of the type II ribosome-inactivating protein is activated by digestion of the viral protease cleavage site by the specific viral protease. The activated ribosome-inactivating protein then kills the cell by inactivating cellular ribosomes. A preferred embodiment of the invention is specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and uses ricin as the ribosome-inactivating protein. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein is modified by attachment of one or more hydrophobic agents. The hydrophobic agent facilitates entry of the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein into cells and can lead to incorporation of the ribosome-inactivating protein into viral particles. Still another preferred embodiment of the invention includes a targeting moiety attached to the variants of the ribosome-inactivating protein to target the agent to HIV infectable cells.

  17. Novel inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infectivity.

    PubMed

    Beach, Lauren B; Rawson, Jonathan M; Kim, Baek; Patterson, Steven E; Mansky, Louis M

    2014-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infects about two million people worldwide. HIV-2 has fewer treatment options than HIV-1, yet may evolve drug resistance more quickly. We have analysed several novel drugs for anti-HIV-2 activity. It was observed that 5-azacytidine, clofarabine, gemcitabine and resveratrol have potent anti-HIV-2 activity. The EC50 values for 5-azacytidine, clofarabine and resveratrol were found to be significantly lower with HIV-2 than with HIV-1. A time-of-addition assay was used to analyse the ability of these drugs to interfere with HIV-2 replication. Reverse transcription was the likely target for antiretroviral activity. Taken together, several novel drugs have been discovered to have activity against HIV-2. Based upon their known activities, these drugs may elicit enhanced HIV-2 mutagenesis and therefore be useful for inducing HIV-2 lethal mutagenesis. In addition, the data are consistent with HIV-2 reverse transcriptase being more sensitive than HIV-1 reverse transcriptase to dNTP pool alterations. PMID:25103850

  18. REVIEW OF CONTROL OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Dami, N; Shehu, N Y; Dami, S; Iroezindu, M O

    2015-01-01

    The global scourge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is inundating, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular Nigeria which is home to 10% of the world's HIV-infected persons. The target of the millennium development goal 6 is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. HIV control in Nigeria was initially shrouded in denial and apathy. Subsequently, a more pragmatic approach was launched during the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo. Several policies were formulated. The national prevalence of HIV witnessed some progressive decline and is currently 4.1%. There is now improvement in both HIV awareness and counselling and testing. Greater access to antiretroviral therapy and other support services have also been witnessed with over 300,000 persons currently on drugs. Notable achievements have been recorded in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC). However, with increased access to antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral drug resistance has become inevitable. Acquired drug resistance is high-82% and transmitted drug resistance ranges between 0.7 and 4.5%. The achievements were largely facilitated by international partnerships which have become more streamlined in recent years. A sustained shift to indigenously sourced financial and manpower resource has become imperative. It is also important to integrate HIV facilities with other existing health care facilities for sustainability and cost-effectiveness. In an attempt to strengthen the national response, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan launched the President's Comprehensive Response Plan for HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It is hoped that this well-articulated policy would be well implemented to significantly reverse the epidemic. PMID:27487603

  19. Antiretroviral treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection: Swedish recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Eric; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Ahlqvist-Rastad, Jane; Bratt, Göran; Berglund, Torsten; Gisslén, Magnus; Lindbäck, Stefan; Morfeldt, Linda; Ståhle, Lars; Sönnerborg, Anders

    2003-01-01

    The Swedish guidelines (SwG) for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have several important roles. A major task involves the promotion of a uniformly high standard of care in all HIV treatment clinics in Sweden and the identification of strengths, weaknesses and relevance of recent research findings. CD4+ T-cell counts < 200 cells/microl are clear indications for the initiation of treatment, whereas high viral loads serve as an indication for increased vigilance rather than a criterion for therapy. It is recommended that the first regimen consists of 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with 1 protease inhibitor or 1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. The definition of treatment failure is rigorous. Treatment change should be considered if the viral load has not fallen by at least 1.5 log in 4 weeks or is undetectable within 3-4 months. Resistance testing is endorsed at primary infection, in the event of treatment failure and in pregnant women. Interaction with experts in HIV resistance testing is emphasized. Therapeutic drug monitoring is advocated. Patients with treatment failure should be handled individually and the decision on therapeutic strategy should be based on treatment history, resistance testing and other clinical facts. The SwG do not give recommendations for some important issues such as prolonged drug holidays and preferences in initial treatment regimens. More scientific data are likely to be available soon and the SwG will be refined accordingly. The present guidelines are translated from Swedish; they are published on the Medical Products Agency (MPA) and Swedish Reference Group for Antiviral Therapy (RAV) websites (www.mpa.se and www.rav.nu.se), including 7 separate papers based on a thorough literature search. A complete reference list is available on request from the MPA. PMID:12751710

  20. Chronic kidney disease in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Fabian, J; Katz, I; Gerntholtz, T; Goetsch, S; Naicker, S

    2007-06-01

    The number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide was estimated to be 39.5 million in 2006, 2.6 million more than in 2004. The manifestations of HIV infection in the kidney are multiple and varied, highlighting the complexity of the disease process. There is a wide spectrum of renal disease that occurs in the course of HIV infection. Biopsy studies reveal varying frequencies of histological patterns. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is most common. A biopsy study at Chris Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto, South Africa showed that HIVAN was present in 27% and immune complex disease in 21%. Han et al. studied HIV-positive patients in Durban, South Africa and screened for proteinuria, including microalbuminuria. They found persistent proteinuria in 6%; HIVAN in 21/30 (72.4%) and the prevalence of HIVAN in patients with persistent microalbuminuria was 85.7%. Studies in black patients have shown a higher prevalence of both severe glomerular lesions (focal glomerulosclerosis) and nephrotic range proteinuria with renal dysfunction in the presence of normo-hypotension. There have been no prospective randomised controlled studies with any form of therapy for HIVAN to date. Therapy of HIVAN has included corticosteroids, cyclosporine and antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART appears to be a logical choice in the management of HIV-associated renal disease. Regimens containing protease inhibitors have been shown to be associated with significant slowing of the decline in creatinine clearance. Both peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis are appropriate treatment modalities for HIV-infected patients with end stage renal disease. The choice of dialysis modality between haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis is not a factor in predicting survival, if patients are stable on ART. Preliminary short-term data in case reports and small cohorts of liver, kidney, and heart transplant recipients suggest that patient survival rates may be similar to those in HIV

  1. Metabolic stress in infected cells may represent a therapeutic target for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Menéndez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge

    2013-07-01

    Worldwide, there are thousands of new cases of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection per day. The effectiveness of current combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is relative; to prioritize finding vaccines and/or cure-oriented initiatives should be reinforced because there is little room, if any, for procrastination. Basic and clinical findings on HIV-1 reservoirs suggest that disruption of virus latency is feasible. Because the goal is curing HIV-1 infection, we should be aware that the challenge is to eradicate the viruses of every single infected cell and consequently acting upon virus latency is necessary but not sufficient. The large majority of the virus reservoir, CD4(+) T lymphocytes, is readily accessible but other minor reservoirs, where ART does not diffuse, require innovative strategies. The situation closely resembles that currently faced in the treatment of cancer. Exploiting the fact that histone deacetylase inhibitors, mainly vorinostat, may disrupt the latency of HIV-1, we propose to supplement this effect with a programmed interference in the metabolic stress of infected cells. Metformin and chloroquine are cheap and accessible modulators of pro-survival mechanisms to which viruses are constantly confronted to generate alternative energy sources and maximize virus production. Metformin restrains the use of the usurped cellular biosynthetic machinery by viral genes and chloroquine contributes to death of infected cells. We suggest that the combination of vorinostat, chloroquine and metformin should be combined with ART to pursue viral eradication in infected cells. PMID:23639282

  2. Quantitation of Productively Infected Monocytes and Macrophages of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Claudia R.; Price, Sarah L.; Forsyth, Ellen R.; Pin, Julia N.; Shirk, Erin N.; Bullock, Brandon T.; Queen, Suzanne E.; Li, Ming; Gellerup, Dane; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Zink, M. Christine; Mankowski, Joseph L.; Gama, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a lifelong infection because of latent viral reservoirs in infected patients. The contribution of CD4+ T cells to infection and disease progression has been extensively studied. However, during early HIV infection, macrophages in brain and other tissues are infected and contribute to tissue-specific diseases, such as encephalitis and dementia in brain and pneumonia in lung. The extent of infection of monocytes and macrophages has not been rigorously assessed with assays comparable to those used to study infection of CD4+ T cells and to evaluate the number of CD4+ T cells that harbor infectious viral genomes. To assess the contribution of productively infected monocytes and macrophages to HIV- and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected cells in vivo, we developed a quantitative virus outgrowth assay (QVOA) based on similar assays used to quantitate CD4+ T cell latent reservoirs in HIV- and SIV-infected individuals in whom the infection is suppressed by ART. Myeloid cells expressing CD11b were serially diluted and cocultured with susceptible cells to amplify virus. T cell receptor β RNA was measured as a control to assess the potential contribution of CD4+ T cells in the assay. Virus production in the supernatant was quantitated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Productively infected myeloid cells were detected in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lungs, spleen, and brain, demonstrating that these cells persist throughout SIV infection and have the potential to contribute to the viral reservoir during ART. IMPORTANCE Infection of CD4+ T cells and their role as latent reservoirs have been rigorously assessed; however, the frequency of productively infected monocytes and macrophages in vivo has not been similarly studied. Myeloid cells, unlike lymphocytes, are resistant to the cytopathic effects of HIV. Moreover, tissue

  3. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  4. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  5. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  6. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  7. 38 CFR 1.487 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient... the human immunodeficiency virus to the spouse or sexual partner of the patient. (a) Subject to... determine whether the patient is infected with such virus, identified as being a sexual partner of...

  8. Persistent infection of chimpanzees with human immunodeficiency virus: serological responses and properties of reisolated viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Nara, P L; Robey, W G; Arthur, L O; Asher, D M; Wolff, A V; Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C; Fischinger, P J

    1987-01-01

    Persistent infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in the chimpanzee may be valuable for immunopathologic and potential vaccine evaluation. Two HIV strains, the tissue culture-derived human T-cell lymphotropic virus type IIIB (HTLV-IIIB) and in vivo serially passaged lymphadenopathy-associated virus type 1 (LAV-1), were injected intravenously into chimpanzees. Two animals received HTLV-IIIB as either virus-infected H9 cells or cell-free virus. A third animal received chimpanzee-passaged LAV-1. Evaluation of their sera for virus-specific serologic changes, including neutralizations, was done during a 2-year period. During this period all animals had persistently high titers of antibodies to viral core and envelope antigens. All three animals developed a progressively increasing type-specific neutralizing LAV-1 versus HTLV-IIIB antibody titer during the 2-year observation period which broadened in specificity to include HTLV-HIRF, HTLV-IIIMN, and HTLV-IIICC after 6 to 12 months. The antibody titers against both viruses were still increasing by 2 years after experimental virus inoculation. Sera from all animals were capable of neutralizing both homologously and heterologously reisolated virus from chimpanzees. A slightly more rapid type-specific neutralizing response was noted for the animal receiving HTLV-IIIB-infected cells compared with that for cell-free HTLV-IIIB. Sera from all persistently infected chimpanzees were capable of mediating group-specific antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytolysis of HIV-infected cells derived from all isolates tested. Viruses reisolated from all three animals at 20 months after inoculation revealed very similar peptide maps of their respective envelope gp120s, as determined by two-dimensional chymotrypsin oligopeptide analysis. One peptide, however, from the original HTLV-IIIB-inoculated virus was deleted in viruses from all three animals, and in addition, we noted the appearance of a new or modified peptide which

  9. Persistent infection of chimpanzees with human immunodeficiency virus: serological responses and properties of reisolated viruses.

    PubMed

    Nara, P L; Robey, W G; Arthur, L O; Asher, D M; Wolff, A V; Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C; Fischinger, P J

    1987-10-01

    Persistent infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in the chimpanzee may be valuable for immunopathologic and potential vaccine evaluation. Two HIV strains, the tissue culture-derived human T-cell lymphotropic virus type IIIB (HTLV-IIIB) and in vivo serially passaged lymphadenopathy-associated virus type 1 (LAV-1), were injected intravenously into chimpanzees. Two animals received HTLV-IIIB as either virus-infected H9 cells or cell-free virus. A third animal received chimpanzee-passaged LAV-1. Evaluation of their sera for virus-specific serologic changes, including neutralizations, was done during a 2-year period. During this period all animals had persistently high titers of antibodies to viral core and envelope antigens. All three animals developed a progressively increasing type-specific neutralizing LAV-1 versus HTLV-IIIB antibody titer during the 2-year observation period which broadened in specificity to include HTLV-HIRF, HTLV-IIIMN, and HTLV-IIICC after 6 to 12 months. The antibody titers against both viruses were still increasing by 2 years after experimental virus inoculation. Sera from all animals were capable of neutralizing both homologously and heterologously reisolated virus from chimpanzees. A slightly more rapid type-specific neutralizing response was noted for the animal receiving HTLV-IIIB-infected cells compared with that for cell-free HTLV-IIIB. Sera from all persistently infected chimpanzees were capable of mediating group-specific antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytolysis of HIV-infected cells derived from all isolates tested. Viruses reisolated from all three animals at 20 months after inoculation revealed very similar peptide maps of their respective envelope gp120s, as determined by two-dimensional chymotrypsin oligopeptide analysis. One peptide, however, from the original HTLV-IIIB-inoculated virus was deleted in viruses from all three animals, and in addition, we noted the appearance of a new or modified peptide which

  10. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among Mexican human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Torres-Ibarra, Rocio; Gutierrez-Escolano, Fernanda; Vazquez-Rosales, Guillermo; Gomez, Alejandro; Muñoz, Onofre; Torres, Javier; Lira, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To determine the frequency of occult hepatitis B infection (OHBI) in a group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1+/ hepatitis B surface antigen negative (HBsAg)- patients from Mexico. METHODS: We investigated the presence of OHBI in 49 HIV-1+/HBsAg- patients. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was analyzed using nested PCR to amplify the Core (C) region and by real-time PCR to amplify a region of the S and X genes. The possible associations between the variables and OHBI were investigated using Pearson’s χ2 and/or Fisher’s exact test. RESULTS: We found that the frequency of OHBI was 49% among the group of 49 HIV-1+/HBsAg- patients studied. The presence of OHBI was significantly associated with the HIV-1 RNA viral load [odds ratio (OR) = 8.75; P = 0.001; 95%CI: 2.26-33.79] and with HIV-antiretroviral treatment with drugs that interfere with HBV replication (lamivudine, tenofovir or emtricitabine) (OR = 0.25; P = 0.05; 95%CI: 0.08-1.05). CONCLUSION: The OHBI frequency is high among 49 Mexican HIV-1+/HBsAg- patients and it was more frequent in patients with detectable HIV RNA, and less frequent in patients who are undergoing HIV-ARV treatment with drugs active against HBV. PMID:25309083

  11. Insights into human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis B virus co-infection in India

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Runu; Pal, Ananya

    2015-01-01

    Shared routes of transmission lead to frequent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection in a host which results in about 10% of HIV positive individuals to have chronic hepatitis B infection worldwide. In post-antiretroviral therapy era, liver diseases have emerged as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected individuals and HBV co-infection have become the major health issue among this population particularly from the regions with endemic HBV infection. In setting of HIV-HBV co-infection, HIV significantly impacts the natural history of HBV infection, its disease profile and the treatment outcome in negative manner. Moreover, the epidemiological pattern of HBV infection and the diversity in HBV genome (genotypic and phenotypic) are also varied in HIV co-infected subjects as compared to HBV mono-infected individuals. Several reports on the abovementioned issues are available from developed parts of the world as well as from sub-Saharan African countries. In contrast, most of these research areas remained unexplored in India despite having considerable burden of HIV and HBV infections. This review discusses present knowledge from the studies on HIV-HBV co-infection in India and relevant reports from different parts of the world. Issues needed for the future research relevant to HIV-HBV co-infection in India are also highlighted here, including a call for further investigations on this field of study. PMID:26279986

  12. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Sneha; Shah, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles), Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis. PMID:26985424

  13. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, Sneha; Shah, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles), Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis. PMID:26985424

  14. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Infection and Sensing Capacity during Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jochems, Simon P.; Jacquelin, Beatrice; Chauveau, Lise; Huot, Nicolas; Petitjean, Gaël; Lepelley, Alice; Liovat, Anne-Sophie; Ploquin, Mickaël J.; Cartwright, Emily K.; Bosinger, Steven E.; Silvestri, Guido; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Lebon, Pierre; Schwartz, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in macaques (MAC) lead to chronic inflammation and AIDS. Natural hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM), are protected against SIV-induced chronic inflammation and AIDS. Here, we report that AGM plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) express extremely low levels of CD4, unlike MAC and human pDC. Despite this, AGM pDC efficiently sensed SIVagm, but not heterologous HIV/SIV isolates, indicating a virus-host adaptation. Moreover, both AGM and SM pDC were found to be, in contrast to MAC pDC, predominantly negative for CCR5. Despite such limited CD4 and CCR5 expression, lymphoid tissue pDC were infected to a degree similar to that seen with CD4+ T cells in both MAC and AGM. Altogether, our finding of efficient pDC infection by SIV in vivo identifies pDC as a potential viral reservoir in lymphoid tissues. We discovered low expression of CD4 on AGM pDC, which did not preclude efficient sensing of host-adapted viruses. Therefore, pDC infection and efficient sensing are not prerequisites for chronic inflammation. The high level of pDC infection by SIVagm suggests that if CCR5 paucity on immune cells is important for nonpathogenesis of natural hosts, it is possibly not due to its role as a coreceptor. IMPORTANCE The ability of certain key immune cell subsets to resist infection might contribute to the asymptomatic nature of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in its natural hosts, such as African green monkeys (AGM) and sooty mangabeys (SM). This relative resistance to infection has been correlated with reduced expression of CD4 and/or CCR5. We show that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) of natural hosts display reduced CD4 and/or CCR5 expression, unlike macaque pDC. Surprisingly, this did not protect AGM pDC, as infection levels were similar to those found in MAC pDC. Furthermore, we show that AGM pDC did not consistently produce type I

  15. Intraoral herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alessandro; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2013-10-01

    We report a challenging case of an atypical presentation of recrudescent herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency. Oral infections in immunosuppressed patients may present with unusual clinical features that can mimic non-infectious diseases. This report discusses the diagnostic steps necessary for definitive diagnosis and to guide appropriate and effective management. PMID:23933299

  16. Cutaneous Co-infected Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Perigenital Ulcers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Jason; Cannon, Sarah; Cam, Kristin; Keller, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    There is uncertainty regarding the pathogenic nature of cytomegalovirus in cutaneous lesions co-infected with herpes simplex virus. It is widely believed that herpes simplex virus is the main pathogenic factor in such lesions and that cytomegalovirus plays little if any role. There are, however, isolated case reports that describe cytomegalovirus as an important driving pathogen in such lesions. The authors present two human immunodeficiency virus patients who have cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus co-infected perigenital ulcers, one of whom improved on valacyclovir, while the other, who was already on valacyclovir for chronic herpes simplex virus suppression, showed no improvement with a single dose of cidofovir. He only showed rapid improvement when treated with valganciclovir. The latter patient underscores the viewpoint that at least in some cases, cytomegalovirus may be an important driving force behind the formation of such lesions. The authors therefore recommend that clinicians be aware of the possible pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus in these ulcers, and, in nonhealing ulcers, use anti-cytomegalovirus agents to prevent the onset of systemic disease. These results warrant further study of the pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus in co-infected herpes simplex virus ulcers. PMID:24155993

  17. Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Disruption through Altered Mucosal MicroRNA Expression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Gaulke, Christopher A.; Porter, Matthew; Han, Yan-Hong; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Grishina, Irina; George, Michael D.; Dang, Angeline T.; Ding, Shou-Wei; Jiang, Guochun; Korf, Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epithelial barrier dysfunction during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has largely been attributed to the rapid and severe depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although it is known that changes in mucosal gene expression contribute to intestinal enteropathy, the role of small noncoding RNAs, specifically microRNA (miRNA), has not been investigated. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primate model of HIV pathogenesis, we investigated the effect of viral infection on miRNA expression in intestinal mucosa. SIV infection led to a striking decrease in the expression of mucosal miRNA compared to that in uninfected controls. This decrease coincided with an increase in 5′-3′-exoribonuclease 2 protein and alterations in DICER1 and Argonaute 2 expression. Targets of depleted miRNA belonged to molecular pathways involved in epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and immune response. Decreased expression of several miRNA involved in maintaining epithelial homeostasis in the gut was localized to the proliferative crypt region of the intestinal epithelium. Our findings suggest that SIV-induced decreased expression of miRNA involved in epithelial homeostasis, disrupted expression of miRNA biogenesis machinery, and increased expression of XRN2 are involved in the development of epithelial barrier dysfunction and gastroenteropathy. IMPORTANCE MicroRNA (miRNA) regulate the development and function of intestinal epithelial cells, and many viruses disrupt normal host miRNA expression. In this study, we demonstrate that SIV and HIV disrupt expression of miRNA in the small intestine during infection. The depletion of several key miRNA is localized to the proliferative crypt region of the gut epithelium. These miRNA are known to control expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell death, and epithelial maturation. Our data indicate that this disruption might be caused by altered expression of mi

  18. Shedding of Hepatitis C Virus in Semen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Samuel S.; Gianella, Sara; Yip, Marcus J-S.; van Seggelen, Wouter O.; Gillies, Robert D.; Foster, Andrew L.; Barbati, Zachary R.; Smith, Davey M.; Fierer, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The epidemic of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) has been documented for over a decade. Despite this, there is no consensus as to the risk factors for sexual acquisition of HCV in these men. Methods. We obtained paired semen and blood samples at 2-week intervals from HIV-infected MSM with recent and chronic HCV infection and quantified HCV in semen. Results. Hepatitis C virus was quantified in 59 semen specimens from 33 men. Hepatitis C virus was shed in 16 (27%) of semen specimens from 11 (33%) of the men. Median HCV viral load (VL) in semen was 1.49 log10 IU/mL. Hepatitis C virus VL in blood was significantly higher at the time of HCV shedding in semen than when HCV shedding in semen was not detected (P = .002). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the HCV VL in blood and semen overall (rs = 0.41; P = .001), and in the subgroup with recent HCV infection (rs = 0.37; P = .02), but not in the subgroup with chronic HCV infection (rs = 0.34; P = .1). Conclusions. One third of HIV-infected MSM coinfected with HCV shed HCV into their semen. Based on the HCV VL in semen in this study, an average ejaculate would deliver up to 6630 IU of virus into the rectum of the receptive partner. Therefore, our data strongly support that condoms should be used during anal intercourse among MSM to prevent transmission of HCV. PMID:27186582

  19. Hepatitis B virus coinfection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hsin-Yun; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Tsai, Mao-Song; Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Due to the shared modes of transmission, coinfection with HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not uncommon. It is estimated that 10% of HIV-infected patients worldwide are coinfected with HBV. In areas where an HBV vaccination program is implemented, the HBV seroprevalence has declined significantly. In HIV/HBV-coinfected patients, HBV coinfection accelerates immunologic and clinical progression of HIV infection and increases the risk of hepatotoxicity when combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is initiated, while HIV infection increases the risk of hepatitis events, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease related to chronic HBV infection. With the advances in antiviral therapy, concurrent, successful long-term suppression of HIV and HBV replication can be achieved in the cART era. To reduce the disease burden of HBV infection among HIV-infected patients, adoption of safe sex practices, avoidance of sharing needles and diluent, HBV vaccination and use of cART containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine or lamivudine are the most effective approaches. However, due to HIV-related immunosuppression, using increased doses of HBV vaccine and novel approaches to HBV vaccination are needed to improve the immunogenicity of HBV vaccine among HIV-infected patients. PMID:25356024

  20. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Mason, Andrew; Luftig, Ronald B; Bautista, Abraham P

    2002-07-01

    Approximately 400,000 individuals in the United States are co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and it is likely that almost one in two of these subjects consumes alcohol. The majority of these patients suffer an accelerated course of liver disease as manifested by the onset of cirrhosis within 5 to 10 years of developing HCV infection, as well as an increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is thought that chronic alcohol abuse mediates liver damage as a result of increased production of free radicals and proinflammatory cytokines. In the setting of chronic HCV infection, alcohol ingestion has an additional effect of diminishing immune clearance and increasing viral burden to hasten the onset of cirrhosis and HCC. Likewise, chronic HCV and HIV-1 co-infection results in a net increase in HCV burden; higher prevalence rates of HCV transmission to sexual partners and offspring, as well as an accelerated progression to end stage liver disease as compared to individuals with HCV infection alone. Thus, the synergistic effects of alcohol abuse and HIV-1 greatly impact on the morbidity and mortality for patients with HCV coinfection. Ultimately, this cumulative disease process will require far more aggressive management with abstinence and counseling for alcohol abuse; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection and combination anti-viral therapy for HCV infection to stem the rapid progression to end stage liver disease. PMID:12086918

  1. Inhibition of apoptosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells enhances virus production and facilitates persistent infection.

    PubMed Central

    Antoni, B A; Sabbatini, P; Rabson, A B; White, E

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis is one of several mechanisms by which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exerts its cytopathic effects. CD4+ Jurkat T-cell lines overexpressing the adenovirus E1B 19K protein, a potent inhibitor of apoptosis, were used to examine the consequences of inhibition of apoptosis during acute and chronic HIV-1 infections. E1B 19K protein expression inhibited HIV-induced apoptosis, enhanced virus production, and established high levels of persistent viral infection. One E1B 19K-expressing line appeared to undergo HIV-induced death via a nonapoptotic mechanism, illustrating that HIV infection results in lymphocyte depletion through multiple pathways. Increased virus production associated with sustained cell viability suggests that therapeutic approaches involving inhibition of HIV-induced programmed cell death may be problematic. PMID:7884884

  2. Quality of life among human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected and human immunodeficiency virus-1/hepatitis C virus co-infected individuals in Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Sabouri, Sarah; Delavar, Ali; Jabbari, Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the quality of life (QOL) of people infected with both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The study design was a cross sectional descriptive survey, using self administered questionnaires. Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of 242 patients (131 of them HIV/HCV), Iranian adults (aged 18–57) living with HIV/AIDS, was recruited from outpatient referring to Imam Khomeini Hospital behavioral counseling center in Tehran city, Iran. The instruments included the Multidimensional QOL HIV (MQoL HIV) and a demographic section. Results: The majority of the samples were male and single. The mean age was 36.52 years (standard deviation = 8.5). HIV mono infected patients reported higher scores in social support and physical functioning, but lower scores in physical health compared with HIV/HCV co infected individuals. There was no significant difference in overall MQOL HIV score between HIV and HIV/HCV patients. Conclusion: Future studies will need to explore the impact of HCV on HIV infected individuals' QOL.

  3. Evaluation of Serum Creatinine Changes With Integrase Inhibitor Use in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lindeman, Tara A.; Duggan, Joan M.; Sahloff, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective chart review evaluated changes in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance (CrCl) after initiation of an integrase inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimen as initial treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Serum creatinine and CrCl changes were similar to those seen in clinical trials for INSTIs. No renal-related serious adverse events or discontinuations occurred. PMID:27092314

  4. Syphilis? An Unusual Cause of Surgical Emergency in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Man

    PubMed Central

    Bender Ignacio, Rachel A.; Koch, Lisa L.; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Charmie Godornes, B.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a human immunodeficiency virus-infected man undergoing urgent anorectal surgery, with multi-centimeter fungating masses discovered inside the anus. Initial pathology was inconclusive. After the patient developed a disseminated rash postoperatively determined to be secondary syphilis, the anorectal pathology was reviewed and Treponema pallidum DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the mass. PMID:26213693

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection despite prior immunization with a recombinant envelope vaccine regimen.

    PubMed Central

    McElrath, M J; Corey, L; Greenberg, P D; Matthews, T J; Montefiori, D C; Rowen, L; Hood, L; Mullins, J I

    1996-01-01

    With efforts underway to develop a preventive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine, it remains unclear which immune responses are sufficient to protect against infection and whether prior HIV-1 immunity can alter the subsequent course of HIV-1 infection. We investigated these issues in the context of a volunteer who received six HIV-1LAI envelope immunizations and 10 weeks thereafter acquired HIV-1 infection through a high-risk sexual exposure. In contrast to nonvaccinated acutely infected individuals, anamnestic HIV-1-specific B- and T-cell responses appeared within 3 weeks in this individual, and neutralizing antibody preceded CD8+ cytotoxic responses. Despite an asymptomatic course and an initial low level of detectable infectious virus, a progressive CD4+ cell decline and dysfunction occurred within 2 years. Although vaccination elicited immunity to HIV-1 envelope, which was recalled upon HIV-1 exposure, it was insufficient to prevent infection and subsequent immunodeficiency. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8633000

  6. Feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus infections in a cat with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shelton, G H; McKim, K D; Cooley, P L; Dice, P F; Russell, R G; Grant, C K

    1989-01-15

    Lymphoma was diagnosed in a 7-year-old domestic cat found to be infected with FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The cat was affected by chronic disorders suggestive of immunosuppression, including gingivitis, periodontitis, keratitis, and abscesses. Despite treatment, peripheral keratitis of the left eye progressed, resulting in uveitis, chronic glaucoma, and eventual corneal rupture. Microscopic retinal and optic disk pathologic processes also were suspected. Abnormal jaw movements that were believed to be indicative of neurologic disease were observed. Approximately 17 months later, the cat developed generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and bilateral renomegaly. Lymphoblastic lymphoma and glomerulonephritis were diagnosed histologically. Manganese- and magnesium-dependent reverse transcriptase activity were detected in supernatants from lymph node and spleen mononuclear cell cultures, suggesting T-lymphocyte infection with FeLV and FIV. PMID:2537274

  7. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  8. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  9. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  10. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  11. 38 CFR 1.486 - Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure of information related to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. 1.486 Section 1... immunodeficiency virus to public health authorities. (a) In the case of any record which is maintained...

  12. Reevaluation of possible outcomes of infections with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Tamalet, C; Colson, P; Decroly, E; Dhiver, C; Ravaux, I; Stein, A; Raoult, D

    2016-04-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that HIV infection can result in several possible incomes, including a very small proportion of individuals whose HIV replication is controlled after treatment interruption (known as HIV posttreatment controllers) or spontaneously without any treatment (known as HIV elite controllers). Both types of individuals are HIV RNA negative but HIV DNA positive, with living virus which can be stimulated ex vivo. A review was conducted to assess the literature on yet rarer cases with detectable integrated HIV DNA without HIV infectious virus in HIV-seropositive or -negative individuals. Three categories of patients were identified: (a) HIV-seropositive individuals with apparent spontaneous cure from their HIV infection, (b) HIV-seronegative children born to HIV-infected mothers and (c) highly exposed seronegative adults. Validity criteria were proposed to assess the presence of integrated HIV DNA as possible or unquestionable in these three categories. Only three articles among the 22 ultimately selected fulfilled these criteria. Among the highly exposed seronegative subjects, some individuals were described as being without integrated HIV DNA, probably because these subjects were not investigated using relevant, highly sensitive methods. Finally, we propose a definition of spontaneous cure of HIV infection based on clinical, immunologic and virologic criteria. PMID:26794031

  13. Natural History of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Children of Mothers Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Jenson, Hal; McIntosh, Kenneth; Pitt, Jane; Husak, Scott; Tan, Ming; Bryson, Yvonne; Easley, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in 556 infants born to 517 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1–infected mothers was studied in a prospective, multicenter, cohort study. HIV-1–infected children had a cumulative EBV infection rate similar to HIV-1–uninfected children at age 3 years (77.8% vs. 84.9%) but had more frequent oropharyngeal EBV shedding (50.4% vs. 28.2%; P < .001). The probability of shedding decreased with longer time from EBV seroconversion and was similar to that of HIV-1–uninfected children 3 years after seroconversion. HIV-1–infected children identified as rapid progressors shed EBV more frequently than nonrapid progressors (69.4% vs.41.0%; P = .01). HIV-1–infected children with EBV infection had higher mean CD8 cell counts. EBV infection did not have an independent effect on mean CD4 cell counts, percent CD4, IgG levels, HIV-1 RNA levels, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, or splenomegaly. Early EBV infection is common in children born to HIV-1–infected mothers. Children with rapidly progressive HIV-1 disease have more frequent EBV shedding. PMID:10228060

  14. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/µl and a poor adherence to HAART. PMID:26933317

  15. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/µl and a poor adherence to HAART. PMID:26933317

  16. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started. PMID:25948844

  17. Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus during early infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M A; Kingsley, L A; Atchison, R W; Belle, S; Breinig, M C; Ho, M; Rinaldo, C R

    1991-01-01

    Reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was investigated in 49 homosexual men who seroconverted to HIV (cases) as compared with 49 matched controls who remained seronegative to HIV during a longitudinal study. EBV infection was reactivated in cases 6 months, but not 12 months, prior to HIV seroconversion as compared with controls and remained reactivated during 18 months of follow-up after HIV seroconversion, as shown by increases in immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody titers to EBV early antigen. Antibody titers to EBV viral capsid antigen did not differ between cases and controls prior to the time of seroconversion to HIV but were significantly increased among cases by the first seropositive study visit and remained elevated during the 18 months after HIV seroconversion. Total serum IgG levels were increased in cases at the visit of seroconversion, and during 18 months of follow-up, but did not correlate with enhanced IgG production specific for EBV antigens. Significant decreases in numbers of CD4+ cells and increases in numbers of CD8+ cells during this early phase of HIV infection were not associated with changes in patterns of EBV antibody responses. Reactivation of EBV beginning 6 months before HIV seroconversion may have implications regarding the role of this herpesvirus in the pathogenesis of HIV. PMID:1650790

  18. Lymphadenopathy in macaques experimentally infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).

    PubMed Central

    Chalifoux, L. V.; Ringler, D. J.; King, N. W.; Sehgal, P. K.; Desrosiers, R. C.; Daniel, M. D.; Letvin, N. L.

    1987-01-01

    A T-cell tropic lentivirus of macaques the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), has morphologic, growth, and antigenic properties that indicate that it is related to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the etiologic agent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans. Six juvenile macaques developed persistent lymphadenopathy (greater than 3 months in duration) after inoculation with SIV. The histologic appearance of the lymph nodes was characterized by marked follicular hyperplasia with abundant proliferative B cells infiltrating into the paracortex. The number of T8-positive lymphocytes equaled or exceeded the number of T4-positive lymphocytes in the paracortex. These findings, in association with immunologic abnormalities and a previously observed fatal immunodeficiency syndrome in SIV-infected macaques, provide further evidence of the importance of SIV-induced disease in macaques as a model for the study of AIDS. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3037910

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    PubMed

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  20. Antiviral drugs other than zidovudine and immunomodulating therapies in human immunodeficiency virus infection. An overview.

    PubMed

    Clumeck, N; Hermans, P

    1988-08-29

    Although the management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infections has focused on the treatment of opportunistic infections, or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related cancers in end stages of the disease, therapies now aim at preventing the natural progression of the underlying disease. In addition to zidovudine many investigational drugs are proposed to treat AIDS-related complex patients. Most of these therapies can be divided into two major groups: (1) The first group includes agents with antiretroviral properties: nucleoside analogues, such as 2'-3'-dideoxycytidine and ribavirin, suramin, antimoniotungstate (heteropolyanion-23), foscarnet (phosphonoformate), interferons, peptide T, castanospermine, dextran sulfate, AL721, or ampligen. (2) The second group aims to restore the defective immune system; it includes thymosin (thymopentin), interleukin-2, cyclosporine, plasmapheresis, bone marrow transplantation, inosine, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, methionine-enkephalin and carrisyn. At present, no drug other than zidovudine has proved as monotherapy to lengthen survival of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. PMID:2457313

  1. Delayed Infection after Immunization with a Peptide from the Transmembrane Glycoprotein of the Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, J.; Moraillon, A.; Crespeau, F.; Baud, S.; Sonigo, P.; Pancino, G.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in the quantitative assessment of viral burden, by permitting the extension of criteria applied to assess the efficacy of vaccines from all-or-none protection to diminution of the viral burden, may allow the identification of original immunogens of value in combined vaccines. Peptides corresponding to three domains of the envelope glycoproteins of feline immunodeficiency virus that are recognized during natural infection were used to immunize cats. After challenge with a primary isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus, the development of acute infection was monitored by quantitative assessment of the viral burden in plasma and tissues by competitive reverse transcription-PCR, by measurement of the humoral response developed to viral components, and by lymphocyte subset analysis. Whereas immunization with two peptides derived from the surface glycoprotein had no effect on the early course of infection, immunization with a peptide derived from the transmembrane glycoprotein delayed infection, as reflected by a diminished viral burden in the early phase of primary infection and delayed seroconversion. This peptide, located in the membrane-proximal region of the extracellular domain, has homology to an epitope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recognized by a broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that lentivirus transmembrane glycoproteins share a determinant in the juxtamembrane ectodomain which could be of importance in the design of vaccines against AIDS. PMID:9499101

  2. Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with expansion of the enteric virome

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Scott; Thackray, Larissa B.; Zhao, Guoyan; Presti, Rachel; Miller, Andrew; Droit, Lindsay; Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Stanley, Kelly; Kramer, Joshua; Macri, Sheila C.; Permar, Sallie R.; Schmitz, Joern E.; Mansfield, Keith; Brenchley, Jason M.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Wang, David; Barouch, Dan H.; Virgin, Herbert W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with enteropathy which likely contributes to AIDS progression. To identify candidate etiologies for AIDS enteropathy, we used next generation sequencing to define the enteric virome during SIV infection in nonhuman primates. Pathogenic, but not non-pathogenic, SIV infection was associated with significant expansion of the enteric virome. We identified at least 32 previously undescribed enteric viruses during pathogenic SIV infection and confirmed their presence using viral culture and PCR testing. We detected unsuspected mucosal adenovirus infection associated with enteritis as well as parvovirus viremia in animals with advanced AIDS, indicating the pathogenic potential of SIV-associated expansion of the enteric virome. No association between pathogenic SIV infection and the family-level taxonomy of enteric bacteria was detected. Thus, enteric viral infections may contribute to AIDS enteropathy and disease progression. These findings underline the importance of metagenomic analysis of the virome for understanding AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:23063120

  3. Plasma viral RNA load predicts disease progression in accelerated feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, L J; Mathiason-Dubard, C K; O'Neil, L L; Hoover, E A

    1996-01-01

    Viral RNA load has been shown to indicate disease stage and predict the rapidity of disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. We had previously demonstrated that feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) RNA levels in plasma correlate with disease stage in infected cats. Here we expand upon those observations by demonstrating that plasma virus load is 1 to 2 logs higher in cats with rapidly progressive FIV disease than in long-term survivors. Differences in plasma FIV RNA levels are evident by 1 to 2 weeks after infection and are consistent throughout infection. We also evaluated humoral immune responses in FIV-infected cats for correlation with survival times. Total anti-FIV antibody titers did not differ between cats with rapidly progressive FIV disease and long-term survivors. These findings indicate that virus replication plays an important role in FIV disease progression, as it does in HIV-1 disease progression. The parallels in virus loads and disease progressions between HIV-1 and FIV support the idea that the accelerated disease model is well suited for the study of therapeutic agents directed at reducing lentiviral replication. PMID:8642679

  4. [Non-dermatophytic moulds: onychomycosis in four patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    de Magalhães Lima, Kedma; Machado Barbosa de Castro, Célia Maria; Fonsêca Nogueira Cambuim, Idalina Inês; Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Jeferson; Delgado, Marília; Sette de Melo Rego, Rossana

    2008-03-01

    Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a risk group for onychomycosis, fungal infections caused mainly by dermatophytes and yeast. However, non-dermatohytic moulds are becoming common agents for nail infections in this population of patients. We report four cases of onychomycosis caused by non-dermatophytic moulds (Aspergillus niger, Scytalidium hyalinum, Scytalidium dimidiatum and Fusarium solani) in patients infected with HIV from Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Onychomicosis by non-dermatophytic species in HIV-positive patients requires special attention in the clinical and the laboratory. A proper diagnosis is necessary to establish the specific and adequate treatment, preventing fungal invasion. PMID:18338928

  5. Bubble continuous positive airway pressure in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected infant

    PubMed Central

    McCollum, E. D.; Smith, A.; Golitko, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY World Health Organization-classified very severe pneumonia due to Pneumocystis jirovecii infection is recognized as a life-threatening condition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected infants. We recount the use of nasal bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) in an HIV-infected African infant with very severe pneumonia and treatment failure due to suspected infection with P. jirovecii. We also examine the potential implications of BCPAP use in resource-poor settings with a high case index of acute respiratory failure due to HIV-related pneumonia, but limited access to mechanical ventilation. PMID:21396221

  6. Efficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection of cells lacking PDZD8.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shijian; Sodroski, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    PDZD8 can bind the capsid proteins of different retroviruses, and transient knockdown of PDZD8 results in a decrease in the efficiency of an early, post-entry event in the retrovirus life cycle. Here we used the CRISPR-CAS9 system to create cell lines in which PDZD8 expression is stably eliminated. The PDZD8-knockout cell lines were infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and murine leukemia virus as efficiently as the parental PDZD8-expressing cells. These results indicate that PDZD8 is not absolutely necessary for HIV-1 infection and diminishes its attractiveness as a potential target for intervention. PMID:25771112

  7. Biology of anemia, differential diagnosis, and treatment options in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Claster, Susan

    2002-05-15

    Anemia is the most common hematologic manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The causes of HIV-related anemia are multifactorial and include direct and indirect effects of HIV infection. HIV-related anemia generally is due to reduced red blood cell (RBC) production, secondary to a variety of causes, but it may also involve nutritional deficiencies, increased RBC destruction, or a combination of these problems. Evaluation of hemoglobin level, reticulocyte count, bilirubin, and mean corpuscular volume value and review of the peripheral blood smear are necessary for diagnosis. Treatment of HIV-related anemia should address the correctable underlying causes of this disorder, such as modifications of offending medications, nutritional deficiencies, and parvovirus infection. Patients with HIV infection have a blunted erythropoietin response to anemia. Therapeutic modalities for anemia that is not amenable to correction include blood transfusion and recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin alfa). PMID:12001030

  8. Sweat gland carcinoma in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Toi, M; Kauffman, L; Peterson, L; Golitz, L; Myers, A

    1995-02-01

    Eccrine (sweat gland) carcinoma is a rare form of skin cancer that may be locally destructive. It is known to recur after resection and can metastasize to regional or distant lymph nodes. There have been two reported cases in association with patients immunocompromised as the result of organ transplantation (I. Penn: Prog Allergy. 37: 259, 1986). We report here the first case of sweat gland carcinoma in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:7539911

  9. The cytoplasmic domain of simian immunodeficiency virus transmembrane protein modulates infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, L; Emerman, M; Tiollais, P; Sonigo, P

    1989-01-01

    A striking characteristic of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is the presence of a nonsense mutation in the env gene resulting in the synthesis of a truncated transmembrane protein lacking the cytoplasmic domain. By mutagenesis of an infectious molecular clone of SIVmac142, we investigated the function of the cytoplasmic domain and the significance of the env nonsense mutation. When the nonsense codon (TAG) was replaced by a glutamine codon (CAG), the virus infected HUT78 cells with markedly delayed kinetics. This negative effect was counterselected in vitro as reversion of the slow phenotype frequently occurred. The sequencing of one revertant revealed the presence of a new stop codon three nucleotides 5' to the original mutation. Deletions or an additional nonsense mutation introduced 3' to the original stop codon did not modify SIV infectivity. In contrast, the same deletions or nonsense mutation introduced in the clone in which the stop codon was replaced by CAG abolished infectivity. These results indicated that the envelope domain located 3' to the stop codon is not necessary for in vitro replication. However, the presence of this domain in SIV transmembrane protein leads to a reduced infectivity. This negative effect might correspond to a function controlling the rate of spread of the virus during in vivo infection. Images PMID:2778881

  10. Complete genome analysis of hepatitis B virus in human immunodeficiency virus infected and uninfected South Africans.

    PubMed

    Gededzha, Maemu P; Muzeze, Muxe; Burnett, Rosemary J; Amponsah-Dacosta, Edina; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Selabe, Selokela G

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are highly endemic in South Africa. Data on the complete genome sequences of HBV in HIV-positive patients in South Africa are scanty. This study characterized the complete HBV genome isolated from both HIV-positive and negative patients at the Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH), Pretoria. Serum samples from nine (five HIV-positive and four HIV-negative) patients attending the DGMAH from 2007 to 2011 were serologically tested, amplified, and sequenced for complete genome. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA6.0. Mutations were analyzed by comparing the sequences with genotype-matched GenBank references. Eight patients were HBsAg positive, with only one from the HIV positive group being negative. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome sequences classified them into five genotypes; A1 (n = 4), A2 (n = 1), C1 (n = 2), D1 (n = 1), and D3 (n = 1). Deletions up to 35 nucleotides in length were identified in this study. No drug resistance mutations were identified in the P ORF, while the L217R mutation was identified in one subgenotype A2 sequence. The double (A1762T/G1764A) and triple (T1753C/A1762T/G1764A) mutations in the Basal core promoter were identified in four and two sequences, respectively. In the core region, mutation G1888A was identified in four of the subgenotype A1 sequences. In conclusion, this study has added to the limited South African data on HBV genotypes and mutations in HBV/HIV co-infected and HBV mono-infected patients, based on complete HBV genome analysis. Subgenotype A1 was predominant, and no drug-resistant mutants were detected in the study. J. Med. Virol. 88:1560-1566, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890489

  11. Small-Molecule Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection by Virus Capsid Destabilization▿

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiong; Zhou, Jing; Shah, Vaibhav B.; Aiken, Christopher; Whitby, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is dependent on the proper disassembly of the viral capsid, or “uncoating,” in target cells. The HIV-1 capsid consists of a conical multimeric complex of the viral capsid protein (CA) arranged in a hexagonal lattice. Mutations in CA that destabilize the viral capsid result in impaired infection owing to defects in reverse transcription in target cells. We describe here the mechanism of action of a small molecule HIV-1 inhibitor, PF-3450074 (PF74), which targets CA. PF74 acts at an early stage of HIV-1 infection and inhibits reverse transcription in target cells. We show that PF74 binds specifically to HIV-1 particles, and substitutions in CA that confer resistance to the compound prevent binding. A single point mutation in CA that stabilizes the HIV-1 core also conferred strong resistance to the virus without inhibiting compound binding. Treatment of HIV-1 particles or purified cores with PF74 destabilized the viral capsid in vitro. Furthermore, the compound induced the rapid dissolution of the HIV-1 capsid in target cells. PF74 antiviral activity was promoted by binding of the host protein cyclophilin A to the HIV-1 capsid, and PF74 and cyclosporine exhibited mutual antagonism. Our data suggest that PF74 triggers premature HIV-1 uncoating in target cells, thereby mimicking the activity of the retrovirus restriction factor TRIM5α. This study highlights uncoating as a step in the HIV-1 life cycle that is susceptible to small molecule intervention. PMID:20962083

  12. Small-molecule inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection by virus capsid destabilization.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiong; Zhou, Jing; Shah, Vaibhav B; Aiken, Christopher; Whitby, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is dependent on the proper disassembly of the viral capsid, or "uncoating," in target cells. The HIV-1 capsid consists of a conical multimeric complex of the viral capsid protein (CA) arranged in a hexagonal lattice. Mutations in CA that destabilize the viral capsid result in impaired infection owing to defects in reverse transcription in target cells. We describe here the mechanism of action of a small molecule HIV-1 inhibitor, PF-3450074 (PF74), which targets CA. PF74 acts at an early stage of HIV-1 infection and inhibits reverse transcription in target cells. We show that PF74 binds specifically to HIV-1 particles, and substitutions in CA that confer resistance to the compound prevent binding. A single point mutation in CA that stabilizes the HIV-1 core also conferred strong resistance to the virus without inhibiting compound binding. Treatment of HIV-1 particles or purified cores with PF74 destabilized the viral capsid in vitro. Furthermore, the compound induced the rapid dissolution of the HIV-1 capsid in target cells. PF74 antiviral activity was promoted by binding of the host protein cyclophilin A to the HIV-1 capsid, and PF74 and cyclosporine exhibited mutual antagonism. Our data suggest that PF74 triggers premature HIV-1 uncoating in target cells, thereby mimicking the activity of the retrovirus restriction factor TRIM5α. This study highlights uncoating as a step in the HIV-1 life cycle that is susceptible to small molecule intervention. PMID:20962083

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C co-infection in sub-Saharan West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mboto, C I; Davies, A; Fielder, M; Jewell, A P

    2006-01-01

    Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is becoming a major global problem, leading to increased morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Co-existence in sub-Saharan West Africa of a high prevalence of HIV and HCV, which share similar behavioural risk factors and modes of transmission, must be seen in the broader context of an emerging third epidemic of HIV and HCV co-infection, as many factors that may affect the spread of HIV and HCV co-infection are endemic in the continent, including host factors such as sexual behaviour, presence of other sexually transmitted diseases, female and male circumcision status, percutaneous and perinatal exposure, and poverty. This review examines the epidemiology, risk factors and transmission of HIV and HCV co-infection and draws attention to the possible emergence of an epidemic of HIV and HCV co-infection in the region. PMID:16613141

  14. [Gastric uptake of gallium67 in the human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Escalera Temprado, T; Banzo Marraco, J; Abós Olivares, M D; Olave Rubio, M T; Prats Rivera, E; García López, F; Razola Alba, P

    2004-02-01

    Nowadays, the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is a chronic disease. In the frequent clinical situations with fever, lymph nodes and loss weight it is necessary to determine their etiology, for establishing a specific treatment. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections or gastric lymphomatous or sarcomatous process, which can accumulate Ga67, may be present in the patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report 2 cases with gastric uptake in which endoscopy and biopsy was obtained. In the first one, with previous treatment with omeprazol and almalgate for gastroesophagic reflux, endoscopy and biopsy were normal and in the second patient an Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed. We think that gastric uptake of Ga67 in HIV patients, must indicate to the clinician to rule out associated pathologies. PMID:14974895

  15. Domestic cats infected with lion or puma lentivirus develop anti-feline immunodeficiency virus immune responses.

    PubMed

    VandeWoude, Sue; Hageman, Catherine L; Hoover, Edward A

    2003-09-01

    Attenuated live viral strains have afforded significant protection against virus challenge in HIV vaccine models. Although both cellular and humoral immunity are assumed to be vital for protection, specific parameters consistently associated with control of infection have been elusive. Our previous studies have shown that lentiviruses from 2 nondomestic feline species--lion (Pathera leo) and puma (Felis concolor)--persistently but nonpathogenetically infect domestic cats (Felis domestica). Moreover, infection with either the puma lentivirus (PLV) or lion lentivirus (LLV) conferred partial protection against superinfection with virulent feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), the feline equivalent of HIV. To determine whether domestic cats infected by the lentiviruses of pumas or lions generate cross-reactive immune responses, we infected groups of 5 domestic cats with PLV, LLV, or a sham control and then monitored virus load, hematologic parameters, antibody protection, proliferative responses, and the ability of blood mononuclear cells to inhibit LLV, PLV, and FIV replication in vitro. All cats inoculated with LLV or PLV developed persistent infection, and low-level cell-associated viremia has been previously described. Infected cats also generated robust antibody titers and lymphocytes that proliferated in response to viral antigens and downregulated PLV, LLV, and FIV replication in vitro. This latter activity was CD8 cell associated for PLV and LLV inhibition but not for FIV inhibition. Thus, cats infected with the phylogenetically more ancient and less pathogenic feline lentiviruses generated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses reactive against both the homologous viruses and the heterologous FIV of domestic cats, which correlated with decreased viral load. These results are analogous to protection studies with attenuated primate immunodeficiency viruses and provide a system by which to examine adaptation, interference, and cross protection among

  16. Whole body positron emission tomography imaging of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Scharko, A M; Perlman, S B; Hinds PW2nd; Hanson, J M; Uno, H; Pauza, C D

    1996-01-01

    Pathogenesis of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in rhesus macaques begins with acute viremia and then progresses to a distributed infection in the solid lymphoid tissues, which is followed by a process of cellular destruction leading to terminal disease and death. Blood and tissue specimens show the progress of infection at the cellular level but do not reveal the pattern of infection and host responses occurring throughout the body. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with intravenous 2-18F-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) could identify activated lymphoid tissues in a living animal and whether this pattern would reflect the extent of SIV infection. PET images from SIV-infected animals were distinguishable from uninfected controls and revealed a pattern consistent with widespread lymphoid tissue activation. Significant FDG accumulation in colon along with mesenteric and ileocaecal lymph nodes was found in SIV infection, especially during terminal disease stages. Areas of elevated FDG uptake in the PET images were correlated with productive SIV infection using in situ hybridization as a test for virus replication. PET-FDG images of SIV-infected animals correlated sites of virus replication with high FDG accumulation. These data show that the method can be used to evaluate the distribution and activity of infected tissues in a living animal without biopsy. Fewer tissues had high FDG uptake in terminal animals than midstage animals, and both were clearly distinguishable from uninfected animal scans. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8692831

  17. Molecular Evolution Analysis of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope in Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques: Implications for Challenge Dose Selection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Mariana; Landskron, Lisa; Lai, Rachel P. J.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Bogers, Willy M.; Verschoor, Ernst J.; Dubbes, Rob; Barnett, Susan W.; Frost, Simon D. W.; Heeney, Jonathan L.

    2011-01-01

    Since the demonstration that almost 80% of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections result from the transmission of a single variant from the donor, biological features similar to those of HIV mucosal transmission have been reported for macaques inoculated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Here we describe the early diversification events and the impact of challenge doses on viral kinetics and on the number of variants transmitted in macaques infected with the chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus SHIVsf162p4. We show that there is a correlation between the dose administered and the number of variants transmitted and that certain inoculum variants are preferentially transmitted. This could provide insight into the viral determinants of transmission and could aid in vaccine development. Challenge through the mucosal route with high doses results in the transmission of multiple variants in all the animals. Such an unrealistic scenario could underestimate potential intervention measures. We thus propose the use of molecular evolution analysis to aid in the determination of challenge doses that better mimic the transmission dynamics seen in natural HIV-1 infection. PMID:21795341

  18. Human Discs Large Is a New Negative Regulator of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Perugi, Fabien; Muriaux, Delphine; Ramirez, Bertha Cecilia; Chabani, Sabah; Decroly, Etienne; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Blot, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication is positively or negatively regulated through multiple interactions with host cell proteins. We report here that human Discs Large (Dlg1), a scaffold protein recruited beneath the plasma membrane and involved in the assembly of multiprotein complexes, restricts HIV-1 infectivity. The endogenous Dlg1 and HIV-1 Gag polyprotein spontaneously interact in HIV-1-chronically infected T cells. Depleting endogenous Dlg1 in either adherent cells or T cells does not affect Gag maturation, production, or release, but it enhances the infectivity of progeny viruses five- to sixfold. Conversely, overexpression of Dlg1 reduces virus infectivity by ∼80%. Higher virus infectivity upon Dlg1 depletion correlates with increased Env content in cells and virions, whereas the amount of virus-associated Gag or genomic RNA remains identical. Dlg1 knockdown is also associated with the redistribution and colocalization of Gag and Env toward CD63 and CD82 positive vesicle-like structures, including structures that seem to still be connected to the plasma membrane. This study identifies both a new negative regulator that targets the very late steps of the HIV-1 life cycle, and an assembly pathway that optimizes HIV-1 infectivity. PMID:18946087

  19. Bilateral Peripheral Facial Palsy in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Su; Yoon, Hee Jung; Kim, Hai Jin; Nam, Ji Sun; Choi, Sung Ho; Kim, June Myung

    2006-01-01

    Neurological complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. They can occur at any stage of the disease and can affect any level of the central or peripheral nervous systems. In the literature, several cases of HIV-associated facial paralysis have been reported; however, bilateral facial palsy is rarely reported. In this paper, we present the first case in Korea, of a bilateral facial palsy occurring as the first clinical manifestation of HIV infection. PMID:17066521

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and diffuse polyneuropathy. Implications for rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Mukand, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    Patients at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection require rehabilitation services. These patients present problems for each of the disciplines in a rehabilitation team, and all team members must confront the psychosocial and ethical issues involved with the disease. Patients with HIV infection may have polyneuropathy with multisystem involvement, including dysphagia, autonomic dysfunction, respiratory failure, bowel and bladder dysfunction, generalized weakness, a painful sensory neuropathy, and depression. Guidelines are presented for determining if inpatient rehabilitation or other settings are appropriate. Case management is a valuable strategy for the rehabilitation of patients with this complicated disorder. PMID:1866948

  1. Visceral leishmaniasis with cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Ara, M; Maillo, C; Peón, G; Clavel, A; Cuesta, J; Grasa, M P; Carapeto, F J

    1998-07-01

    We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) with cutaneous lesions in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The cutaneous lesions consisted of erythematous papules on the legs. Biopsy of one lesion showed abundant Leishmania amastigotes within epithelial cells of an eccrine sweat gland in the dermis. Leishmania organisms were also found in a blood smear. Rapid and complete clearance of the cutaneous lesions was achieved after antimony therapy. Cutaneous lesions in VL are being reported increasingly frequently in patients with HIV infection and their significance remains in discussion. PMID:9764161

  2. CD4-independent infection of human neural cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Harouse, J M; Kunsch, C; Hartle, H T; Laughlin, M A; Hoxie, J A; Wigdahl, B; Gonzalez-Scarano, F

    1989-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that central nervous system-derived cells can be infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To determine whether CD4, the receptor for HIV-1 in lymphoid cells, was responsible for infection of neural cells, we characterized infectable human central nervous system tumor lines and primary fetal neural cells and did not detect either CD4 protein or mRNA. We then attempted to block infection with anti-CD4 antibodies known to block infection of lymphoid cells; we noted no effect on any of these cultured cells. The results indicate that CD4 is not the receptor for HIV-1 infection of the glioblastoma line U373-MG, medulloblastoma line MED 217, or primary human fetal neural cells. Images PMID:2786088

  3. Critical Care in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Akgün, Kathleen M; Miller, Robert F

    2016-04-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) survival has been improved significantly for HIV-infected patients since the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Non-AIDS conditions account for the majority of ICU admission diagnoses in areas with access to ART. However, opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia still account for a significant proportion of ICU admissions, particularly in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients, and are associated with increased ICU mortality. We discuss risk factors and outcomes for HIV-infected admitted to the ICU in the current ART era. We review the changing patterns in ICU admission diagnoses over time and how common ICU conditions are managed in HIV-infected compared with uninfected patients. We next address issues specific to the care for HIV-infected patients in the ICU, focusing on immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, ART continuation or initiation, and some common and potentially life-threatening ART-associated toxicities. PMID:26974306

  4. A Patient Presenting with Tuberculous Encephalopathy and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jason; Afroz, Suraiya; French, Eric; Mehta, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 33 Final Diagnosis: Tuberculous meningitis, human immunodeficiency virus infection Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Lumbar puncture Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: In the USA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is more likely to be found in foreign-born individuals, and those co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more likely to have tuberculous meningitis. The literature is lacking in details about the clinical workup of patients presenting with tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features who are co-infected with HIV. This report demonstrates a clinical approach to diagnosis and management of tuberculous meningitis. Case Report: A 33-year-old Ecuadorean man presented with altered consciousness and constitutional symptoms. During the workup he was found to have tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features and concurrent HIV infection. Early evidence for tuberculosis meningitis included lymphocytic pleocytosis and a positive interferon gamma release assay. A confirmatory diagnosis of systemic infection was made based on lymph node biopsy. Imaging studies of the neck showed scrofula and adenopathy, and brain imaging showed infarctions, exudates, and communicating hydrocephalus. Treatment was started for tuberculous meningitis, while antiretroviral therapy for HIV was started 5 days later in combination with prednisone, given the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Conclusions: A clinical picture consistent with tuberculous meningitis includes constitutional symptoms, foreign birth, lymphocytic pleocytosis, specific radiographic findings, and immunodeficiency. Workup for tuberculous meningitis should include MRI, HIV screening, and cerebral spinal fluid analysis. It is essential to treat co-infection with HIV and to assess for IRIS. PMID:27302013

  5. Syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection.

    PubMed Central

    Funnyé, Allen S.; Akhtar, Abbasi J.

    2003-01-01

    Co-infection of syphilis and AIDS has profound implications for the African American community. The purpose of this review is to: evaluate the historical background of HIV and syphilis and their similarities in pathogenesis; review the epidemiology of syphilis and HIV co-infection, and implications for continued prevention efforts; examine the effect of syphilis on HIV transmission and acquisition; and, to examine the effects of HIV infection on syphilis transmission, diagnostic and serologic changes, clinical course, and treatment. The prevalence of HIV is higher in those with syphilis; moreover, the prevalence of HIV and syphilis co-infection is highest in African Americans. There may be humoral and cellular immune similarities. HIV may affect the transmission of syphilis, alter its serologic diagnosis, and accelerate and change the clinical course and response to treatment. In conclusion, combined infection of HIV and syphilis may alter the clinical presentation and course of either disease. There are historical and immunologic similarities and the high prevalence in African Americans compared to other groups is of great importance for prevention efforts. PMID:12793793

  6. Cardiac Complications in Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Starc, Thomas J.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Kaplan, Samuel; Easley, Kirk A.; Bricker, J. Timothy; Colan, Steven D.; Lai, Wyman W.; Gersony, Welton M.; Sopko, George; Moodie, Douglas S.; Schluchter, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although numerous cardiac abnormalities have been reported in HIV-infected children, precise estimates of the incidence of cardiac disease in these children are not well-known. The objective of this report is to describe the 2-year cumulative incidence of cardiac abnormalities in HIV-infected children. Methodology: Design Prospective cohort (Group I) and inception cohort (Group II) study design. Setting A volunteer sample from 10 university and public hospitals. Participants Group I consisted of 205 HIV vertically infected children enrolled at a median age of 22 months. This group was comprised of infants and children already known to be HIV-infected at the time of enrollment in the study. Most of the children were African-American or Hispanic and 89% had symptomatic HIV infection at enrollment. The second group included 611 neonates born to HIV-infected mothers, enrolled during fetal life or before 28 days of age (Group II). In contrast to the older Group I children, all the Group II children were enrolled before their HIV status was ascertained. Interventions According to the study protocol, children underwent a series of cardiac evaluations including two-dimensional echocardiogram and Doppler studies of cardiac function every 4 to 6 months. They also had a 12-or 15-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG), 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, and a chest radiograph every 12 months. Outcome Measures Main outcome measures were the cumulative incidence of an initial episode of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, cardiac enlargement, and congestive heart failure (CHF). Because cardiac abnormalities tended to cluster in the same patients, we also determined the number of children who had cardiac impairment which we defined as having either left ventricular fractional shortening (LV FS) ≤25% after 6 months of age, CHF, or treatment with cardiac medications. Results: Cardiac Abnormalities In Group I children (older cohort), the prevalence of decreased LV function

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and its association with sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Pinto Neto, Lauro Ferreira da Silva; Sales, Marina Cerqueira; Scaramussa, Eduarda Sobral; da Paz, Clara Junia Calazans; Morelato, Renato Lirio

    2016-01-01

    Presarcopenia and sarcopenia were evaluated in HIV-infected individuals and in healthy elderly controls according to the consensus definitions of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Bioelectrical impedance, a hydraulic hand dynamometer, and gait speed were used to evaluate muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, respectively. Adjusted and unadjusted binary logistic regression predicted the risk of sarcopenia. Predictor contribution was assessed by the Wald test. Significance was established at p≤0.05. The HIV-infected group consisted of 33 patients on treatment (42.4% women; mean age 59±7 years; mean BMI 25±6kg/m(2); viral load undetectable in 30 cases). The HIV-uninfected group consisted of 60 individuals (71.7% women; mean age 70±7 years; mean BMI 28±6kg/m(2)). Of the controls, 4 (6.7%) individuals had presarcopenia and 4 (6.7%) sarcopenia compared to 4 (12.1%) and 8 (24.2%), respectively, in the HIV-infected group. The HIV-infected patients had a 4.95 higher risk (95% CI: 1.34-18.23) for sarcopenia compared to the controls. It should be pointed out that the control group was on average 10 years older. This risk increased further (RR=5.20; 95% CI: 1.40-19.20) after adjusting for age and BMI. HIV-infected patients were shown to be at a greater risk of sarcopenia, an indicator of frailty, even following adjustment for age and BMI. PMID:26626165

  8. A Patient Presenting with Tuberculous Encephalopathy and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Jason; Afroz, Suraiya; French, Eric; Mehta, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the USA, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is more likely to be found in foreign-born individuals, and those co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more likely to have tuberculous meningitis. The literature is lacking in details about the clinical workup of patients presenting with tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features who are co-infected with HIV. This report demonstrates a clinical approach to diagnosis and management of tuberculous meningitis. CASE REPORT A 33-year-old Ecuadorean man presented with altered consciousness and constitutional symptoms. During the workup he was found to have tuberculous meningitis with encephalopathic features and concurrent HIV infection. Early evidence for tuberculosis meningitis included lymphocytic pleocytosis and a positive interferon gamma release assay. A confirmatory diagnosis of systemic infection was made based on lymph node biopsy. Imaging studies of the neck showed scrofula and adenopathy, and brain imaging showed infarctions, exudates, and communicating hydrocephalus. Treatment was started for tuberculous meningitis, while anti-retroviral therapy for HIV was started 5 days later in combination with prednisone, given the risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). CONCLUSIONS A clinical picture consistent with tuberculous meningitis includes constitutional symptoms, foreign birth, lymphocytic pleocytosis, specific radiographic findings, and immunodeficiency. Workup for tuberculous meningitis should include MRI, HIV screening, and cerebral spinal fluid analysis. It is essential to treat co-infection with HIV and to assess for IRIS. PMID:27302013

  9. CD4+ T Cell Depletion in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Role of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Février, Michèle; Dorgham, Karim; Rebollo, Angelita

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is principally a mucosal disease and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the major site of HIV replication. Loss of CD4+ T cells and systemic immune hyperactivation are the hallmarks of HIV infection. The end of acute infection is associated with the emergence of specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and the establishment of a chronic phase of infection. Abnormal levels of immune activation and inflammation persist despite a low steady state level of viremia. Although the causes of persistent immune hyperactivation remain incompletely characterized, physiological alterations of gastrointestinal tract probably play a major role. Failure to restore Th17 cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) might impair the recovery of the gut mucosal barrier. This review discusses recent advances on understanding the contribution of CD4+ T cell depletion to HIV pathogenesis. PMID:21994747

  10. Retinal blood flow indices in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Yung, C W; Harris, A; Massicotte, S; Chioran, G; Krombach, G; Danis, R; Wolf, S

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Abnormal blood flow dynamics are believed to contribute to the development of retinal microvascular disease in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In this study, the scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) was used, combined with fluorescein angiography, to measure retinal blood flow indices in HIV seropositive patients. METHODS: Arteriovenous passage time (AVP) and perifoveal capillary blood flow velocity (CFV) were measured in 23 HIV infected patients and 23 control subjects with SLO fluorescein angiography. RESULTS: No significant difference in AVP was found between the two groups. However, CFV was significantly reduced in HIV infected patients (p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Patients infected with HIV show abnormal haemodynamics at the level of the perifoveal capillaries. PMID:8949717

  11. Epidemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among intravenous drug users (IVDU).

    PubMed Central

    D'Aquila, R. T.; Williams, A. B.

    1987-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is epidemic among intravenous drug users (IVDU), particularly in the northeastern United States. IVDU are playing a critical role in the spread of HIV by infecting their heterosexual partners and children, as well as their needle-sharing partners. The epidemiology of HIV infection among IVDU is reviewed here, including a compilation of seroprevalence data. Relevant determinants of the future spread of HIV among IVDU are discussed, including the major risk factors for HIV seropositivity, the modes of HIV transmission, and aspects of the natural history of HIV infection in IVDU. The public health policy implications of these issues include the need for education of adolescents and the general public about the risks of drug injection and heterosexual intercourse with IVDU, as well as motivation of IVDU to stop injecting, never share injection paraphernalia, or, at least, clean needles effectively. PMID:3324506

  12. Progressive immune dysfunction in cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Torten, M; Franchini, M; Barlough, J E; George, J W; Mozes, E; Lutz, H; Pedersen, N C

    1991-01-01

    Within 6 months of infection with the Petaluma isolate of feline immunodeficiency virus, specific-pathogen-free domestic cats exhibited a decrease in the percentage and number of circulating CD4+ lymphocytes and in the CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio, along with a marginally significant depression of pokeweed mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. There was no loss of responsiveness to concanavalin A during this stage, and the cats were capable of mounting a satisfactory antibody response to a T-dependent, synthetic polypeptide immunogen. The pokeweed mitogen response deficit became clearly demonstrable by 11 to 12 months postinfection. A decline in the lymphocyte proliferative response to concanavalin A and a diminished ability to mount an in vivo antibody response to the T-dependent immunogen evolved by 25 to 44 months postinfection. Virus infection did not affect the ability of cats to mount an antibody response to a T-independent synthetic polypeptide immunogen. These data indicate that feline immunodeficiency virus produces a slowly progressive deterioration of T-cell function but does not affect the ability of B cells to recognize and respond to a T-independent antigenic stimulus. PMID:1673159

  13. Antibodies to CD4 in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, M; Ardman, B; Basiripour, L; Lu, Y C; Blohm, D; Haseltine, W; Sodroski, J

    1989-01-01

    The attachment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to target cells is mediated by a specific interaction between the viral envelope glycoprotein (gp120) and the CD4 receptor. Here we report that approximately 10% of HIV-1-infected individuals produce antibodies that recognize the extracellular portion of the CD4 molecule. Carboxyl-terminal deletions of CD4 that do not affect HIV-1 gp120 binding eliminate recognition of CD4 by patient antisera. In contrast, mutations in the amino-terminal domain of CD4 that attenuate HIV-1 gp120 binding do not diminish CD4 recognition by patient antisera. These results suggest that HIV-1 infection can generate antibodies directed against a region of the viral receptor distinct from the virus-binding domain. Images PMID:2541442

  14. The gut microbiome in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Zmora, Niv; Itav, Shlomik; Bashiardes, Stavros; Elinav, Hila; Elinav, Eran

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS causes severe dysfunction of the immune system through CD4+ T cell depletion, leading to dysregulation of both the adaptive and innate immune arms. A primary target for viral infection is the gastrointestinal tract, which is a reservoir of CD4+ T cells. In addition to being a major immune hub, the human gastrointestinal tract harbors trillions of commensal microorganisms, the microbiota, which have recently been shown to play critical roles in health. Alterations in the composition and function of microbiota have been implicated in a variety of 'multi-factorial' disorders, including infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, and neoplastic disorders. It is widely accepted that, in addition to its direct role in altering the gastrointestinal CD4+ T cell compartment, HIV infection is characterized by gut microbiota compositional and functional changes. Herein, we review such alterations and discuss their potential local and systemic effects on the HIV-positive host, as well as potential roles of novel microbiota-targeting treatments in modulating HIV progression and associated adverse systemic manifestations. PMID:27256449

  15. Decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates in Kombolcha, Ethiopia: a 10-year data review

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Sinishaw, Mulusew Alemneh; Yesuf, Yohannes Amede

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is one of the most serious public health and development challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. A particular challenge for prevention strategies has been the emergence of hotspot areas. Therefore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome programs should not be based on national level statistics, but need to be more focused geographically. Kombolcha is one of the high spot areas with different projects and development corridors. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the trend of HIV infection rates among patients who visited Africa Service Committee clinic from 2005 to 2014. Methods An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to January 30, 2016. All records of new patients enrolled from February 8, 2005 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed. Data on sociodemographic information, risky sexual behavior, and HIV test result were collected from each study participant using data collection format. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors of HIV infection. Results The overall HIV infection was 10.8% (2,233/20,674). The rate of infection varied from 13.3% in 2005 to 4.5% in 2014, and its trend had significantly declined from 2008 to 2014. Urban residence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–5.25), patients who ever had intercourse with penetration (AOR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.11–28.57), and those who had marriage experience (AOR: 11.65; 95% CI: 4.2–32.3) were more infected with HIV. Conclusion The trend of HIV infection significantly reduced in the last 10 years in Kombolcha area. However, the HIV infection still remains high (4.5%) that needs intervention of those who had marriage experience, risky sexual behavior, and urban dwellers. PMID:27462177

  16. Cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A true or perceived risk?

    PubMed Central

    Shahbaz, Shima; Manicardi, Marcella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raggi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    After the successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral agents the survival of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in developed countries has increased substantially. This has allowed the surfacing of several chronic diseases among which cardiovascular disease (CVD) is prominent. The pathogenesis of CVD in HIV is complex and involves a combination of traditional and HIV related factors. An accurate assessment of risk of CVD in these patients is still elusive and as a consequence the most appropriate preventive and therapeutic interventions remain controversial. PMID:26516417

  17. A rare case of verrucous carcinoma of penis in an human immunodeficiency virus- infected patient

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Tonita Mariola; Girisha, Banavasi S.; Bhat, Shubha P.; Christy, Carol M.; Handattu, Sripathi; Fernandes, Michelle S.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. Verrucous carcinoma is a peculiarly slow evolving, but relentlessly expanding variant of epidermoid carcinoma that is extremely reluctant to metastasize. A 60-year-old unmarried male patient presented with urethral discharge of 3 weeks duration. Dorsal slit of the prepuce revealed an ulceroproliferative growth measuring 3 cm × 3 cm arising from prepuce and involving glans. Biopsy from the growth in the prepuce showed histopathological features of verrucous carcinoma. Partial amputation of the penis was done. Human papillomavirus DNA by polymerase chain reaction was negative. The patient was started on antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26692616

  18. Toxic epidermal necrolysis caused by fluconazole in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    George, Jacob; Sharma, Arun; Dixit, Ramakant; Chhabra, Naveen; Sharma, Smita

    2012-07-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare but serious dermatologic disorders. These grave conditions present as medical emergency, requiring prompt diagnosis and management. These are often drug induced and various groups of drugs, such as sulfa drugs, NSAIDS, etc., have been implicated as to cause TEN. Fluconazole is a commonly used drug with mild side effects. TEN caused by fluconazole is rare, and till now only few cases have been reported in the literature. We present a case of TEN in a human immunodeficiency virus infected man following fluconazole therapy in view of its rare occurrence. PMID:23129968

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. PMID:22028995

  20. Living Related Donor Renal Transplant in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patient: Case Reports from Tertiary Care Hospital in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Sonal; Patel, Atul K; Patel, Ketan K; Shukla, Ketan D; Darji, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Renal transplantation (TX) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasingly performed in developed countries in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Management of HIV infected patients during and post-transplant is very complex and challenging due to drug interaction, infection risk and associated co-infections. We described our experience with living related donor renal TX in three HIV infected patients. PMID:25191053

  1. Living related donor renal transplant in human immunodeficiency virus infected patient: case reports from tertiary care hospital in Western India.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Sonal; Patel, Atul K; Patel, Ketan K; Shukla, Ketan D; Darji, Prakash

    2014-07-01

    Renal transplantation (TX) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasingly performed in developed countries in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Management of HIV infected patients during and post-transplant is very complex and challenging due to drug interaction, infection risk and associated co-infections. We described our experience with living related donor renal TX in three HIV infected patients. PMID:25191053

  2. Broadly Neutralizing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibody Gene Transfer Protects Nonhuman Primates from Mucosal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Kevin O.; Wang, Lingshu; Joyce, M. Gordon; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Balazs, Alejandro B.; Cheng, Cheng; Ko, Sung-Youl; Kong, Wing-Pui; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Duan, Lijie; Foulds, Kathryn E.; Donaldson, Mitzi; Xu, Ling; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Todd, John-Paul; Baltimore, David; Roederer, Mario; Haase, Ashley T.; Kwong, Peter D.; Rao, Srinivas S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) can prevent lentiviral infection in nonhuman primates and may slow the spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Although protection by passive transfer of human bnAbs has been demonstrated in monkeys, durable expression is essential for its broader use in humans. Gene-based expression of bnAbs provides a potential solution to this problem, although immune responses to the viral vector or to the antibody may limit its durability and efficacy. Here, we delivered an adeno-associated viral vector encoding a simianized form of a CD4bs bnAb, VRC07, and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy. The expressed antibody circulated in macaques for 16 weeks at levels up to 66 μg/ml, although immune suppression with cyclosporine (CsA) was needed to sustain expression. Gene-delivered simian VRC07 protected against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in monkeys 5.5 weeks after treatment. Gene transfer of an anti-HIV antibody can therefore protect against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when the host immune responses are controlled. IMPORTANCE Sustained interventions that can prevent HIV-1 infection are needed to halt the spread of the HIV-1 pandemic. The protective capacity of anti-HIV antibody gene therapy has been established in mouse models of HIV-1 infection but has not been established for primates. We show here a proof-of-concept that gene transfer of anti-HIV antibody genes can protect against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when host immune responses are controlled. PMID:26041300

  3. Productive Infection of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Feline Immunodeficiency Virus: Implications for Vector Development

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, James; Power, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus causing immune suppression and neurological disease in cats. Like primate lentiviruses, FIV utilizes the chemokine receptor CXCR4 for infection. In addition, FIV gene expression has been demonstrated in immortalized human cell lines. To investigate the extent and mechanism by which FIV infected primary and immortalized human cell lines, we compared the infectivity of two FIV strains, V1CSF and Petaluma, after cell-free infection. FIV genome was detected in infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and macrophages at 21 and 14 days postinfection, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis of FIV-infected human PBMC indicated that antibodies to FIV p24 recognized 12% of the cells. Antibodies binding the CCR3 chemokine receptor maximally inhibited infection of human PBMC by both FIV strains compared to antibodies to CXCR4 or CCR5. Reverse transcriptase levels increased in FIV-infected human PBMC, with detection of viral titers of 101.3 to 102.1 50% tissue culture infective doses/106 cells depending on the FIV strain examined. Cell death in human PBMC infected with either FIV strain was significantly elevated relative to uninfected control cultures. These findings indicate that FIV can productively infect primary human cell lines and that viral strain specificity should be considered in the development of an FIV vector for gene therapy. PMID:9971834

  4. Current laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic enteric parasites in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    De, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Opportunistic enteric parasitic infections are encountered in 30-60% of HIV seropositive patients in developed countries and in 90% of patients in developing countries. Once the CD4+ cell count drops below 200 cells/μl, patients are considered to have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with the risk of an AIDS-defining illness or opportunistic infection significantly increasing. Opportunistic enteric parasites encountered in these patients are Cryptosporidium, Isospora, Cyclospora, and microsporidia; as well as those more commonly associated with gastrointestinal disease, for example, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, and also rarely Balantidium coli. In view of AIDS explosion in India, opportunistic enteric parasites are becoming increasingly important and it has to be identified properly. Apart from wet mounts, concentration methods for stool samples and special staining techniques for identification of these parasites, commercially available fecal immunoassays are widely available for the majority of enteric protozoa. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, flow cytometry, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), have also come in the pipeline for early diagnosis of these infections. Proper disposal of the feces to prevent contamination of the soil and water, boiling/filtering drinking water along with improved personal hygiene might go a long way in preventing these enteric parasitic infections. PMID:23961436

  5. School placement for human immunodeficiency virus-infected children: the Baltimore City experience.

    PubMed

    Santelli, J S; Birn, A E; Linde, J

    1992-05-01

    Over the past 6 years, the city of Baltimore has successfully implemented a school placement policy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Both policy and specific procedures are based on nationally promulgated guidelines. School placement policy is part of an overall AIDS policy that includes education of students and staff and adoption of universal precautions to prevent transmission of communicable diseases in school. Implementation has been marked by excellent collaboration between the departments of health and education. Important policy components include expedited clinical investigation of each case, an interagency review panel, strict protection of confidentiality, a restricted setting for certain children, a school site visit for each placement, and continued monitoring of the school placement by school nurses. Many HIV-infected students need special educational services and/or school health services. The Baltimore City school placement process has avoided the exaggerated publicity endured by some communities, where media reporting has aggravated community fears and invaded the lives of families with HIV-infected children. Baltimore City has succeeded in ensuring access to education, protecting families' confidentiality, and providing special care for HIV-infected students. Local communities should emphasize national guidelines in designing school placement policies for HIV-infected children. School placement policies work best in the context of a comprehensive policy incorporating AIDS education and care. PMID:1579392

  6. Pros and cons of liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus infected recipients

    PubMed Central

    Baccarani, Umberto; Righi, Elda; Adani, Gian Luigi; Lorenzin, Dario; Pasqualucci, Alberto; Bassetti, Matteo; Risaliti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Before the introduction of combined highly active antiretroviral therapy, a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serological status represented an absolute contraindication for solid organ transplant (SOT). The advent of highly effective combined antiretroviral therapy in 1996 largely contributed to the increased demand for SOT in HIV-positive individuals due to increased patients’ life expectancy associated with the increasing prevalence of end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Nowadays, liver failure represents a frequent cause of mortality in the HIV-infected population mainly due to coinfection with hepatitis viruses sharing the same way of transmission. Thus, liver transplantation (LT) represents a reasonable approach in HIV patients with stable infection and ESLD. Available data presently supports with good evidence the practice of LT in the HIV-positive population. Thus, the issue is no longer “whether it is correct to transplant HIV-infected patients”, but “who are the patients who can be safely transplanted” and “when is the best time to perform LT”. Indeed, the benefits of LT in HIV-infected patients, especially in terms of mid- and long-term patient and graft survivals, are strictly related to the patients’ selection and to the correct timing for transplantation, especially when hepatitis C virus coinfection is present. Aim of this article is to review the pros and cons of LT in the cohort of HIV infected recipients. PMID:24833865

  7. Iron supplementation during human immunodeficiency virus infection: a double-edged sword?

    PubMed

    Clark, T D; Semba, R D

    2001-10-01

    Although iron supplementation is considered beneficial for groups at risk for anemia, concern has been raised that it could be harmful during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Studies suggest: (1) faster HIV disease progression in thalassemia major patients receiving inadequate doses of iron-chelating drug; (2) higher mortality among patients receiving iron supplementation with dapsone compared with aerosolized pentamidine for prophylaxis against Pneumocytis carinii pneumonia; (3) higher iron stores and mortality among patients with haptoglobin Hp 2-2 phenotype; and (4) shorter survival among patients with high bone marrow iron deposition. These studies largely involved men in developed countries. Among HIV-infected pregnant women in Africa with a high prevalence of iron deficiency, no relationship was found between indicators of iron status and HIV disease severity. The available data do not contraindicate the current practice of iron supplementation in developing countries where there is a high prevalence of both HIV infection and iron deficiency. PMID:11601873

  8. Human colon epithelial cells productively infected with human immunodeficiency virus show impaired differentiation and altered secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Fantini, J; Yahi, N; Baghdiguian, S; Chermann, J C

    1992-01-01

    Selected strains of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 are able to infect human colon epithelial cells in vitro, suggesting a mechanism for the anal route of HIV transmission. In some cases, HIV is not produced by infected colon cells but can be rescued after coculture with T-lymphoid cells. One of the HIV strains (HIV1-NDK) replicated well in colonic cells. A transmission electron microscope study demonstrated two major structural perturbations in producer colon cells: an unusual number of secretion bodies and the appearance of intracellular lumina with disorganized microvilli, indicating a defect in brush border assembly and differentiation. Either abnormality could account for HIV-induced enteropathy consisting of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption in the absence of enteric pathogens. Moreover, HT29 cells infected with HIV provide a unique model for selection of enterotropic HIV strains. Images PMID:1727501

  9. Isolated and bilateral simultaneous facial palsy disclosing early human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Sathirapanya, Pornchai

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral lower motor neuron type facial palsy is an unusual neurological disorder. There are few reports that associate it with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on initial presentation. A 51-year-old married woman, who was previously healthy and had no risk of HIV infection, presented solely with bilateral simultaneous facial palsy. A positive HIV serology test was confirmed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Following a short course of oral prednisolone, the patient recovered completely from facial palsy in three months, even though an antiretroviral treatment was suspended. Exclusion of HIV infection in patients with bilateral facial palsy is essential for early diagnosis and management of HIV. PMID:26106247

  10. Visualization and quantification of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected cells using non-invasive molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiasheng; Cai, Zhengxin; White, Alexander G; Jin, Tao; Wang, Xiaolei; Kadayakkara, Deepak; Anderson, Carolyn J; Ambrose, Zandrea; Young, Won-Bin

    2015-10-01

    In vivo imaging can provide real-time information and three-dimensional (3D) non-invasive images of deep tissues and organs, including the brain, whilst allowing longitudinal observation of the same animals, thus eliminating potential variation between subjects. Current in vivo imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI), can be used to pinpoint the spatial location of target cells, which is urgently needed for revealing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dissemination in real-time and HIV-1 reservoirs during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). To demonstrate that in vivo imaging can be used to visualize and quantify simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-transduced cells, we genetically engineered SIV to carry different imaging reporters. Based on the expression of the reporter genes, we could visualize and quantify the SIV-transduced cells via vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyping in a mouse model using BLI, PET-CT or MRI. We also engineered a chimeric EcoSIV for in vivo infection study. Our results demonstrated that BLI is sensitive enough to detect as few as five single cells transduced with virus, whilst PET-CT can provide 3D images of the spatial location of as few as 10 000 SIV-infected cells. We also demonstrated that MRI can provide images with high spatial resolution in a 3D anatomical context to distinguish a small population of SIV-transduced cells. The in vivo imaging platform described here can potentially serve as a powerful tool to visualize lentiviral infection, including when and where viraemia rebounds, and how reservoirs are formed and maintained during latency or suppressive ART. PMID:26297664

  11. Quality of different in-clinic test systems for feline immunodeficiency virus and feline leukaemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Katrin; Griessmayr, Pascale; Schulz, Bianka; Greene, Craig E; Vidyashankar, Anand N; Jarrett, Os; Egberink, Herman F

    2007-12-01

    Many new diagnostic in-house tests for identification of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) infection have been licensed for use in veterinary practice, and the question of the relative merits of these kits has prompted comparative studies. This study was designed to define the strengths and weaknesses of seven FIV and eight FeLV tests that are commercially available. In this study, 536 serum samples from randomly selected cats were tested. Those samples reacting FIV-positive in at least one of the tests were confirmed by Western blot, and those reacting FeLV-positive were confirmed by virus isolation. In addition, a random selection of samples testing negative in all test systems was re-tested by Western blot (100 samples) and by virus isolation (81 samples). Specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values of each test and the quality of the results were compared. PMID:17604205

  12. Contrasting clinical outcomes in two cohorts of cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Bęczkowski, Paweł M.; Litster, Annette; Lin, Tsang Long; Mellor, Dominic J.; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite over 25 years of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) research, relatively little is known about the longitudinal course of FIV infection following natural infection. In contrast to published reports of experimental infections using lethal strains of the virus, clinical signs of naturally acquired FIV infection can be mild or inapparent, rather than life-threatening. In this prospective, longitudinal controlled study, based in Chicago, IL (n = 17) and Memphis, TN (n = 27), we investigated two cohorts of privately owned, naturally infected cats kept under different housing conditions. Cats in the Chicago cohort (Group 1) were kept in households of ≤2 cats, while the Memphis cohort (Group 2) comprised part of a large multi-cat household of over 60 cats kept indoors only, with unrestricted access to one another. The majority of cats from Group 1 did not display clinical signs consistent with immunodeficiency during the 22-month observation period. In contrast, the outcome of infection in Group 2 was dramatically different; 17/27 (63%) of cats lost a median of 51.3% of their bodyweight (P < 0.0005) and died during the study period, with lymphoma being the most common cause of mortality. Although the decrease in CD4+ T cell count between enrolment and terminal disease was significant (P = 0.0017), the CD4:CD8 ratio at the time of enrolment did not reliably distinguish FIV-positive cats classified as ‘healthy’ and ‘not healthy’ at either cohort. FIV load at enrolment was significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (P < 0.0001), but there were no significant differences at enrolment between healthy and not healthy cats at either group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that management and housing conditions impact on disease progression and survival times of FIV-positive cats. PMID:25595267

  13. The paradox of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in sooty mangabeys: active viral replication without disease progression.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Lisa A

    2004-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm causes an asymptomatic infection in its natural host, the sooty mangabey, but induces an immunodeficiency syndrome very similar to human AIDS when transferred to a new host species such as the rhesus macaque. Unexpectedly, SIVsm replication dynamics is comparable in the two species, with rapid accumulation of viral mutations and a high viral load detected in both mangabeys and macaques. In contrast, clear differences are observed in immune parameters. Pathogenic SIV infection in macaques is associated with decreased CD4+ T cell numbers and signs of generalized immune activation, such as increased numbers of cycling and apoptotic T cells, hyperplasic lymphoid tissues, and exacerbated immune responses. Mangabeys with asymptomatic SIV infection show normal T cell regeneration parameters and signs of a moderate immune response, appropriate in the setting of chronic viral infection. The comparative analysis of simian models thus suggests that viral load alone cannot account for progression to disease, and that the capacity of primate lentiviruses to induce abnormal immune activation underlies AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:14766388

  14. Antigenic stimulation specifically reactivates the replication of archived simian immunodeficiency virus genomes in chronically infected macaques.

    PubMed

    Renoux, Céline; Wain-Hobson, Simon; Hurtrel, Bruno; Cheynier, Rémi

    2005-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) diversification is a direct consequence of viral replication and occurs principally in secondary lymphoid organs where CD4(+) T cells are activated and proliferate. However, the evolution of viral quasispecies may also be driven by various nonexclusive mechanisms, including adaptation to specific immune responses and modification of viral fitness. Analysis of viral quasispecies in SIV-infected macaques subjected to repeated antigenic stimulations allowed us to demonstrate transient expansions of SIV populations that were highly dependent upon activation of antigen-specific T cells. T-cell clones expanded in response to a particular antigen were infected by a specific viral population and persisted for prolonged periods. Upon a second stimulation by encounter with the same antigen, these specific genomes were at the origin of a new burst of replication, leading to rapid but transient replacement of the viral quasispecies in blood. Finally, longitudinal analysis of SIV sequence variation during and between antigenic stimulations revealed that viral evolution is mostly constrained to periods of strong immunological activity. PMID:16103175

  15. Multiple Simultaneous Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Del Pilar-Morales, Esteban A; Cardona-Rodríguez, Zaydalee; Bertrán-Pasarell, Jorge; Soto-Malave, Ruth; De León-Borras, Rafeal

    2016-06-01

    Patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at high risk for gastrointestinal infections causing diarrhea, particularly when those infections are parasitic in nature. This propensity is more pronounced in AIDS, where opportunistic parasitic infections may cause severe diarrhea, marked absorptive dysfunction, and significant risk of mortality. There are scant data regarding parasitic infections among HIV patients in the developed world; most studies and research come from povertystricken areas of South Africa, India, Iran, and the South Pacific. Although multiple infections with the same or different parasites have been reported, simultaneous infections are rare. We present the case of a 35-year-old man who developed a co-infection with Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Strongyloides, simultaneously, the diagnosis being made after the judicious evaluation of a stool sample. Given the associated morbidity, prompt diagnosis and treatment are needed to avoid further complications in patients with HIV. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of triple parasitic infection in a patient with HIV. PMID:27232872

  16. Efavirenz Therapy in Rhesus Macaques Infected with a Chimera of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Containing Reverse Transcriptase from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Michael J.; Higgins, Joanne; Matthews, Timothy B.; Pedersen, Niels C.; Tan, Chalet; Schinazi, Raymond F.; North, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    The specificity of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NNRTIs) for the RT of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has prevented the use of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the study of NNRTIs and NNRTI-based highly active antiretroviral therapy. However, a SIV-HIV-1 chimera (RT-SHIV), in which the RT from SIVmac239 was replaced with the RT-encoding region from HIV-1, is susceptible to NNRTIs and is infectious to rhesus macaques. We have evaluated the antiviral activity of efavirenz against RT-SHIV and the emergence of efavirenz-resistant mutants in vitro and in vivo. RT-SHIV was susceptible to efavirenz with a mean effective concentration of 5.9 ± 4.5 nM, and RT-SHIV variants selected with efavirenz in cell culture displayed 600-fold-reduced susceptibility. The efavirenz-resistant mutants of RT-SHIV had mutations in RT similar to those of HIV-1 variants that were selected under similar conditions. Efavirenz monotherapy of RT-SHIV-infected macaques produced a 1.82-log-unit decrease in plasma viral-RNA levels after 1 week. The virus load rebounded within 3 weeks in one treated animal and more slowly in a second animal. Virus isolated from these two animals contained the K103N and Y188C or Y188L mutations. The RT-SHIV-rhesus macaque model may prove useful for studies of antiretroviral drug combinations that include efavirenz. PMID:15328115

  17. Viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infections in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria I

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affect many people in Asian countries, although there are geographic differences. Both HBV and HIV (HBV/HIV) and HCV/HIV co-infections are highly prevalent in Asia. Hetero- and homosexual, injection drug use, and geographic area are strong predictors of HBV, HCV, and HIV serostatus. In HBV endemic regions, the prevalence and genotype distribution of HBV/HIV co-infection is almost comparable with that in the general population. In Japan, where HBV has low endemicity, the prevalence of HBV/HIV co-infection is approximately 10-fold higher than that in the general population, and HBV Ae is the most common subgenotype among HIV infected individuals. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is an effective treatment for HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Lamivudine, a component of HAART, is an effective treatment for HBV, HIV, and HBV/HIV co-infection; however, cost, emerging drug resistance, antiretroviral-associated liver toxicity and liver-related morbidity due to HCV progression are particular concerns. HCV/HIV co-infection may accelerate the clinical progression of both HCV and HIV. The high prevalence of HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV co-infections in Asia underscores the need to improve prevention and control measures, as fewer evidence-based prevention strategies are available (compared with Western countries). In this review, the most recent publications on the prevalence of HBV/HIV and HCV/HIV co-infections and related issues, such as therapy and problems in Asia, are updated and summarized. PMID:25964874

  18. An Update on Heart Transplantation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Agüero, F; Castel, M A; Cocchi, S; Moreno, A; Mestres, C A; Cervera, C; Pérez-Villa, F; Tuset, M; Cartañà, R; Manzardo, C; Guaraldi, G; Gatell, J M; Miró, J M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases have become a significant cause of morbidity in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Heart transplantation (HT) is a well-established treatment of end-stage heart failure (ESHF) and is performed in selected HIV-infected patients in developed countries. Few data are available on the prognosis of HIV-infected patients undergoing HT in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) because current evidence is limited to small retrospective cohorts, case series, and case reports. Many HT centers consider HIV infection to be a contraindication for HT; however, in the era of cART, HT recipients with HIV infection seem to achieve satisfactory outcomes without developing HIV-related events. Consequently, selected HIV-infected patients with ESHF who are taking effective cART should be considered candidates for HT. The present review provides epidemiological data on ESHF in HIV-infected patients from all published experience on HT in HIV-infected patients since the beginning of the epidemic. The practical management of these patients is discussed, with emphasis on the challenging issues that must be addressed in the pretransplant (including HIV criteria) and posttransplant periods. Finally, proposals are made for future management and research priorities. PMID:26523614

  19. Water, electrolytes, and acid-base alterations in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Musso, Carlos G; Belloso, Waldo H; Glassock, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated disease has changed significantly over the past decade, mainly due to the wide availability and improvement of combination antiretroviral therapy regiments. Serious complications associated with profound immunodeficiency are nowadays fortunately rare in patients with adequate access to care and treatment. However, HIV infected patients, and particularly those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, are predisposed to a host of different water, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders (sometimes with opposite characteristics), since they have a modified renal physiology (reduced free water clearance, and relatively increased fractional excretion of calcium and magnesium) and they are also exposed to infectious, inflammatory, endocrinological, oncological variables which promote clinical conditions (such as fever, tachypnea, vomiting, diarrhea, polyuria, and delirium), and may require a variety of medical interventions (antiviral medication, antibiotics, antineoplastic agents), whose combination predispose them to undermine their homeostatic capability. As many of these disturbances may remain clinically silent until reaching an advanced condition, high awareness is advisable, particularly in patients with late diagnosis, concomitant inflammatory conditions and opportunistic diseases. These disorders contribute to both morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. PMID:26788462

  20. Water, electrolytes, and acid-base alterations in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients.

    PubMed

    Musso, Carlos G; Belloso, Waldo H; Glassock, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated disease has changed significantly over the past decade, mainly due to the wide availability and improvement of combination antiretroviral therapy regiments. Serious complications associated with profound immunodeficiency are nowadays fortunately rare in patients with adequate access to care and treatment. However, HIV infected patients, and particularly those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, are predisposed to a host of different water, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders (sometimes with opposite characteristics), since they have a modified renal physiology (reduced free water clearance, and relatively increased fractional excretion of calcium and magnesium) and they are also exposed to infectious, inflammatory, endocrinological, oncological variables which promote clinical conditions (such as fever, tachypnea, vomiting, diarrhea, polyuria, and delirium), and may require a variety of medical interventions (antiviral medication, antibiotics, antineoplastic agents), whose combination predispose them to undermine their homeostatic capability. As many of these disturbances may remain clinically silent until reaching an advanced condition, high awareness is advisable, particularly in patients with late diagnosis, concomitant inflammatory conditions and opportunistic diseases. These disorders contribute to both morbidity and mortality in HIV infected patients. PMID:26788462

  1. The epidemiology of cancers in human immunodeficiency virus infection and after organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Grulich, Andrew E; Vajdic, Claire M

    2015-04-01

    The authors provide an update on the association between immune deficiency and cancer risk in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and in solid organ transplant recipients. Over the past decade, it has become clear that a wider range of about 20 mostly infection-related cancers occur at increased rates in people with immune deficiency. The human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)-related cancers of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are most closely related to level of immune deficiency. Transplant recipients also have a greatly increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin, related to direct carcinogenic effects of the pharmaceuticals used for immune suppression. For those three cancer types, the increased cancer risk is largely reversed when immune deficiency is decreased by treatment of HIV or by reduction of iatrogenic immune suppression. Other infection-related cancers also occur at increased rates, but it is not clear whether reduction of immune deficiency reduces cancer risk. Prostate and breast cancer do not occur at increased rates, providing strong evidence that these cancers are unlikely to be related to infection. Epidemiological and clinical trends in these two populations have led to substantial recent changes in cancer occurrence. PMID:25843729

  2. Rifampin Reduces Concentrations of Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole in Serum in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ribera, Esteban; Pou, Leonor; Fernandez-Sola, Antoni; Campos, Francisco; Lopez, Rosa M.; Ocaña, Imma; Ruiz, Isabel; Pahissa, Albert

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether rifampin reduces concentrations of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in serum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, levels of these agents were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography before and after more than 12 days of standard antituberculosis treatment for 10 patients who had been taking one double-strength tablet of co-trimoxazole once daily for more than 1 month. Statistically significant, 47 and 23% decreases in TMP and SMX mean areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24), respectively, were observed after administration of rifampin. N-Acetyl-SMX profiles without and with rifampin were similar. The steady-state AUC0–24 metabolite/parent drug ratio increased by 32% with rifampin administration. Our study shows that rifampin reduces profiles of TMP and SMX in serum of HIV-infected patients. PMID:11600390

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a child presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Tullu, Milind S; Patil, Dhananjay P; Muranjan, Mamta N; Kher, Archana S; Lahiri, Keya R

    2011-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an extremely rare occurrence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We describe an 8-year-old male child who presented with weakness of both lower limbs for 10 days and focal convulsions for 2 days. The child had left, upper motor neuron facial palsy, lower limb hypotonia, and exaggerated deep tendon reflexes. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies for HIV tested positive and the CD4 count was 109 cells/µL. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, brain) revealed extensive confluent hyperintensities (on T2-weighted images) in left parietal, right temporal, and right occipital regions of the white matter, and similar signals were seen in right lentiform nucleus and right posterior thalami, suggesting acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. There was transient improvement with intravenous methyl prednisolone. The patient succumbed to the illness. Perinatally transmitted pediatric HIV infection presenting with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis has not yet been reported in the medical literature. PMID:20656677

  4. Very low prevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus infection in western Canadian cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, G C; Johnston, J B; Nickel, D D; Jacobs, R M; Olson, M; Power, C

    2001-01-01

    Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) is a lentivirus that causes disease in cattle. Despite the large cattle industry in western Canada, the presence of BIV has not been examined to date. Genomic DNA, derived from semen and buffy coat samples, was analyzed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers for the gag, pol, and env genes of BIV. Despite utilizing a procedure that detected a minimum of 10 proviral copies, BIV sequences were not amplified in any of 317 buffy coat and 50 semen samples that were obtained from an archive that included 27 cattle breeds, collected from different sources in Alberta (1980-1999). In the 367 DNA samples examined, there was no evidence of BIV infection, suggesting that the prevalence of BIV infection was very low. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:11227201

  5. Passive immunotherapy in the treatment of advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J M; Colman, N; Ostrow, N A; Simson, R W; Tomesch, D; Marlin, L; Rao, M; Mills, J L; Clemens, J; Prince, A M

    1993-08-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of passive immunotherapy for advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of human anti-HIV hyperimmune plasma was conducted. Sixty-three subjects with stage IV HIV disease (AIDS) were randomized to received 250 mL of either HIV-immune plasma or HIV antibody-negative plasma every 4 weeks. Although nonsignificant trends toward improved survival and delayed occurrence of a new opportunistic infection were noted, no significant effects on absolute CD4 lymphocyte counts or quantitative HIV viremia were seen. The only notable toxicity was the allergenicity to be expected from infusing plasma products, usually manifesting as urticaria. Thus, results do not rule out the potential usefulness of passive immunization with different preparations, but did fail to demonstrate clinical benefit of the product studied. PMID:8101550

  6. Safety, tolerance, and efficacy of atevirdine in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Been-Tiktak, A M; Williams, I; Vrehen, H M; Richens, J; Aldam, D; van Loon, A M; Loveday, C; Boucher, C A; Ward, P; Weller, I V; Borleffs, J C

    1996-01-01

    Atevirdine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In this study we investigated the effect of atevirdine in asymptomatic antiretroviral naive HIV-infected patients with CD4+ cell counts of between 200 and 750 cells per mm3. Patients were randomized to receive 600 mg of atevirdine (n = 15) or a placebo (n = 15) three times a day for 12 weeks. There was no statistically significant effect of atevirdine on viral loads (HIV p24 antigen and HIV-1 RNA levels by PCR) or CD4+ cell counts. The data do not support the use of atevirdine as a monotherapy in the treatment of HIV-infected patients. PMID:8913487

  7. Glycaemic profile changes by highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Duro, M; Rebelo, I; Barreira, S; Sarmento-Castro, R; Medeiros, R; Almeida, C

    2015-10-01

    To study dysglycaemia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients we conducted a retrospective cohort study of the glucose profile in HIV-infected patients. The fasting blood glucose was analysed taking into consideration conventional risk factors as well as HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). One hundred seventy-three cases were selected for this study. Five risk factors had significant effects (p < 0.05) on glucose levels: age, body mass index (BMI), hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus (HCV/HBV) co-infection, viral load (VL), and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count. Fasting blood glucose levels increased with age (0.59 mg/dL/year), decreased with the VL (-4.1 × 10(-6 )mg/dL/number of viral RNA copies) and the CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count (-0.016 mg/dL/cell count). Furthermore, obese patients and those co-infected with HCV/HBV were more prone to develop dysglycaemia having, on average, 15.4 mg/dL and 13.8 mg/dL higher levels, respectively, of fasting blood glucose. Despite an increase of 1.0% and 8.4% in the glucose levels noticed among HIV patients treated with non-nucleotide inhibitors of reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors, respectively, HAART did not prove to be a significant predictor of fasting glucose levels as well as lipodystrophy and male gender. Age, BMI, HCV/HBV co-infection and HIV-related (VL and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count) factors seem to be the most influential on fasting blood glucose levels in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:25281540

  8. Foci of Endemic Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Wild-Living Eastern Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Mario L.; Lukasik, Magdalena; Kamenya, Shadrack; Li, Yingying; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Bailes, Elizabeth; Muller, Martin N.; Emery, Melissa; Goldenberg, David A.; Lwanga, Jeremiah S.; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Nerrienet, Eric; McClure, Harold M.; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Watts, David P.; Pusey, Anne E.; Collins, D. Anthony; Wrangham, Richard W.; Goodall, Jane; Brookfield, John F. Y.; Sharp, Paul M.; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2003-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) is the immediate precursor to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), yet remarkably, the distribution and prevalence of SIVcpz in wild ape populations are unknown. Studies of SIVcpz infection rates in wild chimpanzees are complicated by the species' endangered status and by its geographic location in remote areas of sub-Saharan Africa. We have developed sensitive and specific urine and fecal tests for SIVcpz antibody and virion RNA (vRNA) detection and describe herein the first comprehensive prevalence study of SIVcpz infection in five wild Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii communities in east Africa. In Kibale National Park in Uganda, 31 (of 52) members of the Kanyawara community and 39 (of ∼145) members of the Ngogo community were studied; none were found to be positive for SIVcpz infection. In Gombe National Park in Tanzania, 15 (of 20) members of the Mitumba community, 51 (of 55) members of the Kasekela community, and at least 10 (of ∼20) members of the Kalande community were studied. Seven individuals were SIVcpz antibody and/or vRNA positive, and two others had indeterminate antibody results. Based on assay sensitivities and the numbers and types of specimens analyzed, we estimated the prevalence of SIVcpz infection to be 17% in Mitumba (95% confidence interval, 10 to 40%), 5% in Kasekela (95% confidence interval, 4 to 7%), and 30% in Kalande (95% confidence interval, 15 to 60%). For Gombe as a whole, the SIVcpz prevalence was estimated to be 13% (95% confidence interval, 7 to 25%). SIVcpz infection was confirmed in five chimpanzees by PCR amplification of partial pol and gp41/nef sequences which revealed a diverse group of viruses that formed a monophyletic lineage within the SIVcpzPts radiation. Although none of the 70 Kibale chimpanzees tested SIVcpz positive, we estimated the likelihood that a 10% or higher prevalence existed but went undetected because of sampling and assay limitations; this

  9. Plasma Proteomic Analysis of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Wiederin, Jayme L.; Donahoe, Robert M.; Anderson, James R.; Yu, Fang; Fox, Howard S.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Ciborowski, Pawel S.

    2012-01-01

    Lentiviral replication in its target cells affects a delicate balance between cellular co-factors required for virus propagation and immunoregulation for host defense. To better elucidate cellular proteins linked to viral infection we tested plasma from rhesus macaques infected with the simian immunodeficiency viral strain SIVsmm9, prior to, 10 days (acute) and 49 weeks (chronic) after viral infection. Changes in plasma protein content were measured by quantitative mass spectrometry by isobaric Tags for Absolute and Relative Quantitation (iTRAQ) methods. An 81 and 232% increase in SERPINA1 was seen during acute and chronic infection, respectively. Interestingly, gelsolin, vitamin D binding protein and histidine rich glycoprotein were decreased by 45% in acute conditions but returned to baseline during chronic infection. When compared to uninfected controls, a 48–103% increase in leucine rich alpha 2-glycoprotein, vitronectin and ceruloplasmin was observed during chronic viral infection. Observed changes in plasma proteins expression likely represent a compensatory host response to persistent viral infection. PMID:20677826

  10. Simian immunodeficiency virus selectively infects proliferating CD4+ T cells in neonatal rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolei; Xu, Huanbin; Pahar, Bapi; Alvarez, Xavier; Green, Linda C.; Dufour, Jason; Moroney-Rasmussen, Terri; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Infants infected with HIV have a more severe course of disease and persistently higher viral loads than HIV-infected adults. However, the underlying pathogenesis of this exacerbation remains obscure. Here we compared the rate of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation in intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues of neonatal and adult rhesus macaques, and of normal and age-matched simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)–infected neonates. The results demonstrate infant primates have much greater rates of CD4+ T-cell proliferation than adult macaques, and that these proliferating, recently “activated” CD4+ T cells are infected in intestinal and other lymphoid tissues of neonates, resulting in selective depletion of proliferating CD4+ T cells in acute infection. This depletion is accompanied by a marked increase in CD8+ T-cell activation and production, particularly in the intestinal tract. The data indicate intestinal CD4+ T cells of infant primates have a markedly accelerated rate of proliferation and maturation resulting in more rapid and sustained production of optimal target cells (activated memory CD4+ T cells), which may explain the sustained “peak” viremia characteristic of pediatric HIV infection. Eventual failure of CD4+ T-cell turnover in intestinal tissues may indicate a poorer prognosis for HIV-infected infants. PMID:20716768

  11. Modulation by Morphine of Viral Set Point in Rhesus Macaques Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Torres, Cynthia; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Rodriguez, Idia; Martinez, Melween; Staprans, Silvija; Donahoe, Robert M.; Kraiselburd, Edmundo; Stephens, Edward B.; Kumar, Anil

    2004-01-01

    Six rhesus macaques were adapted to morphine dependence by injecting three doses of morphine (5 mg/kg of body weight) for a total of 20 weeks. These animals along with six control macaques were infected intravenously with mixture of simian-human immunodeficiency virus KU-1B (SHIVKU-1B), SHIV89.6P, and simian immunodeficiency virus 17E-Fr. Levels of circulating CD4+ T cells and viral loads in the plasma and the cerebrospinal fluid were monitored in these macaques for a period of 12 weeks. Both morphine and control groups showed precipitous loss of CD4+ T cells. However this loss was more prominent in the morphine group at week 2 (P = 0.04). Again both morphine and control groups showed comparable peak plasma viral load at week 2, but the viral set points were higher in the morphine group than that in the control group. Likewise, the extent of virus replication in the cerebral compartment was more pronounced in the morphine group. These results provide a definitive evidence for a positive correlation between morphine and levels of viral replication. PMID:15452267

  12. [An epidemiological and immunological study of human immunodeficiency virus infection in the southern area of Madrid].

    PubMed

    Cervero, M; Medina Asensio, J; Rubio, R; Costa, J R

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics and immunological parameters are characterized in different groups of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients infected by HIV, and the prognostic markers of survival in patients diagnosed of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study was carried out in 312 patients from June 1984 to March 1989. The most common risk group was intravenous drug addicts (IVDA) 80.9%. We observed that during the last years there was an increase in the number of cases of heterosexual transmission. Through follow up, 17.6% of patients developed acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS). The incidence rate for AIDS was higher amongst homosexuals than IVDA (35.4/14.6). Esophageal candidiasis and extrapulmonary tuberculosis were the AIDS indicators most frequently encountered. Once the study period was over, with a follow up of 19.3 +/- 3.4 months, the probability of survival after 12 months was 70 +/- 0.07% and after 24 months was 42% +/- 0.09%. The risk group (homosexuals), the appearance of a neoplasia as the first diagnosis of AIDS, and the immunological parameters (CD3 less than 500, CD4 less than 400, CD4/CD8 ratio less than 0.5 and total lymphocyte count of less than 1700 were the markers with worst prognosis which correlated with survival rates (p less than 0.01). We confirmed that when comparing immunologic parameters amongst HIV infection groups, IgA levels were higher (p less than 0.05); the total number of lymphocytes, the number of helper lymphocytes and the CD4/CD8 ratio were lower (p less than 0.01) in IV and AIDS group with respect to group II and III, in patients with AIDS with respect to group IV-non-AIDS and in those who died with relation to AIDS. PMID:2063023

  13. [Bovine immunodeficiency virus: short review].

    PubMed

    Bouillant, A M; Archambault, D

    1990-01-01

    A bovine visna-like virus was isolated by Van Der Maaten et al (1972) but it did not draw attention since, at that time, most efforts were directed towards research on bovine leukemia virus. However, new interest was shown on the bovine visna-like virus after the isolation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), because of the urgent need for developing animal models for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this paper is to describe the different stages of the identification of the bovine virus and to up-date knowledge about it. The bovine visna-like virus has recently been named the bovine immuno-deficiency-like virus (BIV) and is the sole bovine lentivirus known to-date. BIV shares morphologic, antigenic and genomic characteristics with other lentiviruses. It grows and induces large syncytia in vitro and generates virus-productive and latent infections in cell culture. It causes persistent infection and slow progressive disease in cattle and probably in sheep. As target cells of the virus are leukocytes, the type of which is unknown, perturbations of the immune system are expected. Consequently, BIV may potentiate the occurrence of secondary infections and play a role in retroviral, multiple infections. It is not oncogenic. Transmission appears to occur in cattle by contact, but evidence of transmission in human beings has not been shown. Finally, BIV may be a potential model in vitro and in vivo for HIV and AIDS. PMID:1963056

  14. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island Are Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus but Not Other Common Feline and Canine Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Samuel P.; Kays, Roland W.; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

  15. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island are infected with feline immunodeficiency virus but not other common feline and canine viruses.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Samuel P; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue

    2008-07-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

  16. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Shares Features of Both Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Lentiviral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Edward J. D.; Schmidt, Fabian; Kondova, Ivanela; Niphuis, Henk; Hodara, Vida L.; Clissold, Leah; McLay, Kirsten; Guerra, Bernadette; Redrobe, Sharon; Giavedoni, Luis D.; Lanford, Robert E.; Murthy, Krishna K.; Rouet, François; Heeney, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    The virus-host relationship in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected chimpanzees is thought to be different from that found in other SIV infected African primates. However, studies of captive SIVcpz infected chimpanzees are limited. Previously, the natural SIVcpz infection of one chimpanzee, and the experimental infection of six chimpanzees was reported, with limited follow-up. Here, we present a long-term study of these seven animals, with a retrospective re-examination of the early stages of infection. The only clinical signs consistent with AIDS or AIDS associated disease was thrombocytopenia in two cases, associated with the development of anti-platelet antibodies. However, compared to uninfected and HIV-1 infected animals, SIVcpz infected animals had significantly lower levels of peripheral blood CD4+ T-cells. Despite this, levels of T-cell activation in chronic infection were not significantly elevated. In addition, while plasma levels of β2 microglobulin, neopterin and soluble TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (sTRAIL) were elevated in acute infection, these markers returned to near-normal levels in chronic infection, reminiscent of immune activation patterns in ‘natural host’ species. Furthermore, plasma soluble CD14 was not elevated in chronic infection. However, examination of the secondary lymphoid environment revealed persistent changes to the lymphoid structure, including follicular hyperplasia in SIVcpz infected animals. In addition, both SIV and HIV-1 infected chimpanzees showed increased levels of deposition of collagen and increased levels of Mx1 expression in the T-cell zones of the lymph node. The outcome of SIVcpz infection of captive chimpanzees therefore shares features of both non-pathogenic and pathogenic lentivirus infections. PMID:26360709

  17. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of chronic kidney disease in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Minoru; Yanagisawa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related deaths and opportunistic infectious diseases. This has resulted in prolonged survival of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, this improvement in survival has been accompanied by an increase in the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease. CKD is now epidemic among HIV-infected populations in both Western and Eastern countries. Risk factors associated with CKD in HIV-infected populations include aging, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, co-infection with hepatitis C virus, a low CD4 cell count, and a high HIV viral load. Clinical experience has shown that HIV-infected individuals often have one or more concurrent risk factors for CKD. The cumulative effect of multiple risk factors on the development of CKD should be noted in this population. Glomerular disease directly related to HIV infection, so-called HIV-associated nephropathy, remains an important cause of CKD among a limited HIV population of African descent, but is less likely to be common among other urban HIV populations. The impact of exposure to nephrotoxic antiretroviral agents on the development of kidney disease is both an old and a new concern. In particular, the association of tenofovir with kidney tubular injury has been an area of great interest. The findings regarding tenofovir’s adverse effect on long-term kidney function vary among studies. The early identification and treatment of CKD is recommended for reducing the burden of patients requiring dialysis in HIV-infected populations. Periodic monitoring of urinary concentrations of albumin, protein, and tubular injury markers such as low-molecular-weight proteins may be useful for the early diagnosis of patients at risk for incident CKD. This review focuses on recent epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and management of CKD in a contemporary HIV-infected population. PMID:26167463

  18. PATHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) INFECTION IN WILD AFRICAN LIONS

    PubMed Central

    Roelke, Melody E.; Brown, Meredith A.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Winterbach, Hanlie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Hemson, Graham; Smith, Dahlem; Johnson, Randall C.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roca, Alfred L.; Alexander, Katherine; Klein, Lin; Martinelli, Paulo; Krishnasamu, Karthiuani; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes AIDS in the domestic cat (Felis catus) but has not been explicitly associated with AIDS pathology in any of the eight free-ranging species of Felidae that are endemic with circulating FIV strains. African lion (Panthera leo) populations are infected with lion-specific FIV strains (FIVple), yet there remains uncertainty about the degree to which FIV infection impacts their health. Reported CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in FIVple infected lions and anecdotal reports of lion morbidity associated with FIV sero-prevalence emphasize the concern as to whether FIVple is innocuous or pathogenic. Here we monitored clinical, biochemical, histological and serological parameters among FIVple-positive (N=47) as compared to FIVple negative (N=17) lions anesthetized and sampled on multiple occasions between 1999 and 2006 in Botswana. Relative to uninfected lions, FIVple infected lions displayed a significant elevation in the prevalence of AIDS defining conditions: lymphandenopathy, gingivitis, tongue papillomas, dehydration, and poor coat condition, as well as displaying abnormal red blood cell parameters and elevated liver enzymes and serum proteins. Spleen and lymph node laparoscopic biopsies from free-ranging FIVple infected lions (N=8) revealed evidence of lymphoid depletion, the hallmark pathology documented in immunodefieciency virus infections of humans (HIV-1), macaques, and domestic cats. We conclude that over time FIVple infections in free-ranging lions can lead to adverse clinical, immunological, and pathological outcomes in some individuals that parallel sequelae caused by lentivirus infection in humans (HIV), Asian macaques (SIV) and domestic cats (FIVfca). PMID:19464039

  19. Survival Rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis Co-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Sabouri Ghannad, Masoud; Saatchi, Mohammad; Khazaei, Salman; Mirzaei, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: At present, limited clinical data is available regarding survival rates of patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of HIV infection on the survival chances of active TB adults who disclosed their symptoms of TB in this part of Iran. Patients and Methods: The records and data of 807 patients only infected with TB and 21 co-infected patients with HIV/TB, who were admitted to primary health care units in Iran, were evaluated. Their survival time was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier Estimator, Log-rank test and SPSS version 16. Results: Cox regression analysis showed that co-infection with HIV significantly affects the survival rate of TB patients so that the rate of death was 20.7 (8.1-53) times more than TB infected patients alone. Also, married patients with tuberculosis were 2.7 times more at risk of death than single subjects. We also confirmed that in HIV/TB positive patients, married individuals were more prone to death than single subjects (P value < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results denote the need to progress diagnostic and preventive measures in this part of Iran. PMID:25371800

  20. Evaluation of Coxsackievirus Infection in Children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Associated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jenson, Hal B.; Gauntt, Charles J.; Easley, Kirk A.; Pitt, Jane; Lipshultz, Steven E.; McIntosh, Kenneth; Shearer, William T.

    2015-01-01

    In a matched case-control study of the association between coxsackieviruses and cardiac impairment, 24 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1–infected children with cardiac impairment were compared with 24 HIV-1–infected control subjects. Serologic evidence of coxsackievirus infection was present in all children, with no significant difference in geometric mean antibody titers between case patients and control subjects. Conditional logistic regression to test for an association between coxsackievirus antibody titer and the presence or absence of cardiac impairment, by any indicator, showed an odds ratio of 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.58–2.10; P = .75), indicating no association between coxsackievirus infection and cardiac impairment. Coxsackievirus antibody titers correlated positively with total IgG levels in nonrapid progressors but not in rapid progressors. Paired serum samples taken before and after diagnosis of cardiac impairment in 5 patients showed no evidence of intervening coxsackievirus infection. These results do not identify a causal role for coxsackieviruses for cardiomyopathy in HIV-1–infected children. PMID:12085328

  1. Rapid evolution of the env gene leader sequence in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Joseph; Biek, Roman; Litster, Annette; Willett, Brian J.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysing the evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) at the intra-host level is important in order to address whether the diversity and composition of viral quasispecies affect disease progression. We examined the intra-host diversity and the evolutionary rates of the entire env and structural fragments of the env sequences obtained from sequential blood samples in 43 naturally infected domestic cats that displayed different clinical outcomes. We observed in the majority of cats that FIV env showed very low levels of intra-host diversity. We estimated that env evolved at a rate of 1.16×10−3 substitutions per site per year and demonstrated that recombinant sequences evolved faster than non-recombinant sequences. It was evident that the V3–V5 fragment of FIV env displayed higher evolutionary rates in healthy cats than in those with terminal illness. Our study provided the first evidence that the leader sequence of env, rather than the V3–V5 sequence, had the highest intra-host diversity and the highest evolutionary rate of all env fragments, consistent with this region being under a strong selective pressure for genetic variation. Overall, FIV env displayed relatively low intra-host diversity and evolved slowly in naturally infected cats. The maximum evolutionary rate was observed in the leader sequence of env. Although genetic stability is not necessarily a prerequisite for clinical stability, the higher genetic stability of FIV compared with human immunodeficiency virus might explain why many naturally infected cats do not progress rapidly to AIDS. PMID:25535323

  2. Alternating versus continuous drug regimens in combination chemotherapy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Mazzulli, T; Rusconi, S; Merrill, D P; D'Aquila, R T; Moonis, M; Chou, T C; Hirsch, M S

    1994-01-01

    We compared the in vitro efficacies of two-, three-, and four-drug combinations given continuously or in alternating regimens against a clinical isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In H9 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, at the drug concentrations used in this study, there was greater suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection as the number of drugs in the regimen was increased from one to four simultaneously administered agents. Although alternating drug regimens were effective, they were not better than continuous administration of either single drugs or combinations of agents and were less effective than giving all drugs of an alternating regimen simultaneously. PMID:8031028

  3. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) infections in pet cats in Bangkok and vicinities, Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was examined using serum or plasma samples from 746 pet cats collected between May and July 2009 from clinics and hospitals located in and around ...

  4. Renal alterations in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats: a natural model of lentivirus-induced renal disease changes.

    PubMed

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  5. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  6. IL-21-producer CD4+ T cell kinetics during primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shoi; Seki, Sayuri; Matano, Tetsuro; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    IL-21 signaling is important for T cell and B cell-mediated clearance of chronic viral infections. While non-cognate follicular helper CD4+ T cells (TFH) are indicated to be pivotal in providing IL-21-mediated help to activated B cells within germinal centers, how this signaling may be disrupted in early AIDS virus infection is not clear. In this study, we assessed the lineage and kinetics of peripheral blood IL-21-producing CD4+ T cells in primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques. After SIV challenge, antigen-nonspecific IL-21 production was observed in Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells with Th1 dominance. While IL-21+ Th2 and IL-21+ Th17 showed variable kinetics, an increase in total IL-21+ CD4+ T cells and IL-21+ Th1 from week 3 to week 8 was observed, preceding plasma SIV-specific IgG development from week 5 to week 12. SIV Gag-specific IL-21+ CD4+ T cells detectable at week 2 were decreased in frequencies at week 5. Results imply that kinetics of IL-21+ CD4+ T cells comprised of multiple lineages, potentially targeted by SIV with a bias of existing frequencies during their precursor stage, associate with availability of cooperative B-cell help provided through a proportionate precursor pool developing into TFH and subsequent anti-SIV antibody responses. PMID:23791954

  7. Enhancement of feline immunodeficiency virus infection after immunization with envelope glycoprotein subunit vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Siebelink, K H; Tijhaar, E; Huisman, R C; Huisman, W; de Ronde, A; Darby, I H; Francis, M J; Rimmelzwaan, G F; Osterhaus, A D

    1995-01-01

    Cats were immunized three times with different recombinant feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) candidate vaccines. Recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV)-expressed envelope glycoprotein with (vGR657) or without (vGR657 x 15) the cleavage site and an FIV envelope bacterial fusion protein (beta-Galactosidase-Env) were incorporated into immune-stimulating complexes or adjuvanted with Quil A. Although all immunized cats developed antibodies against the envelope protein, only the cats vaccinated with the rVV-expressed envelope glycoproteins developed antibodies which neutralized FIV infection of Crandell feline kidney cells. These antibodies failed to neutralize infection of thymocytes with a molecularly cloned homologous FIV. After the third immunization the cats were challenged with homologous FIV. Two weeks after challenge the cell-associated viral load proved to be significantly higher in the cats immunized with vGR657 and vGR657 x 15 than in the other cats. The cats immunized with vGR657 and vGR657 x 15 also developed antibodies against the Gag proteins more rapidly than the cats immunized with beta-Galactosidase-Env or the control cats. This suggested that immunization with rVV-expressed glycoprotein of FIV results in enhanced infectivity of FIV. It was shown that the observed enhancement could be transferred to naive cats with plasma collected at the day of challenge. PMID:7745719

  8. Proteomic landscape of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Elizabeth V.; Crothers, Kristina; Chow, Yu-Hua; Park, David R.; Goodlett, David R.; Schnapp, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    The lung is an important reservoir of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Individuals infected with HIV are more prone to pulmonary infections and chronic lung disorders. We hypothesized that comprehensively profiling the proteomic landscape of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with HIV would provide insights into how this virus alters the lung milieu and contributes to pathogenesis of HIV-related lung diseases. BALF was obtained from five HIV-negative (HIV−) and six asymptomatic HIV-positive (HIV+) subjects not on antiretroviral therapy. Each sample underwent shotgun proteomic analysis based on HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Differentially expressed proteins between the groups were identified using statistical methods based on spectral counting. Mechanisms of disease were explored using functional annotation to identify overlapping and distinct pathways enriched between the BALF proteome of HIV+ and HIV− subjects. We identified a total of 318 unique proteins in BALF of HIV− and HIV+ subjects. Of these, 87 were differentially up- or downregulated between the two groups. Many of these differentially expressed proteins are known to interact with key HIV proteins. Functional analysis of differentially regulated proteins implicated downregulation of immune responses in lungs of HIV+ patients. Combining shotgun proteomic analysis with computational methods demonstrated that the BALF proteome is significantly altered during HIV infection. We found that immunity-related pathways are underrepresented in HIV+ patients. These findings implicate mechanisms whereby HIV invokes local immunosuppression in the lung and increases the susceptibility of HIV+ patients to develop a wide range of infectious and noninfectious pulmonary diseases. PMID:24213920

  9. Variable course of primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection in lymph nodes: relation to disease progression.

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, L; Cumont, M C; Montagnier, L; Hurtrel, B

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics of spread of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the lymphoid organs, we sequentially analyzed the viral burden in lymph nodes (LN) of eight rhesus macaques inoculated intravenously with a high or low dose of the pathogenic SIVmac 251 isolate. For each animal, four axillary or inguinal LN were collected during the first weeks of infection and a fifth LN was taken 6 or 8 months later to estimate disease progression. Measurement of SIV RNA by in situ hybridization showed that all of the macaques studied had a phase of acute viral replication in LN between 7 and 14 days postinoculation which paralleled that observed in the blood. In a second phase, productive infection was controlled and viral particles were trapped in the germinal centers that developed in LN. While the peaks of productive infection were similar for the eight animals, marked differences in the numbers of productively infected cells that persisted in LN after primary infection were seen. Differences were less pronounced in the blood, where productive infection was efficiently controlled in all cases. The persistence of productively infected cells in LN after primary infection was found to be associated with more rapid disease progression, as measured by the decrease of the T4/T8 ratio and the occurrence of clinical signs. However, the persistence of a significant level of viral particles in germinal centers was observed even in animals that remained healthy over a 1- to 2-year observation period. This study indicates that the course of primary SIV infection in LN is variable, and it suggests that the initial capacity of the host to control productive infection in LN may determine the rate of disease progression. Images PMID:7916061

  10. Colorectal Disorders in Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Panichsillapakit, Theppharit; Patel, Derek; Santangelo, Joanne; Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Smith, Davey M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is important in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report a case series of lower GI endoscopic and histopathologic findings of HIV-infected individuals after presentation with acute infection. Methods. We performed a retrospective case review of individuals infected with HIV who enrolled between August 2010 and April 2013 in a primary infection treatment trial. All participants started the trial during acute infection and underwent colonoscopy with biopsies at baseline and after the start of antiretroviral treatment. Results. Twenty acutely infected individuals were included in the study (mean age, 33 years; range, 20–54 years). All participants were male who reported having receptive anal sex as an HIV risk factor. Nine individuals (45%) had at least 1 finding by colorectal pathology; 1 person had 2 diagnoses (diverticulosis and focal active proctitis). The histopathological findings revealed anal dysplasia in 3 cases: 2 had high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and 1 had low-grade AIN. Two persons had a colorectal polyp, 1 hyperplastic and 1 adenomatous. Three persons were diagnosed with diverticulosis, and 2 persons were diagnosed with proctitis, including 1 with focal active proctitis and 1 with cytomegalovirus proctitis. Conclusions. To our knowledge, this is the first case series report of lower GI disorders in acute HIV-infected individuals. Although the causal relationship remains uncertain, we describe the endoscopic findings that were observed during acute HIV infection among men who have sex with men. Understanding the prevalence of these pathologies may likely shed light on how acute HIV infection damages the lower GI tract. PMID:26925432

  11. Antiretroviral therapy and drug resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infection.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-Arias, Luis; Alvarez, Mar

    2014-02-01

    One to two million people worldwide are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), with highest prevalences in West African countries, but also present in Western Europe, Asia and North America. Compared to HIV-1, HIV-2 infection undergoes a longer asymptomatic phase and progresses to AIDS more slowly. In addition, HIV-2 shows lower transmission rates, probably due to its lower viremia in infected individuals. There is limited experience in the treatment of HIV-2 infection and several antiretroviral drugs used to fight HIV-1 are not effective against HIV-2. Effective drugs against HIV-2 include nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (e.g. zidovudine, tenofovir, lamivudine, emtricitabine, abacavir, stavudine and didanosine), protease inhibitors (saquinavir, lopinavir and darunavir), and integrase inhibitors (raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir). Maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist blocking coreceptor binding during HIV entry, is active in vitro against CCR5-tropic HIV-2 but more studies are needed to validate its use in therapeutic treatments against HIV-2 infection. HIV-2 strains are naturally resistant to a few antiretroviral drugs developed to suppress HIV-1 propagation such as nonnucleoside RT inhibitors, several protease inhibitors and the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide. Resistance selection in HIV-2 appears to be faster than in HIV-1. In this scenario, the development of novel drugs specific for HIV-2 is an important priority. In this review, we discuss current anti-HIV-2 therapies and mutational pathways leading to drug resistance. PMID:24345729

  12. Slow Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infectivity Correlated with Low HIV Coreceptor Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Cynthia L.

    2001-01-01

    The absolute number of CD4+ lymphocytes in blood is prognostic for disease progression, yet the cell surface density of CD4 receptors or chemokine receptors on a single cell has not previously been found to be predictive of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity outcome. It has recently been shown that human leukocyte elastase (HLE) and its ligand α1 proteinase inhibitor (α1PI; α1 antitrypsin) act as HIV fusion cofactors. The present study shows that decreased HIV infectivity is significantly correlated with decreased cell surface density of HLE but not with decreased CD4 nor chemokine receptors. In vitro HIV infectivity outcome in this study was predicted by the surface density of HLE on mononuclear phagocytes but not on lymphocytes. The set point HLE surface density was in part determined by α1PI. Decreased circulating α1PI was correlated with increased cell surface HLE and with increased HIV infectivity. The correlation of HIV infectivity outcome with surface HLE and circulating α1PI supports the utility of these HIV cofactors in diagnostic analysis and therapeutic intervention. PMID:11527806

  13. Epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-visceral leishmaniasis-co-infection.

    PubMed

    Naufal Spir, Patrícia Rodrigues; Zampieri D'Andrea, Lourdes Aparecida; Fonseca, Elivelton Silva; Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel

    2016-04-01

    In Brazil, the rates of mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased from 20% to 1-2% in some regions. However, the country contains 90% of individuals infected with visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Latin America, and the west region of São Paulo state faces an alarming expansion of the disease. We describe the epidemiological aspects of the expanding infection of VL and a case report of an HIV-VL-co-infected child from the west region of São Paulo state. The patient was an AIDS-C3 with low levels of CD4, high viral load, severe diarrhea, oral and perineal candidiasis, severe thrombocytopenia, and protein-caloric malnourishment. She evolved with sepsis, renal and cardiac failure. An rK rapid diagnosis test, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), and bone marrow aspirate were performed for VL. Her symptoms improved significantly after liposomal amphotericin B administration. From the 45 municipalities that compose the Regional Health Department of Presidente Prudente, Lutzomyia longipalpis vectors were found in 58% of them. VL infected dogs were found in 33% of those municipalities, infected dogs and humans were found in 29%, 20% are starting and 33% of the municipalities are preparing VL investigation. It is likely, in this patient, that VL advanced the clinical progression of the HIV disease and the development of AIDS severity. Supported by favorable conditions, the region becomes a new frontier of VL in Brazil. PMID:23834783

  14. Comparison of hydroxychloroquine with zidovudine in asymptomatic patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Sperber, K; Chiang, G; Chen, H; Ross, W; Chusid, E; Gonchar, M; Chow, R; Liriano, O

    1997-01-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an antimalarial agent used to treat patients with autoimmune diseases, has been shown to suppress human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in T cells and monocytes in vitro by inhibiting posttranscriptional modification of the virus. An initial randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in 38 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients who had CD4+ counts between 200 and 500 cells/mm3 demonstrated that the amount of recoverable virus declined significantly in the HCQ group compared with the placebo group over the 8-week study period. These preliminary observations were expanded into a second 16-week clinical trial comparing the efficacy of HCQ with that of zidovudine (ZDV) in 72 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected patients with CD4+ counts between 200 and 500 cells/mm3. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either HCQ 800 mg/d (n = 35) or ZDV 500 mg/d (n = 37) for 16 weeks. No adverse reactions to the study medications were observed in either the HCQ or ZDV group. Patients in both groups had reduced levels of recoverable HIV-1 RNA in the plasma, reduced levels of cultured virus, and reduced levels of serum p24 antigen after the 16-week study period. However, no difference was noted in absolute CD4+ counts between the two groups. Interleukin-6 and serum immunoglobulin G levels were significantly reduced in the HCQ group but not in the ZDV group. These findings support the results of the previous clinical trial. Thus HCQ may be potentially useful in the treatment of patients with HIV-1 infection. PMID:9385480

  15. Bispecific Antibodies that Mediate Killing of Cells Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus of Any Strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Jorg; Lotscher, Erika; Steimer, Kathelyn S.; Capon, Daniel J.; Baenziger, Jurg; Jack, Hans-Martin; Wabl, Matthias

    1991-06-01

    Although AIDS patients lose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T cells, their remaining CD8-positive T lymphocytes maintain cytotoxic function. To exploit this fact we have constructed bispecific antibodies that direct cytotoxic T lymphocytes of any specificity to cells that express gp120 of HIV. These bispecific antibodies comprise one heavy/light chain pair from an antibody to CD3, linked to a heavy chain whose variable region has been replaced with sequences from CD4 plus a second light chain. CD3 is part of the antigen receptor on T cells and is responsible for signal transduction. In the presence of these bispecific antibodies, T cells of irrelevant specificity effectively lyse HIV-infected cells in vitro.

  16. [Practical considerations for high resolution anoscopy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Iribarren-Díaz, Mauricio; Ocampo Hermida, Antonio; González-Carreró Fojón, Joaquín; Alonso-Parada, María; Rodríguez-Girondo, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Anal cancer is uncommon in the general population, however its incidence is increasing significantly in certain risk groups, mainly in men who have sex with men, and particularly those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. High resolution anoscopy technique is currently considered the standard in the diagnosis of anal intraepithelial neoplasia, but at present there is no agreed standard method between health areas. High resolution anoscopy is an affordable technique that can be critical in the screening of anal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, but is not without difficulties. We are currently studying the most effective strategy for managing premalignant anal lesions, and with this article we attempt to encourage other groups interested in reducing the incidence of an increasing neoplasia. PMID:24182418

  17. Widespread geographic distribution of oral Candida dubliniensis strains in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, D; Haynes, K; Bille, J; Boerlin, P; Rodero, L; Lloyd, S; Henman, M; Coleman, D

    1997-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a recently identified chlamydospore-positive yeast species associated with oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+) patients and is closely related to Candida albicans. Several recent reports have described atypical oral Candida isolates with phenotypic and genetic properties similar to those of C. dubliniensis. In this study 10 atypical chlamydospore-positive oral isolates from HIV+ patients in Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Argentina and 1 isolate from an HIV-negative Irish subject were compared to reference strains of C. albicans and Candida stellatoidea and reference strains of C. dubliniensis recovered from Irish and Australian HIV+ individuals. All 11 isolates were phenotypically and genetically similar to and phylogenetically identical to C. dubliniensis. These findings demonstrate that the geographical distribution of C. dubliniensis is widespread, and it is likely that it is a significant constituent of the normal oral flora with the potential to cause oral candidiasis, particularly in immunocompromised patients. PMID:9157162

  18. Epstein-Barr virus-driven lymphomagenesis in the context of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Petrara, Maria R; Freguja, Riccardo; Gianesin, Ketty; Zanchetta, Marisa; De Rossi, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human γ-herpes virus which establishes a life-long asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected patients, the impaired immunosurveillance against EBV may favor the development of EBV-related diseases, ranging from lymphoproliferative disorders to B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly modified the natural course of HIV-1 infection, resulting in decreased HIV-1 plasmaviremia, increased CD4 lymphocytes, and decreased opportunistic infections, indicating a restoration of immune functions. However, the impact of ART appears to be less favorable on EBV-related malignancies than on other AIDS-defining tumors, such as Kaposi's sarcoma, and NHL remains the most common cancer during the ART era. EBV-driven tumors are associated with selective expression of latent oncogenic proteins, but uncontrolled lytic cycle with virus replication and/or reactivation may favor cell transformation, at least in the early phases. Several host's factors may promote EBV reactivation and replication; besides immunodepression, inflammation/chronic immune stimulation may play an important role. Microbial pathogen-associated molecular patterns and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns, through Toll-like receptors, activate the immune system and may promote EBV reactivation and/or polyclonal expansion of EBV-infected cells. A body of evidence suggests that chronic immune stimulation is a hallmark of HIV-1 pathogenesis and may persist even in ART-treated patients. This review focuses on lymphomagenesis driven by EBV both in the context of the natural history of HIV-1 infection and in ART-treated patients. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the expansion of EBV-infected cells is a premise for the identification of prognostic markers of EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:24151490

  19. Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in adult human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, Paul D.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Poston, David G.; Peng, Rong Sheng; White, Zoe S.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are at high risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoma. However, little is known of the EBV DNA loads in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrated that significantly more HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART than HIV-1-uninfected volunteers had detectable EBV DNA in blood (57 [81%] of 70 vs. 11 [16%] of 68 patients; P=.001) and saliva (55 [79%] of 68 vs. 37 [54%] of 68 patients; P=.002). The mean EBV loads in blood and saliva samples were also higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers (P=.001). The frequency of EBV detection in blood was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts (P=.03) among HIV-1-infected individuals, although no differences were observed in the EBV DNA loads in blood or saliva samples in the HIV-1-infected group. Additional studies are needed to determine whether EBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cells play a role in the pathogenesis of EBV in HIV-1-infected patients receiving HAART.

  20. Shared alterations in NK cell frequency, phenotype, and function in chronic human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections.

    PubMed

    Meier, Ute-Christiane; Owen, Rachel E; Taylor, Elizabeth; Worth, Andrew; Naoumov, Nikolai; Willberg, Christian; Tang, Kwok; Newton, Phillipa; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Klenerman, Paul; Borrow, Persephone

    2005-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause clinically important persistent infections. The effects of virus persistence on innate immunity, including NK cell responses, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the frequency, phenotype, and function of peripheral blood CD3- CD56+ NK subsets in HIV+ and HCV+ patients and identified significantly reduced numbers of total NK cells and a striking shift in NK subsets, with a marked decrease in the CD56(dim) cell fraction compared to CD56(bright) cells, in both infections. This shift influenced the phenotype and functional capacity (gamma interferon production, killing) of the total NK pool. In addition, abnormalities in the functional capacity of the CD56(dim) NK subset were observed in HIV+ patients. The shared NK alterations were found to be associated with a significant reduction in serum levels of the innate cytokine interleukin 15 (IL-15). In vitro stimulation with IL-15 rescued NK cells of HIV+ and HCV+ patients from apoptosis and enhanced proliferation and functional activity. We hypothesize that the reduced levels of IL-15 present in the serum during HIV and HCV infections might impact NK cell homeostasis, contributing to the common alterations of the NK pool observed in these unrelated infections. PMID:16160163

  1. CD4-Independent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Involves Participation of Endocytosis and Cathepsin B

    PubMed Central

    Yoshii, Hiroaki; Kamiyama, Haruka; Goto, Kensuke; Oishi, Kazunori; Katunuma, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Hayashi, Hideki; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Sato, Hironori; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kubo, Yoshinao

    2011-01-01

    During a comparison of the infectivity of mNDK, a CD4-independent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain, to various cell lines, we found that HeLa cells were much less susceptible than 293T and TE671 cells. Hybridoma cells between HeLa and 293T cells were as susceptible as 293T cells, suggesting that cellular factors enhance the mNDK infection in 293T cells. By screening a cDNA expression library in HeLa cells, cystatin C was isolated as an enhancer of the mNDK infection. Because cathepsin B protease, a natural ligand of cystatin C, was upregulated in HeLa cells, we speculated that the high levels of cathepsin B activities were inhibitory to the CD4-independent infection and that cystatin C enhanced the infection by impairing the excessive cathepsin B activity. Consistent with this idea, pretreatment of HeLa cells with 125 µM of CA-074Me, a cathepsin B inhibitor, resulted in an 8-fold enhancement of the mNDK infectivity. Because cathepsin B is activated by low pH in acidic endosomes, we further examined the potential roles of endosomes in the CD4-independent infection. Suppression of endosome acidification or endocytosis by inhibitors or by an Eps15 dominant negative mutant reduced the infectivity of mNDK in which CD4-dependent infections were not significantly impaired. Taken together, these results suggest that endocytosis, endosomal acidification, and cathepsin B activity are involved in the CD4-independent entry of HIV-1. PMID:21541353

  2. Immunization of children at risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Moss, William J.; Clements, C. John; Halsey, Neal A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the English language literature on the safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) of vaccines currently recommended by WHO for use in national immunization programmes. Immunization is generally safe and beneficial for children infected with HIV, although HIV-induced immune suppression reduces the benefit compared with that obtained in HIV-uninfected children. However, serious complications can occur following immunization of severely immunocompromised children with bacillus Calmette-Gu rin (BCG) vaccine. The risk of serious complications attributable to yellow fever vaccine in HIV-infected persons has not been determined. WHO guidelines for immunizing children with HIV infection and infants born to HIV-infected women differ only slightly from the general guidelines. BCG and yellow fever vaccines should be withheld from symptomatic HIV-infected children. Only one serious complication (fatal pneumonia) has been attributed to measles vaccine administered to a severely immunocompromised adult. Although two HIV-infected infants have developed vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis, several million infected children have been vaccinated and the evidence does not suggest that there is an increased risk. The benefits of measles and poliovirus vaccines far outweigh the potential risks in HIV-infected children. The policy of administering routine vaccines to all children, regardless of possible HIV exposure, has been very effective in obtaining high immunization coverage and control of preventable diseases. Any changes in this policy would have to be carefully examined for a potential negative impact on disease control programmes in many countries. PMID:12640478

  3. A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Izumi, Taisuke; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Ren, Fengrong; Carpenter, Michael A.; Ikeda, Terumasa; Münk, Carsten; Harris, Reuben S.; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) DNA cytosine deaminases can be incorporated into progeny virions and inhibit lentiviral replication. On the other hand, viral infectivity factor (Vif) of lentiviruses antagonizes A3-mediated antiviral activities by degrading A3 proteins. It is known that domestic cat (Felis catus) APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), the ortholog of human APOBEC3H, potently suppresses the infectivity of vif-defective feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Although a recent report has shown that domestic cat encodes 7 haplotypes (hap I to hap VII) of A3Z3, the relevance of A3Z3 polymorphism in domestic cats with FIV Vif has not yet been addressed. In this study, we demonstrated that these feline A3Z3 variants suppress vif-defective FIV infectivity. We also revealed that codon 65 of feline A3Z3 is a positively selected site and that A3Z3 hap V is subject to positive selection during evolution. It is particularly noteworthy that feline A3Z3 hap V is resistant to FIV Vif-mediated degradation and still inhibits vif-proficient viral infection. Moreover, the side chain size, but not the hydrophobicity, of the amino acid at position 65 determines the resistance to FIV Vif-mediated degradation. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses have led to the inference that feline A3Z3 hap V emerged approximately 60,000 years ago. Taken together, these findings suggest that feline A3Z3 hap V may have been selected for escape from an ancestral FIV. This is the first evidence for an evolutionary “arms race” between the domestic cat and its cognate lentivirus. IMPORTANCE Gene diversity and selective pressure are intriguing topics in the field of evolutionary biology. A direct interaction between a cellular protein and a viral protein can precipitate an evolutionary arms race between host and virus. One example is primate APOBEC3G, which potently restricts the replication of primate lentiviruses (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus type 1

  4. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... incisions made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Immune System: ...

  5. Effects of Soluble CD4 on Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of CD4-Positive and CD4-Negative Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schenten, Dominik; Marcon, Luisa; Karlsson, Gunilla B.; Parolin, Cristina; Kodama, Toshiaki; Gerard, Norma; Sodroski, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of the CD4 receptor (sCD4) can either enhance or inhibit the infection of cells by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus. We investigated the basis for these varying effects by studying the entry of three SIV isolates into CD4-positive and CD4-negative cells expressing different chemokine receptors. Infection of CD4-negative cells depended upon the viral envelope glycoproteins and upon the chemokine receptor, with CCR5 and gpr15 being more efficient than STRL33. Likewise, enhancement of infection by sCD4 was observed when CCR5- and gpr15-expressing target cells were used but not when those expressing STRL33 were used. The sCD4-mediated enhancement of virus infection of CD4-negative, CCR5-positive cells was related to the sCD4-induced increase in binding of the viral gp120 envelope glycoprotein to CCR5. Inhibitory effects of sCD4 could largely be explained by competition for virus attachment to cellular CD4 rather than other detrimental effects on virus infectivity (e.g., disruption of the envelope glycoprotein spike). Consistent with this, the sCD4-activated SIV envelope glycoprotein intermediate on the virus was long-lived. Thus, the net effect of sCD4 on SIV infectivity appears to depend upon the degree of enhancement of chemokine receptor binding and upon the efficiency of competition for cellular CD4. PMID:10364284

  6. Species distribution in human immunodeficiency virus-related mycobacterial infections: implications for selection of initial treatment.

    PubMed

    Montessori, V; Phillips, P; Montaner, J; Haley, L; Craib, K; Bessuille, E; Black, W

    1996-06-01

    Management of mycobacterial infection is species specific; however, treatment is prompted by positive smears or cultures, often several weeks before species identification. The objective of this study was to determine the species distribution of mycobacterial isolates from various body sites in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All mycobacterial isolates recovered at St. Paul's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) from April 1989 to March 1993 were reviewed. Among 357 HIV-positive patients with mycobacterial infections, 64% (96) of the sputum isolates were Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), 18% were Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and 17% were Mycobacterium kansasii. Lymph node involvement (25 patients) was due to either MAC (72%) or M. tuberculosis (24%). Two hundred ninety-eight episodes of mycobacteremia were due to MAC (98%), M. tuberculosis (1%), and M. kansasii (1%). Similarly, cultures of 84 bone marrow biopsy specimens (99%), 19 intestinal biopsy specimens (100%), and 30 stool specimens (97%) yielded predominantly MAC. These results have implications for initial therapy, particularly in areas where rapid methods for species identification are not readily available. Because of considerable geographic variation, development of guidelines for selection of initial therapy depends on regional determination of species distribution in HIV-related mycobacterial infections. PMID:8783698

  7. Tropical Diseases Screening in Immigrant Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Fernando; Molina, Israel; Sulleiro, Elena; Burgos, Joaquín; Curran, Adrián; den Eynde, Eva Van; Villar del Saz, Sara; Navarro, Jordi; Crespo, Manuel; Ocaña, Inma; Ribera, Esteve; Falcó, Vicenç; Pahissa, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Latent parasitic infections can reactivate because of immunosuppression. We conducted a prospective observational study of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected immigrants who visited the Infectious Diseases Department of the Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain, during June 2010–May 2011. Screening of the most prevalent tropical diseases (intestinal parasitosis, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis) was performed according to geographic origin. A total of 190 patients were included: 141 (74.2%) from Latin America, 41 (21.6%) from sub-Saharan Africa, and 8 (4.2%) from northern Africa. Overall, 36.8% (70 of 190) of the patients had at least one positive result for any parasitic disease: 5 patients with positive Trypanosoma cruzi serology, 11 patients with positive Schistosoma mansoni serology, 35 patients with positive Strongyloides stercoralis serology, 7 patients with positive Leishmania infantum serology, intestinal parasitosis were detected in 37 patients, malaria was diagnosed in one symptomatic patient. We propose a screening and management strategy of latent parasitic infections in immigrant patients infected with HIV. PMID:23509119

  8. "Frontal systems" behaviors in comorbid human immunodeficiency virus infection and methamphetamine dependency.

    PubMed

    Marquine, María J; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Morgan, Erin E; Brown, Gregory G; Letendre, Scott L; Ellis, Ronald J; Deutsch, Reena; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K

    2014-01-30

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and methamphetamine (MA) dependence are associated with neural injury preferentially involving frontostriatal circuits. Little is known, however, about how these commonly comorbid conditions impact behavioral presentations typically associated with frontal systems dysfunction. Our sample comprised 47 HIV-uninfected/MA-nondependent; 25 HIV-uninfected/MA-dependent; 36 HIV-infected/MA-nondependent; and 28 HIV-infected/MA-dependent subjects. Participants completed self-report measures of "frontal systems" behaviors, including impulsivity/disinhibition, sensation-seeking, and apathy. They also underwent comprehensive neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric assessments that allowed for detailed characterization of neurocognitive deficits and comorbid/premorbid conditions, including lifetime Mood and Substance Use Disorders, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. Multivariable regression models adjusting for potential confounds (i.e., demographics and comorbid/premorbid conditions) showed that MA dependence was independently associated with increased impulsivity/disinhibition, sensation-seeking and apathy, and HIV infection with greater apathy. However, we did not see synergistic/additive effects of HIV and MA on frontal systems behaviors. Global neurocognitive impairment was relatively independent of the frontal systems behaviors, which is consistent with the view that these constructs may have relatively separable biopsychosocial underpinnings. Future research should explore whether both neurocognitive impairment and frontal systems behaviors may independently contribute to everyday functioning outcomes relevant to HIV and MA. PMID:24290100

  9. Molecular Characterization of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Women and Their Vertically Infected Children.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Sara Nunes; Giovanetti, Marta; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; Oliveira, Tulio de; Danaviah, Siva; Gonçalves, Maria Luiza Freire; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Brites, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 35 million people worldwide are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) around 3.2 million of whom are children under 15 years. Mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 accounts for 90% of all infections in children. Despite great advances in the prevention of MTCT in Brazil, children are still becoming infected. Samples from 19 HIV-1-infected families were collected. DNA was extracted and fragments from gag, pol, and env were amplified and sequenced directly. Phylogenetic reconstruction was performed. Drug resistance analyses were performed in pol and env sequences. We found 82.1% of subtype B and 17.9% of BF recombinants. A prevalence of 43.9% drug resistance-associated mutations in pol sequences was identified. Of the drug-naive children 33.3% presented at least one mutation related to protease inhibitor/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (PI/NRTI/NNRTI) resistance. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations was 4.9%. On env we found a low prevalence of HR1 (4.9%) and HR2 (14.6%) mutations. PMID:26200738

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of human macrophages modulates the cytokine response to Pneumocystis carinii.

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, O; Fishman, J A; Koziel, H; Pinkston, P; Rose, R M; Remold, H G

    1994-01-01

    The present studies examined production of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and IL-6 by human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to Pneumocystis carinii in vitro and the impact of concurrent macrophage infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on these cytokine responses. Macrophages were infected with the HIV-1 BaL monocytotropic strain for 10 to 14 days and then exposed to P. carinii. At various times following P. carinii treatment, culture supernatants were harvested to assess the cytokine profile. Addition of P. carinii to HIV-uninfected macrophages resulted in augmented production of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta protein. By contrast, in HIV-infected macrophages exposed to P. carinii, only the release of IL-6 was increased compared with that for HIV-uninfected macrophages, while the levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta decreased. This altered response was confirmed at the molecular level for TNF-alpha mRNA. Preventing physical contact between P. carinii and macrophages by a membrane filter inhibited all cytokine release. Substituting P. carinii with a preparation of P. carinii 95- to 115-kDa major membrane glycoprotein A yielded a response similar to that obtained by addition of intact P. carinii. These results suggest that HIV-1 infection of human macrophages modulates cytokine responses to P. carinii. Images PMID:8300221

  11. IL-4 increases Simian immunodeficiency virus replication despite enhanced SIV immune responses in infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Boyer, J D; Nath, B; Schumann, K; Curley, E; Manson, K; Kim, J; Weiner, D B

    2002-05-01

    It is widely believed that a Th1 type CD4 response is critical for enhancement of CD8 immunity and for controlling HIV-1 infection. Th2 type responses, such as what might be seen in a chronic parasitic infection, would sacrifice cellular immunity and thus benefit the virus at the expense of the host. However, there has been little direct examination of the hypothesis in a primate model system. Accordingly, the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infected rhesus macaque model was used to investigate the impact of immunisation with SIV expressing DNA constructs and co-injection with IL-4 on the SIV specific immunological responses, lymphocyte cell counts, as well as the impact on viral load. IL-4 is a Th2 type cytokine, which enhances antibody production and inhibits a CD4 Th1 phenotype. Rhesus macaques were infected with 10 AID50 of SIVmac239 and treated with 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA) 9 weeks post-infection. During PMPA treatment, animals were immunised with plasmids that expressed the SIV proteins, env, rev, gag and pol. In addition, they were immunised with a construct that encoded the gene for IL-4. IL-4 co-immunisation increased the neutralizing antibody titres in this group. Importantly, the viral loads in animals vaccinated with IL-4 expressing plasmid increased during the immunisation regimens despite the higher neutralizing antibody titres. In addition, neutralizing antibodies did not correlate with viral set point prior to PMPA treatment, however, there was a correlation between viral loads and antibody titres following the treatment with PMPA. Antibody titres decreased following the suppression of viral load. Importantly, vaccination in the absence of IL-4 protected CD4 levels without increasing viral load. The data support the hypothesis that inappropriate immune bias toward a Th2 pathway would ultimately enhance disease progression. PMID:11943227

  12. Dual Simian Foamy Virus/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections in Persons from Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Switzer, William M.; Tang, Shaohua; Zheng, HaoQiang; Shankar, Anupama; Sprinkle, Patrick S.; Sullivan, Vickie; Granade, Timothy C.; Heneine, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in West-Central Africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). While simian foamy virus (SFV) and simian T- lymphotropic virus (STLV)-like infection were reported in healthy persons exposed to nonhuman primates (NHPs) in West-Central Africa, less is known about the distribution of these viruses in Western Africa and in hospitalized populations. We serologically screened for SFV and STLV infection using 1,529 specimens collected between 1985 and 1997 from Côte d’Ivoire patients with high HIV prevalence. PCR amplification and analysis of SFV, STLV, and HIV/SIV sequences from PBMCs was used to investigate possible simian origin of infection. We confirmed SFV antibodies in three persons (0.2%), two of whom were HIV-1-infected. SFV polymerase (pol) and LTR sequences were detected in PBMC DNA available for one HIV-infected person. Phylogenetic comparisons with new SFV sequences from African guenons showed infection likely originated from a Chlorocebus sabaeus monkey endemic to Côte d’Ivoire. 4.6% of persons were HTLV seropositive and PCR testing of PBMCs from 15 HTLV seroreactive persons identified nine with HTLV-1 and one with HTLV-2 LTR sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two persons had STLV-1-like infections, seven were HTLV-1, and one was an HTLV-2 infection. 310/858 (53%), 8/858 (0.93%), and 18/858 (2.1%) were HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-positive but undifferentiated by serology, respectively. No SIV sequences were found in persons with HIV-2 antibodies (n = 1) or with undifferentiated HIV results (n = 7). We document SFV, STLV-1-like, and dual SFV/HIV infection in Côte d’Ivoire expanding the geographic range for zoonotic simian retrovirus transmission to West Africa. These findings highlight the need to define the public health consequences of these infections. Studying dual HIV-1/SFV infections in

  13. Dual Simian Foamy Virus/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections in Persons from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Switzer, William M; Tang, Shaohua; Zheng, HaoQiang; Shankar, Anupama; Sprinkle, Patrick S; Sullivan, Vickie; Granade, Timothy C; Heneine, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in West-Central Africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). While simian foamy virus (SFV) and simian T- lymphotropic virus (STLV)-like infection were reported in healthy persons exposed to nonhuman primates (NHPs) in West-Central Africa, less is known about the distribution of these viruses in Western Africa and in hospitalized populations. We serologically screened for SFV and STLV infection using 1,529 specimens collected between 1985 and 1997 from Côte d'Ivoire patients with high HIV prevalence. PCR amplification and analysis of SFV, STLV, and HIV/SIV sequences from PBMCs was used to investigate possible simian origin of infection. We confirmed SFV antibodies in three persons (0.2%), two of whom were HIV-1-infected. SFV polymerase (pol) and LTR sequences were detected in PBMC DNA available for one HIV-infected person. Phylogenetic comparisons with new SFV sequences from African guenons showed infection likely originated from a Chlorocebus sabaeus monkey endemic to Côte d'Ivoire. 4.6% of persons were HTLV seropositive and PCR testing of PBMCs from 15 HTLV seroreactive persons identified nine with HTLV-1 and one with HTLV-2 LTR sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two persons had STLV-1-like infections, seven were HTLV-1, and one was an HTLV-2 infection. 310/858 (53%), 8/858 (0.93%), and 18/858 (2.1%) were HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-positive but undifferentiated by serology, respectively. No SIV sequences were found in persons with HIV-2 antibodies (n = 1) or with undifferentiated HIV results (n = 7). We document SFV, STLV-1-like, and dual SFV/HIV infection in Côte d'Ivoire expanding the geographic range for zoonotic simian retrovirus transmission to West Africa. These findings highlight the need to define the public health consequences of these infections. Studying dual HIV-1/SFV infections in

  14. Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search AAAAI Breadcrumb navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Library ▸ Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies Share | Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI ...

  15. Severe Viral Infections and Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jeffrey I.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with severe viral infections are often not thoroughly evaluated for immunodeficiencies. In this review, we summarize primary immunodeficiencies that predispose individuals to severe viral infections. Some immunodeficiencies enhance susceptibility to disease with a specific virus or family of viruses, whereas others predispose to diseases with multiple viruses in addition to disease with other microbes. Although the role of cytotoxic T cells in controlling viral infections is well known, a number of immunodeficiencies that predispose to severe viral diseases have recently been ascribed to defects in the Toll-like receptor–interferon signaling pathway. These immunodeficiencies are rare, but it is important to identify them both for prognostic information and for genetic counseling. Undoubtedly, additional mutations in proteins in the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system will be identified in the future, which will reveal the importance of these proteins in controlling infections caused by viruses and other pathogens. PMID:21960712

  16. The oral and conjunctival microbiotas in cats with and without feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Weese, Scott J; Nichols, Jamieson; Jalali, Mohammad; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The oral and conjunctival microbiotas likely play important roles in protection from opportunistic infections, while also being the source of potential pathogens. Yet, there has been limited investigation in cats, and the impact of comorbidities such as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has not been reported. Oral and conjunctival swabs were collected from cats with FIV infection and FIV-uninfected controls, and subjected to 16S rRNA gene (V4) PCR and next generation sequencing. 9,249 OTUs were identified from conjunctival swabs, yet the most common 20 (0.22%) OTUs accounted for 76% of sequences. The two most abundant OTUs both belonged to Staphylococcus, and accounted for 37% of sequences. Cats with FIV infection had significantly lower relative abundances of Verrucomicrobia, Fibrobacteres, Spirochaetes, Bacteroidetes and Tenericutes, and a higher relative abundance of Deinococcus-Thermus. There were significant differences in both community membership (P = 0.006) and community structure (P = 0.02) between FIV-infected and FIV-uninfected cats. FIV-infected cats had significantly higher relative abundances of Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria in the oral cavity, and significantly higher relative abundances of several bacterial classes including Fusobacteria (0.022 vs 0.007, P = 0.006), Actinobacteria (0.017 vs 0.003, P = 0.003), Sphingobacteria (0.00015 vs 0.00003, P = 0.0013) and Flavobacteria (0.0073 vs 0.0034, P = 0.030). The feline conjunctival and oral microbiotas are complex polymicrobial communities but dominated by a limited number of genera. There is an apparent impact of FIV infection on various components of the microbiota, and assessment of the clinical relevance of these alterations in required. PMID:25879465

  17. Normal T-cell turnover in sooty mangabeys harboring active simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, L A; Lewin, S R; Zhang, L; Gettie, A; Luckay, A; Martin, L N; Skulsky, E; Ho, D D; Cheng-Mayer, C; Marx, P A

    2000-02-01

    Sooty mangabeys naturally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) remain healthy though they harbor viral loads comparable to those in rhesus macaques that progress to AIDS. To assess the immunologic basis of disease resistance in mangabeys, we compared the effect of SIV infection on T-cell regeneration in both monkey species. Measurement of the proliferation marker Ki-67 by flow cytometry showed that mangabeys harbored proliferating T cells at a level of 3 to 4% in peripheral blood irrespective of their infection status. In contrast, rhesus macaques demonstrated a naturally high fraction of proliferating T cells (7%) that increased two- to threefold following SIV infection. Ki-67(+) T cells were predominantly CD45RA(-), indicating increased proliferation of memory cells in macaques. Quantitation of an episomal DNA product of T-cell receptor alpha rearrangement (termed alpha1 circle) showed that the concentration of recent thymic emigrants in blood decreased with age over a 2-log unit range in both monkey species, consistent with age-related thymic involution. SIV infection caused a limited decrease of alpha1 circle numbers in mangabeys as well as in macaques. Dilution of alpha1 circles by T-cell proliferation likely contributed to this decrease, since alpha1 circle numbers and Ki-67(+) fractions correlated negatively. These findings are compatible with immune exhaustion mediated by abnormal T-cell proliferation, rather than with early thymic failure, in SIV-infected macaques. Normal T-cell turnover in SIV-infected mangabeys provides an explanation for the long-term maintenance of a functional immune system in these hosts. PMID:10627531

  18. A Retrospective Analysis of 7 Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Infants Infected by Penicillium marneffei.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wen; Qiu, Ye; Lu, DeCheng; Zhang, Jianquan; Zhong, Xiaoning; Liu, Guangnan

    2015-08-01

    Infection with Penicillium marneffei has rarely been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative infants. We aimed to determine the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, and immunological characteristics of 7 HIV-negative infants infected by P. marneffei, and to provide insights into its diagnosis and treatment.We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 7 HIV-negative infants infected by P. marneffei who presented to the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University between January 1, 2003 and December 1, 2014. The infants' median age was 23.43 months (SD = 8.34), and all lived in Guangxi Province in China, where P. marneffei is endemic. The median time from disease onset to diagnosis was 2.29 months (SD = 2.12). Of the cases studied, 5 (71.43%) had medical histories that included frequent pneumonia or bronchopneumonia, thrush, congenital megacolon, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and hemophagocytic syndrome. The most common symptoms were fever, cough, and anemia, followed by lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and being underweight. Four patients had slightly elevated white blood cell counts. The lymphocyte and CD4 T-cell counts were normal. The CD8 T-cell counts, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G titer, and serum IgA titer were low in 5 patients, and the serum IgM titers were high in 3 infants. Caseous necrosis was observed in 3 patients whose lymph nodes were affected. One case who received intravenous amphotericin B and 3 cases who received intravenous voriconazole improved, and these patients were cured after continual treatment with oral voriconazole for 6 or 12 months. The remaining patients died before they received antifungal treatment.P. marneffei causes severe disease and disseminated infections, and it has high mortality rates in HIV-negative infants in endemic areas. P. marneffei susceptibility may be associated with immunodeficiencies or immune disorders. In endemic areas, clinicians should aware of disseminated

  19. Co-Infection Burden of Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus among Injecting Heroin Users at the Kenyan Coast

    PubMed Central

    Mwatelah, Ruth S.; Lwembe, Raphael M.; Osman, Saida; Ogutu, Bernhards R.; Aman, Rashid; Kitawi, Rose C.; Wangai, Laura N.; Oloo, Florence A.; Kokwaro, Gilbert O.; Ochieng, Washingtone

    2015-01-01

    Background Injection drug use is steadily rising in Kenya. We assessed the prevalence of both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among injecting heroin users (IHUs) at the Kenyan Coast. Methods A total of 186 IHUs (mean age, 33 years) from the Omari rehabilitation center program in Malindi were consented and screened for HIV-1 and HCV by serology and PCR and their CD4 T-cells enumerated by FACS. Results Prevalence of HIV-1 was 87.5%, that of HCV was 16.4%, co-infection was 17.9% and 18/152 (11.8%) were uninfected. Only 5.26% of the HIV-1 negative injectors were HCV positive. Co-infection was higher among injectors aged 30 to 40 years (20.7%) and among males (22.1%) than comparable groups. About 35% of the injectors were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Co-infection was highest among injectors receiving D4T (75%) compared to those receiving AZT (21.6%) or TDF (10.5%) or those not on ART (10.5%). Mean CD4 T-cells were 404 (95% CI, 365 - 443) cells/mm3 overall, significantly lower for co-infected (mean, 146; 95% CI 114 – 179 cells/mm3) than HIV mono infected (mean, 437, 95% CI 386 – 487 cells/mm3, p<0.001) or uninfected (mean, 618, 95% CI 549 – 687 cells/mm3, p<0.001) injectors and lower for HIV mono-infected than uninfected injectors (p=0.002). By treatment arm, CD4 T-cells were lower for injectors receiving D4T (mean, 78; 95% CI, 0.4 – 156 cells/mm3) than TDF (mean 607, 95% CI, 196 – 1018 cells/mm3, p=0.005) or AZT (mean 474, 95% CI -377 – 571 cells/mm3, p=0.004). Conclusion Mono and dual infections with HIV-1 and HCV is high among IHUs in Malindi, but ART coverage is low. The co-infected IHUs have elevated risk of immunodeficiency due to significantly depressed CD4 T-cell numbers. Coinfection screening, treatment-as-prevention for both HIV and HCV and harm reduction should be scaled up to alleviate infection burden. PMID:26208212

  20. Two Orphan Seven-Transmembrane Segment Receptors Which Are Expressed in CD4-positive Cells Support Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Michael; Choe, Hyeryun; Martin, Kathleen; Marcon, Luisa; Hofmann, Wolfgang; Karlsson, Gunilla; Sun, Ying; Barrett, Peter; Marchand, Nathalie; Sullivan, Nancy; Gerard, Norma; Gerard, Craig; Sodroski, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Clinical isolates of primate immunodeficiency viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), enter target cells by sequential binding to CD4 and the chemokine receptor CCR5, a member of the seven-transmembrane receptor family. HIV-1 variants which use additional chemokine receptors are present in the central nervous system or emerge during the course of infection. Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) have been shown to use CCR5 as a coreceptor, but no other receptors for these viruses have been identified. Here we show that two orphan seven-transmembrane segment receptors, gpr1 and gpr15, serve as coreceptors for SIV, and are expressed in human alveolar macrophages. The more efficient of these, gpr15, is also expressed in human CD4+ T lymphocytes and activated rhesus macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The gpr15 and gpr1 proteins lack several hallmarks of chemokine receptors, but share with CCR5 an amino-terminal motif rich in tyrosine residues. These results underscore the potential diversity of seven-transmembrane segment receptors used as entry cofactors by primate immunodeficiency viruses, and may contribute to an understanding of viral variation and pathogenesis. PMID:9236192

  1. Spatial analysis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus among pregnant women1

    PubMed Central

    de Holanda, Eliane Rolim; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Paiva, Simone de Sousa; de Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the spatial distribution of reported cases of pregnant women infected by the human immunodeficiency virus and to identify the urban areas with greater social vulnerability to the infection among pregnant women. METHOD: ecological study, developed by means of spatial analysis techniques of area data. Secondary data were used from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System for the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Birth data were obtained from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births and socioeconomic data from the 2010 Demographic Census. RESULTS: the presence of spatial self-correlation was verified. Moran's Index was significant for the distribution. Clusters were identified, considered as high-risk areas, located in grouped neighborhoods, with equally high infection rates among pregnant women. A neighborhood located in the Northwest of the city was distinguished, considered in an epidemiological transition phase. CONCLUSION: precarious living conditions, as evidenced by the indicators illiteracy, absence of prenatal care and poverty, were relevant for the risk of vertical HIV transmission, converging to the grouping of cases among disadvantaged regions. PMID:26155005

  2. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Harimurti, Kuntjoro; Saldi, Siti R F; Dewiasty, Esthika; Khoeri, Miftahuddin M; Yunihastuti, Evi; Putri, Tiara; Tafroji, Wisnu; Safari, Dodi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the distribution of serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Specimens of nasopharyngeal swab were collected from 200 HIV infected adults aged 21 to 63 years. Identification of S. pneumoniae was done by optochin susceptibility test and PCR for the presence of psaA and lytA genes. Serotyping was performed with sequential multiplex PCR and antibiotic susceptibility with the disk diffusion method. S. pneumoniae strains were carried by 10% adults with serotype 6A/B 20% was common serotype among cultured strains in 20 adults. Most of isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (80%) followed by clindamycin (75%), erythromycin (75%), penicillin (55%), and tetracycline (50%). This study found resistance to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was most common with only 15% of strains being susceptible. High non-susceptibility to sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in S. pneumoniae strains carried by HIV infected adults in Jakarta, Indonesia. PMID:26896285

  3. Infectious and Non-infectious Etiologies of Cardiovascular Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chastain, Daniel B.; King, Travis S.; Stover, Kayla R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing rates of HIV have been observed in women, African Americans, and Hispanics, particularly those residing in rural areas of the United States. Although cardiovascular (CV) complications in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have significantly decreased following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy on a global scale, in many rural areas, residents face geographic, social, and cultural barriers that result in decreased access to care. Despite the advancements to combat the disease, many patients in these medically underserved areas are not linked to care, and fewer than half achieve viral suppression. Methods: Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed publications reporting infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Relevant articles cited in the retrieved publications were also reviewed for inclusion. Results: A variety of outcomes studies and literature reviews were included in the analysis. Relevant literature discussed the manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of infectious and non-infectious etiologies of cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. Conclusion: In these medically underserved areas, it is vital that clinicians are knowledgeable in the manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of CV complications in patients with untreated HIV. This review summarizes the epidemiology and causes of CV complications associated with untreated HIV and provide recommendations for management of these complications. PMID:27583063

  4. Adherence to directly observed antiretroviral therapy among human immunodeficiency virus-infected prison inmates.

    PubMed

    Wohl, David A; Stephenson, Becky L; Golin, Carol E; Kiziah, C Nichole; Rosen, David; Ngo, Bich; Liu, Honghu; Kaplan, Andrew H

    2003-06-15

    Directly observed therapy (DOT) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is commonly used in correctional settings; however, the efficacy of DOT for treating HIV infection has not been determined. We prospectively assessed adherence to antiretroviral therapy regimens among 31 HIV-infected prison inmates who were receiving >or=1 antiretrovirals via DOT. Adherence was measured by self-report, pill count, electronic monitoring caps, and, for DOT only, medication administration records. Overall, median adherence was 90%, as measured by pill count; 86%, by electronic monitoring caps; and 100%, by self-report. Adherence, as measured by electronic monitoring caps, was >90% in 32% of the subjects. In 91% of cases, adherence, as measured by medication administration records, was greater than that recorded by electronic monitoring caps for the same medications administered by DOT. Objective methods of measurement revealed that adherence to antiretroviral regimens administered wholly or in part by DOT was

  5. The Roles of Genetic Polymorphisms and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Elaine Regina Delicato; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Flauzino, Tamires; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2013-01-01

    Dyslipidemia has been frequently observed among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and factors related to HIV-1, the host, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are involved in this phenomenon. This study reviews the roles of genetic polymorphisms, HIV-1 infection, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in lipid metabolism. Lipid abnormalities can vary according to the HAART regimen, such as those with protease inhibitors (PIs). However, genetic factors may also be involved in dyslipidemia because not all patients receiving the same HAART regimen and with comparable demographic, virological, and immunological characteristics develop variations in the lipid profile. Polymorphisms in a large number of genes are involved in the synthesis of structural proteins, and enzymes related to lipid metabolism account for variations in the lipid profile of each individual. As some genetic polymorphisms may cause dyslipidemia, these allele variants should be investigated in HIV-1-infected patients to identify individuals with an increased risk of developing dyslipidemia during treatment with HAART, particularly during therapy with PIs. This knowledge may guide individualized treatment decisions and lead to the development of new therapeutic targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia in these patients. PMID:24319689

  6. JC virus/human immunodeficiency virus 1 co-infection in the Brazilian Amazonian region.

    PubMed

    Cayres-Vallinoto, Izaura Maria Vieira; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Pena, Giselle Priscila Dos Anjos; Azevedo, Vânia Nakauth; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães; Ishak, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is a member of the Polyomaviridae family and is associated to a severe disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, PML, which is gradually increasing in incidence as an opportunistic infection among AIDS patients. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of JCV among HIV-1 carriers including their types and molecular subtypes and the possible association with disease. Urine samples from 66 HIV-1 infected subjects were investigated for the presence of the virus by amplifying VP1 (215bp) and IG (610bp) regions using the polymerase chain reaction. JCV was detected in 32% of the samples. The results confirmed the occurrence of type B (subtype Af2); in addition, another polyomavirus, BKV, was also detected in 1.5% of samples of the HIV-1 infected subjects. Apparently, there was no significant difference between mono- (HIV-1 only) and co-infected (HIV-1/JCV) subjects regarding their TCD4(+)/TCD8(+) lymphocyte counts or HIV-1 plasma viral load. Self admitted seizures, hearing and visual loses were not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:27266589

  7. Simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Brazilian women by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Souza, Raquel P; de Abreu, André L P; Ferreira, Érika C; Rocha-Brischiliari, Sheila C; de B Carvalho, Maria D; Pelloso, Sandra M; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2013-12-01

    We determined the prevalence of seven clinically important pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], HSV-2, and Treponema pallidum), by using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) in samples from Brazilian woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and uninfected Brazilian women (controls). The M-PCR assay identified all STIs tested for and surprisingly, occurred association between the control and STIs. This association was probably caused by excellent HIV infection control and regular monitoring in these women established by public health strategies in Brazil to combat HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Studies using this M-PCR in different populations may help to better elucidate the roles of STIs in several conditions. PMID:24080632

  8. The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among TB patients in Port Harcourt Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Erhabor, O; Jeremiah, Z A; Adias, T C; Okere, CE

    2010-01-01

    The joint statement by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends that all patients with tuberculosis (TB) undergo testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection after counseling. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of HIV infection among 120 patients diagnosed with microbiologically proven TB aged 18 to 54 years with a mean age of 39.5 years (standard deviation 6.75). The subjects studied were 36 male (30%) and 84 females (70%). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods were used to screen for HIV infection among the subjects. Of the 120 TB patients tested 30 (25%) were positive for HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV was higher in females 24 (80%) compared to males 6 (20%) and among singles (66.7%) compared to married subjects (33.3%) (χ2 = 83.5 and χ2 = 126.2, respectively P = 0.001). HIV-1 was the predominant viral subtype. HIV prevalence was significantly higher in subjects in the 38–47 year and 28–37 year age groups (both 40%) followed by the 18–28 year age group (20%) (χ2 = 42.6, P = 0.05). The mean CD4 lymphocyte count of the HIV-infected TB subjects was significantly lower (195 ± 40.5 cells/μL) compared to the non-HIV infected (288 ± 35.25 cells/μL P = 0.01). This study has shown a high prevalence of HIV among TB patients. Reactivation of TB among people living with HIV can be reduced by TB preventive therapy and by universal access to antiretroviral therapy. PMID:22096379

  9. Factors associated with prevalent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chmiel, J S; Detels, R; Kaslow, R A; Van Raden, M; Kingsley, L A; Brookmeyer, R

    1987-10-01

    Interviews regarding medical history, life-style, specific drug taking and sexual activities, and physical examinations were administered to 4,955 homosexual men who volunteered for the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study in Baltimore, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Pittsburgh. Overall, the prevalence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in these men was 38.0%. The factor most strongly associated with prevalent HIV infection according to a multiple logistic regression model was rectal trauma, a composite variable which included receptive anal fisting, enemas before sex, reporting of blood around the rectum, and the observation of scarring, fissures or fistulas on rectal examination. Receptive anal intercourse also was strongly associated with HIV infection in the model. The multivariate relative odds for HIV antibody positivity was 7.72 for the highest level of rectal trauma and 3.04 for receptive anal intercourse. Symptoms reported to occur in some persons who subsequently develop acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were frequent among HIV seropositive men (12.9%) but were reported in 8.4% of seronegative men as well. Generalized lymphadenopathy was observed significantly more often in seropositive men (48.8%) compared with seronegative men (11.4%). The prevalence of HIV antibodies was inversely related to the number of T-helper cells and directly related (to a lesser extent) to the number of T-suppressor cells. The results suggest that disruption of the rectal mucosa provides access by HIV to the blood stream and to specific immunologic cells. Since symptoms and generalized lymphadenopathy were often reported among seronegative men, they probably also occur among some seropositive men not currently progressing to AIDS. PMID:3651095

  10. Intestinal Parasite Co-infection among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in a Rural County in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of co-infection with tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites in humans have not been extensively investigated in China. A cross-section study was conducted in a rural county of Henan Province, China. Pulmonary TB (PTB) case-patients receiving treatment for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and healthy controls matched for geographic area, age, and sex were surveyed by using questionnaires. Fecal and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal parasites, routine blood examination, and infection with human immunodeficiency virus. The chi-square test was used for univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. A total of 369 persons with PTB and 366 healthy controls were included; all participants were negative for human immunodeficiency virus. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in persons with PTB was 14.9%, including intestinal protozoa (7.9%) and helminthes (7.6%). The infection spectrum of intestinal parasites was Entamoeba spp. (1.4%), Blastocystis hominis (6.2%), Trichomonas hominis (0.3%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (2.2%), and hookworm (4.6%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites showed no significant difference between persons with PTB and healthy controls after adjusting for potential confounding factors. There was no factor that affected infection rates for intestinal parasites between the two groups. Infection with intestinal parasites of persons with PTB was associated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.17), body mass index ≤ 19 (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.47–6.20), and anemia (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.17–5.03). Infection of healthy controls was only associated with an annual labor time in farmlands > 2 months (AOR = 4.50, 95% CI = 2.03–10.00). In addition, there was no significant trend between rates of infection with

  11. Resistance of previously infected chimpanzees to successive challenges with a heterologous intraclade B strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, R; Siemon, C; Cho, M W; Arthur, L O; Nigida, S M; Matthews, T; Sawyer, L A; Schultz, A; Murthy, K K; Israel, Z; Javadian, A; Frost, P; Kennedy, R C; Lane, H C; Martin, M A

    1996-01-01

    To test whether the protective effects of attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines in macaques were applicable to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-chimpanzee system, two groups of animals, previously infected with HIV-1(IIIB) or HIV-1(SF2) were each challenged with a heterologous clade B virus, HIV-1(DH12). Following challenge, the parameters measured included virus isolation (from plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and lymph node tissue); quantitative DNA PCR using primers capable of distinguishing HIV-1(IIIB), HIV-1(SF2), and HIV-1(DH12) from one another; and serologic assays to monitor changes in binding and neutralizing antibodies. In contrast to an HIV-1-naive chimpanzee that rapidly became infected following the inoculation of HIV-1(DH12), the two chimpanzees previously infected with HIV-1(IIIB) resisted repeated and escalating inoculations of HIV-1(DH12), as monitored by virus isolation and PCR. The two animals previously infected with HIV-1(SF2) became infected with HIV-1(DH12) but in contrast to the case with the HIV-1-naive chimpanzee, no cell-free viral RNA was detected in the plasma by the branched DNA procedure and levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell-associated viral DNA were reduced 35- to 50-fold. PMID:8676459

  12. Bioluminescent imaging of vaccinia virus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats as a model for human smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Fan, Changfa; Zhou, Shuya; Guo, Yanan; Zuo, Qin; Ma, Jian; Liu, Susu; Wu, Xi; Peng, Zexu; Fan, Tao; Guo, Chaoshe; Shen, Yuelei; Huang, Weijin; Li, Baowen; He, Zhengming; Wang, Youchun

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing concern of using smallpox virus as biological weapons for terrorist attack, there is renewed interest in studying the pathogenesis of human smallpox and development of new therapies. Animal models are highly demanded for efficacy and safety examination of new vaccines and therapeutic drugs. Here, we demonstrated that both wild type and immunodeficient rats infected with an engineered vaccinia virus carrying Firefly luciferase reporter gene (rTV-Fluc) could recapitulate infectious and clinical features of human smallpox. Vaccinia viral infection in wild type Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats displayed a diffusible pattern in various organs, including liver, head and limbs. The intensity of bioluminescence generated from rTV-Fluc correlated well with viral loads in tissues. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies had a protective effect against virus reinfection. The recombination activating gene 2 (Rag2) knockout rats generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) technology were further used to examine the infectivity of the rTV-Fluc in immunodeficient populations. Here we demonstrated that Rag2-/- rats were more susceptible to rTV-Fluc than SD rats with a slower virus clearance rate. Therefore, the rTV-Fluc/SD rats and rTV-Fluc/Rag2-/- rats are suitable visualization models, which recapitulate wild type or immunodeficient populations respectively, for testing human smallpox vaccine and antiviral drugs. PMID:26235050

  13. Bioluminescent imaging of vaccinia virus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats as a model for human smallpox.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Fan, Changfa; Zhou, Shuya; Guo, Yanan; Zuo, Qin; Ma, Jian; Liu, Susu; Wu, Xi; Peng, Zexu; Fan, Tao; Guo, Chaoshe; Shen, Yuelei; Huang, Weijin; Li, Baowen; He, Zhengming; Wang, Youchun

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing concern of using smallpox virus as biological weapons for terrorist attack, there is renewed interest in studying the pathogenesis of human smallpox and development of new therapies. Animal models are highly demanded for efficacy and safety examination of new vaccines and therapeutic drugs. Here, we demonstrated that both wild type and immunodeficient rats infected with an engineered vaccinia virus carrying Firefly luciferase reporter gene (rTV-Fluc) could recapitulate infectious and clinical features of human smallpox. Vaccinia viral infection in wild type Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats displayed a diffusible pattern in various organs, including liver, head and limbs. The intensity of bioluminescence generated from rTV-Fluc correlated well with viral loads in tissues. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies had a protective effect against virus reinfection. The recombination activating gene 2 (Rag2) knockout rats generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) technology were further used to examine the infectivity of the rTV-Fluc in immunodeficient populations. Here we demonstrated that Rag2-/- rats were more susceptible to rTV-Fluc than SD rats with a slower virus clearance rate. Therefore, the rTV-Fluc/SD rats and rTV-Fluc/Rag2-/- rats are suitable visualization models, which recapitulate wild type or immunodeficient populations respectively, for testing human smallpox vaccine and antiviral drugs. PMID:26235050

  14. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: Extremely rare presentation of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Kailash Chandra; Shirolkar, Mukund S; Ghane, Vaishali R

    2014-01-01

    Acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a 10-year-old child, presenting with monoparesis, progressing to triplegia over 4 weeks is an extremely rare feature. The child had left upper motor neurone facial palsy with left hemiplegia, paralyzed right lower limb, grade zero power, exaggerated deep tendon reflexes and bilateral extensor plantars. Child tested positive for HIV by ELISA. CD3+ absolute count was 431. CD3+ CD4 count was 28, and CD45 absolute count was 478. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain and spine showed multiple ill-defined foci of hyperintensity in white matter suggestive of ADEM. Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an extremely rare presenting feature of perinatally acquired HIV infection in paediatrics. Clinically child remained same even with methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, antituberculosis therapy, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis and supportive therapy. Child had sudden clinical deterioration and death before antiretroviral therapy could be initiated. This case emphasizes that pediatricians and neurophysicians should suspect HIV as an etiology of ADEM in cases with atypical clinical presentation and social risk factors, in spite of its very rare occurrence. PMID:25250073

  15. Increased suppressor T cells in probable transmitters of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Seage, G R; Horsburgh, C R; Hardy, A M; Mayer, K H; Barry, M A; Groopman, J E; Jaffe, H W; Lamb, G A

    1989-12-01

    To evaluate behavioral and immunologic factors related to transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by homosexual intercourse, we studied a population of 329 homosexual/bisexual men (155 partner-pairs) seen in a community health center and medical outpatient clinic. Logistic regression analysis showed that behavioral risk factors for infection in the 130 HIV-infected men included: receptive anal intercourse (OR 4.6, 95% CI-1.8, 12.1); receptive fisting (OR 2.5, CI-1.1, 7.0); nitrite use (OR 2.3, CI-1.2, 4.6); history of gonorrhea or syphilis (OR 2.3, CI-1.4, 3.9); and history of sexual contact with men from areas with many AIDS cases (OR 1.9, CI-1.0, 3.5). Comparing seven men who were probable transmitters of HIV and 11 men who had not transmitted HIV to their uninfected partners despite unprotected insertive anal intercourse, we found no differences in HIV isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, circulating HIV antigen detection, or presence of neutralizing antibody to HIV. Helper T-cell numbers were not significantly different between the two groups, but transmitters had more suppressor T-cells than did nontransmitters. PMID:2530906

  16. Evaluation of a dipstick method for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Beristain, C N; Rojkin, L F; Lorenzo, L E

    1995-01-01

    Serology has been a fundamental tool to prevent post-transfusional infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and for epidemiological surveys, the first step to attempt control of the pandemia. Enzyme immunoassay is in widespread use. Nevertheless, simpler methods are needed in many countries, where laboratory facilities and trained personnel are limited, and HIV prevalence is high. The evaluation of a simple and noninstrumented HIV antibody test is presented here. The test employs synthetic antigens of HIV-1 and HIV-2 attached to the teeth of a polystyrene comb, which fit into the wells of standard microtiter plates where samples are diluted. Captured antibodies are developed with colloidal gold-labeled Protein A. Three seroconversion panels plus 662 samples were tested, including HIV-1 and HIV-2-infected individuals, normal blood donors, and a noninfected baby born to a seroreactive mother. When compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot, the dipstick showed 100% sensitivity and 98.7% specificity. The simplicity of result evaluations and excellent reagent stability make the dipstick suitable for small blood banks and for epidemiological surveys. PMID:8587001

  17. Localization of human immunodeficiency virus antigens in infected cells by scanning/transmission-immunogold techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, M.I.; Santa Maria, I.; de Andres, R.; Najera, R.

    1988-01-01

    An application of high resolution scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and gold-labelling techniques for the rapid detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in infected cells has been developed. Experimental in vitro studies for detecting two HIV structural proteins, gp41 and p17, were performed following an indirect labeling procedure that uses monoclonal anti-p17 and anti-gp41 antibodies as primary antibodies and 40 nm gold-linked goat antimouse IgG as secondary antibodies. The cells were then studied by STEM in the scanning mode. Unambiguous localization of the viral antigens was possible by combining the three-dimensional image provided by the secondary electron image and the atomic number-dependent backscattered electron image for the identification of the gold marker. This technique combines both the morphological information and the rapid procedures of scanning electron microscopy with the precise and sensitive antigen detection provided by the use of STEM and immunological methods. The preliminary results of its application to the study of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from four anti-HIV-seropositive patients showing the presence of specific labeling in all of them suggest that it might prove useful for early detection of HIV infection before seroconversion, as well as for quantitative studies.

  18. Can antiretroviral therapy be tailored to each human immunodeficiency virus-infected individual? Role of pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Asensi, Victor; Collazos, Julio; Valle-Garay, Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics refers to the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within human genes on drug therapy outcome. Its study might help clinicians to increase the efficacy of antiretroviral drugs by improving their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and by decreasing their side effects. HLAB*5701 genotyping to avoid the abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) is a cost-effective diagnostic tool, with a 100% of negative predictive value, and, therefore, it has been included in the guidelines for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HALDRB*0101 associates with nevirapine-induced HSR. CYP2B6 SNPs modify efavirenz plasma levels and their genotyping help decreasing its central nervous system, hepatic and HSR toxicities. Cytokines SNPs might influence the development of drug-associated lipodystrophy. APOA5, APOB, APOC3 and APOE SNPs modify lipids plasma levels and might influence the coronary artery disease risk of HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy. UGT1A1*28 and ABCB1 (MDR1) 3435C > T SNPs modify atazanavir plasma levels and enhance hyperbilirubinemia. Much more effort needs to be still devoted to complete large prospective studies with multiple SNPs genotyping in order to reveal more clues about the role played by host genetics in antiretroviral drug efficacy and toxicity. PMID:26279978

  19. CENTRAL ACTIVATION, MUSCLE PERFORMANCE, AND PHYSICAL FUNCTION IN MEN INFECTED WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Wayne B.; Oursler, Krisann K.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Ryan, Alice S.; Russ, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of muscle mass and limitations in activity have been reported in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), even those who are otherwise asymptomatic. The extent to which factors other than muscle atrophy impair muscle performance has not been addressed in depth. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of neuromuscular activation of the knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors of 27 men infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy and its relationship to muscle performance. The central activation ratio (CAR) was determined using superimposed electrical stimulation during maximum voluntary contractions. In addition to force and power measurements, muscle cross-sectional area and composition was evaluated using computed tomography. Aerobic capacity was determined from treadmill exercise testing. Eleven of the subjects had an impaired ability to activate the knee extensors (CAR = 0.72 ± 0.12) that was associated with weakness and decreased specific force. The reduced central activation was not associated with muscle area, body composition, aerobic capacity, CD4 count, or medication regimen. Those individuals with low central activation had higher HIV-1 viral loads and were more likely to have a history of AIDS-defining illness. These results suggest the possibility of a different mechanism contributing to muscle impairment in the current treatment era that is associated with impairment of central motor function rather than atrophy. Further investigation is warranted in a larger, more diverse population before more definitive claims are made. PMID:17554797

  20. [Socioeconomic aspects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Gentilini, M; Chieze, F

    1990-11-01

    The assessment of the socio-economical aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is difficult because of the relative scarcity of information. This study addresses mainly the socio-economic aspects of the AIDS pandemic in the inter-tropical zone of Africa, which, at the moment, constitutes the epicenter of the disease. In the absence of a possible radical treatment, the HIV infection prevalence should range between 25 and 30 million individuals by the year 2000 in the world, and the number of cases of AIDS, between 5 and 6 million, among which 4 to 5 million in the developing world alone. At the current rate, the overmortality rate related to AIDS in Africa is estimated at 0.1%, which should result in a drop by 30% of the Gross National Products advance (GNP). Each case of AIDS in Africa leads to a loss of productivity of 8.8 years. Already, losses caused by AIDS screening and its medical treatment in five countries of Central Africa should exceed the total amount of the foreign assistance received by each country. The estimated economic weight of the AIDS attendance is 15 to 20 times more heavy for a developing country than for an industralized one. Overcoming economically the cost of AIDS is an objective impossible to reach for deprived countries. PMID:2094555

  1. Frequency of hepatitis B, C and D and human immunodeficiency virus infections in multi-transfused thalassemics.

    PubMed

    Amarapurkar, D N; Kumar, A; Vaidya, S; Murti, P; Bichile, S K; Kalro, R H; Desai, H G

    1992-04-01

    Of forty multi-transfused thalassemia patients (26 males, 14 females; mean age 8.1 +/- 5.3 years, range 1-35) with no clinical or biochemical evidence of liver disease, HBsAg, anti-hepatitis C virus and anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibodies were present in 18 (45%), 7 (17.5%) and 1 (2.5%) cases respectively. Three of the 18 (16.7%) HBsAg positive patients were anti-delta antibody positive. Our results indicate that more than 50% of multi-transfused thalassemia patients show serological evidence of one or more of hepatitis B, C and D and human immunodeficiency virus infection. PMID:1428037

  2. Productive infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in dendritic cells requires fusion-mediated viral entry

    SciTech Connect

    Janas, Alicia M.; Dong, Chunsheng; Wang Jianhua; Wu Li

    2008-06-05

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enters dendritic cells (DCs) through endocytosis and viral receptor-mediated fusion. Although endocytosis-mediated HIV-1 entry can generate productive infection in certain cell types, including human monocyte-derived macrophages, productive HIV-1 infection in DCs appears to be dependent on fusion-mediated viral entry. It remains to be defined whether endocytosed HIV-1 in DCs can initiate productive infection. Using HIV-1 infection and cellular fractionation assays to measure productive viral infection and entry, here we show that HIV-1 enters monocyte-derived DCs predominately through endocytosis; however, endocytosed HIV-1 cannot initiate productive HIV-1 infection in DCs. In contrast, productive HIV-1 infection in DCs requires fusion-mediated viral entry. Together, these results provide functional evidence in understanding HIV-1 cis-infection of DCs, suggesting that different pathways of HIV-1 entry into DCs determine the outcome of viral infection.

  3. Lymphocyte Activation during Acute Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus SHIV89.6PD Infection in Macaques†

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Marianne; Waterman, Paul M.; Mitchen, Jacque L.; Djavani, Mahmoud; Brown, Charles; Trivedi, Parul; Horejsh, Douglas; Dykhuizen, Marta; Kitabwalla, Moiz; Pauza, C. David

    1999-01-01

    Host-virus interactions control disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus-infected human beings and in nonhuman primates infected with simian or simian/human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV). These interactions evolve rapidly during acute infection and are key to the mechanisms of viral persistence and AIDS. SHIV89.6PD infection in rhesus macaques can deplete CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood, spleen, and lymph nodes within 2 weeks after exposure and is a model for virulent, acute infection. Lymphocytes isolated from blood and tissues during the interval of acute SHIV89.6PD infection have lost the capacity to proliferate in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA). T-cell unresponsiveness to mitogen occurred within 1 week after mucosal inoculation yet prior to massive CD4+ T-cell depletion and extensive virus dissemination. The lack of mitogen response was due to apoptosis in vitro, and increased activation marker expression on circulating T cells in vivo coincided with the appearance of PHA-induced apoptosis in vitro. Inappropriately high immune stimulation associated with rapid loss of mature CD4+ T cells suggested that activation-induced cell death is a mechanism for helper T-cell depletion in the brief period before widespread virus dissemination. Elevated levels of lymphocyte activation likely enhance SHIV89.6PD replication, thus increasing the loss of CD4+ T cells and diminishing the levels of virus-specific immunity that remain after acute infection. The level of surviving immunity may dictate the capacity to control virus replication and disease progression. We describe this level of immune competence as the host set point to show its pivotal role in AIDS pathogenesis. PMID:10559340

  4. The Connections between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Implications for Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Fox, Ashley; Ferro, Carol; Khawaja, Shazia; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2005-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted with 28 women who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in order to examine (1) the challenges generated by the experience of sexual abuse and related coping strategies, (2) the impact of the HIV diagnosis on their coping strategies, and (3) the links…

  5. A new look at human immunodeficiency virus infection and stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Luchuo, Engelbert Bain; Nkoke, Clovis

    2016-06-01

    Stroke and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are major causes of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with disease burdens being amongst the highest worldwide. HIV infection has emerged as an important risk factor for stroke. The remarkable development in the treatment of HIV infection which occurred in recent decades has allowed the survival of a large number of patients. This therapeutic success which allows patients to live longer has facilitated the emergence of a new population of adults with increased risk for cardiovascular disease including stroke due to aging, the direct effects of HIV infection and combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART). Preventive strategies to decrease the burden of stroke amongst this specific patient population remain understudied in this region of the world. Lack of early diagnosis (CT scans) and poor record keeping make appreciation of the burden difficult. There is indisputable evidence that early diagnosis and early placement on cART therapy reduce HIV associated morbidity and mortality in this region of the world. However, the emergence of a new population of patients at risk for developing stroke (HIV patients) who fortunately live longer deserves a keener attention. Long term effects of cART regimens on cardiovascular and metabolic profiles remain uncertain, and specific cohort studies to properly ascertain its consequences are needed. The evidence and specific guidelines with regards to anti-platelet therapies and statin use, though potentially beneficial, in this patient sub group remains scarce. African specific cohort studies including HIV positive patients in our opinion should constitute a top research priority, to properly ascertain the potential roles of anti-platelet therapies and statins with regards to primary and secondary prevention of stroke, as well as long term effects of cART on their cardiovascular and metabolic profiles. PMID:27429969

  6. Induction Immunosuppression and Clinical Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Recipients Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Kucirka, L M; Durand, C M; Bae, S; Avery, R K; Locke, J E; Orandi, B J; McAdams-DeMarco, M; Grams, M E; Segev, D L

    2016-08-01

    There is an increased risk of acute rejection (AR) in human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) kidney transplant (KT) recipients. Induction immunosuppression is standard of care for those at high risk of AR; however, use in HIV+ patients is controversial, given fears of increased infection rates. We sought to compare clinical outcomes between HIV+ KT recipients who were treated with (i) anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), (ii) IL-2 receptor blocker, and (iii) no induction. We studied 830 HIV+ KT recipients between 2000 and 2014, as captured in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, and compared rates of delayed graft function (DGF), AR, graft loss and death. Infections and hospitalizations were ascertained by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes in a subset of 308 patients with Medicare. Compared with no induction, neither induction agent was associated with an increased risk of infection (weighted hazard ratio [wHR] 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-1.18). HIV+ recipients who received induction spent fewer days in the hospital (weighted relative risk [wRR] 0.70, 95% CI 0.52-0.95), had lower rates of DGF (wRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.51-0.84), less graft loss (wHR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24-0.89) and a trend toward lower mortality (wHR 0.60, 95% CI 0.24-1.28). Those who received induction with ATG had lower rates of AR (wRR 0.59, 95% CI 0.35-0.99). Induction in HIV+ KT recipients was not associated with increased infections; in fact, those receiving ATG, the most potent agent, had the lowest rates. In light of the high risk of AR in this population, induction therapy should be strongly considered. PMID:27111897

  7. Malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients in India: Initial experience in the HAART era

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Soneja, Manish; Ranjan, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Limited data are available on malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients from India. We undertook this study to assess the frequency and spectrum of malignancies in HIV-infected adult patients during the first eight years of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) rollout under the National ART Programme at a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India. Methods: Retrospective analysis of records of patients registered at the ART clinic between May 2005 and December 2013 was done. Results: The study included 2598 HIV-infected adult patients with 8315 person-years of follow up. Malignancies were diagnosed in 26 patients with a rate of 3.1 (IQR 2.1-4.5) cases per 1000 person-years. The median age for those diagnosed with malignancy was 45 (IQR 36-54) yr, which was significantly (P<0.01) higher compared with those not developing malignancies 35 (IQR 30-40) yr. The median baseline CD4+ T-cell count in patients with malignancy was 135 (IQR 68-269) cells/µl compared to 164 (IQR 86-243) cells/µl in those without malignancies. AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) were seen in 19 (73%) patients, while non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) were observed in seven (27%) patients. Malignancies diagnosed included non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (16), carcinoma cervix (3), Hodgkin's lymphoma (2), carcinoma lung (2), hepatocellular carcinoma (1), and urinary bladder carcinoma (1). One patient had primary central nervous system lymphoma. There was no case of Kaposi's sarcoma. Interpretation & conclusions: Malignancies in HIV-infected adult patients were infrequent in patients attending the clinic. Majority of the patients presented with advanced immunosuppression and the ADCs, NHL in particular, were the commonest malignancies. PMID:26658591

  8. A new look at human immunodeficiency virus infection and stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Luchuo, Engelbert Bain

    2016-01-01

    Stroke and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are major causes of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with disease burdens being amongst the highest worldwide. HIV infection has emerged as an important risk factor for stroke. The remarkable development in the treatment of HIV infection which occurred in recent decades has allowed the survival of a large number of patients. This therapeutic success which allows patients to live longer has facilitated the emergence of a new population of adults with increased risk for cardiovascular disease including stroke due to aging, the direct effects of HIV infection and combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART). Preventive strategies to decrease the burden of stroke amongst this specific patient population remain understudied in this region of the world. Lack of early diagnosis (CT scans) and poor record keeping make appreciation of the burden difficult. There is indisputable evidence that early diagnosis and early placement on cART therapy reduce HIV associated morbidity and mortality in this region of the world. However, the emergence of a new population of patients at risk for developing stroke (HIV patients) who fortunately live longer deserves a keener attention. Long term effects of cART regimens on cardiovascular and metabolic profiles remain uncertain, and specific cohort studies to properly ascertain its consequences are needed. The evidence and specific guidelines with regards to anti-platelet therapies and statin use, though potentially beneficial, in this patient sub group remains scarce. African specific cohort studies including HIV positive patients in our opinion should constitute a top research priority, to properly ascertain the potential roles of anti-platelet therapies and statins with regards to primary and secondary prevention of stroke, as well as long term effects of cART on their cardiovascular and metabolic profiles. PMID:27429969

  9. Kinetics of cytokine expression during primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed Central

    Graziosi, C; Gantt, K R; Vaccarezza, M; Demarest, J F; Daucher, M; Saag, M S; Shaw, G M; Quinn, T C; Cohen, O J; Welbon, C C; Pantaleo, G; Fauci, A S

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we have determined the kinetics of constitutive expression of a panel of cytokines [interleukin (IL) 2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)] in sequential peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from nine individuals with primary human immunodeficiency virus infection. Expression of IL-2 and IL-4 was barely detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, substantial levels of IL-2 expression were found in mononuclear cells isolated from lymph node. Expression of IL-6 was detected in only three of nine patients, and IL-6 expression was observed when transition from the acute to the chronic phase had already occurred. Expression of IL-10 and TNF-alpha was consistently observed in all patients tested, and levels of both cytokines were either stable or progressively increased over time. Similar to IL-10 and TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma expression was detected in all patients; however, in five of nine patients, IFN-gamma expression peaked very early during primary infection. The early peak in IFN-gamma expression coincided with oligoclonal expansions of CD8+ T cells in five of six patients, and CD8+ T cells mostly accounted for the expression of this cytokine. These results indicate that high levels of expression of proinflammatory cytokines are associated with primary infection and that the cytokine response during this phase of infection is strongly influenced by oligoclonal expansions of CD8+ T cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8633076

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus receptor and coreceptor expression on human uterine epithelial cells: regulation of expression during the menstrual cycle and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeaman, Grant R; Howell, Alexandra L; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; O'Connell, Denise M; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. Identification of cell populations within the female reproductive tract that are initially infected, and the events involved in transmission of infection to other cells, remain to be established. In this report, we evaluated expression of HIV receptors and coreceptors on epithelial cells in the uterus and found they express several receptors critical for HIV infection including CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 and galactosylceramide (GalC). Moreover, expression of these receptors varied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of CD4 and CCR5 on uterine epithelial cells is high throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle when blood levels of oestradiol are high. In contrast, CXCR4 expression increased gradually throughout the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase of the cycle when both oestradiol and progesterone are elevated, CD4 and CCR5 expression decreased whereas CXCR4 expression remained elevated. Expression of GalC on endometrial glands is higher during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Because epithelial cells line the female reproductive tract and express HIV receptors and coreceptors, it is likely that they are one of the first cell types to become infected. The hormonal regulation of HIV receptor expression may affect a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection during her menstrual cycle. Moreover, selective coreceptor expression could account for the preferential transmission of R5-HIV-1 strains to women. In addition, these studies provide evidence that the uterus, and potentially the entire upper reproductive tract, are important sites for the initial events involved in HIV infection. PMID:12709027

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus receptor and coreceptor expression on human uterine epithelial cells: regulation of expression during the menstrual cycle and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Grant R; Howell, Alexandra L; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; O'Connell, Denise M; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. Identification of cell populations within the female reproductive tract that are initially infected, and the events involved in transmission of infection to other cells, remain to be established. In this report, we evaluated expression of HIV receptors and coreceptors on epithelial cells in the uterus and found they express several receptors critical for HIV infection including CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 and galactosylceramide (GalC). Moreover, expression of these receptors varied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of CD4 and CCR5 on uterine epithelial cells is high throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle when blood levels of oestradiol are high. In contrast, CXCR4 expression increased gradually throughout the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase of the cycle when both oestradiol and progesterone are elevated, CD4 and CCR5 expression decreased whereas CXCR4 expression remained elevated. Expression of GalC on endometrial glands is higher during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Because epithelial cells line the female reproductive tract and express HIV receptors and coreceptors, it is likely that they are one of the first cell types to become infected. The hormonal regulation of HIV receptor expression may affect a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection during her menstrual cycle. Moreover, selective coreceptor expression could account for the preferential transmission of R5-HIV-1 strains to women. In addition, these studies provide evidence that the uterus, and potentially the entire upper reproductive tract, are important sites for the initial events involved in HIV infection. PMID:12709027

  12. Comparison of Talaromyces marneffei Infection in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-negative Patients from Fujian, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Ru; Cai, Shao-Xi; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Yu, Mei-E; Xu, Neng-Luan; Xie, Bao-Song; Lin, Ming; Hu, Xin-Lan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei (TM) is an emerging dimorphic human pathogenic fungus that is endemic to Southeast Asia. TM mostly occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with TM infections who were HIV-positive and HIV-negative and to assess therapies and outcomes. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 26 patients diagnosed with disseminated TM infection from September 2005 to April 2014 at Fujian Provincial Hospital, China. Results: Patients with TM infection tend to present with fever, weight loss, and anemia. The time from symptom onset to confirmed diagnosis was greater for HIV-negative patients (n = 7; median: 60 days, range: 14–365 days) than for HIV-positive patients (n = 19; median: 30 days, range: 3–90 days, Mann–Whitney U = 31.50, P = 0.041). HIV-negative patients were more likely to have dyspnea (57.1% vs. 5.3%, χ2 = 8.86, P = 0.010), low neutrophil count (Mann–Whitney U = 27.00, P = 0.029), high CD4 count (Mann–Whitney U = 0.00, P = 0.009), and high lymphocyte count (Mann–Whitney U = 21.00, P = 0.009). There were no significant differences in other demographic, clinical, or biochemical characteristics. Among all the patients, 12 HIV-positive patient and 1 HIV-negative patient received amphotericin and fluconazole treatment, 9 of whom improved, 1 died, 2 had kidney damage, 1 had hypokalemia due to exceeded doses. Conclusions: HIV-negative patients with TM infections tend to have a longer diagnostic interval, a higher percentage of dyspnea, higher levels of CD4 and lymphocytes, and lower neutrophil counts than TM infection in HIV-positive patients. Treatment programs with amphotericin and fluconazole are mostly effective. PMID:27098791

  13. Emergence of CD4 Independence Envelopes and Astrocyte Infection in R5 Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Model of Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Ke; Leda, Ana Rachel; Tsai, Lily; Knight, Heather; Harbison, Carole; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Westmoreland, Susan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by replication in macrophages or brain microglia that express low levels of the CD4 receptor and is the cause of HIV-associated dementia and related cognitive and motor disorders that affect 20 to 30% of treatment-naive patients with AIDS. Independent viral envelope evolution in the brain has been reported, with the need for robust replication in resident CD4low cells, as well as CD4-negative cells, such as astrocytes, proposed as a major selective pressure. We previously reported giant-cell encephalitis in subtype B and C R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected macaques (SHIV-induced encephalitis [SHIVE]) that experienced very high chronic viral loads and progressed rapidly to AIDS, with varying degrees of macrophage or microglia infection and activation of these immune cells, as well as astrocytes, in the CNS. In this study, we characterized envelopes (Env) amplified from the brains of subtype B and C R5 SHIVE macaques. We obtained data in support of an association between severe neuropathological changes, robust macrophage and microglia infection, and evolution to CD4 independence. Moreover, the degree of Env CD4 independence appeared to correlate with the extent of astrocyte infection in vivo. These findings further our knowledge of the CNS viral population phenotypes that are associated with the severity of HIV/SHIV-induced neurological injury and improve our understanding of the mechanism of HIV-1 cellular tropism and persistence in the brain. IMPORTANCE Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of astrocytes in the brain has been suggested to be important in HIV persistence and neuropathogenesis but has not been definitively demonstrated in an animal model of HIV-induced encephalitis (HIVE). Here, we describe a new nonhuman primate (NHP) model of R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-induced encephalitis

  14. The immunologic aspects of human immunodeficiency virus infection in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Schneider, T; Ullrich, R; Zeitz, M

    1996-01-01

    The intestinal (in particular rectal) mucosa is an important portal of entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in homosexual men, who represent the vast majority of HIV-infected patients in Europe and North America. There are several possibilities for HIV to reach the CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and follicular dendritic cells in the intestinal mucosa. HIV may be transported through M cells directly to mucosal lymphoid follicles. Alternatively, HIV may infect enterocytes via Fc-receptor by antibody-bound HIV or via a CD4 independent receptor. By successive budding on the basal side of enterocytes, HIV may be released into the lamina propria. Furthermore, in patients not infected by the intestinal route, HIV may also rapidly enter the intestinal mucosa by other mechanisms: intestinal T-lymphocytes are mainly activated memory T cells reentering the mucosal surfaces after circulating through the peripheral blood. In the periphery they may have been preferentially infected by HIV. Accumulation of infected T cells could thus occur in the intestinal mucosa. The special phenotypical and functional characteristics of intestinal T lymphocytes may affect the replication and cytopathicity of HIV, resulting in an accelerated loss of CD4 positive T cells in the lamina propria. CD4 T cells play a critical role in antigen-dependent B cell differentiation, thus the pronounced CD4 T cell depletion in the intestinal mucosa may be responsible for the observed decrease of IgA plasma cells and a reduced secretion of IgA2. Depletion and functional impairment of activated mucosal lamina propria lymphocytes by HIV infection could explain the break-down of the mucosal immune barrier leading to secondary opportunistic or nonopportunistic infections and secondary malignancies. In addition, because of the interrelation between the mucosal immune system and the epithelium these changes might be responsible for the partial small intestinal mucosal atrophy and maturational defects in

  15. Recent trends in the spectrum of opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in South India

    PubMed Central

    Shahapur, Praveen R.; Bidri, Rajendra C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Opportunistic infections (OI) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. The pattern of OIs differs widely, hence it is necessary to correlate spectrum of OIs and CD4 counts among HIV infected individuals in specific localities. Materials and Methods: The present study describes the clinical and laboratory profiles of different OIs among 55 HIV seropositive patients. CD4 count was estimated and antiretroviral therapy (ART) was started in 27 patients as per National Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Control Organization guidelines. These 27 patients were classified into stage 1, stage 2 and stage 3 based on CD4 counts of >500 cells/μl, 200-499 cells/μl and <200 cells/μl respectively. The OIs presented by respective groups were documented. Results: Pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be the most common OI constituting 43.6% of all cases followed by candidiasis (30.9%), cryptosporidial diarrhea (21.8%), herpes zoster (16.3%), cryptococcal meningitis (3.63%), Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (1.81%), and other miscellaneous infections (23.6%). Only 1 patient was found in stage I while 13 patients each were grouped in stage II or stage III. The mean CD4 count in our study population who were on ART was 230 ± 150 cells/µl. Conclusion: The pattern of OIs among our study group did not differ significantly from patients not receiving ART. The effect of ART on CD4 count differs from patient to patient based on the degree of depletion of CD4 count before the initiation of ART, drug adherence, concomitant OIs and their treatment. PMID:25097422

  16. Relationships over 1 year between lymphocyte subsets and psychosocial variables among adults with infection by human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Perry, S; Fishman, B; Jacobsberg, L; Frances, A

    1992-05-01

    To examine relationships between immune and psychosocial variables among adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, 221 subjects without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were assessed for degree of depression, anxiety, psychiatric symptoms, social support, stressful life events, hardiness, hopelessness, bereavement, and intrusive and avoidant thoughts about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. At entry, none of 22 psychosocial variables significantly correlated with lymphocyte subsets. Among subjects seen 6 and 12 months later, severity of physical symptoms was associated with greater emotional distress, but the CD4 cell count was predicted by neither clinical ratings of psychopathology and global functioning nor by standardized self-report measures of constructs used in psychoimmune research. We conclude that among our sample, physical symptoms contributed to emotional distress, but emotional distress did not contribute to the CD4 cell count, a marker of disease progression. PMID:1586275

  17. Regulatory T cells and chronic immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Freguja, R; Gianesin, K; Mosconi, I; Zanchetta, M; Carmona, F; Rampon, O; Giaquinto, C; De Rossi, A

    2011-01-01

    The function of CD4+ T cells with regulatory activity (Tregs) is the down-regulation of immune responses. This suppressive activity may limit the magnitude of effector responses, resulting in failure to control human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection, but may also suppress chronic immune activation, a characteristic feature of HIV-1 disease. We evaluated the correlation between viral load, immune activation and Tregs in HIV-1-infected children. Eighty-nine HIV-1-infected children (aged 6–14 years) were included in the study and analysed for HIV-1 plasmaviraemia, HIV-1 DNA load, CD4 and CD8 cell subsets. Treg cells [CD4+ CD25highCD127lowforkhead box P3 (FoxP3high)] and CD8-activated T cells (CD8+CD38+) were determined by flow cytometry. Results showed that the number of activated CD8+CD38+ T cells increased in relation to HIV-1 RNA plasmaviraemia (r = 0·403, P < 0·0001). The proportion of Tregs also correlated positively with HIV-1 plasmaviraemia (r = 0·323, P = 0·002), but correlated inversely with CD4+ cells (r = −0·312, P = 0·004), thus suggesting a selective expansion along with increased viraemia and CD4+ depletion. Interestingly, a positive correlation was found between the levels of Tregs and CD8+CD38+ T cells (r = 0·305, P = 0·005), and the percentage of Tregs tended to correlate with HIV-1 DNA load (r = 0·224, P = 0·062). Overall, these findings suggest that immune activation contributes to the expansion of Treg cells. In turn, the suppressive activity of Tregs may impair effector responses against HIV-1, but appears to be ineffective in limiting immune activation. PMID:21438872

  18. Committee Opinion No. 655: Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in Obstetrician-Gynecologists.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    To prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens, it is important that health care providers adhere to standard precautions, follow fundamental infection-control principles, and use appropriate procedural techniques. All obstetrician-gynecologists who provide clinical care should receive the hepatitis B virus vaccine series. The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America has established guidelines for the management of health care providers who are infected with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The guidelines categorize representative obstetric and gynecologic procedures according to level of risk of bloodborne pathogen transmission and include recommendations for health care provider clinical activities, based on these categories and viral burden. It is important to note that when no restrictions are recommended, careful supervision should be carried out as highlighted. These recommendations provide a framework within which to consider such cases; however, each case should be independently considered in context by the expert review panel. PMID:26942390

  19. Committee Opinion No. 655 Summary: Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in Obstetrician-Gynecologists.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    To prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens, it is important that health care providers adhere to standard precautions, follow fundamental infection-control principles, and use appropriate procedural techniques. All obstetrician-gynecologists who provide clinical care should receive the hepatitis B virus vaccine series. The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America has established guidelines for the management of health care providers who are infected with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The guidelines categorize representative obstetric and gynecologic procedures according to level of risk of bloodborne pathogen transmission and include recommendations for health care provider clinical activities, based on these categories and viral burden. It is important to note that when no restrictions are recommended, careful supervision should be carried out as highlighted. These recommendations provide a framework within which to consider such cases; however, each case should be independently considered in context by the expert review panel. PMID:26942383

  20. The T cell response to persistent herpes virus infections in common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Raeiszadeh, M; Kopycinski, J; Paston, S J; Diss, T; Lowdell, M; Hardy, G A D; Hislop, A D; Workman, S; Dodi, A; Emery, V; Webster, A D

    2006-11-01

    We show that at least half of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have circulating CD8(+) T cells specific for epitopes derived from cytomegalovirus (CMV) and/or the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Compared to healthy age-matched subjects, more CD8(+) T cells in CVID patients were committed to CMV. Despite previous reports of defects in antigen presentation and cellular immunity in CVID, specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells produced interferon (IFN)-gamma after stimulation with CMV peptides, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells secreted perforin in response to these antigens. In CVID patients we found an association between a high percentage of circulating CD8(+) CD57(+) T cells containing perforin, CMV infection and a low CD4/CD8 ratio, suggesting that CMV may have a major role in the T cell abnormalities described previously in this disease. We also show preliminary evidence that CMV contributes to the previously unexplained severe enteropathy that occurs in about 5% of patients. PMID:17034575

  1. Measuring performance decrements in aviation personnel infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Mapou, R L; Kay, G G; Rundell, J R; Temoshok, L

    1993-02-01

    There is controversy over whether cognitive impairment occurs in early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. When impairment is reported, findings are typically subclinical, affect only a minority, and their relationship to occupational functioning has not been established. Despite such findings, it has been recommended that HIV-seropositive pilots be disqualified from flying. This paper reviews research relevant to measuring performance decrements in HIV-infected aviators. Based upon current data, we conclude that although subtle neurobehavioral dysfunction may occur in some asymptomatic HIV-seropositive individuals, there is no research which has demonstrated associated decrements in aviation-related skills. Thus, it may be premature to recommend medical disqualification of all HIV-seropositive aviators. We propose, instead, that sensitive neurocognitive measures, incorporated into a comprehensive neurodiagnostic evaluation, could be used to evaluate asymptomatic HIV-seropositive aviators. Only those who are impaired on evaluation would be disqualified from flying. Concurrently, research investigating the relationship between abnormalities and aviation abilities would be conducted. PMID:8431191

  2. Human herpesvirus 8-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Fardet, L; Blum, L; Kerob, D; Agbalika, F; Galicier, L; Dupuy, A; Lafaurie, M; Meignin, V; Morel, P; Lebbé, C

    2003-07-15

    We retrospectively reviewed 5 cases of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HL) associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) reactivation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. All patients had clinical and biological features characteristic of HL. Pulmonary symptoms were present in all patients and were frequently life threatening. The mean number of HL episodes was 6. Four patients had HL-associated Kaposi sarcoma, and 3 had multicentric Castleman disease. The mean CD4 cell count was 200 cells/mm(3). HIV loads were stable in all patients. All patients had high levels of HHV-8 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during attacks, and a significant increase in this parameter before the attacks was seen in 3 patients. Although 2 patients died of HL, 3 are still alive and receiving etoposide therapy (mean follow-up, 3 years). HHV-8-related HL is associated with life-threatening symptoms and biological HHV-8 reactivation, and it may be controlled in the long term by etoposide therapy combined with highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:12856221

  3. Intramuscular pentamidine for the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Cheung, T W; Matta, R; Neibart, E; Hammer, G; Chusid, E; Sacks, H S; Szabo, S; Rose, D

    1993-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 96 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who received intramuscular pentamidine for the prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). These patients, all of whom had either a history of PCP or a CD4 lymphocyte count of < or = 0.2 x 10(9)/L, were intolerant of sulfa drugs, neutropenic, or intolerant of aerosolized treatment. Intramuscular pentamidine was given monthly by the Z-track technique at a dosage of 300 mg (4 mg/kg if the patient weighed < 50 kg). During a total of 350 months of primary prophylaxis in 47 patients and 426 months of secondary prophylaxis in 49 patients, only three cases of PCP occurred. More than 73% of the patients were receiving zidovudine concomitantly. Adverse reactions to intramuscular pentamidine included two episodes of hypotension, three of sterile abscess, two of glucose intolerance, and one of asymptomatic hypoglycemia. The administration of intramuscular pentamidine by the Z-track technique for PCP prophylaxis appears to be highly effective and minimally toxic. PMID:8448314

  4. Didanosine reduces atevirdine absorption in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, G D; Fischl, M A; Shelton, M J; Borin, M T; Driver, M R; DeRemer, M; Lee, K; Wajszczuk, C P

    1996-01-01

    Atevirdine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with in vitro activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and is currently in phase II clinical trials. Atevirdine is most soluble at a pH of < 2, and therefore, normal gastric acidity is most likely necessary for optimal bioavailability. Because of the rapid development of resistance in vitro, atevirdine is being evaluated in combination with didanosine and/or zidovudine in both two- and three-drug combination regimens. To examine the influence of concurrent didanosine (buffered tablet formulation) on the disposition of atevirdine, 12 human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected subjects (mean CD4+ cell count, 199 cells per mm3; range, 13 to 447 cells/mm3) participated in a three-way, partially randomized, crossover, single-dose study to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of didanosine and atevirdine when each drug was given alone (treatments A and B, respectively) versus concurrently (treatment C). Concurrent administration of didanosine and atevirdine significantly reduced the maximum concentration of atevirdine in serum from 3.45 +/- 2.8 to 0.854 +/- 0.33 microM (P = 0.004). Likewise, the mean atevirdine area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h after administration of the combination was reduced to 6.47 +/- 2.2 microM.h (P = 0.004) relative to a value of 11.3 +/- 4.8 microM.h for atevirdine alone. Atevirdine had no statistically significant effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of didanosine. Concurrent administration of single doses of atevirdine and didanosine resulted in a markedly lower maximum concentration of atevirdine in serum and area under the concentration-time curve, with a minimal effect on the disposition of didanosine. It is unknown whether an interaction of similar magnitude would occur under steady-state conditions; thus, combination regimens which include both atevirdine and didanosine should be designed so that their administration times are separated. Since

  5. Specific Behaviors Predict Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Persons.

    PubMed

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Wang, Xun; Weintrob, Amy; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Bavaro, Mary; Okulicz, Jason F; Mende, Katrin; Ellis, Michael; Agan, Brian K

    2015-04-01

    Background.  Few data exist on the incidence and risk factors of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods.  Over a 2-year period, we prospectively evaluated adults infected with HIV for incident S aureus colonization at 5 body sites and SSTIs. Cox proportional hazard models using time-updated covariates were performed. Results.  Three hundred twenty-two participants had a median age of 42 years (interquartile range, 32-49), an HIV duration of 9.4 years (2.7-17.4), and 58% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Overall, 102 patients (32%) became colonized with S aureus with an incidence rate of 20.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.8-25.0) per 100 person-years [PYs]. Predictors of colonization in the final multivariable model included illicit drug use (hazard ratios [HR], 4.26; 95% CI, 1.33-13.69) and public gym use (HR 1.66, 95% CI, 1.04-2.66), whereas antibacterial soap use was protective (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.78). In a separate model, perigenital colonization was associated with recent syphilis infection (HR, 4.63; 95% CI, 1.01-21.42). Fifteen percent of participants developed an SSTI (incidence rate of 9.4 cases [95% CI, 6.8-12.7] per 100 PYs). Risk factors for an SSTI included incident S aureus colonization (HR 2.52; 95% CI, 1.35-4.69), public shower use (HR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.48-4.56), and hospitalization (HR 3.54; 95% CI, 1.67-7.53). The perigenital location for S aureus colonization was predictive of SSTIs. Human immunodeficiency virus-related factors (CD4 count, HIV RNA level, and HAART) were not associated with colonization or SSTIs. Conclusions.  Specific behaviors, but not HIV-related factors, are predictors of colonization and SSTIs. Behavioral modifications may be the most important strategies in preventing S aureus colonization and SSTIs among persons infected with HIV. PMID:26380335

  6. Two-Year Follow-Up of Macaques Developing Intermittent Control of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Homolog Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVmac251 in the Chronic Phase of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shytaj, Iart Luca; Nickel, Gabrielle; Arts, Eric; Farrell, Nicholas; Biffoni, Mauro; Pal, Ranajit; Chung, Hye Kyung; LaBranche, Celia; Montefiori, David; Vargas-Inchaustegui, Diego; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie; Lewis, Mark G.; Sacha, Jonah B.; Palamara, Anna Teresa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Off-therapy control of viremia by HIV-infected individuals has been associated with two likely players: a restricted viral reservoir and an efficient cell-mediated immune response. We previously showed that a combination of highly suppressive antiretroviral therapy and two experimental drugs, i.e., auranofin and buthionine sulfoximine, was able to reduce the viral reservoir, elicit efficient cell-mediated antiviral responses, and induce intermittent posttherapy viral load control in chronically SIVmac251-infected macaques. We here show that the macaques that had received this drug combination and then stopped antiretroviral therapy were also able to maintain low numbers of activated CD4+ T cells at viral rebound. Moreover, these macaques consistently displayed low-level simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) diversity, which was in line with the strong and broadly reactive cell-mediated immune responses against conserved Gag antigens. Extended follow-up showed that the two macaques that had received the complete drug combination remained healthy and did not develop AIDS in 2 years of follow-up after therapy suspension. This disease-free survival is longer than twice the average time of progression to AIDS in SIVmac251-infected rhesus macaques. These results suggest that limited numbers of activated T cells at viral rebound and subsequent development of broadly reactive cell-mediated responses may be interrelated in reducing the viral reservoir. IMPORTANCE The HIV reservoir in CD4+ T cells represents one main obstacle to HIV eradication. Recent studies, however, show that a drastic reduction of this reservoir is insufficient for inducing a functional cure of AIDS. In the present work, we thoroughly studied and subjected to long-term follow-up two macaques showing intermittent control of the virus following suspension of antiretroviral therapy plus an experimental antireservoir treatment, i.e., the gold salt auranofin and the investigational chemotherapeutic

  7. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Replicates to High Levels in Naturally Infected African Green Monkeys without Inducing Immunologic or Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Suzanne R.; Staprans, Silvija I.; White, Robert; Whitehead, Evelyn M.; Feinberg, Mark B.; Allan, Jonathan S.

    2001-01-01

    African green monkeys can maintain long-term persistent infection with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVagm) without developing AIDS and thus provide an important model for understanding mechanisms of natural host resistance to disease. This study assessed the levels and anatomic distribution of SIVagm in healthy, naturally infected monkeys. Quantitative competitive reverse transcriptase PCR assays developed to measure SIVagm from two African green monkey subspecies demonstrated high levels of SIV RNA in plasma (>6 × 106 RNA copies/ml) in sabaeus and vervet monkeys. Infectious virus was readily recovered from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells and shown to be highly cytopathic in human cell lines and macrophages. SIVagm DNA levels were highest in the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that the gut is a major site for SIVagm replication in vivo. Appreciable levels of virus were also found within the brain parenchyma and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), with lower levels detected in peripheral blood cells and lymph nodes. Virus isolates from the CSF and brain parenchyma readily infected macrophages in culture, whereas lymph node isolates were more restricted to growth in human T-cell lines. Comparison of env V2-C4 sequences showed extensive amino acid diversity between SIVagm recovered from the central nervous system and that recovered from lymphoid tissues. Homology between brain and CSF viruses, macrophage tropism, and active replication suggest compartmentalization in the central nervous system without associated neuropathology in naturally infected monkeys. These studies provide evidence that the nonpathogenic nature of SIVagm in the natural host can be attributed neither to more effective host control over viral replication nor to differences in the tissue and cell tropism from those for human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected humans or SIV-infected macaques. PMID:11160730

  8. Serum immunoglobulin E levels in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Zar, Heather J; Latief, Zeino; Hughes, Jane; Hussey, Gregory

    2002-10-01

    Elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels have been reported in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults, but there is little information in children. The aim of the present study was to compare serum IgE levels in HIV-positive and -negative children hospitalized with pneumonia in South Africa and to investigate whether IgE may be useful as a marker of specific infections or prognosis in HIV-infected children. History, examination, blood tests, and induced sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage were carried out. Of 122 children [45% female, median age 8 months (3-20 months)], 81 were infected with HIV. A history of allergy or asthma was present in three children (two of whom were HIV positive). Serum IgE was higher in HIV-infected children [83 (33-147) vs. 29 (6-113) IU/l; p = 0.011] as was immunoglobulin G (IgG) [49 (37-63) vs. 27.5 (23-34) g/l; p < 0.001]. CD4 lymphocytes [600 (330-1,210) vs. 1,900 (1,500-3,030) cells/ micro l], percentage CD4 cells [13.6 (9.4-20.3) vs. 40.1 (31.1-44.9)] and CD4 : CD8 ratio [0.3 (0.2-0.4) vs. 2 (1.4-2.8)] were lower in HIV-positive children (p < 0.001 for all). Bacteremia occurred in 12 (10%) children; other specific pathogens identified included Mycobacterium tuberculosis in eight (7%) and Pneumocystis carinii in nine (7%). There was no correlation with CD4 count, CD4 : CD8 ratio, or the presence of specific pathogens, and IgE level. In-hospital mortality (11%) did not correlate with IgE levels. HIV-infected children with pneumonia have higher serum IgE compared with seronegative patients. In HIV-positive children, IgE levels did not correlate with the degree of immunosuppression or with outcome. PMID:12431191

  9. Infective complications after abdominal surgery in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: role of CD4+ lymphocytes in prognosis.

    PubMed

    Emparan, C; Iturburu, I M; Ortiz, J; Mendez, J J

    1998-08-01

    Risk factors associated with surgical infections are related to many events that modulate the immune system and affect the surgical procedure. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of low CD4+ lymphocyte counts in 24 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) undergoing abdominal surgery. Blood samples were obtained, and the lymphocyte population was evaluated perioperatively, as was the nutritional status of the patient. All the patients received selective antibiotic prophylaxis depending on the surgical procedure performed: (1) clean surgery: splenectomies (n = 8); (2) clean-contaminated: cholecystectomy and biliary tract surgery (n = 8); and (3) contaminated: appendectomy (n = 8). Depending on their CD4 count, two groups were formed: one with 200 to 500 cells/ml (n = 11) and the other with < 200 cells/ml (n = 13). When surgical infection was suspected, surgical drainage and microbiologic cultures were undertaken. For statistical evaluation of the groups ANOVA and the chi-square test were used; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Altogether 14 patients (58.3%) had a wound infection, and the mean (+/- SD) CD4 count in those patients was decreased (221.7 +/- 75.1) compared with that of the 10 patients in the uneventful group (386 +/- 81.2). Surgical infection rates were 50% for clean procedures, 62.5% for clean-contaminated procedures, and 62.5% for contaminated surgery. The group of patients with CD4 counts of < 200 cell/ml had an increased incidence of surgical infection, regardless of the type of surgery (p = 0.002). Thus the surgical infection rates with HIV patients undergoing abdominal surgery are dramatically increased. The CD4 and subsequently depressed neutrophil populations increase the risk of surgical infection during major procedures regardless of the type of surgery performed. PMID:9673546

  10. Envelope Glycoprotein Internalization Protects Human and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Cells from Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    von Bredow, Benjamin; Arias, Juan F.; Heyer, Lisa N.; Gardner, Matthew R.; Farzan, Michael; Rakasz, Eva G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cytoplasmic tails of human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV, respectively) envelope glycoproteins contain a highly conserved, membrane-proximal endocytosis motif that prevents the accumulation of Env on the surface of infected cells prior to virus assembly. Using an assay designed to measure the killing of virus-infected cells by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), we show that substitutions in this motif increase the susceptibility of HIV-1- and SIV-infected cells to ADCC in a manner that directly correlates with elevated Env levels on the surface of virus-infected cells. In the case of HIV-1, this effect is additive with a deletion in vpu recently shown to enhance the susceptibility of HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC as a result of tetherin-mediated retention of budding virions on the cell surface. These results reveal a previously unappreciated role for the membrane-proximal endocytosis motif of gp41 in protecting HIV-1- and SIV-infected cells from antibody responses by regulating the amount of Env present on the cell surface. IMPORTANCE This study reveals an unappreciated role for the membrane-proximal endocytosis motif of gp41 in protecting HIV-1- and SIV-infected cells from elimination by Env-specific antibodies. Thus, strategies designed to interfere with this mechanism of Env internalization may improve the efficacy of antibody-based vaccines and antiretroviral therapies designed to enhance the immunological control of HIV-1 replication in chronically infected individuals. PMID:26269175

  11. Seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus and heartworm infection among owned cats in tropical Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J; Colin-Flores, Rafael F; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia; Jimenez-Coello, Matilde

    2014-06-01

    Several infectious agents may be distributed within a healthy population of cats where diverse risk factors predispose them to come into contact with pathogens. Blood samples from 227 owned cats in Merida, Mexico, were collected with the objective of determining the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and Dirofilaria immitis antigen, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibody. Serological detection of FeLV and D immitis antigens, and FIV antibodies was performed using the commercial kit SNAP Feline Triple Test. The prevalence was found to be 7.5% for FeLV, 2.5% for FIV and 0% for D immitis. Adult cats were at a higher risk of coming into contact with FeLV (P <0.01) than younger cats. Owing to its low prevalence, a risk factor analysis was not performed for FIV. The prevalence of retroviral infections found in this study was low, but within the limits reported in the different geographical areas of the world. Cases of filariosis in the domestic cats of Merida, Mexico, may be absent or very low; however, the low sample size may have influenced these results. PMID:24196568

  12. Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a new challenge in antiretroviral therapy era.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Díaz, Hortensia; Mariño Callejo, Ana; García Rodríguez, José Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH) has been recently reported as a liver disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patients under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Combination of non-exclusive mechanisms has been described: primary endothelial damage of terminal portal veins induced by HIV or immunologic disorders, mitochondrial toxicity by didanosine and prothrombotic state. It is characterized by heterogeneous liver histological findings, frequently identified as nodular regenerative hyperplasia and clinical manifestations of portal hypertension with well-preserved liver function. We describe herein two HIV-infected patients with clinical picture suggestive of NCPH. Besides the case reports, we briefly address questions to apply to patient care in clinical practice. PMID:21760875

  13. Non-Cirrhotic Portal Hypertension in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients: A New Challenge in Antiretroviral Therapy Era

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez Díaz, Hortensia; Mariño Callejo, Ana; García Rodríguez, José Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH) has been recently reported as a liver disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patients under antiretroviral therapy (ART). Combination of non-exclusive mechanisms has been described: primary endothelial damage of terminal portal veins induced by HIV or immunologic disorders, mitochondrial toxicity by didanosine and prothrombotic state. It is characterized by heterogeneous liver histological findings, frequently identified as nodular regenerative hyperplasia and clinical manifestations of portal hypertension with well-preserved liver function. We describe herein two HIV-infected patients with clinical picture suggestive of NCPH. Besides the case reports, we briefly address questions to apply to patient care in clinical practice. PMID:21760875

  14. Dual human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and recombination in a dually exposed transfusion recipient. The Transfusion Safety Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, R S; Sabino, E C; Mayer, A; Mosley, J W; Busch, M P

    1995-01-01

    We studied a case in which a 2-month-old premature infant was concurrently transfused with packed erythrocytes from two different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive donors in late 1984. The two donors also each singly infected a second infant. Inspection of sequences from portions of the HIV-1 genomes in each of the two donors showed a close relationship to the strain in their respective singly exposed recipients. Inspection of sequences from the dually exposed recipient provided evidence of an individual simultaneously infected with two distinct HIV-1 strains, as well as recombination of the two strains in vivo. PMID:7745674

  15. Longitudinal assessment of fractional anisotropy alterations caused by simian immunodeficiency virus infection: a preliminary diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenchao; Dong, Enqing; Liu, Jiaojiao; Liu, Zhenyu; Wei, Wenjuan; Wang, Bo; Li, Hongjun; Tian, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies found that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection led to white matter (WM) microstructure degeneration. Most of the DTI studies were cross-sectional and thus merely investigated only one specific point in the disease. In order to systematically study the WM impairments caused by HIV infection, more longitudinal studies are needed. However, longitudinal studies on HIV patients are very difficult to conduct. To address this question, we employed the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus monkeys model to carry out a longitudinal DTI study. We aimed to longitudinally access the WM abnormalities of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys by studying the fractional anisotropy (FA) alterations with Tract Based Spatial Statistic (TBSS) analysis. Four rhesus monkeys inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239 were utilized in the study. DTI scans and peripheral blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell counts were acquired prior to virus inoculation (as the baseline) and in the 12th and 24th week postvirus inoculation. Significant FA alterations were found in the two areas of the inferotemporal regions (iTE), respectively located in the ventral subregion of posterior iTE (iTEpv) and the dorsal subregion of iTE (iTEpd). The decreased FA values in iTEpd were found significantly negatively correlated with the elevated peripheral blood CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios. It might suggest that WM in iTEpd was still impaired even though the immune dysfunction alleviated temporally. PMID:26438160

  16. Prevention of immunodeficiency virus induced CD4+ T-cell depletion by prior infection with a non-pathogenic virus

    SciTech Connect

    TerWee, Julie A.; Carlson, Jennifer K.; Sprague, Wendy S.; Sondgeroth, Kerry S.; Shropshire, Sarah B.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2008-07-20

    Immune dysregulation initiated by a profound loss of CD4+ T-cells is fundamental to HIV-induced pathogenesis. Infection of domestic cats with a non-pathogenic lentivirus prevalent in the puma (puma lentivirus, PLV or FIV{sub PCO}) prevented peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion caused by subsequent virulent FIV infection. Maintenance of this critical population was not associated with a significant decrease in FIV viremia, lending support to the hypothesis that direct viral cytopathic effect is not the primary cause of immunodeficiency. Although this approach was analogous to immunization with a modified live vaccine, correlates of immunity such as a serum-neutralizing antibody or virus-specific T-cell proliferative response were not found in protected animals. Differences in cytokine transcription profile, most notably in interferon gamma, were observed between the protected and unprotected groups. These data provide support for the importance of non-adaptive enhancement of the immune response in the prevention of CD4+ T-cell loss.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Saquinavir plus Low-Dose Ritonavir in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Pregnant Women†

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Edward P.; Bardeguez, Arlene; Zorrilla, Carmen D.; Van Dyke, Russell; Hughes, Michael D.; Huang, Sharon; Pompeo, Lisa; Stek, Alice M.; Pitt, Jane; Watts, D. Heather; Smith, Elizabeth; Jiménez, Eleanor; Mofenson, Lynne

    2004-01-01

    The physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy make it difficult to predict antiretroviral pharmacokinetics (PKs), but few data exist on the PKs of protease inhibitors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women. The objective of the present study was to determine the PKs of ritonavir (RTV)-enhanced saquinavir (SQV) in HIV-infected pregnant women by an area under the curve (AUC)-targeted approach. A phase I, formal PK evaluation was conducted with HIV-infected pregnant woman during gestation, during labor and delivery, and at 6 weeks postpartum. The SQV-RTV regimen was 800/100 mg twice a day (b.i.d.), and nucleoside analogs were administered concomitantly. The SQV exposure targeted was an AUC at 24 h of 10,000 ng · h/ml. Participants were evaluated for 12-h steady-state PKs at each time period. Thirteen subjects completed the PK evaluations during gestation, 7 completed the PK evaluations at labor and delivery, and 12 completed the PK evaluations postpartum. The mean baseline weight was 67.4 kg, and the median length of gestation was 23.3 weeks. All subjects achieved SQV exposures in excess of the target AUC. The SQV AUCs at 12 h (AUC12s) during gestation (29,373 ± 17,524 ng · h/ml [mean ± standard deviation]), during labor and delivery (26,189 ± 22,138 ng · h/ml), and during the postpartum period (35,376 ± 26,379 ng · h/ml) were not significantly different. The mean values of the PK parameters for RTV were lower during gestation than during the postpartum period: for AUC12, 7,811 and 13,127 ng · h/ml, respectively; for trough concentrations, 376 and 632 ng/ml, respectively; and for maximum concentrations, 1,256 and 2,252 ng/ml, respectively (P ≤ 0.05 for all comparisons). This is the first formal PK evaluation of a dual protease inhibitor regimen with HIV-infected pregnant women. The level of SQV exposure was sufficient at each time of evaluation. These data demonstrate large variability in SQV and RTV

  18. Prevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in domesticated and feral cats in eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Norris, Jacqueline M; Bell, Erin T; Hales, Louise; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; White, Joanna D; Wigney, Denise I; Baral, Randolph M; Malik, Richard

    2007-08-01

    Serum samples from 340 pet cats presented to three inner city clinics in Sydney Australia, 68 feral cats from two separate colonies in Sydney, and 329 cattery-confined pedigree and domestic cats in eastern Australia, were collected over a 2-year period and tested for antibodies directed against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) using immunomigration (Agen FIV Rapid Immunomigration test) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods (Snap Combo feline leukaemia virus antigen/FIV antibody test kit, IDEXX Laboratories). Western blot analysis was performed on samples in which there was discrepancy between the results. Information regarding breed, age, gender, housing arrangement and health status were recorded for all pet and cattery-confined cats, while the estimated age and current physical condition were recorded for feral cats. The FIV prevalence in the two feral cat populations was 21% and 25%. The majority of FIV-positive cats were male (60-80%). The FIV prevalence in cattery-confined cats was nil. The prevalence of FIV in the pet cat sample population was 8% (27/340) with almost equal prevalence in 'healthy' (13/170) and 'systemically unwell' (14/170) cats. The age of FIV-positive pet cats ranged from 3 to 19 years; all FIV-positive cats were domestic shorthairs with outside access. The median age of FIV-positive pet cats (11 years) was significantly greater than the median age of FIV-negative pet cats (7.5 years: P<0.05). The prevalence of FIV infection in male pet cats (21/172; 12%) was three times that in female pet cats (6/168; 4%; P<0.05). With over 80% of this pet cat population given outside access and continued FIV infection present in the feral population, this study highlights the need to develop rapid, accurate and cost-effective diagnostic methods that are not subject to false positives created by concurrent vaccination against FIV. This is especially important in re-homing stray cats within animal shelters and monitoring the efficacy of the new

  19. Association of alpha interferon production with natural killer cell lysis of U937 cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rappocciolo, G; Toso, J F; Torpey, D J; Gupta, P; Rinaldo, C R

    1989-01-01

    Mononuclear leukocytes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative and -seropositive homosexual men lysed HIV-infected U937 cells to a significantly greater degree than uninfected U937 cells. Depletion of cell subsets with monoclonal antibodies and complement indicated that the effector cells were primarily of the CD16+ phenotype. Acid-stable alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) production induced by the HIV-infected cells correlated with, although was not an absolute requisite for, preferential lysis of the infected targets. The activity of these CD16+, natural killer (NK) cells decreased in relation to the duration of HIV infection and the presence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pretreatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seronegative subjects, but not HIV-seropositive men, with IFN-alpha or recombinant interleukin-2 enhanced lysis of both uninfected and HIV-infected U937 cells. These results suggest that IFN-alpha-associated, NK-like mechanisms are active in the cytotoxic response against HIV-infected cells and that HIV infection results in an early and progressive depression of such responses. Prospective investigations may be useful in determining the role of this NK cell response in the natural history and pathogenesis of HIV infection and the efficacy of therapeutic modalities. PMID:2913035

  20. Defective accessory genes in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected long-term survivor lacking recoverable virus.

    PubMed Central

    Michael, N L; Chang, G; d'Arcy, L A; Ehrenberg, P K; Mariani, R; Busch, M P; Birx, D L; Schwartz, D H

    1995-01-01

    We have been studying a patient who acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection via a blood transfusion 13 years ago. She has remained asymptomatic since that time. The blood donor and two other recipients have all died of AIDS. Although this patient has shown persistently strong seroreactivity to HIV type 1 (HIV-1) antigens by Western blot (immunoblot), she has been continually HIV culture negative in results from multiple laboratories over the last 6 years and has a very low viral burden. Her CD4+ T-cell count has fluctuated around a mean of 399 cells per microliters, with little change in lymphocyte subset percentages. Strong cellular immune responses to HIV-1 epitopes by this patient have been demonstrated. We now report the results of an intensive molecular genetic analysis of the HIV-1 proviral quasispecies from this patient sampled over 5 years. Long terminal repeat region sequences supported the argument for normal basal and Tat-mediated promoter activities. Sequential sequencing of the nef gene revealed a low frequency (8.3%) of defective genes and a striking lack of sequence evolution. Functional analysis of predominant nef genes by both a cell surface CD4 downregulation and a viral infectivity complementation assay showed wild-type function. In contrast, sequential analysis of an amplicon containing the vif, vpr, vpu, tat1, and rev1 genes revealed the presence of inactivating mutations in 64% of the clones. These data suggest that this patient, initially infected with a virulent swarm of HIV-1, is presently infected with a more-attenuated viral quasispecies as a result of effective host immunity. PMID:7769682

  1. Involvement of human leukocyte antigen class I molecules in human immunodeficiency virus infection of CD4-positive cells.

    PubMed Central

    Benkirane, M; Blanc-Zouaoui, D; Hirn, M; Devaux, C

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the putative roles of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated and cell surface-expressed major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules in the course of the HIV life cycle by the combined use of MHC-I molecule-positive and MHC-I molecule-negative virus particles and MHC-I molecule-positive and MHC-I molecule-negative CD4+ human cells. We found (i) that several anti-MHC-I monoclonal antibodies neutralize cell infection by direct interaction with HIV-associated MHC-I antigens, (ii) that these HIV-associated MHC-I antigens are however dispensable for cell infection, and (iii) that the cell surface-expressed MHC-I molecules are unnecessary for productive infection of CD4+ human cells. These results clarify further the functions of MHC-I molecules during the HIV life cycle. PMID:7916059

  2. Neutralization breadth and potency of serum derived from recently human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected Thai individuals.

    PubMed

    Chaitaveep, Nithinart; Utachee, Piraporn; Chuenchitra, Thippawan; Karasavvan, Nicos; Takeda, Naokazu; Kameoka, Masanori

    2016-05-01

    Neutralizing antibody responses play important roles in controlling several viral infections including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Potent and broad neutralizing antibody responses have been reported in some HIV-1-infected individuals; therefore, elucidating the mechanisms underlying neutralizing antibody responses will provide important information for the development of anti-HIV-1 vaccines. We herein performed a comparative study on the neutralization breadth and potency of serum samples collected from Thai individuals recently and chronically infected with HIV-1. Neutralization tests using a series of envelope glycoproteins (Env)-recombinant viruses revealed that although several serum samples derived from recently infected individuals did not show any HIV-1-specific neutralizing activity, the remaining serum samples exhibited neutralizing activity not only for recombinant viruses with CRF01_AE Env, but also for viruses with subtypes B and C Env. Furthermore, some serum samples derived from recently infected individuals showed the neutralization potency. Our results may provide a deeper insight into the characteristics of neutralizing antibody responses that develop during the course of HIV-1 infection among individuals in Thailand. PMID:26774333

  3. Pharmacological Inhibition of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Bienzle, Dorothee

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a member of the retroviridae family of viruses and causes an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in domestic and non-domestic cats worldwide. Genome organization of FIV and clinical characteristics of the disease caused by the virus are similar to those of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Both viruses infect T lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages, and their replication cycle in infected cells is analogous. Due to marked similarity in genomic organization, virus structure, virus replication and disease pathogenesis of FIV and HIV, infection of cats with FIV is a useful tool to study and develop novel drugs and vaccines for HIV. Anti-retroviral drugs studied extensively in HIV infection have targeted different steps of the virus replication cycle: (1) inhibition of virus entry into susceptible cells at the level of attachment to host cell surface receptors and co-receptors; (2) inhibition of fusion of the virus membrane with the cell membrane; (3) blockade of reverse transcription of viral genomic RNA; (4) interruption of nuclear translocation and viral DNA integration into host genomes; (5) prevention of viral transcript processing and nuclear export; and (6) inhibition of virion assembly and maturation. Despite much success of anti-retroviral therapy slowing disease progression in people, similar therapy has not been thoroughly investigated in cats. In this article we review current pharmacological approaches and novel targets for anti-lentiviral therapy, and critically assess potentially suitable applications against FIV infection in cats. PMID:22754645

  4. Elevated Plasma Viral Loads in Romidepsin-Treated Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques on Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Gregory Q; Oswald, Kelli; Lara, Abigail; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Smedley, Jeremy; Macallister, Rhonda; Coalter, Vicky; Wiles, Adam; Wiles, Rodney; Li, Yuan; Fast, Randy; Kiser, Rebecca; Lu, Bing; Zheng, Jim; Alvord, W Gregory; Trubey, Charles M; Piatak, Michael; Deleage, Claire; Keele, Brandon F; Estes, Jacob D; Hesselgesser, Joseph; Geleziunas, Romas; Lifson, Jeffrey D

    2016-03-01

    Replication-competent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in infected people despite suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and it represents a major obstacle to HIV functional cure or eradication. We have developed a model of cART-mediated viral suppression in simian human immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac239-infected Indian rhesus macaques and evaluated the impact of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) romidepsin (RMD) on viremia in vivo. Eight macaques virologically suppressed to clinically relevant levels (<30 viral RNA copies/ml of plasma), using a three-class five-drug cART regimen, received multiple intravenous infusions of either RMD (n = 5) or saline (n = 3) starting 31 to 54 weeks after cART initiation. In vivo RMD treatment resulted in significant transient increases in acetylated histone levels in CD4(+) T cells. RMD-treated animals demonstrated plasma viral load measurements for each 2-week treatment cycle that were significantly higher than those in saline control-treated animals during periods of treatment, suggestive of RMD-induced viral reactivation. However, plasma virus rebound was indistinguishable between RMD-treated and control-treated animals for a subset of animals released from cART. These findings suggest that HDACi drugs, such as RMD, can reactivate residual virus in the presence of suppressive antiviral therapy and may be a valuable component of a comprehensive HIV functional cure/eradication strategy. PMID:26711758

  5. Enhanced Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baqui, A. A. M. A.; Meiller, Timothy F.; Falkler, William A.

    1999-01-01

    Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) has been found to possess activity against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in vitro at physiological concentrations. A study was undertaken to evaluate SLPI levels in human saliva and plasma among HIV-positive (HIV+) patients with various HIV-1 viral loads in comparison to uninfected controls. Whole blood in EDTA and unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 37 HIV+ patients, of whom 20 had a history of intravenous drug abuse (IVDA). Control samples were collected from 20 appropriate age- and sex-matched HIV-1-negative individuals. SLPI was estimated from both saliva and serum samples by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HIV viral load was determined using a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. SLPI levels were increased 16.7% in plasma and 10.3% in saliva among HIV+ patients in comparison to uninfected controls. SLPI levels were increased 5.9% in saliva and 3.9% in plasma among HIV+ patients with a high viral load (>10,000 copies/ml) as compared to patients with a low viral load (<400 copies/ml). Only 23% of patients with a high viral load used combination therapy with protease inhibitor drugs, whereas 92.9% of HIV+ patients with a low viral load used protease inhibitors. SLPI levels did not differ significantly among the IVDA patients, patients with different viral loads, or patients using protease inhibitor drugs. There was a statistically significant increase in SLPI levels in saliva among HIV patients in comparison to non-HIV-infected controls. An increase in SLPI levels among HIV+ patients may be a natural consequence of HIV pathogenesis and an important factor in preventing oral transmission of HIV, but this increase may not be evident during plasma viremia in patients with a high viral load. PMID:10548568

  6. Cell Cycle Arrest in G2/M Promotes Early Steps of Infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Groschel, Bettina; Bushman, Frederic

    2005-01-01

    We have identified four small molecules that boost transduction of cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and investigated their mechanism of action. These molecules include etoposide and camptothecin, which induce DNA damage by inhibiting religation of cleaved topoisomerase-DNA complexes, taxol, which interferes with the function of microtubules, and aphidicolin, which inhibits DNA polymerases. All four compounds arrest the cell cycle at G2/M, though in addition high concentrations of aphidicolin arrest in G1. We find that early events of HIV replication, including synthesis of late reverse transcription products, two-long terminal repeat circles, and integrated proviruses, were increased after treatment of cells with concentrations of each compound that arrested in G2/M. Stimulation was seen for both transformed cell lines (293T and HeLa cells) and primary cells (IMR90 lung fibroblasts). Arrest in G1 with high concentrations of aphidicolin boosted transduction, though not much as with lower concentrations that arrested in G2/M. Arrest of IMR90 cells in G1 by serum starvation and contact inhibition reduced transduction. Previously, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 was reported to increase HIV infection—here we investigated the effects of combinations of the cell cycle inhibitors with MG132 and obtained data suggesting that MG132 may also boost transduction by causing G2/M cell cycle arrest. These data document that cell cycle arrest in G2/M boosts the early steps of HIV infection and suggests methods for increasing transduction with HIV-based vectors. PMID:15827184

  7. Productive human immunodeficiency virus infection levels correlate with AIDS-related manifestations in the patient

    SciTech Connect

    Mathez, D.; Paul, D.; de Belilovsky, C.; Sultan, Y.; Deleuze, J.; Gorin, I.; Saurin, W.; Decker, R.; Leibowitch, J. )

    1990-10-01

    Mononuclear cells were obtained from 71 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seropositive subjects presenting and first visit either as asymptomatic or with minor symptoms and with CD4 lymphocytes greater than 550 per mm3 (group A, 35 patients) or as patients with AIDS, AIDS-related illnesses, or CD4 lymphocytes less than 400 per mm3 (group B, 36 patients). After 1-5 years of follow-up, 13 patients of group A had essentially retained their initial status (asymptomatics); the 22 others had suffered clinical or immunological deterioration (progressors). Frozen cells were thawed and submitted to lethal gamma-irradiation in vitro (4500 rads; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy) before they were cultured with normal phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes to determine radiation-resistant HIV expression ex vivo (R-HEV). HIV antigenemia correlated with R-HEV values in 142 samples (r = 0.92, P less than 0.001) but was a less sensitive predictor of disease than R-HEV. R-HEV was detected in all specimens from patients with major AIDS-related illnesses or HIV-associated CD4 lymphopenia. In 77% of the progressors from group A, R-HEV detection preceded the onset of AIDS-associated disease or CD4 lymphopenia by 1 year (average). Conversely, R-HEV was low or was not detected in 36 sequential specimens from the 13 patients who remained asymptomatic over the following 2-5 years. Thus, persistently low HIV expression in vivo predicted a nondiseased state, whereas higher HIV expression levels seemed necessary for disease to occur. These data indicate that R-HEV is related to productive HIV infection in vivo, the latter acting as a determinant of AIDS-related illnesses. In view of this, measurement of HIV expression levels in the patient should be useful in antiviral efficacy trials.

  8. Clinical manifestations and outcome of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection at tertiary care teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Virendra Chandrashekhar; Patil, Harsha V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: AIDS has become chronic illness which is well treated with antiretroviral therapy and management of opportunistic infections (OIs). Aims and Objectives: The study clinical profile and outcome of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients. Materials and Methods: This was retrospective observational study carried out over a period of 1 year (January 2011–December 2011). All HIV patients admitted in medicine ward, and ICU were enrolled. Statistical analysis was performed using SSPE statistical software trial version 11. The P< 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Of total 111 patients with a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, 75 (67.56%) were male and 36 (32.43%) were female patients. A total 52 (46.84%) patients presented with respiratory manifestations, of them 23 (44.23%) had pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), 6 (11.53%) had tubercular effusion, and 3 (5.76%) had Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Respiratory manifestations including pulmonary TB were the most common presentation (P< 0.001). Total 27 (24.32%) patients were presented with the neurological manifestation of them 8 (29.62%) had a cerebro-vascular accident, 5 (18.51%) had cryptococcal meningitis, 4 (14.81%) had tubercular meningitis, and 1 (3.70%) had progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Total 12 (38.70%) had acute gastroenteritis 6 (19.35%) had oral candidiasis, 8 (25%) had general tonic clonic seizure and 7 (21.87%) had pyrexia of unknown origin, 6 (18.75%) had septicemia, 6 (18.75%) had acute renal failure, and 6 (94.11%) had anemia. A total 11 (9.90%) patients succumbed. Conclusions: Overall respiratory manifestations were the common presentation in a present cohort of HIV seropositive patients and TB was the most common OI and the cerebrovascular accident was the most common neurological manifestation. PMID:27190411

  9. Animal model of mucosally transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 disease: intravaginal and oral deposition of simian/human immunodeficiency virus in macaques results in systemic infection, elimination of CD4+ T cells, and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Joag, S V; Adany, I; Li, Z; Foresman, L; Pinson, D M; Wang, C; Stephens, E B; Raghavan, R; Narayan, O

    1997-05-01

    Chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) consists of the env, vpu, tat, and rev genes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on a background of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We derived a SHIV that caused CD4+ cell loss and AIDS in pig-tailed macaques (S. V. Joag, Z. Li, L. Foresman, E. B. Stephens, L. J. Zhao, I. Adany, D. M. Pinson, H. M. McClure, and O. Narayan, J. Virol. 70:3189-3197, 1996) and used a cell-free stock of this virus (SHIV(KU-1)) to inoculate macaques by the intravaginal route. Macaques developed high virus burdens and severe loss of CD4+ cells within 1 month, even when inoculated with only a single animal infectious dose of the virus by the intravaginal route. The infection was characterized by a burst of virus replication that peaked during the first week following intravenous inoculation and a week later in the intravaginally inoculated animals. Intravaginally inoculated animals died within 6 months, with CD4+ counts of <30/microl in peripheral blood, anemia, weight loss, and opportunistic infections (malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia). To evaluate the kinetics of virus spread, we inoculated macaques intravaginally and euthanized them after 2, 4, 7, and 15 days postinoculation. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry revealed cells expressing viral RNA and protein in the vagina, uterus, and pelvic and mesenteric lymph nodes in the macaque euthanized on day 2. By day 4, virus-infected cells had disseminated to the spleen and thymus, and by day 15, global elimination of CD4+ T cells was in full progress. Kinetics of viral replication and CD4+ loss were similar in an animal inoculated with pathogenic SHIV orally. This provides a sexual-transmission model of human AIDS that can be used to study the pathogenesis of mucosal infection and to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines and drugs directed against HIV-1. PMID:9094679

  10. Protective Role of the Virus-Specific Immune Response for Development of Severe Neurologic Signs in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Sopper, Sieghart; Sauer, Ursula; Hemm, Susanne; Demuth, Monika; Müller, Justus; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Hunsmann, Gerhard; ter Meulen, Volker; Dörries, Rüdiger

    1998-01-01

    The pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus-associated motor and cognitive disorders is poorly understood. In this context both a protective and a harmful role of the immune system has been discussed. This question was addressed in the present study by correlating the occurrence of neurologic disease in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques with disease progression and the humoral and cellular intrathecal antiviral immune response. Overt neurologic signs consisting of ataxia and apathy were observed at a much higher frequency in rapid progressor animals (6 of 12) than in slow progressors (1 of 7). Whereas slow progressors mounted a strong antiviral antibody (Ab) response as evidenced by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and immunospot assays, neither virus-specific Ab titers nor Ab-secreting cells could be found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or brain parenchyma of rapid progressors. Similarly, increased infiltration of CD8+ T cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for viral antigens were detected only in the CSF of slow progressors. The finding that neurologic signs develop frequently in SIV-infected macaques in the absence of an antiviral immune response demonstrates that the immune system does not contribute to the development of motor disorders in these animals. Moreover, the lower incidence of neurologic symptoms in slow progressors with a strong intrathecal immune response suggests a protective role of the virus-specific immunity in immunodeficiency virus-induced central nervous system disease. PMID:9811731

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...

  12. Delayed diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection in a patient with non-specific neurological symptoms and pancytopenia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Both non-specific presentation and asymptomatic course of human immunodeficiency virus infection lead to undiagnosed long-term persistence of the virus in a patient's organism. Case presentation Here, we present a case of a 31-year-old Caucasian man with non-specific neurological symptoms and pancytopenia, who was referred to an internal medicine ward for further diagnosis. Upon admission to our hospital, he denied any past risky behaviors and refused to have his blood collected for human immunodeficiency virus testing. Later, he eventually provided consent to conduct the human immunodeficiency virus test which turned out to have a positive result. The overall clinical pattern indicated an advanced-stage of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which contrasted with the history he had provided. Conclusions This case report indicates the need to consider human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis in patients with non-specific neurological and hematological disorders. Our report also demonstrates difficulties that can be experienced by the physician while trying to obtain both a clear history and consent to perform human immunodeficiency virus testing. PMID:24666756

  13. Properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase recombination upon infection.

    PubMed

    Sakuragi, Sayuri; Shioda, Tatsuo; Sakuragi, Jun-ichi

    2015-11-01

    Reverse transcription (RT) is one of the hallmark features of retroviruses. During RT, virus encoded reverse transcriptase (RTase) must transfer from one end to the other end of the viral genome on two separate occasions to complete RT and move on to the production of proviral DNA. In addition, multiple strand-transfer events between homologous regions of the dimerized viral genome by RTase are also observed, and such recombination events serve as one of the driving forces behind human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome sequence diversity. Although retroviral recombination is widely considered to be important, several features of its mechanism are still unclear. We constructed an HIV-1 vector system to examine the target sequences required for virus recombination, and elucidated other necessary prerequisites to harbor recombination, such as the length, homology and the stability of neighbouring structures around the target sequences. PMID:26282329

  14. Correlation of Acute Humoral Response with Brain Virus Burden and Survival Time in Pig-Tailed Macaques Infected with the Neurovirulent Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVsmmFGb

    PubMed Central

    O’Neil, Shawn P.; Suwyn, Carolyn; Anderson, Daniel C.; Niedziela, Genevieve; Bradley, Juliette; Novembre, Francis J.; Herndon, James G.; McClure, Harold M.

    2004-01-01

    Infection of pig-tailed macaques with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) isolate SIVsmmFGb frequently results in SIV encephalitis (SIVE) in addition to immunodeficiency and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. We used in situ hybridization to quantitate the number of SIV-infected cells in brain parenchyma, choroid plexus, and meninges from 17 macaques that developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome after infection with SIVsmmFGb. SIV-infected cells and histopathological lesions of SIVE were identified in 15 of 17 animals (88.2%), including 12 of 12 rapid progressors (RP) and 3 of 5 slow progressors (SP). The parenchymal virus burden was much greater in RP macaques than in the three SP macaques with SIVE (median values of 24.3 versus 0.3 infected cells/mm2, respectively; P < 0.05). Viral load differences between RP and SP with SIVE were less marked in choroid plexus (29.6 versus 12.8 infected cells/mm2, respectively) and meninges (133.0 versus 34.2 infected cells/mm2, respectively). A significant negative correlation was observed between the magnitude of the anti-SIV antibody titer at 1 month after inoculation and brain virus burden at necropsy (r = −0.614; P < 0.01). The close association between immune response and SIVE in this model should prove useful for identifying correlates of immune protection against primate lentiviral encephalitis. PMID:15039205

  15. Influenza A among patients with human immunodeficiency virus: an outbreak of infection at a residential facility in New York City.

    PubMed

    Fine, A D; Bridges, C B; De Guzman, A M; Glover, L; Zeller, B; Wong, S J; Baker, I; Regnery, H; Fukuda, K

    2001-06-15

    Although annual influenza vaccination is recommended for persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), data are limited regarding the epidemiology of influenza or the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in this population. We investigated a 1996 outbreak of infection with influenza A at a residential facility for persons with AIDS. We interviewed 118 residents and employees, reviewed 65 resident medical records, and collected serum samples for measurement of influenza antibody titers. After controlling for history of smoking, influenza vaccination, and resident or employee status, in a multivariate model, HIV infection was not statistically associated with influenza-like illness (ILI). Symptoms and duration of ILI were similar for most HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons. However, 8 (21.1%) of 38 HIV-infected persons with ILI (vs. none of 15 HIV-uninfected persons) were either hospitalized, evaluated in an emergency room, or had ILI lasting > or = 14 days (P=.06). Vaccination effectiveness (VE) was similar for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons. Vaccination was most effective among HIV-infected persons with CD4 cell counts of >100 cells/microL (VE, 65%; 95% CI, 36%--81%) or HIV type 1 virus load of <30,000 copies/mL (VE, 52%; 95% CI, 11%--75%). Providers should continue to offer influenza vaccination to HIV-infected persons. PMID:11360221

  16. Early stages of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in lymph nodes. Evidence for high viral load and successive populations of target cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, L.; Isola, P.; Cumont, M. C.; Claessens-Maire, M. A.; Hurtrel, M.; Montagnier, L.; Hurtrel, B.

    1994-01-01

    Lymph nodes obtained from 14 macaques sacrificed at early time points following experimental inoculation with simian immunodeficiency virus were analyzed by in situ hybridization for virus load and virus cellular tropism. The lymph nodes presented a remarkably high viral load during the early phase of infection, as viral RNA was detected in as many as 2% of lymph node cells 1 week after inoculation. At this stage, macrophages and T4 lymphocytes were identified by combined immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization as the target cells of the virus. Simian immunodeficiency virus-positive macrophages concentrated in the subcapsular sinuses, suggesting an entry of infected cells via the afferent lymphatics. A shift in the pattern of viral infection was observed at 2 weeks after inoculation, with a concentration of viral RNA in the germinal centers of the developing lymphoid follicles. Follicular dendritic cells were found to be the major target of the virus at this stage. Follicular dendritic cells were associated with high levels of viral RNA but little or no detectable viral DNA, suggesting that the virus was present mostly in the form of viral particles trapped at the cell surface. Follicular dendritic cell-associated virus persisted at high levels for 2 months before subsiding, indicating that follicular dendritic cells constituted a major reservoir of the virus during the early stages of simian immunodeficiency virus infection. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8203463

  17. Blood-borne viral co-infections among human immunodeficiency virus-infected inmates.

    PubMed

    Pontali, Emanuele; Bobbio, Nicoletta; Zaccardi, Marilena; Urciuoli, Renato

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence of HBV and/or HCV co-infection among HIV-infected inmates entering the correctional facility. Design/methodology/approach - Prospective collection of data of HIV-infected inmates entered the institution over a ten-year period. Findings - During study period 365 consecutive different inmates were evaluated. HCV co-infection was observed in more than 80 per cent of the tested HIV-infected inmates, past HBV infection in 71.6 per cent and active HBV co-infection was detected in 7.1 per cent; triple coinfection (HIV, HCV and HBs-Ag positivity) was present in 6 per cent of the total. Originality/value - This study confirms high prevalence of co-infections among HIV-infected inmates. Testing for HBV and HCV in all HIV-infected inmates at entry in any correctional system is recommended to identify those in need of specific care and/or preventing interventions. PMID:27219906

  18. Absence of cytotoxic antibody to human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in humans and its induction in animals after infection or immunization with purified envelope glycoprotein gp120

    SciTech Connect

    Nara, P.L.; Robey, W.G.; Gonda, M.A.; Carter, S.G.; Fischinger, P.J.

    1987-06-01

    The presence of antibody-dependent complement-mediated cytotoxicity (ACC) was assessed in humans and chimpanzees, which are capable of infection with human immunodeficiency virus isolate HTLV-IIIb, and examined in the goat after immunization with the major viral glycoprotein (gp120) of HTLV-IIIb. In infected humans no antibody mediating ACC was observed regardless of the status of disease. Even healthy individuals with high-titer, broadly reactive, neutralizing antibodies has no ACC. In contrast, chimpanzees infected with HTLV-IIIb, from whom virus could be isolated, not only had neutralizing antibody but also antibodies broadly reactive in ACC, even against distantly related human immunodeficiency virus isolates, as well as against their own reisolated virus. In the goat, the gp120 of HTLV-IIIb induced a highly type-specific response as measured by both ACC and flow cytofluorometry of live infected H9 cells. Normal human cells were not subject to ACC by animal anti-HTLV-III gp120-specific sera. Induction of ACC and neutralizing antibody were closely correlated in the animal experimental models but not in humans. The presence of ACC in gp120-inoculated goats and HTLV-III-infected chimpanzees represent a qualitative difference that may be important in the quest for the elicitation of a protective immunity in humans.

  19. Fatal Case of Polymicrobial Meningitis Caused by Cryptococcus liquefaciens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patient

    PubMed Central

    Rodas-Rodríguez, Lia; Díaz-Paz, Manuel; Palacios-Rivera, Hilda; Firacative, Carolina; Meyer, Wieland; Alcázar-Castillo, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    We describe a fatal case of polymicrobial meningitis in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient from Guatemala caused by Cryptococcus liquefaciens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Central nervous system infections caused concurrently by these species are extremely rare. This is also the first report of disseminated disease caused by C. liquefaciens. PMID:26019205

  20. Knowledge and Awareness of Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Mobile App-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Missed Public Health Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Aaron J.; Sanchez, Travis; Sineath, R. Craig; Grey, Jeremy; Kahle, Erin; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    In a national online survey, we assessed awareness and knowledge of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection manifestation among 1748 men who have sex with men (MSM). Only 39% of respondents were aware that acute HIV infection may be accompanied by symptoms. Education and increased access to acute HIV testing may facilitate MSM to appropriately seek acute HIV testing. PMID:26034766

  1. Relative Efficacy of a Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infection, or Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention--Focused Intervention on Changing Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Wynne E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Amico, K. Rivet; Dovidio, John F.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Despite findings suggesting that young adults are more concerned about experiencing an unplanned pregnancy or contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) than becoming human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected, no empirical work has investigated whether the specific focus of an intervention may be more or less efficacious at…

  2. Breast-feeding and human immunodeficiency virus infection: assessment of knowledge among clinicians in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Murila, Florence; Obimbo, Moses M; Musoke, Rachel; Tsikhutsu, Isaac; Migiro, Santau; Ogeng'o, Julius

    2015-02-01

    In Kenya, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence ranks among the highest in the world. Approximately 60 000 infections yearly are attributed to vertical transmission including the process of labour and breast-feeding. The vast of the population affected is in the developing world. Clinical officers and nurses play an important role in provision of primary health care to antenatal and postnatal mothers. There are a few studies that have explored the clinicians' knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV and in relation to vertical transmission this being a vital component in prevention of maternal-to-child transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicians' knowledge on HIV in relation to breast-feeding in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess knowledge of 161 clinical officers and nurses serving in the maternity and children' wards in various hospitals in Kenya. The participants were derived from all district and provincial referral facilities in Kenya. A preformatted questionnaire containing a series of questions on HIV and breast-feeding was administered to clinicians who were then scored and analyzed. All the 161 participants responded. Majority of clinicians (92%) were knowledgeable regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Regarding HIV and breast-feeding, 49.7% thought expressed breast milk from HIV-positive mothers should be heated before being given. Majority (78.3%) thought breast milk should be given regardless of availability of alternatives. According to 74.5% of the participants, exclusive breast-feeding increased chances of HIV transmission. Two-thirds (66.5%) would recommend breast-feeding for mothers who do not know their HIV status (66.5%). This study observes that a majority of the clinicians have inadequate knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV. There is need to promote training programmes on breast-feeding and transmission of HIV from mother to child. This can be done as in

  3. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of delavirdine mesylate and didanosine in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, G D; Fischl, M A; Shelton, M J; Cox, S R; Driver, M; DeRemer, M; Freimuth, W W

    1997-01-01

    Delavirdine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with in vitro activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that is currently being evaluated in combination regimens with various nucleoside analogs, including didanosine. Due to the pH-dependent solubility of delavirdine, the buffering agents in didanosine formulations may reduce delavirdine absorption. To evaluate the potential interaction between these agents, 12 HIV-infected patients (mean [+/- standard deviation] CD4+ cell count, 304 +/- 213/mm3) were enrolled in a three-way crossover single-dose study. Didanosine (125 to 200 mg given as buffered tablets) and delavirdine mesylate (400 mg) pharmacokinetics were evaluated when each drug was given alone (treatments A and B, respectively), when the two drugs were given concurrently (treatment C), and when didanosine was given 1 h after delavirdine (treatment D). Delavirdine exposure was reduced by concurrent administration of didanosine. The maximum drug concentration in serum (Cmax) was reduced from 7.22 +/- 4.0 to 3.51 +/- 1.9 microM, and the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-->infinity) was reduced from 22.5 +/- 14 to 14 +/- 5.7 microM.h. The extent of N-dealkylation, as indicated by the ratio of the N-dealkylated delavirdine AUC0-->infinity to the delavirdine AUC0-->infinity, was unchanged across study treatments (P = 0.708). Reductions in didanosine exposure were observed during concurrent administration with delavirdine with a Cmax reduction from 4.65 +/- 2.0 to 3.22 +/- 0.59 microM and an AUC0-->infinity reduction from 7.93 +/- 3.9 to 6.54 +/- 2.3 microM.h. Thus, concurrent administration of delavirdine and didanosine may reduce the AUC0-->infinity of both drugs, although the clinical significance of this reduction is unknown. Administration of delavirdine 1 h before didanosine avoided the interaction. Due to the single-dose nature of this study, these findings require further evaluation at steady

  4. Immunoblot Profile as Predictor of Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Leport, Catherine; Franck, Jacqueline; Chene, Genevieve; Derouin, Francis; Ecobichon, Jean-Luc; Pueyo, Sophie; Miro, Jose M.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Morlat, Philippe; Dumon, Henri

    2001-01-01

    In order to define more accurately human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients at risk of developing toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), we assessed the prognostic significance of the anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) immunoblot profile, in addition to AIDS stage, a CD4+ cell count <50/mm3, and an antibody titer ≥150 IU/ml, in patients with CD4 cell counts <200/mm3 and seropositive for T. gondii. Baseline serum samples from 152 patients included in the placebo arm of the ANRS 005-ACTG 154 trial (pyrimethamine versus placebo) were used. The IgG immunoblot profile was determined using a Toxoplasma lysate and read using the Kodak Digital Science 1D image analysis software. Mean follow-up was 15.1 months, and the 1-year incidence of TE was 15.9%. The cumulative probability of TE varied according to the type and number of anti-T. gondii IgG bands and reached 65% at 12 months for patients with IgG bands of 25 and 22 kDa. In a Cox model adjusted for age, gender, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) clinical stage, and CD4 and CD8 cell counts, the incidence of TE was higher when the IgG 22-kDa band (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.4; P < 0.001), the IgG 25-kDa band (HR = 4.7; P < 0.001), or the IgG 69-kDa band (HR = 3.4; P < 0.001) was present and was higher for patients at CDC stage C (HR = 4.9; P < 0.001). T. gondii antibody titer and CD4 cell count were not predictive of TE. Thus, detection of IgG bands of 25, 22, and/or 69 kDa may be helpful for deciding when primary prophylaxis for TE should be started or discontinued, especially in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:11329461

  5. Non-traumatic hernia of the lateral abdominal wall in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Fan, Z; Pan, J; Liu, X; Zhuang, C; Ren, J; Yu, H; Tang, S; Wang, S

    2016-07-01

    Introduction There are several classifications for abdominal hernias, and a non-traumatic lateral wall hernia (LAWH) is a rare type. We report the first case of a patient with LAWH infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Case History A 53-year-old HIV-infected male presented with an abdominal mass. The patient had a history of treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy. A LAWH was diagnosed based on physical examination and findings of computed tomography. Open mesh repair was undertaken successfully. The patient had no evidence of a recurrent hernia during 11 months of follow-up. Conclusions High intra-abdominal pressure and weak connective tissue can lead to LAWHs. Antiretroviral therapy and lipodystrophy can cause LAWHs in HIV-infected patients. PMID:27241599

  6. Tumor necrosis factor alpha induces expression of human immunodeficiency virus in a chronically infected T-cell clone.

    PubMed Central

    Folks, T M; Clouse, K A; Justement, J; Rabson, A; Duh, E; Kehrl, J H; Fauci, A S

    1989-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), also known as cachectin, was demonstrated to induce the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a chronically infected T-cell clone (ACH-2). Concentrations of recombinant TNF-alpha as low as 50 pg/ml induced a significant increase over background of HIV expression in the ACH-2 cells as determined by supernatant reverse transcriptase activity. The HIV-inducing effects of TNF-alpha could not be explained by toxic effects on the cells. In addition, both the uninfected parental cell line (A3.01) and the infected ACH-2 cells were shown to have high-affinity receptors for TNF-alpha. Transient-transfection experiments demonstrated that the inductive effects of TNF-alpha were due to specific activation of the HIV long terminal repeat. These studies provide evidence that TNF-alpha may play a role in the mechanisms of pathogenesis of HIV infection. Images PMID:2784570

  7. A Case of Long-Term Seronegative Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: The Importance of the Humoral Response to HIV

    PubMed Central

    Siemieniuk, Reed A. C.; van der Meer, Frank; van Marle, Guido; Gill, M. John

    2016-01-01

    Background. Seronegative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are exceedingly rare but might inform HIV-host physiology. Methods. We investigate the cause and consequences of a patient infected with HIV who did not mount a humoral response to HIV for 4 years. Results. The patient was confirmed HIV-uninfected by nucleic acid testing 4 months before rapidly progressing to acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The patient's humoral deficit was specific to HIV: he mounted robust humoral responses to all challenge vaccines including influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and all T cell-dependent and -independent serotypes in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The virus had similar gp120 antigenicity to HIV-positive control serum as NL4-3 and YU2 prototype strains. Two human leukocyte antigen alleles associated with rapid progression were identified (B*08 and B*35), and a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope site variant was noted: E277K. Viral decay (t1/2 ≈ 39 weeks) suggested that relatively long-lived cells were the source of ongoing viremia. Human immunodeficiency virus viremia was not suppressed until after the patient developed a humoral immune response, despite therapeutic antiretroviral levels. No resistance was detected by virtual phenotyping of virus obtained from serum or from gastrointestinal biopsies despite considerable antiretroviral selection pressure. Conclusions. Ineffective antibody production may be associated with a subgroup of extremely rapid HIV progressors. Although antiretroviral therapy may be sufficient to slow propagation of infection, it appears to be ineffective for HIV viral clearance in the absence of a humoral response. PMID:26858962

  8. Differential Dynamics of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Lymphocyte Proliferation and Activation in Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amitinder; Hale, Corrina L.; Ramanujan, Saroja; Jain, Rakesh K.; Johnson, R. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Although lymphocyte turnover in chronic human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection has been extensively studied, there is little information on turnover in acute infection. We carried out a prospective kinetic analysis of lymphocyte proliferation in 13 rhesus macaques inoculated with pathogenic SIV. A short-lived dramatic increase in circulating Ki-67+ lymphocytes observed at 1 to 4 weeks was temporally related to the onset of SIV replication. A 5- to 10-fold increase in Ki-67+ CD8+ T lymphocytes and a 2- to 3-fold increase in Ki-67+ CD3− CD8+ natural killer cells accounted for >85% of proliferating lymphocytes at peak proliferation. In contrast, there was little change in the percentage of Ki-67+ CD4+ T lymphocytes during acute infection, although transient increases in Ki-67− and Ki-67+ CD4+ T lymphocytes expressing CD69, Fas, and HLA-DR were observed. A two- to fourfold decline in CD4+ T lymphocytes expressing CD25 and CD69 was seen later in SIV infection. The majority of Ki-67+ CD8+ T lymphocytes were phenotypically CD45RA− CD49dhi Fashi CD25− CD69− CD28− HLA-DR− and persisted at levels twofold above baseline 6 months after SIV infection. Increased CD8+ T-lymphocyte proliferation was associated with cell expansion, paralleled the onset of SIV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity, and had an oligoclonal component. Thus, divergent patterns of proliferation and activation are exhibited by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in early SIV infection and may determine how these cells are differentially affected in AIDS. PMID:10954541

  9. Spatiotemporal dynamics of simian immunodeficiency virus brain infection in CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted rhesus macaques with neuroAIDS.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Samantha L; Rife, Brittany D; Lamers, Susanna L; Nolan, David J; Veras, Nazle M C; Prosperi, Mattia C F; Burdo, Tricia H; Autissier, Patrick; Nowlin, Brian; Goodenow, Maureen M; Suchard, Marc A; Williams, Kenneth C; Salemi, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Despite the success of combined antiretroviral therapy in controlling viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, commonly referred to as neuroAIDS, remain a frequent and poorly understood complication. Infection of CD8(+) lymphocyte-depleted rhesus macaques with the SIVmac251 viral swarm is a well-established rapid disease model of neuroAIDS that has provided critical insight into HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder onset and progression. However, no studies so far have characterized in depth the relationship between intra-host viral evolution and pathogenesis in this model. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) env gp120 sequences were obtained from six infected animals. Sequences were sampled longitudinally from several lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, including individual lobes within the brain at necropsy, for four macaques; two animals were sacrificed at 21 days post-infection (p.i.) to evaluate early viral seeding of the brain. Bayesian phylodynamic and phylogeographic analyses of the sequence data were used to ascertain viral population dynamics and gene flow between peripheral and brain tissues, respectively. A steady increase in viral effective population size, with a peak occurring at ~50-80 days p.i., was observed across all longitudinally monitored macaques. Phylogeographic analysis indicated continual viral seeding of the brain from several peripheral tissues throughout infection, with the last migration event before terminal illness occurring in all macaques from cells within the bone marrow. The results strongly supported the role of infected bone marrow cells in HIV/SIV neuropathogenesis. In addition, our work demonstrated the applicability of Bayesian phylogeography to intra-host studies in order to assess the interplay between viral evolution and pathogenesis. PMID:25205684

  10. Hepatitis C in human immunodeficiency virus co-infected individuals: Is this still a “special population”?

    PubMed Central

    Karageorgopoulos, Drosos E; Allen, Joanna; Bhagani, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A substantial proportion of individuals with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Co-infected individuals are traditionally considered as one of the “special populations” amongst those with chronic HCV, mainly because of faster progression to end-stage liver disease and suboptimal responses to treatment with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin, the benefits of which are often outweighed by toxicity. The advent of the newer direct acting antivirals (DAAs) has given hope that the majority of co-infected individuals can clear HCV. However the “special population” designation may prove an obstacle for those with co-infection to gain access to the new agents, in terms of requirement for separate pre-licensing clinical trials and extensive drug-drug interaction studies. We review the global epidemiology, natural history and pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C in HIV co-infection. The accelerated course of chronic hepatitis C in HIV co-infection is not adequately offset by successful combination antiretroviral therapy. We also review the treatment trials of chronic hepatitis C in HIV co-infected individuals with DAAs and compare them to trials in the HCV mono-infected. There is convincing evidence that HIV co-infection no longer diminishes the response to treatment against HCV in the new era of DAA-based therapy. The management of HCV co-infection should therefore become a priority in the care of HIV infected individuals, along with public health efforts to prevent new HCV infections, focusing particularly on specific patient groups at risk, such as men who have sex with men and injecting drug users. PMID:26244068

  11. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication in acutely infected CD4+ cells by CD8+ cells involves a noncytotoxic mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, C M; Erickson, A L; Hsueh, F C; Levy, J A

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism by which CD8+ T cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals suppress HIV replication in acutely infected CD4+ T cells was investigated. Cytotoxicity was not involved, as the antiviral activity of the CD8+ cells did not correlate with the ability to lyse HIV-infected or uninfected CD4+ T cells. In addition, the frequency of HIV-infected CD4+ cells increased during coculture with CD8+ T cells even in the absence of detectable levels of virus replication. Moreover, separation of the CD4+ and CD8+ cells by a 0.4-micron-pore-size filter delayed HIV replication, indicating a role, at least in part, for a soluble factor. However, cell contact was required for optimal antiviral activity. These results extend further the observation on the mechanism of antiviral HIV activity by CD8+ cells from infected individuals. They support the conclusion that CD8+ cells can play a major role in preventing development of disease in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:1920621

  12. Design and baseline participant characteristics of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemiology Research (HER) Study: a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus infection in US women.

    PubMed

    Smith, D K; Warren, D L; Vlahov, D; Schuman, P; Stein, M D; Greenberg, B L; Holmberg, S D

    1997-09-15

    The prospective, multisite human immunodeficiency (HIV) Epidemiology Research Study was established to define the biologic, psychologic, and social effects of HIV infection on the health of US women. From 1993 to 1995, a total of 871 HIV-infected women and 439 demographically matched, uninfected women aged 16-55 years, half of whom reported injection drug use and half of whom reported only sexual risk behaviors, were recruited in four US cities. Two sites recruited primarily from medical/drug therapy care settings, and two recruited from community sources. Women consented to biannual interviews; physical examination; blood, urine, and cervicovaginal specimen collection and repository; laboratory assays; and abstraction of outpatient and inpatient medical records to document HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related diagnoses. Retention was greater than 88% at the third 6-month follow-up. Lower retention was associated with currently injecting drugs, not having dependent children, and not being infected with HIV at enrollment. In addition to the core study, a variety of nested studies are under way, some in collaboration with other HIV cohorts and various Public Health Service agencies. This cohort is distinct from other HIV longitudinal cohorts in the diversity of its participants and the comprehensive range of measures to study prospectively the biomedical, social, and emotional effects of the HIV epidemic on infected women and those whose behavior puts them at high risk of infection. PMID:9290506

  13. Accumulation of functionally immature myeloid dendritic cells in lymph nodes of rhesus macaques with acute pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Wijewardana, Viskam; Bouwer, Anthea L; Brown, Kevin N; Liu, Xiangdong; Barratt-Boyes, Simon M

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) are key mediators of innate and adaptive immunity to virus infection, but the impact of HIV infection on the mDC response, particularly early in acute infection, is ill-defined. We studied acute pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of rhesus macaques to address this question. The mDC in blood and bone marrow were depleted within 12 days of intravenous infection with SIVmac251, associated with a marked proliferative response. In lymph nodes, mDC were apoptotic, activated and proliferating, despite normal mDC numbers, reflecting a regenerative response that compensated for mDC loss. Blood mDC had increased expression of MHC class II, CCR7 and CD40, whereas in lymph nodes these markers were significantly decreased, indicating that acute infection induced maturation of mDC in blood but resulted in accumulation of immature mDC in lymph nodes. Following SIV infection, lymph node mDC had an increased capacity to secrete tumour necrosis factor-α upon engagement with a Toll-like receptor 7/8 ligand that mimics exposure to viral RNA, and this was inversely correlated with MHC class II and CCR7 expression. Lymph node mDC had an increased ability to capture and cleave soluble antigen, confirming their functionally immature state. These data indicate that acute SIV infection results in increased mDC turnover, leading to accumulation in lymph nodes of immature mDC with an increased responsiveness to virus stimulation. PMID:24684292

  14. The requirement for nucleoporin NUP153 during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection is determined by the viral capsid.

    PubMed

    Matreyek, Kenneth A; Engelman, Alan

    2011-08-01

    Lentiviruses likely infect nondividing cells by commandeering host nuclear transport factors to facilitate the passage of their preintegration complexes (PICs) through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) within nuclear envelopes. Genome-wide small interfering RNA screens previously identified karyopherin β transportin-3 (TNPO3) and NPC component nucleoporin 153 (NUP153) as being important for infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The knockdown of either protein significantly inhibited HIV-1 infectivity, while infection by the gammaretrovirus Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) was unaffected. Here, we establish that primate lentiviruses are particularly sensitive to NUP153 knockdown and investigate HIV-1-encoded elements that contribute to this dependency. Mutants lacking functional Vpr or the central DNA flap remained sensitive to NUP153 depletion, while MLV/HIV-1 chimera viruses carrying MLV matrix, capsid, or integrase became less sensitive when the latter two elements were substituted. Two capsid missense mutant viruses, N74D and P90A, were largely insensitive to NUP153 depletion, as was wild-type HIV-1 when cyclophilin A was depleted simultaneously or when infection was conducted in the presence of cyclosporine A. The codepletion of NUP153 and TNPO3 yielded synergistic effects that outweighed those calculated based on individual knockdowns, indicating potential interdependent roles for these factors during HIV-1 infection. Quantitative PCR revealed normal levels of late reverse transcripts, a moderate reduction of 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles, and a relatively large reduction in integrated proviruses upon NUP153 knockdown. These results suggest that capsid, likely by the qualities of its uncoating, determines whether HIV-1 requires cellular NUP153 for PIC nuclear import. PMID:21593146

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus infection of human astrocytes disrupts blood-brain barrier integrity by a gap junction-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Eugenin, Eliseo A; Clements, Janice E; Zink, M Christine; Berman, Joan W

    2011-06-29

    HIV infection of the CNS is an early event after primary infection, resulting in neurological complications in a significant number of individuals despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). The main cells infected with HIV within the CNS are macrophages/microglia and a small fraction of astrocytes. The role of these few infected astrocytes in the pathogenesis of neuroAIDS has not been examined extensively. Here, we demonstrate that few HIV-infected astrocytes (4.7 ± 2.8% in vitro and 8.2 ± 3.9% in vivo) compromise blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. This BBB disruption is due to endothelial apoptosis, misguided astrocyte end feet, and dysregulation of lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase, BK(Ca) channels, and ATP receptor activation within astrocytes. All of these alterations in BBB integrity induced by a few HIV-infected astrocytes were gap junction dependent, as blocking these channels protected the BBB from HIV-infected astrocyte-mediated compromise. We also demonstrated apoptosis in vivo of BBB cells in contact with infected astrocytes using brain tissue sections from simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques as a model of neuroAIDS, suggesting an important role for these few infected astrocytes in the CNS damage seen with HIV infection. Our findings describe a novel mechanism of bystander BBB toxicity mediated by low numbers of HIV-infected astrocytes and amplified by gap junctions. This mechanism of toxicity contributes to understanding how CNS damage is spread even in the current ART era and how minimal or controlled HIV infection still results in cognitive impairment in a large population of infected individuals. PMID:21715610

  16. Mannose-specific plant lectins from the Amaryllidaceae family qualify as efficient microbicides for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Balzarini, Jan; Hatse, Sigrid; Vermeire, Kurt; Princen, Katrien; Aquaro, Stefano; Perno, Carlo-Federico; De Clercq, Erik; Egberink, Herman; Vanden Mooter, Guy; Peumans, Willy; Van Damme, Els; Schols, Dominique

    2004-10-01

    The plant lectins derived from Galanthus nivalis (Snowdrop) (GNA) and Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) (HHA) selectively inhibited a wide variety of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 strains and clinical (CXCR4- and CCR5-using) isolates in different cell types. They also efficiently inhibited infection of T lymphocytes by a variety of mutant virus strains. GNA and HHA markedly prevented syncytium formation between persistently infected HUT-78/HIV cells and uninfected T lymphocytes. The plant lectins did not measurably affect the antiviral activity of other clinically approved anti-HIV drugs used in the clinic when combined with these drugs. Short exposure of the lectins to cell-free virus particles or persistently HIV-infected HUT-78 cells markedly decreased HIV infectivity and increased the protective (microbicidal) activity of the plant lectins. Flow cytometric analysis and monoclonal antibody binding studies and a PCR-based assay revealed that GNA and HHA do not interfere with CD4, CXCR4, CCR5, and DC-SIGN and do not specifically bind with the membrane of uninfected cells. Instead, GNA and HHA likely interrupt the virus entry process by interfering with the virus envelope glycoprotein. HHA and GNA are odorless, colorless, and tasteless, and they are not cytotoxic, antimetabolically active, or mitogenic to human primary T lymphocytes at concentrations that exceed their antivirally active concentrations by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude. GNA and HHA proved stable at high temperature (50 degrees C) and low pH (5.0) for prolonged time periods and can be easily formulated in gel preparations for microbicidal use; they did not agglutinate human erythrocytes and were not toxic to mice when administered intravenously. PMID:15388446

  17. Impact of antiretroviral therapy on lipid metabolism of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: Old and new drugs

    PubMed Central

    da Cunha, Joel; Maselli, Luciana Morganti Ferreira; Stern, Ana Carolina Bassi; Spada, Celso; Bydlowski, Sérgio Paulo

    2015-01-01

    For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, the 1990s were marked by the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) representing a new perspective of life for these patients. The use of HAART was shown to effectively suppress the replication of HIV-1 and dramatically reduce mortality and morbidity, which led to a better and longer quality of life for HIV-1-infected patients. Apart from the substantial benefits that result from the use of various HAART regimens, laboratory and clinical experience has shown that HAART can induce severe and considerable adverse effects related to metabolic complications of lipid metabolism, characterized by signs of lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, central adiposity, dyslipidemia, increased risk of cardiovascular disease and even an increased risk of atherosclerosis. New drugs are being studied, new therapeutic strategies are being implemented, and the use of statins, fibrates, and inhibitors of intestinal cholesterol absorption have been effective alternatives. Changes in diet and lifestyle have also shown satisfactory results. PMID:25964872

  18. Cold-induced pseudoneutropenia in human immunodeficiency virus infection: first case report and review of related articles.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Prashant; Agrawal, Dipti; Kailash, J; Singh, Sompal

    2014-09-01

    Cold agglutination of erythrocyte or platelet aggregation in vitro due to cold agglutination are well recognized and extensively studied. Aggregation of leucocyte is a rare hematological phenomenon resulting in a spurious low leucocyte count performed using automated hematology analyzers. Aggregation of leucocyte may relate to malignancy, lymphoproliferative disorders, infection, liver diseases, or autoimmune disorders. It is believed that the mechanism of leucocyte aggregation is mainly related to the use of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant or is temperature-mediated. Leucoagglutination is associated with either a spurious leucopenia or an underestimation of leucocytosis. This can adversely affect management decisions in terms of unnecessary management of leucopenia or ignoring a leucocytosis that may be indicator of an underlying serious disease. To our knowledge, we report here for the first time the occurrence of pseudoneutropenia due to temperature-mediated, EDTA-independent neutrophil agglutination in adult with human immunodeficiency virus infection. PMID:25332564

  19. Comparison of depression, anxiety, stress, and related factors among women and men with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Saadat, Mina; Behboodi, Zahra M.; Saadat, Ebrahim

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To compare depression, anxiety, stress, and related factors among women and men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: In this cross-sectional survey conducted between November and September 2013, 200 participants with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) attending Consultation Centers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants with HIV/AIDS were interviewed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales questionnaire (DASS21 ). RESULTS: There were significant associations between marital status of women and the level of depression (P < 0.05). However, the mean depression and anxiety in women are greater than men (P < 0.05), and the mean stress in men is greater than women (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection is related with psychiatric disorders. According to the results, women are more vulnerable to depression and anxiety and they need more care. Management of these psychiatric disorders is very important and requires innovative comprehensive approaches. PMID:25838749

  20. Antibody Responses After Analytic Treatment Interruption in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Individuals on Early Initiated Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Bricault, Christine A.; Shields, Jennifer; Bayne, Madeleine; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Seaman, Michael S.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    The examination of antibody responses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected individuals in the setting of antiretroviral treatment (ART) interruption can provide insight into the evolution of antibody responses during viral rebound. In this study, we assessed antibody responses in 20 subjects in AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5187, wherein subjects were treated with antiretroviral therapy during acute/early HIV-1 infection, underwent analytic treatment interruption, and subsequently demonstrated viral rebound. Our data suggest that early initiation of ART arrests the maturation of HIV-1-specific antibody responses, preventing epitope diversification of antibody binding and the development of functional neutralizing capacity. Antibody responses do not appear permanently blunted, however, because viral rebound triggered the resumption of antibody maturation in our study. We also found that antibody responses measured by these assays did not predict imminent viral rebound. These data have important implications for the HIV-1 vaccine and eradication fields. PMID:27419172

  1. Combination of CCR5 and CXCR4 Inhibitors in Therapy of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection: In Vitro Studies of Mixed Virus Infections†

    PubMed Central

    Rusconi, Stefano; La Seta Catamancio, Simona; Citterio, Paola; Bulgheroni, Elisabetta; Croce, Francesco; Herrmann, Steven H.; Offord, Robin E.; Galli, Massimo; Hirsch, Martin S.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the combined anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) effects of a derivative of stroma-derived factor 1β (SDF-1β), Met-SDF-1β, and a modified form of RANTES, aminooxypentane (AOP)-RANTES. The antiviral agents were tested singly or in combination at 95 and 99% virus inhibitory concentrations. Clinical R5 and X4 HIV-1 isolates were used. AOP-RANTES inhibited R5 but not X4 viruses, whereas Met-SDF-1β had the opposite effect. Combinations of these compounds inhibited mixed infections with R5 and X4 viruses (95 to 99%), whereas single drugs were less inhibitory (32 to 61%). Combinations of R5 and X4 inhibitors are promising and deserve further evaluation. PMID:10982382

  2. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Growth of Infected T Cells by the Immunosuppressive Drugs Cyclosporin A and FK 506

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpas, Abraham; Lowdell, Mark; Jacobson, S. Kim; Hill, Fergal

    1992-09-01

    The effects of the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK 506 were studied on cells chronically infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as well as on uninfected and newly infected cells. When cells chronically infected with HIV-1 or with HIV-2 were cocultivated with uninfected cells in the presence of cyclosporin A or FK 506 there was a delay in the formation of syncytia and of cytopathic effects. This inhibitory effect was not due to decreased membrane expression of CD4. In addition, there was an ≈100-fold reduction in the yield of infectious HIV-1 when the infected cells were grown in the presence of these drugs, a finding consistent with other evidence of decreased HIV expression. Both drugs were found to inhibit the growth of chronically infected cells at concentrations that did not inhibit the growth of the uninfected cells. These results, demonstrating that cyclosporin A and FK 506 interfere with HIV production and selectively inhibit the growth of infected cells, suggest that they may be useful in the treatment of this infection and indicate further cellular targets for antiviral agents.

  3. Incidence of cardiac abnormalities in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection: The Prospective P2C2 HIV Study

    PubMed Central

    Starc, Thomas J.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Easley, Kirk A.; Kaplan, Samuel; Bricker, J. Timothy; Colan, Steven D.; Lai, Wyman W.; Gersony, Welton M.; Sopko, George; Moodie, Douglas S.; Schluchter, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the 5-year cumulative incidence of cardiac dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. Study design We used a prospective cohort design, enrolling children at 10 hospitals. Group I included 205 vertically HIV-infected children enrolled at a median age of 1.9 years. Group II consisted of 600 HIV-exposed children enrolled prenatally or as neonates, of whom 93 were ultimately HIV-infected. The main outcome measures were echocardiographic indexes of left ventricular dysfunction. Results In group I, the 5-year cumulative incidence of left ventricular fractional shortening ≤25% was 28.0%. The 5-year incidence of left ventricular end-diastolic dilatation was 21.7%, and heart failure and/or the use of cardiac medications 28.8%. The mortality rate 1 year after the diagnosis of heart failure was 52.5% [95% CI, 30.5-74.5]. Within group II, the 5-year cumulative incidence of decreased fractional shortening was 10.7% in the HIV-infected compared with 3.1% in the HIV-uninfected children (P = .01). Left ventricular dilation, heart failure, and/or the use of cardiac medications were more common in infected compared with uninfected children. Conclusions During 5 years of follow-up, cardiac dysfunction occurred in 18% to 39% of HIV-infected children and was associated with an increased risk of death. We recommend that HIV-infected children undergo routine echocardiographic surveillance for cardiac abnormalities. PMID:12219051

  4. Early depletion of proliferating B cells of germinal center in rapidly progressive simian immunodeficiency virus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhiqiang . E-mail: zhiqiang_zhang@merck.com; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Schleif, William A.; Chen, Minchun; Citron, Michael; Davies, Mary-Ellen; Burns, Janine; Liang, Xiaoping; Fu, Tong-Ming; Handt, Larry; Emini, Emilio A.; Shiver, John W.

    2007-05-10

    Lack of virus specific antibody response is commonly observed in both HIV-1-infected humans and SIV-infected monkeys with rapid disease progression. However, the mechanisms underlying this important observation still remain unclear. In a titration study of a SIVmac239 viral stock, three out of six animals with viral inoculation rapidly progressed to AIDS within 5 months. Unexpectedly, there was no obvious depletion of CD4{sup +} T cells in both peripheral and lymph node (LN) compartments in these animals. Instead, progressive depletion of proliferating B cells and disruption of the follicular dendritic cell (FDC) network in germinal centers (GC) was evident in the samples collected at as early as 20 days after viral challenge. This coincided with undetectable, or weak and transient, virus-specific antibody responses over the course of infection. In situ hybridization of SIV RNA in the LN samples revealed a high frequency of SIV productively infected cells and large amounts of accumulated viral RNA in the GCs in these animals. Early severe depletion of GC proliferating B cells and disruption of the FDC network may thus result in an inability to mount a virus-specific antibody response in rapid progressors, which has been shown to contribute to accelerated disease progression of SIV infection.

  5. Autologous antibody response against the principal neutralizing domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolated from infected humans.

    PubMed Central

    Holmbäck, K; Kusk, P; Hulgaard, E F; Bugge, T H; Scheibel, E; Lindhardt, B O

    1993-01-01

    High titers of neutralizing antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are directed primarily against the third hypervariable domain (V3) of the virion envelope glycoprotein gp120. This region has been designated the principal neutralizing domain of HIV-1. Because the frequency and significance of autologous V3 antibodies in natural infection are not fully clarified, we have cloned, sequenced, and expressed the V3 domain from virus of HIV-1-infected patients to test the autologous and heterologous V3 antibody response. The resulting recombinant Escherichia coli V3 fusion proteins reacted strongly with both autologous and heterologous patient antibodies in Western blots. Thirty-one different V3 fragments were cloned from 24 hemophiliac patients with different immunological and clinical statuses. Antibody reactivity against the autologous V3 fusion proteins was detected in all serum samples except one; moreover, all serum samples contained antibody reactivity against a vast majority of heterologous fusion proteins despite significant amino acid variability in V3. The results suggest that V3 antibodies are highly prevalent; further, we find no association between the stage of the HIV-1 infection and the presence of V3 antibodies. Images PMID:8437232

  6. Human Herpesvirus 6 Infects Dendritic Cells and Suppresses Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication in Coinfected Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Asada, Hideo; Klaus-Kovtun, Vera; Golding, Hana; Katz, Stephen I.; Blauvelt, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) has been implicated as a cofactor in the progressive loss of CD4+ T cells observed in AIDS patients. Because dendritic cells (DC) play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, we studied the infection of DC by HHV-6 and coinfection of DC by HHV-6 and HIV. Purified immature DC (derived from adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4) could be infected with HHV-6, as determined by PCR analyses, intracellular monoclonal antibody staining, and presence of virus in culture supernatants. However, HHV-6-infected DC demonstrated neither cytopathic changes nor functional defects. Interestingly, HHV-6 markedly suppressed HIV replication and syncytium formation in coinfected DC cultures. This HHV-6-mediated anti-HIV effect was DC specific, occurred when HHV-6 was added either before or after HIV, and was not due to decreased surface expression or function of CD4, CXCR4, or CCR5. Conversely, HIV had no demonstrable effect on HHV-6 replication. These findings suggest that HHV-6 may protect DC from HIV-induced cytopathicity in AIDS patients. We also demonstrate that interactions between HIV and herpesviruses are complex and that the observable outcome of dual infection is dependent on the target cell type. PMID:10196298

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jake; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell

    2016-08-01

    Improved survival with combination antiretroviral therapy has led to a dramatic increase in the number of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals 50 years of age or older such that by 2020 more than 50% of HIV-infected persons in the United States will be above this age. Recent studies confirm that antiretroviral therapy should be offered to all HIV-infected patients regardless of age, symptoms, CD4+ cell count, or HIV viral load. However, when compared with HIV-uninfected populations, even with suppression of measurable HIV replication, older individuals are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease, malignancies, liver disease, and other comorbidities. PMID:27394024

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of cells and tissues from the upper and lower human female reproductive tract.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, A L; Edkins, R D; Rier, S E; Yeaman, G R; Stern, J E; Fanger, M W; Wira, C R

    1997-01-01

    Viable tissue sections and isolated cell cultures from the human fallopian tube, uterus, cervix, and vaginal mucosa were examined for susceptibility to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We examined infectivity by using the monocytotropic strain HIV-1(JR-FL) and several primary isolates of HIV-1 obtained from infected neonates. HIV-1 infection was measured by p24 production in short-term culture and by immunofluorescence detection of HIV-1 Nef and p24 proteins by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Three-color immunofluorescence was used to phenotype HIV-infected cells within tissue sections from each site. Our findings indicate that epithelial, stromal, and dendritic cells and cells with CD14+ CD4+, CD14-CD4-, and CD4+ CD14- phenotypes from the female reproductive tract are infectable with HIV-1. Of importance is the finding that tissues from the upper reproductive tract are susceptible to infection with HIV-1. Moreover, tissue samples from women in all stages of the menstrual cycle, including postmenopausal women (inactive), could be infected with HIV-1. Female reproductive tract cells required a minimum of 60 min of exposure to HIV-1 in order for infection to occur, in contrast to peripheral blood lymphocytes, which became infected after being exposed to HIV-1 for only 1 min. These findings demonstrate that HIV-1 can infect cells and tissues from different sites within the female reproductive tract and suggest that multiple cell types, including epithelial cells, may be targets for the initial infection by HIV-1. PMID:9094621

  9. Epstein-Barr virus-positive and -negative B-cell lines can be infected with human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2.

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, J E; Calender, A; Mulder, C

    1988-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can infect CD4+ lymphocytes, monocytes-macrophages, and various other cell lines, including B-cell lines. To study the parameters of B-cell infections, we examined the susceptibility of 24 B-lymphoid cell lines to both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. These cell lines included a series of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome-negative Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines and their EBV-converted counterparts. To infect these cells we used two HIV-1 isolates and one HIV-2 isolate. Infections were monitored with a cytoplasmic RNA dot-blot and a syncytium assay. HIV infection was also studied by a novel method based on electrophoresis of DNA liberated from cells that were lysed in situ in the well of an agarose gel. All human B-cell lines could be infected with HIV-1, regardless of the presence of EBV genomes; thus, EBV infection had no major effect on HIV susceptibility of B-cell lines. Integrated proviral HIV genomes could be detected by Southern blot analysis of DNA extracted from long-term, non-HIV-producing B-cell lines. This study suggests that B-lymphoid cells may serve as reservoirs for latent or persistent HIV infections in vivo, even in the absence of EBV infection. Images PMID:2841499

  10. Rhesus macaques previously infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus are protected from vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIVmac239.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C J; McChesney, M B; Lü, X; Dailey, P J; Chutkowski, C; Lu, D; Brosio, P; Roberts, B; Lu, Y

    1997-01-01

    Nontraumatic vaginal inoculation of rhesus macaques with a simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SIV/HIV) chimera containing the envelope gene from HIV-1 89.6 (SHIV 89.6) results in systemic infection (Y. Lu, B. Brosio, M. Lafaile, J. Li, R. G. Collman, J. Sodroski, and C. J. Miller, J. Virol. 70:3045-3050, 1996). A total of five rhesus macaques have each been infected by exposure to at least three intravaginal inoculations of SHIV 89.6. The SHIV 89.6 infection is characterized by a transient viremia that evokes humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV and SIV antigens, but disease does not develop in animals infected with SHIV 89.6. To determine if a previous infection with SHIV 89.6 by vaginal inoculation could protect animals from vaginal challenge with pathogenic SIV, all five animals were intravaginally inoculated twice with pathogenic SIV-mac239. After challenge, all of the SHIV-immunized animals had low or undetectable viral RNA levels in plasma compared to control animals. Three of the five of the SHIV-immunized animals remained virus isolation negative for more than 8 months, while two became virus isolation positive. The presence of SIV Gag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and SIV-specific antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions at the time of challenge was associated with resistance to pathogenic SIV infection after vaginal challenge. These results suggest that protection from sexual transmission of HIV may be possible by effectively stimulating both humoral and cellular antiviral immunity in the systemic and genital mucosal immune compartments. PMID:9032322

  11. Human papillomavirus detection in women with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV infection leads to a decreasing immune response, thereby facilitating the appearance of other infections, one of the most important ones being HPV. However, studies are needed for determining associations between immunodeficiency caused by HIV and/or the presence of HPV during the course of cervical lesions and their degree of malignancy. This study describes the cytological findings revealed by the Papanicolaou test, laboratory characteristics and HPV molecular profile in women with and without HIV infection. Methods A total of 216 HIV-positive and 1,159 HIV-negative women were invited to participate in the study; PCR was used for the molecular detection of HPV in cervical samples. Statistical analysis (such as percentages, Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test when applicable) determined human papillomavirus (HPV) infection frequency (single and multiple) and the distribution of six types of high-risk-HPV in women with and without HIV infection. Likewise, a logistic regression model was run to evaluate the relationship between HIV-HPV infection and different risk factors. Results An association was found between the frequency of HPV infection and infection involving 2 or more HPV types (also known as multiple HPV infection) in HIV-positive women (69.0% and 54.2%, respectively); such frequency was greater than that found in HIV-negative women (44.3% and 22.7%, respectively). Statistically significant differences were observed between both groups (p = 0.001) regarding HPV presence (both in infection and multiple HPV infection). HPV-16 was the most prevalent type in the population being studied (p = 0.001); other viral types had variable distribution in both groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative). HPV detection was associated with <500 cell/mm3 CD4-count (p = 0.004) and higher HIV-viral-load (p = 0.001). HPV-DNA detection, <200 cell/mm3 CD4-count (p = 0.001), and higher HIV-viral-load (p = 0.001) were associated with

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides from Amphibian Skin Potently Inhibit Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Transfer of Virus from Dendritic Cells to T Cells

    PubMed Central

    VanCompernolle, Scott E.; Taylor, R. Jeffery; Oswald-Richter, Kyra; Jiang, Jiyang; Youree, Bryan E.; Bowie, John H.; Tyler, Michael J.; Conlon, J. Michael; Wade, David; Aiken, Christopher; Dermody, Terence S.; KewalRamani, Vineet N.; Rollins-Smith, Louise A.; Unutmaz, Derya

    2005-01-01

    Topical antimicrobicides hold great promise in reducing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Amphibian skin provides a rich source of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides including some that have antiviral activity. We tested 14 peptides derived from diverse amphibian species for the capacity to inhibit HIV infection. Three peptides (caerin 1.1, caerin 1.9, and maculatin 1.1) completely inhibited HIV infection of T cells within minutes of exposure to virus at concentrations that were not toxic to target cells. These peptides also suppressed infection by murine leukemia virus but not by reovirus, a structurally unrelated nonenveloped virus. Preincubation with peptides prevented viral fusion to target cells and disrupted the HIV envelope. Remarkably, these amphibian peptides also were highly effective in inhibiting the transfer of HIV by dendritic cells (DCs) to T cells, even when DCs were transiently exposed to peptides 8 h after virus capture. These data suggest that amphibian-derived peptides can access DC-sequestered HIV and destroy the virus before it can be transferred to T cells. Thus, amphibian-derived antimicrobial peptides show promise as topical inhibitors of mucosal HIV transmission and provide novel tools to understand the complex biology of HIV capture by DCs. PMID:16140737

  13. Identifying the target cell in primary simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection: highly activated memory CD4(+) T cells are rapidly eliminated in early SIV infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Veazey, R S; Tham, I C; Mansfield, K G; DeMaria, M; Forand, A E; Shvetz, D E; Chalifoux, L V; Sehgal, P K; Lackner, A A

    2000-01-01

    It has recently been shown that rapid and profound CD4(+) T-cell depletion occurs almost exclusively within the intestinal tract of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques within days of infection. Here we demonstrate (by three- and four-color flow cytometry) that this depletion is specific to a definable subset of CD4(+) T cells, namely, those having both a highly and/or acutely activated (CD69(+) CD38(+) HLA-DR(+)) and memory (CD45RA(-) Leu8(-)) phenotype. Moreover, we demonstrate that this subset of helper T cells is found primarily within the intestinal lamina propria. Viral tropism for this particular cell type (which has been previously suggested by various studies in vitro) could explain why profound CD4(+) T-cell depletion occurs in the intestine and not in peripheral lymphoid tissues in early SIV infection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an acute loss of this specific subset of activated memory CD4(+) T cells may also be detected in peripheral blood and lymph nodes in early SIV infection. However, since this particular cell type is present in such small numbers in circulation, its loss does not significantly affect total CD4(+) T cell counts. This finding suggests that SIV and, presumably, human immunodeficiency virus specifically infect, replicate in, and eliminate definable subsets of CD4(+) T cells in vivo. PMID:10590091

  14. Dynamics of CCR5 Expression by CD4+ T Cells in Lymphoid Tissues during Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Veazey, Ronald S.; Mansfield, Keith G.; Tham, Irene C.; Carville, Angela C.; Shvetz, Daniel E.; Forand, Amy E.; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2000-01-01

    Early viral replication and profound CD4+ T-cell depletion occur preferentially in intestinal tissues of macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Here we show that a much higher percentage of CD4+ T cells in the intestine express CCR5 compared with those found in the peripheral blood, spleen, or lymph nodes. In addition, the selectivity and extent of the CD4+ T-cell loss in SIV infection may depend upon these cells coexpressing CCR5 and having a “memory” phenotype (CD45RA−). Following intravenous infection with SIVmac251, memory CD4+ CCR5+ T cells were selectively eliminated within 14 days in all major lymphoid tissues (intestine, spleen, and lymph nodes). However, the effect on CD4+ T-cell numbers was most profound in the intestine, where cells of this phenotype predominate. The CD4+ T cells that remain after 14 days of infection lacked CCR5 and/or were naive (CD45RA+). Furthermore, when animals in the terminal stages of SIV infection (with AIDS) were examined, virtually no CCR5-expressing CD4+ T cells were found in lymphoid tissues, and all of the remaining CD4+ T cells were naive and coexpressed CXCR4. These findings suggest that chemokine receptor usage determines which cells are targeted for SIV infection and elimination in vivo. PMID:11069995

  15. Antiviral treatment of feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats with (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine.

    PubMed

    Taffin, Elien; Paepe, Dominique; Goris, Nesya; Auwerx, Joeri; Debille, Mariella; Neyts, Johan; Van de Maele, Isabel; Daminet, Sylvie

    2015-02-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), the causative agent of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in cats (feline AIDS), is a ubiquitous health threat to the domestic and feral cat population, also triggering disease in wild animals. No registered antiviral compounds are currently available to treat FIV-infected cats. Several human antiviral drugs have been used experimentally in cats, but not without the development of serious adverse effects. Here we report on the treatment of six naturally FIV-infected cats, suffering from moderate to severe disease, with the antiretroviral compound (R)-9-(2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine ([R]-PMPDAP), a close analogue of tenofovir, a widely prescribed anti-HIV drug in human medicine. An improvement in the average Karnofsky score (pretreatment 33.2 ± 9.4%, post-treatment 65±12.3%), some laboratory parameters (ie, serum amyloid A and gammaglobulins) and a decrease of FIV viral load in plasma were noted in most cats. The role of concurrent medication in ameliorating the Karnofsky score, as well as the possible development of haematological side effects, are discussed. Side effects, when noted, appeared mild and reversible upon cessation of treatment. Although strong conclusions cannot be drawn owing to the small number of patients and lack of a placebo-treated control group, the activity of (R)-PMPDAP, as observed here, warrants further investigation. PMID:24782459

  16. Effectiveness of Health Education Teachers and School Nurses Teaching Sexually Transmitted Infections/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Knowledge and Skills in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borawski, Elaine A.; Tufts, Kimberly Adams; Trapl, Erika S.; Hayman, Laura L.; Yoder, Laura D.; Lovegreen, Loren D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We examined the differential impact of a well-established human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) curriculum, Be Proud! Be Responsible!, when taught by school nurses and health education classroom teachers within a high school curricula. Methods: Group-randomized intervention study of 1357 ninth and…

  17. Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection (HIV/STI) Testing and Disclosure among HIV-Negative Collegiate Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Fuchs, Erika L.; Brady, Sonya S.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing and disclosure. Participants: Nine hundred thirty HIV-negative collegiate men who have sex with men (MSM) who completed an online survey about alcohol use and…

  18. Quantitative analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected CD4(+) cell proteome: Dysregulated cell cycle progression and nuclear transport coincide with robust virus production

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Eric Y.; Qian, Weijun; Diamond, Deborah L.; Liu, Tao; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.

    2007-07-01

    Relatively little is known at the functional genomic level about the global host response to HIV-1 infection. Microarray analyses by several laboratories, including our own, have revealed that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection causes significant changes in host mRNA abundance and regulation of several cellular biological pathways. However, it remains unclear what consequences these changes bring about at the protein level. Here we report the expression levels of ~3,200 proteins assessed in the CD4+ CEMx174 cell line after infection with HIV-1 LAI, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with stable isotope labeling and the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach. Further, we found that 687 (21%) proteins changed in abundance at the peak of virus production at 36h post-infection. Pathway analysis revealed that the differential expression of proteins were concentrated in select biological pathways, exemplified by ubiquitin conjugating enzymes in the ubiquitination, carrier proteins in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, cyclin-dependent kinase in cell cycle progression, and pyruvate dehydrogenase of the citrate cycle. Moreover, we observed changes in the abundance of proteins with known interactions with HIV-1 viral proteins. Our proteomic analysis captured changes in the host protein milieu at the time of robust virus production, accompanied by a moderate accumulation of G1/G0-phase cells. We will discuss the contributions of these changes to virus production in the infected cells.

  19. Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Containing a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype-E Envelope Gene: Persistent Infection, CD4+ T-Cell Depletion, and Mucosal Membrane Transmission in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Himathongkham, Sunee; Halpin, Nancy S.; Li, Jinling; Stout, Michael W.; Miller, Christopher J.; Luciw, Paul A.

    2000-01-01

    The envelope (env) glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) determines several viral properties (e.g., coreceptor usage, cell tropism, and cytopathicity) and is a major target of antiviral immune responses. Most investigations on env have been conducted on subtype-B viral strains, prevalent in North America and Europe. Our study aimed to analyze env genes of subtype-E viral strains, prevalent in Asia and Africa, with a nonhuman primate model for lentivirus infection and AIDS. To this end, we constructed a simian immunodeficiency virus/HIV-1 subtype-E (SHIV) recombinant clone by replacing the env ectodomain of the SHIV-33 clone with the env ectodomain from the subtype-E strain HIV-1CAR402, which was isolated from an individual in the Central African Republic. Virus from this recombinant clone, designated SHIV-E-CAR, replicated efficiently in macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Accordingly, juvenile macaques were inoculated with cell-free SHIV-E-CAR by the intravenous or intravaginal route; virus replicated in these animals but did not produce hematological abnormalities. In an attempt to elicit the pathogenic potential of the recombinant clone, we serially passaged this viral clone via transfusion of blood and bone marrow through juvenile macaques to produce SHIV-E-P4 (fourth-passage virus). The serially passaged virus established productive infection and CD4+ T-cell depletion in juvenile macaques inoculated by either the intravenous or the intravaginal route. Determination of the coreceptor usage of SHIV-E-CAR and serially passaged SHIV-E-P4 indicated that both of these viruses utilized CXCR4 as a coreceptor. In summary, the serially passaged SHIV subtype-E chimeric virus will be important for studies aimed at developing a nonhuman primate model for analyzing the functions of subtype-E env genes in viral transmission and pathogenesis and for vaccine challenge experiments with macaques immunized with HIV-1 env antigens. PMID:10933692

  20. Neutralizing Antibodies in Sera from Macaques Infected with Chimeric Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Containing the Envelope Glycoproteins of either a Laboratory-Adapted Variant or a Primary Isolate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Montefiori, David C.; Reimann, Keith A.; Wyand, Michael S.; Manson, Kelledy; Lewis, Mark G.; Collman, Ronald G.; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Bolognesi, Dani P.; Letvin, Norman L.

    1998-01-01

    The magnitude and breadth of neutralizing antibodies raised in response to infection with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in rhesus macaques were evaluated. Infection with either SHIV-HXB2, SHIV-89.6, or SHIV-89.6PD raised high-titer neutralizing antibodies to the homologous SHIV (SHIV-89.6P in the case of SHIV-89.6PD-infected animals) and significant titers of neutralizing antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains MN and SF-2. With few exceptions, however, titers of neutralizing antibodies to heterologous SHIV were low or undetectable. The antibodies occasionally neutralized heterologous primary isolates of HIV-1; these antibodies required >40 weeks of infection to reach detectable levels. Notable was the potent neutralization of the HIV-1 89.6 primary isolate by serum samples from SHIV-89.6-infected macaques. These results demonstrate that SHIV-HXB2, SHIV-89.6, and SHIV-89.6P possess highly divergent, strain-specific neutralization epitopes. The results also provide insights into the requirements for raising neutralizing antibodies to primary isolates of HIV-1. PMID:9525675

  1. Infection frequency of dendritic cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes in spleens of human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, D; Autran, B; Cheynier, R; Wain-Hobson, S; Clauvel, J P; Oksenhendler, E; Debré, P; Hosmalin, A

    1995-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are specialized antigen-presenting leukocytes that are responsible for the activation of naive as well as memory T lymphocytes. If infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), DC may transfer virus to CD4+ lymphocytes. However, the question of whether DC are infected in vivo is controversial. As HIV infection is more active in secondary lymphoid organs than in blood, infection of splenic DC isolated from HIV-seropositive patients was investigated. Splenic DC were first enriched and characterized by flow cytometry from HIV- donors. After direct isolation, they were negative for monocyte and T- and B-lymphocyte markers, negative for CD1a, but positive for major histocompatibility complex class II and CD4. After in vitro maturation, major histocompatibility complex class II expression increased, while CD4 expression was lost. Extensive purification from the spleens of seven HIV+ patients was performed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The frequency of cells harboring HIV DNA in purified populations was quantified by limiting-dilution PCR. Directly isolated DC (average, 1/3,000; range, 1/720 to 1/18,000) were in each patient 10 to 100 times less infected than CD4+ T lymphocytes (average, 1/52; range, 1/17 to 1/190). On average, 1/1,450 (1/320 to 1/6,100) unseparated mononuclear splenocytes (containing 5% CD4+ lymphocytes) harbored HIV DNA. In conclusion, in these HIV+ patient spleens, DC seem to be infected, but HIV-DNA positive CD4+ T lymphocytes accounted for the vast majority of infected mononuclear splenocytes. PMID:7609039

  2. Divergent Kinetics of Proliferating T Cell Subsets in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Infection: SIV Eliminates the “First Responder” CD4+ T Cells in Primary Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolei; Xu, Huanbin; Pahar, Bapi; Lackner, Andrew A.

    2013-01-01

    Although increased lymphocyte turnover in chronic human immunodeficiency virus and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection has been reported in blood, there is little information on cell turnover in tissues, particularly in primary SIV infection. Here we examined the levels of proliferating T cell subsets in mucosal and peripheral lymphoid tissues of adult macaques throughout SIV infection. To specifically label cells in S-phase division, all animals were inoculated with bromodeoxyuridine 24 h prior to sampling. In healthy macaques, the highest levels of proliferating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were in blood and, to a lesser extent, in spleen. Substantial percentages of proliferating cells were also found in intestinal tissues, including the jejunum, ileum, and colon, but very few proliferating cells were detected in lymph nodes (axillary and mesenteric). Moreover, essentially all proliferating T cells in uninfected animals coexpressed CD95 and many coexpressed CCR5 in the tissues examined. Confocal microscopy also demonstrated that proliferating cells were substantial viral target cells for SIV infection and viral replication. After acute SIV infection, percentages of proliferating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were significantly higher in tissues of chronically infected macaques and macaques with AIDS than in those of the controls. Surprisingly, however, we found that proliferating CD4+ T cells were selectively decreased in very early infection (8 to 10 days postinoculation [dpi]). In contrast, levels of proliferating CD8+ T cells rapidly increased after SIV infection, peaked by 13 to 21 dpi, and thereafter remained significantly higher than those in the controls. Taken together, these findings suggest that SIV selectively infects and destroys dividing, nonspecific CD4+ T cells in acute infection, resulting in homeostatic changes and perhaps continuing loss of replication capacity to respond to nonspecific and, later, SIV-specific antigens. PMID:23596288

  3. Polymorphisms in the CCR5 promoter region influence disease progression in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children.

    PubMed

    Ometto, L; Bertorelle, R; Mainardi, M; Zanchetta, M; Tognazzo, S; Rampon, O; Ruga, E; Chieco-Bianchi, L; De Rossi, A

    2001-03-01

    The effect of CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) promoter polymorphisms on the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease was studied in 73 HIV-1-infected children. The CCR5(59338-59537) promoter haplotype, CCR5-59029A/G polymorphism, and CCR5Delta32 and CCR2-64I alterations were investigated. After exclusion of carriers of CCR5Delta32 or CCR2-64I, Kaplan-Meier analysis disclosed that children with the P1/P1(59353C,59356C,59402A) genotype progressed faster to disease than did children with other haplotypes (P=.016). When CCR2-64I carriers were included, this effect had borderline significance (P=.065) and was lost when CCR5Delta32 carriers were also considered (P=.387). The P1/P1 effect was strongest early after infection, when progression to disease was mainly associated with CCR5 coreceptor-using viruses. These results indicate that the P1/P1 genotype is predictive of rapid progression in HIV-1-infected children lacking CCR5Delta32 or CCR5-64I alleles. The observation of a linkage disequilibrium between P1 and 59029A might explain the previously reported association between 59029A homozygosity and rapid disease progression. PMID:11181160

  4. Serum zinc concentrations and depression in persons with Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection: The positive living with HIV (POLH) study.

    PubMed

    Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Jacelon, Cynthia S; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Palmer, Paula H; Poudel, Krishna C

    2016-07-30

    Low levels of serum zinc concentrations and depression are common in persons infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Low levels of serum zinc concentrations may increase risk of depression in general population. However, research on the role of zinc in depression among HIV- infected person is limited. We assessed the association between serum zinc concentrations and depression in HIV-infected persons. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 311 HIV-positive people (177 men and 134 women) aged 18-60 years residing in Kathmandu, Nepal. The atomic absorption method was used to measure serum zinc concentrations and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-Ia method was used to measure depression, with cut off score 20 or higher consistent with clinically significant depression. Relationships were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Serum zinc concentrations were significantly inversely associated with depression in all participants and in men but not in women. Participants with the highest tertile of serum zinc concentrations had a significantly decreased risk of depression in men but not in women. Serum zinc concentrations were inversely associated with depressive symptoms scores in HIV-infected men. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the role of zinc in depression among persons infected with HIV. PMID:27255158

  5. Envelope-specific B-cell populations in African green monkeys chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruijun; Martinez, David R.; Nguyen, Quang N.; Pollara, Justin; Arifin, Trina; Stolarchuk, Christina; Foulger, Andrew; Amos, Josh D.; Parks, Robert; Himes, Jonathon E.; Wang, Minyue; Edwards, Regina W.; Trama, Ashley M.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Colvin, Lisa; Dewar, Ken; Juretic, Nikoleta; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Ferrari, Guido; Liao, Hua-Xin; Permar, Sallie R.

    2016-01-01

    African green monkeys (AGMs) are natural primate hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Interestingly, features of the envelope-specific antibody responses in SIV-infected AGMs are distinct from that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys, including gp120-focused responses and rapid development of autologous neutralization. Yet, the lack of genetic tools to evaluate B-cell lineages hinders potential use of this unique non-human primate model for HIV vaccine development. Here we define features of the AGM Ig loci and compare the proportion of Env-specific memory B-cell populations to that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. AGMs appear to have a higher proportion of Env-specific memory B cells that are mainly gp120 directed. Furthermore, AGM gp120-specific monoclonal antibodies display robust antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and CD4-dependent virion capture activity. Our results support the use of AGMs to model induction of functional gp120-specific antibodies by HIV vaccine strategies. PMID:27381634

  6. Envelope-specific B-cell populations in African green monkeys chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruijun; Martinez, David R; Nguyen, Quang N; Pollara, Justin; Arifin, Trina; Stolarchuk, Christina; Foulger, Andrew; Amos, Josh D; Parks, Robert; Himes, Jonathon E; Wang, Minyue; Edwards, Regina W; Trama, Ashley M; Vandergrift, Nathan; Colvin, Lisa; Dewar, Ken; Juretic, Nikoleta; Wasserscheid, Jessica; Ferrari, Guido; Liao, Hua-Xin; Permar, Sallie R

    2016-01-01

    African green monkeys (AGMs) are natural primate hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). Interestingly, features of the envelope-specific antibody responses in SIV-infected AGMs are distinct from that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys, including gp120-focused responses and rapid development of autologous neutralization. Yet, the lack of genetic tools to evaluate B-cell lineages hinders potential use of this unique non-human primate model for HIV vaccine development. Here we define features of the AGM Ig loci and compare the proportion of Env-specific memory B-cell populations to that of HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. AGMs appear to have a higher proportion of Env-specific memory B cells that are mainly gp120 directed. Furthermore, AGM gp120-specific monoclonal antibodies display robust antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and CD4-dependent virion capture activity. Our results support the use of AGMs to model induction of functional gp120-specific antibodies by HIV vaccine strategies. PMID:27381634

  7. Timing of antiretroviral therapy initiation after diagnosis of recent human immunodeficiency virus infection and CD4(+) T-cell recovery.

    PubMed

    Ding, Y; Duan, S; Wu, Z; Ye, R; Yang, Y; Yao, S; Wang, J; Xiang, L; Jiang, Y; Lu, L; Jia, M; Detels, R; He, N

    2016-03-01

    We retrospectively examined the timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and CD4(+) T-cell recovery over 36 months among recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections using BED (HIV-1 subtypes B, E and D) immunoglobulin G capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA). Regardless of baseline CD4(+) counts, individuals (n = 393) who initiated ART >2 months after diagnosis had significantly decreased probability and rate of achieving CD4(+) counts ≥900 cells/μL or ≥600 cells/μL than those individuals (n = 135) who started ART earlier (≤2 months). But the mean CD4(+) counts in two groups converged after 30 months of treatment. Early ART initiation leads to accelerated CD4(+) recovery, but does not offer a long-term advantage in CD4(+) counts. PMID:26627338

  8. Exogenous Interleukin-2 Administration Corrects the Cell Cycle Perturbation of Lymphocytes from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Paiardini, Mirko; Galati, Domenico; Cervasi, Barbara; Cannavo, Giuseppe; Galluzzi, Luca; Montroni, Maria; Guetard, Denise; Magnani, Mauro; Piedimonte, Giuseppe; Silvestri, Guido

    2001-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced immunodeficiency is characterized by progressive loss of CD4+ T cells associated with functional abnormalities of the surviving lymphocytes. Increased susceptibility to apoptosis and loss of proper cell cycle control can be observed in lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals and may contribute to the lymphocyte dysfunction of AIDS patients. To better understand the relation between T-cell activation, apoptosis, and cell cycle perturbation, we studied the effect of exogenous interleukin-2 (IL-2) administration on the intracellular turnover of phase-dependent proteins. Circulating T cells from HIV-infected patients display a marked discrepancy between a metabolic profile typical of G0 and a pattern of expression of phase-dependent proteins that indicates a more-advanced position within the cell cycle. This discrepancy is enhanced by in vitro activation with ConA and ultimately results in a marked increase of apoptotic events. Conversely, treatment of lymphocytes with IL-2 alone restores the phase-specific pattern of expression of cell cycle-dependent proteins and is associated with low levels of apoptosis. Interestingly, exogenous IL-2 administration normalizes the overall intracellular protein turnover, as measured by protein synthesis, half-life of newly synthesised proteins, and total protein ubiquitination, thus providing a possible explanation for the effect of IL-2 on the intracellular kinetics of cell cycle-dependent proteins. The beneficial effect of IL-2 administration is consistent with the possibility of defective IL-2 function in vivo, which is confirmed by the observation that lymphocytes from HIV-infected patients show abnormal endogenous IL-2 paracrine/autocrine function upon in vitro mitogen stimulation. Overall these results confirm that perturbation of cell cycle control contributes to HIV-related lymphocyte dysfunction and, by showing that IL-2 administration can revert this perturbation, suggest a new

  9. Precancerous Cervix in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Women Thirty Years Old and above in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Adrawa, Norbert; Amongin, Dinah

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about precancerous cervical lesion (PCCL), the precursor of cervical cancer among Human Immunodeficiency (HIV) infected women in a postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. Objective. To establish factors associated with PCCL among HIV infected women above thirty years of age in a postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. Method. This retrospective cohort study used electronic data from 995 HIV-positive women that attended cervical cancer screening during June 2014 and December 2015. Data on social, sexual, obstetric, and gynecological factors was analyzed at 95% confidence level. Multivariate analysis determined factors independently associated with positive PCCL. Probability value less than 5% was considered significant. Results. Prevalence of PCCL was 3.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0–4.3). A positive PCCL was significantly associated with absence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) during clinic visits (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.09–0.64; P = 0.004) and first pregnancy before the age of 20 years (aOR = 3.09; 95% CI: 1.21–7.89; P = 0.018). Conclusion. The prevalence of PCCL was low in the postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. HIV-positive women presenting with STDs and those with first pregnancy before the age of 20 years were at increased risk of PCCL. PMID:27478441

  10. Precancerous Cervix in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Women Thirty Years Old and above in Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Izudi, Jonathan; Adrawa, Norbert; Amongin, Dinah

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about precancerous cervical lesion (PCCL), the precursor of cervical cancer among Human Immunodeficiency (HIV) infected women in a postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. Objective. To establish factors associated with PCCL among HIV infected women above thirty years of age in a postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. Method. This retrospective cohort study used electronic data from 995 HIV-positive women that attended cervical cancer screening during June 2014 and December 2015. Data on social, sexual, obstetric, and gynecological factors was analyzed at 95% confidence level. Multivariate analysis determined factors independently associated with positive PCCL. Probability value less than 5% was considered significant. Results. Prevalence of PCCL was 3.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0-4.3). A positive PCCL was significantly associated with absence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) during clinic visits (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.09-0.64; P = 0.004) and first pregnancy before the age of 20 years (aOR = 3.09; 95% CI: 1.21-7.89; P = 0.018). Conclusion. The prevalence of PCCL was low in the postconflict setting of Northern Uganda. HIV-positive women presenting with STDs and those with first pregnancy before the age of 20 years were at increased risk of PCCL. PMID:27478441

  11. CD4-Independent Infection of Astrocytes by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1: Requirement for the Human Mannose Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Hao; Kim, Byung Oh; Gattone, Vincent H.; Li, Jinliang; Nath, Avindra; Blum, Janice; He, Johnny J.

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection occurs in the central nervous system and causes a variety of neurobehavioral and neuropathological disorders. Both microglia, the residential macrophages in the brain, and astrocytes are susceptible to HIV-1 infection. Unlike microglia that express and utilize CD4 and chemokine coreceptors CCR5 and CCR3 for HIV-1 infection, astrocytes fail to express CD4. Astrocytes express several chemokine coreceptors; however, the involvement of these receptors in astrocyte HIV-1 infection appears to be insignificant. In the present study using an expression cloning strategy, the cDNA for the human mannose receptor (hMR) was found to be essential for CD4-independent HIV-1 infectivity. Ectopic expression of functional hMR rendered U87.MG astrocytic cells susceptible to HIV-1 infection, whereas anti-hMR serum and hMR-specific siRNA blocked HIV-1 infection in human primary astrocytes. In agreement with these findings, hMR bound to HIV-1 virions via the abundant and highly mannosylated sugar moieties of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 in a Ca2+-dependent fashion. Moreover, hMR-mediated HIV-1 infection was dependent upon endocytic trafficking as assessed by transmission electron microscopy, as well as inhibition of viral entry by endosomo- and lysosomotropic drugs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the direct involvement of hMR in HIV-1 infection of astrocytes and suggest that HIV-1 interaction with hMR plays an important role in HIV-1 neuropathogenesis. PMID:15047828

  12. Containment of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Cellular Immune Responses and Protection from Rechallenge following Transient Postinoculation Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Rossio, Jeffrey L.; Arnaout, Ramy; Li, Li; Parks, Thomas L.; Schneider, Douglas K.; Kiser, Rebecca F.; Coalter, Vicky J.; Walsh, Geneva; Imming, Robert J.; Fisher, Bradley; Flynn, Bernard M.; Bischofberger, Norbert; Piatak, Michael; Hirsch, Vanessa M.; Nowak, Martin A.; Wodarz, Dominik

    2000-01-01

    To better understand the viral and host factors involved in the establishment of persistent productive infection by primate lentiviruses, we varied the time of initiation and duration of postinoculation antiretroviral treatment with tenofovir {9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine}while performing intensive virologic and immunologic monitoring in rhesus macaques, inoculated intravenously with simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsmE660. Postinoculation treatment did not block the initial infection, but we identified treatment regimens that prevented the establishment of persistent productive infection, as judged by the absence of measurable plasma viremia following drug discontinuation. While immune responses were heterogeneous, animals in which treatment resulted in prevention of persistent productive infection showed a higher frequency and higher levels of SIV-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses during the treatment period compared to control animals, despite the absence of either detectable plasma viremia or seroconversion. Animals protected from the initial establishment of persistent productive infection were also relatively or completely protected from subsequent homologous rechallenge. Even postinoculation treatment regimens that did not prevent establishment of persistent infection resulted in downmodulation of the level of plasma viremia following treatment cessation, compared to the viremia seen in untreated control animals, animals treated with regimens known to be ineffective, or the cumulative experience with the natural history of plasma viremia following infection with SIVsmE660. The results suggest that the host may be able to effectively control SIV infection if the initial exposure occurs under favorable conditions of low viral burden and in the absence of ongoing high level cytopathic infection of responding cells. These findings may be particularly important in relation to prospects for control of primate lentiviruses in the settings of

  13. A Pilot Study of Raltegravir Plus Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Ann C.; Chun, Tae-Wook; Maenza, Janine; Coombs, Robert W.; Tapia, Kenneth; Chang, Ming; Stevens, Claire E.; Justement, J. Shawn; Murray, Danielle; Stekler, Joanne D.; Mullins, James I; Holte, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Availability of integrase strand transfer inhibitors created interest in determining whether their use would decrease persistently infected cell numbers. This study hypothesized that adding raltegravir (RAL) to standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) would decrease human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected CD4+ T cells more than standard combination ART. This was a pilot, randomized study comparing open-label standard triple ART to standard triple ART plus RAL over 96 weeks in ART-naive adults with early HIV infection. The primary objective was to compare quantity and trajectory of HIV DNA. Eighty-two persons were referred. A diverse set of reasons precluded the enrollment of all but 10. Those who enrolled and completed the study had an estimated median duration of HIV infection of 74 days at ART start. The groups had similar baseline characteristics. The RAL group had more rapid first phase plasma HIV RNA decay (0.67 log10 copies/mL/day) than with combination ART (0.34 log10copies/mL/day), p = 0.037. Second phase HIV RNA decay, residual viremia, cell-associated RNA, HIV DNA, CD4+ T-cells with replication-competent virus, and 2LTR circle levels did not differ between groups. Among those with entry plasma HIV RNA levels above the median, 2LTR circles were significantly lower over time than in those with lower entry HIV RNA levels (p = 0.02). Our results suggest homogeneity of responses in cell-associated RNA, HIV DNA, CD4+ T-cells with replication-competent virus, and 2LTR circles with early HIV in both ART groups. The kinetics of 2LTR DNA did not reflect the kinetics of plasma HIV RNA decline following ART initiation. PMID:26862469

  14. A Pilot Study of Raltegravir Plus Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Challenges and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Collier, Ann C; Chun, Tae-Wook; Maenza, Janine; Coombs, Robert W; Tapia, Kenneth; Chang, Ming; Stevens, Claire E; Justement, J Shawn; Murray, Danielle; Stekler, Joanne D; Mullins, James I; Holte, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Availability of integrase strand transfer inhibitors created interest in determining whether their use would decrease persistently infected cell numbers. This study hypothesized that adding raltegravir (RAL) to standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) would decrease human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected CD4(+) T cells more than standard combination ART. This was a pilot, randomized study comparing open-label standard triple ART to standard triple ART plus RAL over 96 weeks in ART-naive adults with early HIV infection. The primary objective was to compare quantity and trajectory of HIV DNA. Eighty-two persons were referred. A diverse set of reasons precluded the enrollment of all but 10. Those who enrolled and completed the study had an estimated median duration of HIV infection of 74 days at ART start. The groups had similar baseline characteristics. The RAL group had more rapid first phase plasma HIV RNA decay (0.67 log10 copies/mL/day) than with combination ART (0.34 log10copies/mL/day), p = 0.037. Second phase HIV RNA decay, residual viremia, cell-associated RNA, HIV DNA, CD4(+) T-cells with replication-competent virus, and 2LTR circle levels did not differ between groups. Among those with entry plasma HIV RNA levels above the median, 2LTR circles were significantly lower over time than in those with lower entry HIV RNA levels (p = 0.02). Our results suggest homogeneity of responses in cell-associated RNA, HIV DNA, CD4(+) T-cells with replication-competent virus, and 2LTR circles with early HIV in both ART groups. The kinetics of 2LTR DNA did not reflect the kinetics of plasma HIV RNA decline following ART initiation. PMID:26862469

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization epitope with conserved architecture elicits early type-specific antibodies in experimentally infected chimpanzees.

    PubMed Central

    Goudsmit, J; Debouck, C; Meloen, R H; Smit, L; Bakker, M; Asher, D M; Wolff, A V; Gibbs, C J; Gajdusek, D C

    1988-01-01

    Chimpanzees are susceptible to infection by divergent strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), none of which cause clinical or immunological abnormalities. Chimpanzees were inoculated with one of four strains of HIV-1: human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type IIIB, lymphadenopathy virus (LAV) type 1, HTLV type IIIRF, or an isolate from the brain of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Within 6 months after inoculation with the closely related strains HTLV-IIIB or LAV-1, six chimpanzees developed serum antibodies to the C-terminal half (amino acids 288-467) of the HTLV-IIIB external envelope glycoprotein gp120. Sera from five of those chimpanzees had HTLV-IIIB cell-fusion-inhibiting antibody titers greater than or equal to 20 at that time, indicating that they neutralized the infecting strain of HIV-1 in vitro. No antibodies to the carboxyl terminus of HTLV-IIIB gp120 were observed in sera of chimpanzees inoculated with HTLV-IIIRF or with the brain-tissue strain, and those sera did not neutralize HTLV-IIIB. A rabbit immunized with the C-terminal portion of gp120 acquired neutralizing antibodies that bound to four domains of the HTLV-IIIB external envelope as analyzed by reactivity to 536 overlapping nonapeptides of gp120. One of these domains in the variable region V3, with the amino acid sequence IRIQRGPGRAFVTIG (amino acids 307-321), bound to all chimpanzee sera that neutralized HTLV-IIIB but not to the serum of the HTLV-IIIRF-inoculated chimpanzee that did not neutralize HTLV-IIIB. The HTLV-IIIRF sequence at the same location, ITKGPGRVIYA, was recognized by the serum of the HTLV-IIIRF-inoculated chimpanzee but not by any sera of the HTLV-IIIB-inoculated or LAV-1-inoculated chimpanzees. The HTLV-IIIB residues RIQR and AFV and the HTLV-IIIRF residues lysine and VIYA, flanking a highly conserved beta-turn (GPGR), appear to be critical for antibody binding and subsequent type-specific virus neutralization. This neutralization epitope

  16. Motor development of infants exposed to maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but not infected

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess the motor development of infants exposed to maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods Thirty infants were assessed in the period from November 2009 to March 2010 at the AIDS Reference and Training Centre, in São Paulo, Brazil. The assessment instrument used in the research was the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS). All 30 infants used the antiretroviral drug properly for 42 consecutive days, in accordance with the protocol of the World Health Organization. Results Out of the total number of infants, 27 (90%) had proper motor performance and 3 (10%) presented motor delay, according to the AIMS. Discussion This study demonstrated that only 10% of the assessed group had developmental delay and no relation with environmental variables was detected, such as maternal level of education, social and economic issues, maternal practices, attendance at the day care center, and drug use during pregnancy. It is important to emphasize the necessity of studies with a larger number of participants. PMID:24171763

  17. Association Between Schistosoma haematobium Exposure and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Females in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Brodish, Paul Henry; Singh, Kavita

    2016-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests an association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. Women with FGS have increased numbers of HIV target cells and cell receptors in genital and blood compartments, potentially increasing the risk of HIV transmission per sexual exposure, and the association may explain the high female:male ratio of HIV prevalence unique to sub-Saharan Africa. We investigate this association in Mozambique by linking two georeferenced, high-quality secondary data sources on HIV prevalence and Schistosoma haematobium: the AIDS Indicator Survey, and the Global Neglected Tropical Diseases (GNTD) open-source database, respectively. We construct a schistosomiasis exposure covariate indicating women reporting "unimproved" daily drinking water sources and living no more than 2-5 km from high-endemic global positioning system (GPS) coordinates in the GNTD. In logistic regression analyses predicting HIV-positive status, we show that exposure increases the odds of HIV-positive status by three times, controlling for demographic and sexual risk factors. PMID:26976893

  18. Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Helminth Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1–Infected Adults in an Urban African Setting

    PubMed Central

    Modjarrad, Kayvon; Zulu, Isaac; Redden, David T.; Njobvu, Lungowe; Freedman, David O.; Vermund, Sten H.

    2009-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is disproportionately burdened by intestinal helminth and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. Recent evidence suggests detrimental immunologic effects from concomitant infection with the two pathogens. Few studies, however, have assessed the prevalence of and predictors for intestinal helminth infection among HIV-1–infected adults in urban African settings where HIV infection rates are highest. We collected and analyzed sociodemographic and parasitologic data from 297 HIV-1–infected adults (mean age = 31.1 years, 69% female) living in Lusaka, Zambia to assess the prevalence and associated predictors of helminth infection. We found at least one type of intestinal helminth in 24.9% of HIV-infected adults. Thirty-nine (52.7%) were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 29 (39.2%) were infected with hookworm. More than 80% were light-intensity infections. A recent visit to a rural area, food shortage, and prior history of helminth infection were significant predictors of current helminth status. The high helminth prevalence and potential for adverse interactions between helminths and HIV suggests that helminth diagnosis and treatment should be part of routine HIV care. PMID:16222025

  19. Incidence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in a large HIV clinic in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shinwon; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Lee, Jeong Eun; Cho, Heerim; Lee, Seung Geun; Chung, Joo Seop; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Increasing incidences of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex were reported in the United States and Europe. However, few studies regarding the epidemiology of HCV infection in HIV-infected patients in Asian countries have been reported. Methods: To determine the prevalence and incidence of HCV infection in HIV-infected patients, a retrospective cohort study was conducted. All HIV-infected patients who visited a tertiary care hospital in Korea from 2000 to 2013 were identified. Patients with ≥ 1 HCV antibody (Ab) test were included and observed until December 2014. Results: Among 996 HIV-infected patients, 790 patients (79%) had baseline HCV Ab tests and 41 (5.2%) were positive at baseline and four at follow-up. Experience of injecting drug use (IDU; adjusted odds ratio, 16.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 167.89; p < 0.01) was significantly associated with prevalent HCV infection. Conversion to HCV Ab positivity was observed in four of 384 included patients, with an incidence rate of 2.22 (95% CI, 0.60 to 5.80)/1,000 person-years (PYs); 164.89 (95% CI, 34.00 to 481.88)/1,000 PYs in patients with IDU, and 1.40 (95% CI, 0.35 to 7.79)/1,000 PYs in men who have sex with men who denied IDU. There was no significant increase in incidence rate of HCV in HIV-infected patients from 2009 to 2014 (p = 0.119). Among 19 patients who were positive for HCV RNA, genotype 1b (73%) was the most common following 2a/2c (20%). Conclusions: IDU was an independent risk factor for prevalent HCV infection. Prevalence of HCV infection was low and incidence of HCV infection was not significantly increased in HIV-infected patients in South Korea. PMID:27117318

  20. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang-Tao; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Matesa, Rocio Apicante; Obono, Maximo Miko Ondo; Ehapo, Carlos Sala; Yang, Li-Ye; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hui-Tian; Lin, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively), and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG). Methods A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region. Results Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39%) had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29%) harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04%) and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%). The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island. Conclusions Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended. PMID:26448460

  1. Identification of Light-independent Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection through Bioguided Fractionation of Hypericum perforatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Light-dependent activities against enveloped viruses in St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) extracts have been extensively studied. In contrast, light-independent antiviral activity from this species has not. Here, we identify the light-independent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (...

  2. Nonrandom development of immunologic abnormalities after infection with human immunodeficiency virus: implications for immunologic classification of the disease.

    PubMed Central

    Zolla-Pazner, S; Des Jarlais, D C; Friedman, S R; Spira, T J; Marmor, M; Holzman, R; Mildvan, D; Yancovitz, S; Mathur-Wagh, U; Garber, J

    1987-01-01

    Blood specimens from 165 intravenous drug users who were seropositive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), from 158 seropositive homosexual men with lymphadenopathy, and from 77 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were assessed immunologically. Immunologic parameters were analyzed by the Guttman scalogram technique to determine if immunologic abnormalities occurred in a nonrandom pattern. The following four patterns emerged: (i) seropositivity for HIV with no immunologic abnormalities; (ii) seropositivity for HIV with a depressed T4/T8 cell ratio; (iii) seropositivity with a depressed T4/T8 cell ratio and T4-cell depletion; and (iv) seropositivity with a depressed T4/T8 cell ratio, T4-cell depletion, and lymphopenia. Ninety-two to 100% of subjects in each of the three groups of patients were found "to scale" because the abnormalities occurred in the cumulative, ordered fashion described. This nonrandom occurrence of abnormalities indicates an ordered progression of immunologic abnormalities in individuals infected with HIV, a finding useful in the staging of both symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV-seropositive subjects. PMID:3496603

  3. Simian immunodeficiency virus (mac 251-32H) transmembrane protein sequence remains conserved throughout the course of infection in macaques.

    PubMed

    Slade, A; Jones, S; Almond, N; Kitchin, P

    1993-02-01

    Two cynomolgus macaques were infected with a genetically complex challenge stock of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251-32H). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the env gp41, rev, and nef overlapping coding sequences from provirus present in the blood of both animals at 1, 6, and 15 months post infection (p.i.). The predominant, env sequences found in both animals at the three time points were very similar to that found in the original 11/88 challenge stock. The functionally important hydrophobic fusion and membrane-spanning domains within gp41 remained conserved throughout the course of infection. Nucleotide variation within the region corresponding to the REV response element (RRE) was limited to four positions, none of which were predicted to cause any significant disruption to the secondary structure of the RRE. Very little genetic variation was observed in and around the cluster of potential glycosylation sites of the external portion of gp41. However, the existence of a previously assigned variable region elsewhere in the cytoplasmic domain of gp41 was confirmed. The three gene loci (env, rev, and nef) examined varied independently. All changes in the predominant protein sequences were brought about by single nucleotide substitutions only. After 15 months of infection with SIV, 1 animal was sick from SIV-induced disease whereas the other remained healthy. In-frame stop codons within the transmembrane protein occurred with a much greater frequency in the healthy animal. PMID:8457380

  4. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults: differences in risk factors and their implications.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Lee, Young Hwa; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated risk factors for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt; however, most have failed to show differences in risk factors between suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected population. This study was designed to identify differences in risk factors between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among HIV-infected adults in Seoul. A face-to-face survey of 457 HIV-infected adults was conducted by the Seoul Metropolitan Government in 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Among 422 participants, 44% had suicidal ideation, and 11% had suicide attempts. The independent risk factors for suicidal ideation were young and middle age, living with someone, history of AIDS-defining opportunistic disease, history of treatment for depression, lower social support, and psychological status. Beneficiaries of National Medical Aid, economic barriers to treatment, history of treatment for depression, and lower psychological status were independently associated with suicide attempts. Patients with HIV in Korea were treated without cost in some centers. Thus, experiencing an economic barrier to treatment might be due in part to ignorance of HIV care policies. Our findings indicate that suicide attempts are associated with socioeconomic factors and information inequality regarding medical care. In conclusion, suicidal ideation closely associated with the psychosocial factors, whereas suicide attempt demonstrates a stronger association with socioeconomic factors. Suicide prevention measures should be implemented to provide information to help HIV-infected patients. PMID:26444525

  5. Mechanistic Independence of Nef and Cyclophilin A Enhancement of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Optimal HIV-1 infectivity requires the presence of both the viral factor Nef and the cellular protein cyclophilin A (CyPA) during virion assembly. These two proteins are integral components of HIV-1 particles. Both CyPA and Nef facilitate a step in the viral life cycle occurring between penetration and reverse transcription, suggesting a common mechanism of action. Experiments were performed to test the potential interplay of Nef- and CyPA-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity. In single-cycle infection assays, nef-defective virions were partially resistant to cyclosporin A (CsA), a drug which inhibits the binding of CyPA to the HIV-1 Gag precursor and CyPA incorporation into virions. Genetic dissection of the relative contributions of Nef and the cyclophilin A-Gag interaction to HIV-1 infectivity demonstrated the independence of these two effects. Nef was not required for incorporation of CyPA into HIV-1 virions, and vice-versa. Surprisingly, CyPA-deficient virions remained sensitive to inhibition by CsA, in a manner that depended strongly on the presence of a functional nef gene. These results demonstrate that Nef and CyPA act independently to render HIV-1 particles fully infectious. They further suggest that in addition to blocking the CyPA-Gag interaction, CsA can also inhibit HIV-1 replication through a novel mechanism involving suppression of Nef-directed enhancement of virus infectivity. PMID:9705263

  6. Efficacy and Safety of Tenofovir and Lamivudine in Combination with Efavirenz in Patients Co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus in China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ya-Song; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Ling, Xue-Mei; Yang, Lian; Huang, Shao-Biao; Wang, Xi-Cheng; Wu, Hao; Cai, Wei-Ping; Wang, Min; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yan-Fen; He, Hao-Lan; Wei, Fei-Li; Wu, Zun-You; Zhang, Fu-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is high among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in China. Both HIV and HBV can be treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and lamivudine (3TC), so we evaluated the safety and efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) that included TDF, 3TC, and efavirenz (EFV) among ART-naive individuals who were co-infected with HIV and HBV. Methods: One hundred HIV/HBV co-infected ARV-naive individuals were started on the regimen of TDF, 3TC, and EFV, and the levels of plasma HBV DNA, HIV RNA, and biochemical evaluation related to the function of liver and kidney were analyzed. Results: Concerning efficacy, this study found that by week 48, the vast majority co-infected participants receiving this ART regimen had undetectable HBV DNA levels (71%) and/or HIV RNA levels (90%). Concerning safety, this study found that the median estimated glomerular filtration rate of participants decreased from baseline (109 ml·min−1·1.73 m−2) to week 12 (104 ml·min−1·1.73 m−2) but was almost back to baseline at week 48 (111 ml·min−1·1.73 m−2). Conclusion: This combination ART regimen is safe and effective for patients with HIV/HBV co-infection. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01751555; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01751555. PMID:26831232

  7. Barriers to Implementation of Rapid and Point-of-Care Tests for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Nitika Pant; Wilkinson, Samantha; Deli-Houssein, Roni; Vijh, Rohit; Vadnais, Caroline; Behlim, Tarannum; Steben, Marc; Engel, Nora; Wong, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Background Implementation of human immunodeficiency virus rapid and point-of-care tests (RDT/POCT) is understood to be impeded by many different factors that operate at 4 main levels—test devices, patients, providers, and health systems—yet a knowledge gap exists of how they act and interact to impede implementation. To fill this gap, and with a view to improving the quality of implementation, we conducted a systematic review. Methods Five databases were searched, 16,672 citations were retrieved, and data were abstracted on 132 studies by 2 reviewers. Findings Across 3 levels (ie, patients, providers, and health systems), a majority (59%, 112/190) of the 190 barriers were related to the integration of RDT/POCT, followed by test-device–related concern (ie, accuracy) at 41% (78/190). At the patient level, a lack of awareness about tests (15/54, 28%) and time taken to test (12/54, 22%) dominated. At the provider and health system levels, integration of RDT/POCT in clinical workflows (7/24, 29%) and within hospitals (21/34, 62%) prevailed. Accuracy (57/78, 73%) was dominant only at the device level. Interpretation Integration barriers dominated the findings followed by test accuracy. Although accuracy has improved during the years, an ideal implementation could be achieved by improving the integration of RDT/POCT within clinics, hospitals, and health systems, with clear protocols, training on quality assurance and control, clear communication, and linkage plans to improve health outcomes of patients. This finding is pertinent for a future envisioned implementation and global scale-up of RDT/POCT-based initiatives. PMID:26366129

  8. Liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: procoagulant, but is antithrombotic prophylaxis required?

    PubMed

    Cherian, P Thomas; Alrabih, Wesal; Douiri, Abdel; Quaglia, Alberto; Heneghan, Michael A; O'Grady, John; Rela, Mohamed; Heaton, Nigel D

    2012-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive recipients with end-stage liver disease has become an accepted practice. However, because these patients are increasingly being recognized as prothrombotic, we reviewed their posttransplant thrombotic complications. Because morphological changes might be responsible in part for this prothrombotic state, we also conducted a histopathological review of explants from HIV-positive patients. Between 1990 and 2010, 24 of 3502 recipients (including 23 adults) were HIV-positive at LT. These patients and their postoperative courses were reviewed with a particular focus on vascular complications, risk factors, and outcomes. Another patient in whom HIV was detected 12 years after LT was also examined. Among the 24 HIV-positive LT recipients (17 males and 22 whole liver grafts; median age = 40 years), 5 developed arterial complications [including 3 cases of hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT), 1 case of generalized arteriopathy (on angiography), and 1 case of endoarteritis (on histological analysis)]. Multiple arterial anastomoses were performed in 8 of the 24 recipients, and HAT occurred twice within this anastomosis group. The outcomes of the 3 patients with HAT included retransplantation, biliary stenting for ischemic cholangiopathy followed by retransplantation, and observation only. In addition, 5 separate venous thrombotic events were detected in the 24 recipients during this period. Moreover, the delayed-HIV recipient developed delayed HAT and subsequently ischemic cholangiopathy and was being assessed for retransplantation at the time of this writing. In conclusion, the prothrombotic state associated with combined HIV and liver disease is a cause of morbidity after LT: 8 of the 24 recipients (33%) in this series suffered vascular thrombotic complications. There is a potential increase in the risk of HAT: the rate for the HIV-positive cohort was higher than the rate for historical HIV

  9. A case of human immunodeficiency virus infection with cerebellar ataxia that suggested by an association with autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Shigeto; Kondo, Takayuki; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakagawa, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Sadayuki

    2016-04-28

    We report a case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that showed subacute progressive cerebellar ataxia without HIV encephalopathy or other encephalopathies, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy or encephalitis of other human herpes virus (HHV) infections. A 43-year-old man exhibited unsteady gait. Neurological examination disclosed ataxia of the trunk and lower extremities. Personality change and dementia were absent. Magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any abnormal finding, including of the cerebellum. The serum HIV-1-RNA was 1.2 × 10(5) copies/ml, and the absolute CD4 lymphocyte count was 141 cells/ml. Remarkably, the serum anti-Yo antibody, as an anti-cerebellar antibody of paraneoplastic syndrome, and anti-gliadin antibody, associated with celiac disease or gluten ataxia, were positive. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunoglobulin G index was 1.2 (< 0.8), and oligoclonal bands were present. PCR of the CSF was negative for HIV, JC virus, other HHVs, and mycosis. Previous reports presented HIV-infected patients with concurrent autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-phospholipid syndrome, autoimmune thrombocytopenia, vasculitis, polymyositis and dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis, Graves' disease, and hepatic diseases. These might have been present in patients with a CD4 T lymphocyte count of more than 200 cells/ml. On the other hand, paraneoplastic syndrome, gluten ataxia, cerebellar ataxia associated with anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody, and Hashimoto's encephalopathy might manifest as autoimmune cerebellar ataxia. As regards the association of HIV infection and autoimmune cerebellar ataxia, a previous report suggested that anti-gliadin antibody was detected in about 30% of HIV-infected children, though there is no reference to an association with cerebellar ataxia. Moreover, to our knowledge, detection of anti-Yo antibody in an HIV-infected patient with cerebellar ataxia has not been reported

  10. Impact of Short-Term Combined Antiretroviral Therapy on Brain Virus Burden in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and CD8+ Lymphocyte-Depleted Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Lakshmanan; Bhaskar, Veena; Pauley, Douglas R.; Knight, Heather; Williams, Kenneth; Lentz, Margaret; Ratai, Eva; Westmoreland, Susan V.; González, R. Gilberto; O'Neil, Shawn P.

    2010-01-01

    Antiretroviral drugs suppress virus burden in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected individuals; however, the direct effect of antiretrovirals on virus replication in brain parenchyma is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of short-term combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) on brain virus burden in rhesus monkeys using the CD8-depletion model of accelerated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) encephalitis. Four monkeys received CART (consisting of the nonpenetrating agents PMPA and RCV) for four weeks, beginning 28 days after SIV inoculation. Lower virus burdens were measured by real-time RT-PCR in four of four regions of brain from monkeys that received CART as compared with four SIV-infected, untreated controls; however, the difference was only significant for the frontal cortex (P < 0.05). In contrast, significantly lower virus burdens were measured in plasma and four of five lymphoid compartments from animals that received CART. Surprisingly, despite normalization of neuronal function in treated animals, the numbers of activated macrophages/microglia and the magnitude of TNF-α mRNA expression in brain were similar between treated animals and controls. These results suggest that short-term therapy with antiretrovirals that fail to penetrate the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier can reduce brain virus burden provided systemic virus burden is suppressed; however, longer treatment may be required to completely resolve encephalitic lesions and microglial activation, which may reflect the longer half-life of the principal target cells of HIV/SIV in the brain (macrophages) versus lymphoid tissues (T lymphocytes). PMID:20595631

  11. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of infant rhesus macaques as a model to test antiretroviral drug prophylaxis and therapy: oral 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine prevents SIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompay, K K; Marthas, M L; Ramos, R A; Mandell, C P; McGowan, E K; Joye, S M; Pedersen, N C

    1992-01-01

    The prophylactic and therapeutic properties of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection were tested in four 3-month-old rhesus macaques. The infant monkeys were inoculated intravenously with a low dose (1 to 10 100% animal infectious doses) of uncloned SIVmac. The monkeys were treated orally with 50 mg of AZT per kg of body weight every 8 h; two animals were started on treatment 2 h prior to virus inoculation, and two animals were started on treatment 6 weeks later. All four animals were treated for a period of 6 to 10 weeks. Outward signs of AZT toxicity were absent, but a mild macrocytic anemia occurred soon after therapy was started and resolved shortly after it was discontinued. The two infants that were begun on AZT treatment 2 h prior to virus inoculation never became infected, as demonstrated by the inability to detect cell-free or cell-associated virus in the blood, proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, or anti-SIV antibodies. AZT administration over a 10-week period had no detectable effect on the course of disease in the two animals that were begun on treatment after the infection had been established. In addition to demonstrating the prophylactic effect of AZT against low-dose SIV exposure, the study demonstrated the ease with which infant rhesus macaques can be used for antiretroviral drug testing. Images PMID:1489181

  12. Human APOBEC3 Induced Mutation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Contributes to Adaptation and Evolution in Natural Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Young; Lorenzo-Redondo, Ramon; Little, Susan J.; Chung, Yoon-Seok; Phalora, Prabhjeet K.; Maljkovic Berry, Irina; Archer, John; Penugonda, Sudhir; Fischer, Will; Richman, Douglas D.; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Malim, Michael H.; Wolinsky, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Human APOBEC3 proteins are cytidine deaminases that contribute broadly to innate immunity through the control of exogenous retrovirus replication and endogenous retroelement retrotransposition. As an intrinsic antiretroviral defense mechanism, APOBEC3 proteins induce extensive guanosine-to-adenosine (G-to-A) mutagenesis and inhibit synthesis of nascent human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) cDNA. Human APOBEC3 proteins have additionally been proposed to induce infrequent, potentially non-lethal G-to-A mutations that make subtle contributions to sequence diversification of the viral genome and adaptation though acquisition of beneficial mutations. Using single-cycle HIV-1 infections in culture and highly parallel DNA sequencing, we defined trinucleotide contexts of the edited sites for APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H. We then compared these APOBEC3 editing contexts with the patterns of G-to-A mutations in HIV-1 DNA in cells obtained sequentially from ten patients with primary HIV-1 infection. Viral substitutions were highest in the preferred trinucleotide contexts of the edited sites for the APOBEC3 deaminases. Consistent with the effects of immune selection, amino acid changes accumulated at the APOBEC3 editing contexts located within human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-appropriate epitopes that are known or predicted to enable peptide binding. Thus, APOBEC3 activity may induce mutations that influence the genetic diversity and adaptation of the HIV-1 population in natural infection. PMID:25080100

  13. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Species and Their Clinical Manifestations in Patients with Renal Transplantation and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Asmita; Ghoshal, Ujjala; Agarwal, Vikas; Ghoshal, Uday Chand

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to determine (i) frequency of Cryptosporidium species among patients with renal transplantation (RT) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and (ii) relationship of the nature, severity, and duration of symptoms with different species and load of Cryptosporidium. Stool samples from 70 (42 RT and 28 HIV) and 140 immunocompromised patients with and without cryptosporidiosis by modified Kinyoun's staining were subjected to qPCR-melting curve analysis for identification of parasite species. qPCR detected one microscopically negative sample to be positive for cryptosporidiosis. C. hominis, C. parvum, and mixed infection were detected in 50/71 (70.4%), 19/71 (26.8%), and 2/71 (2.8%) patients, respectively. Patients with cryptosporidiosis had higher stool frequency (median, IQR: 4, 3–6/d versus 3, 2–4/d; P = 0.017) and watery stool (52/71 [73%] versus 64/139 [46%]; P = 0.003). Parasite load (median, IQR: Log10 6.37 (5.65–7.12), Log10 5.81 (4.26–6.65); P = 0.046) and nausea/vomiting (29/50 [58%] versus 5/19 [26%]; P = 0.032) were more frequent with C. hominis than with C. parvum infection. Thus, Cryptosporidium spp. (mainly C. hominis) is a common cause of diarrhoea in RT and HIV patients. PMID:26981284

  14. Risk factors for perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Cho Ryok; Bang, Ji Hwan; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Kui Nam; Lee, Hee-Jin; Lee, Young Hwa; Ryu, Bo Yeong; Cho, Soo Kyung; Oh, Myoung-Don; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-09-01

    To identify the factors associated with perceived unmet medical needs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, we analyzed the results from a series of city-wide cross-sectional surveys of HIV-infected adults living in Seoul, Korea. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors related to unmet medical needs. Among the 775 subjects included in the study, 15.4% had perceived unmet medical needs. Significant factors included age group (35-49 years; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.06), lower monthly income (aOR, 3.75 for the <$900/mo group and 2.44 for the $900-$1800/mo group; 95% CI, 1.68-8.35 and 1.18-5.04, respectively), beneficiaries of the National Medical Aid Program (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01-3.17), recent CD4 cell counts <500/µL (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.33). Taken together, these data reveal strong associations of middle age and low socioeconomic status with perceived unmet medical needs among HIV-infected adults. PMID:27009447

  15. Chronic diarrhea among adults in Kigali, Rwanda: association with bacterial enteropathogens, rectocolonic inflammation, and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Clerinx, J; Bogaerts, J; Taelman, H; Habyarimana, J B; Nyirabareja, A; Ngendahayo, P; Van de Perre, P

    1995-11-01

    One hundred patients with chronic diarrhea were seen in the Department of Internal Medicine at the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali, Rwanda; stool and/or rectal swab culture was performed for these patients, and they underwent rectoscopy and serological testing for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Enteropathogenic bacteria were isolated from 39 (39%) of the patients: Shigella species (22 of 100 patients tested), non-typhi Salmonella (11/100), Aeromonas species (5/60), and Campylobacter species (4/60). Rectocolitis was seen in 70 (70%) of the patients. HIV-1 antibodies were detected in 82 (94%) of 87 patients tested. Cytomegalovirus was not found in rectal biopsy specimens from 29 patients. Entamoeba histolytica was detected in two of 31 rectal smears. Idiopathic ulcerative colitis was diagnosed for two HIV-1-seropositive patients. One or more AIDS-defining diseases were found in 32 (32%) of the patients, and 72 (72%) fulfilled the World Health Organization's clinical case definition criteria for AIDS. Chronic diarrhea, as seen in a hospital setting in a region highly endemic for HIV-1 infection, is strongly associated with HIV-1 infection, with rectocolonic inflammation, and with infection due to enteropathogenic bacteria. PMID:8589155

  16. Feline immunodeficiency virus in South America.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Bruno M; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Cruz, Juliano C M; Hosie, Margaret J

    2012-03-01

    The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species). Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus) involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs) in South America. PMID:22590677

  17. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in South America

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Bruno M.; Hagiwara, Mitika K.; Cruz, Juliano C. M.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species). Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus) involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs) in South America. PMID:22590677

  18. Combination Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Prevents Vaginal Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Macaques Harboring Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Radzio, Jessica; Henning, Tara; Jenkins, Leecresia; Ellis, Shanon; Farshy, Carol; Phillips, Christi; Holder, Angela; Kuklenyik, Susan; Dinh, Chuong; Hanson, Debra; McNicholl, Janet; Heneine, Walid; Papp, John; Kersh, Ellen N; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2016-05-15

    Genital inflammation associated with sexually transmitted infections increases susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but it is unclear whether the increased risk can reduce the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated whether coinfection of macaques withChlamydia trachomatisandTrichomonas vaginalisdecreases the prophylactic efficacy of oral emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Macaques were exposed to simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) vaginally each week for up to 16 weeks and received placebo or FTC/TDF pericoitally. All animals in the placebo group were infected with SHIV, while 4 of 6 PrEP recipients remained uninfected (P= .03). Oral FTC/TDF maintains efficacy in a macaque model of sexually transmitted coinfection, although the infection of 2 macaques signals a modest loss of PrEP activity. PMID:26743846

  19. Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus-infected tissues by amplification and in situ hybridization reveals latent and permissive infections at single-cell resolution.

    PubMed Central

    Embretson, J; Zupancic, M; Beneke, J; Till, M; Wolinsky, S; Ribas, J L; Burke, A; Haase, A T

    1993-01-01

    Latent and productive viral infections are at the extremes of the spectrum of virus-cell interactions that are thought to play a major role in the ability of such important human pathogens as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to elude host defenses and cause disease. The recent development of PCR-based methods to amplify target sequences in individual cells in routinely fixed tissues affords opportunities to directly examine the subtle and covert virus-cell relationships at the latent end of the spectrum that are inaccessible to analysis by conventional in situ hybridization techniques. We have now used PCR in situ with in situ hybridization to document latent and permissive HIV infection in routinely fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. In one of the first specimens we examined, a tumor biopsy from an HIV-infected individual, we found many of the lymphocytes and lymphocytes infiltrating the tumor had HIV DNA that was detectable only by PCR in situ. The fraction of positive cells varied regionally, but there were foci where most of the cells contained HIV DNA. Most of these lymphocytes and macrophages are latently infected, as we could detect HIV RNA in fewer than one in a thousand of these cells. We also detected HIV RNA, surprisingly, in 6% of the tumor cells, where the number of copies of viral RNA per cell was equivalent to productively infected cell lines. The alternative states of HIV-gene expression and high local concentration of latently infected lymphocytes and monocytes revealed by these studies conceptually supports models of lentiviral pathogenesis that attribute persistence to the reservoir of latently infected cells and disease to the consequences of viral-gene expression in this population. The magnitude of infection of lymphocytes documented in this report is also consistent with the emerging view that HIV infection per se could contribute substantially to depletion of immune cells in AIDS. Images PMID:8419941

  20. Chemokine receptor expression in the human ectocervix: implications for infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-type I.

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Grant R; Asin, Susana; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; Gonzalez, Jorge L; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W; Howell, Alexandra L

    2004-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) is a sexually transmitted pathogen that can infect cells in the female reproductive tract (FRT). The mechanism of viral transmission within the FRT and the mode of viral spread to the periphery are not well understood. To characterize the frequency of potential targets of HIV infection within the FRT, we performed a systematic study of the expression of HIV receptors (CD4, galactosyl ceramide (GalCer)) and coreceptors (CXCR4 and CCR5) on epithelial cells and leucocytes from the ectocervix. The ectocervix is a likely first site of contact with HIV-1 following heterosexual transmission, and expression of these receptors is likely to correlate with susceptibility to viral infection. We obtained ectocervical tissue specimens from women undergoing hysterectomy, and compared expression of these receptors among patients who were classified as being in the proliferative or secretory phases of their menstrual cycle at the time of hysterectomy, as well as from postmenopausal tissues. Epithelial cells from tissues at early and mid-proliferative stages of the menstrual cycle express CD4, although by late proliferative and secretory phases, CD4 expression was absent or weak. In contrast, GalCer expression was uniform in all stages of the menstrual cycle. CXCR4 expression was not detected on ectocervical epithelial cells and positive staining was only evident on individual leucocytes. In contrast, CCR5 expression was detected on ectocervical epithelial cells from tissues at all stages of the menstrual cycle. Overall, our results suggest that HIV infection of cells in the ectocervix could most likely occur through GalCer and CCR5. These findings are important to define potential targets of HIV-1 infection within the FRT, and for the future design of approaches to reduce the susceptibility of women to infection by HIV-1. PMID:15554931

  1. Cyclophilin A-Dependent Restriction of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Capsid Mutants for Infection of Nondividing Cells ▿

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Mingli; Yang, Ruifeng; Aiken, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Among retroviruses, lentiviruses are unusual in their ability to efficiently infect both dividing and nondividing cells, such as activated T cells and macrophages, respectively. Recent studies implicate the viral capsid protein (CA) as a key determinant of cell-cycle-independent infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We investigated the effects of the host cell protein cyclophilin A (CypA), which binds to HIV-1 CA, on HIV-1 infection of nondividing cells. The HIV-1 CA mutants A92E, T54A, and R132K were impaired for infection of aphidicolin-arrested HeLa cells, but not HOS cells. The mutants synthesized normal quantities of two-long-terminal-repeat circles in arrested HeLa cells, indicating that the mutant preintegration complexes can enter the nuclei of both dividing and nondividing cells. The impaired infectivity of the CA mutants on both dividing and nondividing HeLa cells was relieved by either pharmacological or genetic disruption of the CypA-CA interaction or by RNA interference-mediated depletion of CypA expression in target cells. A second-site suppressor of the CypA-restricted phenotype also restored the ability of CypA-restricted HIV-1 mutants to infect growth-arrested HeLa cells. These results indicate that CypA-restricted mutants are specifically impaired at a step between nuclear import and integration in nondividing HeLa cells. This study reveals a novel target cell-specific restriction of HIV-1 CA mutants in nondividing cells that is dependent on CypA-CA interactions. PMID:18829762

  2. Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C Virus Infection Is a Risk Factor for Severe Hepatic Cytolysis after Initiation of a Protease Inhibitor-Containing Antiretroviral Regimen in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Savès, Marianne; Raffi, François; Clevenbergh, Philippe; Marchou, Bruno; Waldner-Combernoux, Anne; Morlat, Philippe; Le Moing, Vincent; Rivière, Catherine; Chêne, Geneviève; Leport, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    In a cohort of 1,047 human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients started on protease inhibitors (PIs), the incidence of severe hepatic cytolysis (alanine aminotransferase concentration five times or more above the upper limit of the normal level ≥ 5N) was 5% patient-years after a mean follow-up of 5 months. Only positivity for hepatitis C virus antibodies (hazard ratio [HR], 7.95; P < 10−3) or hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HR, 6.67; P < 10−3) was associated with severe cytolysis. Before starting patients on PIs, assessment of liver enzyme levels and viral coinfections is necessary. PMID:11083658

  3. Elevated homocysteine levels in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients under antiretroviral therapy: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deminice, Rafael; Silva, Talita Capoani Vieira; de Oliveira, Vitor Hugo Fernando

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between the levels of homocysteine (Hcy), folate, vitamin B12 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who were treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) or not treated with ART. METHODS: The PubMed and Scielo databases were searched. Eligible studies regarding plasma Hcy level in HIV-infected patients were firstly identified. After careful analysis by two independent researches, the identified articles were included in the review according to two outcomes (1) Hcy, folate and vitamin B12 blood concentration in HIV-infected subjects vs health controls and; (2) Hcy blood concentration in HIV-infected subjects under ART vs not treated with ART. RevMan (version 5.2) was employed for data synthesis. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies were included in outcome 1 (1649 participants, 932 cases and 717 controls). Outcome 1 meta-analysis demonstrated higher plasma Hcy (2.05 µmol/L; 95%CI: 0.10 to 4.00, P < 0.01) and decreased plasma folate concentrations (-2.74 ng/mL; 95%CI: -5.18 to -0.29, P < 0.01) in HIV-infected patients compared to healthy controls. No changes in vitamin B12 plasma concentration were observed between groups. All studies included in the outcome 2 meta-analysis (1167 participants; 404 HIV-infected exposed to ART and 757 HIV-infected non-ART patients) demonstrated higher mean Hcy concentration in subjects HIV-infected under ART compared to non-ART HIV subjects (4.13 µmol/L; 95%CI: 1.34 to 6.92, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrated that the levels of Hcy and folate, but not vitamin B12, were associated with HIV infection. In addition, Hcy levels were higher in HIV-infected patients who were under ART compared to HIV-infected patients who were not exposed to ART. Our results suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia should be included among the several important metabolic disturbances that are associated with ART in patients with HIV infection. PMID:25964880

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and syncytium formation in HeLa cells expressing glycophospholipid-anchored CD4.

    PubMed

    Kost, T A; Kessler, J A; Patel, I R; Gray, J G; Overton, L K; Carter, S G

    1991-06-01

    The CD4 molecule, a glycoprotein expressed primarily on the cell surface of specific T lymphocytes, is thought to function in T-cell antigen recognition and activation. In addition, CD4 serves as a receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by a direct interaction with the HIV-1 surface glycoprotein (gp120). To further characterize the HIV-1-cell interaction, a HeLa cell line was established that expressed a chimeric molecule of CD4 and decay-accelerating factor (DAF). In the chimeric CD4-DAF molecule the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of CD4 were deleted and replaced with the carboxy-terminal 37 amino acids of DAF. This resulted in the anchoring of the extracellular domain of CD4 to the cell membrane via a glycophospholipid linkage. The glycophospholipid-anchored CD4 had a molecular size of approximately 56 to 62 kDa and was released following treatment of the cells with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. HeLa cells expressing the CD4-DAF hybrid could be infected with HIV-1, as evidenced by reverse transcriptase activity, p24 core antigen content, and infectious virus production. In addition, transfection of the HeLa CD4-DAF cells with a plasmid that directs the synthesis of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins or cocultivation with HeLa cells expressing the virus glycoproteins resulted in syncytium formation. These results indicate that the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the CD4 molecule are dispensable for both HIV infection and syncytium formation. PMID:1709701

  5. Temporal aspects of DNA and RNA synthesis during human immunodeficiency virus infection: Evidence for differential gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sunyoung; Baltimore, D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ); Byrn, R.; Groopman, J. )

    1989-09-01

    The kinetics of retroviral DNA and RNA synthesis are parameters vital to understanding viral growth, especially for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which encodes several of its own regulatory genes. The authors have established a single-cycle growth condition for HIV in H9 cells, a human CD4{sup +} lymphocyte line. The full-length viral linear DNA is first detectable by 4 h postinfection. During a one-step growth of HIV, amounts of viral DNA gradually increase until 8 to 12 h postinfection and then decrease. The copy number of unintegrated viral DNA is not extraordinarily high even at its peak. Most strikingly, there is a temporal program of RNA accumulation: the earliest RNA is greatly enriched in the 2-kilobase subgenomic mRNA species, while the level of 9.2-kilobase RNA which is both genomic RNA and mRNA remains low until after 24 h of infection. Virus production begins at about 24 h postinfection. Thus, viral DNA synthesis is as rapid as for other retroviruses, but viral RNA synthesis involves temporal alteration in the species that accumulate, presumably as a consequence of viral regulatory genes.

  6. [Epidemiology of hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus infections among injecting drug users in Hungary--what's next?].

    PubMed

    Gyarmathy, V Anna; Rácz, József

    2010-03-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is currently about 35% among injecting drug users in Budapest, Hungary, and it is under 20% outside of the capital, and no verified case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been detected so far. Mathematical models describe that the co-occurrence of HIV and HCV among injecting drug users is such under an HCV prevalence of about 35% the probability of an HIV epidemic is low, but above this threshold an, HIV epidemic is to be expected. According to these models, there is a looming probability of an HIV epidemic among injecting drug users in Hungary, especially in Budapest. There are four ways to prevent or delay such an epidemic: 1. substitution treatment programs; 2. legal access to injecting equipment; 3. free and confidential HIV and HCV counseling and rapid testing; and 4. hygienic injecting environment. In order to avoid a predicted HIV epidemic, epidemiological pattern of HCV among injecting drug users in Hungary requires both a comprehensive prevention response and the systematic monitoring of the epidemiological situation. The success of the prevention programs depends on two factors: 1. wide access; and 2. regular financial support from the government. PMID:20178967

  7. Lymphadenopathy and non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis in calves experimentally infected with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (FL112).

    PubMed

    Munro, R; Lysons, R; Venables, C; Horigan, M; Jeffrey, M; Dawson, M

    1998-08-01

    In an experiment on bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV), the virological and serological aspects of which were reported in an earlier paper, three groups (A, B and C) of three calves were inoculated subcutaneously with a recently isolated strain (FL112). For group B and group C, the virus was suspended in milk, and for group C (controls) the viral suspension was subjected to pasteurization before inoculation. The calves were killed for necropsy 12 months later. Clinical assessment revealed subtle ataxia in two group A calves, which took the form of an intermittent "shifting" (from one leg to another) lameness, and palpable enlargement of the pre-scapular lymph nodes in one group B animal. At necropsy, haemal lymph nodes (0.1 to 0.5 cm in diameter), occurring singly, were observed in all animals. However, in groups A and B (but not C), enlarged haemal lymph nodes (< or = 2 cm in diameter) were also seen, occurring singly and in chains; and in one group A animal they occurred in grape-like clusters. In groups A and B (but not C), histopathological examination revealed generalized hyperplastic changes in lymph nodes, especially the haemal lymph nodes. This finding was particularly striking in the two clinically ataxic animals from group A, which also showed a non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis; the latter was possibly the cause of the subtle clinical signs. This study supports previous findings on lymphadenopathy resulting from experimental infection with BIV. PMID:9749357

  8. High Prevalence of Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Monoinfection and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Hepatitis-B Co-infection as Assessed by Shear Wave Elastography: Study at a Teaching Hospital in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gitau, Samuel Nguku; Vinayak, Sudhir; Silaba, Micah; Adam, Rodney; Shah, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of liver fibrosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) monoinfection versus those with HIV hepatitis-B virus (HBV) co-infection as assessed with shear wave elastography (SWE) in a tertiary sub-Saharan Africa hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 105 consecutive patients, 70 with HIV monoinfection and 35 with HIV-HBV co-infection, had liver elastography obtained using SWE to assess for the presence of liver fibrosis the cutoff of which was 5.6 kPa. Assessment of aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) score (a noninvasive serum biomarker of liver fibrosis) in these patients was also done. Results: The prevalence of liver fibrosis was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in patients with HIV-HBV co-infection, 25.7%, compared to those with HIV monoinfection, 7.1%. APRI score was greater in patients with HIV-HBV co-infection than those with HIV monoinfection. HIV co-infection with HBV accelerates progression to liver fibrosis. Association of a low cluster of differentiation 4 (CD-4) count with advanced fibrosis supports earlier starting of antiretroviral therapy to prevent rapid progression of liver disease in HIV-positive patients. Conclusion: In view of the high prevalence of liver fibrosis in patients with HIV-HBV co-infection, regular monitoring of the disease progression is recommended. PMID:27403400

  9. Reversion of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase mutant at a second site restores enzyme function and virus infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, B; Carlini, F; Verani, P; Engelman, A

    1996-01-01

    The integration of a DNA copy of the retroviral RNA genome into the host cell genome is essential for viral replication. The virion-associated integrase protein, encoded by the 3' end of the viral pol gene, is required for integration. Stable virus-producing T-cell lines were established for replication-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 carrying single amino acid substitutions at conserved residues in the catalytic domain of integrase. Phenotypically reverted virus was detected 12 weeks after transfection with the integrase mutant carrying the P-109-->S mutation (P109S). Unlike the defective P109S virus, the revertant virus (designated P109SR) grew in CD4+ SupT1 cells. In addition to the Ser substitution at Pro-109, P109SR had a second substitution of Ala for Thr at position 125 in integrase. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to show that the P109S T125A genotype was responsible for the P109SR replication phenotype. The T125A substitution also rescued the in vitro enzyme activities of recombinant P109S integrase protein. P109S integrase did not display detectable 3' processing or DNA strand transfer activity, although 5 to 10% of wild-type disintegration activity was detected. P109S T125A integrase displayed nearly wild-type levels of 3' processing, DNA strand transfer, and disintegration activities, confirming that T125A is a second-site intragenic suppressor of P109S. P109S integrase ran as a large aggregate on a size exclusion column, whereas wild-type integrase ran as a monomer and P109S T125A integrase ran as a mixed population. Pro-109 and Thr-125 are not immediately adjacent in the crystal structure of the integrase catalytic domain. We suggest that the T125A substitution restores integrase function by stabilizing a structural alteration(s) induced by the P109S mutation. PMID:8970947

  10. Regulatory T-cell markers, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, and virus levels in spleen and gut during progressive simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Boasso, Adriano; Vaccari, Monica; Hryniewicz, Anna; Fuchs, Dietmar; Nacsa, Janos; Cecchinato, Valentina; Andersson, Jan; Franchini, Genoveffa; Shearer, Gene M; Chougnet, Claire

    2007-11-01

    High levels of viral replication occur in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and other lymphoid tissues (LT) since the early phase of human/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infection. Regulatory T cells (T(reg)), a subset of immunosuppressive T cells expressing CTLA-4 and the FoxP3 transcription factor, accumulate in LT during HIV/SIV infection. Here we show that FoxP3 and CTLA-4 mRNA are increased in leukocytes from the spleens, lymph nodes (LN), and mucosal sites of chronically SIV-infected macaques with high viremia (SIV(HI)) compared to animals with low viremia (SIV(LO)). FoxP3 and CTLA-4 correlated with SIV RNA levels in tissues; SIV virus levels in the spleen, inguinal LN, mesenteric LN, colon, and jejunum directly correlated with the plasma virus level. Importantly, CTLA-4 and FoxP3 mRNA were predominantly increased in the CD25(-) subpopulation of leukocytes from SIV(HI), further challenging the classical definition of T(reg) as CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells. Similar to CTLA-4 and FoxP3, expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an immunosuppressive enzyme induced by T(reg) in antigen-presenting cells, was increased in the spleens, mesenteric LN, colons, and jejuna from SIV(HI) compared to SIV(LO) and directly correlated to SIV RNA in the same tissues. Accordingly, plasma kynurenine/tryptophan, a marker for IDO enzymatic activity, was significantly higher in SIV(HI) compared to SIV(LO) and correlated with plasma viral levels. Increased T(reg) and IDO in LT of SIV-infected macaques may be the consequence of increased tissue inflammation and/or may favor virus replication during the chronic phase of SIV infection. PMID:17715231

  11. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit(+)IL-7Rα(+) (CD117(+)CD127(+)) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼ 63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼ 63%), IL-22 (∼ 36%), and TNF-α (∼ 72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4(+) T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P < 0.001). Notably, ILC3 could be induced to undergo apoptosis by microbial products through the TLR2 (lipoteichoic acid) and/or TLR4 (LPS) pathway. These findings indicated that persistent microbial translocation may result in loss of ILC3 in lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues. PMID:26283536

  12. Noninvasive follow-up of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living nonhabituated western lowland gorillas in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Lucie; Locatelli, Sabrina; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Esteban, Amandine; Butel, Christelle; Liegeois, Florian; Aghokeng, Avelin; Delaporte, Eric; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Peeters, Martine

    2012-09-01

    Simian immunodeficiency viruses infecting western lowland gorillas (SIVgor) are closely related to HIV-1 and are most likely the ancestors of HIV-1 groups O and P. At present, limited data are available on genetic diversity, transmission, viral evolution, and pathogenicity of SIVgor in its natural host. Between 2004 and 2011, 961 putative gorilla fecal samples were collected at the Campo Ma'an National Park, Cameroon. Among them, 16% cross-reacted with HIV-1 antibodies, corresponding to at least 34 infected gorillas. Combining host genotyping and field data, we identified four social groups composed of 7 to 15 individuals each, with SIV rates ranging from 13% to 29%. Eleven SIVgor-infected gorillas were sampled multiple times; two most likely seroconverted during the study period, showing that SIVgor continues to spread. Phylogenetic analysis of partial env and pol sequences revealed cocirculation of closely related and divergent strains among gorillas from the same social group, indicating SIVgor transmissions within and between groups. Parental links could be inferred for some gorillas infected with closely related strains, suggesting vertical transmission, but horizontal transmission by sexual or aggressive behavior was also suspected. Intrahost molecular evolution in one gorilla over a 5-year period showed viral adaptations characteristic of escape mutants, i.e., V1V2 loop elongation and an increased number of glycosylation sites. Here we show for the first time the feasibility of noninvasive monitoring of nonhabituated gorillas to study SIVgor infection over time at both the individual and population levels. This approach can also be applied more generally to study other pathogens in wildlife. PMID:22740419

  13. Non-initiation of hepatitis C virus antiviral therapy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Oramasionwu, Christine U; Kashuba, Angela DM; Napravnik, Sonia; Wohl, David A; Mao, Lu; Adimora, Adaora A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether reasons for hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy non-initiation differentially affect racial and ethnic minorities with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV co-infection. METHODS: Analysis included co-infected HCV treatment-naïve patients in the University of North Carolina CFAR HIV Clinical Cohort (January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011). Medical records were abstracted to document non-modifiable medical (e.g., hepatic decompensation, advanced immunosuppression), potentially modifiable medical (e.g., substance abuse, severe depression, psychiatric illness), and non-medical (e.g., personal, social, and economic factors) reasons for non-initiation. Statistical differences in the prevalence of reasons for non-treatment between racial/ethnic groups were assessed using the two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. Three separate regression models were fit for each reason category. Odds ratios and their 95%CIs (Wald’s) were computed. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-one patients with HIV/HCV co-infection within the cohort met study inclusion. The study sample was racially and ethnically diverse; most patients were African-American (74%), followed by Caucasian (19%), and Hispanic/other (7%). The median age was 46 years (interquartile range = 39-50) and most patients were male (74%). Among the 171 patients, reasons for non-treatment were common among all patients, regardless of race/ethnicity (50% with ≥ 1 non-modifiable medical reason, 66% with ≥ 1 potentially modifiable medical reason, and 66% with ≥ 1 non-medical reason). There were no significant differences by race/ethnicity. Compared to Caucasians, African-Americans did not have increased odds of non-modifiable [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.47, 95%CI: 0.57-3.80], potentially modifiable (aOR = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.25-2.09) or non-medical (aOR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.32-2.52) reasons for non-initiation. CONCLUSION: Race/ethnicity alone is not predictive of reasons for HCV therapy non-initiation. Targeted

  14. Acute mucosal pathogenesis of feline immunodeficiency virus is independent of viral dose in vaginally infected cats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The mucosal pathogenesis of HIV has been shown to be an important feature of infection and disease progression. HIV-1 infection causes depletion of intestinal lamina propria CD4+ T cells (LPL), therefore, intestinal CD4+ T cell preservation may be a useful correlate of protection in evaluating vaccine candidates. Vaccine studies employing the cat/FIV and macaque/SIV models frequently use high doses of parenterally administered challenge virus to ensure high plasma viremia in control animals. However, it is unclear if loss of mucosal T cells would occur regardless of initial viral inoculum dose. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of viral dose on mucosal leukocytes and associated innate and adaptive immune responses. Results Cats were vaginally inoculated with a high, middle or low dose of cell-associated and cell-free FIV. PBMC, serum and plasma were assessed every two weeks with tissues assessed eight weeks following infection. We found that irrespective of mucosally administered viral dose, FIV infection was induced in all cats. However, viremia was present in only half of the cats, and viral dose was unrelated to the development of viremia. Importantly, regardless of viral dose, all cats experienced significant losses of intestinal CD4+ LPL and CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). Innate immune responses by CD56+CD3- NK cells correlated with aviremia and apparent occult infection but did not protect mucosal T cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in viremic cats were more likely to produce cytokines in response to Gag stimulation, whereas aviremic cats T cells tended to produce cytokines in response to Env stimulation. However, while cell-mediated immune responses in aviremic cats may have helped reduce viral replication, they could not be correlated to the levels of viremia. Robust production of anti-FIV antibodies was positively correlated with the magnitude of viremia. Conclusions Our results indicate that mucosal immune

  15. Occult hepatitis B virus co-infection in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: A review of prevalence, diagnosis and clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Cevallos, Ana Maria; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Enriquez-Navarro, Karina; Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Lira, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection is high as they share similar mechanisms of transmission. The development and widespread use of highly sensitive tests for HBV diagnosis has demonstrated that a significant proportion of apparently healthy individuals with evidence of exposure to HBV continue to carry fully functional HBV DNA in their hepatocytes, a situation that predisposes them to the development of progressive liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. The presence of co-infections frequently influences the natural evolution of each of the participating infections present by either facilitating their virulence or competing for resources. Furthermore, the drugs used to treat these infections may also contribute to changes in the natural course of these infections, making the analysis of the impact of co-infection more difficult. The majority of studies has examined the impact of HIV on overt chronic hepatitis B, finding that co-infection carries an increased risk of progressive liver disease and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the effect of HIV on the natural history of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) has not been fully assessed, all available data suggest a persisting risk of repeated flares of hepatitis and progressive liver disease. We describe studies regarding the diagnosis, prevalence and clinical significance of OBI in HIV-positive patients in this short review. Discrepancies in worldwide prevalence show the urgent need for the standardization of diagnostic criteria, as established by the Taormina statements. Ideally, standardized protocols for testing should be employed to enable the comparison of data from different groups. Additional studies are needed to define the differences in risk for OBI without HIV and in HIV-HBV co-infected patients with or without overt disease. PMID:25729480

  16. A new antisense tRNA construct for the genetic treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed Central

    Biasolo, M A; Radaelli, A; Del Pup, L; Franchin, E; De Giuli-Morghen, C; Palu, G

    1996-01-01

    Different strategies proposed in the literature to attempt gene therapy of AIDS are based mainly on the intracellular production of RNA and protein therapeutics. This report describes the construction and the anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity of a new type of antisense tRNA directed against a nucleotide region in the first coding exon of HIV-1 tat (nucleotides 5924 to 5943; Los Alamos data bank) which is conserved among many HIV-1 clones. The anti-tat antisense sequence was inserted into a tRNA(Pro) backbone by replacement of the anticodon loop, without altering the tRNA canonic tetraloop structure. The antisense tRNA was able to interact effectively with its target in vitro. Jurkat cells that constitutively expressed the anti-tat tRNA following retroviral vector transduction exhibited significant resistance to HIV-1 de novo infection. Resistance seemed to correlate with the level of antisense expression. This is the first time that such a tRNA antisense strategy has been shown to be effective as a genetic treatment of HIV-1 infection in tissue culture. The construct design proposed in this report has some intrinsic advantages: the transcript is driven by a polymerase III promoter, the short length of the RNA minimizes effects of intramolecular base pairing that may impair target recognition, and the antisense RNA has the stability and intracellular fate of a native tRNA molecule. PMID:8642637

  17. START or SMART? Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Cardiovascular Risk for People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Siedner, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection (START) study has reinforced the benefits of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, a notable secondary finding from that study was that immediate initiation of ART did not prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (0.17 vs 0.20 events/1000 person-years, P = .65). This result appears to contradict a body of evidence, most notably from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study, which reported a 70% increased hazard of cardiovascular events for those deferring or interrupting treatment. Thus, an important unresolved question is whether the timing of ART impacts CVD risk. In this review, published data on relationships between timing of ART and CVD risk are reviewed. The data support a role for ART in mitigating CVD risk at lower CD4 counts, but data also suggests that, among those initiating therapy early, ART alone appears to suboptimally mitigate CVD risk. Additional interventions to address CVD risk among human immunodeficiency virus-infected populations are likely to be needed. PMID:26989755

  18. The natural history of human immunodeficiency virus infection: a five year study in a London cohort of homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, G E; Stanley, B S; Weller, I V

    1990-01-01

    Progression rates from asymptomatic to symptomatic Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection according to the CDC classification were prospectively studied in a cohort of 172 seropositive homosexual and bisexual men. The median follow-up time was 4 years. The progression from data of entry to the study to any group IV disease was 56% (SE 7%) at 5 years. However, the progression from an estimated date of seroconversion to any group IV disease was 36% (SE 4%) at 5 years. This was more than double the progression rate to AIDS-14% (SE 3%) at 5 years calculated in the same way. There were no differences in progression to AIDS from group IV A (systemic symptoms such as unexplained fever, weight loss or persistent diarrhoea) and group IV C-2 (oral candida or oral hairy leukoplakia). Progression rates to AIDS were significantly lower (p = 0.02) in patients who were under 25 years of age at entry than in those over 25. A review of progression rates to AIDS among homosexual cohorts shows that they tend to be higher than in cohorts of haemophiliac patients, in the early stage of infection. However, when Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the outcome measure, progression rates in all studies are remarkably similar. PMID:2133371

  19. Typing Candida albicans oral isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed Central

    Boerlin, P; Boerlin-Petzold, F; Goudet, J; Durussel, C; Pagani, J L; Chave, J P; Bille, J

    1996-01-01

    A total of 189 Candida albicans isolates have been typed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. The results obtained confirm the clonal mode of reproduction of C. albicans. The C. albicans populations found in the oropharynx of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, in the oropharynx of healthy carriers, or in association with invasive candidiasis could not be distinguished. No clone or group of clones could be associated with the appearance of clinical disorders or with a reduced in vitro susceptibility to the antifungal agent fluconazole. Multiple and sequential oral isolates from 24 HIV-infected patients were also typed by restriction enzyme analysis with the enzymes EcoRI and HinfI and by use of the Ca3 repetitive probe. The results obtained by the combination of all three typing methods show that all but one patient each carried a unique major C. albicans clone in their oropharynx. The 21 patients with sequential isolates had the same C. albicans clones in their throats during recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis episodes, independently of clinical status or of changes of in vitro susceptibility to fluconazole. Finally, several isolates of the same C. albicans clone found simultaneously in the oropharynx of a patient may present different levels of susceptibility to fluconazole. PMID:8727910

  20. Frequency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Students of Tertiary and Secondary Institutions in An Endemic State

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, Abdulazeez

    2012-01-01

    Background: Students are pivotal to manpower development and technological advancement of any nation. Nigerian nation was recently ranked third human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) most endemic nation in the world Aim: The study was designed to determine the frequency of HIV infection among Nigerian tertiary and secondary institution students. Materials and Methods: A HIV screening test was conducted on 1,978 apparently healthy students composed of 981 males and 997 females aged 11–35 years, randomly selected from some Nigerian tertiary and secondary institutions Results: Overall, the sero-prevalence rate of 13.7% was recorded consisting 9.9% in the tertiary and 3.8% in secondary institutions. The distribution of the infection showed no significant difference by age (χ2=1.07, P>0.05) and by gender (χ2=0.85, P>0.05). Also, the prevalence had no significant association with the settlement of students (χ2=0.96, P>0.05) and the status of educational institutions (χ2=1.42, P>0.05). Conclusion: The findings indicate a high HIV prevalence rate among students in this part of the globe. General behavioral changes about sex among the students are suggested. PMID:22536559

  1. Impact of paediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection on children's and caregivers' daily functioning and well-being: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Punpanich, W.; Gorbach, P. M.; Detels, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection impacts not only upon the physical health of affected children, but also their psychosocial functions, family relationships and economical status. Caregivers are confronted with complex challenges related to the physical, emotional and financial demands of raising these children.The purpose of this study was to enhance our understanding of the impact of HIV disease on both children's and caregivers' well-being, using a qualitative inquiry approach. Methods A total of 35 primary caregivers of HIV-infected children participated in in-depth interviews. The issues discussed included the major negative impacts on children's daily functioning and well-being, and the perceived caregiver/parental burden. Participants included parents (40%), grandparents (22.8%), other relatives (e.g. uncles, aunts) (34.3%) and one foster parent (2.8%). Results Qualitative analysis revealed that the major negative impacts of HIV/AIDS included physical symptoms, school performance and relationship changes. The major negative impacts on caregivers' well-being included acceptance of the diagnosis, dealing with the financial burden and keeping the diagnosis private. Conclusions Approaches are needed to address these challenges by enhancing families' coping skills and building supportive networks. PMID:21851376

  2. Non-cryptosporidial diarrhoea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients.

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, G M; Shanson, D; Hawkins, D A; Webster, J N; Gazzard, B G

    1989-01-01

    Thirty of 81 consecutive HIV antibody positive patients referred with non-cryptosporidial diarrhoea had no potential infectious cause; most had AIDS related complex rather than the full blown syndrome. Opportunistic infections with cytomegalovirus (CMV), mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI), and herpes simplex virus (HSV), which allowed a diagnosis of AIDS to be made, were found in 19 patients and were the presenting features of AIDS in five. Other potential pathogenic species included entamoeba, giardia, campylobacter, and salmonella (without septicaemia). Cytomegalovirus infection was often accompanied by abdominal pain. Severe weight loss (greater than 10 kg) at presentation was found in patients with CMV infection and MAI. Bloody diarrhoea was confined to the group with HSV procitis. Malignant causes of diarrhoea were rare. Two patients developed a squamous carcinoma of the anorectal margin and one a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In only two of 12 patients who had Kaposi's sarcoma was this considered as a cause of diarrhoea. Rigid sigmoidoscopy showed macroscopic abnormalities in over a third (32) of the 81 patients with non-cryptosporidial diarrhoea. Most commonly this was severe inflammation (17) or discrete ulceration (four) [three of whom had CMV colitis]. Kaposi's sarcoma was identified in 11 patients. Non-specific inflammation was seen histologically in 40 of the 60 patients with no sigmoidoscopic inflammatory changes. Barium enema only revealed an abnormality in a minority of the patients and a colonoscopy only revealed information additional to rigid sigmoidoscopy in two patients--one with CMV ulcers in the transverse colon and the other with evidence of Kaposi's sarcoma not seen in the rectum. Ten patients had a rectal biopsy examined by electron microscopy as no infective cause of diarrhoea was uncovered. In four of these microtubular structures which are commonly seen in viral infections were found and two had prelymphomatous changes and in one of

  3. Next-Generation mRNA Sequencing Reveals Pyroptosis-Induced CD4+ T Cell Death in Early Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wuxun; Demers, Andrew J.; Ma, Fangrui; Kang, Guobin; Yuan, Zhe; Wan, Yanmin; Li, Yue; Xu, Jianqing; Lewis, Mark

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lymphoid tissues (LTs) are the principal sites where human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replicates and virus-host interactions take place, resulting in immunopathology in the form of inflammation, immune activation, and CD4+ T cell death. The HIV-1 pathogenesis in LTs has been extensively studied; however, our understanding of the virus-host interactions in the very early stages of infection remains incomplete. We investigated virus-host interactions in the rectal draining lymph nodes (dLNs) of rhesus macaques at different times after intrarectal inoculation (days postinoculation [dpi]) with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). At 3 dpi, 103 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected using next-generation mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq). At 6 and 10 dpi, concomitant with increased SIV replication, 366 and 1,350 DEGs were detected, respectively, including upregulation of genes encoding proteins that play a role in innate antiviral immune responses, inflammation, and immune activation. Notably, genes (IFI16, caspase-1, and interleukin 1β [IL-1β]) in the canonical pyroptosis pathway were significantly upregulated in expression. We further validated increased pyroptosis using flow cytometry and found that the number of CD4+ T cells expressing activated caspase-1 protein, the hallmark of ongoing pyroptosis, were significantly increased, which is correlated with decreased CD4+ T cells in dLNs. Our results demonstrated that pyroptosis contributes to the CD4+ T cell death in vivo in early SIV infection, which suggests that pyroptosis may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of SIV, and by extension, that of HIV-1, since pyroptosis not only induces CD4+ T cell death but also amplifies inflammation and immune activation. Thus, blocking CD4+ T cell pyroptosis could be a complementary treatment to antiretroviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Although secondary lymphoid tissues (LTs) are principal sites of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication

  4. Mutation in the primer binding site of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus genome affects virus production and infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Nagashunmugam, T; Velpandi, A; Goldsmith, C S; Zaki, S R; Kalyanaraman, V S; Srinivasan, A

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to understand the contribution of the primer-binding site (PBS) region to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication, we have constructed a mutant HIV proviral DNA with an alteration in the 5' end of the PBS. The PBS mutant proviral DNA was characterized by transfection of the viral DNA into CD4+ and non-CD4+ target cells. The results indicate that mutation in the PBS reduced the level of viral particles released into the medium of transfected cells in comparison to wild-type proviral DNA. The viral particles were noninfectious upon transmission to established CD4+ cell lines and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes. Electron microscopic analysis of the transfected cells revealed no abnormalities in the structure of the virion directed by the mutant proviral DNA. Also, the protein and RNA contents of the mutant virions were similar to the wild type. The quantitation of intracellular viral structural protein in the transfected cells, however, indicated that the PBS mutation may have an effect on the assembly of viral particles in addition to completely abolishing reverse transcription of viral RNA into DNA. These results provide evidence that the PBS region of the viral genome has multiple functions in HIV-1 replication. Images PMID:1373895

  5. The effects of chronic binge alcohol on the genital microenvironment of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Loganantharaj, Nisha; Nichols, Whitney A; Bagby, Gregory J; Volaufova, Julia; Dufour, Jason; Martin, David H; Nelson, Steve; Amedee, Angela M

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem among those at risk for and living with HIV and can impact transmission and disease progression. In this study we sought to use the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-macaque model to evaluate the immunological and virological changes in the genital microenvironment of females exposed to chronic alcohol. Female rhesus macaques were treated with alcohol (n=6) or isocaloric sucrose (n=6) for 3 months and then inoculated with SIVmac251. To assess the effects of chronic alcohol on SIV disease and the genital microenvironment, we quantified plasma and genital SIV levels, measured inflammatory cells in genital fluids, and characterized microbial flora by gram stains over 10 weeks post-SIV infection. Following 3 months of alcohol/sucrose treatment, significant differences were observed in the vaginal microenvironment of alcohol-treated animals as compared to controls. Microbial flora of alcohol-treated animals had decreased levels of lactobacillus morphotypes and increased levels of gram-positive cocci relative to sucrose controls. Alcohol-treated animals were also more likely to have white blood cells in vaginal fluids prior to SIV inoculation, which persisted through viral set point. Similar levels of cell-free SIV were observed in plasma and vaginal fluids of both groups, but alcohol-treated animals had a higher incidence and levels of cell-associated SIV shed in vaginal secretions. Chronic alcohol treatment negatively impacts the genital microenvironment prior to and over the course of SIV infection and may increase the risk of genital virus shedding and transmission. PMID:24902876

  6. CD4 Response Up to 5 Years After Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Paula M.; Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo F.; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Hoces, Daniel; Rebeiro, Peter F.; Blevins, Meridith; Pape, Jean W.; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Cahn, Pedro; Veloso, Valdilea G.; McGowan, Catherine C.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Shepherd, Bryan E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe CD4 counts at 6-month intervals for 5 years after combination antiretroviral therapy initiation among 12 879 antiretroviral-naive human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults from Latin America and the Caribbean. Median CD4 counts increased from 154 cells/mm3 at baseline (interquartile range [IQR], 60–251) to 413 cells/mm3 (IQR, 234–598) by year 5. PMID:26180829

  7. Switch to Raltegravir From Protease Inhibitor or Nonnucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor Does not Reduce Visceral Fat In Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women With Central Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jordan E; McComsey, Grace A; Hulgan, Todd; Wanke, Christine A; Mangili, Alexandra; Walmsley, Sharon L; Currier, Judith S

    2015-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-infected women with central adiposity switched to raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy immediately or after 24 weeks. No statistically significant changes in computed tomography-quantified visceral adipose tissue (VAT) or subcutaneous fat were observed, although 48 weeks of raltegravir was associated with a 6.4% VAT decline. Raltegravir for 24 weeks was associated with improvements in lipids. PMID:26380350

  8. CD4 Response Up to 5 Years After Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Luz, Paula M; Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo F; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Hoces, Daniel; Rebeiro, Peter F; Blevins, Meridith; Pape, Jean W; Cortes, Claudia P; Padgett, Denis; Cahn, Pedro; Veloso, Valdilea G; McGowan, Catherine C; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Shepherd, Bryan E

    2015-04-01

    We describe CD4 counts at 6-month intervals for 5 years after combination antiretroviral therapy initiation among 12 879 antiretroviral-naive human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults from Latin America and the Caribbean. Median CD4 counts increased from 154 cells/mm(3) at baseline (interquartile range [IQR], 60-251) to 413 cells/mm(3) (IQR, 234-598) by year 5. PMID:26180829

  9. Incorporation of 12-methoxydodecanoate into the human immunodeficiency virus 1 gag polyprotein precursor inhibits its proteolytic processing and virus production in a chronically infected human lymphoid cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, M.L.; Ratner, L.; Duronio, R.J.; Gordon, J.I. ); Kishore, N.S. ); Devadas, B.; Adams, S.P. )

    1991-03-15

    Covalent linkage of myristate (tetradecanoate; 14:0) to the NH{sub 2}-terminal glycine residue of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) 55-kDa gag polyprotein precursor (Pr55{sup gag}) is necessary for its proteolytic processing and viral assembly. The authors have shown recently that several analogs of myristate in which a methylene group is replaced by a single oxygen or sulfur atom are substrates for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase despite their reduced hydrophobicity. To examine the mechanism of their antiviral effects, they performed labeling studies with two analogs, 12-methoxydodecanoate (13-oxamyristate; 13-OxaMyr) and 5-octyloxypentanoate (6-oxamyristate; 6-OxaMyr), the former being much more effective than the latter in blocking virus production. ({sup 3}H)Myristate and ({sup 3}H)13-OxaMyr were incorporated into Pr55{sup gag} with comparable efficiency when it was coexpressed with S. cerevisiae NMT in Escherichia coli. Unlike AZT, the analog is able to inhibit virus production (up to 70%) in chronically infected H9 cells. Moreover, the inhibitory effect lasts 6-8 days. These results suggest that (i) its mechanism of action is distinct from that of AZT and involves a late step in virus assembly; (ii) the analog may allow reduction in the dose of AZT required to affect viral replication; and (iii) combinations of analog and HIV-1 protease inhibitors may have synergistic effects on the processing of Pr55{sup gag}.

  10. Modulation of Type I Interferon-Associated Viral Sensing during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in African Green Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Jochems, Simon P.; Petitjean, Gaël; Kunkel, Désirée; Liovat, Anne-Sophie; Ploquin, Mickaël J.; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Lebon, Pierre; Jacquelin, Béatrice

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), such as African green monkeys (AGMs), do not progress to AIDS when infected with SIV. This is associated with an absence of a chronic type I interferon (IFN-I) signature. It is unclear how the IFN-I response is downmodulated in AGMs. We longitudinally assessed the capacity of AGM blood cells to produce IFN-I in response to SIV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Phenotypes and functions of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and other mononuclear blood cells were assessed by flow cytometry, and expression of viral sensors was measured by reverse transcription-PCR. pDCs displayed low BDCA-2, CD40, and HLA-DR expression levels during AGM acute SIV (SIVagm) infection. BDCA-2 was required for sensing of SIV, but not of HSV, by pDCs. In acute infection, AGM peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) produced less IFN-I upon SIV stimulation. In the chronic phase, the production was normal, confirming that the lack of chronic inflammation is not due to a sensing defect of pDCs. In contrast to stimulation by SIV, more IFN-I was produced upon HSV stimulation of PBMCs isolated during acute infection, while the frequency of AGM pDCs producing IFN-I upon in vitro stimulation with HSV was diminished. Indeed, other cells started producing IFN-I. This increased viral sensing by non-pDCs was associated with an upregulation of Toll-like receptor 3 and IFN-γ-inducible protein 16 caused by IFN-I in acute SIVagm infection. Our results suggest that, as in pathogenic SIVmac infection, SIVagm infection mobilizes bone marrow precursor pDCs. Moreover, we show that SIV infection modifies the capacity of viral sensing in cells other than pDCs, which could drive IFN-I production in specific settings. IMPORTANCE The effects of HIV/SIV infections on the capacity of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) to produce IFN-I in vivo are still incompletely defined. As IFN-I can restrict viral replication, contribute to inflammation

  11. Initiation of HAART during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection rapidly controls virus replication in the CNS by enhancing immune activity and preserving protective immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David R.; Gama, Lucio; Queen, Suzanne E.; Li, Ming; Brice, Angela K.; Kelly, Kathleen M.; Mankowski, Joseph L.; Clements, Janice E.

    2012-01-01

    The CNS remains vulnerable to HIV-induced damage despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Using a rigorous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque model of HAART that combines three classes of antiretroviral drugs (a protease inhibitor, a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and an integrase inhibitor), we examined immune responses and virus replication in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following HAART initiation during acute infection (4 days postinoculation (p. i.)). HAART-treated macaques did not experience the level of acute CD4+ and CD8+ T cell and NK cell count suppression in the peripheral blood normally observed during acute infection. Initiation of HAART produced a rapid four-log decline in viral load in plasma and a slower two-log decline of viral RNA in the CSF over the subsequent 17 days of infection. Despite a dramatic reduction of viral RNA levels in the brain at 21 days p.i., viral DNA levels were not different between the two groups. Expression of most cytokine mRNA in brain of HAART-treated macaques did not significantly differ from untreated controls. Expression of the IFN responsive gene MxA was significantly reduced in the brain of HAART-treated macaques, suggesting control of hyperactive immune responses. Control of virus replication likely was enhanced by significant increases in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell trafficking in the brain of infected animals on HAART therapy and the concomitant increase in levels of IFNγ. Collectively, these data indicate preserved innate and adaptive immune activity in the brain following HAART initiation during acute SIV infection in this macaque model, suggesting profound benefits following acute treatment of SIV. PMID:21165785

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and autoimmune hepatitis during highly active anti-retroviral treatment: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The emergence of hepatic injury in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection during highly active therapy presents a diagnostic dilemma. It may represent treatment side effects or autoimmune disorders, such as autoimmune hepatitis, emerging during immune restoration. Case presentation We present the case of a 42-year-old African-American woman with human immunodeficiency virus infection who presented to our emergency department with severe abdominal pain and was found to have autoimmune hepatitis. A review of the literature revealed 12 reported cases of autoimmune hepatitis in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection, only three of whom were diagnosed after highly active anti-retroviral treatment was initiated. All four cases (including our patient) were women, and one had a history of other autoimmune disorders. In our patient (the one patient case we are reporting), a liver biopsy revealed interface hepatitis, necrosis with lymphocytes and plasma cell infiltrates and variable degrees of fibrosis. All four cases required treatment with corticosteroids and/or other immune modulating agents and responded well. Conclusion Our review suggests that autoimmune hepatitis is a rare disorder which usually develops in women about six to eight months after commencing highly active anti-retroviral treatment during the recovery of CD4 lymphocytes. It represents either re-emergence of a pre-existing condition that was unrecognized or a de novo manifestation during immune reconstitution. PMID:21702972

  13. High Rate of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Infections in Wild Chimpanzees in Northeastern Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Boué, Vanina; Locatelli, Sabrina; Boucher, Floriane; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Butel, Christelle; Esteban, Amandine; Okouga, Alain-Prince; Ndoungouet, Alphonse; Motsch, Peggy; Le Flohic, Guillaume; Ngari, Paul; Prugnolle, Franck; Ollomo, Benjamin; Rouet, François; Liégeois, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of HIV-1 groups M, N, O, and P is the result of four independent cross-species transmissions between chimpanzees (cpz) and gorillas (gor) from central/south Cameroon and humans respectively. Although the first two SIVcpz were identified in wild-born captive chimpanzees in Gabon in 1989, no study has been conducted so far in wild chimpanzees in Gabon. To document the SIVcpz infection rate, genetic diversity, and routes of virus transmission, we analyzed 1458 faecal samples collected in 16 different locations across the country, and we conducted follow-up missions in two of them. We found 380 SIV antibody positive samples in 6 different locations in the north and northeast. We determined the number of individuals collected by microsatellite analysis and obtained an adjusted SIV prevalence of 39.45%. We performed parental analysis to investigate viral spread between and within communities and found that SIVs were epidemiologically linked and were transmitted by both horizontal and vertical routes. We amplified pol and gp41 fragments and obtained 57 new SIVcpzPtt strains from three sites. All strains, but one, clustered together within a specific phylogeographic clade. Given that these SIV positive samples have been collected nearby villages and that humans continue to encroach in ape’s territories, the emergence of a new HIV in this area needs to be considered. PMID:26389939

  14. High Rate of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Infections in Wild Chimpanzees in Northeastern Gabon.

    PubMed

    Boué, Vanina; Locatelli, Sabrina; Boucher, Floriane; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Butel, Christelle; Esteban, Amandine; Okouga, Alain-Prince; Ndoungouet, Alphonse; Motsch, Peggy; Le Flohic, Guillaume; Ngari, Paul; Prugnolle, Franck; Ollomo, Benjamin; Rouet, François; Liégeois, Florian

    2015-09-01

    The emergence of HIV-1 groups M, N, O, and P is the result of four independent cross-species transmissions between chimpanzees (cpz) and gorillas (gor) from central/south Cameroon and humans respectively. Although the first two SIVcpz were identified in wild-born captive chimpanzees in Gabon in 1989, no study has been conducted so far in wild chimpanzees in Gabon. To document the SIVcpz infection rate, genetic diversity, and routes of virus transmission, we analyzed 1458 faecal samples collected in 16 different locations across the country, and we conducted follow-up missions in two of them. We found 380 SIV antibody positive samples in 6 different locations in the north and northeast. We determined the number of individuals collected by microsatellite analysis and obtained an adjusted SIV prevalence of 39.45%. We performed parental analysis to investigate viral spread between and within communities and found that SIVs were epidemiologically linked and were transmitted by both horizontal and vertical routes. We amplified pol and gp41 fragments and obtained 57 new SIVcpzPtt strains from three sites. All strains, but one, clustered together within a specific phylogeographic clade. Given that these SIV positive samples have been collected nearby villages and that humans continue to encroach in ape's territories, the emergence of a new HIV in this area needs to be considered. PMID:26389939

  15. Low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and human T cell lymphotropic virus-1 infection in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Scott, D A; Corwin, A L; Constantine, N T; Omar, M A; Guled, A; Yusef, M; Roberts, C R; Watts, D M

    1991-12-01

    A seroepidemiologic survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), and Treponema pallidum infection among southern Somalis. Sera were collected from 1,269 study subjects in the urban area of the capital city, Mogadishu, and in the rural towns of Merka, Qoryoley, and Kismayo. The subjects included 57 prostitutes, 79 sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients, and 1,133 others, including outpatient and hospitalized patients with leprosy, tuberculosis, other infectious diseases, individuals from rehabilitation camps and secondary schools, and Ethiopian immigrants. Results indicated that none of the sera were positive for HIV-1 and HIV-2 by Western blot, but one was positive for HTLV-I. The prostitutes had a significantly higher prevalence of treponemal antibody (50.8%; P less than 0.0001) than either the STD patients (12.6%) or the other subjects (5.2%). Epidemiologic data indicated that 94% of the males and females were circumcised and only 2.6% of the males used condoms. Overall, the results of this study suggested a very low prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-I infections, especially among prostitutes and STD patients, who were considered at greatest risk of contracting these retroviral infections. PMID:1763791

  16. Intrinsic cellular defenses against human immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Melo, Daniel; Venkatesh, Siddarth; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2012-09-21

    Viral infections are often detrimental to host survival and reproduction. Consequently, hosts have evolved a variety of mechanisms to defend themselves against viruses. A component of this arsenal is a set of proteins, termed restriction factors, which exhibit direct antiviral activity. Among these are several classes of proteins (APOBEC3, TRIM5, Tetherin, and SAMHD1) that inhibit the replication of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses. Here, we outline the features, mechanisms, and evolution of these defense mechanisms. We also speculate on how restriction factors arose, how they might interact with the conventional innate and adaptive immune systems, and how an understanding of these intrinsic cellular defenses might be usefully exploited. PMID:22999946

  17. Factors related to lipodystrophy and metabolic alterations in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Savès, Marianne; Raffi, François; Capeau, Jacqueline; Rozenbaum, Willy; Ragnaud, Jean-Marie; Perronne, Christian; Basdevant, Arnaud; Leport, Catherine; Chêne, Geneviève

    2002-05-15

    Morphologic and metabolic changes associated with protease inhibitor (PI) therapy have been reported since the introduction of PIs for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. These changes were measured 12-20 months after initiation of PI therapy in a cross-sectional study involving 614 patients from the Antiprotéases Cohorte (APROCO) Study (Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le Sida-EP11). The prevalence was 21% for isolated peripheral atrophy, 17% for isolated fat accumulation, 24% for mixed syndrome, 23% for glucose metabolism alterations, 28% for hypertriglyceridemia (triglyceride level, > or =2.2 mM), and 57% for hypercholesterolemia (cholesterol level, > or =5.5 mM). Age was significantly associated with different phenotypes of lipodystrophy and metabolic alterations, but body-mass index, CD4(+) cell count, and type of nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor or PI received were not constantly associated with these changes. Furthermore, in all models tested, exposure to stavudine was associated with lipoatrophy and exposure of ritonavir was associated with hypertriglyceridemia. Detection and management of these disorders should be implemented to prevent further complications. PMID:11981737

  18. Community Perception, Misconception, and Discord Regarding Prevention and Treatment of Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Ramin; Antony, Sheila; Grigoryan, Zoya; Aronson, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one million persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) live in Ethiopia. Socio-cultural factors influence prevention and treatment adherence. We applied a qualitative descriptive approach to evaluate community perception, knowledge, and the role of spiritual factors in regard to HIV. We conducted 14 focus groups with sampling of HIV+ and HIV– participants (n = 52) by using open-ended questions. We coded and analyzed data for major themes. There are misconceptions, including transmission via casual contact, and pervasive beliefs of holy water as a cure. Many HIV– participants believe treatment is ineffective or incompatible with holy water. Most HIV+ participants believe treatment and holy water can be taken together, but experienced either pressure to stop treatment or stigma when taking medications. Participants emphasized the role of spiritual leaders in directing and shaping community perspectives on HIV. Ongoing community education via local initiatives, nation-wide structural and environmental strategies, and efforts tailored toward Ethiopian society to reconcile treatment with faith are crucial. PMID:24218413

  19. Risk factors for postcoital bleeding among women with or at risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Padian, N S; Abrams, J; Skurnick, J H; Van Devanter, N L; O'Brien, T R

    1995-10-01

    Risk factors for postcoital bleeding were examined in 475 women who were enrolled in a study of heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In bivariate analyses, history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; P = .03), HIV infection (P = .008), and dyspareunia or pain during intercourse (P = .0001) were significant risk factors. In multivariate analysis, the two latter factors remained significant (for HIV, odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, P = .02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-4.0; for dyspareunia, OR = 3.5, P < .001, 95% CI = 1.8-6.6), as did the interaction term of STD history and heavy smoking (OR = 2.4, P = .02, 95% CI = 1.2-5.0). Pain during intercourse was the strongest predictor of postcoital bleeding but may be part of the same phenomenon. Similarly, because this study relied on cross-sectional data, the direction of the causal pathway linking HIV to postcoital bleeding cannot be established. However, these data suggest that smoking, a modifiable risk factor, may increase risk of postcoital bleeding and contribute to susceptibility for HIV and other STDs. PMID:7561184

  20. Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in three patients co-infected with visceral leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gelanew, Tesfaye; Hurissa, Zewdu; Diro, Ermias; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Kuhls, Katrin; Schönian, Gabriele; Hailu, Asrat

    2011-06-01

    We report paired strains of Leishmania parasites, one from the viscera and the other from skin lesions that were isolated from three patients with visceral leishmaniasis and disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis that were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus. The causative parasites were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 and by a panel of multilocus microsatellite markers. We demonstrated that the causative agent was Leishmania donovani in all cases, irrespective of the phenotype of the disease. The paired strains from viscera and skin lesions of the same patients showed genetic identity across the 14 microsatellite markers investigated. These findings demonstrate that the skin lesions in these human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with visceral leishmaniasis were caused by dissemination of viscerotropic L. donovani parasites as a consequence of severe immunosuppression. However, in all three patients, rapid clearance of the skin lesions was observed after antimonial therapy. PMID:21633027

  1. Acute Infections, Cost per Infection and Turnaround Time in Three United States Hospital Laboratories Using Fourth-Generation Antigen-Antibody Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, Laura G; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Coombs, Robert W; Rosenberg, Eric; Ethridge, Steven F; Hutchinson, Angela B; Dragavon, Joan; Rychert, Jennifer; Nolte, Frederick S; Madory, James E; Werner, Barbara G

    2016-01-01

    Background.  To improve clinical and public health outcomes through early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection, fourth-generation antigen/antibody immunoassay (4IA) and supplemental testing results must be returned rapidly. Methods.  We examined HIV testing data at Harborview Medical Center (HMC), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), which used 4IA and supplemental antibody and nucleic acid tests (NATs). At MGH and MUSC, HIV-1 Western blot (WB) and HIV-2 testing were conducted at a reference laboratory. We compared time from specimen collection to laboratory result for established (positive WB) and acute infections (reactive 4IA, negative/indeterminate WB, detectable NAT), and we calculated testing cost per positive-test result. Results.  From 3731 (MUSC) to 19 774 (MGH) tests were conducted; 0.01% (MGH) to 0.05% (HMC) were acute infections. Each laboratory had reactive 4IA, WB-negative, or indeterminate specimens without NAT (ie, potential acute infections). Time to result was 1.5 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for acute and 1.0 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for established infections. Costs were $1054 (MGH) to $1521 (MUSC). Conclusions.  Conducting supplemental testing in-house lowered turnaround times, which may be further reduced with rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation tests. Hospitals may benefit from quantitative NATs not requiring physician orders, so all potential acute infections receive NAT. PMID:26798766

  2. Acute Infections, Cost per Infection and Turnaround Time in Three United States Hospital Laboratories Using Fourth-Generation Antigen-Antibody Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Laura G.; Nasrullah, Muazzam; Coombs, Robert W.; Rosenberg, Eric; Ethridge, Steven F.; Hutchinson, Angela B.; Dragavon, Joan; Rychert, Jennifer; Nolte, Frederick S.; Madory, James E.; Werner, Barbara G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. To improve clinical and public health outcomes through early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) detection, fourth-generation antigen/antibody immunoassay (4IA) and supplemental testing results must be returned rapidly. Methods. We examined HIV testing data at Harborview Medical Center (HMC), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), which used 4IA and supplemental antibody and nucleic acid tests (NATs). At MGH and MUSC, HIV-1 Western blot (WB) and HIV-2 testing were conducted at a reference laboratory. We compared time from specimen collection to laboratory result for established (positive WB) and acute infections (reactive 4IA, negative/indeterminate WB, detectable NAT), and we calculated testing cost per positive-test result. Results. From 3731 (MUSC) to 19 774 (MGH) tests were conducted; 0.01% (MGH) to 0.05% (HMC) were acute infections. Each laboratory had reactive 4IA, WB-negative, or indeterminate specimens without NAT (ie, potential acute infections). Time to result was 1.5 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for acute and 1.0 (HMC) to 5.2 days (MGH) for established infections. Costs were $1054 (MGH) to $1521 (MUSC). Conclusions. Conducting supplemental testing in-house lowered turnaround times, which may be further reduced with rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 differentiation tests. Hospitals may benefit from quantitative NATs not requiring physician orders, so all potential acute infections receive NAT. PMID:26798766

  3. Infection of simian B lymphoblastoid cells with simian immunodeficiency virus is associated with upregulation of CD23 and CD40 cell surface markers.

    PubMed

    Titti, Fausto; Zamarchi, Rita; Maggiorella, Maria Teresa; Sernicola, Leonardo; Geraci, Andrea; Negri, Donatella Rita Maria; Borsetti, Alessandra; Menin, Chiara; D'Andrea, Emma; Modesti, Andrea; Masuelli, Laura; Verani, Paola; Chieco-Bianchi, Luigi; Amadori, Alberto

    2002-09-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induce polyclonal B-cell activation and are associated with the appearance of lymphomas in their respective hosts in either the presence or the absence of other co-infecting viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). However, the pathogenic role of these retroviruses in the development of lymphoproliferative disorders remains poorly understood. To explore the virus-B-cell interactions, two immortalized lymphoblastoid B-cell lines (SL-P1 and SL-691) were established from cynomolgus monkeys that were naturally co-infected with a simian type D retrovirus-2 (SRV-2) and with the herpes virus Macaca fascicularis (HVMF-1). We addressed their susceptibility to SIV infection and the phenotypic modifications associated with SIV infection. In response, both cell lines (1) were co-infected with HVMF-1 (latent infection) and with SRV-2 (productive infection), (2) had a transformed phenotype because they did not require exogenous growth factors, and (3) when injected into mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), generated serially transplantable tumors. The B-cell origin of SL cells was demonstrated by the presence of rearrangements of the IgH gene and by the expression of typical B-cell lineage markers, such as CD20. SL-P1 and SL-691 could be discriminated on the basis of different expressions of CD23 and CD40 and of kappa- and lambda-chains. Most importantly, SL-691 cells, but not SL-P1 cells, were susceptible to chronic noncytolytic SIV infection. This infection occurred in a CD4/CCR5/CXCR4-independent manner and was associated with the upregulated expression of CD23 and CD40 cell surface markers. In addition, CD20 expression, which progressively disappeared in SL-691 noninfected cells, was maintained in the SIV-infected counterpart. These findings support the hypothesis that SIV induce phenotypic perturbations in B cells that might eventually contribute to the development of

  4. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection, distribution of viral types and risk factors in cervical samples from human immunodeficiency virus-positive women attending three human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immune deficiency syndrome reference centres in northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Albert Eduardo Silva; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Garcia, Renan Gomes; Welkovic, Stefan; Barboza, Aureliana; Menezes, Maria Luiza Bezerra; Maruza, Magda; Tenório, Terezinha; Ximenes, Ricardo AA

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients have a greater prevalence of coinfection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is of high oncogenic risk. Indeed, the presence of the virus favours intraepithelial squamous cell lesion progression and may induce cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection, distribution of HPV types and risk factors among HIV-positive patients. Cervical samples from 450 HIV-positive patients were analysed with regard to oncotic cytology, colposcopy and HPV presence and type by means of polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The results were analysed by comparing demographic data and data relating to HPV and HIV infection. The prevalence of HPV was 47.5%. Among the HPV-positive samples, 59% included viral types of high oncogenic risk. Multivariate analysis showed an association between HPV infection and the presence of cytological alterations (p = 0.003), age greater than or equal to 35 years (p = 0.002), number of partners greater than three (p = 0.002), CD4+ lymphocyte count < 200/mm3 (p = 0.041) and alcohol abuse (p = 0.004). Although high-risk HPV was present in the majority of the lesions studied, the low frequency of HPV 16 (3.3%), low occurrence of cervical lesions and preserved immunological state in most of the HIV-positive patients were factors that may explain the low occurrence of precancerous cervical lesions in this population. PMID:25317701

  5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Particles Pseudotyped with Envelope Proteins That Fuse at Low pH No Longer Require Nef for Optimal Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Chazal, Nathalie; Singer, Gregory; Aiken, Christopher; Hammarskjöld, Marie-Louise; Rekosh, David

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of Nef on infectivity in the context of various viral envelope proteins. These experiments were performed with a minimal vector system where Nef is the only accessory protein present. Our results support the hypothesis that the route of entry influences the ability of Nef to enhance human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity. We show that HIV particles pseudotyped with Ebola virus glycoprotein or vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G), which fuse at low pH, do not require Nef for optimal infectivity. In contrast, Nef significantly enhances the infectivity of virus particles that contain envelope proteins that fuse at neutral pH (CCR5-dependent HIV Env, CXCR4-dependent HIV Env, or amphotropic murine leukemia virus Env). In addition, our results demonstrate that virus particles containing mixed CXCR4-dependent HIV and VSV-G envelope proteins show a conditional requirement for Nef for optimal infectivity, depending on which protein is allowed to facilitate entry. PMID:11264394

  6. Patterns of viral replication correlate with outcome in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques: effect of prior immunization with a trivalent SIV vaccine in modified vaccinia virus Ankara.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, V M; Fuerst, T R; Sutter, G; Carroll, M W; Yang, L C; Goldstein, S; Piatak, M; Elkins, W R; Alvord, W G; Montefiori, D C; Moss, B; Lifson, J D

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of plasma viremia were explored in a group of 12 simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that had received prior immunization with either nonrecombinant or trivalent (gag-pol, env) SIV-recombinant vaccinia viruses. Three distinct patterns of viral replication observed during and following primary viremia accounted for significant differences in survival times. High-level primary plasma viremia with subsequently increasing viremia was associated with rapid progression to AIDS (n = 2). A high-level primary plasma virus load with a transient decline and subsequent progressive increase in viremia in the post-acute phase of infection was associated with progression to AIDS within a year (n = 6). Low levels of primary plasma viremia followed by sustained restriction of virus replication were associated with maintenance of normal lymphocyte subsets and intact lymphoid architecture (n = 4), reminiscent of the profile observed in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected long-term nonprogressors. Three of four macaques that showed this pattern had been immunized with an SIV recombinant derived from the attenuated vaccinia virus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara. These data link the dynamics and extent of virus replication to disease course and suggest that sustained suppression of virus promotes long-term, asymptomatic survival of SIV-infected macaques. These findings also suggest that vaccine modulation of host immunity may have profound beneficial effects on the subsequent disease course, even if sterilizing immunity is not achieved. PMID:8648709

  7. Tuberculous Drug-induced Liver Injury and Treatment Re-challenge in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Costiniuk, Cecilia T.; Gosnell, Bernadett I.; Manzini, Thandekile C.; Du Plessis, Camille N.; Moosa, Mahomed Yunus S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (TB-DILI) is the most common adverse event necessitating therapy interruption. The optimal re-challenge strategy for antituberculous therapy (ATT) remains unclear, especially in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected individuals in high-prevalence settings such as South Africa. Objective: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for the recurrence of TB-DILI with different ATT re-challenge strategies. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients managed for TB-DILI from 2005 to 2013 at King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban, South Africa. Relevant clinical and laboratory data at the presentation of TB-DILI, time to recovery of liver function, method of ATT re-challenge and outcome of re-challenge were documented. Results: 1016 charts were reviewed, and 53 individuals with TB-DILI (48 HIV-co-infected) were identified. Following discontinuation of ATT, the median time to alanine aminotransferase normalization was 28 days (interquartile range 13-43). Forty-two subjects were re-challenged (30 regimen re-challenges and 12 step-wise re-challenges). 5 (12%) cases of recurrent TB-DILI were noted. Recurrences were not associated with the method of re-challenge. Conclusion: Based on the data available, it appears that full ATT can be safely restarted in the majority of subjects with a recurrence of DILI occurring in about 12% of subjects. The method of re-challenge did not appear to impact on the risk of recurrence. Ideally, a prospective randomized trial is needed to determine the best method of re-challenge. PMID:26752869

  8. Effect of changes in human ecology and behavior on patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Wasserheit, J N

    1994-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed six striking changes in patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): emergence of new STD organisms and etiologies, reemergence of old STDs, shifts in the populations in which STDs are concentrated, shifts in the etiological spectra of STD syndromes, alterations in the incidence of STD complications, and increases in antimicrobial resistance. For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emerged to devastate the United States with a fatal pandemic involving at least 1 million people. The incidence of syphilis rose progressively after 1956 to reach a 40-year peak by 1990. In both cases, disease patterns shifted from homosexual men to include minority heterosexuals. Over the last decade, gonorrhea became increasingly concentrated among adolescents, and several new types of antimicrobial resistance appeared. Three interrelated types of environments affect STD patterns. The microbiologic, hormonal, and immunologic microenvironments most directly influence susceptibility, infectiousness, and development of sequelae. These microenvironments are shaped, in part, by the personal environments created by an individual's sexual, substance-use, and health-related behaviors. The personal environments are also important determinants of acquisition of infection and development of sequelae but, in addition, they mediate risk of exposure to infection. These are, therefore, the environments that most directly affect changing disease patterns. Finally, individuals' personal environments are, in turn, molded by powerful macroenvironmental forces, including socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, political, epidemiologic, and technological factors. Over the past 20 years, the profound changes that have occurred in many aspects of the personal environment and the macroenvironment have been reflected in new STD patterns. PMID:8146135

  9. Epitopes for Broad and Potent Neutralizing Antibody Responses during Chronic Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Avishek; Lavine, Christine L.; Wang, Pengcheng; Lipchina, Inna; Goepfert, Paul A.; Shaw, George M.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Montefiori, David C.; Haynes, Barton F.; Easterbrook, Philippa; Robinson, James E.; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Yang, Xinzhen

    2009-01-01

    Neutralizing antibody (nAb) response is sporadic and has limited potency and breadth during infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In rare cases, broad and potent nAbs are actually induced in vivo. Identifying specific epitopes targeted by such broad and potent nAb response is valuable in guiding the design of a prophylactic vaccine aimed to induce nAb. In this study, we have defined neutralizing epitope usage in 7 out of 17 subjects with broad and potent nAbs by using targeted mutagenesis in known neutralizing epitopes of HIV-1 glycoproteins and by using in vitro depletion of serum neutralizing activity by various recombinant HIV-1 glycoproteins. Consistent with recent reports, the CD4 binding site (CD4BS) is targeted by nAbs in vivo (4 of the 7 subjects with defined neutralizing epitopes). The new finding from this study is that epitopes in the gp120 outer domain are also targeted by nAbs in vivo (5 of the 7 subjects). The outer domain epitopes include glycan-dependent epitopes (2 subjects), conserved non-linear epitope in the V3 region (2 subjects), and a CD4BS epitope composed mainly of the elements in the outer domain (1 subject). Importantly, we found indication for epitope poly-specificity, a dual usage of the V3 and CD4BS epitopes, in only one subject. This study provides a more complete profile of epitope usage for broad and potent nAb responses during HIV-1 infection. PMID:19922969

  10. Korean Red Ginseng Slows Depletion of CD4 T Cells in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Heungsup; Kang, Sang-Moo; Lee, Moo-Song; Kim, Tai Gyu; Cho, Young-Keol

    2005-01-01

    We have previously showed that long-term intake of Korean red ginseng (KRG) delayed disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. In the present study, to investigate whether this slow progression was affected by KRG intake alone or in combination with HLA factor, we analyzed clinical data in 68 HIV-1-infected patients who lived for more than 5 years without antiretroviral therapy. The average KRG intake over 111.9 ± 31.3 months was 4,082 ± 3,928 g, and annual decrease in CD4 T cells was 35.0 ± 28.7/μl. Data analysis showed that there are significant inverse correlations between the HLA prognostic score (0.29 ± 1.19) and annual decrease in CD4 T cells (r = −0.347; P < 0.01) as well as between the amount of KRG intake and annual decrease in CD4 T cells (r = −0.379; P < 0.01). In addition, KRG intake significantly slowed the decrease in CD4 T cells even when influence of HLA class I was statistically eliminated (repeated-measure analysis of variance; P < 0.05). We also observed significant correlation between KRG intake and a decrease in serum-soluble CD8 antigen level (r = 0.62; P < 0.001). In conclusion, these data show that KRG intake independently and significantly affected the slow depletion of CD4 T cells irrespective of HLA class I. PMID:15817756

  11. Immunomodulator expression in trophoblasts from the feline immunodeficiency virus FIV infected cat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    FIV infection frequently compromises pregnancy under experimental conditions and is accompanied by aberrant expression of some placental cytokines. Trophoblasts produce numerous immunomodulators that play a role in placental development and pregnancy maintenance. We hypothesized that FIV infection m...

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis in SCID mice.

    PubMed Central

    Persidsky, Y.; Limoges, J.; McComb, R.; Bock, P.; Baldwin, T.; Tyor, W.; Patil, A.; Nottet, H. S.; Epstein, L.; Gelbard, H.; Flanagan, E.; Reinhard, J.; Pirruccello, S. J.; Gendelman, H. E.

    1996-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is neuroinvasive and commonly causes cognitive and motor deficits during the later stages of viral infection. (referred to as HIV dementia). The mechanism(s) for disease revolves around secretory products produced from immune-activated brain macrophages/microglia. Recently, we developed an animal model system for HIV dementia that contains xenografts of HIV-1-infected cells inoculated into brains of mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This animal system was used to quantitatively evaluate HIV-induced neuropathology. Xenografts of HIV-1-infected human monocytes (placed into the putamen and cortex of SCID mice) remained viable for 5 weeks. HIV-1 p24 antigen expression in mouse brain was persistent. Progressive inflammatory responses (including astrogliosis and cytokine production), which began at 3 days, peaked at day 12. The range of astrocyte proliferative reactions exceeded the inoculation site by > 1000 microns. Brains with virus-infected monocytes showed a > or = 1.6-fold increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (staining distribution and intensity) as compared with similarly inoculated brains with uninfected control monocytes. These findings paralleled the accumulation and activation of murine microglia (increased branching of cell processes, formation of microglial nodules, interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-6 expression). An inflammatory reaction of human monocytes (as defined by HLA-DR, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression) and neuronal injury (apoptosis) also developed after virus-infected monocyte xenograft placement into mouse brain tissue. These data, taken together, demonstrate that this SCID mouse model of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis can reproduce key aspects of disease (virus-infected macrophages, astrocytosis, microglial activation, and neuronal damage). This model may serve as an important means for therapeutic development directed toward improving mental function in HIV-infected

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Goepfert, Paul; Bansal, Anju

    2014-12-01

    Although some success was achieved in recent years in HIV prevention, an effective vaccine remains the means with the most potential of curtailing HIV-1 infections worldwide. Despite multiple failed attempts, a recent HIV vaccine regimen demonstrated modest protection from infection. Although the protective efficacy in this trial was not sufficient to warrant licensure, it spurred renewed optimism in the field and has provided valuable insights for improving future vaccine designs. This review summarizes the pertinent details of vaccine development and discusses ways the field is moving forward to develop a vaccine to prevent HIV infection and disease progression. PMID:25287587

  14. Frequency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Trichomonas vaginalis Infected Women in Badagry, Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Salawu, Oyetunde Timothy; Esume, Chelsea Ndidi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The interaction between HIV and Trichomonas vaginalis infection has been widely studied in most developed countries but with scanty information in sub-Saharan Africa. While many of these studies have examined the prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in HIV positive individuals, no study in Nigeria has shown the effect of T. vaginalis on HIV transmission. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the occurrence of HIV in T. vaginalis infected women. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among women attending STI clinic at the General Hospital, Badagry, Lagos, Nigeria. A total number of 201 (T. vaginalis infected) women were screened for HIV using rapid diagnostic test kits. Results: The frequency of HIV in T. vaginalis infected women was 35.8%. Conclusion: The study showed that T. vaginalis infection in women may be a high risk factor of HIV infection. PMID:26962485

  15. Risk Factors for Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Vanhommerig, Joost W.; Lambers, Femke A. E.; Schinkel, Janke; Geskus, Ronald B.; Arends, Joop E.; van de Laar, Thijs J. W.; Lauw, Fanny N.; Brinkman, Kees; Gras, Luuk; Rijnders, Bart J. A.; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Prins, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background. Since 2000, incidence of sexually acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection has increased among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). To date, few case-control and cohort studies evaluating HCV transmission risk factors were conducted in this population, and most of these studies were initially designed to study HIV-related risk behavior and characteristics. Methods. From 2009 onwards, HIV-infected MSM with acute HCV infection and controls (HIV-monoinfected MSM) were prospectively included in the MOSAIC (MSM Observational Study of Acute Infection with hepatitis C) study at 5 large HIV outpatient clinics in the Netherlands. Written questionnaires were administered, covering sociodemographics, bloodborne risk factors for HCV infection, sexual behavior, and drug use. Clinical data were acquired through linkage with databases from the Dutch HIV Monitoring Foundation. For this study, determinants of HCV acquisition collected at the inclusion visit were analyzed using logistic regression. Results. Two hundred thirteen HIV-infected MSM (82 MSM with acute HCV infection and 131 MSM without) were included with a median age of 45.7 years (interquartile range [IQR], 41.0–52.2). Receptive unprotected anal intercourse (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63–15.4), sharing sex toys (aOR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.04–12.5), unprotected fisting (aOR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.02–6.44), injecting drugs (aOR, 15.62; 95% CI, 1.27–192.6), sharing straws when snorting drugs (aOR, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.39–8.32), lower CD4 cell count (aOR, 1.75 per cubic root; 95% CI, 1.19–2.58), and recent diagnosis of ulcerative sexually transmitted infection (aOR, 4.82; 95% CI, 1.60–14.53) had significant effects on HCV acquisition. Conclusions. In this study, both sexual behavior and biological factors appear to independently increase the risk of HCV acquisition among HIV-infected MSM. PMID:26634219

  16. Risk Factors for Sexual Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Vanhommerig, Joost W; Lambers, Femke A E; Schinkel, Janke; Geskus, Ronald B; Arends, Joop E; van de Laar, Thijs J W; Lauw, Fanny N; Brinkman, Kees; Gras, Luuk; Rijnders, Bart J A; van der Meer, Jan T M; Prins, Maria; van der Meer, J T M; Molenkamp, R; Mutschelknauss, M; Nobel, H E; Reesink, H W; Schinkel, J; van der Valk, M; van den Berk, G E L; Brinkman, K; Kwa, D; van der Meche, N; Toonen, A; Vos, D; van Broekhuizen, M; Lauw, F N; Mulder, J W; Arends, J E; van Kessel, A; de Kroon, I; Boonstra, A; van der Ende, M E; Hullegie, S; Rijnders, B J A; van de Laar, T J W; Gras, L; Smit, C; Lambers, F A E; Prins, M; Vanhommerig, J W; van der Veldt, W

    2015-09-01

    Background.  Since 2000, incidence of sexually acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection has increased among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). To date, few case-control and cohort studies evaluating HCV transmission risk factors were conducted in this population, and most of these studies were initially designed to study HIV-related risk behavior and characteristics. Methods.  From 2009 onwards, HIV-infected MSM with acute HCV infection and controls (HIV-monoinfected MSM) were prospectively included in the MOSAIC (MSM Observational Study of Acute Infection with hepatitis C) study at 5 large HIV outpatient clinics in the Netherlands. Written questionnaires were administered, covering sociodemographics, bloodborne risk factors for HCV infection, sexual behavior, and drug use. Clinical data were acquired through linkage with databases from the Dutch HIV Monitoring Foundation. For this study, determinants of HCV acquisition collected at the inclusion visit were analyzed using logistic regression. Results.  Two hundred thirteen HIV-infected MSM (82 MSM with acute HCV infection and 131 MSM without) were included with a median age of 45.7 years (interquartile range [IQR], 41.0-52.2). Receptive unprotected anal intercourse (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63-15.4), sharing sex toys (aOR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.04-12.5), unprotected fisting (aOR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.02-6.44), injecting drugs (aOR, 15.62; 95% CI, 1.27-192.6), sharing straws when snorting drugs (aOR, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.39-8.32), lower CD4 cell count (aOR, 1.75 per cubic root; 95% CI, 1.19-2.58), and recent diagnosis of ulcerative sexually transmitted infection (aOR, 4.82; 95% CI, 1.60-14.53) had significant effects on HCV acquisition. Conclusions.  In this study, both sexual behavior and biological factors appear to independently increase the risk of HCV acquisition among HIV-infected MSM. PMID:26634219

  17. Dual Infections with Pigmented and Albino Strains of Cryptococcus neoformans in Patients with or without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in India

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Piyali; Banerjee, Uma; Casadevall, Arturo; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2005-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus of worldwide distribution. Melanin production is an important virulence factor of C. neoformans. We report the identification of distinct cryptococcal isolates with either pigmented or white colony phenotypes on l-dihydroxyphenylalanine agar plates in three patients who presented with meningitis to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in India. Two of the patients were also infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Biochemical studies, India ink analysis, immunofluorescence with antibodies specific to capsular antigen, and serotyping confirmed that the melanotic and albino strains were C. neoformans serotypes A and D, respectively. Genotyping with M13 and [GACA]4 primers revealed that all the C. neoformans isolates were genetically different. The CNLAC1 gene associated with melanin production was identified in all the strains by PCR. Standard MIC testing revealed that the strains had similar susceptibilities to amphotericin B, but time-kill assays with the antifungal showed reduced susceptibility in melanin-producing strains. Infection studies with A/Jcr mice showed that the melanin-lacking yeast were less virulent than melanin-producing isolates. These findings indicate that these patients had dual infections with pigmented and albino strains of C. neoformans that were phenotypically and biologically different. Continued surveillance of primary isolates from patients with cryptococcosis by analyzing phenotypic differences and by molecular methods may reveal that mixed infections occur more commonly than is currently realized. PMID:16145139

  18. Anal high-risk human papillomavirus infection and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia detected in women and heterosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Gandra, Sumanth; Azar, Aline; Wessolossky, Mireya

    2015-01-01

    Background Although anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and anal cytological abnormalities are highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), there are insufficient data on these abnormalities among HIV-infected heterosexual men (HSM) and women. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of anal HR-HPV, cytological abnormalities, and performance of these screening tests in detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN2+) among our cohort of HIV-infected MSM and non-MSM (HSM and women). Methods A single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted with HIV-infected individuals who underwent anal cancer screening with anal cytology and HR-HPV testing from January 2011 to January 31, 2013. Results Screening of 221 HIV-infected individuals for both HR-HPV and anal cytology showed the presence of HR-HPV in 54% (abnormal anal cytology 48%) of MSM, 28% (abnormal anal cytology 28%) of HSM, and 27% (abnormal anal cytology 34%) of women. Among 117 (53%) individuals with abnormal results (HR-HPV-positive and/or cytology was atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or above), 67 underwent high resolution anoscopy. Of these 67 individuals, 22 individuals had AIN2+ (17 MSM, four women, and one HSM). HR-HPV correlated better with AIN2+ than with anal cytology on biopsy in both MSM (r=0.29 versus r=0.10; P=0.05 versus P=0.49) and non-MSM (r=0.36 versus r=−0.34; P=0.08 versus P=0.09). Conclusion Given the presence of AIN2+ in screened HIV-infected HSM and women, routine anal cancer screening in all HIV-infected individuals should be considered. HR-HPV merits further evaluation for anal cancer screening among non-MSM. PMID:25670914

  19. Dolutegravir-based antiretroviral therapy in a severely overweight child with a multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus infection. A case report and review.

    PubMed

    Wagner, N; Wyler-Lazarevic, C A; Yerly, S; Samer, C; Peytavin, G; Posfay-Barbe, K M; Calmy, A; Ambrosioni, J

    2015-07-01

    The management of multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (MDR HIV) infections in children is particularly challenging due to the lack of experience with new drugs. Dolutegravir, combined with an optimized antiretroviral background therapy, is promising for the treatment of MDR HIV and has been approved recently for adults and adolescents. Data for children are extremely limited. We describe the efficacy, safety and plasmatic levels of a dolutegravir-based, complex active antiretroviral treatment regimen in a severely overweight 11-year-old child infected with an MDR HIV strain. PMID:26082840

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in a child revealed by a massive purulent pericarditis mistaken for a liver abscess due to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bernadette, Ngo Nonga; Kamgaing, N.; Monebenimp, F.; Simeu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Massive purulent andacute pericarditis in children is a life-threatening disease associated with high mortality. It has been described tocomplicate usuallya bronchopulmonary infectionbut is currently uncommon in the era of antibiotics. Acute and massive purulent pericarditis has been rarely reported in children in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This is a case of a10-year-old boy who presented with signs of sepsis and cardiac tamponade due to a massive staphylococcal purulent pericarditis complicating an unknown HIV infection. The child underwent pericardiectomy, intensive treatment, and survived this life-threatening disease. PMID:25659555

  1. Potential of a Simplified p24 Assay for Early Diagnosis of Infant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection in Haiti▿

    PubMed Central

    George, Erik; Beauharnais, Carole Anne; Brignoli, Emilio; Noel, Francine; Bois, Gyrlande; De Matteis Rouzier, Patricia; Altenor, Martine; Lauture, Daniel; Hosty, Marlène; Mehta, Sapna; Wright, Peter F.; Pape, Jean W.

    2007-01-01

    With global efforts to scale up the prevention of mother-to-child transmission services and pediatric antiretroviral therapy, there is an urgent need to introduce a simple, low-cost infant human immunodeficiency virus test in the field. We postulated that the p24 antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay could be simplified by eliminating signal amplification without compromising diagnostic accuracy. PMID:17670933

  2. Deciphering the epidemic synergy of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection among women in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) is highly prevalent in regions disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) epidemic. The objective of our study was to identify the risk factors of HSV-2 and HIV-1 infections and to examine the association between the two infections. Methods The study participants were recruited through a community based cross-sectional study that was conducted from November 2002 to March 2003 in the Moshi urban district of Northern Tanzania. A two-stage sampling design was used in recruiting the study participants. Information on socio-demographics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors, and STIs symptoms were obtained. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of HIV-1, HSV-2 and other STIs. Results The prevalence of HSV-2 infection among all study participants was 43%. The prevalence rate of HSV-2 among the HIV-negative and HIV-positive women was 40% and 65%, respectively. We found 2.72 times odds of having HIV-1 in an HSV-2 positive woman than in an HSV-2 negative woman. Furthermore, HIV-1 and HSV-2 shared common high-risk sexual behavior factors such as early onset of sexual debut, and testing positive for other STIs. Conclusions Our findings suggest that HSV-2 may be both a biological and risk-associated cofactor for HIV-1 acquisition. In resource-limited countries, where both infections are prevalent efforts at symptomatic and diagnostic screening and treatment of HSV-2 should be part of HIV-1 prevention programs. PMID:22909236

  3. Mitochondrial impact of human immunodeficiency virus and antiretrovirals on infected pediatric patients with or without lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Morén, Constanza; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Rovira, Núria; Corrales, Ester; Garrabou, Glòria; Hernández, Sandra; Nicolás, Mireia; Tobías, Ester; Cardellach, Francesc; Miró, Oscar; Fortuny, Clàudia

    2011-11-01

    We determined the mitochondrial status of a group of HIV-infected children, some with body fat abnormalities (BFA). We included 24 controls, 16 HIV-infected untreated, 26 HIV-infected treated, 6 BFA-untreated, and 21 BFA-treated patients. Genetic, translational, and functional mitochondrial values were measured. As compared with controls, mitochondrial DNA depletion and a reduction in functionality were found in BFA groups. PMID:21697766

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Antiretroviral Therapy and Markers of Lymphatic Filariasis Infection: A Cross-sectional Study in Rural Northern Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Tafatatha, Terence; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Ngwira, Bagrey; Phiri, Amos; Kondowe, Mariot; Piston, Wilson; Molesworth, Anna; Kayuni, Ndoliwe; Koole, Olivier; Crampin, Amelia; Horton, John; French, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major public health problems. Individuals may be co-infected, raising the possibility of important interactions between these two pathogens with consequences for LF elimination through annual mass drug administration (MDA). Methodology and Principal Findings We analysed circulating filarial antigenaemia (CFA) by HIV infection status among adults in two sites in northern Malawi, a region endemic for both LF and HIV. Stored blood samples and data from two geographically separate studies were used: one a recruitment phase of a clinical trial of anti-filarial agent dosing regimens, and the other a whole population annual HIV sero-survey. In study one, 1,851 consecutive adult volunteers were screened for HIV and LF infection. CFA prevalence was 25.4% (43/169) in HIV-positive and 23.6% (351/1487) in HIV-negative participants (p=0.57). Geometric mean CFA concentrations were 859 and 1660 antigen units per ml of blood (Ag/ml) respectively, geometric mean ratio (GMR) 0.85, 95%CI 0.49-1.50. In 7,863 adults in study two, CFA prevalence was 20.9% (86/411) in HIV-positive and 24.0% (1789/7452) in HIV–negative participants (p=0.15). Geometric mean CFA concentrations were 630 and 839 Ag/ml respectively (GMR 0.75, 95%CI 0.60-0.94). In the HIV-positive group, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use was associated with a lower CFA prevalence, 12.7% (18/142) vs. 25.3% (67/265), (OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.24-0.76). Prevalence of CFA decreased with duration of ART use, 15.2% 0-1 year (n=59), 13.6% >1-2 years (n=44), 10.0% >2-3 years (n=30) and 0% >3-4 years treatment (n=9), p<0.01 χ2 for linear trend. Conclusions/Significance In this large cross-sectional study of two distinct LF-exposed populations, there is no evidence that HIV infection has an impact on LF epidemiology that will interfere with LF control measures. A significant association of ART use with lower CFA prevalence merits further investigation to understand

  5. The effects of an ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein ligand trap in juvenile simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Karyn E.; Guo, Wen; Serra, Carlo; Beck, Matthew; Wachtman, Lynn; Hoggatt, Amber; Xia, Dongling; Pearson, Chris; Knight, Heather; O’Connell, Micheal; Miller, Andrew D.; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Bhasin, Shalender

    2015-01-01

    There are no approved therapies for muscle wasting in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which portends poor disease outcomes. To determine whether a soluble ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein (ActRIIB.Fc), a ligand trap for TGF-β/activin family members including myostatin, can prevent or restore loss of lean body mass and body weight in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Fourteen pair-housed, juvenile male rhesus macaques were inoculated with SIVmac239 and, 4 wk postinoculation (WPI) treated with intramuscular injections of 10 mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ wk−1 ActRIIB.Fc or saline placebo. Body weight, lean body mass, SIV titers, and somatometric measurements were assessed monthly for 16 wk. Age-matched SIV-infected rhesus macaques were injected with saline. Intervention groups did not differ at baseline. Gains in lean mass were significantly greater in the ActRIIB.Fc group than in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Administration of ActRIIB.Fc was associated with greater gains in body weight (P = 0.01) and upper arm circumference than placebo. Serum CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and SIV copy numbers did not differ between groups. Administration of ActRIIB.Fc was associated with higher muscle expression of myostatin than placebo. ActRIIB.Fc effectively blocked and reversed loss of body weight, lean mass, and fat mass in juvenile SIV-infected rhesus macaques.—O’Connell, K. E., Guo, W., Serra, C., Beck, M., Wachtman, L., Hoggatt, A., Xia, D., Pearson, C., Knight, H., O’Connell, M., Miller, A. D., Westmoreland, S. V., Bhasin, S. The effects of an ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein ligand trap in juvenile simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques. PMID:25466897

  6. Rates and Types of Psychiatric Disorders in Perinatally Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Youth and Seroreverters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellins, Claude Ann; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Elkington, Katherine S.; Dolezal, Curtis; Wiznia, Andrew; McKay, Mary; Bamji, Mahrukh; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine 1) the prevalence of psychiatric and substance use disorders in perinatally HIV-infected (HIV+) adolescents and 2) the association between HIV infection and these mental health outcomes by comparing HIV+ youths to HIV exposed but uninfected youths (HIV-) from similar communities. Methods: Data…

  7. Macrophages and CD4+ T lymphocytes from two multiply exposed, uninfected individuals resist infection with primary non-syncytium-inducing isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Connor, R I; Paxton, W A; Sheridan, K E; Koup, R A

    1996-01-01

    Despite multiple, high-risk sexual exposures, some individuals remain uninfected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). CD4+ lymphocytes from these individuals are less susceptible to infection in vitro with some strains of HIV-1, suggesting that the phenotype of the virus may influence its ability to interact with certain CD4+ cells. In the present study, we examined the susceptibility of CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages from two exposed uninfected individuals (EU2 and EU3) to infection with a panel of biologically cloned isolates of HIV-1 having either a non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) or a syncytium-inducing (SI) phenotype. Our results indicate that CD4+ T lymphocytes from EU2 and EU3 are resistant to infection with NSI isolates of HIV-1 but are susceptible to infection with primary SI isolates. In addition, we found that macrophages from EU2 and EU3 are resistant to infection with both NSI and SI isolates. The latter finding was confirmed by using several uncloned NSI and SI isolates obtained from patients during acute HIV-1 infection. In further experiments, env clones encoding glycoproteins characteristic of NSI or SI viruses were used in single-cycle infectivity assays to evaluate infection of CD4+ lymphocytes and macrophages from EU2 and EU3. Consistent with our previous results, we found that macrophages from these individuals are resistant to infection with NSI and SI env-pseudotyped viruses, while CD4+ T lymphocytes are resistant to NSI, but not SI, pseudotyped viruses. Overall, our results demonstrate that CD4+ cells from two exposed uninfected individuals resist infection in vitro with primary, macrophage-tropic, NSI isolates of HIV-1, which is the predominant viral phenotype found following HIV-1 transmission. Furthermore, infection with NSI isolates was blocked in both CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages from these individuals, suggesting that there may be a common mechanism for resistance in both cell types. PMID:8971004

  8. [Clinical management of acute and chronic human immunodeficiency virus infection before starting antiretroviral treatment].

    PubMed

    Miró, José M; Manzardo, Christian; Zamora, Laura; Pumarola, Tomas; Herreras, Zoe; Gallart, Teresa; Gatell, José M

    2011-12-01

    The evaluation of new cases of HIV infection is relatively common in Spain, where several thousands of patients with new infections are diagnosed each year. Eighty per cent of them have a chronic HIV infection at the first clinical evaluation, which is symptomatic (late presenters) in up to 30% of patients. The initial evaluation of HIV infection is not only directed at determining the clinical, virological (plasma HIV RNA viral load, resistance test and viral tropism) and immunological (CD4+ T-cell cell count) situation of the patients, but must also address the study of their co-infections (hepatitis, tuberculosis) and comorbidities (cardiovascular, hepatic, renal and bone) and the risk of HIV transmission. This is needed in order to decide, whether or not to start antiretroviral treatment, and with which combined antiretroviral treatment to start with, the prophylaxis of opportunistic infections, and the treatment of coinfections and comorbidities. The past and current medical history, the physical examination and laboratory tests will help us decide if the patient is to receive therapeutic intervention. The level of CD4+ T-cell lymphocytes is the best marker to suggest when to start combined antiretroviral treatment, indicating whether or not to start prophylaxis against opportunistic infections (if patients have a CD4+ T-cell count below 200 cells/mm(3)), and in advanced patients should make us suspect the presence of active opportunistic diseases in symptomatic cases. The management of patients with HIV infection must also include appropriate health education on the modes of transmission and prevention of HIV infection, and also to explain its natural history and how it can be modified with proper antiretroviral treatment, as well as to promote a healthy life. No less important is the psychological support, as these patients must learn to live with a chronic infection, which managed properly can ensure a very good long-term prognosis and quality of life. PMID

  9. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection and immune responses in the pig-tailed macaque testis.

    PubMed

    Winnall, Wendy R; Lloyd, Sarah B; De Rose, Robert; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Amarasena, Thakshila H; Hedger, Mark P; Girling, Jane E; Kent, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    The testis is a site of immune privilege in rodents, and there is evidence that T cell responses are also suppressed in the primate testis. Local immunosuppression is a potential mechanism for HIV persistence in tissue reservoirs that few studies have examined. The response of the pig-tailed macaque testis to SIVmac239 infection was characterized to test this possibility. Testes were surgically removed during early-chronic (10 wk) and late-chronic (24-30 wk) SIV infection in 4 animals and compared with those from 7 uninfected animals. SIV infection caused only minor disruption to the seminiferous epithelium without marked evidence of inflammation or consistent changes in total intratesticular leukocyte numbers. Infection also led to an increase in the relative proportion of testicular effector memory CD8(+) T cell numbers and a corresponding reduction in central memory CD4(+) T cells. A decrease in the relative proportion of resident-type CD163(+) macrophages and DCs was also observed. SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells were detectable in the testis, 10-11 wk after infection by staining with SIV Gag-specific or Tat-specific MHC-I tetramers. However, testicular CD8(+) T cells from the infected animals had suppressed cytokine responses to mitogen activation. These results support the possibility that local immunosuppression in the testis may be restricting the ability of T cells to respond to SIV or HIV infection. Local immunosuppression in the testis may be an underexplored mechanism allowing HIV persistence. PMID:25605872

  10. Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review We review the primary immunodeficiencies underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. Recent findings An increasing number of primary immunodeficiencies are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of IL-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of CARD9 immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. Summary Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by primary immunodeficiencies. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of primary immunodeficiency. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases. PMID:24240293

  11. Review of integrase strand transfer inhibitors for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Eun; Mohamed, Abdilahi; Kalabalik, Julie; Sharma, Roopali

    2015-10-01

    Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are oral antiretroviral agents used against HIV infection. There are three agents available, including raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir, some of which are available as combination medications with other antiretroviral drugs. The efficacy and safety of INSTIs in treatment-naïve and experienced HIV-infected patients have been established by multiple studies. Based on the current practice guidelines, INSTI-based regimens are considered as one of the first-line therapies for treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. There are new INSTIs in development to improve the resistance profile and to decrease the frequency of drug administration. PMID:26293294

  12. Health Promotion Strategies for Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiClemente, Ralph J.; Houston-Hamilton, Amanda

    1989-01-01

    This article offers a framework for development and implementation of health education strategies for preventing HIV infection and enhancing health promoting attitudes and behaviors among Black and Latino adolescents. Three HIV prevention program components are identified and discussed. (IAH)

  13. Epidemiology and Relationships between CD4+ Counts and Oral Lesions among 50 Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Berberi, Antoine; Noujeim, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical lesions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients in the oral cavity, head and neck region and to determine their associations with level of immune suppression as measured by the CD4+ count. Materials and Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 50 patients with a proven HIV infection were evaluated. Based on the clinical findings and CD4+ counts, the relationships between oral lesions and CD4+ cell count were investigated. Results: The CD4+ count (cells/mm3) was <200, 200-500, and >500 in 32 cases (64%), 16 cases (32%) and 2 cases (4%) respectively, and the mean CD4+ count was 169.82 cells/mm3 in males and 142.8 cells/mm3 in females. All patients showed at least one oral manifestation. The most common oral lesion identified was pseudomembranous candidiasis accounting for 76% (38/50) followed by periodontal disease 34% (17/50), herpetic lesions and hairy leukoplakia 10% for each (5/50), gingivitis 8% (4/50), oral ulceration 8% (4/50), Kaposi’s sarcoma 6% (3/50), and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma 2% (1/50). Conclusion: The CD4+ count was decreasing the presence, and the severity of oral lesions was increasing in this study. The presence of oral lesions may lead to a positive diagnostic of HIV. Disease progression is characterized by increased prevalence of some oral lesions as candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, and Kaposi sarcoma. The severity of oral lesions was more pronounced with a CD4+ count <200 cells/mm3. PMID:25709361

  14. A new possible mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of neural cells.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Losada, Susana; Cantó-Nogués, Carmen; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Angeles

    2002-12-01

    To study the mechanism by which HIV-1 infects neurons we have used human neuroblastoma cell lines (NB). NB (SK-N-SH and SK-N-MC) were found to be susceptible to productive infection by X4 or R5 HIV-1, as detected by viral load and Ag-p24. To identify the putative receptor, we tested the cell surface expression of previously described receptors such as CD4, nucleolin, galactosylceramide, and CCR1, CCR5, and CXCR4 by cytometry and RT-PCR. NB express no CD4 and low levels of galactosylceramide or nucleolin. Furthermore, antibodies to any of these molecules did not affect NB infection. NB express variable levels of CCR5, CCR1, and CXCR4. Interestingly, exogenous heparan sulfate alone was able to substantially inhibit HIV-1 infection, an effect which was potentiated by RANTES or SDF-1 in the HIV-1-infection with R5 or X4 isolates. Besides, anti-CCR5 and anti-CXCR4 significantly blocked HIV-1 infection of R5 and X4 isola