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Sample records for immunodeficieny disease scid

  1. Helicobacter bilis-induced inflammatory bowel disease in scid mice with defined flora.

    PubMed Central

    Shomer, N H; Dangler, C A; Schrenzel, M D; Fox, J G

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter bilis has been isolated from aged inbred mice with multifocal chronic hepatitis and from scid mice with diarrhea, proliferative typhlitis, and colitis. To determine the pathogenic potential of H. bilis, we inoculated 4-week-old female Tac:Icr:Ha(ICR)-scidfDF mice by intraperitoneal injection of approximately 10(8) CFU of H. bilis in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (n = 15) or PBS alone (n = 10) and necropsied them at 7 weeks postinfection. Sham-inoculated mice had no significant gross or histopathological findings. In contrast, all 15 experimentally inoculated mice (confirmed to be H. bilis-colonized by culture and PCR of cecal contents) exhibited varying degrees of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Proliferative typhlocolitis was characterized by focal to segmental areas of crypt hyperplasia and a predominantly histiocytic inflammatory cell infiltrate. Labeling indices for 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation were increased approximately 2.5-fold in the ceca and colons of H. bilis-inoculated mice. This is the first study to demonstrate experimentally that infection with H. bilis causes IBD in scid mice with defined flora. This result both confirms a pathogenic role for H. bilis in mice and provides a new model relating a specific microbial agent and IBD. PMID:9353076

  2. IFN-gamma gene polymorphisms associate with development of EBV+ lymphoproliferative disease in hu PBL-SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Dierksheide, Julie E; Baiocchi, Robert A; Ferketich, Amy K; Roychowdhury, Sameek; Pelletier, Ronald P; Eisenbeis, Charles F; Caligiuri, Michael A; VanBuskirk, Anne M

    2005-02-15

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a devastating post-transplantation complication often associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Although the type and length of immunosuppression are risk factors, a patient's inherent immune capacity also likely contributes to this disorder. This report uses severe-combined immunodeficient mice given injections of human peripheral blood leukocytes (hu PBL-SCID [Severe Combined Immunodeficient] mice) to test the hypothesis that cytokine genotype associates with the development of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD). We observed that the A/A (adenosine/adenosine) genotype for base + 874 of the interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) gene was significantly more prevalent in PBLs producing rapid, high-penetrance LPD in hu PBL-SCID mice, compared to PBLs producing late, low-penetrance LPD or no LPD. In examining the relationship between genotype and cytolytic T-lymphocyte (CTL) function, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) inhibited restimulation of CTLs in PBLs with adenosine at IFNG base + 874, but not in PBLs homozygous for thymidine. Importantly, neutralization of TGF-beta in hu PBL-SCID mice injected with A/A genotype PBLs resulted in reduced LPD development and expanded human CD8(+) cells. Thus, our data show that TGF-beta may promote tumor development by inhibiting CTL restimulation and expansion. Further, our data indicate that IFNG genotype may provide valuable information for both identifying transplant recipients at greater risk for PTLD and developing preventive and curative strategies. PMID:15498860

  3. New immunodeficient (nude-scid, beige-scid) mice as excellent recipients of human skin grafts containing intraepidermal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Y; Saida, T; Tokuda, Y; Dohi, S; Wang, Y L; Urano, K; Hioki, K; Ueyama, Y

    1997-03-01

    Engraftment of normal or lesional human skin onto nude or SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice has been used as an in vivo experimental model. However, this model has some limitations, such as shrinkage and loss of the grafted skin over time. To improve the experimental model, we have produced two new SCID-lineage mouse strains, BALB/cA-nude-scid (nu/nu, scid/scid) and BALB/cA-beige-scid (bg/bg, scid/scid) mice, by the method of cross intercross. Intraepidermal neoplastic lesions such as Bowen's disease were grafted onto the back of the mice of these strains. The rate of reduction in the size of the grafts was lower on nude-scid and beige-scid mice than on SCID mice. Rates of survival of neoplastic cells in the grafts were higher in nude-scid mice than in SCID and beige-scid mice (SCID mice 38%, nude-scid mice 55%, beige-scid mice 38%). Neoplastic cells of Bowen's disease grafted onto a beige-scid mouse proliferated and invaded the dermis during 233 days of observation, confirming the progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma from carcinoma in situ. The present study revealed that nude-scid and beige-scide mice newly produced by us provide a very useful in vivo experimental model for the investigation of carcinogenesis and tumor progression in human skin. PMID:9143737

  4. Genetics of SCID

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Human SCID (Severe Combined Immunodeficiency) is a prenatal disorder of T lymphocyte development, that depends on the expression of numerous genes. The knowledge of the genetic basis of SCID is essential for diagnosis (e.g., clinical phenotype, lymphocyte profile) and treatment (e.g., use and type of pre-hematopoietic stem cell transplant conditioning). Over the last years novel genetic defects causing SCID have been discovered, and the molecular and immunological mechanisms of SCID have been better characterized. Distinct forms of SCID show both common and peculiar (e.g., absence or presence of nonimmunological features) aspects, and they are currently classified into six groups according to prevalent pathophysiological mechanisms: impaired cytokine-mediated signaling; pre-T cell receptor defects; increased lymphocyte apoptosis; defects in thymus embryogenesis; impaired calcium flux; other mechanisms. This review is the updated, extended and largely modified translation of the article "Cossu F: Le basi genetiche delle SCID", originally published in Italian language in the journal "Prospettive in Pediatria" 2009, 156:228-238. PMID:21078154

  5. Generation and Disease Model Relevance of a Manganese Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based NOD/scid-IL-2Rγc(null) Mouse Brain Atlas.

    PubMed

    Sajja, Balasrinivasa R; Bade, Aditya N; Zhou, Biyun; Uberti, Mariano G; Gorantla, Santhi; Gendelman, Howard E; Boska, Michael D; Liu, Yutong

    2016-03-01

    Strain specific mouse brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlases provide coordinate space linked anatomical registration. This allows longitudinal quantitative analyses of neuroanatomical volumes and imaging metrics for assessing the role played by aging and disease to the central nervous system. As NOD/scid-IL-2Rγ(c)(null) (NSG) mice allow human cell transplantation to study human disease, these animals are used to assess brain morphology. Manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) improves contrasts amongst brain components and as such can greatly help identifying a broad number of structures on MRI. To this end, NSG adult mouse brains were imaged in vivo on a 7.0 Tesla MR scanner at an isotropic resolution of 100 μm. A population averaged brain of 19 mice was generated using an iterative alignment algorithm. MEMRI provided sufficient contrast permitting 41 brain structures to be manually labeled. Volumes of 7 humanized mice brain structures were measured by atlas-based segmentation and compared against non-humanized controls. The humanized NSG mice brain volumes were smaller than controls (p < 0.001). Many brain structures of humanized mice were significantly smaller than controls. We posit that the irradiation and cell grafting involved in the creation of humanized mice were responsible for the morphological differences. Six NSG mice without MnCl2 administration were scanned with high resolution T2-weighted MRI and segmented to test broad utility of the atlas. PMID:26556033

  6. ESTABLISHING DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR SCID, LEAKY SCID, AND OMENN SYNDROME: THE PRIMARY IMMUNE DEFICIENCY TREATMENT CONSORTIUM EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, William T.; Dunn, Elizabeth; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Logan, Brent R.; Griffith, Linda M.; Kohn, Donald B.; O’Reilly, Richard J.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Pai, Sung-Yun; Martinez, Caridad A.; Buckley, Rebecca H.; Cowan, Morton J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The approach to the diagnosis of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease (SCID) and related disorders varies among institutions and countries. Objectives The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) attempted to develop a uniform set of criteria for diagnosing SCID and related disorders, and has evaluated the results as part of a retrospective study of SCID in North America. Methods Clinical records from 2000 through 2009 at 27 centers in North America were collected on 332 children treated with hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) or gene therapy (GT) for SCID and related disorders. Eligibility for inclusion in the study and classification into disease groups were established by set criteria and applied by an expert review group. Result Two hundred eighty-five (86%) of the patients were determined to be eligible and 47 (14%) were not eligible. Of the 285 eligible patients, 84% were classified as typical SCID; 13% were classified as leaky SCID, Omenn syndrome, or reticular dysgenesis; and 3% had a history of enzyme replacement or gene therapy. Detection of a genotype predicting a SCID phenotype was accepted for eligibility. Reasons for non-eligibility were failure to demonstrate either impaired lymphocyte proliferation or maternal T cell engraftment. Overall (n = 332) rates of testing were: proliferation to PHA 77%, maternal engraftment 35%, and genotype 79% (mutation identified in 62%). Conclusion Lack of complete laboratory evaluation of patients prior to HCT presents a significant barrier to definitive diagnosis of SCID and related disorders and prevented inclusion of individuals in our observational HCT study. This lesson is critical for patient care as well as the design of future, prospective treatment studies for such children, since a well-defined and consistent study population is important for precision in outcomes analysis. PMID:24290292

  7. Validation of the NetSCID: an automated web-based adaptive version of the SCID.

    PubMed

    Brodey, Benjamin B; First, Michael; Linthicum, Jared; Haman, Kirsten; Sasiela, Jordan W; Ayer, David

    2016-04-01

    The present study developed and validated a configurable, adaptive, web-based version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM, the NetSCID. The validation included 24 clinicians who administered the SCID and 230 participants who completed the paper SCID and/or the NetSCID. Data-entry errors, branching errors, and clinician satisfaction were quantified. Relative to the paper SCID, the NetSCID resulted in far fewer data-entry and branching errors. Clinicians 'preferred' using the NetSCID and found that the NetSCID was easier to administer. PMID:26995238

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis in SCID mice.

    PubMed Central

    Persidsky, Y.; Limoges, J.; McComb, R.; Bock, P.; Baldwin, T.; Tyor, W.; Patil, A.; Nottet, H. S.; Epstein, L.; Gelbard, H.; Flanagan, E.; Reinhard, J.; Pirruccello, S. J.; Gendelman, H. E.

    1996-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is neuroinvasive and commonly causes cognitive and motor deficits during the later stages of viral infection. (referred to as HIV dementia). The mechanism(s) for disease revolves around secretory products produced from immune-activated brain macrophages/microglia. Recently, we developed an animal model system for HIV dementia that contains xenografts of HIV-1-infected cells inoculated into brains of mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This animal system was used to quantitatively evaluate HIV-induced neuropathology. Xenografts of HIV-1-infected human monocytes (placed into the putamen and cortex of SCID mice) remained viable for 5 weeks. HIV-1 p24 antigen expression in mouse brain was persistent. Progressive inflammatory responses (including astrogliosis and cytokine production), which began at 3 days, peaked at day 12. The range of astrocyte proliferative reactions exceeded the inoculation site by > 1000 microns. Brains with virus-infected monocytes showed a > or = 1.6-fold increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (staining distribution and intensity) as compared with similarly inoculated brains with uninfected control monocytes. These findings paralleled the accumulation and activation of murine microglia (increased branching of cell processes, formation of microglial nodules, interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-6 expression). An inflammatory reaction of human monocytes (as defined by HLA-DR, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression) and neuronal injury (apoptosis) also developed after virus-infected monocyte xenograft placement into mouse brain tissue. These data, taken together, demonstrate that this SCID mouse model of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis can reproduce key aspects of disease (virus-infected macrophages, astrocytosis, microglial activation, and neuronal damage). This model may serve as an important means for therapeutic development directed toward improving mental function in HIV

  9. SCID dogs: similar transplant potential but distinct intra-uterine growth defects and premature replicative senescence compared with SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Meek, Katheryn; Jutkowitz, Ari; Allen, Lisa; Glover, Jillian; Convery, Erin; Massa, Alisha; Mullaney, Tom; Stanley, Bryden; Rosenstein, Diana; Bailey, Susan M; Johnson, Cheri; Georges, George

    2009-08-15

    We have previously described DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) mutations in horses and dogs that result in deficits in V(D)J recombination, DNA repair, and SCID. In this paper, we document substantial developmental growth defects in DNA-PKcs-deficient dogs that are not apparent in SCID mice. Fibroblast cell strains derived from either fetal or adult SCID dogs proliferate poorly in culture and undergo premature replicative senescence, somewhat reminiscent of cells derived from Ku-deficient mice. A limited number of animals have been immune reconstituted (by bone marrow transplantation) so that they can be maintained in a normal environment for long periods. Several of these animals have developed conditions associated with premature ageing at 2-3 years of age, roughly 20% of their expected lifespan. These conditions include intestinal malabsorption and primary neural cell neoplasia. These results suggest that DNA-PKcs deficiency is not tolerated equally in all species, perhaps providing insight into why DNA-PKcs deficiency has not been observed in humans. Finally, this study demonstrates the feasibility of maintaining SCID dogs for extended periods of time and documents their utility for bone marrow transplantation studies and as hosts for the propagation of xenografts. In sum, SCID dogs may present researchers with new possibilities for the development of animal models of human disease. PMID:19635917

  10. Impaired Lymphocytes Development and Xenotransplantation of Gastrointestinal Tumor Cells in Prkdc-Null SCID Zebrafish Model.

    PubMed

    Jung, In Hye; Chung, Yong-Yoon; Jung, Dawoon E; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Do Hee; Kim, Kyung-Sik; Park, Seung Woo

    2016-08-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice have widely been used as hosts for human tumor cell xenograft study. This animal model, however, is labor intensive. As zebrafish is largely emerging as a promising model system for studying human diseases including cancer, developing efficient immunocompromised strains for tumor xenograft study are also demanded in zebrafish. Here, we have created the Prkdc-null SCID zebrafish model which provides the stable immune-deficient background required for xenotransplantation of tumor cell. In this study, the two transcription activator-like effector nucleases that specifically target the exon3 of the zebrafish Prkdc gene were used to induce a frame shift mutation, causing a complete knockout of the gene function. The SCID zebrafish showed susceptibility to spontaneous infection, a well-known phenotype found in the SCID mutation. Further characterization revealed that the SCID zebrafish contained no functional T and B lymphocytes which reflected the phenotypes identified in the mice SCID model. Intraperitoneal injection of human cancer cells into the adult SCID zebrafish clearly showed tumor cell growth forming into a solid mass. Our present data show the suitability of using the SCID zebrafish strain for xenotransplantation experiments, and in vivo monitoring of the tumor cell growth in the zebrafish demonstrates use of the animal model as a new platform of tumor xenograft study. PMID:27566103

  11. Learning about Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of page What do we know about the immune system and SCID? Lymphocytes, a type of white blood ... compensate for the mutation. Thus, they have normal immune systems. However, since males have only one X chromosome ...

  12. Atypical radiation response of SCID cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawapun, Nisa

    Murine SCID (severe combined immune deficiency) cells are well known for their defect in DNA double-strand break repair and in variable(diversity)joining [V(D)J] recombination due to a mutation in a catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). As a consequence, scid cells are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation. The present study showed that asynchronous populations of scid cells were about two-fold more sensitive than Balb/c with respect to cell killing and the defect in scid cells was corrected by complementation with human chromosome 8. Analysis of the survival of synchronized populations as a function of the cell cycle revealed that while scid cells were hypersensitive in all cell cycle phases compared to wild-type cells, this hypersensitivity is even more pronounced in G1 phase. The hypersensitivity reduced as the cells progressed into S phase suggested that homologous recombination repair plays a role. The results imply that there are at least two pathways for the repair of DSB DNA, consistent with a model previously proposed by others. The scid cells were also more sensitive to UVC light (254 nm) killing as compared to wild type cells by clonogenic survival. Using a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay to study the nucleotide excision repair (NER) which is the major repair pathway for UV-photoproducts, the results showed that NER in scid cells was not as efficient as CB- 17. This suggests that DNA-PK is involved in NER as well as non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DSB repair which is responsible for ionizing radiation sensitivity in scid cells. Repair in scid cells was not totally absent as shown by low dose rate sparing of cell killing after exposure to 137Cs γ-rays at dose rate of 0.6 cGy/h, 1.36 cGy/h, 6 cGy/h as compared to high dose rate at 171 cGy/min, although this phenomenon could be explained partly by proliferation. However, for radiation induced transformation, no significant dose rate effect was seen. A plot of transformation

  13. Guidelines for Screening, Early Diagnosis and Management of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in India.

    PubMed

    Madkaikar, Manisha; Aluri, Jahnavi; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-05-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is one of the most severe and fatal forms of inherited primary immunodeficiency. Early diagnosis of SCID improves the outcome of life before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). SCID fulfills the internationally-established criteria for a condition to be screened for at birth. T cell receptor excision circle (TREC) assay is commonly used in western countries as part of newborn blood spot screening (NBS) program as the assay has high sensitivity and specificity to identify SCID infants, allowing early intervention and curative bone marrow (BM) transplantation. In India, the blood spot based screening programs are yet to mature into a full-fledged national program. Moreover, TREC assay, a PCR based test, is not widely available and may cost USD 5-7 per test; thus limiting its applicability for screening newborns in Indian scenario. Most of the SCID patients have lymphopenia at birth and routine evaluation for absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) on cord blood samples can help in pre-symptomatic detection and early intervention for neonates with SCID. Although ALC count lacks the sensitivity and specificity of TREC assay; its lower cost and widespread availability makes it an attractive option for identifying newborns with lymphopenia during the post-partum hospital stay. BCG vaccine and other live attenuated vaccines (e.g., oral polio vaccine) should be withheld in lymphopenic infants until SCID is excluded by clinical and/or immunological work-up. A diagnosis of SCID warrants immediate care to prevent and treat infections and wherever feasible, early stem cell transplantation for disease free survival. PMID:26920398

  14. Humanized Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease in NOD-SCID il2rγ-/- (NSG) Mice with G-CSF-Mobilized Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells following Cyclophosphamide and Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Hisaki; Luo, Zhi-Juan; Kim, Hye Jin; Newbigging, Susan; Gassas, Adam; Keating, Armand; Egeler, R. Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) is the major source of late phase morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Humanized acute GvHD (aGvHD) in vivo models using NOD-SCID il2rγ-/- (NSG) mice are well described and are important tools for investigating pathogenicity of human cells in vivo. However, there have been only few reported humanized cGvHD mouse models. We evaluated if prolonged inflammation driven by low dose G-CSF-mobilized human PBMCs (G-hPBMCs) would lead to cGvHD following cyclophosphamide (CTX) administration and total body irradiation (TBI) in NSG mice. Engraftment was assessed in peripheral blood (PB) and in specific target organs by either flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry (IHC). Tissue samples were harvested 56 days post transplantation and were evaluated by a pathologist. Some mice were kept for up to 84 days to evaluate the degree of fibrosis. Mice that received CTX at 20mg/kg did not show aGvHD with stable expansion of human CD45+ CD3+ T-cells in PB (mean; 5.8 to 23.2%). The pathology and fibrosis scores in the lung and the liver were significantly increased with aggregation of T-cells and hCD68+ macrophages. There was a correlation between liver pathology score and the percentage of hCD68+ cells, suggesting the role of macrophage in fibrogenesis in NSG mice. In order to study long-term survival, 6/9 mice who survived more than 56 days showed increased fibrosis in the lung and liver at the endpoint, which suggests the infiltrating hCD68+ macrophages may be pathogenic. It was shown that the combination of CTX and TBI with a low number of G-hPBMCs (1x106) leads to chronic lung and liver inflammation driven by a high infiltration of human macrophage and mature human T cells from the graft, resulting in fibrosis of lung and liver in NSG mice. In conclusion this model may serve as an important pre-clinical model to further current understanding of the roles of human macrophages in cGvHD. PMID

  15. Humanized Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease in NOD-SCID il2rγ-/- (NSG) Mice with G-CSF-Mobilized Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells following Cyclophosphamide and Total Body Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hisaki; Luo, Zhi-Juan; Kim, Hye Jin; Newbigging, Susan; Gassas, Adam; Keating, Armand; Egeler, R Maarten

    2015-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) is the major source of late phase morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Humanized acute GvHD (aGvHD) in vivo models using NOD-SCID il2rγ-/- (NSG) mice are well described and are important tools for investigating pathogenicity of human cells in vivo. However, there have been only few reported humanized cGvHD mouse models. We evaluated if prolonged inflammation driven by low dose G-CSF-mobilized human PBMCs (G-hPBMCs) would lead to cGvHD following cyclophosphamide (CTX) administration and total body irradiation (TBI) in NSG mice. Engraftment was assessed in peripheral blood (PB) and in specific target organs by either flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry (IHC). Tissue samples were harvested 56 days post transplantation and were evaluated by a pathologist. Some mice were kept for up to 84 days to evaluate the degree of fibrosis. Mice that received CTX at 20mg/kg did not show aGvHD with stable expansion of human CD45+ CD3+ T-cells in PB (mean; 5.8 to 23.2%). The pathology and fibrosis scores in the lung and the liver were significantly increased with aggregation of T-cells and hCD68+ macrophages. There was a correlation between liver pathology score and the percentage of hCD68+ cells, suggesting the role of macrophage in fibrogenesis in NSG mice. In order to study long-term survival, 6/9 mice who survived more than 56 days showed increased fibrosis in the lung and liver at the endpoint, which suggests the infiltrating hCD68+ macrophages may be pathogenic. It was shown that the combination of CTX and TBI with a low number of G-hPBMCs (1x106) leads to chronic lung and liver inflammation driven by a high infiltration of human macrophage and mature human T cells from the graft, resulting in fibrosis of lung and liver in NSG mice. In conclusion this model may serve as an important pre-clinical model to further current understanding of the roles of human macrophages in cGvHD. PMID

  16. Greasing the SCIDs for Universal Flu Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Yewdell, Jonathan W.; Ince, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Previews In this issue, Nakamura et al. describe a robust SCID mouse-based method for isolating human monoclonal antibodies of desired specificity from adoptively transferred human B cells. As proof-of principle, they isolate human mAbs that could potentially be used to treat or prevent human infection with any influenza A virus strain. PMID:23870308

  17. Web Pages Created Via SCID Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stammen, Ronald M.

    This paper describes the use of a management process, Systematic Curriculum and Instructional Development (SCID), for developing online multimedia modules. The project, "Collaboratively Creating Multimedia Modules for Teachers and Professors," was funded by the USWEST Foundation. The curriculum development process involved teams of experts in…

  18. SCID: Model for Effective Instructional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.

    The Systematic Curriculum and Instructional Development (SCID) model provides a tested procedure for developing high-quality, low-cost competency-based education and tech prep curriculum and instructional materials. It consists of 5 phases--analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation--and 23 components. The analysis phase…

  19. The development of a novel immunotherapy model of human ovarian cancer in human PBL-severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, W; Gallagher, G

    1995-01-01

    The reported ability of SCID mice to accept xenografts of both human tumors and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) provides the potential for the development of novel immunotherapy models in these animals. This study describes the development of a novel small animal model of human ovarian cancer. This was achieved by engrafting a human ovarian cancer cell line (Ovan-4) into the peritoneal cavity of immunodeficient SCID and immune reconstituted human PBL-SCID mice. When transplanted to SCID mice this cell line exhibited growth characteristics similar to the clinical disease observed in patients with implantation of metastatic nodules onto the interior surface of the peritoneal wall. Reconstituted human PBL-SCID mice challenged with identical numbers of Ovan-4 cells exhibited a significant increase in survival time, suggesting a role for cells of the human immune system in preventing the development of this type of malignancy in vivo. Furthermore, vaccination of human PBL-SCID mice against Ovan-4 produced tumour-specific human antibodies in the serum of these animals. Animals reconstituted with CD8-depleted PBL exhibited increased serum immunoglobulin levels and produced enhanced anti-Ovan-4 activity after vaccination. Subsequent challenge of these animals with Ovan-4 revealed a further increase in survival time. These results suggest that human antibodies may have a role in immunity against ovarian cancer and could be of therapeutic value in this type of disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 5 PMID:7664496

  20. Not All SCID Pigs Are Created Equally: Two Independent Mutations in the Artemis Gene Cause SCID in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Waide, Emily H; Dekkers, Jack C M; Ross, Jason W; Rowland, Raymond R R; Wyatt, Carol R; Ewen, Catherine L; Evans, Alyssa B; Thekkoot, Dinesh M; Boddicker, Nicholas J; Serão, Nick V L; Ellinwood, N Matthew; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2015-10-01

    Mutations in >30 genes are known to result in impairment of the adaptive immune system, causing a group of disorders collectively known as SCID. SCID disorders are split into groups based on their presence and/or functionality of B, T, and NK cells. Piglets from a line of Yorkshire pigs at Iowa State University were shown to be affected by T(-)B(-)NK(+) SCID, representing, to our knowledge, the first example of naturally occurring SCID in pigs. In this study, we present evidence for two spontaneous mutations as the molecular basis for this SCID phenotype. Flow cytometry analysis of thymocytes showed an increased frequency of immature T cells in SCID pigs. Fibroblasts from these pigs were more sensitive to ionizing radiation than non-SCID piglets, eliminating the RAG1 and RAG2 genes. Genetic and molecular analyses showed that two mutations were present in the Artemis gene, which in the homozygous or compound heterozygous state cause the immunodeficient phenotype. Rescue of SCID fibroblast radiosensitivity by human Artemis protein demonstrated that the identified Artemis mutations are the direct cause of this cellular phenotype. The work presented in the present study reveals two mutations in the Artemis gene that cause T(-)B(-)NK(+) SCID in pigs. The SCID pig can be an important biomedical model, but these mutations would be undesirable in commercial pig populations. The identified mutations and associated genetic tests can be used to address both of these issues. PMID:26320255

  1. SCID: A Competency-Based Curriculum Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.

    To provide structure for developing curriculum for Competency Based Education (CBE), an effective and efficient model, Systematic Curriculum and Instructional Development (SCID), has been devised. SCID has five phases: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Each of 23 components involves several steps, some optional. Phase…

  2. Successful newborn screening for SCID in the Navajo Nation.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Antonia; Hu, Diana; Song, Miran; Gomes, Heidi; Brown, Denise R; Bourque, Trudy; Gonzalez-Espinosa, Diana; Lin, Zhili; Cowan, Morton J; Puck, Jennifer M

    2015-05-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) identifies affected infants before the onset of life-threatening infections, permitting optimal treatment. Navajo Native Americans have a founder mutation in the DNA repair enzyme Artemis, resulting in frequent Artemis SCID (SCID-A). A pilot study at 2 Navajo hospitals assessed the feasibility of SCID NBS in this population. Dried blood spots from 1800 infants were assayed by PCR for T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs), a biomarker for naïve T cells. Starting in February 2012, TREC testing transitioned to standard care throughout the Navajo Area Indian Health Service, and a total of 7900 infants were screened through July 2014. One infant had low TRECs and was diagnosed with non-SCID T lymphopenia, while 4 had undetectable TRECs due to SCID-A, all of whom were referred for hematopoietic cell transplantation. This report establishes the incidence of SCID-A and demonstrates effectiveness of TREC NBS in the Navajo. PMID:25762520

  3. Data in support of the bone analysis of NOD-SCID mice treated with zoledronic acid and prednisolone.

    PubMed

    Hori, Naoko; Abe, Takahiro; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Shimamura, Yumiko; Sato, Tomoya; Yoda, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports data on the bone, specifically the tibia and mandible, of nonobese diabetic mice with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (NOD-SCID mice) treated with zoledronic acid (ZA) and prednisolone (PSL). The data described here are related to the research article titled "Zoledronic acid basically increases circulating soluble RANKL level in mice, and in glucocorticoid-administrated mice, more increases lymphocytes derived sRANKL by bacterial endotoxic stimuli" [1]. The present data and the NOD-SCID mice experiments described contain insights into the role of bone-remodeling factors induced by ZA treatment. PMID:27182545

  4. Data in support of the bone analysis of NOD–SCID mice treated with zoledronic acid and prednisolone

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Naoko; Abe, Takahiro; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Shimamura, Yumiko; Sato, Tomoya; Yoda, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports data on the bone, specifically the tibia and mandible, of nonobese diabetic mice with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (NOD–SCID mice) treated with zoledronic acid (ZA) and prednisolone (PSL). The data described here are related to the research article titled “Zoledronic acid basically increases circulating soluble RANKL level in mice, and in glucocorticoid-administrated mice, more increases lymphocytes derived sRANKL by bacterial endotoxic stimuli” [1]. The present data and the NOD–SCID mice experiments described contain insights into the role of bone-remodeling factors induced by ZA treatment. PMID:27182545

  5. Using ICR and SCID mice as animal models for smallpox to assess antiviral drug efficacy.

    PubMed

    Titova, Ksenya A; Sergeev, Alexander A; Zamedyanskaya, Alena S; Galahova, Darya O; Kabanov, Alexey S; Morozova, Anastasia A; Bulychev, Leonid E; Sergeev, Artemiy A; Glotova, Tanyana I; Shishkina, Larisa N; Taranov, Oleg S; Omigov, Vladimir V; Zavjalov, Evgenii L; Agafonov, Alexander P; Sergeev, Alexander N

    2015-09-01

    The possibility of using immunocompetent ICR mice and immunodeficient SCID mice as model animals for smallpox to assess antiviral drug efficacy was investigated. Clinical signs of the disease did not appear following intranasal (i.n.) challenge of mice with strain Ind-3a of variola virus (VARV), even when using the highest possible dose of the virus (5.2 log10 p.f.u.). The 50 % infective doses (ID50) of VARV, estimated by the virus presence or absence in the lungs 3 and 4 days post-infection, were 2.7 ± 0.4 log10 p.f.u. for ICR mice and 3.5 ± 0.7 log10 p.f.u. for SCID mice. After i.n. challenge of ICR and SCID mice with VARV 30 and 50 ID50, respectively, steady reproduction of the virus occurred only in the respiratory tract (lungs and nose). Pathological inflammatory destructive changes were revealed in the respiratory tract and the primary target cells for VARV (macrophages and epithelial cells) in mice, similar to those in humans and cynomolgus macaques. The use of mice to assess antiviral efficacies of NIOCH-14 and ST-246 demonstrated the compliance of results with those described in scientific literature, which opens up the prospect of their use as an animal model for smallpox to develop anti-smallpox drugs intended for humans. PMID:26067292

  6. BCG vaccination in SCID patients: complications, risks and vaccination policies

    PubMed Central

    Marciano, Beatriz E; Huang, Chiung-Yu; Joshi, Gyan; Rezaei, Nima; Carvalho, Beatriz Costa; Allwood, Zoe; Ikinciogullari, Aydan; Reda, Shereen M; Gennery, Andrew; Thon, Vojtech; Espinosa-Rosales, Francisco; Al-Herz, Waleed; Porras, Oscar; Shcherbina, Anna; Szaflarska, Anna; Kiliç, Şebnem; Franco, Jose L; Raccio, Andrea C Gómez; Roxo-Jr, Persio; Esteves, Isabel; Galal, Nermeen; Grumach, Anete Sevciovic; Al-Tamemi, Salem; Yildiran, Alisan; Orellana, Julio C; Yamada, Masafumi; Morio, Tomohiro; Liberatore, Diana; Ohtsuka, Yoshitoshi; Lau, Yu-Lung; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Torres-Lozano, Carlos; Mazzucchelli, Juliana TL; Vilela, Maria MS; Tavares, Fabiola S; Cunha, Luciana; Pinto, Jorge A; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara E; Hernandez-Nieto, Leticia; Elfeky, Reem A; Ariga, Tadashi; Toshio, Heike; Dogu, Figen; Cipe, Funda; Formankova, Renata; Nuñez-Nuñez, M Enriqueta; Bezrodnik, Liliana; Marques, Jose Gonçalo; Pereira, María I; Listello, Viviana; Slatter, Mary A; Nademi, Zohreh; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Davies, Graham; Neven, Bénédicte; Rosenzweig, Sergio D

    2014-01-01

    Background SCID is a syndrome characterized by profound T cell deficiency. BCG vaccine is contraindicated in SCID patients. Because most countries encourage BCG vaccination at birth, a high percent of SCID patients are vaccinated before their immune defect is detected. Objectives To describe the complications and risks associated with BCG vaccination in SCID patients. Methods An extensive standardized questionnaire evaluating complications, therapeutics, and outcome regarding BCG in patients diagnosed with SCID was widely distributed. Summary statistics and association analysis was performed. Results Data on 349 BCG vaccinated SCID patients from 28 centers in 17 countries was analyzed. Fifty-one percent of the patients developed BCG complications, 34% disseminated and 17% localized (a 33,000 and 400 fold increase, respectively, over the general population). Patients receiving early vaccination (≤ 1 month) showed an increased prevalence of complications (p=0.006) and death due to BCG complications (p<0.0001). The odds of experiencing complications among patients with T cells ≤ 250/uL at diagnosis was 2.1 times higher (95% CI, 1.4-3.4; p = 0.001) than among those with T cells > 250/uL. BCG complications were reported in 2/78 patients who received anti-mycobacterial therapy while asymptomatic and no deaths due to BCG complications occurred in this group. In contrast 46 BCG-associated deaths were reported among 160 patients treated with anti-mycobacterial therapy for a symptomatic BCG infection (p<0.0001). Conclusions BCG vaccine has a very high rate of complications in SCID patients, which increase morbidity and mortality rates. Until safer and more efficient anti-tuberculosis vaccines become available, delay in BCG vaccination should be considered to protect highly vulnerable populations from preventable complications. PMID:24679470

  7. NK cells are intrinsically functional in pigs with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) caused by spontaneous mutations in the Artemis gene.

    PubMed

    Powell, Ellis J; Cunnick, Joan E; Knetter, Susan M; Loving, Crystal L; Waide, Emily H; Dekkers, Jack C M; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2016-07-01

    We have identified Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in a line of Yorkshire pigs at Iowa State University. These SCID pigs lack B-cells and T-cells, but possess Natural Killer (NK) cells. This SCID phenotype is caused by recessive mutations in the Artemis gene. Interestingly, two human tumor cell lines, PANC-1 and A375-SM, survived after injection into these SCID pigs, but, as we demonstrate here, these cells, as well as K562 tumor cells, can be lysed in vitro by NK cells from SCID and non-SCID pigs. NK cells from both SCID and non-SCID pigs required activation in vitro with either recombinant human IL-2 or the combination of recombinant porcine IL-12 and IL-18 to kill tumor targets. We also showed that SCID NK cells could be activated to produce perforin, and perforin production was greatly enhanced in NK cells from both SCID and non-SCID pigs after IL-2 cytokine treatment. While CD16+, CD172- NK cells constituted an average of only 4% in non-SCID pigs, NK cells averaged 27% of the peripheral blood mononuclear cell population in SCID pigs. We found no significant differences in killing activity per NK cell between SCID and non-SCID pigs. We conclude that survival of human cancer cells in these SCID pigs is not due to an intrinsic defect in NK cell killing ability. PMID:27269786

  8. Enteroviral and immune mediated myocarditis in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Schwimmbeck, P L; Rohn, G; Wrusch, A; Schulze, K; Doerner, A; Kuehl, U; Tschoepe, C; Pauschinger, M; Schultheiss, H P

    2000-05-01

    Severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mice have been used as an animal model to study both the direct cytopathic effect of enteroviruses on the heart in the absence of an effective immune system and to investigate the role of immune mediated processes in the pathogenesis of human myocarditis. The infection of SCID mice with coxsackievirus B3 resulted in severe myocarditis with very high titers of the virus in the myocardium and severe necrosis of myocytes. This direct cytopathic effect caused an impairment of the myocardial function and resulted in a high mortality rate of the infected animals. For the study of the immune mechanisms in human myocarditis, peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with myocarditis, having an impaired left ventricular function without viral persistence in the myocardium, were transferred into SCID mice. As controls peripheral blood leukocytes of normal donors were used. At 60 days after transfer, human immunoglobulines could be demonstrated in the peripheral blood of the SCID mice, however, human autoantibodies against the adenine nucleotide translocator, a myocardial autoantigen, were only present in the animals receiving peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with myocarditis. Cellular infiltrates of human leukocytes in the myocardium and an impaired left ventricular function were also only observed in animals reconstituted with peripheral blood leukocytes from patients. These effects were T cell dependent as shown by differential transfer. These results are of interest for the treatment of human myocarditis, suggesting the avoidance of an immunosuppressive therapy in acute or chronic myocarditis with viral persistence to prevent a direct cytopathic effect in the absence of an effective immune system. However, in the setting of a chronic, (auto-)immunological myocarditis with the proven absence of entero- or adenoviral sequences an immunomodulatory therapy seems to be effective and safe. PMID:10904845

  9. SCID mouse models of acute and relapsing chronic Toxoplasma gondii infections.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L L

    1992-01-01

    Lymphodeficient scid/scid (SCID) mice died from acute infection with a strain of Toxoplasma gondii that causes chronic infection with mild symptoms in immunocompetent non-SCID mice. However, most SCID mice reconstituted with spleen cells from immunocompetent mice 1 month prior to T. gondii infection survived in good health after a transient period during which they appeared ill. Unreconstituted SCID mice given sulfadiazine in their drinking water from day 10 of Toxoplasma infection onward survived the acute phase of infection and lived for many weeks without overt symptoms. Histological examination revealed Toxoplasma cysts in their brains. However, if sulfadiazine was withdrawn from the drinking water of these chronically infected SCID mice, the mice died within 1 week with large numbers of trophozoites throughout their brains. These findings establish SCID mice as a potentially useful resource with which to study various aspects of immunological control of T. gondii infection during either its acute or chronic phase. Furthermore, the ability to produce chronic infections with avirulent T. gondii in SCID mice and to cause acute relapsing infections at will suggests that SCID mice may be helpful in evaluating potential therapies for acute and chronic T. gondii infections in immunocompromised patients. Images PMID:1500181

  10. Outcome of xenografted fetal porcine pancreatic tissue is superior in inbred scid (C.B-17/Icr-scid/scid) compared to outbred nude (CD-1-nu/nu) mice.

    PubMed

    Tuch, B E; Casamento, F M

    1999-01-01

    Nude mice are used as recipients of foreign tissue because of their inability to reject these grafts. Our experience has been that there is variable rejection of fetal porcine insulin-producing tissue transplanted into CD-1 (athymic) outbred nude mice. To examine the suitability of this line of nude mouse as a recipient of the tissue, fetal porcine pancreas was grafted either into these outbred animals or into an inbred mutant strain of mice, the more immunocompromised severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mouse. Eight weeks after transplantation grafts were recovered from recipients and assayed for insulin content. Mean insulin levels were not significantly different between the two groups of mice, but a wider range of values was obtained from grafts recovered from nude (CD-1-nu/nu) mice. Reversal of diabetes in hyperglycemic recipients was achieved in 4 of 8 nude mice and 8 of 8 scid (C.B-17/lcr-scid/scid) mice. The time taken to achieve this was longer in the nudes than the scid mice, 121 +/- 12 vs. 44 +/- 2 days, the grafts increasing in size at a slower rate in the nude mice. Time taken for the weight of the grafts to double in size was 94 +/- 17 vs. 32 +/- 1 days, respectively. Histologically the grafts in the scid mice contained mostly epithelial cell clusters, a majority of which were insulin containing. In the nude mice that achieved normoglycemia, a similar pattern was observed and, as well, there was a localized lymphoid infiltrate. In those nude mice that remained diabetic fibrous tissue predominated together with a lymphoid infiltrate. In summary, fetal porcine pancreatic tissue grows and develops more efficiently when xenografted into scid rather than outbred nude mice. PMID:10442738

  11. A novel missense RAG-1 mutation results in T−B−NK+ SCID in Athabascan-speaking Dine Indians from the Canadian Northwest Territories

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zheng; Yannone, Steven M; Dunn, Elizabeth; Cowan, Morton J

    2009-01-01

    DNA double-strand repair factors in the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway resolve DNA double-strand breaks introduced by the recombination-activating gene (RAG) proteins during V(D)J recombination of T and B lymphocyte receptor genes. Defective NHEJ and subsequent failure of V(D)J recombination leads to severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID). We originally linked T−B−NK+ SCID in Athabascan-speaking Native Americans in the Southwestern US and Northwest Territories of Canada to chromosome 10. However, despite a common ancestry, the null mutation in the Artemis gene that we found to be causal in the SCID among the Navajo and Apache Indians was not present in the Dine Indians in the Northwest Territories. We now report a novel homozygous missense mutation (R776W) in RAG-1 in three children with T−B−NK+ SCID from two related families of Athabascan-speaking Dine Indians in the Canadian Northwest Territories. As expected, we found no increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation in patient fibroblasts. The impaired activity of this RAG-1 mutant in V(D)J recombination was confirmed by the EGFP-based V(D)J recombination assays. Overexpression of wild type RAG-1 in patient fibroblasts complemented V(D)J recombination, with recovery of both coding and signal joint formation. Our results indicate that the novel R776W missense mutation in RAG-1 is causal in the T−B−NK+ SCID phenotype in Athabascan-speaking Dine Indians from the Canadian Northwest Territories. PMID:18701881

  12. NK cells are intrinsically functional in pigs with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) caused by spontaneous mutations in the Artemis gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in a line of Yorkshire pigs at Iowa State University. These SCID pigs lack B-cells and T-cells, but possess Natural Killer (NK) cells. This SCID phenotype is caused by recessive mutations in the Artemis gene. Interestingly, two human tumor c...

  13. Lentivector Transduction Improves Outcomes Over Transplantation of Human HSCs Alone in NOD/SCID/Fabry Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pacienza, Natalia; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Mizue, Nobuo; Au, Bryan CY; Wang, James CM; Fan, Xin; Takenaka, Toshihiro; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of α-galactosidase A (α-gal A) activity that results in progressive globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) deposition. We created a fully congenic nonobese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)/Fabry murine line to facilitate the in vivo assessment of human cell-directed therapies for Fabry disease. This pure line was generated after 11 generations of backcrosses and was found, as expected, to have a reduced immune compartment and background α-gal A activity. Next, we transplanted normal human CD34+ cells transduced with a control (lentiviral vector-enhanced green fluorescent protein (LV-eGFP)) or a therapeutic bicistronic LV (LV-α-gal A/internal ribosome entry site (IRES)/hCD25). While both experimental groups showed similar engraftment levels, only the therapeutic group displayed a significant increase in plasma α-gal A activity. Gb3 quantification at 12 weeks revealed metabolic correction in the spleen, lung, and liver for both groups. Importantly, only in the therapeutically-transduced cohort was a significant Gb3 reduction found in the heart and kidney, key target organs for the amelioration of Fabry disease in humans. PMID:22472949

  14. Lentivector transduction improves outcomes over transplantation of human HSCs alone in NOD/SCID/Fabry mice.

    PubMed

    Pacienza, Natalia; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Mizue, Nobuo; Au, Bryan C Y; Wang, James C M; Fan, Xin; Takenaka, Toshihiro; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2012-07-01

    Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of α-galactosidase A (α-gal A) activity that results in progressive globotriaosylceramide (Gb(3)) deposition. We created a fully congenic nonobese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)/Fabry murine line to facilitate the in vivo assessment of human cell-directed therapies for Fabry disease. This pure line was generated after 11 generations of backcrosses and was found, as expected, to have a reduced immune compartment and background α-gal A activity. Next, we transplanted normal human CD34(+) cells transduced with a control (lentiviral vector-enhanced green fluorescent protein (LV-eGFP)) or a therapeutic bicistronic LV (LV-α-gal A/internal ribosome entry site (IRES)/hCD25). While both experimental groups showed similar engraftment levels, only the therapeutic group displayed a significant increase in plasma α-gal A activity. Gb(3) quantification at 12 weeks revealed metabolic correction in the spleen, lung, and liver for both groups. Importantly, only in the therapeutically-transduced cohort was a significant Gb(3) reduction found in the heart and kidney, key target organs for the amelioration of Fabry disease in humans. PMID:22472949

  15. Generation of Pediatric Leukemia Xenograft Models in NSG-B2m Mice: Comparison with NOD/SCID Mice.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnapillai, Anilkumar; Kolb, E Anders; Dhanan, Priyanka; Bojja, Aruna Sri; Mason, Robert W; Corao, Diana; Barwe, Sonali P

    2016-01-01

    Generation of orthotopic xenograft mouse models of leukemia is important to understand the mechanisms of leukemogenesis, cancer progression, its cross talk with the bone marrow microenvironment, and for preclinical evaluation of drugs. In these models, following intravenous injection, leukemic cells home to the bone marrow and proliferate there before infiltrating other organs, such as spleen, liver, and the central nervous system. Moreover, such models have been shown to accurately recapitulate the human disease and correlate with patient response to therapy and prognosis. Thus, various immune-deficient mice strains have been used with or without recipient preconditioning to increase engraftment efficiency. Mice homozygous for the severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mutation and with non-obese diabetic background (NOD/SCID) have been used in the majority of leukemia xenograft studies. Later, NOD/SCID mice deficient for interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain (IL2Rγ) gene called NSG mice became the model of choice for leukemia xenografts. However, engraftment of leukemia cells without irradiation preconditioning still remained a challenge. In this study, we used NSG mice with null alleles for major histocompatibility complex class I beta2-microglobulin (β2m) called NSG-B2m. This is a first report describing the 100% engraftment efficiency of pediatric leukemia cell lines and primary samples in NSG-B2m mice in the absence of host preconditioning by sublethal irradiation. We also show direct comparison of the engraftment efficiency and growth rate of pediatric acute leukemia cells in NSG-B2m and NOD/SCID mice, which showed 80-90% engraftment efficiency. Secondary and tertiary xenografts in NSG-B2m mice generated by injection of cells isolated from the spleens of leukemia-bearing mice also behaved similar to the primary patient sample. We have successfully engrafted 25 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 5 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples with

  16. Generation of Pediatric Leukemia Xenograft Models in NSG-B2m Mice: Comparison with NOD/SCID Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnapillai, Anilkumar; Kolb, E. Anders; Dhanan, Priyanka; Bojja, Aruna Sri; Mason, Robert W.; Corao, Diana; Barwe, Sonali P.

    2016-01-01

    Generation of orthotopic xenograft mouse models of leukemia is important to understand the mechanisms of leukemogenesis, cancer progression, its cross talk with the bone marrow microenvironment, and for preclinical evaluation of drugs. In these models, following intravenous injection, leukemic cells home to the bone marrow and proliferate there before infiltrating other organs, such as spleen, liver, and the central nervous system. Moreover, such models have been shown to accurately recapitulate the human disease and correlate with patient response to therapy and prognosis. Thus, various immune-deficient mice strains have been used with or without recipient preconditioning to increase engraftment efficiency. Mice homozygous for the severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mutation and with non-obese diabetic background (NOD/SCID) have been used in the majority of leukemia xenograft studies. Later, NOD/SCID mice deficient for interleukin 2 receptor gamma chain (IL2Rγ) gene called NSG mice became the model of choice for leukemia xenografts. However, engraftment of leukemia cells without irradiation preconditioning still remained a challenge. In this study, we used NSG mice with null alleles for major histocompatibility complex class I beta2-microglobulin (β2m) called NSG-B2m. This is a first report describing the 100% engraftment efficiency of pediatric leukemia cell lines and primary samples in NSG-B2m mice in the absence of host preconditioning by sublethal irradiation. We also show direct comparison of the engraftment efficiency and growth rate of pediatric acute leukemia cells in NSG-B2m and NOD/SCID mice, which showed 80–90% engraftment efficiency. Secondary and tertiary xenografts in NSG-B2m mice generated by injection of cells isolated from the spleens of leukemia-bearing mice also behaved similar to the primary patient sample. We have successfully engrafted 25 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 5 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples with

  17. Gene Therapy for "Bubble Boy" Disease.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Jonathan

    2016-07-14

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency results in the accumulation of toxic metabolites that destroy the immune system, causing severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID), often referred to as the "bubble boy" disease. Strimvelis is a European Medicines Agency approved gene therapy for ADA-SCID patients without a suitable bone marrow donor. PMID:27419862

  18. SCID: full reference spatial color image quality metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouni, S.; Chambah, M.; Herbin, M.; Zagrouba, E.

    2009-01-01

    The most used full reference image quality assessments are error-based methods. Thus, these measures are performed by pixel based difference metrics like Delta E ( E), MSE, PSNR, etc. Therefore, a local fidelity of the color is defined. However, these metrics does not correlate well with the perceived image quality. Indeed, they omit the properties of the HVS. Thus, they cannot be a reliable predictor of the perceived visual quality. All this metrics compute the differences pixel to pixel. Therefore, a local fidelity of the color is defined. However, the human visual system is rather sensitive to a global quality. In this paper, we present a novel full reference color metric that is based on characteristics of the human visual system by considering the notion of adjacency. This metric called SCID for Spatial Color Image Difference, is more perceptually correlated than other color differences such as Delta E. The suggested full reference metric is generic and independent of image distortion type. It can be used in different application such as: compression, restoration, etc.

  19. In Vivo Vascularization of Endothelial Cells Derived from Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in SCID Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Allameh, Abdolamir; Jazayeri, Maryam; Adelipour, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objective In vivo and in vitro stem cell differentiation into endothelial cells is a promising area of research for tissue engineering and cell therapy. Materials and Methods We induced human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate to endothelial cells that had the ability to form capillaries on an extracellular matrix (ECM) gel. Thereafter, the differentiated endothelial cells at early stage were characterized by expression of specific markers such as von Willebrand factor (vWF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2, and CD31. In this experimental model, the endothelial cells were transplanted into the groins of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. After 30 days, we obtained tissue biopsies from the transplantation sites. Biopsies were processed for histopathological and double immunohistochemistry (DIHC) staining. Results Endothelial cells at the early stage of differentiation expressed endothelial markers. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, in addition to DIHC demonstrated homing of the endothelial cells that underwent vascularization in the injected site. Conclusion The data clearly showed that endothelial cells at the early stage of differentiation underwent neovascularization in vivo in SCID mice. Endothelial cells at their early stage of differentiation have been proven to be efficient for treatment of diseases with impaired vasculogenesis. PMID:27540522

  20. From Murine to Human Nude/SCID: The Thymus, T-Cell Development and the Missing Link

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Rosa; Palamaro, Loredana; Fusco, Anna; Iannace, Leucio; Maio, Stefano; Vigliano, Ilaria; Giardino, Giuliana; Pignata, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are disorders of the immune system, which lead to increased susceptibility to infections. T-cell defects, which may affect T-cell development/function, are approximately 11% of reported PIDs. The pathogenic mechanisms are related to molecular alterations not only of genes selectively expressed in hematopoietic cells but also of the stromal component of the thymus that represents the primary lymphoid organ for T-cell differentiation. With this regard, the prototype of athymic disorders due to abnormal stroma is the Nude/SCID syndrome, first described in mice in 1966. In man, the DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS) has long been considered the human prototype of a severe T-cell differentiation defect. More recently, the human equivalent of the murine Nude/SCID has been described, contributing to unravel important issues of the T-cell ontogeny in humans. Both mice and human diseases are due to alterations of the FOXN1, a developmentally regulated transcription factor selectively expressed in skin and thymic epithelia. PMID:22474479

  1. Raman spectroscopy for in situ- evaluation of high-grade malignant gliomas induced in SCID mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clary, Candace E.; Dergachev, Alex Y.; Mirov, Sergey B.; Gillespie, G. Yancey

    1997-05-01

    Each year, more people at younger ages are diagnosed with primary brain tumors. Current histological discrimination between normal and diseased tissue occurs after tissue excision. A reliable optical biopsy for open craniotomy would optimize the amount and types of tissue removal by making an accurate evaluation before excision. The presented work is part of a study investigating the clinical diagnostic potential of Raman spectroscopy for gliomas. It has been shown that the optical properties of in vitro tissue are strongly dependent upon sample preparation. The investigation of the effects of time latency, paraformalin tissue fixation, and tissue perfusion with carbogen-bubbled cortical transport solution on their respective Raman spectra of brain tissue and tumors will be discussed, as well as their implications on the study of neurological tissue. The studies are conducted with in situ tissue samples from scid mice and 785 nm pulsed alexandrite laser excitation. Results illustrating positive qualitative and quantitative variations between Raman spectra of normal and malignant brain tissue will be presented.

  2. Establishment of xenotransplantation model of human CN-AML with FLT3-ITD (mut) /NPM1 (-) in NOD/SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Shang, Zhen; Wang, Jue; Wang, Di; Xiao, Min; Li, Tong-juan; Wang, Na; Huang, Liang; Zhou, Jian-feng

    2013-06-01

    Patients with FLT3-ITD (mut) /NPM1 (-) cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML), as high-risk molecular group in CN-AML, are associated with a worse prognosis than other CN-AML patients. It is beneficial to generate xenotransplantation model of FLT3-ITD (mut) /NPM1 (-) CN-AML to better understand the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of such AML subtype. The purpose of present study was to establish the xenotransplantation model in NOD/SCID mice with FLT3-ITD (mut) /NPM1 (-) CN-AML primary cells. The FLT3-ITD (mut) /NPM1 (-) CN-AML primary cells from 3 of 7 cases were successfully transplanted into NOD/SCID mice, and human CD45 positive cells were detected in the peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow of mice by using flow cytometry. Infiltration of human leukemia cells in various organs of mice was observed by using immunohistochemistry. Gene analysis confirmed sustained FLT3/ITD mutation without NPM1 mutation in mice. By performing serial transplantation, it was found that characteristics of the leukemia cells in secondary and tertiary generation models remained unchanged. Moreover, in vivo cytarabine administration could extend survival of NOD/SCID mice, which was consistent with clinical observation. In conclusion, we successfully established xenotransplantation model of human FLT3-ITD (mut) /NPM1 (-) CN-AML in NOD/SCID mice. The model was able to present primary disease and suitable to evaluate the curative effects of new drugs or therapy strategies. PMID:23771655

  3. LONG-TERM SURVIVAL AND LATE DEATHS AFTER HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION FOR PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES AND INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Mary; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Orchard, Paul J.; Cowan, Morton J.; Davies, Stella M.; Fasth, Anders; Hassebroek, Anna; Ayas, Mouhab; Bonfim, Carmem; O’Brien, Tracey A.; Gross, Thomas G.; Horwitz, Mitchell; Horwitz, Edwin; Kapoor, Neena; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Majhail, Navneet; Ringden, Olle; Szabolcs, Paul; Veys, Paul; Baker, K. Scott

    2012-01-01

    It is uncertain whether late mortality rates after hematopoietic cell transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), non-SCID primary immunodeficiency diseases (non-SCID PIDD) and inborn error of metabolism (IEM) return to rates observed in the general population, matched for age, sex and nationality. We studied patients with SCID (n=201), non-SCID PIDD (n=405) and IEM (n=348) who survived for at least two years after transplantation with normal T-cell function (SCID) or >95% donor chimerism (non-SCID PIDD and IEM). Importantly, mortality rates were significantly higher than for the general population for several years after transplantation. This decreases towards normal rates in patients with SCID and non-SCID PIDD beyond 6 years after transplantation but not for IEM. Active chronic graft-versus-host disease at 2-years was associated with higher risks of late mortality for all diseases (HR 1.87, p=0.05). Additionally, for non-SCID PIDD, late mortality was higher in recipients of T-cell depleted grafts (HR 4.16, p=0.007) and for IEM, after unrelated donor (HR 2.72, p=0.03) and mismatched related donor (HR 3.76, p=0.01) transplants. The higher mortality rates in these long-term survivors for many years after transplantation confirm the need for long-term surveillance. PMID:22430083

  4. Prednisolone reduces experimental arthritis, and inflammatory tissue destruction in SCID mice infected with Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Hurtenbach, U; Böggemeyer, E; Stehle, T; Museteanu, C; Del Pozo, E; Simon, M M

    1996-05-01

    Glucocorticosteroids (GC) are widely used as anti-inflammatory agents. The effects of Prednisolone on the development of Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi-induced clinical arthritis and organ inflammation was studied in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. The drug was administered orally at a dose of 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, starting shortly before experimental infection of the mice. A dose dependent inhibition of arthritic joint swelling was observed. Full protection was obtained with 30 mg/kg until 21 days after infection, subsequently, mild joint swelling developed but progression and severity of the disease was considerably less than in the other treated as well as in the untreated mice. Inhibition of clinical arthritis coincided with reduction of inflammatory cell infiltration in the joints, liver and muscle. Prednisolone was ineffective when application was initiated after arthritis was fully developed, i.e., 22 days after infection. Since the activated endothelium plays a critical role in development of inflammatory lesions, the expression of the cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was determined in vitro using the bEnd3 endothelial cell line. Stimulation with a sonicated B. burgdorferi preparation in the presence of the water-soluble compound Prednisolone-21-hemisuccinate considerably reduced expression of ICAM-1, and marginally also of E-selectin, whereas the level of P-selectin and VCAM-1 remained unaltered. Thus, downregulation of ICAM-1 might be a critical factor in Prednisolone-mediated inhibition of B. burgdorferi-induced inflammation; the flare up of the disease after the initial protection indicates that additional therapy, e.g. with antibiotics, is necessary. PMID:8933206

  5. Two SCID cases with Cernunnos-XLF deficiency successfully treated by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Çağdaş, Deniz; Özgür, Tuba Turul; Asal, Gülten Türkkanı; Revy, Patrick; De Villartay, Jean-Pierre; van der Burg, Mirjam; Sanal, Özden; Tezcan, Ilhan

    2012-08-01

    SCID affects T and B cell differentiation and functions, presenting with severe opportunistic infections in the early postnatal period. It is fatal unless stem cell transplantation is performed. RS SCID forms are caused by defects in the NHEJ pathway, the enzymatic process required for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Cernunnos-XLF defect is one of the defects in this pathway. Here, we present two patients with Cernunnos-XLF defect, both having microcephaly, prominent growth retardation, and T-B-NK+SCID, one of whom had AHA. These patients received hematopoietic stem cells from HLA identical related donor without conditioning regimen and recovered without any complication. Now, both of the patients are well and alive seven and one yr after transplantation, respectively. A remarkable observation was the severe diarrhea that occurred in both patients soon after transplantation. PMID:21535335

  6. SCID-PANSS: two-tier diagnostic system for psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Kay, S R; Opler, L A; Spitzer, R L; Williams, J B; Fiszbein, A; Gorelick, A

    1991-01-01

    The SCID-PANSS was developed as a two-tier diagnostic system for psychotic disorders to supplement categorical diagnosis with functional-dimensional assessment. The procedure combines the DSM-III-R Structured Clinical Interview and Rating Criteria (SCID) with those from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The comprehensive 50- to 60-minute interview yields diagnostic classification, plus a profile of 30 symptoms and 10 dimensional scales, including positive and negative syndromes, depression, thought disturbance, and severity of illness. A study of 34 psychotic inpatients assessed by five psychiatrists showed strong interrater correlations (0.85 to 0.97 for summary scales, P less than .0001), supporting the reliability of the SCID-PANSS for clinical and research applications. PMID:1935026

  7. Simple and reliable genotyping protocol for mouse Prkdc(SCID) mutation.

    PubMed

    Quadros, Rolen M; Poluektova, Larisa Y; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B

    2016-04-01

    Mutant mouse models, genetically-engineered or spontaneous-mutations, serve as valuable tools for biomedical research. Genotyping of mutant mice is a critical requirement for maintaining the colony, to breed with other mutants and to match the phenotypic observations. The SCID (Severe Combine Immuno Deficiency) mouse model has been extensively used as a common background-strain in many immunology and transplantation studies. Many different types of assays, including Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), confronting two primer pairs PCR and end-point methods have been attempted for establishing a genotyping protocol for the SCID mutation. However, the best method that is thought to be reliable is sequencing, which requires additional time and resources to perform on a routine basis. In this report, we describe a novel RFLP assay that is simple and reliable. The method is validated by sequencing analysis, and this novel method can be adapted for routine genotyping of SCID model. PMID:26851521

  8. Inhibition of Human Colon Cancer Growth by Antibody-Directed Human LAK Cells in SCID Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Nakada, Tetsuya; Puisieux, Isabelle

    1993-03-01

    Advanced human colon cancer does not respond to lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. In order to direct cytotoxic cells to the tumor, human LAK cells linked with antibodies to a tumor cell surface antigen were tested with established hepatic metastases in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. These cells had increased uptake into the tumor and suppression of tumor growth as compared with LAK cells alone, thereby improving the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Thus, tumor growth can be inhibited by targeted LAK cells, and SCID mice can be used to test the antitumor properties of human effector cells.

  9. Highly potent anti-CD20-RLI immunocytokine targeting established human B lymphoma in SCID mouse.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Marie; Teppaz, Géraldine; Lajoie, Laurie; Solé, Véronique; Bessard, Anne; Maillasson, Mike; Loisel, Séverine; Béchard, David; Clémenceau, Béatrice; Thibault, Gilles; Garrigue-Antar, Laure; Jacques, Yannick; Quéméner, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Rituximab (RTX), a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen, has revolutionized the treatment of B-cell malignancies. Nevertheless, the relapsed/refractory rates are still high. One strategy to increase the clinical effectiveness of RTX is based on antibody-cytokine fusion protein (immunocytokine; ICK) vectorizing together at the tumor site the antibody effector activities and the cytokine co-signal required for the generation of cytotoxic cellular immunity. Such ICKs linking various antibody formats to interleukin (IL)-2 are currently being investigated in clinical trials and have shown promising results in cancer therapies. IL-15, a structurally-related cytokine, is now considered as having a better potential than IL-2 in antitumor immunotherapeutic strategies. We have previously engineered the fusion protein RLI, linking a soluble form of human IL-15Rα-sushi+ domain to human IL-15. Compared with IL-15, RLI displayed better biological activities in vitro and higher antitumor effects in vivo in murine and human cancer models. In this study, we investigated the advantages of fusing RLI to RTX. Anti-CD20-RLI kept its binding capacity to CD20, CD16 and IL-15 receptor and therefore fully retained both antibody effector functions (ADCC and CDC), and the cytokine potential of RLI. In a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model of disseminated residual lymphoma, anti-CD20-RLI was found to induce long-term survival of 90% of mice up to at least 120 days whereas RLI and RTX, alone or in combination, just delayed the disease onset (100% of death at 28, 40 and 51 days respectively). These findings suggest that such ICK could improve the clinical efficacy of RTX, particularly in patients with refractory B-cell lymphoma. PMID:25072059

  10. Gene Therapy for Diseases and Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... notable advancements are the following: Gene Therapy for Genetic Disorders Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (ADA-SCID) ADA- ... in preclinical animal models of this disease. Other genetic disorders After many years of laboratory and preclinical ...

  11. Rapid engraftment of human ALL in NOD/SCID mice involves deficient apoptosis signaling.

    PubMed

    Queudeville, M; Seyfried, F; Eckhoff, S M; Trentin, L; Ulrich, S; Schirmer, M; Debatin, K-M; Meyer, L H

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we found that rapid leukemia engraftment (short time to leukemia, TTL(short)) in the NOD/SCID/huALL (non-obese diabetic/severe combined immuno-deficiency/human acute lymphoblastic leukemia) xenograft model is indicative of early patient relapse. As earlier intact apoptosis sensitivity was predictive for good prognosis in patients, we investigated the importance of apoptosis signaling on NOD/SCID/huALL engraftment. Intact apoptosome function as reflected by cytochrome c-related activation of caspase-3 (CRAC-positivity) was strongly associated with prolonged NOD/SCID engraftment (long time to leukemia, TTL(long)) of primary leukemia cells, good treatment response and superior patient survival. Conversely, deficient apoptosome function (CRAC-negativity) was associated with rapid engraftment (TTL(short)) and early relapse. Moreover, an intact apoptosis signaling was associated with high transcript and protein levels of the pro-apoptotic death-associated protein kinase1 (DAPK1). Our data strongly emphasize the impact of intrinsic apoptosis sensitivity of ALL cells on the engraftment phenotype in the NOD/SCID/huALL model, and most importantly also on patient outcome. PMID:22875001

  12. A Non Leaky Artemis-Deficient Mouse that Accurately Models the Human SCID Phenotype Including Resistance to Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zheng; Dunn, Elizabeth; Singh, Kanal; Khan, Imran S.; Yannone, Steven M.; Cowan, Morton J.

    2009-01-01

    Two Artemis-deficient (mArt-/-) mouse models, independently generated on 129/SvJ backgrounds have the expected T-B-NK+SCID phenotype. However, they fail to mimic the human disease due to CD4+ T-cell leakiness. Moreover, immune reconstitution in these leaky mouse models following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is more easily achieved than that seen in Artemis-deficient humans. To develop a more clinically relevant animal model we backcrossed the mArt-/- mutation onto the C57Bl/6 (B6) background (99.9%) resulting in virtually no CD4+ T-cell leakiness compared to 129/SvJ mArt-/- mice (0.3±0.25% vs 19.5±15.1%, p<0.001). The non-leaky mouse was also uniquely resistant to engraftment using allogeneic mismatched HSC, comparable to what is seen with human Artemis deficiency. The genetic background also influenced Artemis-associated radiation sensitivity with differing degrees of x-ray hypersensitivity evident in 129/SvJ and B6 backgrounds with both the mArt-/- and mArt-/+ genotypes. Our results indicate that immunogenic and DNA repair phenotypes associated with Artemis deficiency are significantly altered by genetic background, which has important implications for SCID diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, the B6 mArt-/- mouse is a more accurate model for the human disease, and a more appropriate system for studying human Artemis-deficiency and for developing improved transplant and gene therapy regimens for the treatment of SCID children. PMID:19135937

  13. Generation of Novel Chimeric Mice with Humanized Livers by Using Hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tateno, Chise; Kawase, Yosuke; Tobita, Yoshimi; Hamamura, Satoko; Ohshita, Hiroki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Sanada, Harumi; Kakuni, Masakazu; Shiota, Akira; Kojima, Yuha; Ishida, Yuji; Shitara, Hiroshi; Wada, Naoko A.; Tateishi, Hiromi; Sudoh, Masayuki; Nagatsuka, Shin-ichiro; Jishage, Kou-ichi; Kohara, Michinori

    2015-01-01

    We have used homozygous albumin enhancer/promoter-driven urokinase-type plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficient (uPA/SCID) mice as hosts for chimeric mice with humanized livers. However, uPA/SCID mice show four disadvantages: the human hepatocytes (h-heps) replacement index in mouse liver is decreased due to deletion of uPA transgene by homologous recombination, kidney disorders are likely to develop, body size is small, and hemizygotes cannot be used as hosts as more frequent homologous recombination than homozygotes. To solve these disadvantages, we have established a novel host strain that has a transgene containing albumin promoter/enhancer and urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA and has a SCID background (cDNA-uPA/SCID). We applied the embryonic stem cell technique to simultaneously generate a number of transgenic lines, and found the line with the most appropriate levels of uPA expression—not detrimental but with a sufficiently damaged liver. We transplanted h-heps into homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice via the spleen, and monitored their human albumin (h-alb) levels and body weight. Blood h-alb levels and body weight gradually increased in the hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice and were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. By contrast, blood h-alb levels and body weight in uPA/SCID chimeric mice decreased from 16 weeks of age onwards. A similar decrease in body weight was observed in the homozygous cDNA-uPA/SCID genotype, but h-alb levels were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. Microarray analyses revealed identical h-heps gene expression profiles in homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice were identical to that observed in the uPA/SCID mice. Furthermore, like uPA/SCID chimeric mice, homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID chimeric mice were successfully infected with hepatitis B virus and C virus. These results indicate that hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice may be novel and useful hosts for

  14. Functional analysis of human cytomegalovirus UL/b' region using SCID-hu mouse model.

    PubMed

    Dulal, Kalpana; Cheng, Tong; Yang, Lianwei; Wang, Wei; Huang, Ying; Silver, Benjamin; Selariu, Anca; Xie, Cynthia; Wang, Dai; Espeseth, Amy; Lin, Yanzhen; Wen, Lanling; Xia, Ningshao; Fu, Tong-Ming; Zhu, Hua

    2016-08-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) attenuated strains, Towne, and AD169, differ from prototypic pathogenic strains, such as Toledo, in that they are missing a ∼15-kb segment in the UL/b' region. In contrast to the attenuated strains, Toledo can replicate in human tissue implants in SCID (SCID-hu) mice. Thus, this model provides a unique in vivo system to study the mechanism of viral pathogenesis. Twenty-two ORFs have been annotated in the UL/b' region, including tissue-tropic genes encoded in a pentameric gH/gl complex. To differentiate the role of the pentameric gH/gl complex versus the functions of other ORFs in the 15-kb region in supporting viral growth in vivo, a series of recombinant viral strains were constructed and their ability to replicate in SCID-hu mice was tested. The mutations in the Towne and AD169 strains were repaired to restore their pentameric gH/gl complex and it was found that these changes did not rescue their inability to replicate in the SCID-hu mice. Subsequently four deletion viruses (D1, D2, D3, and D4) in the 15-kb region from the Toledo strain were created. It was demonstrated that D2 and D3 were able to grow in SCID-hu mice, while D1 and D4 were not viable. Interestingly, co-infection of the implant with the D1 and D4 viruses could compensate their respective growth defect in vivo. The results demonstrated that rescuing viral epithelial tropism is not sufficient to revert the attenuation phenotype of AD169 or Towne, and pathogenic genes are located in the segments missing in D1 and D4 viruses. J. Med. Virol. 88:1417-1426, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27249069

  15. Radiation-induced apoptosis in SCID Mousespleen after a low-dose irration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, T.; Takahashi, A.; Ohnishi, K.

    Purpose: To estimate the effects of space radiation on health of space crews, we aimed to clarify whether pre-irradiation at a low-dose interferes in a p53-centered signal transduction pathway induced by radiation. By using a severe combined immunodeficiency (Scid) mouse defective DNA-PK activity, we examined the role of DNA-PK activity in radioadaptation induced by low-dose irradiation. Methodology: Specific pathogen free 5-week-old fe male mice of Scid and the parental mice (CB-17 Icr+/+) were irradiated with X-rays at 3.0 Gy 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after conditioning irradiation at 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 or 0.60 Gy. The mice spleens were fixed for immunohistochemistry 12 h after irradiation. Bax on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method using HISTOFINE SAB-PO(R) kit (Nichirei Co., Tokyo, Japan). Apoptosis incidence in the sections was measured by staining with HE staining. Results: The frequency of Bax- and apoptosis -positive cells increased up to 12 h after irradiation at 3.0 Gy in the spleen of CB-17 Icr+/+ and Scid mice. However, they were not observed by irradiation with low dose at 0.15-0.60 Gy. When pre-irradiation at 0.45 Gy 2 weeks before challenging acute irradiation at 3.0 Gy was performed, Bax accumulation and apoptosis induced by irradiation at 3.0 Gy was depressed in the spleen of CB-17 Icr+/+ mice, but not Scid mice. Conclusions: These data suggest that DNA-PKcs (expressed in CB-17 Icr+/+, not Scid mice) might play a major role on radioadaptation induced by pre-irradiation at low dose in mice spleen. We expect that the present findings will provide useful information for the care of space crews' health.

  16. Evaluation of the NOD/SCID xenograft model for glucocorticoid-regulated gene expression in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids such as prednisolone and dexamethasone are critical drugs used in multi-agent chemotherapy protocols used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and response to glucocorticoids is highly predictive of outcome. The NOD/SCID xenograft mouse model of ALL is a clinically relevant model in which the mice develop a systemic leukemia which retains the fundamental biological characteristics of the original disease. Here we report a study evaluating the NOD/SCID xenograft mouse model to investigate glucocorticoid-induced gene expression. Cells from a glucocorticoid-sensitive xenograft derived from a child with B-cell precursor ALL were inoculated into NOD/SCID mice. When highly engrafted the mice were randomized into groups of 4 to receive dexamethasone 15 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection or vehicle control. Leukemia cells were harvested from mice spleens at 0, 8, 24 or 48 hours thereafter, and gene expression analyzed on Illumina WG-6_V3 chips, comparing all groups to time 0 hours. Results The 8 hour dexamethasone-treated timepoint had the highest number of significantly differentially expressed genes, with fewer observed at the 24 and 48 hour timepoints, and with minimal changes seen across the time-matched controls. When compared to publicly available datasets of glucocorticoid-induced gene expression from an in vitro cell line study and from an in vivo study of patients with ALL, at the level of pathways, expression changes in the 8 hour xenograft samples showed a similar response to patients treated with glucocorticoids. Replicate analysis revealed that at the 8 hour timepoint, a dataset with high signal and differential expression, using data from 3 replicates instead of 4 resulted in excellent recovery scores of > 0.9. However at other timepoints with less signal very poor recovery scores were obtained with 3 replicates. Conclusions The NOD/SCID xenograft mouse model provides a reproducible experimental system in which to

  17. Application of HSVtk suicide gene to X-SCID gene therapy: Ganciclovir treatment offsets gene corrected X-SCID B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, Toru; Kumaki, Satoru . E-mail: kumakis@idac.tohoku.ac.jp; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Onodera, Masafumi; Sato, Miki; Du, Wei; Sasahara, Yoji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Sugamura, Kazuo; Tsuchiya, Shigeru

    2006-03-10

    Recently, a serious adverse effect of uncontrolled clonal T cell proliferation due to insertional mutagenesis of retroviral vector was reported in X-SCID gene therapy clinical trial. To offset the side effect, we have incorporated a suicide gene into therapeutic retroviral vector for selective elimination of transduced cells. In this study, B-cell lines from two X-SCID patients were transduced with bicistronic retroviral vector carrying human {gamma}c chain cDNA and Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. After confirmation of functional reconstitution of the {gamma}c chain, the cells were treated with ganciclovir (GCV). The {gamma}c chain positive cells were eliminated under low concentration without cytotoxicity on untransduced cells and have not reappeared at least for 5 months. Furthermore, the {gamma}c chain transduced cells were still sensitive to GCV after five months. These results demonstrated the efficacy of the suicide gene therapy although further in vivo studies are required to assess feasibility of this approach in clinical trial.

  18. Correction of ADA-SCID by stem cell gene therapy combined with nonmyeloablative conditioning.

    PubMed

    Aiuti, Alessandro; Slavin, Shimon; Aker, Memet; Ficara, Francesca; Deola, Sara; Mortellaro, Alessandra; Morecki, Shoshana; Andolfi, Grazia; Tabucchi, Antonella; Carlucci, Filippo; Marinello, Enrico; Cattaneo, Federica; Vai, Sergio; Servida, Paolo; Miniero, Roberto; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Bordignon, Claudio

    2002-06-28

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy for adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has shown limited clinical efficacy because of the small proportion of engrafted genetically corrected HSCs. We describe an improved protocol for gene transfer into HSCs associated with nonmyeloablative conditioning. This protocol was used in two patients for whom enzyme replacement therapy was not available, which allowed the effect of gene therapy alone to be evaluated. Sustained engraftment of engineered HSCs with differentiation into multiple lineages resulted in increased lymphocyte counts, improved immune functions (including antigen-specific responses), and lower toxic metabolites. Both patients are currently at home and clinically well, with normal growth and development. These results indicate the safety and efficacy of HSC gene therapy combined with nonmyeloablative conditioning for the treatment of SCID. PMID:12089448

  19. Bobel-24 Activity against Cryptosporidium parvum in Cell Culture and in a SCID Mouse Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Cristina; Fenoy, Soledad; Simón, Fernando; del Aguila, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    The anticryptosporidial activity of Bobel-24 (2,4,6-triiodophenol) was studied for the first time, resulting in a reduction of the in vitro growth of Cryptosporidium of up to 99.6%. In a SCID mouse model of chronic cryptosporidiosis, significant differences (P < 0.05) in oocyst shedding were observed in animals treated with 125 mg/kg/day. These results merit further investigation of Bobel-24 as a chemotherapeutic option for cryptosporidiosis. PMID:18160525

  20. Endogenous and xenobiotic metabolite profiling of liver extracts from SCID and chimeric humanized mice following repeated oral administration of troglitazone.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Alan J; Baker, David R; Hobby, Kirsten; Ashton, Simon; Michopoulos, Filippos; Spagou, Konstantina; Loftus, Neil J; Wilson, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    1. Metabonomic analysis, via a combination of untargeted and targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and untargeted (1)H NMR spectroscopy-based metabolite profiling, was performed on aqueous (AQ) and organic liver extracts from control (SCID) and chimeric humanized (PXB) mice dosed with troglitazone at 0, 300 and 600 mg/kg/day for seven days. 2. LC-MS analysis of AQ liver extracts showed a more "human-like" profile for troglitazone metabolites for PXB, compared with SCID, mice. 3. LC-MS detected differences in endogenous metabolites, particularly lipid species in dosed mice, including elevated triacylglycerols and 1-alkyl,2-acylglycerophosphates as well as lowered diacylglycerophosphocholines and 1-alkyl,2-acylglycerophosphocholines for PXB compared with SCID mouse liver extracts. Following drug administration changes in the relative proportions of the ions for various unsaturated fatty acids were observed for both types of mouse, some of which were specific to PXB or SCID mice. 4.  (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed that AQ PXB mouse liver extracts had elevated amounts of inosine, fumarate, creatine, aspartate, trimethylamine N-oxide, glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine, choline, glutamine, glutamate, acetate, alanine and lactate relative to SCID mice and decreased histidine, glycogen, α- and β-glucose, taurine, and glutathione. Increased uracil and tyrosine concentrations were detected for PXB mice on troglitazone administration. 5. Metabonomic profiling thus showed clear differences between humanized and SCID mice, including after administration of troglitazone. PMID:24350779

  1. The SCID-hu mouse as a tool in immunotoxicological risk assessment: effects of 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutyl-imidazole (THI) and di-n-butyltin dichloride (DBTC) on the human thymus in SCID-hu mice.

    PubMed

    de Heer, C; Schuurman, H J; Houben, G F; Pieters, R H; Penninks, A H; van Loveren, H

    1995-06-26

    SCID mice engrafted with human fetal thymus and liver tissue fragments (SCID-hu mice) are currently considered as a new tool in human immunotoxicological risk assessment. Testing of various immunotoxicants exerting thymotoxicity via different intrathymic target cell types is necessary for validation of this model. Therefore, SCID-hu mice were exposed to 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)-imidazole (THI), the immunotoxic component in the food additive, Caramel Colour III, or the organotin compound, di-n-butyltin dichloride (DBTC). Histopathological examination of the human thymus grafts of SCID-hu mice either exposed to THI or to DBTC showed a reduction in the relative size of the thymus cortex, an effect also described in rodents. These results indicate that the human thymus is a target for the immunotoxic action of both THI and DBTC. In addition, they indicate the promising potential of the SCID-hu mouse model as a tool for human immunotoxicological risk assessment. PMID:7624878

  2. Ethanol affects hepatitis C pathogenesis: humanized SCID Alb-uPA mouse model.

    PubMed

    Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Sun, Yimin; Simpson, Ronda L; Poluektova, Larisa E; Ganesan, Murali; Wisecarver, James L; Mercer, David F

    2014-07-18

    Alcohol consumption exacerbates the course of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection, worsens outcomes and contributes to the development of chronic infection that exhibits low anti-viral treatment efficiency. The lack of suitable in vivo models makes HCV-ethanol studies very difficult. Here, we examine whether chimeric SCID Alb-uPA mice transplanted with human hepatocytes and infected with HCV develop worsening pathology when fed ethanol. After 5 weeks of feeding, such mice fed chow+water (control) or chow+20% ethanol in water (EtOH) diets mice developed oxidative stress, decreased proteasome activity and increased steatosis. Importantly, HCV(+) mice in the control group cleared HCV RNA after 5 weeks, while the infection persisted in EtOH-fed mice at the same or even higher levels compared with pre-feeding HCV RNA. We conclude that in chimeric SCID Alb-uPA mice, EtOH exposure causes the complex biochemical and histological changes typical for alcoholic liver injury. In addition, ethanol feeding delays the clearance of HCV RNA thereby generating persistent infection and promoting liver injury. Overall, this model is appropriate for conducting HCV-ethanol studies. PMID:24953695

  3. Infection of SCID mice with Mycobacterium leprae and control with antigen-activated "immune" human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed Central

    Converse, P J; Haines, V L; Wondimu, A; Craig, L E; Meyers, W M

    1995-01-01

    The SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mouse lacks both B and T cells and tolerates injected mononuclear cells from humans, the principal hosts of Mycobacterium leprae. A SCID mouse model of leprosy could be useful to investigate potential vaccine strategies using human cells in a context in which the growth of the organism is monitored. Initial experiments determined that SCID mice are more susceptible than normal mice to infection and dissemination of M. leprae. Cells from humans, either BCG vaccinated or from countries where leprosy is endemic, were stimulated in vitro with a number of mycobacterial antigens--whole M. leprae, M. leprae cell walls, purified protein derivative of M. tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG--and tested for proliferation and production of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and gamma interferon. Cell walls were the most efficient and consistent in inducing all of these activities. In vitro-activated human cells retain function better after injection into SCID mice than nonactivated cells. To test the ability of cells to affect the growth of M. leprae in the footpads of SCID mice, cells from a known responder to mycobacterial antigens and from a nonresponder were activated by M. leprae cell wall antigens. The cells were harvested and coinjected with fresh M. leprae into the right hind footpads of SCID mice. After 3 months, there was no growth of M. leprae in the footpads of mice coinjected with cells from the mycobacterial antigen responder, while growth was uninhibited in mice receiving cells from the nonresponder. Future experiments will determine requirements for antigen specificity in inhibiting M. leprae multiplication. PMID:7868226

  4. Infection of SCID mice with Mycobacterium leprae and control with antigen-activated "immune" human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Converse, P J; Haines, V L; Wondimu, A; Craig, L E; Meyers, W M

    1995-03-01

    The SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mouse lacks both B and T cells and tolerates injected mononuclear cells from humans, the principal hosts of Mycobacterium leprae. A SCID mouse model of leprosy could be useful to investigate potential vaccine strategies using human cells in a context in which the growth of the organism is monitored. Initial experiments determined that SCID mice are more susceptible than normal mice to infection and dissemination of M. leprae. Cells from humans, either BCG vaccinated or from countries where leprosy is endemic, were stimulated in vitro with a number of mycobacterial antigens--whole M. leprae, M. leprae cell walls, purified protein derivative of M. tuberculosis, and Mycobacterium bovis BCG--and tested for proliferation and production of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and gamma interferon. Cell walls were the most efficient and consistent in inducing all of these activities. In vitro-activated human cells retain function better after injection into SCID mice than nonactivated cells. To test the ability of cells to affect the growth of M. leprae in the footpads of SCID mice, cells from a known responder to mycobacterial antigens and from a nonresponder were activated by M. leprae cell wall antigens. The cells were harvested and coinjected with fresh M. leprae into the right hind footpads of SCID mice. After 3 months, there was no growth of M. leprae in the footpads of mice coinjected with cells from the mycobacterial antigen responder, while growth was uninhibited in mice receiving cells from the nonresponder. Future experiments will determine requirements for antigen specificity in inhibiting M. leprae multiplication. PMID:7868226

  5. Radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency disease.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Christopher C; Cowan, Morton J

    2010-02-01

    Inherited defects in components of the nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair mechanism produce a T-B-NK+ severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) characterized by heightened sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Patients with the radiosensitive form of SCID may also have increased short- and long-term sensitivity to the alkylator-based chemotherapy regimens that are traditionally used for conditioning before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Known causes of radiosensitive SCID include deficiencies of Artemis, DNA ligase IV, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, and Cernunnos-XLF, all of which have been treated with HCT. Because of these patients' sensitivity to certain forms of chemotherapy, the approach to donor selection and the type of conditioning regimen used for a patient with radiosensitive SCID requires careful consideration. Significantly more research needs to be done to determine the long-term outcomes of patients with radiosensitive SCID after HCT and to discover novel nontoxic approaches to HCT that might benefit those patients with intrinsic radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity as well as potentially all patients undergoing an HCT. PMID:20113890

  6. Radiosensitive Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Christopher C.; Cowan, Morton J.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Inherited defects in components of the non-homologous end joining DNA repair mechanism produce a T-B-NK+ severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) characterized by heightened sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Patients with the radiosensitive form of SCID may also have increased short- and long-term sensitivity to the alkylator-based chemotherapy regimens traditionally utilized for conditioning prior to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Known etiologies of radiosensitive SCID include deficiencies of Artemis, DNA Ligase IV, DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), and Cernunnos-XLF, all of which have been treated with HCT. Because of their sensitivity to certain forms of chemotherapy, the approach to donor selection and type of conditioning regimen utilized for a radiosensitive SCID patient requires careful consideration. Significantly more research needs to be done in order to determine the long-term outcomes of radiosensitive SCID patients following HCT, as well as to discover novel non-toxic approaches to HCT that might benefit those with intrinsic radio- and chemo-sensitivity, as well as potentially all patients undergoing an HCT. PMID:20113890

  7. Thymic output, T-cell diversity, and T-cell function in long-term human SCID chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Win, Chan M.; Parrott, Roberta E.; Cooney, Myriah; Moser, Barry K.; Roberts, Joseph L.; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Buckley, Rebecca H.

    2009-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome of diverse genetic cause characterized by profound deficiencies of T, B, and sometimes NK-cell function. Nonablative human leukocyte antigen–identical or rigorously T cell–depleted haploidentical parental bone marrow transplantation (BMT) results in thymus-dependent genetically donor T-cell development in the recipients, leading to long-term survival. We reported previously that normal T-cell numbers, function, and repertoire developed by 3 to 4 months after transplantation in SCID patients, and the repertoire remained highly diverse for the first 10 years after BMT. The T-cell receptor diversity positively correlated with T-cell receptor excision circle levels, a reflection of thymic output. However, the fate of thymic function in SCID patients beyond 10 to 12 years after BMT remained to be determined. In this greater than 25-year follow-up study of 128 patients with 11 different molecular types of SCID after nonconditioned BMT, we provide evidence that T-cell function, thymic output, and T-cell clonal diversity are maintained long-term. PMID:19433858

  8. Clinical, immunologic, and genetic characteristics of RAG mutations in 15 Chinese patients with SCID and Omenn syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaoming; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Chaohong; Zhang, Yongjie; Tang, Wenjing; Dai, Rongxin; Wu, Junfeng; Tang, Xuemei; Zhang, Yu; Ding, Yuan; Jiang, Liping; Zhao, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in Recombination Activating Genes (RAG1 and RAG2) are common genetic causes of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and Omenn syndrome (OS). The clinical, immunologic, and genetic characteristics of RAG mutations in Chinese patients with SCID or OS have not been studied in detail. In this research, 22 RAG mutations were identified in 15 Chinese patients, including 10 novel mutations in RAG1 (R108X, M630T, E510X, S666P, E669K, C730Y, A857V, K847E, L922PfsX7, and L1025FfsX39) and 4 in RAG2 (R73C, I427GfsX12, P432L, and 311insL). L1025FfsX39 is a potential RAG1 hot-spot mutation in the Chinese population. The distribution of RAG1 mutations rather than mutation type seemed to differ between SCID and OS patients. The thymic output of T lymphocytes, TCR rearrangement, and T cell proliferation were severely impaired in RAG mutant patients. These findings will contribute to the early diagnosis and treatment of SCID and OS to a certain extent. PMID:26476733

  9. The Humanized NOD/SCID Mouse as a Preclinical Model to Study the Fate of Encapsulated Human Islets

    PubMed Central

    Vaithilingam, Vijayaganapathy; Oberholzer, Jose; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Tuch, Bernard E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite encouraging results in animal models, the transplantation of microencapsulated islets into humans has not yet reached the therapeutic level. Recent clinical trials using microencapsulated human islets in barium alginate showed the presence of dense fibrotic overgrowth around the microcapsules with no viable islets. The major reason for this is limited understanding of what occurs when encapsulated human islets are allografted. This warrants the need for a suitable small animal model. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of NOD/SCID mice reconstituted with human PBMCs (called humanized NOD/SCID mice) as a preclinical model. In this model, human T cell engraftment could be achieved, and CD45+ cells were observed in the spleen and peripheral blood. Though the engrafted T cells caused a small fibrotic overgrowth around the microencapsulated human islets, this failed to stop the encapsulated islets from functioning in the diabetic recipient mice. The ability of encapsulated islets to survive in this mouse model might partly be attributed to the presence of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10, which are known to induce graft tolerance. In conclusion, this study showed that the hu-NOD/SCID mouse is not a suitable preclinical model to study the allograft rejection mechanisms of encapsulated human islets. As another result, the maintained viability of transplanted islets on the NOD/SCID background emphasized a critical role of protective mechanisms in autoimmune diabetes transplanted subjects due to specific immunoregulatory effects provided by IL-4 and IL-10. PMID:20703439

  10. Modulation of tumor response to photodynamic therapy in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice by adoptively transferred lymphoid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Krosl, Gorazd; Krosl, Jana; Dougherty, Graeme J.

    1996-04-01

    Photodynamic treatment, consisting of intravenous injection of PhotofrinR (10 mg/kg) followed by exposure to 110 J/cm2 of 630 plus or minus 10 nm light 24 hours later, cured 100% of EMT6 tumors (murine mammary sarcoma) growing in syngeneic immunocompetent BALB/C mice. In contrast, the same treatment produced no cures of EMT6 tumors growing in either nude or SCID mice (immunodeficient strains). EMT6 tumors growing in BALB/C and SCID mice showed no difference in either the level of PhotofrinR accumulated per gram of tumor tissue, or the extent of tumor cell killing during the first 24 hours post photodynamic therapy (PDT). In an attempt to improve the sensitivity to PDT of EMT6 tumors growing in SCID mice, these hosts were given either splenic T lymphocytes or whole bone marrow from BALB/C mice. The adoptive transfer of lymphocytes 9 days before PDT was successful in delaying tumor recurrence but produced no cures. A better improvement in PDT response was obtained with tumors growing in SCID mice reconstituted with BALB/C bone marrow (tumor cure rate of 63%). The results of this study demonstrate that, at least with the EMT6 tumor model, antitumor immune activity mediated by lymphoid cell populations makes an important contribution to the curative effect of PDT.

  11. Borderline Personality Disorder and Personality Traits: A Comparison of SCID-II BPD and NEO-PI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkin, John F.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Hospitalized female patients with borderline personality disorder were assessed for Axis II disorders by the Structured Clinical Inventory for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID-II) and for personality traits with the NEO Personality Inventory. The relationship of results to social adjustment and the utility of…

  12. [Predictive power on therapy engagement in personality disorders: SWAP- 200 versus SCID-II].

    PubMed

    Löffler-Stastka, Henriette; Blüml, Victor; Jandl-Jager, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    The study compares the predictive power of the Shedler-Westen-Assessment Procedure-200 with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV on engagement in (psychoanalytic) psychotherapy within 297 patients with personality disorders in a 4-year-follow-up. Multinomial logistic regression showed small differences between the prediction rates in the cross-validated data. Both instruments showed clinically useful prediction rates for treatment rejecters: SWAP scales led to correct predictions with dysphoric traits as semi-stable predictors for rejecters, while SCID scales led to correct predictions with Negativistic, Depressive and Schizotypal PD as stable predictors. Results are discussed under the aspect of advantages and disadvantages of the SWAP-200 diagnostic procedure, which includes the assessment of affect-experience, defence-organisation, and object-relation-style. PMID:19790028

  13. Genetic correction of β-thalassemia patient-specific iPS cells and its use in improving hemoglobin production in irradiated SCID mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yixuan; Zheng, Chen-Guang; Jiang, Yonghua; Zhang, Jiqin; Chen, Jiayu; Yao, Chao; Zhao, Qingguo; Liu, Sheng; Chen, Ke; Du, Juan; Yang, Ze; Gao, Shaorong

    2012-01-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from differentiated somatic cells by over-expression of several transcription factors has the potential to cure many genetic and degenerative diseases currently recalcitrant to traditional clinical approaches. One such genetic disease is β-thalassemia major (Cooley's anemia). This disease is caused by either a point mutation or the deletion of several nucleotides in the β-globin gene, and it threatens the lives of millions of people in China. In the present study, we successfully generated iPSCs from fibroblasts collected from a 2-year-old patient who was diagnosed with a homozygous 41/42 deletion in his β-globin gene. More importantly, we successfully corrected this genetic mutation in the β-thalassemia iPSCs by homologous recombination. Furthermore, transplantation of the genetically corrected iPSCs-derived hematopoietic progenitors into sub-lethally irradiated immune deficient SCID mice showed improved hemoglobin production compared with the uncorrected iPSCs. Moreover, the generation of human β-globin could be detected in the mice transplanted with corrected iPSCs-derived hematopietic progenitors. Our study provides strong evidence that iPSCs generated from a patient with a genetic disease can be corrected by homologous recombination and that the corrected iPSCs have potential clinical uses. PMID:22310243

  14. Assessment of clinical information: Comparison of the Validity of a Structured Clinical Interview (the SCID) and the Clinical Diagnostic Interview

    PubMed Central

    Drill, Rebecca; Nakash, Ora; DeFife, Jared A.; Westen, Drew

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive functioning is a key aspect of psychiatric diagnosis and assessment in research and practice. This study compared adaptive functioning validity ratings from Structured Clinical Interviews (SCIDs), symptom-focused structured diagnostic interviews, and Clinical Diagnostic Interviews (CDIs), systematic diagnostic interviews modeling naturalistic clinical interactions focusing on relational narratives. Two hundred forty-five patients (interviewed by two independent interviewers) and their interviewers completed the Clinical Data Form which assesses adaptive functioning and clinical information. Both interviews converged strongly with patient-reports, with no significant differences in validity of the interviews in measuring global and specific domains of adaptive functioning variables. Findings suggest that CDIs provide adaptive functioning data comparable to SCIDs (often considered “gold standard” for assessment but difficult to use in practice), and have important implications for bridging the research-practice gap. By incorporating clinicians’ everyday methods, CDIs yield information that is psychometrically sound for empirical investigation, diagnostically practical, and clinically meaningful and valid. PMID:25974055

  15. Carnosic Acid-combined Arsenic Trioxide Antileukaemia Cells in the Establishment of NB4/SCID Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Hao, Li; Ran, Wang; Xiang-Xin, Li; Lu-Qun, Wang; Xiao-Ning, Yu

    2016-09-01

    Despite great improvement in the treatment outcome of APL, treatment failure still sometimes occurs due to the toxicity of arsenic trioxide (ATO). Damage to the heart and liver often occurs even when the dose is lower than the therapeutic dose. Based on the results of cell experiments in vitro in this study, we investigated the synergistic activity of carnosic acid (CA) combined with ATO in the SCID mouse model of human promyelocytic leukaemia in vivo. A NB4/SCID mouse model was established in this study. The NB4/SCID mice were randomly divided into three treatment groups (CA alone, ATO alone and CA combined with ATO) and a control group based on factorial design. The evaluation indicators of the curative effect of the drugs included expressions of cleaved caspase-3, PTEN, p27 gene mRNA and proteins by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. The survival time was compared between the four groups. The results indicated that verification of the NB4/SCID mouse model was confirmed by histopathological examination. Compared with mice treated by CA or ATO alone, the mice in the combination of CA and ATO group had a higher rate of apoptosis, which was linked with expressions of cleaved caspase-3, PTEN, p27 gene mRNA and proteins. Also, the mice with the longest survival time were those treated with the combination of CA and ATO. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that CA and ATO in combination have strong synergistic antileukaemic effects on cell activity. PMID:26998898

  16. A founder mutation in Artemis, an SNM1-like protein, causes SCID in Athabascan-speaking Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Li, Lanying; Moshous, Despina; Zhou, Yungui; Wang, Junhua; Xie, Gang; Salido, Eduardo; Hu, Diana; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Cowan, Morton J

    2002-06-15

    Athabascan SCID (SCIDA) is an autosomal recessive disorder found among Athabascan-speaking Native Americans and is manifested by the absence of both T and B cells (T(-)B(-)NK(+) SCID). We previously mapped the SCIDA gene to a 6.5-cM interval on chromosome 10p. SCIDA fibroblasts were found to have defective coding joint and reduced, but precise signal joint formation during V(D)J recombination. After excluding potential candidate genes, we conducted a combined positional candidate and positional cloning approach leading to the identification of nine novel transcripts in the refined SCIDA region. One of the transcripts showed significant homology with the mouse and yeast SNM1/PSO(2) and was recently reported (Artemis) to be responsible for another T(-)B(-)NK(+) SCID condition (radiation sensitive SCID) in 13 patients of primarily European origin. In our evaluation of this gene, we have identified a unique nonsense mutation in 21 SCIDA patients that is closely correlated to the founder haplotypes that we had previously identified. This nonsense founder mutation results in the truncation of the deduced protein product. The wild-type construct of the primary transcript can effectively complement the defective coding joint and reduced signal joint formation in SCIDA fibroblasts. The above results indicate that this SNM1-like gene (Artemis) is the gene responsible for SCIDA. We also discovered three additional alternative exons and detected at least six alternatively spliced SCIDA variants (SCIDA-V1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) coexisting with the primary transcript in trace amounts. Finally, we found that the SCIDA primary transcript (Artemis) encodes a nuclear protein. PMID:12055248

  17. Therapeutic Evaluation of Polyamine Analogue Drug Candidates against Enterocytozoon bieneusi in a SCID Mouse Model▿

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaochuan; Reddy, Venudhar K.; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Weiss, Louis M.; Marton, Laurence J.; Tzipori, Saul

    2009-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common cause of chronic diarrhea in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection or AIDS, and there is no effective therapy. The inhibitory activities of polyamine analogues (PG-11157, PG-11158, and PG-11302) against E. bieneusi infection were evaluated in SCID mice preconditioned with anti-gamma interferon monoclonal antibody intraperitoneally (i.p.). Mice were challenged orally with 104 E. bieneusi spores, and groups of mice were treated orally or i.p. 14 days later for 7 days. The inhibitory activities of the drugs against infection were determined by enumerating the E. bieneusi spores in feces three times a week by an immunofluorescence assay. Immunohistochemistry staining confirmed the infection within enterocytes. Oral administration of the analogues PG-11157 (at 150 or 75 mg/kg of body weight/day) and PG-11302 (at 250 mg/kg/day) had significant inhibitory activity (96.2 to 99.6%) that was slightly better than that of fumagillin (1 mg/kg/day; 93.7%). The inhibitory activity with i.p. injection was significant only with PG-11302 at 20 mg/kg/day. While the treatments considerably reduced the levels of spore excretion, neither polyamine analogues nor fumagillin was able to completely eliminate E. bieneusi, as excretion reappeared within 7 days after the end of treatment. Drug toxicity was apparent during treatment, but it disappeared at the end of treatment. These results warrant further examination of the analogues PG-11157 and PG-11302. PMID:19289524

  18. Efficient targeting of a SCID gene by an engineered single-chain homing endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Grizot, Sylvestre; Smith, Julianne; Daboussi, Fayza; Prieto, Jesús; Redondo, Pilar; Merino, Nekane; Villate, Maider; Thomas, Séverine; Lemaire, Laetitia; Montoya, Guillermo; Blanco, Francisco J.; Pâques, Frédéric; Duchateau, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Sequence-specific endonucleases recognizing long target sequences are emerging as powerful tools for genome engineering. These endonucleases could be used to correct deleterious mutations or to inactivate viruses, in a new approach to molecular medicine. However, such applications are highly demanding in terms of safety. Mutations in the human RAG1 gene cause severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Using the I-CreI dimeric LAGLIDADG meganuclease as a scaffold, we describe here the engineering of a series of endonucleases cleaving the human RAG1 gene, including obligate heterodimers and single-chain molecules. We show that a novel single-chain design, in which two different monomers are linked to form a single molecule, can induce high levels of recombination while safeguarding more effectively against potential genotoxicity. We provide here the first demonstration that an engineered meganuclease can induce targeted recombination at an endogenous locus in up to 6% of transfected human cells. These properties rank this new generation of endonucleases among the best molecular scissors available for genome surgery strategies, potentially avoiding the deleterious effects of previous gene therapy approaches. PMID:19584299

  19. Infection of Immunodeficient Horses with Sarcocystis neurona Does Not Result in Neurologic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sellon, Debra C.; Knowles, Donald P.; Greiner, Ellis C.; Long, Maureen T.; Hines, Melissa T.; Hochstatter, Tressa; Tibary, Ahmed; Dame, John B.

    2004-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a progressive neurologic disease of horses most commonly caused by infection with the apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. Factors affecting neuroinvasion and neurovirulence have not been determined. We investigated the pathogenesis of infection with S. neurona in horses with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID). Two immunocompetent (IC) Arabian horses and two Arabian horses with SCID were infected orally with 5 × 105 sporocysts of S. neurona. Four IC horses and one SCID horse were infected intravenously (i.v.) with 5 × 108 merozoites of the WSU-1 isolate of S. neurona. Despite prolonged parasitemia and persistent infection of visceral tissues (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, lung, liver, and spleen) as demonstrated by PCR and culture, SCID horses did not develop neurologic signs after oral or i.v. infection. S. neurona was undetectable in the neuronal tissues of SCID horses by either PCR, immunohistochemistry, or culture. In contrast, although parasitemia was undetectable in orally infected IC horses and of only short duration in i.v. infected IC horses, four of six IC horses developed neurologic signs. S. neurona was detectable by PCR and/or culture of neural tissue but not visceral tissue of IC horses with neurologic disease. Infected SCID horses are unable to clear S. neurona from visceral tissues, but the infection does not result in neurologic signs; in contrast, IC horses rapidly control parasitemia and infection of visceral tissues but frequently experience neuroinvasion and exhibit clinical signs of neurologic disease. PMID:15539518

  20. Measures of kidney function by minimally invasive techniques correlate with histological glomerular damage in SCID mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Scarfe, Lauren; Rak-Raszewska, Aleksandra; Geraci, Stefania; Darssan, Darsy; Sharkey, Jack; Huang, Jiaguo; Burton, Neal C.; Mason, David; Ranjzad, Parisa; Kenny, Simon; Gretz, Norbert; Lévy, Raphaël; Kevin Park, B.; García-Fiñana, Marta; Woolf, Adrian S.; Murray, Patricia; Wilm, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Maximising the use of preclinical murine models of progressive kidney disease as test beds for therapies ideally requires kidney function to be measured repeatedly in a safe, minimally invasive manner. To date, most studies of murine nephropathy depend on unreliable markers of renal physiological function, exemplified by measuring blood levels of creatinine and urea, and on various end points necessitating sacrifice of experimental animals to assess histological damage, thus counteracting the principles of Replacement, Refinement and Reduction. Here, we applied two novel minimally invasive techniques to measure kidney function in SCID mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy. We employed i) a transcutaneous device that measures the half-life of intravenously administered FITC-sinistrin, a molecule cleared by glomerular filtration; and ii) multispectral optoacoustic tomography, a photoacoustic imaging device that directly visualises the clearance of the near infrared dye, IRDye 800CW carboxylate. Measurements with either technique showed a significant impairment of renal function in experimental animals versus controls, with significant correlations with the proportion of scarred glomeruli five weeks after induction of injury. These technologies provide clinically relevant functional data and should be widely adopted for testing the efficacies of novel therapies. Moreover, their use will also lead to a reduction in experimental animal numbers. PMID:26329825

  1. Measures of kidney function by minimally invasive techniques correlate with histological glomerular damage in SCID mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Scarfe, Lauren; Rak-Raszewska, Aleksandra; Geraci, Stefania; Darssan, Darsy; Sharkey, Jack; Huang, Jiaguo; Burton, Neal C; Mason, David; Ranjzad, Parisa; Kenny, Simon; Gretz, Norbert; Lévy, Raphaël; Kevin Park, B; García-Fiñana, Marta; Woolf, Adrian S; Murray, Patricia; Wilm, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Maximising the use of preclinical murine models of progressive kidney disease as test beds for therapies ideally requires kidney function to be measured repeatedly in a safe, minimally invasive manner. To date, most studies of murine nephropathy depend on unreliable markers of renal physiological function, exemplified by measuring blood levels of creatinine and urea, and on various end points necessitating sacrifice of experimental animals to assess histological damage, thus counteracting the principles of Replacement, Refinement and Reduction. Here, we applied two novel minimally invasive techniques to measure kidney function in SCID mice with adriamycin-induced nephropathy. We employed i) a transcutaneous device that measures the half-life of intravenously administered FITC-sinistrin, a molecule cleared by glomerular filtration; and ii) multispectral optoacoustic tomography, a photoacoustic imaging device that directly visualises the clearance of the near infrared dye, IRDye 800CW carboxylate. Measurements with either technique showed a significant impairment of renal function in experimental animals versus controls, with significant correlations with the proportion of scarred glomeruli five weeks after induction of injury. These technologies provide clinically relevant functional data and should be widely adopted for testing the efficacies of novel therapies. Moreover, their use will also lead to a reduction in experimental animal numbers. PMID:26329825

  2. Noninvasive Optical Imaging and In Vivo Cell Tracking of Indocyanine Green Labeled Human Stem Cells Transplanted at Superficial or In-Depth Tissue of SCID Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sabapathy, Vikram; Mentam, Jyothsna; Jacob, Paul Mazhuvanchary; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell based therapies hold great promise for the treatment of human diseases; however results from several recent clinical studies have not shown a level of efficacy required for their use as a first-line therapy, because more often in these studies fate of the transplanted cells is unknown. Thus monitoring the real-time fate of in vivo transplanted cells is essential to validate the full potential of stem cells based therapy. Recent studies have shown how real-time in vivo molecular imaging has helped in identifying hurdles towards clinical translation and designing potential strategies that may contribute to successful transplantation of stem cells and improved outcomes. At present, there are no cost effective and efficient labeling techniques for tracking the cells under in vivo conditions. Indocyanine green (ICG) is a safer, economical, and superior labelling technique for in vivo optical imaging. ICG is a FDA-approved agent and decades of usage have clearly established the effectiveness of ICG for human clinical applications. In this study, we have optimized the ICG labelling conditions that is optimal for noninvasive optical imaging and demonstrated that ICG labelled cells can be successfully used for in vivo cell tracking applications in SCID mice injury models. PMID:26240573

  3. Successful radioimmunotherapy for micro and occult metastases in a SCID mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, K.; Koshida, K.; Kinuya, S. |

    1996-05-01

    It is often addressed that the most appropriate candidate, theoretically, for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is not bulky tumor burden but for micro or occult metastatic foci, The major obstacles in the verification for veracious efficacy of RIT had been clinically and preclinically the difficulty in obtaining such a model. We have developed the model of testicular tumor (primary site) with visible small metastases to the lymph nodes (LNs) and non-visible (occult) lesions to distant organs in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. And thus, the suppression of minute tumor depositions after RIT was evaluated. One week after hemilateral intratesticular injection of 2 million of HELA Hep 2 cells that expressed placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), the group of the mice were treated with a single dose of I-131 labeled HPMS-1, anti-PLAP MoAb or with saline control. The I-131 labeled HPMS-1 (5.6 MBq / 150 {mu}g) was intravenously administered and at 2 weeks after, the testis, retroperitoneal and intraperitoneal LNs and other gans were removed. For the control group, the testicular tumor and LNs metastases were found in 100% and 86% of the mice. The metastases in the liver and lung were not observed by histological examination but in all mouse samples, the PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay could identify the human {beta}-globin gene derived from HeLa cells, indicating the presence of definitive metastases. For the treated group, the average testicular tumor weight was significantly reduced by the factor of 2.4 (132 mg vs 311 mg, p<0.01). The LNs metastases were even more distinctively suppressed by the factor of 45.7 (13 mg vs 599 mg, p,0.05). Remarkably, the PCR products from the occult metastases were almost completely controlled; 97% suppression found for the liver and 81% for the lung. Thus, we conclude that using I-131 as a label, RIT is justified to used for targeting and killing minute tumor foci.

  4. Antiviral Activity of Bay 41-4109 on Hepatitis B Virus in Humanized Alb-uPA/SCID Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brezillon, Nicolas; Brunelle, Marie-Noëlle; Massinet, Hélène; Giang, Eric; Lamant, Céline; DaSilva, Lucie; Berissi, Sophie; Belghiti, Jacques; Hannoun, Laurent; Puerstinger, Gherard; Wimmer, Eva; Neyts, Johan; Hantz, Olivier; Soussan, Patrick; Morosan, Serban; Kremsdorf, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Current treatments for HBV chronic carriers using interferon alpha or nucleoside analogues are not effective in all patients and may induce the emergence of HBV resistant strains. Bay 41-4109, a member of the heteroaryldihydropyrimidine family, inhibits HBV replication by destabilizing capsid assembly. The aim of this study was to determine the antiviral effect of Bay 41-4109 in a mouse model with humanized liver and the spread of active HBV. Antiviral assays of Bay 41-4109 on HepG2.2.15 cells constitutively expressing HBV, displayed an IC50 of about 202 nM with no cell toxicity. Alb-uPA/SCID mice were transplanted with human hepatocytes and infected with HBV. Ten days post-infection, the mice were treated with Bay 41-4109 for five days. During the 30 days of follow-up, the HBV load was evaluated by quantitative PCR. At the end of treatment, decreased HBV viremia of about 1 log(10) copies/ml was observed. By contrast, increased HBV viremia of about 0.5 log(10) copies/ml was measured in the control group. Five days after the end of treatment, a rebound of HBV viremia occurred in the treated group. Furthermore, 15 days after treatment discontinuation, a similar expression of the viral capsid was evidenced in liver biopsies. Our findings demonstrate that Bay 41-4109 displayed antiviral properties against HBV in humanized Alb-uPA/SCID mice and confirm the usefulness of Alb-uPA/SCID mice for the evaluation of pharmaceutical compounds. The administration of Bay 41-4109 may constitute a new strategy for the treatment of patients in escape from standard antiviral therapy. PMID:22162746

  5. Identification of newly isolated Babesia parasites from cattle in Korea by using the Bo-RBC-SCID mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Ishihara, Chiaki; Kim, Jong-Taek; Wee, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Chung-Gil

    2002-01-01

    Attempts were made to isolate and identify Korean bovine Babesia parasite. Blood samples were collected from Holstein cows in Korea, and Babesia parasites were propagated in SCID mice with circulating bovine red blood cells for isolation. The isolate was then antigenically and genotypically compared with several Japanese isolates. The Korean parasite was found to be nearly identical to the Oshima strain isolated from Japanese cattle, which was recently designated as Babesia ovata oshimensis n. var. Haemaphysalis longicornis was the most probable tick species that transmited the parasite. PMID:11949211

  6. T cell engraftment in lymphoid tissues of human peripheral blood lymphocyte reconstituted SCID mice with or without prior activation of cells.

    PubMed

    Olive, C; Cheung, C; Falk, M C

    1998-12-01

    The reconstitution of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice with human PBL (Hu-PBL-SCID) was assessed using fresh unstimulated PBL and anti-CD3-stimulated PBL. Mice were reconstituted with PBL by intraperitoneal injection of 1-2.5 x 107 PBL in PBS; controls received PBS. Successful engraftment of human PBL in SCID mice was determined by measurement of human IgG in mouse sera, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of human-specific HLA-DRbeta DNA in SCID periphery, and immunohistochemical staining of mouse tissues (spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, liver and lung) with antibodies specific for human CD45 and CD3. Human IgG was detected 1 week after reconstitution in sera of all animals that received at least 1 x 107 PBL and continued to increase for 8 weeks. Human-specific HLA-DRbeta DNA was detected in the majority of mice 3 weeks after reconstitution but not in controls. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of Hu-PBL-SCID mouse tissues revealed the presence of human CD45+ cells in all tissues examined. CD3+ T cell engraftment was observed in lymphoid tissues irrespective of whether PBL had been activated prior to transfer or not. PMID:9893029

  7. The gene for severe combined immunodeficiency disease in Athabascan-speaking Native Americans is located on chromosome 10p.

    PubMed Central

    Li, L; Drayna, D; Hu, D; Hayward, A; Gahagan, S; Pabst, H; Cowan, M J

    1998-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) consists of a group of heterogeneous genetic disorders. The most severe phenotype, T-B- SCID, is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and is characterized by a profound deficiency of both T cell and B cell immunity. There is a uniquely high frequency of T-B- SCID among Athabascan-speaking Native Americans (A-SCID). To localize the A-SCID gene, we conducted a genomewide search, using linkage analysis of approximately 300 microsatellite markers in 14 affected Athabascan-speaking Native American families. We obtained conclusive evidence for linkage of the A-SCID locus to markers on chromosome 10p. The maximum pairwise LOD scores 4.53 and 4.60 were obtained from two adjacent markers, D10S191 and D10S1653, respectively, at a recombination fraction of straight theta=.00. Recombination events placed the gene in an interval of approximately 6.5 cM flanked by D10S1664 and D10S674. Multipoint analysis positioned the gene for the A-SCID phenotype between D10S191 and D10S1653, with a peak LOD score of 5.10 at D10S191. Strong linkage disequilibrium was found in five linked markers spanning approximately 6.5 cM in the candidate region, suggesting a founder effect with an ancestral mutation that occurred sometime before 1300 A.D. PMID:9443881

  8. Levels of Murine, but Not Human, CXCL13 Are Greatly Elevated in NOD-SCID Mice Bearing the AIDS-Associated Burkitt Lymphoma Cell Line, 2F7

    PubMed Central

    Widney, Daniel P.; Olafsen, Tove; Wu, Anna M.; Kitchen, Christina M. R.; Said, Jonathan W.; Smith, Jeffrey B.; Peña, Guadalupe; Magpantay, Larry I.; Penichet, Manuel L.; Martinez-Maza, Otoniel

    2013-01-01

    Currently, few rodent models of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (AIDS-NHL) exist. In these studies, a novel mouse/human xenograft model of AIDS-associated Burkitt lymphoma (AIDS-BL) was created by injecting cells of the human AIDS-BL cell line, 2F7, intraperitoneally into NOD-SCID mice. Mice developed tumors in the peritoneal cavity, with metastases to the spleen, thymus, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Expression of the chemokine receptor, CXCR5, was greatly elevated in vivo on BL tumor cells in this model, as shown by flow cytometry. CXCL13 is the ligand for CXCR5, and serum and ascites levels of murine, but not human, CXCL13 showed a striking elevation in tumor-bearing mice, with levels as high as 200,000 pg/ml in ascites, as measured by ELISA. As shown by immunohistochemistry, murine CXCL13 was associated with macrophage-like tumor-infiltrating cells that appeared to be histiocytes. Blocking CXCR5 on 2F7 cells with neutralizing antibodies prior to injection into the mice substantially delayed tumor formation. The marked elevations in tumor cell CXCR5 expression and in murine CXCL13 levels seen in the model may potentially identify an important link between tumor-interacting histiocytes and tumor cells in AIDS-BL. These results also identify CXCL13 as a potential biomarker for this disease, which is consistent with previous studies showing that serum levels of CXCL13 were elevated in human subjects who developed AIDS-lymphoma. This mouse model may be useful for future studies on the interactions of the innate immune system and AIDS-BL tumor cells, as well as for the assessment of potential tumor biomarkers for this disease. PMID:23936541

  9. Suppression subtractive hybridization method for the identification of a new strain of murine hepatitis virus from xenografted SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammed M; Toohey, Brendan; Purcell, Damian F J; Kannourakis, George

    2015-12-01

    During attempts to clone retroviral determinants associated with a mouse model of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify unique viruses in the liver of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice transplanted with LCH tissues. A partial genomic sequence of a murine coronavirus was identified, and the whole genome (31428 bp) of the coronavirus was subsequently sequenced using PCR cloning techniques. Nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed that the genome sequence of the new virus was 91-93% identical to those of known murine hepatitis viruses (MHVs). The predicted open reading frame from the nucleotide sequence encoded all known proteins of MHVs. Analysis at the protein level showed that the virus was closely related to the highly virulent MHV-JHM strain. The virus strain was named MHV-MI. No type D retroviruses were found. Degenerate PCR targeting of type D retrovirus and 5'-RACE targeting of other types of retroviruses confirmed the absence of any retroviral association with the LCH xenografted SCID mice. PMID:26347284

  10. Histopathological and expression profiling studies of early tumor responses to near-infrared PDT treatment in SCID mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkey, Jean R.; Rebane, Aleksander; Drobizhev, Mikhail A.; Meng, Fanqin; Gong, Aijun; Elliott, Aleisha; McInnerney, Kate; Pascucci, Elizabeth; Spangler, Charles W.

    2008-02-01

    A novel class of porphyrin-based near-infrared photodynamic therapy (PDT) sensitizers is studied. We achieve regressions of human small cell lung cancer (NCI-H69), non-small cell lung cancer (A 459) and breast cancer (MDAMB- 231) xenografts in SCID mice at significant tissue depth by irradiation with an amplified femtosecond pulsed laser at 800 nm wavelength. Significant tumor regressions were observed during the first 10-14 days post treatment. Tumor histopathology was consistent with known PDT effects, while no significant changes were noted in irradiated normal tissues. In vivo imaging studies using intravenous injections of fluorescent dextran demonstrated an early loss of tumor blood flow. RNA was isolated from NCI-H69 PDT treated SCID mouse xenografts and paired untreated xenografts at 4 hours post laser irradiation. Similarly RNA was isolated from PDT treated and untreated Lewis lung carcinomas growing in C57/Bl6 mice. Expression profiling was carried out using Affymetrix TM human and mouse GeneChips®. Cluster analysis of microarray expression profiling results demonstrated reproducible increases in transcripts associated with apoptosis, stress, oxygen transport and gene regulation in the PDT treated NCI-H69 samples. In addition, PDT treated Lewis lung carcinomas showed reproducible increases in transcripts associated with immune response and lipid biosynthesis. PDT treated C57/Bl6 mice developed cytotoxic T cell activity towards this tumor, while untreated tumor bearing mice failed to do so.

  11. Activation of V(D)J Recombination Induces the Formation of Interlocus Joints and Hybrid Joints in scid Pre-B-Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Sandra; Franco, Daniel; Chang, Yung

    2000-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is the mechanism by which antigen receptor genes are assembled. The site-specific cleavage mediated by RAG1 and RAG2 proteins generates two types of double-strand DNA breaks: blunt signal ends and covalently sealed hairpin coding ends. Although these DNA breaks are mainly resolved into coding joints and signal joints, they can participate in a nonstandard joining process, forming hybrid and open/shut joints that link coding ends to signal ends. In addition, the broken DNA molecules excised from different receptor gene loci could potentially be joined to generate interlocus joints. The interlocus recombination process may contribute to the translocation between antigen receptor genes and oncogenes, leading to malignant transformation of lymphocytes. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of these nonstandard recombination events, we took advantage of recombination-inducible cell lines derived from scid homozygous (s/s) and scid heterozygous (s/+) mice by transforming B-cell precursors with a temperature-sensitive Abelson murine leukemia virus mutant (ts-Ab-MLV). We can manipulate the level of recombination cleavage and end resolution by altering the cell culture temperature. By analyzing various recombination products in scid and s/+ ts-Ab-MLV transformants, we report in this study that scid cells make higher levels of interlocus and hybrid joints than their normal counterparts. These joints arise concurrently with the formation of intralocus joints, as well as with the appearance of opened coding ends. The junctions of these joining products exhibit excessive nucleotide deletions, a characteristic of scid coding joints. These data suggest that an inability of scid cells to promptly resolve their recombination ends exposes the ends to a random joining process, which can conceivably lead to chromosomal translocations. PMID:10982833

  12. Positive Family History, Infection, Low Absolute Lymphocyte Count (ALC) and Absent Thymic Shadow: Diagnostic Clues for all Molecular Forms of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Laurie M; Railey, Mary Dell; Buckley, Rebecca H

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome uniformly fatal during infancy unless recognized and treated successfully by bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Because SCID infants have no abnormal physical appearance, diagnosis is usually delayed unless newborn screening is performed. Objective In this study, we sought to evaluate the presenting features of all 172 SCID patients transplanted at this institution over the past 31 years. Methods We reviewed original charts from 172 consecutive classic SCID patients who received either T cell-depleted HLA-haploidentical (N=154) or HLA-identical (N=18) non-ablative related marrow transplants at Duke University Medical Center from 1982–2013. Results The mean age at presentation was 4.87 months. When there was a family history of early infant death or known SCID (63/172 or 37%), the mean presentation age was much earlier, 2.0 months compared to 6.6 months. Failure to thrive was common, with 84 patients (50%) having a weight less than the 5th percentile. The leading infections included oral moniliasis (43%), viral infections (61/172 35.5%) and Pneumocystis jiroveci (26%) pneumonia. The group mean ALC was 1454/cmm; 88% of the infants had an ALC less than 3000/cmm. Absent thymic shadow was seen in 92% of infants with electronic radiographic data available. An absence of T cell function was found in all patients. Conclusions SCID infants appear normal at birth but later present with failure to thrive and/or recurrent fungal, viral and bacterial infections. Low ALCs and absent thymic shadow on chest x-ray are key diagnostic clues. The absence of T cell function confirms the diagnosis. PMID:25824440

  13. Pinworm detection in mice with immunodeficient (NOD SCID) and immunocompetent (CD-1 and Swiss) soiled bedding sentinels in individually ventilated cage systems.

    PubMed

    Eguíluz, C; Rossi, M; Viguera, E

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel exposure to soiled bedding is frequently used for health monitoring of mice housed in individually ventilated cage systems (IVCS). Despite its advantages, the use of soiled bedding sentinels (SBSs) is far for being a reliable method. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of immunodeficient SBSs NOD.CB17-Prkdc(scid)/NCrHsd (NOD SCID) against two immunocompetent outbred strains, Hsd:ICR (CD-1) and RjOr1:Swiss (Swiss) to pinworm detection in IVCS-housing. Four different diagnostic methods were used: perianal tape test, fecal flotation, plate method and histology. Positivity was considered if at least one of the techniques used was positive. In the first study NOD SCID were more sensitive than CD-1 SBSs (P < 0.05), and except for the fecal flotation test performed at week 6, all the diagnostic methods were more sensitive with NOD SCID mice (P < 0.05). In the second study differences between the Swiss and NOD SCID mice were less obvious (P = 0.08). When compared separately, the different diagnostic methods, except for the fecal flotation test, were all more sensitive in the NOD SCID mice (P < 0.05). In addition, the anal tape test in the Swiss SBSs was more sensitive at week 7 than at week 15 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, combining various diagnostic techniques and samplings at week 7 post-exposure with non-invasive methods increases the rate of pinworm detection. Immunodeficient SBSs showed higher sensitivity than immunocompetent ones. Thus, use of immunodeficient SBSs is highly recommended in health control protocols. PMID:25667226

  14. Inhibition of Acute in vivo Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection by Human Interleukin 10 Treatment of SCID Mice Implanted with Human Fetal Thymus and Liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollmann, Tobias R.; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Katopodis, Nikos F.; Hachamovitch, Moshe; Rubinstein, Arye; Kim, Ana; Goldstein, Harris

    1996-04-01

    To improve the usefulness of in vivo models for the investigation of the pathophysiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we modified the construction of SCID mice implanted with human fetal thymus and liver (thy/liv-SCID-hu mice) so that the peripheral blood of the mice contained significant numbers of human monocytes and T cells. After inoculation with HIV-159, a primary patient isolate capable of infecting monocytes and T cells, the modified thy/liv-SCID-hu mice developed disseminated HIV infection that was associated with plasma viremia. The development of plasma viremia and HIV infection in thy/liv-SCID-hu mice inoculated with HIV-159 was inhibited by acute treatment with human interleukin (IL) 10 but not with human IL-12. The human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in these modified thy/liv-SCID-hu mice were responsive in vivo to treatment with exogenous cytokines. Human interferon γ expression in the circulating human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was induced by treatment with IL-12 and inhibited by treatment with IL-10. Thus, these modified thy/liv-SCID-hu mice should prove to be a valuable in vivo model for examining the role of immunomodulatory therapy in modifying HIV infection. Furthermore, our demonstration of the in vivo inhibitory effect of IL-10 on acute HIV infection suggests that further studies may be warranted to evaluate whether there is a role for IL-10 therapy in preventing HIV infection in individuals soon after exposure to HIV such as for children born to HIV-infected mothers.

  15. Diagnostic Efficiency among Psychiatric Outpatients of a Self-Report Version of a Subset of Screen Items of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders (SCID-II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germans, Sara; Van Heck, Guus L.; Masthoff, Erik D.; Trompenaars, Fons J. W. M.; Hodiamont, Paul P. G.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the identification of a 10-item set of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) items, which proved to be effective as a self-report assessment instrument in screening personality disorders. The item selection was based on the retrospective analyses of 495 SCID-II interviews. The…

  16. De novo human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 infection of human lymphocytes in NOD-SCID, common gamma-chain knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Miyazato, Paola; Yasunaga, Jun-ichirou; Taniguchi, Yuko; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Matsuoka, Masao

    2006-11-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia, a disease that is triggered after a long latency period. HTLV-1 is known to spread through cell-to-cell contact. In an attempt to study the events in early stages of HTLV-1 infection, we inoculated uninfected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the HTLV-1-producing cell line MT-2 into NOD-SCID, common gamma-chain knockout mice (human PBMC-NOG mice). HTLV-1 infection was confirmed with the detection of proviral DNA in recovered samples. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were found to harbor the provirus, although the latter population harbored provirus to a lesser extent. Proviral loads increased with time, and inverse PCR analysis revealed the oligoclonal proliferation of infected cells. Although tax gene transcription was suppressed in human PBMC-NOG mice, it increased after in vitro culture. This is similar to the phenotype of HTLV-1-infected cells isolated from HTLV-1 carriers. Furthermore, the reverse transcriptase inhibitors azidothymidine and tenofovir blocked primary infection in human PBMC-NOG mice. However, when tenofovir was administered 1 week after infection, the proviral loads did not differ from those of untreated mice, indicating that after initial infection, clonal proliferation of infected cells was predominant over de novo infection of previously uninfected cells. In this study, we demonstrated that the human PBMC-NOG mouse model should be a useful tool in studying the early stages of primary HTLV-1 infection. PMID:16943297

  17. Accumulation of xenotransplanted canine bone marrow cells in NOD/SCID/γc(null) mice with acute hepatitis induced by CCl4.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takashi; Hisasue, Masaharu; Segawa, Kazuhito; Fujimoto, Ayumi; Makiishi, Eri; Neo, Sakurako; Yasuno, Kyohei; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Tsuchiya, Ryo

    2013-07-31

    Bone marrow cell infusion (BMI) has recently been suggested as an effective therapy for refractory liver disease; however, the efficiency of BMI using canine bone marrow cells (cBMCs) has not been reported. We evaluated the accumulation potential of cBMCs in a mouse model of acute liver failure. Acute hepatitis was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment in NOD/SCID/γc(null)(NOG) mice and wild-type (WT) C57BL mice, and the characteristics of liver dysfunction and the degree of hepatic injury and regeneration were compared between the two mouse models. Next, female CCl4-treated NOG mice were xenotransplanted with male PKH26-labeled cBMCs, and the potential of cBMCs to accumulate in injured liver tissue compartments was examined. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to histologically detect the infused cBMCs, and DNA polymerase chain reaction was performed for detection of the male Y chromosome (SRY gene) in the recipient female NOG mice. The number of PKH26-positive cBMCs transplanted in the liver tissue gradually increased in the NOG mice. The infused cBMCs were located in the necrotic area of the liver at an early stage after transplantation, and most had accumulated a week after transplantation. However, the therapeutic efficacy of the xenotransplantation remained unclear, because no significant differences were observed concerning the extent liver injury and regeneration between the cBMC-transplanted and saline control mice. These results suggest that cBMCs will specifically accumulate in injured liver tissue and that BMC transplantation may have the potential to repair liver deficiency. PMID:23411484

  18. Expression of LMP and EBNA genes in Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphomas in Hu-PBL/SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yunlian; Lu, Suli; Gan, Xiaoning; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Yang; Luo, Chunyan; Pan, Yuxia; Hong, Li; Gan, Ruliang

    2016-02-01

    Transplantation of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from healthy humans with latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice results in development of EBV-associated human B-cell lymphoma. However, the expression of EBV genes in relation to lymphoma development has not been reported. We investigated latent membrane protein (LMP) and EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) gene expression in PBLs from EBV-positive blood donors and induced-lymphoma cells from SCID mice to elucidate the functions and effects of the EBV genome in the occurrence and development of lymphoma. PBLs were isolated from 9 healthy blood donors and transplanted into SCID mice. Gene expression levels of LMP-1, LMP-2A, and LMP-2B and EBNA-1, EBNA-2, EBNA-3A, EBNA-3B, EBNA-3C and EBNA-LP were monitored by real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in cells from nine EBV-induced lymphomas and in matched lymphocytes from healthy subjects. LMP-1, EBNA-1 and EBNA-2 protein levels were detected by western blotting. As a result, LMP-1, LMP-2A and LMP-2B mRNA levels were upregulated 256-, 38- and 331-fold, respectively, in the EBV-induced lymphoma cells compared with the controls, while EBNA-1 and EBNA-3A mRNA levels were upregulated 1157- and 1154-fold, respectively. EBNA-2, EBNA-3B, EBNA-3C and EBNA-LP mRNAs were detected in lymphoma cells, but not in lymphocytes from EBV-positive blood donors. LMP-1 and EBNA-2 proteins were not expressed in lymphocytes from EBV-positive blood donors, according to western blotting. Weak EBNA-1 expression was observed in lymphocytes from blood donors with latent EBV infection, while LMP-1, EBNA-1 and EBNA-2 protein levels were significantly upregulated in EBV-induced lymphoma cells, consistent with mRNA expression levels detected by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, LMP-1, LMP-2A, LMP-2B, EBNA-1 and EBNA-3A were upregulated in EBV-induced lymphoma cells, while EBNA-2, EBNA-3B, EBNA-3C and EBNA-LP were absent in lymphocytes from

  19. AML engraftment in the NOD/SCID assay reflects the outcome of AML: implications for our understanding of the heterogeneity of AML

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Daniel J.; Taussig, David; Zibara, Kazem; Smith, Lan-Lan; Ridler, Christopher M.; Preudhomme, Claude; Young, Bryan D.; Rohatiner, Ama Z.; Lister, T. Andrew; Bonnet, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    The nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) assay is the current model for assessment of human normal and leukemic stem cells. We explored why 51% of 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients were unable to initiate leukemia in NOD/SCID mice. Increasing the cell dose, using more permissive recipients, and alternative tissue sources did not cause AML engraftment in most previously nonengrafting AML samples. Homing of AML cells to the marrow was the same between engrafters and nonengrafters. FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) and nucleophosmin mutations occurred at a similar frequency in engrafters and nonengrafters. The only variable that was related to engraftment ability was the karyotypically defined risk stratification of individual AML cases. Of interest, follow-up of younger patients with intermediate-risk AML revealed a significant difference in overall survival between NOD/SCID engrafting and nonengrafting AMLs. Hence, the ability of AML to engraft in the NOD/SCID assay seems to be an inherent property of AML cells, independent of homing, conditioning, or cell frequency/source, which is directly related to prognosis. Our results suggest an important difference between leukemic initiating cells between engrafting and nonengrafting AML cases that correlates with treatment response. PMID:16234360

  20. Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D): a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kundakçi, Turgut; Sar, Vedat; Kiziltan, Emre; Yargiç, Ilhan L; Tutkun, Hamdi

    2014-01-01

    A total of 34 consecutive patients with dissociative identity disorder or dissociative disorder not otherwise specified were evaluated using the Turkish version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D). They were compared with a matched control group composed of 34 patients who had a nondissociative psychiatric disorder. Interrater reliability was evaluated by 3 clinicians who assessed videotaped interviews conducted with 5 dissociative and 5 nondissociative patients. All subjects who were previously diagnosed by clinicians as having a dissociative disorder were identified as positive, and all subjects who were previously diagnosed as not having a dissociative disorder were identified as negative. The scores of the main symptom clusters and the total score of the SCID-D differentiated dissociative patients from the nondissociative group. There were strong correlations between the SCID-D and the Dissociative Experiences Scale total and subscale scores. These results are promising for the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the SCID-D. However, as the present study was conducted on a predominantly female sample with very severe dissociation, these findings should not be generalized to male patients, to dissociative disorders other than dissociative identity disorder, or to broader clinical or nonclinical populations. PMID:24377970

  1. A novel model of SCID-X1 reconstitution reveals predisposition to retrovirus-induced lymphoma but no evidence of gammaC gene oncogenicity.

    PubMed

    Scobie, Linda; Hector, Ralph D; Grant, Louise; Bell, Margaret; Nielsen, Anne A; Meikle, Sharon; Philbey, Adrian; Philbey, Adrain; Thrasher, Adrian J; Thrasher, Adrain J; Cameron, Ewan R; Blyth, Karen; Neil, James C

    2009-06-01

    The emergence of leukemia following gene transfer to restore common cytokine receptor gamma chain (gammaC) function in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) has raised important questions with respect to gene therapy safety. To explore the risk factors involved, we tested the oncogenic potential of human gammaC in new strains of transgenic mice expressing the gene under the control of the CD2 promoter and locus control region (LCR). These mice demonstrated mildly perturbed T-cell development, with an increased proportion of thymic CD8 cells, but showed no predisposition to tumor development even on highly tumor prone backgrounds or after gamma-retrovirus infection. The human CD2-gammaC transgene rescued T and B-cell development in gammaC(-/-) mice but with an age-related delay, mimicking postnatal reconstitution in SCID-X1 gene therapy subjects. However, we noted that gammaC(-/-) mice are acutely susceptible to murine leukemia virus (MLV) leukemogenesis, and that this trait was not corrected by the gammaC transgene. We conclude that the SCID-X1 phenotype can be corrected safely by stable ectopic expression of gammaC and that the transgene is not significantly oncogenic when expressed in this context. However, an underlying predisposition conferred by the SCID-X1 background appears to collaborate with insertional mutagenesis to increase the risk of tumor development. PMID:19337236

  2. Eradication of Human Hepatic and Pulmonary Melanoma Metastases in SCID Mice by Antibody--Interleukin 2 Fusion Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Jurgen C.; Pancook, James D.; Gillies, Stephen D.; Mendelsohn, John; Reisfeld, Ralph A.

    1996-04-01

    Antibody--cytokine fusion proteins combine the unique targeting ability of antibodies with the multifunctional activity of cytokines. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of such constructs for the treatment of hepatic and pulmonary metastases of different melanoma cell lines. Two antibody--interleukin 2 (IL-2) fusion proteins, ch225-IL2 and ch14.18-IL2, constructed by fusion of a synthetic sequence coding for human IL-2 to the carboxyl end of the Cγ 1 gene of the corresponding antibodies, were tested for their therapeutic efficacy against xenografted human melanoma in vivo. Tumorspecific fusion proteins completely inhibited the growth of hepatic and pulmonary metastases in C.B-17 scid/scid mice previously reconstituted with human lymphokine-activated killer cells, whereas treatment with combinations of the corresponding antibodies plus recombinant IL-2 only reduced the tumor load. Even when treatment with fusion proteins was delayed up to 8 days after inoculation of tumor cells, it still resulted in complete eradication of micrometastases that were established at that time point. Selection of tumor cell lines expressing or lacking the targeted antigen of the administered fusion protein proved the specificity of the observed antitumor effect. Biodistribution analysis demonstrated that the tumorspecific fusion protein accumulated not only in subcutaneous tumors but also in lungs and livers affected with micrometastases. Survival times of animals treated with the fusion protein were more than doubled as compared to those treated with the combination of the corresponding antibody plus IL-2. Our data demonstrate that an immunotherapeutic approach using cytokines targeted by antibodies to tumor sites has potent effects against disseminated human melanoma.

  3. Engraftment potential of human fetal hematopoietic cells in NOD/SCID mice is not restricted to mitotically quiescent cells.

    PubMed

    Wilpshaar, Jannine; Bhatia, Mickie; Kanhai, Humphrey H H; Breese, Robert; Heilman, Doug K; Johnson, Cynthia S; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Srour, Edward F

    2002-07-01

    During fetal development, there is a continued demand for large numbers of primitive and mature hematopoietic cells. This demand may require that all potential hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) migrate effectively to emerging hematopoietic sites and subsequently contribute to blood cell production, regardless of their cell cycle status. We recently established that umbilical cord blood cells in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle have a repopulating potential similar to cells in G(0), suggesting that cycling prenatal and neonatal HSCs may have the same functional capabilities described for quiescent, but not cycling, cells from adult sources. To establish the relationship between cell cycle status and hematopoietic potential at early stages of human ontogeny, the in vivo engraftment potential of mitotically defined fetal liver (FL) and fetal bone marrow (FBM) cells were examined in NOD/SCID recipients. Following transplantation of the same numbers of G(0), G(1), or S/G(2)+M CD34(+) cells from FL, equivalent percentages of recipient mice were chimeric (55%, 60%, and 60%, respectively). FBM-derived CD34(+) cells in all phases of the cell cycle engrafted in conditioned recipients and sustained human hematopoiesis, albeit at lower levels than their FL-derived counterparts. Multilineage differentiation was evident in all transplanted mice independent of the source or cell cycle status of graft cells. In addition, levels of chimerism in mice transplanted with fetal blood-derived G(0) or G(1) CD34(+) lineage-depleted cells were similar. These results support the assertion that mitotically quiescent and cycling fetal hematopoietic cells contain marrow-repopulating stem cells capable of multilineage engraftment in NOD/SCID mouse recipients. PMID:12070016

  4. Sequential Cadaveric Lung and Bone Marrow Transplant for Immune Deficiency Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-01

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID); Immunodeficiency With Predominant T-cell Defect, Unspecified; Severe Chronic Neutropenia; Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD); Hyper IgE Syndromes; Hyper IgM Deficiencies; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease; Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID)

  5. Establishment of a retinoic acid-resistant human acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) model in human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) transgenic severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuchi, Y.; Kizaki, M.; Kinjo, K.; Awaya, N.; Muto, A.; Ito, M.; Kawai, Y.; Umezawa, A.; Hata, J.; Ueyama, Y.; Ikeda, Y.

    1998-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms and identify novel approaches to overcoming retinoic acid (RA) resistance in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), we established the first human RA-resistant APL model in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. UF-1 cells, an RA-resistant APL cell line established in our laboratory, were transplanted into human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-producing SCID (hGMTg SCID) mice and inoculated cells formed subcutaneous tumours in all hGMTg SCID mice, but not in the non-transgenic control SCID mice. Single-cell suspensions (UF-1/GMTg SCID cells) were similar in morphological, immunological, cytogenetic and molecular genetic features to parental UF-1 cells. All-trans RA did not change the morphological features of cells or their expression of CD11b. RA did not alter the growth curve of cells as determined by MTT assay, suggesting that UF-1/GMTg SCID cells are resistant to RA. These results demonstrate that this is the first RA-resistant APL animal model that may be useful for investigating the biology of this myeloid leukaemia in vivo, as well as for evaluating novel therapeutic approaches including patients with RA-resistant APL. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9764578

  6. Human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a peptides do not reliably suppress anti-HPA-1a responses using a humanized severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, D J; Eastlake, J L; Kumpel, B M

    2014-01-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) occurs most frequently when human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a-positive fetal platelets are destroyed by maternal HPA-1a immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies. Pregnancies at risk are treated by administration of high-dose intravenous Ig (IVIG) to women, but this is expensive and often not well tolerated. Peptide immunotherapy may be effective for ameliorating some allergic and autoimmune diseases. The HPA-1a/1b polymorphism is Leu/Pro33 on β3 integrin (CD61), and the anti-HPA-1a response is restricted to HPA-1b1b and HLA-DRB3*0101-positive pregnant women with an HPA-1a-positive fetus. We investigated whether or not HPA-1a antigen-specific peptides that formed the T cell epitope could reduce IgG anti-HPA-1a responses, using a mouse model we had developed previously. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in blood donations from HPA-1a-immunized women were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with peptides and HPA-1a-positive platelets. Human anti-HPA-1a in murine plasma was quantitated at intervals up to 15 weeks. HPA-1a-specific T cells in PBMC were identified by proliferation assays. Using PBMC of three donors who had little T cell reactivity to HPA-1a peptides in vitro, stimulation of anti-HPA-1a responses by these peptides occurred in vivo. However, with a second donation from one of these women which, uniquely, had high HPA-1a-specific T cell proliferation in vitro, marked suppression of the anti-HPA-1a response by HPA-1a peptides occurred in vivo. HPA-1a peptide immunotherapy in this model depended upon reactivation of HPA-1a T cell responses in the donor. For FNAIT, we suggest that administration of antigen-specific peptides to pregnant women might cause either enhancement or reduction of pathogenic antibodies. PMID:24261689

  7. [Convergent validity of SCID-II and TCI: categorical vs. dimensional diagnostics of personality disorders using the example of short-term prisoners].

    PubMed

    Otte, S; Lang, F U; Rasche, K; Bernheim, D; Vasic, N; Dudeck, M

    2015-03-01

    In order to objectify the diagnostics of personality disorders, questionnaires and structured interviews are used. Nevertheless, due to different methodological approaches even those instruments arrive at different results very often. Therefore, this study aimed to check the convergent validity of two frequently used instruments - the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis II Disorders (SCID-II) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) - the first one representing the categorical and the latter one the dimensional approach for diagnosing personality disorders. The diagnostic concordances were statistically described with Cohen's Kappa, Yule's Y, and correlations. The results indicate that there are striking differences in diagnoses and that the SCID-II rather tends to diagnose a personality disorder earlier than the TCI. PMID:25794321

  8. A germline-competent embryonic stem cell line from NOD.Cg-Prkdc ( scid ) Il2rg ( tm1Wjl )/SzJ (NSG) mice.

    PubMed

    Landel, Carlisle P; Dunlap, Jennifer; Patton, John B; Manser, Tim

    2013-02-01

    The NOD.Cg-Prkdc ( scid ) Il2rg ( tm1Wjl )/SzJ mouse strain, commonly known as NSG (for NOD SCID Gamma) is severely immunodeficient and thus is an excellent recipient for xenografts, and in particular for engrafting human tumor cells and human hematopoietic stem cells. In the latter case, these cells give rise to many human hematopoetic lineages in their NSG hosts, resulting in recapitulation of many of the features of a human immune system. However, the immune system of these "humanized mice" (huMice) is not completely functional, in part because of a lack of expression of necessary human cytokines and HLA molecules by NSG host tissues. In order to facilitate the genetic modification of this strain in order to improve the huMouse model, we have created germline competent ES cells of this strain in which such modifications can be carried out. PMID:22767020

  9. Human immune system development and survival of non-obese diabetic (NOD)-scid IL2rγnull (NSG) mice engrafted with human thymus and autologous haematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Covassin, L; Jangalwe, S; Jouvet, N; Laning, J; Burzenski, L; Shultz, L D; Brehm, M A

    2013-01-01

    Immunodeficient mice bearing targeted mutations in the IL2rg gene and engrafted with human immune systems are effective tools for the study of human haematopoiesis, immunity, infectious disease and transplantation biology. The most robust human immune model is generated by implantation of human fetal thymic and liver tissues in irradiated recipients followed by intravenous injection of autologous fetal liver haematopoietic stem cells [often referred to as the BLT (bone marrow, liver, thymus) model]. To evaluate the non-obese diabetic (NOD)-scid IL2rγnull (NSG)–BLT model, we have assessed various engraftment parameters and how these parameters influence the longevity of NSG–BLT mice. We observed that irradiation and subrenal capsule implantation of thymus/liver fragments was optimal for generating human immune systems. However, after 4 months, a high number of NSG–BLT mice develop a fatal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-like syndrome, which correlates with the activation of human T cells and increased levels of human immunoglobulin (Ig). Onset of GVHD was not delayed in NSG mice lacking murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) classes I or II and was not associated with a loss of human regulatory T cells or absence of intrathymic cells of mouse origin (mouse CD45+). Our findings demonstrate that NSG–BLT mice develop robust human immune systems, but that the experimental window for these mice may be limited by the development of GVHD-like pathological changes. PMID:23869841

  10. Role of CD4+, CD8+ and double negative T-cells in the protection of SCID/beige mice against respiratory challenge with Rhodococcus equi.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, T L; Balson, G A; Miners, J S; Smith, G D; Shewen, P E; Prescott, J F; Yager, J A

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the contributions of T-lymphocyte subsets in pulmonary immunity against Rhodococcus equi, C.B-17 SCID/beige mice were adoptively transferred with splenic lymphocytes from congenic BALB/c mice previously infected with R. equi. Spleen cells were enriched for either CD4+ or CD8+ populations before inoculation, Flow cytometry showed that each enriched population contained less than 0.5% cross contamination. Groups of adoptively transferred SCID/beige mice were sacrificed 6 and 13 d after intranasal infection with R. equi. Bacterial clearance was measured in the lungs, liver and spleen. Lesion development was assessed by gross and histopathological score and the fate of transferred cells assessed by flow cytometry and by immunohistochemistry. SCID/beige mice receiving either CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells were able to clear the infection better than control mice. On d 6 post-infection, bacterial numbers were significantly lower in the lungs of CD4+ transferred mice as compared to CD8+ mice. By d 13, both groups had cleared R. equi from all organs. CD4+ cells were however identified in the lung and spleen of CD8+ recipients at d 13 making conclusions about the role of CD8+ cells in R. equi clearance impossible. By contrast, no significant increases in CD8+ lymphocytes were observed in the organs of CD4+ recipients. All mice developed suppurative bronchopneumonia but lesions were most severe in the CD4+ group. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry confirmed that CD4+ and CD8+ cells had migrated to the lungs of adoptively transferred mice. Serum antibody against R, equi was not detected by ELISA in the recipients. SCID/beige mice receiving CD4-CD8- cells were unable to clear R. equi. The study supports the suggestion that CD4+ cells have a central role in R. equi clearance in mice. Images Figure 2. Figure 5. PMID:8809381

  11. Biaxial Mechanical Properties of the Inferior Vena Cava in C57BL/6 and CB-17 SCID/bg Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y.U.; Naito, Y.; Kurobe, H.; Breuer, C.K.; Humphrey, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple murine models have proven useful in studying the natural history of neovessel development in the tissue engineering of vascular grafts. Nevertheless, to better understand longitudinal changes in the biomechanics of such neovessels, we must first quantify native tissue structure and properties. In this paper, we present the first biaxial mechanical data for, and nonlinear constitutive modeling of, the inferior vena cava from two models used in tissue engineering: wild-type C57BL/6 and immunodeficient CB-17 SCID/bg mice. Results show that inferior vena cava from the latter are significantly stiffer in the circumferential direction, both materially (as assessed by a stored energy function) and structurally (as assessed by the compliance), despite a lower intramural content of fibrillar collagen and similar wall thickness. Quantifying the natural history of neovessel development in different hosts could lead to increased insight into the mechanisms by which cells fashion and maintain extracellular matrix in order to match best the host stiffness while ensuring sufficient vascular integrity. PMID:23859752

  12. Sex-dependent liver colonization of human melanoma in SCID mice--role of host defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dobos, Judit; Mohos, Anita; Tóvári, József; Rásó, Erzsébet; Lőrincz, Tamás; Zádori, Gergely; Tímár, József; Ladányi, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The possibility that endocrine factors may influence the clinical course of malignant melanoma is suggested by the superior survival data of women. In preclinical models we observed a higher rate of colony formation by human melanoma cells in male compared to female SCID mice, but only in the case of the liver and not in other organs. The gender difference could be seen at an early phase of colony formation. On the other hand, in our human melanoma cell lines we failed to detect steroid receptor protein expression, and treatment with sex hormones did not considerably influence their in vitro behavior. Investigating the possible contribution of host cells to the observed gender difference, we performed in vivo blocking experiments applying pretreatment of the animals with Kupffer cell inhibitor gadolinium chloride and the NK cell inhibitor anti-asialo GM1 antibody. While Kupffer cell blockade enhanced melanoma liver colonization equally in the two sexes, a more prominent increase was observed in female than in male mice in the case of NK cell inhibition. Further supporting the importance of NK cells in the lower liver colonization efficiency of melanoma cells in females, gender difference in colony formation was lost in NSG mice lacking NK activity. Although in humans no organ selectivity of gender difference in melanoma progression has been observed according to data in the literature, our results possibly indicate a contribution of natural host defense mechanisms to gender difference in survival of patients with melanoma or other tumor types as well. PMID:23203681

  13. Acceleration of Bone Repair in NOD/SCID Mice by Human Monoosteophils, Novel LL-37-Activated Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhifang; Shively, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Background An incomplete understanding of bone forming cells during wound healing and ectopic calcification has led to a search for circulating cells that may fulfill this function. Previously, we showed that monoosteophils, a novel lineage of calcifying/bone-forming cells generated by treatment of monocytes with the natural peptide LL-37, are candidates. In this study, we have analyzed their gene expression profile and bone repair function. Methods and Findings Human monoosteophils can be distinguished from monocytes, macrophages and osteoclasts by their unique up-regulation of integrin α3 and down-regulation of CD14 and CD16. Monoosteophils express high mRNA and protein levels of SPP1 (osteopontin), GPNMB (osteoactivin), CHI3L1 (cartilage glycoprotein-39), CHIT1 (Chitinase 1), MMP-7, CCL22 and MAPK13 (p38MAPKδ). Monocytes from wild type, but not MAPK13 KO mice are also capable of monoosteophil differentiation, suggesting that MAPK13 regulates this process. When human monoosteophils were implanted in a freshly drilled hole in mid-diaphyseal femurs of NOD/SCID mice, significant bone repair required only 14 days compared to at least 24 days in control treated injuries. Conclusion Human derived monoosteophils, characterized as CD45+α3+α3β+CD34−CD14−BAP (bone alkaline phosphatase)− cells, can function in an animal model of bone injury. PMID:23844045

  14. Differential effects of immunosuppressants and antibiotics on human monoclonal antibody production in SCID mouse ascites by five heterohybridomas.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, K; Arai, K

    1998-02-01

    SCID mice were inoculated with five human-mouse heterohybridomas derived by fusion of human lymph node lymphocytes from lung cancer patients with murine myeloma cells or human-mouse heteromyeloma cells, and the production of their human monoclonal antibodies (MAb) in the mouse ascites was investigated. In a comparison of the effects of pretreatment by i.p. (intraperitoneal) injection of pristane and anti-asialo GM1 serum on the antibody production of three of the hybridomas, pristane pretreatment resulted in substantial antibody production by all three, and pretreatment with anti-asialo GM1 serum resulted in similar or slightly lower levels of antibody production by two of the hybridomas but none by the third. In a second series of experiments using four of the hybridomas with pristane pretreatment, the co-injection of either penicillin G and streptomycin or kanamycin together with the hybridoma at the time of i.p. inoculation resulted in enhanced MAb production by the two heterohybridomas that had been propagated in medium containing hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine (HAT) but not by the two that had been propagated in HAT-free medium. PMID:9523236

  15. Lack of Genomic Instability in Bone Marrow Cells of SCID Mice Exposed Whole-Body to Low-Dose Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Udomtanakunchai, Chatchanok; Honikel, Louise; Whorton, Elbert

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that high-dose radiation is harmful. However, despite extensive research, assessment of potential health-risks associated with exposure to low-dose radiation (at doses below or equal to 0.1 Gy) is still challenging. Recently, we reported that 0.05 Gy of 137Cs gamma rays (the existing limit for radiation-exposure in the workplace) was incapable of inducing significant in vivo genomic instability (measured by the presence of late-occurring chromosomal damage at 6 months post-irradiation) in bone marrow (BM) cells of two mouse strains, one with constitutively high and one with intermediate levels of the repair enzyme DNA-dependent protein-kinase catalytic-subunit (DNA-PKcs). In this study, we present evidence for a lack of genomic instability in BM cells of the severely combined-immunodeficiency (SCID/J) mouse (which has an extremely low-level of DNA-PKcs activity) exposed whole-body to low-dose radiation (0.05 Gy). Together with our previous report, the data indicate that low-dose radiation (0.05 Gy) is incapable of inducing genomic instability in vivo (regardless of the levels of DNA-PKcs activity of the exposed mice), yet higher doses of radiation (0.1 and 1 Gy) do induce genomic instability in mice with intermediate and extremely low-levels of DNA-PKcs activity (indicating an important role of DNA-PKcs in DNA repair). PMID:23549227

  16. Transplantation of T cell-mediated, lymphoreticular disease from the scurfy (sf) mouse.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, V L; Rouse, B T; Wilkinson, J E

    1994-08-01

    The X-linked mutation, scurfy (sf), causes a fatal lymphoreticular disease characterized by runting, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hypergammaglobulinemia, exfoliative dermatitis, Coombs'-positive anemia, and death by 24 days of age. T lymphocytes are required to mediate this syndrome as shown by a total absence of disease in mice bred to be scurfy and nude (sf/Y; nu/nu). The scurfy phenotype is not transmitted by sf/Y bone marrow transplants, though cells of scurfy origin do reconstitute all lymphoid organs in the recipient mouse. These data suggest that scurfy disease results from an abnormal T cell development process and not from an intrinsic stem cell defect. We therefore tested the ability of transplanted scurfy thymuses to transmit scurfy disease to congenic euthymic mice, to athymic (nude) mice, and to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Euthymic recipients of sf/Y thymic grafts remained clinically normal as did all SCID and nude recipients of normal thymus transplants. Morphological lesions similar to those found in scurfy mice occurred in all H-2-compatible nude and SCID recipients of sf/Y thymic grafts. Intraperitoneal injections of scurfy thymocytes, splenocytes, and lymph node cells also transmitted the scurfy phenotype to H-2-compatible nude mice and SCID mice. Our findings indicate that scurfy disease can be transmitted to T cell-deficient mice by engraftment of scurfy T cells, but that pathogenic scurfy T cell activities can be inhibited (or prevented) in immunocompetent recipient mice. PMID:8053488

  17. Pretransplant mobilization with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor improves B-cell reconstitution by lentiviral vector gene therapy in SCID-X1 mice.

    PubMed

    Huston, Marshall W; Riegman, Adriaan R A; Yadak, Rana; van Helsdingen, Yvette; de Boer, Helen; van Til, Niek P; Wagemaker, Gerard

    2014-10-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy is a demonstrated effective treatment for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), but B-cell reconstitution and function has been deficient in many of the gene therapy treated patients. Cytoreductive preconditioning is known to improve HSC engraftment, but in general it is not considered for SCID-X1 since the poor health of most of these patients at diagnosis and the risk of toxicity preclude the conditioning used in standard bone marrow stem cell transplantation. We hypothesized that mobilization of HSC by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) should create temporary space in bone marrow niches to improve engraftment and thereby B-cell reconstitution. In the present pilot study supplementing our earlier preclinical evaluation (Huston et al., 2011), Il2rg(-/-) mice pretreated with G-CSF were transplanted with wild-type lineage negative (Lin(-)) cells or Il2rg(-/-) Lin(-) cells transduced with therapeutic IL2RG lentiviral vectors. Mice were monitored for reconstitution of lymphocyte populations, level of donor cell chimerism, and antibody responses as compared to 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), previously found effective in promoting B-cell reconstitution. The results demonstrate that G-CSF promotes B-cell reconstitution similar to low-dose TBI and provides proof of principle for an alternative approach to improve efficacy of gene therapy in SCID patients without adverse effects associated with cytoreductive conditioning. PMID:25222508

  18. The anti-leukemic effect of carnosic acid combined with adriamycin in a K562/A02/SCID leukemia mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu-Qun; Wang, Ran; Li, Xiang-Xin; Yu, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Xue-Liang; Li, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The effects of carnosic acid (CA) were investigated on the acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell growth in vivo. A NOD/SCID AML mouse model, which was set up by inoculation with K562/A02 cells, was used to study whether tumor growth in vivo can be inhibited by CA combined with adriamycin. After being inoculated with K562/A02 cells, the NOD/SCID mice were expressed positive human mdr1 and bcr/abl genes. This result indicates that the K562/A02/SCID leukemia mouse model is successfully established. The mice treated with CA combined with adriamycin exhibit a significant lower number of leukemia cells (20%) than that of untreated animals (32.5%) (P<0.05), in particular with higher percentages of apoptotic cells than the mice treated by single adriamycin (control) group. The median of 95% CI survival time is 19 (10.0-44.2) and 33 (29.4-36.6) days for the control group and the CA-treated group, respectively. The difference is statistically significant (P<0.05). It is illustrated that the natural compound CA, combined with Adriamycin, has high potential to inhibit the growth of malignant cells in vivo, and is a promising adjuvant anti-cancer drug. Prospective studies should be conducted to understand the functional mechanism of CA at the molecular level. PMID:26380008

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of systemic anti-tumour necrosis factor α treatment in human/murine SCID arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Schadlich, H.; Ermann, J.; Biskop, M.; Falk, W.; Sperling, F.; Jungel, A.; Lehmann, J.; Emmrich, F.; Sack, U.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate in vivo the contribution of tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) to the chimeric transfer model of human rheumatoid arthritis synovial membrane into SCID mice (hu/mu SCID arthritis), systemic anti-TNFα treatment was performed and the clinical, serological, and histopathological effects of this treatment assessed.
METHODS—Animals were treated with the rat-antimouse TNFα monoclonal antibody V1q, starting on day 1 after hu/mu engraftment, twice weekly for 12 weeks. Joint swelling, serum concentrations of human and murine interleukin 6 (IL6), and serum amyloid P (SAP) were measured. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the joints were also performed at the end of treatment.
RESULTS—Neutralisation of murine TNFα induced the following effects: (a) reduction of extent and duration of the acute arthritis phase, with significant reduction of joint swelling at two weeks; (b) decrease of murine SAP concentrations after the first antibody administration; and (c) increase of murine IL6 in the serum. At the end of treatment, there was a significant reduction of the inflammatory infiltration in the engrafted joints. Because of the mild degree of joint erosion, no treatment effects could be demonstrated on the destructive process.
CONCLUSION—In the lymphocyte independent hu/mu SCID arthritis, anti-TNFα treatment reduces local and systemic signs of inflammation.

 PMID:10381487

  20. Pretransplant Mobilization with Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Improves B-Cell Reconstitution by Lentiviral Vector Gene Therapy in SCID-X1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huston, Marshall W.; Riegman, Adriaan R.A.; Yadak, Rana; van Helsdingen, Yvette; de Boer, Helen; van Til, Niek P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy is a demonstrated effective treatment for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), but B-cell reconstitution and function has been deficient in many of the gene therapy treated patients. Cytoreductive preconditioning is known to improve HSC engraftment, but in general it is not considered for SCID-X1 since the poor health of most of these patients at diagnosis and the risk of toxicity preclude the conditioning used in standard bone marrow stem cell transplantation. We hypothesized that mobilization of HSC by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) should create temporary space in bone marrow niches to improve engraftment and thereby B-cell reconstitution. In the present pilot study supplementing our earlier preclinical evaluation (Huston et al., 2011), Il2rg−/− mice pretreated with G-CSF were transplanted with wild-type lineage negative (Lin−) cells or Il2rg−/− Lin− cells transduced with therapeutic IL2RG lentiviral vectors. Mice were monitored for reconstitution of lymphocyte populations, level of donor cell chimerism, and antibody responses as compared to 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), previously found effective in promoting B-cell reconstitution. The results demonstrate that G-CSF promotes B-cell reconstitution similar to low-dose TBI and provides proof of principle for an alternative approach to improve efficacy of gene therapy in SCID patients without adverse effects associated with cytoreductive conditioning. PMID:25222508

  1. Islet xenograft destruction in the hu-PBL-severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse necessitates anti-CD3 preactivation of human immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Gysemans, C; Waer, M; Laureys, J; Depovere, J; Pipeleers, D; Bouillon, R; Mathieu, C

    2000-01-01

    Introduction of the hu-PBL-SCID mouse model has yielded a potentially useful tool for research in transplantation. The aim of this study was to define the conditions necessary for a reconstituted human immune system to destroy in a consistent manner rat islet xenografts in the alloxan-diabetic hu-PBL-SCID mouse. We examined different time points of hu-PBL reconstitution, different transplantation sites of the islets and several hu-PBL reconstitution protocols. Major differences in graft destruction were observed between the different hu-PBL reconstitution protocols, irrespective of timing of hu-PBL reconstitution or site of transplantation. Although preactivation of hu-PBL did not improve the level of hu-PBL chimerism, histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the grafts revealed a severe human lymphocytic infiltration and β cell destruction only in the grafts of mice receiving preactivated hu-PBL. This β cell injury resulted in impaired glucose tolerance, with in some animals recurrence of hyperglycaemia, and decreased insulin and C-peptide levels after glucose stimulation. Therefore, we conclude that activation of hu-PBL prior to transfer is essential in achieving xenograft infiltration and destruction in hu-PBL-SCID mice. The need for immune manipulation suggests that interactions between hu-PBL and xenografts in this model may be hampered by incompatibilities in cross-species adhesion and/or activation signals. PMID:10971525

  2. Noninvasive Measurement of Microvascular and Interstitial Oxygen Profiles in a Human Tumor in SCID Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Filho, Ivo P.; Leunig, Michael; Yuan, Fan; Intaglietta, Marcos; Jain, Rakesh K.

    1994-03-01

    Simultaneous measurements of intravascular and interstitial oxygen partial pressure (Po_2) in any tissue have not previously been reported, despite the importance of oxygen in health and in disease. This is due to the limitations of current techniques, both invasive and noninvasive. We have optically measured microscopic profiles of Po_2 with high spatial resolution in subcutaneous tissue and transplanted tumors in mice by combining an oxygen-dependent phosphorescence quenching method and a transparent tissue preparation. The strengths of our approach include the ability to follow Po_2 in the same location for several weeks and to relate these measurements to local blood flow and vascular architecture. Our results show that (i) Po_2 values in blood vessels in well-vascularized regions of a human colon adenocarcinoma xenograft are comparable to those in surrounding arterioles and venules, (ii) carbogen (95% O_2/5% CO_2) breathing increases microvascular Po_2 in tumors, and (iii) in unanesthetized and anesthetized mice Po_2 drops to hypoxic values at <200 μm from isolated vessels but drops by <5 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa) in highly vascularized tumor regions. Our method should permit noninvasive evaluations of oxygen-modifying agents and offer further mechanistic information about tumor pathophysiology in tissue preparations where the surface of the tissue can be observed.

  3. Metabolic studies of prostanozol with the uPA-SCID chimeric mouse model and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Geldof, Lore; Lootens, Leen; Decroix, Lieselot; Botrè, Francesco; Meuleman, Philip; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Deventer, Koen; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency because of their adverse health and performance enhancing effects. Effective control of their misuse by detection in urine requires knowledge about their metabolism. In case of designer steroids, ethical objections limit the use of human volunteers to perform excretion studies. Therefore the suitability of alternative models needs to be investigated. In this study pooled human liver microsomes (HLM) and an uPA(+/+)-SCID chimeric mouse model were used to examine the metabolism of the designer steroid prostanozol as a reference standard. Metabolites were detected by GC-MS (full scan) and LC-MS/MS (precursor ion scan). In total twenty-four prostanozol metabolites were detected with the in vitro and in vivo metabolism studies, which could be grouped into two broad classes, those with a 17-hydroxy- and those with a 17-keto-substituent. Major first phase metabolic sites were tentatively identified as C-3'; C-4 and C-16. Moreover, 3'- and 16β-hydroxy-17-ketoprostanozol could be unequivocally identified, since authentic reference material was available, in both models. Comparison with published data from humans showed a good correlation, except for phase II metabolism. As metabolites were in contrast to the human studies predominantly present in the free fraction. Two types of metabolites ((di)hydroxylated prostanozol metabolites) that have not been described before could be confirmed in a real positive doping control sample. Hence, the results provide further evidence for the applicability of chimeric mice and HLM to perform metabolism studies of designer steroids. PMID:26774429

  4. Therapy of rat tracheal carcinoma IC-12 in SCID mice: vascular targeting with [213Bi]-MAb TES-23.

    PubMed

    Kennel, S J; Lankford, T; Davern, S; Foote, L; Taniguchi, K; Ohizumi, I; Tsutsumi, Y; Nakagawa, S; Mayumi, T; Mirzadeh, S

    2002-06-01

    In previous work, we have demonstrated that vascular targeting of [213Bi], an alpha-emitter, to lung blood vessels could efficiently destroy tumour colonies growing in the lung. In order to expand this approach to treatment of tumours growing in other sites, we employed the monoclonal antibody (MAb) TES-23, which reacts with CD44H, preferentially expressed on new blood vessels in tumours. Biodistribution studies of N-succinimidyl [125I] 3-iodobenzoate (SIB)-radiolabelled MAb TES-23 in ICR-severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice bearing subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) IC-12 tumours, demonstrated efficient tumour uptake. At 24 h, accumulation in small tumours was 45%ID/g for s.c. tumours, and 58%ID/g for i.m. tumours and in large tumours it was 25%ID/g for s.c. tumours and 17%ID/g for i.m. tumours. Micro-autoradiography data confirmed that radiolabel accumulated in or near tumour blood vessels. Normal tissues had very low levels of radioactivity. Treatment of mice bearing small IC-12 tumours with [213Bi] MAb TES-23 retarded tumour growth relative to animals treated with cold MAb TES-23. Biodistribution and therapy experiments were also performed in BALB/c mice bearing both s.c. and i.m. syngeneic, lung carcinoma (line 498) tumours. [I(125)] SIB MAb TES-23 accumulated efficiently in both s.c. and i.m. tumours (14%ID/g and 15%ID/g, respectively, at 4 h); however, no therapeutic effect of [213Bi] MAb TES-23 treatment could be demonstrated in this model system. The data demonstrate that the timing of vascularisation of the tumours and the delivery kinetics of MAb relative to the half-life of the therapeutic radionuclide are critical for effective therapy. PMID:12044516

  5. Transduction of Human CD34+ Repopulating Cells with a Self-Inactivating Lentiviral Vector for SCID-X1 Produced at Clinical Scale by a Stable Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Lockey, Timothy; Mehta, Perdeep K.; Kim, Yoon-Sang; Eldridge, Paul W.; Gray, John T.; Sorrentino, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Self-inactivating (SIN)-lentiviral vectors have safety and efficacy features that are well suited for transduction of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but generation of vector at clinical scale has been challenging. Approximately 280 liters of an X-Linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorder (SCID-X1) SIN-lentiviral vector in two productions from a stable cell line were concentrated to final titers of 4.5 and 7.2×108 tu/ml. These two clinical preparations and three additional development-scale preparations were evaluated in human CD34+ hematopoietic cells in vitro using colony forming cell (CFU-C) assay and in vivo using the NOD/Lt-scid/IL2Rγnull (NSG) mouse xenotransplant model. A 40-hour transduction protocol using a single vector exposure conferred a mean NSG repopulating cell transduction of 0.23 vector genomes/human genome with a mean myeloid vector copy number of 3.2 vector genomes/human genome. No adverse effects on engraftment were observed from vector treatment. Direct comparison between our SIN-lentiviral vector using a 40-hour protocol and an MFGγc γ-retroviral vector using a five-day protocol demonstrated equivalent NSG repopulating cell transduction efficiency. Clonality survey by linear amplification-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LAM-PCR) with Illumina sequencing revealed common clones in sorted myeloid and lymphoid populations from engrafted mice demonstrating multipotent cell transduction. These vector preparations will be used in two clinical trials for SCID-X1. PMID:23075105

  6. A self-inactivating lentiviral vector for SCID-X1 gene therapy that does not activate LMO2 expression in human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Disha; DeRavin, Suk See; Hauer, Julia; Lu, Taihe; Ma, Zhijun; Hacein-Bey Abina, Salima; Gray, John T.; Greene, Michael R.; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Malech, Harry L.; Sorrentino, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    To develop safer and more effective vectors for gene therapy of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), we have evaluated new self-inactivating lentiviral vectors based on the HIV virus. The CL20i4-hγc-Revgen vector contains the entire human common γ chain (γc) genomic sequence driven by the γc promoter. The CL20i4-EF1α-hγcOPT vector uses a promoter fragment from the eukaryotic elongation factor alpha (EF1α) gene to express a codon-optimized human γc cDNA. Both vectors contain a 400-bp insulator fragment from the chicken β-globin locus within the self-inactivating long-terminal repeat. Transduction of bone marrow cells using either of these vectors restored T, B, and natural killer lymphocyte development and function in a mouse SCID-X1 transplantation model. Transduction of human CD34+ bone marrow cells from SCID-X1 patients with either vector restored T-cell development in an in vitro assay. In safety studies using a Jurkat LMO2 activation assay, only the CL20i4-EF1α-hγcOPT vector lacked the ability to transactivate LMO2 protein expression, whereas the CL20i4-hγc-Revgen vector significantly activated LMO2 protein expression. In addition, the CL20i4-EF1α-hγcOPT vector has not caused any tumors in transplanted mice. We conclude that the CL20i4-EF1α-hγcOPT vector may be suitable for testing in a clinical trial based on these preclinical demonstrations of efficacy and safety. PMID:20457870

  7. Capsular Polysaccharide-Fimbrial Protein Conjugate Vaccine Protects against Porphyromonas gingivalis Infection in SCID Mice Reconstituted with Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeom-Il; Schifferle, Robert E.; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Kim, Byung-Woo

    1998-01-01

    The effect of immunization with either a Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbrial protein, a capsular polysaccharide, or a capsular polysaccharide-fimbrial protein conjugate vaccine were compared in hu-PBL-SCID mice. A significantly higher human immunoglobulin G antibody response and the highest degree of in vivo protection against bacterial challenge was observed in the group immunized with the conjugate vaccine. It was concluded that capsular polysaccharide-fimbrial protein conjugate from P. gingivalis could potentially be developed as a vaccine against periodontal infection by P. gingivalis. PMID:9423888

  8. Recombinant mistletoe lectin (rML) is successful in treating human ovarian cancer cells transplanted into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, U; Feldhaus, S; Mengs, U

    2000-03-31

    The main active constituents carrying the anti-cancer activities of aqueous mistletoe extracts have recently been identified as the mistletoe lectins (MLs). Although three different isolectins have been isolated from plant extracts, molecular biological techniques have revealed the presence of one gene only. Subsequently, recombinant mistletoe lectin (rML) has become available and the aim of the present study was to analyse its anti-cancer potential. SoTü 3 human ovarian cancer cells (2x10(7)) were injected intraperitoneally into SCID mice, while rML treatment was started on the following day. Three experimental groups (n=20 SCID mice) each received every working day an intraperitoneal injection of 30, 150, 500 ng rML per kg body weight, respectively, while 20 SCID mice in the control group received the vehicle solution only. The survival of the animals was taken as the principal outcome measure. In addition, the peritoneal cavity was searched for the presence of tumour cells. Animals were sacrificed when the weight increase due to the development of ascites exceeded 120% of the initial body weight. The treatment continued until day 83 and the surviving animals were sacrificed 84 days after inoculation. In the control group, only two animals survived and were free of tumour at the end of the experiment at 84 days. In contrast, thirteen animals in the 500 ng/kg rML group were still alive and no evidence for the presence of tumour cells in the peritoneum was found. Both, number of animals surviving and survival time were larger in this treatment group. The 30 ng/kg rML group showed an increased number of survivors, whilst the 150 ng rML per kg body weight group revealed the worst survival rates. The results of the present study indicate that rML has potent anti-tumour activity, if administered locally into the peritoneum of a human ovarian cancer harbouring SCID mouse. RML is a macromolecule and its instillation into the peritoneal cavity seems to be particularly

  9. Homozygosity for a novel adenosine deaminase (ADA) nonsense mutation (Q3>X) in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

    SciTech Connect

    Santisteban, I.; Arrendondo-Vega, F.X.; Kelly, S. |

    1994-09-01

    A Somali girl was diagnosed with ADA-deficient SCID at 7 mo; she responded well to PEG-ADA replacement and is now 3.3 yr old. ADA mRNA was undetectable (Northern) in her cultured T cells, but was present in T cells of her parents and two sibs. All PCR-amplified exon 1 genomic clones from the patient had a C>T transition at bp 7 relative to the start of translation, replacing Gln at codon 3 (AGA) with a termination codon (TGA, Q3>X). Patient cDNA (prepared by RT-PCR with a 5{prime} primer that covered codons 1-7) had a previously described polymorphism, K80>R, but was otherwise normal, indicating that no other coding mutations were present. A predicted new genomic BfaI restriction site was used to establish her homozygosity for Q3>X and to analyze genotypes of family members. We also analyzed the segregation of a variable Alu polyA-associated TAAA repeat (AluVpA) situated 5{prime} of the ADA gene. Three different AluVpA alleles were found, one of which was only present in the father and was not associated with his Q3>X allele. Because the father`s RBCs had only {approximately}15% of normal ADA activity, we analyzed his ADA cDNA. We found a G>A transition at bp 425 that substitutes Gln for Arg142, a solvent-accessible residue, and eliminates a BsmAI site in exon 5. ADA activity of the R142>Q in vitro translation product was 20-25% of wild type ADA translation product, suggesting that R142>Q is a new {open_quote}partial{close_quote} ADA deficiency mutation. As expected, Q3>X mRNA did not yield a detectable in vitro translation product. We conclude that the patient`s father is a compound heterozygote carrying the ADA Q3>X/R142>Q genotype. {open_quote}Partial{close_quote} ADA deficiency unassociated with immunodeficiency is relatively common in individuals of African descent. The present findings and previous observations suggest that {open_quote}partial{close_quote} ADA deficiency may have had an evolutionary advantage.

  10. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ways to give How your gift saves lives Donate cord blood Cord blood is changing lives Federal cord blood ... Cord blood options Sibling directed donation How to donate cord blood Participating hospitals Cord blood FAQs Learn if you ...

  11. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Procedure for Accessing Lab Services Data Package Requirements AIDS Therapies Resource Guide In Vitro Efficacy Evaluations ... Assurances to Users Application and Approval Process User Requirements Malaria Vaccine Production Services Data Sharing and Release ...

  12. A review of current murine models of multiple myeloma used to assess the efficacy of therapeutic agents on tumour growth and bone disease.

    PubMed

    Paton-Hough, J; Chantry, A D; Lawson, M A

    2015-08-01

    Pre-clinical in vivo models of multiple myeloma are essential tools for investigating the pathophysiology of multiple myeloma and for testing new therapeutic agents and strategies prior to their potential use in clinical trials. Over the last five decades, several different types of murine models of multiple myeloma have been developed ranging from immunocompetent syngeneic models, e.g. the 5 T series of myeloma cells, to immunocompromised models including the SCID xenograft models, which use human myeloma cell lines or patient-derived cells. Other models include hybrid models featuring the implantation of SCID mice with bone chips (SCID-hu or SCID-rab) or 3-D bone scaffolds (SCID-synth-hu), and mice that have been genetically engineered to develop myeloma. Bearing in mind the differences in these models, it is not surprising that they reflect to varying degrees different aspects of myeloma. Here we review the past and present murine models of myeloma, with particular emphasis on their advantages and limitations, characteristics, and their use in testing therapeutic agents to treat myeloma tumour burden and bone disease. PMID:25868800

  13. Alterations in the adenosine metabolism and CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery cause loss of Treg cell function and autoimmunity in ADA-deficient SCID

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Aisha V.; Brigida, Immacolata; Carriglio, Nicola; Jofra Hernandez, Raisa; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Clavenna, Daniela; Sanvito, Francesca; Poliani, Pietro L.; Gagliani, Nicola; Carlucci, Filippo; Tabucchi, Antonella; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Villa, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine acts as anti-inflammatory mediator on the immune system and has been described in regulatory T cell (Treg)–mediated suppression. In the absence of adenosine deaminase (ADA), adenosine and other purine metabolites accumulate, leading to severe immunodeficiency with recurrent infections (ADA-SCID). Particularly ADA-deficient patients with late-onset forms and after enzyme replacement therapy (PEG-ADA) are known to manifest immune dysregulation. Herein we provide evidence that alterations in the purine metabolism interfere with Treg function, thereby contributing to autoimmune manifestations in ADA deficiency. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA–treated patients are reduced in number and show decreased suppressive activity, whereas they are corrected after gene therapy. Untreated murine ADA−/− Tregs show alterations in the plasma membrane CD39/CD73 ectonucleotidase machinery and limited suppressive activity via extracellular adenosine. PEG-ADA–treated mice developed multiple autoantibodies and hypothyroidism in contrast to mice treated with bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy. Tregs isolated from PEG-ADA–treated mice lacked suppressive activity, suggesting that this treatment interferes with Treg functionality. The alterations in the CD39/CD73 adenosinergic machinery and loss of function in ADA-deficient Tregs provide new insights into a predisposition to autoimmunity and the underlying mechanisms causing defective peripheral tolerance in ADA-SCID. Trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00598481/NCT00599781. PMID:22184407

  14. Human acute myelogenous leukemia stem cells are rare and heterogeneous when assayed in NOD/SCID/IL2Rγc-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Sarry, Jean-Emmanuel; Murphy, Kathleen; Perry, Robin; Sanchez, Patricia V.; Secreto, Anthony; Keefer, Cathy; Swider, Cezary R.; Strzelecki, Anne-Claire; Cavelier, Cindy; Récher, Christian; Mansat-De Mas, Véronique; Delabesse, Eric; Danet-Desnoyers, G.; Carroll, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Human leukemic stem cells, like other cancer stem cells, are hypothesized to be rare, capable of incomplete differentiation, and restricted to a phenotype associated with early hematopoietic progenitors or stem cells. However, recent work in other types of tumors has challenged the cancer stem cell model. Using a robust model of xenotransplantation based on NOD/SCID/IL2Rγc-deficient mice, we confirmed that human leukemic stem cells, functionally defined by us as SCID leukemia-initiating cells (SL-ICs), are rare in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). In contrast to previous results, SL-ICs were found among cells expressing lineage markers (i.e., among Lin+ cells), CD38, or CD45RA, all markers associated with normal committed progenitors. Remarkably, each engrafting fraction consistently recapitulated the original phenotypic diversity of the primary AML specimen and contained self-renewing leukemic stem cells, as demonstrated by secondary transplants. While SL-ICs were enriched in the Lin–CD38– fraction compared with the other fractions analyzed, SL-ICs in this fraction represented only one-third of all SL-ICs present in the unfractionated specimen. These results indicate that human AML stem cells are rare and enriched but not restricted to the phenotype associated with normal primitive hematopoietic cells. These results suggest a plasticity of the cancer stem cell phenotype that we believe has not been previously described. PMID:21157036

  15. Targeted disruption of the Artemis murine counterpart results in SCID and defective V(D)J recombination that is partially corrected with bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Lanying; Salido, Eduardo; Zhou, Yungui; Bhattacharyya, Swati; Yannone, Steven M; Dunn, Elizabeth; Meneses, Juanito; Feeney, Ann J; Cowan, Morton J

    2005-02-15

    Artemis is a mammalian protein, the absence of which results in SCID in Athabascan-speaking Native Americans (SCIDA). This novel protein has been implicated in DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. We have cloned the Artemis murine counterpart, mArt, and generated a mouse with a targeted disruption of mArt. Artemis-deficient mice show a similar T-B- NK+ immunodeficiency phenotype, and carry a profound impairment in coding joint rearrangement, while retaining intact signal ends and close to normal signal joint formation. mArt-/- embryonic fibroblasts show increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Hemopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation using 500-5000 enriched congenic, but not allogeneic mismatched HSC corrected the T cell and partially corrected the B cell defect. Large numbers (40,000) of allogeneic mismatched HSC or pretreatment with 300 cGy of radiation overcame graft resistance, resulting in limited B cell engraftment. Our results suggest that the V(D)J and DNA repair defects seen in this mArt-/- mouse model are comparable to those in humans with Artemis deficiency, and that the recovery of immunity following HSC transplantation favors T rather than B cell reconstitution, consistent with what is seen in children with this form of SCID. PMID:15699179

  16. Murine Leukemias with Retroviral Insertions at Lmo2 Are Predictive of the Leukemias Induced in SCID-X1 Patients Following Retroviral Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Davé, Utpal P.; Akagi, Keiko; Tripathi, Rati; Cleveland, Susan M.; Thompson, Mary A.; Yi, Ming; Stephens, Robert; Downing, James R.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.

    2009-01-01

    Five X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency patients (SCID-X1) successfully treated with autologous bone marrow stem cells infected ex vivo with an IL2RG-containing retrovirus subsequently developed T-cell leukemia and four contained insertional mutations at LMO2. Genetic evidence also suggests a role for IL2RG in tumor formation, although this remains controversial. Here, we show that the genes and signaling pathways deregulated in murine leukemias with retroviral insertions at Lmo2 are similar to those deregulated in human leukemias with high LMO2 expression and are highly predictive of the leukemias induced in SCID-X1 patients. We also provide additional evidence supporting the notion that IL2RG and LMO2 cooperate in leukemia induction but are not sufficient and require additional cooperating mutations. The highly concordant nature of the genetic events giving rise to mouse and human leukemias with mutations at Lmo2 are an encouraging sign to those wanting to use mice to model human cancer and may help in designing safer methods for retroviral gene therapy. PMID:19461887

  17. Improving cellular therapy for primary immune deficiency diseases: Recognition, diagnosis, and management

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda M.; Cowan, Morton J.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Buckley, Rebecca H.; Candotti, Fabio; Conley, Mary Ellen; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Kohn, Donald B.; Ochs, Hans D.; O'Reilly, Richard J.; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Roifman, Chaim M.; Small, Trudy N.; Shearer, William T.

    2010-01-01

    More than 20 North American academic centers account for the majority of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) procedures for primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs), with smaller numbers performed at additional sites. Given the importance of a timely diagnosis of these rare diseases and the diversity of practice sites, there is a need for guidance as to best practices in management of patients with PIDs before, during, and in follow-up for definitive treatment. In this conference report of immune deficiency experts and HCT physicians who care for patients with PIDs, we present expert guidance for (1) PID diagnoses that are indications for HCT, including severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID), combined immunodeficiency disease, and other non-SCID diseases; (2) the critical importance of a high degree of suspicion of the primary care physician and timeliness of diagnosis for PIDs; (3) the need for rapid referral to an immune deficiency expert, center with experience in HCT, or both for patients with PIDs; (4) medical management of a child with suspicion of SCID/combined immunodeficiency disease while confirming the diagnosis, including infectious disease management and workup; (5) the posttransplantation follow-up visit schedule; (6) antimicrobial prophylaxis after transplantation, including gamma globulin administration; and (7) important indications for return to the transplantation center after discharge. Finally, we discuss the role of high-quality databases in treatment of PIDs and HCTas an element of the infrastructure that will be needed for productive multicenter clinical trials in these rare diseases. PMID:20004776

  18. Arrested rearrangement of TCR V[beta] genes in thymocytes from children with x-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease

    SciTech Connect

    Sleasman, J.W.; Harville, T.O.; White, G.B.; Barrett, D.J. ); George, J.F. ); Goodenow, M.M. Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL )

    1994-07-01

    Human X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) is an immunodeficiency disorder in which T cell development is arrested in the thymic cortex. B lymphocytes in children with X-linked SCID seem to differentiate normally. X-linked SCID is associated with a mutation in the gene that encodes the IL-2R [gamma]-chain. Because TCR-[beta] gene recombination is a pivotal initial event in T lymphocyte onteogeny within the thymus, the authors hypothesized that a failure to express normal IL-2R[gamma] could lead to impaired TCR-[beta] gene recombination in early thymic development. PCR was used to determine the status of TCR-[beta] gene-segment rearrangements in thymic DNA that had been obtained from children with X-linked SCID. The initial step in TCR-[beta] gene rearrangement, that of D[beta] to J[beta] recombination, was readily detected in all thymus samples from children with X-linked SCID; in contrast, V[beta] to DJ[beta] gene rearrangements were undetectable in the same samples. Both D[beta] to J[beta] and V[beta] to DJ[beta] TCR genes were rearranged in the thymic tissues obtained from immunologically normal children. The authors conclude that TCR[beta]-chain gene rearrangement is arrested in children with X-linked SCID. The results suggest a causative relationship between the failure of TCR [beta]-chain gene arrangements to proceed beyond DJ[beta] rearrangements and the production of a nonfunctional IL-2R [gamma]-chain. 45 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Potent activity of 2'-beta-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in hu-PBL-SCID mice.

    PubMed Central

    Ruxrungtham, K; Boone, E; Ford, H; Driscoll, J S; Davey, R T; Lane, H C

    1996-01-01

    A new antiretroviral agent, 2'-beta-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (FddA), is an acid-stable compound whose triphosphate form is a potent reverse transcriptase inhibitor with in vitro anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and a favorable pharmacokinetic profile. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood leukocytes (hu-PBL-SCID mice) provide a useful small-animal model for HIV research. In the present study we utilized this experimental system for the in vivo evaluation of the anti-HIV activity of this new compound when administered prior to infection. Initial studies revealed that, following a challenge with 50 100% tissue culture infective doses of HIV type 1 lymphadenopathy-associated virus, 39 of 42 (93%) control mice developed HIV infection, as evidenced by positive coculture or positive PCR. Administration of zidovudine decreased the infection rate to 5 of 16 (31%), while administration of FddA decreased the infection rate to 0 of 44 (0%). In follow-up controlled studies, the anti-HIV activity of FddA was confirmed, with 18 of 20 control mice showing evidence of HIV infection, compared with 4 of 20 FddA-treated mice. In addition to having direct anti-HIV effects, FddA was found to have a protective effect on human CD4+ T cells in the face of HIV infection. Mice treated with FddA were found to have a significantly higher percentage of CD4+ T cells than controls (10.3% +/- 3.4% versus 0.27% +/- 0.21%; P = 0.01). Thus, FddA, with its potent anti-HIV activity in vivo, high oral bioavailability, long intracellular half-life, and ability to preserve CD4+ cells in the presence of HIV, appears to be a promising agent for clinical investigation. PMID:8891146

  20. Antibody Repertoires in Humanized NOD-scid-IL2Rγnull Mice and Human B Cells Reveals Human-Like Diversification and Tolerance Checkpoints in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Ippolito, Gregory C.; Hoi, Kam Hon; Reddy, Sai T.; Carroll, Sean M.; Ge, Xin; Rogosch, Tobias; Zemlin, Michael; Shultz, Leonard D.; Ellington, Andrew D.; VanDenBerg, Carla L.; Georgiou, George

    2012-01-01

    Immunodeficient mice reconstituted with human hematopoietic stem cells enable the in vivo study of human hematopoiesis. In particular, NOD-scid-IL2Rγnull engrafted mice have been shown to have reasonable levels of T and B cell repopulation and can mount T-cell dependent responses; however, antigen-specific B-cell responses in this model are generally poor. We explored whether developmental defects in the immunoglobulin gene repertoire might be partly responsible for the low level of antibody responses in this model. Roche 454 sequencing was used to obtain over 685,000 reads from cDNA encoding immunoglobulin heavy (IGH) and light (IGK and IGL) genes isolated from immature, naïve, or total splenic B cells in engrafted NOD-scid-IL2Rγnull mice, and compared with over 940,000 reads from peripheral B cells of two healthy volunteers. We find that while naïve B-cell repertoires in humanized mice are chiefly indistinguishable from those in human blood B cells, and display highly correlated patterns of immunoglobulin gene segment use, the complementarity-determining region H3 (CDR-H3) repertoires are nevertheless extremely diverse and are specific for each individual. Despite this diversity, preferential DH-JH pairings repeatedly occur within the CDR-H3 interval that are strikingly similar across all repertoires examined, implying a genetic constraint imposed on repertoire generation. Moreover, CDR-H3 length, charged amino-acid content, and hydropathy are indistinguishable between humans and humanized mice, with no evidence of global autoimmune signatures. Importantly, however, a statistically greater usage of the inherently autoreactive IGHV4-34 and IGKV4-1 genes was observed in the newly formed immature B cells relative to naïve B or total splenic B cells in the humanized mice, a finding consistent with the deletion of autoreactive B cells in humans. Overall, our results provide evidence that key features of the primary repertoire are shaped by genetic factors

  1. Constitutive secretion of soluble interleukin-2 receptor by human T cell lymphoma xenografted into SCID mice. Correlation of tumor volume with concentration of tumor-derived soluble interleukin-2 receptor in body fluids of the host mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wasik, M. A.; Sioutos, N.; Tuttle, M.; Butmarc, J. R.; Kaplan, W. D.; Kadin, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Increased serum concentration of soluble alpha-chain receptor for interleukin-2 (sIL-2R) has been noted in patients with a variety of inflammatory conditions and lymphoid malignancies including T cell leukemia and lymphoma. Elevated sIL-2R serum levels seen in lymphoid malignancies appear to correlate with the clinical stage of disease. However, because sIL-2R is produced by normal activated lymphocytes, it has been uncertain whether serum sIL-2R in such conditions is derived from tumor cells or normal immune cells responding to the tumor. To address this question, we used a model of human (CD30+) anaplastic, large T cell lymphoma transplanted into immunodeficient SCID mice. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of tumor RNA showed that the tumor, designated mJB6, contains mRNA for alpha-chain of human IL-2R. Furthermore, 15 to 25% of tumor cells stained with anti-human IL-2R alpha-chain mAb. Solid phase ELISA analysis of serum samples from mice bearing mJB6 lymphoma showed high concentrations of human sIL-2R. None of the control mice without lymphoma or with human nonlymphoid tumors (prostatic carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and glioblastoma multiforme) showed detectable human sIL-2R. The sIL-2R serum titers of mJB6-bearing mice correlated strongly with tumor volume (P < 0.0001). Tumors as small as 0.4 to 0.8 mm3 could be detected by this method. The sensitivity of sIL-2R ELISA exceeded at least 150 times the sensitivity of conventional radioisotopic tumor detection. Total resection of mJB6 tumors resulted in complete clearance of sIL-2R from the murine serum within 48 hours with a half-life of 6 hours. Accordingly, partial resection led to a significant decrease in sIL-2R followed by gradual increase with tumor regrowth. sIL-2R was also detected in the urine of mJB6-transplanted mice. As in serum, urine concentrations of sIL-2R were proportional to tumor mass (P < 0.02). Based on these findings we postulate that malignant cells are a major source of serum

  2. HAdV-2-suppressed growth of SV40 T antigen-transformed mouse mammary epithelial cell-induced tumours in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengjun; Cao, Xiaofang; Yu, Di; Huijbers, Elisabeth J M; Essand, Magnus; Akusjärvi, Göran; Johansson, Staffan; Svensson, Catharina

    2016-02-01

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) vectors are promising tools for cancer therapy, but the shortage of efficient animal models for productive HAdV infections has restricted the evaluation of systemic effects to mainly immunodeficient mice. Previously, we reported a highly efficient replication of HAdV-2 in a non-tumorigenic mouse mammary epithelial cell line, NMuMG. Here we show that HAdV-2 gene expression and progeny formation in NMuMG cells transformed with the SV40 T antigen (NMuMG-T cells) were as efficient as in the parental NMuMG cells. Injection of HAdV-2 into tumours established by NMuMG-T in SCID mice caused reduced tumour growth and signs of intratumoural lesions. HAdV-2 replicated within the NMuMG-T-established tumours, but not in interspersed host-derived tissues within the tumours. The specific infection of NMuMG-T-derived tumours was verified by the lack of viral DNA in kidney, lung or spleen although low levels of viral DNA was occasionally found in liver. PMID:26707269

  3. Minocycline attenuates HIV-1 infection and suppresses chronic immune activation in humanized NOD/LtsZ-scidIL-2Rγnull mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Maneesh; Singh, Pratibha; Vaira, Dolores; Amand, Mathieu; Rahmouni, Souad; Moutschen, Michel

    2014-01-01

    More than a quarter of a century of research has established chronic immune activation and dysfunctional T cells as central features of chronic HIV infection and subsequent immunodeficiency. Consequently, the search for a new immunomodulatory therapy that could reduce immune activation and improve T-cell function has been increased. However, the lack of small animal models for in vivo HIV study has hampered progress. In the current study, we have investigated a model of cord blood haematopoietic progenitor cells (CB-HPCs) -transplanted humanized NOD/LtsZ-scidIL-2Rγnull mice in which progression of HIV infection is associated with widespread chronic immune activation and inflammation. Indeed, HIV infection in humanized NSG mice caused up-regulation of several T-cell immune activation markers such as CD38, HLA-DR, CD69 and co-receptor CCR5. T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1 and CTLA-4 were found to be significantly up-regulated on T cells. Moreover, increased plasmatic levels of lipopolysaccharide, sCD14 and interleukin-10 were also observed in infected mice. Treatment with minocycline resulted in a significant decrease of expression of cellular and plasma immune activation markers, inhibition of HIV replication and improved T-cell counts in HIV-infected humanized NSG mice. The study demonstrates that minocycline could be an effective, low-cost adjunctive treatment to regulate chronic immune activation and replication of HIV. PMID:24409837

  4. Comparison of IgE and IgG antibody-dependent cytotoxicity in vitro and in a SCID mouse xenograft model of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gould, H J; Mackay, G A; Karagiannis, S N; O'Toole, C M; Marsh, P J; Daniel, B E; Coney, L R; Zurawski, V R; Joseph, M; Capron, M; Gilbert, M; Murphy, G F; Korngold, R

    1999-11-01

    Allergic reactions are mediated by IgE antibodies bound to high-affinity receptors on mast cells in peripheral tissues and are characterized by their immediacy and hypersensitivity. These properties could also be advantageous in immunotherapy against cancer growth in peripheral tissues. We have constructed chimeric IgE and IgG1 antibodies with murine V regions and human C regions corresponding to the MOv18 monoclonal antibody against the human ovarian tumor-associated antigen, folate binding protein. The antibodies exhibited the expected binding affinities for antigen and Fc receptors, and effector activities with human basophils and platelets in vitro. The protective activities of MOv18-IgE and MOv18-IgG1 were compared in a SCID mouse xenograft model of ovarian carcinoma. The beneficial effects of MOv18-IgE were greater and of longer duration than those of MOv18-IgG1. Our results suggest that the allergic reaction could be harnessed for the suppression of ovarian tumors. PMID:10556807

  5. Lymphomagenesis in SCID-X1 Mice Following Lentivirus-mediated Phenotype Correction Independent of Insertional Mutagenesis and γc Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Ginn, Samantha L; Liao, Sophia HY; Dane, Allison P; Hu, Min; Hyman, Jessica; Finnie, John W; Zheng, Maolin; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Alexander, Stephen I; Thrasher, Adrian J; Alexander, Ian E

    2010-01-01

    The development of leukemia as a consequence of vector-mediated genotoxicity in gene therapy trials for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) has prompted substantial research effort into the design and safety testing of integrating vectors. An important element of vector design is the selection and evaluation of promoter-enhancer elements with sufficient strength to drive reliable immune reconstitution, but minimal propensity for enhancer-mediated insertional mutagenesis. In this study, we set out to explore the effect of promoter-enhancer selection on the efficacy and safety of human immunodeficiency virus-1-derived lentiviral vectors in γc-deficient mice. We observed incomplete or absent T- and B-cell development in mice transplanted with progenitors expressing γc from the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and Wiscott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) promoters, respectively. In contrast, functional T- and B-cell compartments were restored in mice receiving an equivalent vector containing the elongation factor-1-α (EF1α) promoter; however, 4 of 14 mice reconstituted with this vector subsequently developed lymphoma. Extensive analyses failed to implicate insertional mutagenesis or γc overexpression as the underlying mechanism. These findings highlight the need for detailed mechanistic analysis of tumor readouts in preclinical animal models assessing vector safety, and suggest the existence of other ill-defined risk factors for oncogenesis, including replicative stress, in gene therapy protocols targeting the hematopoietic compartment. PMID:20354504

  6. Recent advances in transplantation for primary immune deficiency diseases: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    de la Morena, M Teresa; Nelson, Robert P

    2014-04-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a curative therapeutic option for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a group of diseases which otherwise carry life expectancies that are of limited duration and quality. Survival following HCT for SCID has improved from approximately 23 to 91 % over the last 40 years. Success with SCID prompted efforts to apply HCT to the therapeutic challenge of well over 20 molecularly defined primary immune deficiency diseases (PID). Such success is due to both early recognition of PIDs and advances in the field of transplantation. Such advances include high-resolution HLA DNA donor-recipient matching, expansion of donor sources, better tolerated conditioning, new antibiotics, and wider availability. International collaborative efforts have provided patients and caregivers information that permit better treatment decisions now, and direct clinicians and investigators to ensure progress in the future. Pioneers in screening for SCID have taken steps to correct the fundamental challenge to successful treatment, which is the rapid discovery and characterization of cases and offering the transplant option to an affected child early in life; blood spot testing for T and B cell receptor quantification is now available to a growing fraction of newborns. Organizations including the Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium in the USA, The European Society for Primary Immunodeficiency, the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium, the United States Immunodeficiency Network, the Immune Deficiency Foundation, and the Jeffrey Modell Foundation are contributing mightily to increase awareness and standardize optimal utilization to the benefit of patients. This review will update the allergist-immunologist concerning disease presentations, indications for transplantation, methodologies, conditioning regimens, and clinical outcomes for patients with PID for which timely HCT is

  7. Hepatitis C virus dynamics and cellular gene expression in uPA-SCID chimeric mice with humanized livers during intravenous silibinin monotherapy.

    PubMed

    DebRoy, S; Hiraga, N; Imamura, M; Hayes, C N; Akamatsu, S; Canini, L; Perelson, A S; Pohl, R T; Persiani, S; Uprichard, S L; Tateno, C; Dahari, H; Chayama, K

    2016-09-01

    Legalon SIL (SIL) is a chemically hydrophilized version of silibinin, an extract of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds that has exhibited hepatoprotective and antiviral effectiveness against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients leading to viral clearance in combination with ribavirin. To elucidate the incompletely understood mode of action of SIL against HCV, mathematical modelling of HCV kinetics and human hepatocyte gene expression studies were performed in uPA-SCID-chimeric mice with humanized livers. Chronically HCV-infected mice (n = 15) were treated for 14 days with daily intravenous SIL at 469, 265 or 61.5 mg/kg. Serum HCV and human albumin (hAlb) were measured frequently, and liver HCV RNA was analysed at days 3 and 14. Microarray analysis of human hepatocyte gene expression was performed at days 0, 3 and 14 of treatment. While hAlb remained constant, a biphasic viral decline in serum was observed consisting of a rapid 1st phase followed by a second slower phase (or plateau with the two lower SIL dosings). SIL effectiveness in blocking viral production was similar among dosing groups (median ε = 77%). However, the rate of HCV-infected hepatocyte decline, δ, was dose-dependent. Intracellular HCV RNA levels correlated (r = 0.66, P = 0.01) with serum HCV RNA. Pathway analysis revealed increased anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative gene expression in human hepatocytes in SIL-treated mice. The results suggest that SIL could lead to a continuous second-phase viral decline, that is potentially viral clearance, in the absence of adaptive immune response along with increased anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative gene expression in human hepatocytes. PMID:27272497

  8. Beneficial effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone agonists on rat INS-1 cells and on streptozotocin-induced NOD/SCID mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianyang; Cui, Tengjiao; He, Jinlin; Wang, Haibo; Cai, Renzhi; Popovics, Petra; Vidaurre, Irving; Sha, Wei; Schmid, Janine; Ludwig, Barbara; Block, Norman L.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Schally, Andrew V.

    2015-01-01

    Agonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) have been previously reported to promote growth, function, and engraftment of islet cells following transplantation. Here we evaluated recently synthesized GHRH agonists on the proliferation and biological functions of rat pancreatic β-cell line (INS-1) and islets. In vitro treatment of INS-1 cells with GHRH agonists increased cell proliferation, the expression of cellular insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), and GHRH receptor, and also stimulated insulin secretion in response to glucose challenge. Exposure of INS-1 cells to GHRH agonists, MR-356 and MR-409, induced activation of ERK and AKT pathways. Agonist MR-409 also significantly increased the levels of cellular cAMP and the phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in INS-1 cells. Treatment of rat islets with agonist, MR-409 significantly increased cell proliferation, islet size, and the expression of insulin. In vivo daily s.c. administration of 10 μg MR-409 for 3 wk dramatically reduced the severity of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in nonobese diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. The maximal therapeutic benefits with respect to the efficiency of engraftment, ability to reach normoglycemia, gain in body weight, response to high glucose challenge, and induction of higher levels of serum insulin and IGF1 were observed when diabetic mice were transplanted with rat islets preconditioned with GHRH agonist, MR-409, and received additional treatment with MR-409 posttransplantation. This study provides an improved approach to the therapeutic use of GHRH agonists in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26474831

  9. Virus and Autoantigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Are Key Effectors in a SCID Mouse Model of EBV-Associated Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Linnerbauer, Stefanie; Behrends, Uta; Adhikary, Dinesh; Witter, Klaus; Bornkamm, Georg W.; Mautner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Polyclonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cell line (lymphoblastoid cell lines; LCL)-stimulated T-cell preparations have been successfully used to treat EBV-positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) in transplant recipients, but function and specificity of the CD4+ component are still poorly defined. Here, we assessed the tumor-protective potential of different CD4+ T-cell specificities in a PTLD-SCID mouse model. Injection of different virus-specific CD4+ T-cell clones showed that single specificities were capable of prolonging mouse survival and that the degree of tumor protection directly correlated with recognition of target cells in vitro. Surprisingly, some CD4+ T-cell clones promoted tumor development, suggesting that besides antigen recognition, still elusive functional differences exist among virus-specific T cells. Of several EBV-specific CD4+ T-cell clones tested, those directed against virion antigens proved most tumor-protective. However, enriching these specificities in LCL-stimulated preparations conferred no additional survival benefit. Instead, CD4+ T cells specific for unknown, probably self-antigens were identified as principal antitumoral effectors in LCL-stimulated T-cell lines. These results indicate that virion and still unidentified cellular antigens are crucial targets of the CD4+ T-cell response in this preclinical PTLD-model and that enriching the corresponding T-cell specificities in therapeutic preparations may enhance their clinical efficacy. Moreover, the expression in several EBV-negative B-cell lymphoma cell lines implies that these putative autoantigen(s) might also qualify as targets for T-cell-based immunotherapy of virus-negative B cell malignancies. PMID:24853673

  10. Erythropoietin and its carbamylated derivative prevent the development of experimental diabetic autonomic neuropathy in STZ-induced diabetic NOD-SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert E; Green, Karen G; Feng, Dongyan; Dorsey, Denise A; Parvin, Curtis A; Lee, Jin-Moo; Xiao, Qinlgi; Brines, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Autonomic neuropathy is a significant diabetic complication resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Studies of autopsied diabetic patients and several rodent models demonstrate that the neuropathologic hallmark of diabetic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy in prevertebral ganglia is the occurrence of synaptic pathology resulting in distinctive dystrophic neurites ("neuritic dystrophy"). Our prior studies show that neuritic dystrophy is reversed by exogenous IGF-I administration without altering the metabolic severity of diabetes, i.e. functioning as a neurotrophic substance. The description of erythropoietin (EPO) synergy with IGF-I function and the recent discovery of EPO's multifaceted neuroprotective role suggested it might substitute for IGF-I in treatment of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Our current studies demonstrate EPO receptor (EPO-R) mRNA in a cDNA set prepared from NGF-maintained rat sympathetic neuron cultures which decreased with NGF deprivation, a result which demonstrates clearly that sympathetic neurons express EPO-R, a result confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Treatment of STZ-diabetic NOD-SCID mice have demonstrated a dramatic preventative effect of EPO and carbamylated EPO (CEPO, which is neuroprotective but not hematopoietic) on the development of neuritic dystrophy. Neither EPO nor CEPO had a demonstrable effect on the metabolic severity of diabetes. Our results coupled with reported salutary effects of EPO on postural hypotension in a few clinical studies of EPO-treated anemic diabetic and non-diabetic patients may reflect a primary neurotrophic effect of EPO on the sympathetic autonomic nervous system, rather than a primary hematopoietic effect. These findings may represent a major clinical advance since EPO has been widely and safely used in anemic patients due to a variety of clinical conditions. PMID:17967455

  11. Bovine antibody against Cryptosporidium parvum elicits a circumsporozoite precipitate-like reaction and has immunotherapeutic effect against persistent cryptosporidiosis in SCID mice.

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, M W; Cama, V A; Leary, H L; Sterling, C R

    1994-01-01

    Control of cryptosporidiosis is currently hampered by the absence of drugs or vaccines proven consistently effective against Cryptosporidium parvum. On the basis of observations that anti-C. parvum antibody has therapeutic effect against cryptosporidiosis, cows were immunized with C. parvum to produce hyperimmune colostral antibody. An antibody-rich fraction was prepared and differentiated from control (nonhyperimmune) antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence assay, immunoelectron microscopy, and in vitro neutralizing titer against DEAE-cellulose-isolated C. parvum sporozoites. Oocyst, purified sporozoite, and merozoite antigens recognized by hyperimmune antibody were defined by Western blot (immunoblot). Hyperimmune antibody recognized antigens common to oocysts, sporozoites, and merozoites, as well as stage-specific antigens. Upon incubation with hyperimmune antibody, sporozoites underwent distinct morphologic changes characterized by progressive formation and eventual release of membranous sporozoite surface antigen-antibody complexes, similar to the malaria circumsporozoite precipitate reaction. The infectivity of sporozoites having undergone this reaction was neutralized. The reaction was minimal or absent on sporozoites incubated with control antibody. To determine therapeutic effect in vivo, persistent C. parvum infection was established in adult severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice by oral inoculation with 10(7) oocysts. At 5 weeks postinfection, infected mice were treated for 10 days with hyperimmune or control antibody by inclusion in drinking water and daily gavage. Fecal oocyst shedding and infection scores in the gastrointestinal tract and gall bladder/common bile duct in hyperimmune antibody-treated mice were significantly lower than those in the control antibody-treated mice. Hyperimmune bovine antibody prepared against C. parvum may provide a first-generation therapy for control of cryptosporidiosis. Additionally

  12. Evaluation of ex vivo expansion and engraftment in NOD-SCID mice of umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells using the DIDECO "Pluricell System".

    PubMed

    Astori, G; Adami, V; Mambrini, G; Bigi, L; Cilli, M; Facchini, A; Falasca, E; Malangone, W; Panzani, I; Degrassi, A

    2005-06-01

    The Dideco "Pluricell System" is a commercially available closed device composed of an expansion chamber and a kit of certified reagents that allow haematopoietic stem cell expansion. We have expanded seven umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples following the manufacturer's instructions; two groups of irradiated NOD-SCID mice have been transplanted with expanded and nonexpanded cells from the same UCB, and bone marrow was analysed for the presence of human cells. Average UCB volume was 61.6+/-8.8 ml; mean nucleated cell content was 1090.5+/-189.9 x 10(6). Percentage and number of CD34+ cells were 0.37+/-0.13% and 3.9+/-1.2 x 10(6). After separation, CD34+ cell purity was 82+/-11%. Mean number of inoculated cells was 760 000; mean NC and CD34+ fold expansion at 12 days was 230.4+/-91.5 and 21.0+/-11.9. Both groups of mice showed successful engraftment: the percentage of human cells was higher in the group receiving expanded cells (3.4+/-2.01%) compared to the group receiving nonexpanded cells (1.5+/-0.66%) (P<0.00018, Mann-Whitney test). The cell population obtained after 12 days expansion consisted mainly of myeloid and megakaryocytic progenitors. The CD34+ antigen reached the maximum expression level at day 12 (7.5+/-2.0%). Analysis of lineage-markers for human myelomonocytic, megakaryocytic, B, T, CD34 and erythroid cells, gave evidence that all the lineages were represented in the marrow of transplanted mice. PMID:15821764

  13. Engraftment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 carriers in NOD/SCID/gammac(null) (NOG) mice.

    PubMed

    Takajo, Ichiro; Umeki, Kazumi; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Ikuo; Kubuki, Yoko; Hatakeyama, Kinta; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Okayama, Akihiko

    2007-11-15

    The transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) occurs mainly via breast-feeding, sexual intercourse and blood transfusions. After transmission, the HTLV-1 infection is predominantly maintained by cell-to-cell infection and clonal expansion; however, the details have not yet been clarified. To investigate how HTLV-1 infected cells act in an environment without an effective immune reaction, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers were inoculated into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID)/gammac(null) (NOG) mice, which have immunological dysfunctions of T- and B-lymphocytes and NK cells. Human mononuclear cells including both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were found to have infiltrated into various organs, including the liver, kidney, spleen and lung, when the mice were sacrificed 1 month after inoculation. The copy numbers of HTLV-1 provirus detected in the tissue-infiltrating human cells were much higher than those in the original PBMCs from the carriers. The expression of HTLV-1 mRNA was demonstrated in the tissue-infiltrating cells by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Inverse-long polymerase chain reaction showed that the pattern of HTLV-1 proviral integration was different from that of the original carrier and that it varied among NOG mice inoculated with PBMCs from the same carrier. These results suggest the selective proliferation of particular clones of HTLV-1 infected cells in NOG mice. Alternatively, transmission and new integration of HTLV-1 from infected cells to noninfected cells might have occurred in an environment without an effective immune reaction. The NOG mouse is considered a good animal model for the patho-physiological study of HTLV-1 infection with immunodeficiency. PMID:17657714

  14. Stem cell transplantation for primary immunodeficiency diseases: The North American Experience

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Sung-Yun; Cowan, Morton J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Review This review describes recent studies on outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for primary immunodeficiency (PID) in North America including severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Recent Findings Using uniform diagnostic criteria, the Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) described the baseline characteristics of newly diagnosed infants with SCID in North America. Analysis of outcomes of HCT for SCID in North America from 2000–2009 showed that young infants, and older infants without active infection, had excellent survival irrespective of type of donor, or transplant approach with regards to conditioning. While pre-transplant conditioning with chemotherapy had a clear and strong negative impact on survival in infants with active infection at the time of transplant, among survivors, conditioning was associated with improved immune reconstitution. However, the potential late effects of conditioning in these infants remain to be characterized. Advances in transplant outcomes for WAS and CGD support the strategy of early transplantation before the onset of severe complications; additional multicenter studies are needed to fully define optimal approaches. Summary The formation of the PIDTC, a multi-institutional North American consortium, has contributed to our understanding of outcomes after transplant for PID. PMID:25259542

  15. Adenoviral vector encoding soluble Flt-1 engineered human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells effectively regress endometriotic lesions in NOD/SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Koippallil Gopalakrishnan, A R; Pandit, H; Metkari, S M; Warty, N; Madan, T

    2016-07-01

    This study was undertaken to study the efficiency of Adsflt-1 engineered human eutopic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secreting anti-angiogenic sFlt-1 as a targeted cell-based therapy for endometriosis (EM). Eutopic MSCs were transduced with Adsflt-1/AdV0 viral vectors and were evaluated for expression and secretion of sFlt-1. EM was created in NOD/SCID mice using subcutaneous implantation techniques. Four doses of 10(6) MSC-Adsflt-1/MSC-AdV0 were administered to the model and therapeutic anti-angiogenic ability was analyzed by lesion size measurement, microvessel density, immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Approximately 86% of transduced MSCs expressed and secreted sFlt-1. MSC-Adsflt-1-treated animals exhibited significant reduction (52.8±1.8%) in size of endometriotic lesions. We observed a 2.3-fold decrease in the number and a 10-fold decrease in the size of endometrial glands in MSC-Adsflt-1-treated animals. A two-fold decrease in stromal cell densities was also observed in MSC-Adsflt-1-treated animals compared with the MSC-AdV0 group. Specific positive immunostaining for MSC marker, CD146 and sFlt-1 in the lesion sites of the MSC-Adsflt-1 group suggests possible homing of transduced MSCs, their survival and secretion of sFlt-1 at the target sites. A marked reduction in size of microvessels and microvessel density within endometriotic lesions and surrounding host subcutaneous layers was observed in MSC-Adsflt-1 group along with significantly downregulated expression of transcripts for vascular endothelial growth factor, fetal liver kinase 1 and matrix metalloproteinases (2 and 9). Our findings indicate the efficacy of a novel eutopic MSC-Adsflt-1 therapy in EM study models. Evaluating long-term effects of genetically modified MSCs in vivo is essential in translating MSC-Adsflt-1 therapy to the clinics. PMID:26990775

  16. CD8 T cells mediate direct biliary ductule damage in NOD autoimmune biliary disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guo-Xiang; Wu, Yuehong; Tsukamoto, Hiroki; Leung, Patrick S.; Lian, Zhe-Xiong; Rainbow, Daniel B.; Hunter, Kara M.; Morris, Gerard A.; Lyons, Paul A.; Peterson, Laurence B.; Wicker, Linda S.; Gershwin, M.E.; Ridgway, William M.

    2016-01-01

    We previously described the NOD.c3c4 mouse, which is protected from type 1 diabetes (T1D) due to protective alleles at multiple insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) genes, but develops autoimmune biliary disease (ABD) resembling primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Here we characterize the NOD.ABD strain, which is genetically-related to the NOD.c3c4 strain but develops both ABD and T1D. Histologically, NOD.ABD biliary disease is indistinguishable from that in NOD.c3c4 mice. The frequency of effector memory (CD44+CD62L-) and central memory (CD44+CD62L+) CD8 T cells is significantly increased in the intrahepatic lymphocyte fraction of NOD.ABD mice, and NOD.ABD CD8 T cells produce more IFN-γ and TNF-α, compared to controls. NOD.ABD splenocytes can transfer ABD and T1D to NOD.c3c4 scid mice, but only T1D to NOD scid mice, suggesting that the genetic origin of the target organ and/or its innate immune cells is critical to disease pathogenesis. The disease transfer model, importantly, shows that biliary duct damage (characteristic of PBC) and inflammation precede biliary epithelial cell proliferation. Unlike T1D where both CD4 and CD8 T cells are required for disease transfer, purified NOD.ABD CD8 T cells can transfer liver inflammation into NOD.c3c4 scid recipients, and disease transfer is ameliorated by co-transferring T regulatory cells. Unlike NOD.c3c4 mice, NOD.ABD mice do not develop antinuclear or anti-Smith autoantibodies; however, NOD.ABD mice do develop the anti-pyruvate dehydrogenase antibodies typical of human PBC. The NOD.ABD strain is a model of immune dysregulation affecting two organ systems, most likely by mechanisms that do not completely coincide. PMID:21169553

  17. Rescue of DNA-PK Signaling and T-Cell Differentiation by Targeted Genome Editing in a prkdc Deficient iPSC Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Christian; Mlambo, Tafadzwa; Alzubi, Jamal; Maeder, Morgan L.; Riedel, Heimo; Fisch, Paul; Cantz, Tobias; Rudolph, Cornelia; Mussolino, Claudio; Joung, J. Keith; Schambach, Axel; Cathomen, Toni

    2015-01-01

    In vitro disease modeling based on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides a powerful system to study cellular pathophysiology, especially in combination with targeted genome editing and protocols to differentiate iPSCs into affected cell types. In this study, we established zinc-finger nuclease-mediated genome editing in primary fibroblasts and iPSCs generated from a mouse model for radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency (RS-SCID), a rare disorder characterized by cellular sensitivity to radiation and the absence of lymphocytes due to impaired DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Our results demonstrate that gene editing in RS-SCID fibroblasts rescued DNA-PK dependent signaling to overcome radiosensitivity. Furthermore, in vitro T-cell differentiation from iPSCs was employed to model the stage-specific T-cell maturation block induced by the disease causing mutation. Genetic correction of the RS-SCID iPSCs restored T-lymphocyte maturation, polyclonal V(D)J recombination of the T-cell receptor followed by successful beta-selection. In conclusion, we provide proof that iPSC-based in vitro T-cell differentiation is a valuable paradigm for SCID disease modeling, which can be utilized to investigate disorders of T-cell development and to validate gene therapy strategies for T-cell deficiencies. Moreover, this study emphasizes the significance of designer nucleases as a tool for generating isogenic disease models and their future role in producing autologous, genetically corrected transplants for various clinical applications. PMID:26000857

  18. NOD/SCID IL2Rγ-null mouse xenograft model of human p53-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia and ATM-mutated mantle cell lymphoma using permanent cell lines.

    PubMed

    Verner, Jan; Trbusek, Martin; Chovancova, Jana; Jaskova, Zuzana; Moulis, Mojmir; Folber, Frantisek; Halouzka, Roman; Mayer, Jiri; Pospisilova, Sarka; Doubek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Xenograft models represent a promising tool to study the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. To establish a reliable and appropriate in vivo model of aggressive human B-cell leukemia and lymphoma we xenotransplanted four p53-mutated cell lines and one ATM-mutated cell line into immunodeficient NOD/SCID IL2Rγ-null mice. The cell lines MEC-1, SU-DHL-4, JEKO-1, REC-1, and GRANTA-519 were transplanted intraperitoneally or subcutaneously and the engraftment was investigated using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. We found significant differences in engraftment efficiency. MEC-1, JEKO-1 and GRANTA-519 cell lines engrafted most efficiently, while SU-DHL-4 cells did not engraft at all. MEC-1 and GRANTA-519 massively infiltrated organs and the whole intraperitoneal cavity showing very aggressive growth. In addition, GRANTA-519 cells massively migrated to the bone marrow regardless of the transplantation route. The MEC-1 and GRANTA-519 cells can be especially recommended for in vivo study of p53-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia and ATM-mutated mantle cell lymphoma, respectively. PMID:25827173

  19. Consequences of Daily Administered Parathyroid Hormone on Myeloma Growth, Bone Disease, and Molecular Profiling of Whole Myelomatous Bone

    PubMed Central

    Pennisi, Angela; Ling, Wen; Li, Xin; Khan, Sharmin; Wang, Yuping; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John D.; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2010-01-01

    Background Induction of osteolytic bone lesions in multiple myeloma is caused by an uncoupling of osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. Current management of myeloma bone disease is limited to the use of antiresorptive agents such as bisphosphonates. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested the effects of daily administered parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone disease and myeloma growth, and we investigated molecular mechanisms by analyzing gene expression profiles of unique myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells engrafted in SCID-rab and SCID-hu mouse models. PTH resulted in increased bone mineral density of myelomatous bones and reduced tumor burden, which reflected the dependence of primary myeloma cells on the bone marrow microenvironment. Treatment with PTH also increased bone mineral density of uninvolved murine bones in myelomatous hosts and bone mineral density of implanted human bones in nonmyelomatous hosts. In myelomatous bone, PTH markedly increased the number of osteoblasts and bone-formation parameters, and the number of osteoclasts was unaffected or moderately reduced. Pretreatment with PTH before injecting myeloma cells increased bone mineral density of the implanted bone and delayed tumor progression. Human global gene expression profiling of myelomatous bones from SCID-hu mice treated with PTH or saline revealed activation of multiple distinct pathways involved in bone formation and coupling; involvement of Wnt signaling was prominent. Treatment with PTH also downregulated markers typically expressed by osteoclasts and myeloma cells, and altered expression of genes that control oxidative stress and inflammation. PTH receptors were not expressed by myeloma cells, and PTH had no effect on myeloma cell growth in vitro. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that PTH-induced bone formation in myelomatous bones is mediated by activation of multiple signaling pathways involved in osteoblastogenesis and attenuated bone resorption

  20. Chronic Granulomatous Disease: Lessons from a Rare Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Segal, B H; Veys, P; Malech, H; Cowan, M J

    2010-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency with x-linked or autosomal recessive inheritance involving defects in genes encoding phox proteins which are the subunits of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. This results in failure to produce superoxide anion and downstream antimicrobial oxidant metabolites and to activate antimicrobial proteases. Affected patients are susceptible to severe, life-threatening bacterial and fungal infections and excessive inflammation characterized by granulomatous enteritis resembling Crohn's disease and genitourinary obstruction. Early diagnosis of CGD and rapid treatment of infections are critical. Prophylaxis with antibacterial and mould-active antifungal agents and the administration of interferon-γ has significantly improved the natural history of CGD. Currently, the only cure is allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) although there remains controversy as to which patients with CGD should get a transplant. Allele-based HLA typing of alternative donors, improved supportive care measures and use of reduced toxicity conditioning have resulted in EFS of at least 80% even with an unrelated donor and even better when the patient has no active infections/inflammation. Gene correction of CGD would eliminate the risks of GVHD and the immunoablative chemotherapy required for allogeneic HCT. Based on gene therapy trials in patients with SCID-X1, ADA-SCID and the early experience with CGD, it is clear that at least some degree of myeloablation will be necessary for CGD as there is no inherent selective growth advantage for gene-corrected cells. Current efforts for gene therapy focus on use of lentivector constructs which are thought to be safer from the standpoint of insertional mutagenesis and more efficient in transducing hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:21195301

  1. Resveratrol given intraperitoneally does not inhibit the growth of high-risk t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in a NOD/SCID mouse model

    PubMed Central

    ZUNINO, SUSAN J.; STORMS, DAVID H.; NEWMAN, JOHN W.; PEDERSEN, THERESA L.; KEEN, CARL L.; DUCORE, JONATHAN M.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of resveratrol as a preventive agent against the growth of t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was evaluated in NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J mice engrafted with the human t(4;11) ALL SEM cell line. SEM cells were injected into the tail vein and engraftment was monitored by flow cytometry. Once engraftment was observed, mice were injected intraperitoneally with resveratrol (10 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or DMSO alone (control) every other day, or vincristine (0.5 mg/kg body weight) 3 times per week for 4 weeks (n=16 per group). Comparisons of the percent of human leukemia cells in blood and survival curves showed resveratrol did not inhibit progression of the disease. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses of mouse sera showed resveratrol was rapidly metabolized to glucuronidated and sulfated forms 1 h post-injection, with low to no resveratrol or metabolites observed in sera by 24–48 h. These data indicate that in contrast to findings in in vitro models, parenterally administered resveratrol does not have potential as a preventive agent against high risk t(4;11) ALL. PMID:22200740

  2. Placental transfer of maternally-derived IgA precludes the use of guthrie card eluates as a screening tool for primary immunodeficiency diseases.

    PubMed

    Borte, Stephan; Janzi, Magdalena; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Nordvall, Lennart; Winiarski, Jacek; Fasth, Anders; Hammarström, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for neonatal screening tools to improve the long-term clinical outcome of patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Recently, a PCR-based screening method for both TRECs and KRECs using Guthrie card samples has been developed. However, the applicability of these excision circle assays is limited to patients with severe T or B cell lymphopenia (SCID, XLA and A-T), whereas the most common forms of PID are not detected. Absence of serum IgA is seen in a major fraction of patients with immunological defects. As serum IgA in newborns is considered to be of fetal origin, eluates from routinely collected dried blood spot samples might thus be suitable for identification of children with PID. To assess the applicability of such screening assays, stored Guthrie card samples were obtained from 47 patients with various forms of primary immunodeficiency diseases (SCID, XLA, A-T, HIGM and IgAD), 20 individuals with normal serum IgA levels born to IgA-deficient mothers and 51 matched healthy newborns. Surprisingly, normal serum IgA levels were found in all SCID, XLA, A-T and HIGM patients and, additionally, in all those IgAD patients born to IgA-sufficient mothers. Conversely, no serum IgA was found in any of the 16 IgAD patients born by IgA-deficient mothers. Moreover, half of the IgA-sufficient individuals born by IgA-deficient mothers also lacked IgA at birth whereas no IgA-deficient individuals were found among the controls. IgA in neonatal dried blood samples thus appears to be of both maternal and fetal origin and precludes its use as a reliable marker for neonatal screening of primary immunodeficiency diseases. PMID:22916257

  3. Characterization of Human CD8(+)TCR(-) Facilitating Cells In Vitro and In Vivo in a NOD/SCID/IL2rγ(null) Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Elliott, M J; Yolcu, E S; Miller, T O; Ratajczak, J; Bozulic, L D; Wen, Y; Xu, H; Ratajczak, M Z; Ildstad, S T

    2016-02-01

    CD8(+)/TCR(-) facilitating cells (FCs) in mouse bone marrow (BM) significantly enhance engraftment of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Human FC phenotype and mechanism of action remain to be defined. We report, for the first time, the phenotypic characterization of human FCs and correlation of phenotype with function. Approximately half of human FCs are CD8(+)/TCR(-)/CD56 negative (CD56(neg)); the remainder are CD8(+)/TCR(-)/CD56 bright (CD56(bright)). The CD56(neg) FC subpopulation significantly promotes homing of HSPCs to BM in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency/IL-2 receptor γ-chain knockout mouse recipients and enhances hematopoietic colony formation in vitro. The CD56(neg) FC subpopulation promotes rapid reconstitution of donor HSPCs without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); recipients of CD56(bright) FCs plus HSPCs exhibit low donor chimerism early after transplantation, but the level of chimerism significantly increases with time. Recipients of HSPCs plus CD56(neg) or CD56(bright) FCs showed durable donor chimerism at significantly higher levels in BM. The majority of both FC subpopulations express CXCR4. Coculture of CD56(bright) FCs with HSPCs upregulates cathelicidin and β-defensin 2, factors that prime responsiveness of HSPCs to stromal cell-derived factor 1. Both FC subpopulations significantly upregulated mRNA expression of the HSPC growth factors and Flt3 ligand. These results indicate that human FCs exert a direct effect on HSPCs to enhance engraftment. Human FCs offer a potential regulatory cell-based therapy for enhancement of engraftment and prevention of GVHD. PMID:26550777

  4. Differentiation of Varicella-Zoster Virus ORF47 Protein Kinase and IE62 Protein Binding Domains and Their Contributions to Replication in Human Skin Xenografts in the SCID-hu Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Jaya; Sommer, Marvin H.; Zerboni, Leigh; Bagowski, Christoph P.; Ito, Hideki; Moffat, Jennifer; Ku, Chia-Chi; Arvin, Ann M.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the role of the ORF47 protein kinase of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), we constructed VZV recombinants with targeted mutations in conserved motifs of ORF47 and a truncated ORF47 and characterized these mutants for replication, phosphorylation, and protein-protein interactions in vitro and for infectivity in human skin xenografts in the SCID-hu mouse model in vivo. Previous experiments showed that ROka47S, a null mutant that makes no ORF47 protein, did not replicate in skin in vivo (J. F. Moffat, L. Zerboni, M. H. Sommer, T. C. Heineman, J. I. Cohen, H. Kaneshima, and A. M. Arvin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:11969-11974, 1998). The construction of VZV recombinants with targeted ORF47 mutations made it possible to assess the effects on VZV infection of human skin xenografts of selectively abolishing ORF47 protein kinase activity. ORF47 mutations that resulted in a C-terminal truncation or disrupted the DYS kinase motif eliminated ORF47 kinase activity and were associated with extensive nuclear retention of ORF47 and IE62 proteins in vitro. Disrupting ORF47 kinase function also resulted in a marked decrease in VZV replication and cutaneous lesion formation in skin xenografts in vivo. However, infectivity in vivo was not blocked completely as long as the capacity of ORF47 protein to bind IE62 protein was preserved, a function that we identified and mapped to the N-terminal domain of ORF47 protein. These experiments indicate that ORF47 kinase activity is of critical importance for VZV infection and cell-cell spread in human skin in vivo but suggest that it is the formation of complexes between ORF47 and IE62 proteins, both VZV tegument components, that constitutes the essential contribution of ORF47 protein to VZV replication in vivo. PMID:12719588

  5. Insensitivity of Human iPS Cells-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Interferon-γ-induced HLA Expression Potentiates Repair Efficiency of Hind Limb Ischemia in Immune Humanized NOD Scid Gamma Mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue-Qi; Zhang, Yuelin; Li, Xin; Deng, Meng-Xia; Gao, Wen-Xiang; Yao, Yin; Chiu, Sin-Ming; Liang, Xiaoting; Gao, Fei; Chan, Camie W; Tse, Hung-Fat; Shi, Jianbo; Fu, Qing-Ling; Lian, Qizhou

    2015-12-01

    Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are immunoprivileged cells due to the low expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) II molecules. However, the expression of MHC molecules in human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived MSCs has not been investigated. Here, we examined the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in human MSCs derived from iPSCs, fetuses, and adult bone marrow (BM) after stimulation with interferon-γ (IFN-γ), compared their repair efficacy, cell retention, inflammation, and HLA II expression in immune humanized NOD Scid gamma (NSG) mice of hind limb ischemia. In the absence of IFN-γ stimulation, HLA-II was expressed only in BM-MSCs after 7 days. Two and seven days after stimulation, high levels of HLA-II were observed in BM-MSCs, intermediate levels were found in fetal-MSCs, and very low levels in iPSC-MSCs. The levels of p-STAT1, interferon regulatory factor 1, and class II transactivator exhibited similar phenomena. Moreover, p-STAT1 antagonist significantly reversed the high expression of HLA-II in BM-MSCs. Compared to adult BM-MSCs, transplanting iPSC-MSCs into hu-PBMNC NSG mice revealed markedly more survival iPSC-MSCs, less inflammatory cell accumulations, and better recovery of hind limb ischemia. The expression of HLA-II in MSCs in the ischemia limbs was detected in BM-MSCs group but not in iPSC-MSCs group at 7 and 21 days after transplantation. Our results demonstrate that, compared to adult MSCs, human iPSC-MSCs are insensitive to proinflammatory IFN-γ-induced HLA-II expression and iPSC-MSCs have a stronger immune privilege after transplantation. It may attribute to a better therapeutic efficacy in allogeneic transplantation. PMID:26175298

  6. Oral or parenteral administration of curcumin does not prevent the growth of high-risk t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells engrafted into a NOD/SCID mouse model

    PubMed Central

    ZUNINO, SUSAN J.; STORMS, DAVID H.; NEWMAN, JOHN W.; PEDERSEN, THERESA L.; KEEN, CARL L.; DUCORE, JONATHAN M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the efficacy of orally and parenter-ally administered curcumin was evaluated in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice (NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J mice) engrafted with the human t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia line, SEM. SEM cells were injected into the tail vein and engraftment was monitored by flow cytometry. Once engraftment was observed, the chemotherapeutic potential was examined by injecting mice intraperitoneally with curcumin (5 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) or DMSO alone (control) every other day, or vincristine (0.5 mg/kg body weight) 3 times per week for 4 weeks (n=16 per group). The intraperitoneal administration of curcumin did not inhibit the growth of the leukemia cells. To determine the efficacy of oral curcumin, mice were fed a control diet or a diet containing 0.5% w/w curcumin 3 weeks prior to the injection of the leukemia cells and throughout the experimental period (n=16 per group). To determine whether dietary curcumin can enhance the efficacy of a conventional chemotherapeutic agent, vincristine was injected intraperitoneally into leukemic mice fed the different diets. Dietary curcumin did not delay the engraftment or growth of leukemia cells, or sensitize the cells to vincristine. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses of mouse sera showed that curcumin rapidly metabolized to glucuronidated and sulfated forms within 1 h post-injection and these were the major curcumin metabolites found in the sera of the mice fed the curcumin diet. In contrast to the findings in previous in vitro models, the current data indicate that orally or parenterally administered curcumin is not a potent preventive agent against high-risk t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:23232667

  7. Quality Instruction Requires High Quality Materials: SCID.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.

    The development of curriculum and instructional materials for competency-based education (CBE) is a costly and complex process involving many critical tasks. Failure to carry out any of these tasks can jeopardize the entire instructional development effort. The importance of the process demands that appropriate and effective procedures be used so…

  8. Kawasaki disease

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, S.T. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Genetic analysis of Kawasaki disease; Late onset valvular dysfunction in Kawasaki disease; ischemic heart disease in Kawasaki disease; Evaluation of evidence related to streptococci in the etiology of Kawasaki disease; and Immune complexes and cytotoxicity.

  9. Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that ... higher if a family member has had the disease. No treatment can stop the disease. However, some ...

  10. Fifth Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Parvovirus B19 and Fifth Disease Note: Javascript is disabled or ... this page: About CDC.gov . Parvovirus Home About Parvovirus B19 Fifth Disease Pregnancy and Fifth Disease Photos of ...

  11. Hookworm Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parasitic Roundworm Diseases Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus World Health Organization ​​ Hookworm Disease Skip Content Marketing Share this: JavaScript is disabled in your browser. ...

  12. Farber's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Farber's Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Ceramidase Deficiency Table of Contents ( ... Trials Related NINDS Publications and Information What is Farber's Disease? Farber’s disease, also known as Farber's lipogranulomatosis, describes ...

  13. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share External Link Disclaimer Digestive Diseases Wilson Disease Alternate Versions Wilson Disease (444 KB) You can also ... things psychosis—when a person loses contact with reality Other Signs and Symptoms Other signs and symptoms ...

  14. Hodgkin Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... far the disease has spread. It often includes radiation therapy or chemotherapy. The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the more effective the treatment. In most cases, Hodgkin disease can be cured. NIH: National Cancer Institute

  15. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  16. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... small intestine. People with celiac disease cannot eat gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. ... Disease Doctors treat celiac disease by prescribing a gluten-free diet. Symptoms significantly improve for most people ...

  17. Hirschsprung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Digestive System X-Ray Exam: Upper Gastrointestinal ... Bowel Disease Inflammatory Bowel Disease Your Digestive System Irritable Bowel Syndrome Upper GI (Video) Inflammatory Bowel Disease Digestive System ...

  18. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Crohn's disease causes inflammation of the digestive system. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory ... small intestine called the ileum. The cause of Crohn's disease is unknown. It may be due to an ...

  19. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  20. Kawasaki Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Kawasaki disease is a rare childhood disease. It makes the walls of the blood vessels in the ... veins, and capillaries. No one knows what causes Kawasaki disease. Symptoms include High fever that lasts longer ...

  1. Bladder Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  2. β-l-1-[5-(E-2-bromovinyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-(dioxolan-4-yl)] uracil (l-BHDU) prevents varicella-zoster virus replication in a SCID-Hu mouse model and does not interfere with 5-fluorouracil catabolism.

    PubMed

    De, Chandrav; Liu, Dongmei; Zheng, Bo; Singh, Uma S; Chavre, Satish; White, Catherine; Arnold, Robert D; Hagen, Fred K; Chu, Chung K; Moffat, Jennifer F

    2014-10-01

    The alphaherpesvirus varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and shingles. Current treatments are acyclovir (ACV) and its derivatives, foscarnet and brivudine (BVdU). Additional antiviral compounds with increased potency and specificity are needed to treat VZV, especially to treat post-herpetic neuralgia. We evaluated β-l-1-[5-(E-2-bromovinyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-(dioxolan-4-yl)] uracil (l-BHDU, 1) and 5'-O-valyl-l-BHDU (2) in three models of VZV replication: primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs), skin organ culture (SOC) and in SCID-Hu mice with skin xenografts. The efficacy of l-BHDU in vivo and its drug-drug interactions were previously not known. In HFFs, 200μM l-BHDU was noncytotoxic over 3days, and l-BHDU treatment reduced VZV genome copy number and cell to cell spread. The EC50 in HFFs for l-BHDU and valyl-l-BHDU were 0.22 and 0.03μM, respectively. However, l-BHDU antagonized the activity of ACV, BVdU and foscarnet in cultured cells. Given its similar structure to BVdU, we asked if l-BHDU, like BVdU, inhibits 5-fluorouracil catabolism. BALB/c mice were treated with 5-FU alone or in combination with l-BHDU or BVdU. l-BHDU did not interfere with 5-FU catabolism. In SCID-Hu mice implanted with human skin xenografts, l-BHDU and valyl-l-BHDU were superior to ACV and valacyclovir. The maximum concentration (Cmax) levels of l-BHDU were determined in mouse and human tissues at 2h after dosing, and comparison of concentration ratios of tissue to plasma indicated saturation of uptake at the highest dose. For the first time, an l-nucleoside analog, l-BHDU, was found to be effective and well tolerated in mice. PMID:25051026

  3. β-L-1-[5-(E-2-Bromovinyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-(dioxolan-4-yl)] uracil (L-BHDU) prevents varicella-zoster virus replication in a SCID-Hu mouse model and does not interfere with 5-fluorouracil catabolism

    PubMed Central

    De, Chandrav; Liu, Dongmei; Zheng, Bo; Singh, Uma S.; Chavre, Satish; White, Catherine; Arnold, Robert D.; Hagen, Fred K.; Chu, Chung K.; Moffat, Jennifer F.

    2014-01-01

    The alphaherpesvirus varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and shingles. Current treatments are acyclovir (ACV) and its derivatives, foscarnet and brivudine (BVdU). Additional antiviral compounds with increased potency and specificity are needed to treat VZV, especially to treat post-herpetic neuralgia. We evaluated β-L-1-[5-(E-2-Bromovinyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-(dioxolan-4-yl)] uracil (L-BHDU, 1) and 5′-O-valyl-L-BHDU (2) in three models of VZV replication: primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs), skin organ culture (SOC) and in SCID-Hu mice with skin xenografts. The efficacy of L-BHDU in vivo and its drug-drug interactions were previously not known. In HFFs, 200 μM L-BHDU was noncytotoxic over 3 days, and L-BHDU treatment reduced VZV genome copy number and cell to cell spread. The EC50 in HFFs for L-BHDU and valyl-L-BHDU were 0.22 and 0.03 μM, respectively. However, L-BHDU antagonized the activity of ACV, BVdU and foscarnet in cultured cells. Given its similar structure to BVdU, we asked if L-BHDU, like BVdU, inhibits 5-fluorouracil catabolism. BALB/c mice were treated with 5-FU alone or in combination with L-BHDU or BVdU. L-BHDU did not interfere with 5-FU catabolism. In SCID-Hu mice implanted with human skin xenografts, L-BHDU and valyl-L-BHDU were superior to ACV and valacyclovir. The maximum concentration (Cmax) levels of L-BHDU were determined in mouse and human tissues at 2 h after dosing, and comparison of concentration ratios of tissue to plasma indicated saturation of uptake at the highest dose. For the first time, an L-nucleoside analog, L-BHDU, was found to be effective and well tolerated in mice. PMID:25051026

  4. Role of Bruton's tyrosine kinase in myeloma cell migration and induction of bone disease.

    PubMed

    Bam, Rakesh; Ling, Wen; Khan, Sharmin; Pennisi, Angela; Venkateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Li, Xin; van Rhee, Frits; Usmani, Saad; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John; Epstein, Joshua; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2013-06-01

    Myeloma cells typically grow in bone, recruit osteoclast precursors and induce their differentiation and activity in areas adjacent to tumor foci. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), of the TEC family, is expressed in hematopoietic cells and is particularly involved in B-lymphocyte function and osteoclastogenesis. We demonstrated BTK expression in clinical myeloma plasma cells, interleukin (IL)-6- or stroma-dependent cell lines and osteoclasts. SDF-1 induced BTK activation in myeloma cells and BTK inhibition by small hairpin RNA or the small molecule inhibitor, LFM-A13, reduced their migration toward stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). Pretreatment with LFM-A13 also reduced in vivo homing of myeloma cells to bone using bioluminescence imaging in the SCID-rab model. Enforced expression of BTK in myeloma cell line enhanced cell migration toward SDF-1 but had no effect on short-term growth. BTK expression was correlated with cell-surface CXCR4 expression in myeloma cells (n = 33, r = 0.81, P < 0.0001), and BTK gene and protein expression was more profound in cell-surface CXCR4-expressing myeloma cells. BTK was not upregulated by IL-6 while its inhibition had no effect on IL-6 signaling in myeloma cells. Human osteoclast precursors also expressed BTK and cell-surface CXCR4 and migrated toward SDF-1. LFM-A13 suppressed migration and differentiation of osteoclast precursors as well as bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. In primary myeloma-bearing SCID-rab mice, LFM-A13 inhibited osteoclast activity, prevented myeloma-induced bone resorption and moderately suppressed myeloma growth. These data demonstrate BTK and cell-surface CXCR4 association in myeloma cells and that BTK plays a role in myeloma cell homing to bone and myeloma-induced bone disease. Am. J. Hematol. 88:463-471, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23456977

  5. Role of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase in myeloma cell migration and induction of bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Bam, Rakesh; Ling, Wen; Khan, Sharmin; Pennisi, Angela; Venkateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Li, Xin; van Rhee, Frits; Usmani, Saad; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John; Epstein, Joshua; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2014-01-01

    Myeloma cells typically grow in bone, recruit osteoclast precursors and induce their differentiation and activity in areas adjacent to tumor foci. Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK), of the TEC family, is expressed in hematopoietic cells and is particularly involved in B-lymphocyte function and osteoclastogenesis. We demonstrated BTK expression in clinical myeloma plasma cells, interleukin (IL) –6– or stroma–dependent cell lines and osteoclasts. SDF-1 induced BTK activation in myeloma cells and BTK inhibition by small hairpin RNA or the small molecule inhibitor, LFM-A13, reduced their migration toward stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). Pretreatment with LFM-A13 also reduced in vivo homing of myeloma cells to bone using bioluminescence imaging in the SCID-rab model. Enforced expression of BTK in myeloma cell line enhanced cell migration toward SDF-1 but had no effect on short-term growth. BTK expression was correlated with cell-surface CXCR4 expression in myeloma cells (n = 33, r = 0.81, P < 0.0001), and BTK gene and protein expression was more profound in cell-surface CXCR4-expressing myeloma cells. BTK was not upregulated by IL-6 while its inhibition had no effect on IL-6 signaling in myeloma cells. Human osteoclast precursors also expressed BTK and cell-surface CXCR4 and migrated toward SDF-1. LFM-A13 suppressed migration and differentiation of osteoclast precursors as well as bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. In primary myeloma-bearing SCID-rab mice, LFM-A13 inhibited osteoclast activity, prevented myeloma-induced bone resorption and moderately suppressed myeloma growth. These data demonstrate BTK and cell-surface CXCR4 association in myeloma cells and that BTK plays a role in myeloma cell homing to bone and myeloma-induced bone disease. PMID:23456977

  6. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  7. Kawasaki Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... As a result, some children who have Kawasaki disease may develop serious heart problems. Overview The cause of Kawasaki disease ... Early treatment helps reduce the risk of Kawasaki disease affecting the coronary arteries and causing serious problems. Outlook Kawasaki disease can't be prevented. ...

  8. Newcastle disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Newcastle disease (ND), referred to as Exotic Newcastle disease (END) in the U. S., is an acute viral disease of domestic poultry and many other bird species and a recognized worldwide problem. Occurrence of END is due to an infection with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and is a ...

  9. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... re like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. ... disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is ...

  10. Bone marrow transplantation for T-B- severe combined immunodeficiency disease in Athabascan-speaking native Americans.

    PubMed

    O'Marcaigh, A S; DeSantes, K; Hu, D; Pabst, H; Horn, B; Li, L; Cowan, M J

    2001-04-01

    A distinct form of autosomal recessive T-B- severe combined immunodeficiency disease occurs with a high frequency among Athabascan-speaking Native Americans (SCIDA), including Navajo and Apache Indians from the southwestern US and Dene Indians from the Canadian Northwest Territories. The SCIDA gene has been linked to markers on chromosome 10p although its identity and role in the pathogenesis of this disease are unknown. We report our experience in treating 18 Navajo and Dene children with SCIDA between 1984 and 1999; 16 underwent bone marrow transplants (BMT). All children were symptomatic within 2 months of birth, had the T-B- NK(+)SCID phenotype and 67% presented with oral and/or genital ulcers. Three children had evidence of maternal engraftment prior to transplant. Two children died shortly after diagnosis. Three children required more than one BMT and 12 are alive with T cell reconstitution at a median follow-up of 7 years. Three children developed normal B cell immunity, two of whom received ablative conditioning therapy with either radiation or busulfan. Three of the four children who died received therapy with either radiation or busulfan and two of eight long-term survivors who were also recipients of cytotoxic chemotherapy have failed to develop secondary teeth. These results demonstrate the efficacy of BMT in treating infants with this distinct form of SCID, although B cell reconstitution remains a problem even with HLA-matched donors. Without conditioning, T cell engraftment is likely when closely HLA-matched donors are used. With T cell depletion of haplocompatible marrow, conditioning with immunosuppressive therapy may be necessary; however, children with SCIDA who were treated with intensive immunosuppressive and myeloablative therapy had a poor outcome. PMID:11360109

  11. Residual Disease in a Novel Xenograft Model of RUNX1-Mutated, Cytogenetically Normal Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sivagnanalingam, Umayal; Balys, Marlene; Eberhardt, Allison; Wang, Nancy; Myers, Jason R.; Ashton, John M.; Becker, Michael W.; Calvi, Laura M.; Mendler, Jason H.

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) patients harboring RUNX1 mutations have a dismal prognosis with anthracycline/cytarabine-based chemotherapy. We aimed to develop an in vivo model of RUNX1-mutated, CN-AML in which the nature of residual disease in this molecular disease subset could be explored. We utilized a well-characterized patient-derived, RUNX1-mutated CN-AML line (CG-SH). Tail vein injection of CG-SH into NOD scid gamma mice led to leukemic engraftment in the bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood within 6 weeks. Treatment of leukemic mice with anthracycline/cytarabine-based chemotherapy resulted in clearance of disease from the spleen and peripheral blood, but persistence of disease in the bone marrow as assessed by flow cytometry and secondary transplantation. Whole exome sequencing of CG-SH revealed mutations in ASXL1, CEBPA, GATA2, and SETBP1, not previously reported. We conclude that CG-SH xenografts are a robust, reproducible in vivo model of CN-AML in which to explore mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance and novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26177509

  12. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You ... extra copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...

  13. Binswanger's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Information What is Binswanger's Disease? Binswanger's disease (BD), also called subcortical vascular dementia , is a type ... and brain tissue dies. A characteristic pattern of BD-damaged brain tissue can be seen with modern ...

  14. Huntington's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... express emotions. If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, you have a 50 percent chance of getting it. A blood test can tell you if have the HD gene and will develop the disease. Genetic counseling can ...

  15. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... neurological disorders such as Behcet's disease. The National Human Genome Research Institute, another Institute of the National Institutes of Health, conducts research into the genomic basis of Behcet's disease. This research is aimed ...

  16. Digestive diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007447.htm Digestive diseases To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Digestive diseases are disorders of the digestive tract, which ...

  17. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, ... the skin, can be one sign of liver disease. Cancer can affect the liver. You could also ...

  18. Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  19. Meniere's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear. It can cause severe dizziness, a roaring sound in your ... together over several days. Some people with Meniere's disease have "drop attacks" during which the dizziness is ...

  20. Legionnaires' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Legionnaires' disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. You usually get it by breathing in mist from ... spread from person to person. Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease include high fever, chills, a cough, and sometimes ...

  1. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder. It happens when nerve cells in the brain don't ... coordination As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple ...

  3. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond ... In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are ...

  4. Raynaud's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the ... secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are ...

  5. Addison Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make ... problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, ...

  6. Chagas Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...

  7. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You need ... copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...

  8. Fifth disease

    MedlinePlus

    Parvovirus B19; Erythema infectiosum; Slapped cheek rash ... Fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B19. It often affects preschoolers or school-age children during the spring. The disease spreads through the fluids in the nose and mouth ...

  9. Tickborne Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... for tickborne diseases ranges from studying the basic biology of the microbes that cause these diseases to ... Nucleotide Polymorphism Phylogenetics & Ontology Proteomics & Protein Analysis Systems Biology Data Portals Software Applications BCBB Mobyle Interface Designer ( ...

  10. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... our online catalog. ​ Additional Links Hashimoto's Disease Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Pregnancy & Thyroid Disease Thyroid Tests Find a Specialist ... everyone who receives radioactive iodine treatment eventually develops hypothyroidism, which occurs when the thyroid does not make ...

  11. Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  12. Menkes Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy approaches to Menkes disease. 3 1. Kaler, SG. The neurology of STPAT copper transporter disease: emerging ... Reviews Neurology , 2001:7:15-19.. 2. Kaler SG, et al. Neonatal Diagnosis and Treatment of Menkes ...

  13. Bone Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... also avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... Bones can also develop cancer and infections Other bone diseases, which are caused by poor nutrition, genetics, or ...

  14. Sandhoff Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sandhoff Disease? Sandhoff disease is a rare, inherited lipid storage disorder that progressively destroys nerve cells in ... results in the harmful accumulation of certain fats (lipids) in the brain and other organs of the ...

  15. Gaucher Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... one of the inherited metabolic disorders known as lipid storage diseases. Lipids are fatty materials that include oils, fatty acids, ... research to find ways to treat and prevent lipid storage disorders such as Gaucher disease. For example, ...

  16. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Kidney Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Kidney Disease Print A ... Syndrome Coping With Kidney Conditions What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  17. Legionnaire disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Legionnaire disease is an infection of the lungs and airways. It is caused by Legionella bacteria. Causes The bacteria that cause Legionnaire disease have ...

  18. Chagas disease

    MedlinePlus

    Kirchhoff LV. Chagas' disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 355. Kirchhoff LV. Trypanosoma species (American trypanosomiasis, Chagas' disease): Biology ...

  19. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... having celiac disease? Yes, you can have gluten sensitivity without the immune system attack on the small ... gluten causes in celiac disease. Symptoms of gluten sensitivity are generally milder than those seen in celiac ...

  20. Fifth Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...

  1. Bone Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoid smoking and drinking too much alcohol. Bone diseases can make bones easy to break. Different kinds ... break Osteogenesis imperfecta makes your bones brittle Paget's disease of bone makes them weak Bones can also ...

  2. Gaucher Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Gaucher disease is a rare, inherited disorder in which you do not have enough of an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase. ... It usually starts in childhood or adolescence. Gaucher disease has no cure. Treatment options for types 1 ...

  3. Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You are at greater risk for kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  4. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  5. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lyme disease is a bacterial infection you get from the bite of an infected tick. The first symptom ... Muscle and joint aches A stiff neck Fatigue Lyme disease can be hard to diagnose because you may ...

  6. Gilbert disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000301.htm Gilbert disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gilbert disease is a common disorder passed down through ...

  7. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune disease in which people can't eat gluten because it will damage their small intestine. If you have celiac disease and eat foods with gluten, your immune system responds by damaging the small ...

  8. Parkinson disease

    MedlinePlus

    American Parkinson Disease Association. Parkinson's Disease Handbook: A Guide for Patients and Their Families. Revised 2009. Available at: www.apdaparkinson.org/uploads/files/MP51919AmParkinsonHBK-vaU.pdf . Accessed September 15, ...

  9. Pneumococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumococcal disease. Quick Facts About Pneumococcal Disease and Vaccination According to WHO, pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis are ... of antibiotic treatment. (9, 10, 11) Conjugate pneumococcal vaccination is safe and effective for preventing severe childhood ...

  10. Kennedy's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to prevent, treat, and cure them. NIH Patient Recruitment for Kennedy's Disease Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. and Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 Kennedy's Disease Association P.O. Box ...

  11. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the liver ...

  12. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites ... can be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies ...

  13. Lyme disease

    MedlinePlus

    Lyme disease is a bacterial infection that is spread through the bite of one of several types of ... Lyme disease is caused by bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi ( B burgdorferi ). Blacklegged ticks and other species of ticks ...

  14. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prostate Diseases Basic Facts & Information What are Prostate Diseases? The prostate—one of the components of ... out anything serious. The Most Common Types of Prostate Diseases Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Prostatitis Prostate cancer ...

  15. Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Teri; Terzakis, Kristina

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects one million people in the United States. This article reviews the etiology and pathophysiology of PD, risk factors, clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria, and treatment of this common disease. Implications for home care clinicians are included. PMID:27243427

  16. Crinkle Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crinkle disease of hop was first described in Europe in 1930, and subsequent reports of the disease appear in literature published in the 1960s and 1970s. The disease appears to be of little importance in most regions of hop production. A fastidious rickettsia-like organism (RLO) is thought to cau...

  17. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Celiac disease is an immune disease in which people can't eat gluten because it will damage their small intestine. If you have celiac disease and eat foods with gluten, your immune system responds by damaging the small intestine. Gluten ...

  18. Lyme Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, George C.

    1991-01-01

    This overview of the public health significance of Lyme disease includes the microbiological specifics of the infectious spirochete, the entomology and ecology of the ticks which are the primary disease carrier, the clinical aspects and treatment stages, the known epidemiological patterns, and strategies for disease control and for expanded public…

  19. Brain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... know what causes some brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. The symptoms of brain diseases vary widely depending on the specific problem. In some cases, damage is permanent. In other cases, treatments such as surgery, medicines, or physical therapy can correct the source of the problem or ...

  20. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Behçet’s disease keep their joints strong and flexible. What Is the Prognosis for a Person With Behçet’s Disease? Most people with Behçet’s disease can lead productive lives and control symptoms with proper medicine, rest, and exercise. Doctors ...

  1. Meniere's Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schessel, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Meniere's disease is characterized by unpredictable spells of severe vertigo and fluctuations in hearing and tinnitus. This article discusses the incidence of Meniere's disease, the present status of our understanding of this disease, controversies in its diagnosis, and the multiple therapeutic modalities recruited in its treatment. (Contains…

  2. Alzheimer disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. Alzheimer disease (AD) is one form of dementia. It affects ... The exact cause of Alzheimer disease (AD) is not known. Research shows that certain changes in the brain lead to AD. You are more likely to ...

  3. Prion Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article presents an update on the clinical aspects of human prion disease, including the wide spectrum of their presentations. Recent Findings Prion diseases, a group of disorders caused by abnormally shaped proteins called prions, occur in sporadic (Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease), genetic (genetic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia), and acquired (kuru, variant Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, and iatrogenic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease) forms. This article presents updated information on the clinical features and diagnostic methods for human prion diseases. New antemortem potential diagnostic tests based on amplifying prions in order to detect them are showing very high specificity. Understanding of the diversity of possible presentations of human prion diseases continues to evolve, with some genetic forms progressing slowly over decades, beginning with dysautonomia and neuropathy and progressing to a frontal-executive dementia with pathology of combined prionopathy and tauopathy. Unfortunately, to date, all human prion disease clinical trials have failed to show survival benefit. A very rare polymorphism in the prion protein gene recently has been identified that appears to protect against prion disease; this finding, in addition to providing greater understanding of the prionlike mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders, might lead to potential treatments. Summary Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease is the most common form of human prion disease. Genetic prion diseases, resulting from mutations in the prion-related protein gene (PRNP), are classified based on the mutation, clinical phenotype, and neuropathologic features and can be difficult to diagnose because of their varied presentations. Perhaps most relevant to this Continuum issue on neuroinfectious diseases, acquired prion diseases are caused by accidental transmission to humans, but fortunately, they are the least common form and

  4. A new xenograft model of myeloma bone disease demonstrating the efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells expressing osteoprotegerin by lentiviral gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Rabin, N; Kyriakou, C; Coulton, L; Gallagher, O M; Buckle, C; Benjamin, R; Singh, N; Glassford, J; Otsuki, T; Nathwani, A C; Croucher, P I; Yong, K L

    2007-10-01

    We describe a new model of myeloma bone disease in which beta2m NOD/SCID mice injected with KMS-12-BM cells develop medullary disease after tail vein administration. Micro-computed tomography analysis demonstrated significant bone loss in the tibiae and vertebrae of diseased animals compared to controls, with loss of cortical bone (P<0.01), as well as trabecular bone volume, thickness and number (P<0.05 for all). Bone marrow of diseased animals demonstrated an increase in osteoclasts (P<0.01) and reduction in osteoblasts (P<0.01) compared to control animals. Both bone loss and osteoclast increase correlated with the degree of disease involvement. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were lentivirally transduced to express human osteoprotegerin (hOPG). Systemic administration of OPG expressing MSC reduced osteoclast activation (P<0.01) and trabecular bone loss in the vertebrae (P<0.05) and tibiae of diseased animals, to levels comparable to non-diseased controls. Because of its predominantly medullary involvement and quantifiable parameters of bone disease, the KMS-12-BM xenogeneic model provides unique opportunities to test therapies targeted at the bone marrow microenvironment. PMID:17657224

  5. Glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Vaden, Shelly L

    2011-08-01

    Glomerular diseases are a leading cause of chronic kidney disease in dogs but seem to be less common in cats. Glomerular diseases are diverse, and a renal biopsy is needed to determine the specific glomerular disease that is present in any animal. Familial glomerulopathies occur in many breeds of dogs. However, most dogs with glomerular disease have acquired glomerular injury that is either immune-complex mediated or due to systemic factors, both of which are believed to be the result of a disease process elsewhere in the body (i.e., neoplastic, infectious, and noninfectious inflammatory disorders). A thorough clinical evaluation is indicated in all dogs suspected of having glomerular disease and should include an extensive evaluation for potential predisposing disorders. Nonspecific management of dogs with glomerular disease can be divided into 3 major categories: (1) treatment of potential predisposing disorders, (2) management of proteinuria, and (3) management of uremia and other complications of glomerular disease and chronic kidney disease. Specific management of specific glomerular diseases has not been fully studied in dogs. However, it may be reasonable to consider immunosuppressive therapy in dogs that have developed a form of glomerulonephritis secondary to a steroid-responsive disease (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus) or have immune-mediated lesions that have been documented in renal biopsy specimens. Appropriate patient monitoring during therapy is important for maximizing patient care. The prognosis for dogs and cats with glomerular disease is variable and probably dependent on a combination of factors. The purpose of this article is to discuss the general diagnosis and management of dogs with glomerular disease. PMID:21782143

  6. [Social diseases, civilization diseases or lifestyle diseases?].

    PubMed

    Betlejewski, Stansław

    2007-01-01

    In general, the development of civilization is viewed as a positive step for the well-being of the human species, leading to an increased duration and quality of life. The accelerated progress of civilization (mainly industrialization, urbanization and nutrition) has lead to new possibilities for adverse effects on human health. In former high civilization--like old Egypt, Greece, Roman, Chinese, Indian, Maya civilizations--the "modem civilization diseases" were unknown. Modem science through improved sanitation, vaccination and antibiotics as well as improved social and economical conditions, has eliminated the threat of death from most infectious diseases. In the years after World War II the social, economic and health conditions changed. Most deaths have resulted from heart disease, stroke, cancer and other diseases as a result of an inappropriate relationship of people with their environment and changed lifestyle. Lifestyle diseases are different from other diseases because they are potentially preventable and can be lowered with changes in diet, lifestyle and environment. PMID:18350729

  7. The Burden of Depressive and Bipolar Disorders in Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Conti, Alessandra; Lecca, Federica; Sancassiani, Federica; Cossu, Giulia; Carruxi, Rossana; Boccone, Alessandro; Cadoni, Michela; Pisanu, Anna; Francesca Moro, Maria; Demelia, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Aims: to measure the association between Celiac Disease (CD) and affective disorders, particularly Bipolar Disorder (BD), since it has not been studied yet, and to measure how much the quality of life (QoL) of a person with CD is affected by comorbidity with these disorders. Methods: Design: Case-control study. Cases: 60 consecutive patients with CD. Controls: 240 subjects without CD, randomly selected after sex- and age-matching from a database of an epidemiological study. Psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM-IV carried out by physicians using structured interview tools (ANTAS-SCID). QoL was measured by means of SF-12. Results: The lifetime prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) was higher in CD than in controls (30.0% vs 8.3%, P<0.0001) as well as Panic Disorder (PD) (18.3% vs 5.4%, P<0.001) and BD (4.3% vs 0.4%, P<0.005). Patients with CD show a lower mean score than controls on SF12 (35.8±5.7 vs. 38.2±6.4; p=0.010), but those without comorbidity with MDD, PD and BD do not. The attributable burden of CD in worsening QoL - when comorbid with these disorders - was found comparable to that of serious chronic diseases like Wilson’s Disease, and lower than Multiple Sclerosis only. Conclusion: MDD, PD and BD are strictly associated with CD. The comorbidity with these disorders is the key determinant of impaired quality of life in CD. Thus a preventive action on mood and anxiety disorders in patients suffering from CD is required. Moreover a screening for CD in people with affective disorders and showing key symptoms or family history of CD is recommended. PMID:26962323

  8. Graft versus host disease: New insights into A2A receptor agonist therapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Karlie R; Kang, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic transplantation can cure many disorders, including sickle cell disease, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and many types of cancers. However, there are several associated risks that can result in severe immunological reactions and, in some cases, death. Much of this morbidity is related to graft versus host disease (GVHD) [1]. GVHD is an immune mediated reaction in which donor T cells recognize the host as antigenically foreign, causing donor T cells to expand and attack host tissues. The current method of treating recent transplant patients with immunosuppressants to prevent this reaction has met with only partial success, emphasizing a need for new methods of GVHD treatment and prevention. Recently, a novel strategy has emerged targeting adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) through the use of adenosine agonists. These agonists have been shown in vitro to increase the TGFβ-induced generation of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and in vivo to improve weight gain and mortality as well as inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in GVHD murine models [2,3]. Positive results involving A2AR agonists in vitro and in vivo are promising, suggesting that A2AR agonists should be a part of the management of clinical GvHD. PMID:25709759

  9. Evaluating Human T-Cell Therapy of Cytomegalovirus Organ Disease in HLA-Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Simone; Klobuch, Sebastian; Podlech, Jürgen; Plachter, Bodo; Hoffmann, Petra; Renzaho, Angelique; Theobald, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause severe disease in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although preclinical research in murine models as well as clinical trials have provided 'proof of concept' for infection control by pre-emptive CD8 T-cell immunotherapy, there exists no predictive model to experimentally evaluate parameters that determine antiviral efficacy of human T cells in terms of virus control in functional organs, prevention of organ disease, and host survival benefit. We here introduce a novel mouse model for testing HCMV epitope-specific human T cells. The HCMV UL83/pp65-derived NLV-peptide was presented by transgenic HLA-A2.1 in the context of a lethal infection of NOD/SCID/IL-2rg-/- mice with a chimeric murine CMV, mCMV-NLV. Scenarios of HCMV-seropositive and -seronegative human T-cell donors were modeled by testing peptide-restimulated and T-cell receptor-transduced human T cells, respectively. Upon transfer, the T cells infiltrated host tissues in an epitope-specific manner, confining the infection to nodular inflammatory foci. This resulted in a significant reduction of viral load, diminished organ pathology, and prolonged survival. The model has thus proven its potential for a preclinical testing of the protective antiviral efficacy of HCMV epitope-specific human T cells in the evaluation of new approaches to an immunotherapy of CMV disease. PMID:26181057

  10. Borna disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hatalski, C. G.; Lewis, A. J.; Lipkin, W. I.

    1997-01-01

    Borna disease virus, a newly classified nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus with international distribution, infects a broad range of warm-blooded animals from birds to primates. Infection causes movement and behavioral disturbances reminiscent of some neuropsychiatric syndromes. The virus has not been clearly linked to any human disease; however, an association between infection with the virus and selected neuropsychiatric disorders has been suggested. We reviewed recent advances in Borna disease virus research, focusing on evidence of infection in humans. PMID:9204293