Science.gov

Sample records for impact assessment geopressure

  1. Assessing the impacts of geopressure on exploration using integrated geological log analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Betancour, I.R. ); Vellez, F.; Gonzales, A. )

    1993-02-01

    The occurrence of geopressure anomalies in the El Furrial, Chaguaramal and Boqueron oil fields in the Maturin subbasin of the Eastern Venezuela Basin, and their heterogeneous evolution through geological time has caused significant drilling problems. Identification of these anomalies and isolation of the adjacent subcompacted formations has cost much time and money. There are two main abnormal pressure zones in the Eastern Venezuela Basin. The lower occurs in a thick homogenous marine shale sequence of the Carapita Formation, deposited during late Oligocene-early Miocene times, which was followed by a late Miocene period of uplift and erosion. The upper occurs in marine shales and sandstones of the La Pica Formation, which was transgressively deposited on the eroded Carapita Formation. Using an integrated analysis of lithology and wireline logs, tectonically-influenced sections have been identified within the lower geopressure which have modified its original conditions. Furthermore, the late Miocene unconformity between the two zones controls the occurrence, style and dimension of the upper geopressure. Detailed differential compaction analysis from low to high hydraulic potential intervals through the lithostratigraphic sequence and their association to the unconformity explain the evolution and the current state of geopressure distribution throughout the oil fields. These conclusions are supported by direct and indirect quantitative pore and fracture pressure gradient analysis. The study identifies areas within these fields (e.g., Central and Eastern Boqueron) which show alterations of the occurrence and behavior of the geopressure. Such knowledge permits rapid modifications to drilling programs, allowing successful exploration and development.

  2. Geopressured geothermal resource of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast: a technology characterization and environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Usibelli, A.; Deibler, P.; Sathaye, J.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal resource: (1) the technological requirements for well drilling, completion, and energy conversion, and, (2) the environmental impacts of resource exploitation are examined. The information comes from the literature on geopressured geothermal research and from interviews and discussions with experts. The technology characterization section emphasizes those areas in which uncertainty exists and in which further research and development is needed. The environmental assessment section discusses all anticipated environmental impacts and focuses on the two largest potential problems: (a) subsidence and (b) brine disposal.

  3. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C. E.; Harto, C. B.; Troppe, W. A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  4. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume III. (Geopressure thesaurus). Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sepehrnoori, K.; Carter, F.; Schneider, R.; Street, S.; McGill, K.

    1985-05-01

    This thesaurus of terminology associated with the geopressured geothermal energy field has been developed as a part of the Geopressured Geothermal Information System data base. The subject scope includes: (1) geopressure resource assessment; (2) geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of geopressured systems; (3) geopressure exploration and exploration technology; (4) geopressured reservoir engineering and drilling technology; (5) economic aspects; (6) environmental aspects; (7) legal, institutional, and sociological aspects; (8) electrical and nonelectrical utilization; and (9) other energy sources, especially methane and other fossil fuel reserves, associated with geopressured reservoirs.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF GEOPRESSURED WATERS AND THEIR PROJECTED USES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A possible source of alternate energy for the nation is believed to exist in the deep geopressured reservoirs found in the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast sedimentary basins. This report considers the potential uses of the geopressured geothermal resource and the environmental asp...

  6. Environmental impact of geopressure - geothermal cogeneration facility on wetland resources and socioeconomic characteristics in Louisiana Gulf Coast region. Final report, October 10, 1983-September 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, A.M.; Saleh, F.M.S.; Fontenot, M.

    1984-08-01

    Baseline data relevant to air quality are presented. The following are also included: geology and resource assessment, design well prospects in southwestern Louisiana, water quality monitoring, chemical analysis subsidence, microseismicity, geopressure-geothermal subsidence modeling, models of compaction and subsidence, sampling handling and preparation, brine chemistry, wetland resources, socioeconomic characteristics, impacts on wetlands, salinity, toxic metals, non-metal toxicants, temperature, subsidence, and socioeconomic impacts. (MHR)

  7. Geopressured geothermal bibliography (Geopressure Thesaurus)

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This thesaurus of terminology associated with the geopressured geothermal energy field has been developed as a part of the Geopressured Geothermal Information System data base. A thesaurus is a compilation of terms displaying synonymous, hierarchical, and other relationships between terms. These terms, which are called descriptors, constitute the special language of the information retrieval system, the system vocabulary. The Thesaurus' role in the Geopressured Geothermal Information System is to provide a controlled vocabulary of sufficient specificity for subject indexing and retrieval of documents in the geopressured geothermal energy field. The thesauri most closely related to the Geopressure Thesaurus in coverage are the DOE Energy Information Data Base Subject Thesaurus and the Geothermal Thesaurus being developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The Geopressure Thesaurus differs from these thesauri in two respects: (1) specificity of the vocabulary or subject scope and (2) display format.

  8. Geothermal energy geopressure subprogram

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The proposed action will consist of drilling one geopressured-geothermal resource fluid well for intermittent production testing over the first year of the test. During the next two years, long-term testing of 40,000 BPD will be flowed. A number of scenarios may be implemented, but it is felt that the total fluid production will approximate 50 million barrels. The test well will be drilled with a 22 cm (8.75 in.) borehole to a total depth of approximately 5185 m (17,000 ft). Up to four disposal wells will provide disposal of the fluid from the designated 40,000 BPD test rate. The following are included in this assessment: the existing environment; probable environmental impacts-direct and indirect; probable cumulative and long-term environmental impacts; accidents; coordination with federal, state, regional, and local agencies; and alternative actions. (MHR)

  9. Problem definition study of subsidence caused by geopressured geothermal resource development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The environmental and socio-economic settings of four environmentally representative Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal fairways were inventoried. Subsidence predictions were prepared using feasible development scenarios for the four representative subsidence sites. Based on the results of the subsidence estimates, an assessment of the associated potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts was prepared. An inventory of mitigation measures was also compiled. Results of the subsidence estimates and impact assessments are presented, as well as conclusions as to what are the major uncertainties, problems, and issues concerning the future study of geopressured geothermal subsidence.

  10. Assessment of the geothermal/geopressure potential of the Gulf Coastal Plan of Alabama. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.V.; Wang, G.C.; Mancini, E.A.; Benson, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Geothermal and geopressure as well as geologic and geophysical data were studied to evaluate the potential for future development of geothermal resources underlying the Alabama Coastal Plain. Wire-line log data compiled and interpreted from more than 1300 oil and gas test wells included maximum recorded temperatures, mud weights, rock resistivities as related to geopressure, formation tops, fault locations, and depths to basement rock. The Alabama Coastal Plain area is underlain by a conduction dominated, deep sedimentary basin where geothermal gradients are low to moderate (1.0 to 1.8/sup 0/F/100 feet). In some areas of southwest Alabama, abnormally high temperatures are found in association with geopressured zones within the Haynesville Formation of Jurassic age; however, rocks of poor reservoir quality dominate this formation, with the exception of a 200-square-mile area centered in southernmost Clarke County where a porous and permeable sand unit is encased within massive salt deposits of the lower Haynesville. The results of a petrograhic study of the Smackover Formation, which underlies the Haynesville, indicate that this carbonate rock unit has sufficient porosity in some areas to be considered a potential geothermal reservoir. Future development of geothermal resources in south Alabama will be restricted to low or moderate temperature, non-electric applications, which constitute a significant potential energy source for applications in space heating and cooling and certain agricultural and industrial processes.

  11. Evaluation of potential geopressure geothermal test sites in southern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Bassiouni, Z.

    1980-04-01

    Six geopressured-geothermal prospects in southern Louisiana were studied in detail to assess their potential use as test sites for the production of geopressure-geothermal energy. Each of the six sites contains substantial quantities of energy. Three of these prospects, Grand Lake, Lake Theriot, and Bayou Hebert, appear to be suitable for a test site. A summary of the findings is presented.

  12. Geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.

    1992-10-01

    Since September 1978, microseismic networks have operated continuously around US Department of Energy (DOE) geopressured-geothermal well sites to monitor any microearthquake activity in the well vicinity. Microseismic monitoring is necessary before flow testing at a well site to establish the level of local background seismicity. Once flow testing has begun, well development may affect ground elevations and/or may activate growth faults, which are characteristic of the coastal region of southern Louisiana and southeastern Texas where these geopressured-geothermal wells are located. The microseismic networks are designed to detest small-scale local earthquakes indicative of such fault activation. Even after flow testing has ceased, monitoring continues to assess any microearthquake activity delayed by the time dependence of stress migration within the earth. Current monitoring shows no microseismicity in the geopressured-geothermal prospect areas before, during, or after flow testing.

  13. Environmental assessment: geothermal energy geopressure subprogram. DOE Sweet Lake No. 1, Cameron Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    The following are described: the proposed action; existing environment; probable impacts, direct and indirect; probable cumulative and long-term environmental impacts; accidents; coordination with federal, state, and local agencies; and alternatives. (MHR)

  14. Subsurface evaluation of the geopressured-geothermal Chloe Prospect, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Kurth, R.J.

    1981-12-01

    A 123 square mile area approximately 10 miles east of Lake Charles, Louisiana, has been studied to assess its potential geopressured-geothermal resources. Subsurface information was used to study the structure and stratigraphy of the area as they related to the development of geopressured aquifers. The Middle Frio Hackberry wedge was found to contain the geopressured-geothermal reservoir sand, as well as the shales responsible for the origin and sealing of the geopressured strata. The major reservoir within the wedge is the Hackberry massive A sand.

  15. Geopressured habitat: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, Jane

    1992-09-01

    A literature review of the geopressured-geothermal habitat is summarized. Findings are presented and discussed with respect to the principal topics: Casual agents are both geological and geochemical; they include disequilibrium compaction of sediments, clay diagenesis, aquathermal pressuring, hydrocarbon generation, and lateral tectonic compression. The overall physical and chemical characteristics of the habitats are dictated by varying combinations of sedimentation rates, alteration mineralogy, permeability, porosity and pressure, temperature, fluid content and chemistry, and hydrodynamic flow. Habitat pressure seals are considered in terms of their formation processes, geologic characteristics, and physical behavior, including pressure release and reservoir pressure recharge on a geologic time scale. World-wide occurrence of geopressured-geothermal habitats is noted. The main thrust of this topic concerns the U.S.A. and Canada; in addition, reference is made to occurrences in China and indications from deep-sea vents, as well as the contribution of paleo-overpressure to habitat initiation and maintenance. Identification and assessment of the habitat is addressed in relation to use of hydrogeologic, geophysical, geochemical, and geothermic techniques, as well as well-logging and drill-stem-test data. Conclusions concerning the adequacy of the current state of knowledge and its applicability to resource exploration and development are set forth, together with recommendations for the thrust of future work.

  16. Subsidence in geopressured geothermal resource test sites: Monitoring assessment combining geodetic leveling and tidal control stations in southwestern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, K.E.; John, C.J. ); Trahan, D.B. )

    1989-09-01

    The Louisiana Geological Survey has an ongoing environmental monitoring program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, at geopressured geothermal prospect well sites in southwestern Louisiana. This paper presents the results from monitoring subsidence at some of these reservoir sites. Over 1,000 km of first-order surveys and data from several NOAA and US Army Corps of Engineers tidal control stations were examined to determine regional trends. Tidal records were used to examine the history of sea level with respect to the land surface. Relative rates of land subsidence can be determined by comparing rates of water level rise over time with rates of rise from a stable craton. Regional subsidence ranges from 3 to 5 mm/year. First-order bench-mark networks established at Parcperdue, Sweet Lake, and Gladys McCall prospects were used to determine local trends of subsidence. Repeated leveling surveys before, during, and after fluid withdrawal from Parcperdue and Gladys McCall indicate that an increase in subsidence was observed during the drilling of the wells. Data suggest subsidence was possibly due to surface loading by heavy drilling equipment. Historical leveling in the Sweet Lake region indicates differential compaction between sediments as a possible cause for subsidence. However, in all cases, virtually no increase in subsidence was observed during and after times of fluid withdrawal.

  17. Brine and gas recovery from geopressured systems. I. Parametric calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, S.K.; Riney, T.D.

    1984-02-01

    A series of parametric calculations was run with the S-CUBED geopressured-geothermal simulator MUSHRM to assess the effects of important formation, fluid and well parameters on brine and gas recovery from geopressured reservoir systems. The specific parameters considered are formation permeability, pore-fluid salinity, temperature and gas content, well radius and location with respect to reservoir boundaries, desired flow rate, and possible shale recharge. It was found that the total brine and gas recovered (as a fraction of the resource in situ) were most sensitive to formation permeability, pore-fluid gas content, and shale recharge.

  18. Comparison of estimated and background subsidence rates in Texas-Louisiana geopressured geothermal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, L.M.; Clayton, M.; Everingham, J.; Harding, R.C.; Massa, A.

    1982-06-01

    A comparison of background and potential geopressured geothermal development-related subsidence rates is given. Estimated potential geopressured-related rates at six prospects are presented. The effect of subsidence on the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast is examined including the various associated ground movements and the possible effects of these ground movements on surficial processes. The relationships between ecosystems and subsidence, including the capability of geologic and biologic systems to adapt to subsidence, are analyzed. The actual potential for environmental impact caused by potential geopressured-related subsidence at each of four prospects is addressed. (MHR)

  19. Operations research and systems analysis of geopressured-geothermal energy in Louisiana. Final report for the period June 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.E. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    The primary purpose was to provide a projection of the probable future contribution of the geopressured-geothermal energy resource in Louisiana to the overall energy requirements of the nation. A number of associated objectives were emphasized: namely, development of the tools and methodology for performing economic analyses, application of these tools to specific prospects about which adequate resource assessments have been made, identification of the impediments to resource development, and socio-economic analysis of the impact of development of the resource on these specific prospects. An overview of the geopressured-geothermal resource activities in Louisiana is provided first, followed by a detailed discussion and review of the achievements of this project. Finally the major conclusions and findings of this project with respect to commercial viability, impediments, and social and economic impact are presented, and recommendations are made for future systems analysis work.

  20. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Drilling and Testing Activity (Frio, Wilcox, and Tuscaloosa Formations, Texas and Louisiana)

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a program to evaluate the feasibility of developing the geothermal-geopressured energy resources of the Louisiana-Texas Gulf Coast. As part of this effort, DOE is contracting for the drilling of design wells to define the nature and extent of the geopressure resource. At each of several sites, one deep well (4000-6400 m) will be drilled and flow tested. One or more shallow wells will also be drilled to dispose of geopressured brines. Each site will require about 2 ha (5 acres) of land. Construction and initial flow testing will take approximately one year. If initial flow testing is successful, a continuous one-year duration flow test will take place at a rate of up to 6400 m{sup 3} (40,000 bbl) per day. Extensive tests will be conducted on the physical and chemical composition of the fluids, on their temperature and flow rate, on fluid disposal techniques, and on the reliability and performance of equipment. Each project will require a maximum of three years to complete drilling, testing, and site restoration.

  1. Gas evolution from geopressured brines

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, C.S.

    1980-06-01

    The process of gas evolution from geopressured brine is examined using as a basis the many past studies of gas evolution from liquids in porous media. A discussion of a number of speculations that have been made concerning gas evolution from geopressured brines is provided. According to one, rapid pressure reduction will cause methane gas to evolve as when one opens a champagne bottle. It has been further speculated that evolved methane gas would migrate up to form an easily producible cap. As a result of detailed analyses, it can be concluded that methane gas evolution from geopressured brines is far too small to ever form a connected gas saturation except very near to the producing well. Thus, no significant gas cap could ever form. Because of the very low solubility of methaned in brine, the process of methane gas evolution is not at all analogous to evolution of carbon dioxide from champagne. A number of other speculations and questions on gas evolution are analyzed, and procedures for completing wells and testing geopressured brine reservoirs are discussed, with the conclusion that presently used procedures will provide adequate data to enable a good evaluation of this resource.

  2. Environmental impact assessment of abnormal events: a follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Lee, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Impact analyses included in environmental assessments for a selected nuclear power plant, petroleum storage facility, crude oil pipeline, and geopressure well that have experienced operational, abnormal events are compared with the data quantifying the environmental impacts of the events. Comparisons of predicted vs actual impacts suggests that prediction of the types of events and associated impacts could be improved; in some instances, impacts have been underestimated. Analysis of abnormal events is especially important in environmental assessment documents addressing a technology that is novel or unique to a particular area. Incorporation of abnormal event impact analysis into project environmental monitoring and emergency response plans can help improve these plans and can help reduce the magnitude of environmental impacts resulting from said events.

  3. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume II (geopressure thesaurus). Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sepehrnoori, K.; Carter, F.; Schneider, R.; Street, S.; McGill, K.

    1983-05-01

    This thesaurus of terminology associated with the geopressured geothermal energy field has been developed as a part of the Geopressured Geothermal Information System data base. It is a compilation of terms displaying synomymous, hierarchical, and other relationships between terms. These terms, which are called descriptors, constitute the special language of the information retrieval system - the system vocabulary. The function of this thesaurus is to provide a standardized vocabulary for the information storage and retrieval system to facilitate both the indexing and subject-searching processes. In indexing, a thesaurus is used to translate the natural language of the document to be indexed into the standardized system vocabulary and to place the document at the appropriate level of generality or specificity in relation to the other documents in the data base. In subject retrieval, the thesaurus is used to match the natural language used in search requests with the system vocabulary and to find the most appropriate term to represent a concept.

  4. Geopressured energy availability. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Near- and long-term prospects that geopressured/geothermal energy sources could become a viable alternative fuel for electric power generation were investigated. Technical questions of producibility and power generation were included, as well as economic and environmental considerations. The investigators relied heavily on the existing body of information, particularly in geotechnical areas. Statistical methods were used where possible to establish probable production values. Potentially productive geopressured sediments have been identified in twenty specific on-shore fairways in Louisiana and Texas. A total of 232 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of dissolved methane and 367 x 10/sup 15/ Btu (367 quads) of thermal energy may be contained in the water within the sandstone in these formations. Reasonable predictions of the significant reservoir parameters indicate that a maximum of 7.6 TCF methane and 12.6 quads of thermal energy may be producible from these potential reservoirs.

  5. Technical support for geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    Continuous recording microearthquake monitoring networks have been established around US Department of Energy (DOE) geopressured-geothermal design wells in southwestern Louisiana and southeastern Texas since summer 1980 to assess the effects well development may have had on subsidence and growth-fault activation. This monitoring has shown several unusual characteristics of Gulf Coast seismic activity. The observed activity is classified into two dominant types, one with identifiable body phases (type 1) and the other with only surface-wave signatures (type 2). During this reporting period no type 1 or body-wave events were reported. A total of 230 type 2 or surface-wave events were recorded. Origins of the type 2 events are still not positively understood; however, little or no evidence is available to connect them with geopressured-geothermal well activity. We continue to suspect sonic booms from military aircraft or some other human-induced source. 37 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana. Annual report, 1 January 1991--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.

    1992-10-01

    Since September 1978, microseismic networks have operated continuously around US Department of Energy (DOE) geopressured-geothermal well sites to monitor any microearthquake activity in the well vicinity. Microseismic monitoring is necessary before flow testing at a well site to establish the level of local background seismicity. Once flow testing has begun, well development may affect ground elevations and/or may activate growth faults, which are characteristic of the coastal region of southern Louisiana and southeastern Texas where these geopressured-geothermal wells are located. The microseismic networks are designed to detest small-scale local earthquakes indicative of such fault activation. Even after flow testing has ceased, monitoring continues to assess any microearthquake activity delayed by the time dependence of stress migration within the earth. Current monitoring shows no microseismicity in the geopressured-geothermal prospect areas before, during, or after flow testing.

  7. Hydropressure tongues within regionally geopressured lower Tuscaloosa sandstone, Tuscaloosa trend, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloh, R.P.; Purcell, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    A regional study of the Tuscaloosa Formation in Louisiana, undertaken to assess geopressured-geothermal potential, revealed lobate, downdip extensions of the hydropressured zone in lower Tuscaloosa massive sandstone facies below the regional top of geopressure. Normal pressure zones within geopressured section were identified by drilling mud weights less than 13 pounds per gallon on electric logs of massive lower Tuscaloosa sandstone, and cross sections demonstrated updip continuity of these zones with the regional hydropressured zone. These hydropressure tongues are permitted by the anomalously high permeabilities reportd from the deep Tuscaloosa trend which have been attributed to both primary and secondary porosity. The hydropressure tongues correspond with lobes of thick net sandstone, principally in Pointe Coupee, East Feliciana, East Baton Rouge, and Livingston Parishes in the central Tuscaloosa trend. Limited control suggests at least one hydropressure tongue in the Chandeleur Sound area to the east.

  8. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume 1 (citation extracts)

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This bibliography was compiled by the Center for Energy Studies at The University of Texas at Austin to serve as a tool for researchers in the field of geopressured geothermal energy resources. The bibliography represents citations of papers on geopressured geothermal energy resources over the past eighteen years. Topics covered in the bibliography range from the technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to social, environmental, and legal aspects of tapping those reservoirs for their energy resources. The bibliography currently contains more than 750 entries. For quick reference to a given topic, the citations are indexed into five divisions: author, category, conference title, descriptor, and sponsor. These indexes are arranged alphabetically and cross-referenced by page number.

  9. Community Impact Assessment Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Alberta Development Council, Peace River.

    This handbook is intended for communities that wish to undertake their own community impact assessment (CIA). The goal is to enable communities to plan for changes before they occur, so they can cope with changes when they do occur. CIA involves forecasting and evaluating the full range of unintended consequences for the community of development…

  10. Environmental Impact Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrilli, Joseph; Block, Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    Increasing concern with pollution and the energy crisis surfaced the need for environmental impact assessment. Certain requirements for such statements have been identified by different Canadian groups. Among them are the need for total citizen involvement and the utilization of these statements, once completed. (MA)

  11. Leveling Sweet Lake Geopressured Well Site

    SciTech Connect

    1984-07-01

    First Order leveling surveys to be conducted as part of an environmental monitoring program for geopressured test well. Conduct first order leveling to determine the elevation of the previously installed and leveled bench marks in the area of the Sweetlake geothermal well. All leveling surveys to conform to NGS standards and specifications.

  12. Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Fortuna, Raymond; Jelacic, Allan

    1989-04-01

    The geopressured-geothermal resource consists of deeply buried reservoirs of hot brine, under abnormally high pressures, that contain dissolved methane. Geopressured brine reservoirs with pressures approaching the lithostatic load are known to occur both onshore and offshore beneath the Gulf of Mexico coast, along the Pacific west coast, in Appalachia, as well as in deep sedimentary basins elsewhere in the United States. The Department of Energy (DOE) has concentrated its research on the northern Gulf of Mexico sedimentary basin (Figure 1) which consists largely of Tertiary interbedded sandstones and shales deposited in alternating deltaic, fluvial, and marine environments. Thorsen (1964) and Norwood and Holland (1974) describe three generalized depositional facies in sedimentary beds of the Gulf Coast Geosyncline (Figure 2 ): (1) a massive sandstone facies in which sandstone constitutes 50 percent o r more of the sedimentary volume; (2) an alternating sandstone and shale facies in which sandstone constitutes 15 to 35 percent of the sedimentary volume. (3) a massive shale facies in which sandstone constitutes 15 percent or less of the sedimentary volume. In general, at any given location the volume of sandstone decreases with increasing depth. The datum of higher-than-normal fluid pressures is associated with the alternating sandstone and shale facies and the massive shale facies. Faulting and salt tectonics have complicated the depositional patterns and influenced the distribution of geopressured reservoirs (Wallace et a1 1978). The sandstones in the alternating sandstone and shale facies have the greatest potential for geopressured-geothermal energy development. Due to the insulating effect of surrounding shales, temperatures of the geopressured-geothermal brines typically range from 250 F to over 350 F, and under prevailing temperature, pressure, and salinity conditions, the brine contains 20 or more cubic feet of methane per barrel. Wallace et al (1978

  13. The Geopressured-Geothermal Resource, research and use

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Resource has an estimated accessible resource base of 5700 quads of gas and 11,000 quads of thermal energy in the onshore Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast area alone. After 15 years the program is now beginning a transition to commercialization. The program presently has three geopressured- geothermal wells in Texas and Louisiana. Supporting research in the Geopressured Program includes research on rock mechanics, logging, geologic studies, reservoir modeling, and co-location of brine and heavy oil, environmental monitoring, geologic studies, hydrocarbons associated with the geopressured brines and development of a pH monitor for harsh environments, research support in prediction of reservoir behavior, thermal enhanced oil recovery, direct use, hydraulic and thermal conversion, and use of supercritical processes and pyrolysis in detoxification. The on-going research and well operations are preparing the way to commercialization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource is covered in this report. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A survey of potential geopressured resource areas in California

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, S.K.; Robertson-Tait, A.; Kraemer, M.; Buening, N.

    1993-01-28

    This paper presents the initial results of a survey of the occurrence and characteristics of geopressured fluid resources in California using the publicly-available database involving more than 150,000 oil and gas wells drilled in the State. Of the 975 documented on-shore oil and gas pools studied, about 42% were identified as potentially geopressured. Geothermal gradients in California oil and gas fields lie within the normal range of 1°F to 2°F per 100 feet. Except for the Los Angeles Basin, there was no evidence of higher temperatures or temperature gradients in geopressured pools. The porosity of geopressured pools shows the same normal distribution as for normal pressured pools, with a mode in the range of 20 to 25%. The salinity distribution of both the geopressured and normal pressured pools appear to be bimodal, each with two peak ranges of 0 to 10,000 and 25,000 to 30,000 ppm. Compared to the U.S. Gulf Coast region, geopressured pools in California display much lower water salinities, and therefore, should have a higher solubility for methane. Geopressured pools in California occur in the depth range of less than 1,000 feet to more than 18,000 feet. The modal depth of geopressured pools in California is 2,000 to 4,000 feet, much shallower than that encountered in the Gulf Coast region. The distribution of thickness of geopressured pools is similar to that of normal pressured pools, the majority being less than 250 feet thick. The distributions of the volume of geopressured and normal pressured pools are similar, the modal value being in the range of I to 10 billion cubic feet.

  15. Scoping for Social Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Ross, Helen

    2000-12-01

    Social assessment combines research, analytic, and participatory processes to identify, describe, and interpret changes in the ?human environment? that result from any of a wide variety of change agents -- projects, policies, or planning activities. Scoping for social impact assessment draws upon these same three processes - research, analysis, and participation - to: - Disclose information about the proposed action, preliminary estimates of impacts, and plans for the decision making and assessment effort - Initiate dialogue with the interested and potentially affected publics and decision makers - Establish the focus and level of detail of the assessment, identify particular issues that need to be addressed, and clarify how potentially affected publics will be consulted and involved. This chapter describes the function and key objectives of the scoping process, explains the assessment framework and the conventions and issues that set the context for the scoping process, provides some suggestions about how to plan and conduct scoping for a social assessment, and discusses some of the key issues that must be addressed in designing an effective scoping process for social impact assessment. Our approach recognises that social scientists may be involved in assessment tasks that involve other disciplinary areas. This may be an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA, the analysis of the impacts of policies or plans, or the combination of impact assessment with planning), or a planning process.

  16. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  17. Survey of potential geopressured resource areas in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, S.K.; Robertson-Tait, A.; Kraemer, M.; Buening, N.

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents the initial results of a survey of the occurrence and characteristics of geopressured fluid resources in California using the publicly- available database involving more than 150,000 oil and gas wells drilled in the State. Of the 975 documented on-shore oil and gas pools studied, about 42% were identified as potentially geopressured. Geothermal gradients in California oil and gas fields lie within the normal range of 1 F to 2 F per 100 feet. Except for the Los Angeles Basin, there was no evidence of higher temperatures or temperature gradients in geopressured pools.

  18. Geopressured geothermal reservoir continuity: Louisiana and Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, C.R.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    The areal extent of aquifers which provide the production drive for Gulf Coast geopressured gas reservoirs are postulated to be representative of the areal extents of geopressured geothermal aquifers. Accordingly, the performances of nine water-drive geopressured gas reservoirs were analyzed to obtain inferences of the production-driving aquifers' sizes. Apparent areal extents of these aquifers ranged from 4 to 35 square miles. Two-thirds (6) of the aquifer extents exceeded 12 square miles. All three SP-log types (increased deflection upward, decreased deflection upward and uniform deflection) are represented in this larger aquifer data set. Comparisons of these inferred aquifer volumes with those determined from well log data and correlations are consistent with the existence of hydraulic reservoir continuity across faults and pinch-outs of sand within fault compartments. The magnitudes of in situ rock pore volume compressibility and shale watering could also be evaluated by careful analysis of geopressured gas reservoir performance data.

  19. Screening of three proposed DOE geopressured-geothermal aquifer natural gas project areas for potential conflicting commercial production: Freshwater Bayou, Lake Theriot, and Kaplan, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, C.F.; Rogers, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    Three proposed DOE geopressured geothermal prospects defined by the Louisiana State University resource assessment group were screened for possible conflict with existing gas production. The analysis used the public records available at the Louisiana Department of Conservation offices in Baton Rouge and structural and statigraphic interpretations made by the L.S.U. resource assessment group. (MHR)

  20. An Evaluation of Geopressured Brine Injectability

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.; Blair, C.K.; Harrar, J.E.; Netherton, R.

    1980-12-16

    We-have developed an apparatus with a capability for evaluating geopressured brine injectability at elevated pressures and temperatures. The apparatus utilizes membrane filters as injection zone reservoir analogs and permits injectability tests to be performed in accordance with Barkman and Davidson Methdology. A field evaluation of geopressured brine injectability was completed during September 22-25, 1980 at the DOE, Brazoria test site in Texas. Membrane filters, with pore sizes of 0.4-{micro}m and 10.0-{micro}m, were used as the basis for obtaining suspended solids data and for developing performance-life estimates of typical spent brine injection wells. Field measurements were made at 130{degree}C and line pressures up to 3800 psig. Scale inhibited (phosphonate-polyacrylate threshold-type, carbonate scale inhibitor), prefiltered-scale-inhibited, and raw (untreated) brine were evaluated. Test results indicated raw brine was highly injectable, while scale-inhibited brine had extremely low quality. The poor injectability of scale-inhibited brine resulted from partial precipitation of the scale inhibitor.

  1. Secondary impact hazard assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A series of light gas gun shots (4 to 7 km/sec) were performed with 5 mg nylon and aluminum projectiles to determine the size, mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of spall and ejecta from a number of graphite/epoxy targets. Similar determinations were also performed on a few aluminum targets. Target thickness and material were chosen to be representative of proposed Space Station structure. The data from these shots and other information were used to predict the hazard to Space Station elements from secondary particles resulting from impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the Space Station. This hazard was quantified as an additional flux over and above the primary micrometeoroid and orbital debris flux that must be considered in the design process. In order to simplify the calculations, eject and spall mass were assumed to scale directly with the energy of the projectile. Other scaling systems may be closer to reality. The secondary particles considered are only those particles that may impact other structure immediately after the primary impact. The addition to the orbital debris problem from these primary impacts was not addressed. Data from this study should be fed into the orbital debris model to see if Space Station secondaries make a significant contribution to orbital debris. The hazard to a Space Station element from secondary particles above and beyond the micrometeoroid and orbital debris hazard is categorized in terms of two factors: (1) the 'view factor' of the element to other Space Station structure or the geometry of placement of the element, and (2) the sensitivity to damage, stated in terms of energy. Several example cases were chosen, the Space Station module windows, windows of a Shuttle docked to the Space Station, the habitat module walls, and the photovoltaic solar cell arrays. For the examples chosen the secondary flux contributed no more than 10 percent to the total flux (primary and secondary) above a given calculated

  2. Secondary impact hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-06-01

    A series of light gas gun shots (4 to 7 km/sec) were performed with 5 mg nylon and aluminum projectiles to determine the size, mass, velocity, and spatial distribution of spall and ejecta from a number of graphite/epoxy targets. Similar determinations were also performed on a few aluminum targets. Target thickness and material were chosen to be representative of proposed Space Station structure. The data from these shots and other information were used to predict the hazard to Space Station elements from secondary particles resulting from impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris on the Space Station. This hazard was quantified as an additional flux over and above the primary micrometeoroid and orbital debris flux that must be considered in the design process. In order to simplify the calculations, eject and spall mass were assumed to scale directly with the energy of the projectile. Other scaling systems may be closer to reality. The secondary particles considered are only those particles that may impact other structure immediately after the primary impact. The addition to the orbital debris problem from these primary impacts was not addressed. Data from this study should be fed into the orbital debris model to see if Space Station secondaries make a significant contribution to orbital debris. The hazard to a Space Station element from secondary particles above and beyond the micrometeoroid and orbital debris hazard is categorized in terms of two factors: (1) the 'view factor' of the element to other Space Station structure or the geometry of placement of the element, and (2) the sensitivity to damage, stated in terms of energy. Several example cases were chosen, the Space Station module windows, windows of a Shuttle docked to the Space Station, the habitat module walls, and the photovoltaic solar cell arrays. For the examples chosen the secondary flux contributed no more than 10 percent to the total flux (primary and secondary) above a given calculated

  3. Brazoria County Re-Leveling Pleasant Bayou Geopressured Well Site

    SciTech Connect

    1984-07-01

    The purpose is to conduct first order leveling surveys as part of an ongoing environmental monitoring program for geopressured-geothermal test wells. The scope is to Conduct First Order, Class I, leveling to monitor subsidence of previously installed and leveled bench marks, established by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and Vernon F. Meyer and Associates, Inc., in the area of the Pleasant Bayou geopressured test well. All leveling surveys to conform to NGS standards and specifications.

  4. Identification of geopressured occurrences outside of the Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Strongin, O.

    1981-03-05

    The work focused on the occurrences of geopressures in Appalachia and selected California basins. In the former region, where geopressures have been observed, the pressure gradients for the most part were only slightly above normal as in the case of the Oriskany formation of Devonian age; this unit was also characterized by extremely high salinity. The one notable exception was in the Rome trough of West Virginia where Cambrian beds at depths below 10,000 feet display very high geopressures, approaching the lithostatic gradient, and the waters are only moderately saline. Though the geothermal gradient throughout Appalachian is relatively low, even in the Rome trough, the pressure, temperature and salinity values in this area indicate that the methane content of the Cambrian formation waters is in the range of 30 to 35 SCF/barrel. The two California areas researched included the contiguous Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. In the first, geopressures have been principally encountered in the Forbes formation of Cretaceous age, often at very shallow depths. Further waters are invariably characterized by very low salinity, far below the salinity of normal sea water, while the geothermal gradient in apparently higher in geopressured than in normally pressured zones. In the San Joaquin Valley, geopressures are particularly noteworthy in at least two formations of Miocene age at depths generally greater than those of the Forbes. The formation waters are likewise low in salinity; however, the geothemal gradient, especially in the geopressured zones on the west side of the valley, can be extremely high, up to twice as much as the normal temperature gradient. In view of these conditions, it is estimated that in the western San Joaquin Valley the methane content of geopressured formation waters will range from 30 to 40 SCF/barrel while in the Sacramento Valley, the methane content is estimated to be 20 to 25 SCF/barrel.

  5. Parcperdue Geopressure--Geothermal Project: Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    Sweezy, L.R.

    1981-10-05

    The reservoir models used to perform the drawdown and buildup pressure analyses consist of analytic forms in lieu of the finite difference or numeric simulator types. Analytic models are derived from solutions of the diffusion equation which relate a pressure response with time and distance in the reservoir for a specified flow system. Solutions of the diffusion equation are obtained through mathematical methods such as Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, Neuman's product techniques and Green's functions. Before an analytic solution is derived, the diffusivity equation is expressed in terms of dimensionless potential (m{sub D}), dimensionless distance (r{sub D}) and dimensionless time (t{sub D}). For the cylindrical coordinate case, the diffusivity equation in dimensionless form for a geopressured system is given.

  6. Parcperdue Geopressure -- Geothermal Project: Appendix E

    SciTech Connect

    Sweezy, L.R.

    1981-10-05

    The mechanical and transport properties and characteristics of rock samples obtained from DOW-DOE L.R. SWEEZY NO. 1 TEST WELL at the Parcperdue Geopressure/Geothermal Site have been investigated in the laboratory. Elastic moduli, compressibility, uniaxial compaction coefficient, strength, creep parameters, permeability, acoustic velocities (all at reservoir conditions) and changes in these quantities induced by simulated reservoir production have been obtained from tests on several sandstone and shale samples from different depths. Most important results are that the compaction coefficients are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those generally accepted for the reservoir sand in the Gulf Coast area and that the creep behavior is significant. Geologic characterization includes lithological description, SEM micrographs and mercury intrusion tests to obtain pore distributions. Petrographic analysis shows that approximately half of the total sand interval has excellent reservoir potential and that most of the effective porosity in the Cib Jeff Sand is formed by secondary porosity development.

  7. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  8. Technical support for geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana. Final report, September 27, 1978-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wrighton, F.M.; Bebout, D.; Carver, D.R.; Groat, C.C.; Johnson, A.E. Jr.

    1981-08-31

    The data analysis is based on the Brazoria Texas well and the balance of the modeling work is theoretical. Progress in the regional assessment of the geopressured-geothermal resource in Louisiana is reported. Environmental monitoring effort established monitoring systems and baseline environmental measurements. Efforts to improve the technoeconomic model, improve the estimates of methane in solution, and to evaluate newly identified sites are described. (MHR)

  9. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (videotape)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Originally developed for the US EPA Regions, this presentation is available to the general public via the internet. The presentation focuses on the basics of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) including the ISO 14040 series framework and a quick overview of each of the steps wi...

  10. Research and Development Program Plan for Geopressure-Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The objective of the Geopressure-Geothermal Program of the Division of Geothermal Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, is to determine by the end of FY86 the magnitude and economic potential of the geopressure-geothermal resources. This Program Plan describes how the Department of Energy proposes to achieve this objective. The main purposes of the current program are to narrow the range of uncertainty on the potential recovery of energy from the geopressure-geothermal resources and to ensure the timely development of these resources as the potential is demonstrated. For these purposes, the Division of Geothermal Energy has established the following objectives: (1) Define the magnitude, potential, and economics of the resources. (2) Conduct supporting research on reservoir and fluid characteristics. (3) Adapt or develop downhole, surface, and disposal technology. (4) Identify and mitigate adverse environmental, legal, and institutional issues in order to promote commercialization.

  11. Wilcox sandstone reservoirs in the deep subsurface along the Texas Gulf Coast: their potential for production of geopressured geothermal energy. Report of Investigations No. 117

    SciTech Connect

    Debout, D.G.; Weise, B.R.; Gregory, A.R.; Edwards, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Regional studies of the lower Eocene Wilcox Group in Texas were conducted to assess the potential for producing heat energy and solution methane from geopressured fluids in the deep-subsurface growth-faulted zone. However, in addition to assembling the necessary data for the geopressured geothermal project, this study has provided regional information of significance to exploration for other resources such as lignite, uranium, oil, and gas. Because the focus of this study was on the geopressured section, emphasis was placed on correlating and mapping those sandstones and shales occurring deeper than about 10,000 ft. The Wilcox and Midway Groups comprise the oldest thick sandstone/shale sequence of the Tertiary of the Gulf Coast. The Wilcox crops out in a band 10 to 20 mi wide located 100 to 200 mi inland from the present-day coastline. The Wilcox sandstones and shales in the outcrop and updip shallow subsurface were deposited primarily in fluvial environments; downdip in the deep subsurface, on the other hand, the Wilcox sediments were deposited in large deltaic systems, some of which were reworked into barrier-bar and strandplain systems. Growth faults developed within the deltaic systems, where they prograded basinward beyond the older, stable Lower Cretaceous shelf margin onto the less stable basinal muds. Continued displacement along these faults during burial resulted in: (1) entrapment of pore fluids within isolated sandstone and shale sequences, and (2) buildup of pore pressure greater than hydrostatic pressure and development of geopressure.

  12. Future for geopressured-geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsthaler, J.; Plum, M.

    1988-01-01

    The geopressured-geothermal production technologies for recompleting the Hulin Well and design and operation of surface facilities appear to be well in hand. A preliminary capital cost estimate indicates $4.45 million is required to recomplete and prepare the Hulin Well for production testing. The planned recompletion of the production well, surface facilities, and disposal well will have the capability to handle 24,000 barrels per day (bpd) of brine. If the reservoir can produce this design flow of brine saturated with gas, and the gas can be sold for $1.30/thousand cubic feet (mcf), DOE should have a positive cash flow about $530 per day for the first year. If gas zones are located above the brine as indicated by logs, the positive cash flow could reach $4130 per day or higher. The principal uncertainties are the gas content of the brine and the reservoir performance, both initially and long term. A private developer would need a market price for natural gas of from $1.38 to $4.60 per mcf for a reasonable return on investment depending on the reservoir performance and whether or not zones of excess gas are actually encountered. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Geopressured Geothermal Resource and Recoverable Energy Estimate for the Wilcox and Frio Formations, Texas (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, A.; Augustine, C.

    2011-10-01

    An estimate of the total and recoverable geopressured geothermal resource of the fairways in the Wilcox and Frio formations is made using the current data available. The flow rate of water and methane for wells located in the geopressured geothermal fairways is simulated over a 20-year period utilizing the TOUGH2 Reservoir Simulator and research data. The model incorporates relative permeability, capillary pressure, rock compressibility, and leakage from the bounding shale layers. The simulations show that permeability, porosity, pressure, sandstone thickness, well spacing, and gas saturation in the sandstone have a significant impact on the percent of energy recovered. The results also predict lower average well production flow rates and a significantly higher production of natural gas relative to water than in previous studies done from 1975 to 1980. Previous studies underestimate the amount of methane produced with hot brine. Based on the work completed in this study, multiphase flow processes and reservoir boundary conditions greatly influence the total quantity of the fluid produced as well as the ratio of gas and water in the produced fluid.

  14. Geopressured geothermal bibliography. Volume I. Citation extracts. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sepehrnoori, K.; Carter, F.; Schneider, R.; Street, S.; McGill, K.

    1983-05-01

    This annoted bibliography contains 1131 citations. It represents reports, papers, and articles appearing over the past eighteen years covering topics from the scientific and technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to the social, environmental, and legal considerations of exploiting those reservoirs for their energy resources. Six indexes include: author, conference title, descriptor, journal title, report number, and sponsor. (MHR)

  15. Pleasant Bayou Geopressured-Geothermal Reservoir Analysis - January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Riney, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    Many sedimentary basins contain formations with pore fluids at pressures higher than hydrostatic value; these formations are called geopressured. The pore pressure is generally well in excess of hydrostatic and the fluids vary in scalinity, temperature, and dissolved methane. As part of its program to define the magnitude and recoverability of the geopressured-geothermal energy resource, the US Department of Energy has drilled and tested deep wells in geopressured formations in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast region. Geological information for the Pleasant Bayou geopressured geothermal resource is most extensive among the reservoirs tested. Earlier testing of the DOE well (Pleasant Bayou Well No.2) was conducted in several phases during 1979-1983. Long-term testing was resumed in May 1988 and is currently in progress. This report summarizes the pertinent field and laboratory test data available through December 31, 1990. A numerical reservoir simulator is employed as a tool for synthesizing and integrating the reservoir information, formation rock and fluid properties data from laboratory tests, well data from the earlier testing (1979-1983), and the ongoing long-term production testing (1988-1990) of Pleasant Bayou Well No.2. A reservoir simulation model has been constructed which provides a detailed match to the well test history to date. This model is constructed within a geologic framework described by the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology and relies heavily on the pressure transient data from the 1980 Reservoir Limits Test in conjunction with the 1988-1990 production testing.

  16. Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.

    1990-03-01

    Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

  17. An approach to integrate impact scoping with environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Alan J.; Ross, William A.

    1992-07-01

    Impact scoping is the process of identifying important issues of a proposal and focusing the environmental impact assessment (EIA) on the high-priority issues. Although impact scoping in one form or another has been inherent to EIA for some time, documentation of its development and discussion of refinements to impact scoping processes have not been forthcoming. This article traces the development of impact scoping through time and highlights the need for such processes in EIA. A focused environmental assessment (FEA) approach to impact scoping that is suitable for implementation in an EIA is presented here and advantages of its use are delineated. FEA is a three-staged process that encourages impact scoping through progressive steps including impact identification, assessment and management planning. FEA combines a suite of EIA methods including: issues matrices, impact hypotheses, valued ecosystem components, and stakeholder participation sessions to effectively integrate impact scoping with EIA.

  18. Noise impact on wildlife: An environmental impact assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, A.

    1977-01-01

    Various biological effects of noise on animals are discussed and a systematic approach for an impact assessment is developed. Further research is suggested to fully quantify noise impact on the species and its ecosystem.

  19. United States Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program. Annual report, 1 November 1980-31 October 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, M.H.; Morton, R.A.; Dunlap, H.F.; Frederick, D.O.; Gray, K.E.; Peters, E.J.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Thompson, T.W.

    1982-07-01

    The following are included: objectives, overview, coordination assistance, compaction measurements on Texas Gulf Coast Sandstones and Shales; US Gulf Coast Geopressured-Geothermal Aquifer simulation, Preliminary Review of Subsidence Insurance Issues, Geopressured-Geothermal Information System, and Study of Log Derived Water Resistivity Values in Geopressured Geothermal Formations. (MHR)

  20. A framework for combining social impact assessment and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoudi, Hossein; Renn, Ortwin; Vanclay, Frank; Hoffmann, Volker; Karami, Ezatollah

    2013-11-15

    An increasing focus on integrative approaches is one of the current trends in impact assessment. There is potential to combine impact assessment with various other forms of assessment, such as risk assessment, to make impact assessment and the management of social risks more effective. We identify the common features of social impact assessment (SIA) and social risk assessment (SRA), and discuss the merits of a combined approach. A hybrid model combining SIA and SRA to form a new approach called, ‘risk and social impact assessment’ (RSIA) is introduced. RSIA expands the capacity of SIA to evaluate and manage the social impacts of risky projects such as nuclear energy as well as natural hazards and disasters such as droughts and floods. We outline the three stages of RSIA, namely: impact identification, impact assessment, and impact management. -- Highlights: • A hybrid model to combine SIA and SRA namely RSIA is proposed. • RSIA can provide the proper mechanism to assess social impacts of natural hazards. • RSIA can play the role of ex-post as well as ex-ante assessment. • For some complicated and sensitive cases like nuclear energy, conducting a RSIA is necessary.

  1. RETHINKING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. ...

  2. Economic review of the geopressured-geothermal resource with recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, M.M.; Negus-de Wys, J.; Faulder, D.D.; Lunis, B.C.

    1989-11-01

    This report presents the results of an economic study conducted by the INEL under DOE Contract No. AC07-76ID01570 to evaluate the breakeven price to market energy from a geopressured-geothermal resource. A breakeven price is a minimum, per unit charge required for the developer to recover all direct and indirect costs and a rate of return sufficient to compensate the developer for depreciation, the time value of money, and the risk of failure. The DOE Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program and the DOE well testing and operations at three locations in the Gulf Coast region provide the bulk of resource and economic characteristics for this study. A menu-driven model was developed in LOTUS-123 to calculate the breakeven price to market gas and electricity from a geopressured-geothermal resource. This model was developed using the present value methodology and conservative assumptions. Assuming present well constraints and current off-the-shelf conversion technology, the breakeven price for electricity is about $0.26/kWh using only the thermal energy from a Hulin-type resource. Assuming identical resource and technology constraints, the breakeven price is reduced to about $0.15/kWh when using all available energy forms (methane, hydraulic, and thermal). Assuming the use of available advanced technologies, the breakeven price is reduced to about $0.10/kWh. Assuming the higher quality resource (with higher temperature and gas content) in the South Texas cases, the breakeven cost is about $0.095/kWh. Using advanced technology, this cost is further reduced to about $0.05/kWh. Both costs are within program goals. The results of this study suggest that the future direction of the Geopressured-Geothermal Program emphasize (a) selection of higher quality resource, (b) advanced energy conversion technology, and (c) total energy utilization.

  3. Evaluation of the geopressured energy resource of Louisiana and Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1980-01-01

    The economics of extracting either the geothermal energy or natural gas from geopressured aquifers does not look promising. The combined requirements of high well flow rates, long life, and the necessity for close well spacing to minimize the cost of the collection system may be incompatible with the actual characteristics of the reservoirs. These factors place such stringent requirements on the reservoir size, permeability and compressibility that the number of promising production areas may be severely limited.

  4. Conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chanchitpricha, Chaunjit; Bond, Alan

    2013-11-15

    This paper aims at conceptualising the effectiveness of impact assessment processes through the development of a literature-based framework of criteria to measure impact assessment effectiveness. Four categories of effectiveness were established: procedural, substantive, transactive and normative, each containing a number of criteria; no studies have previously brought together all four of these categories into such a comprehensive, criteria-based framework and undertaken systematic evaluation of practice. The criteria can be mapped within a cycle/or cycles of evaluation, based on the ‘logic model’, at the stages of input, process, output and outcome to enable the identification of connections between the criteria across the categories of effectiveness. This framework is considered to have potential application in measuring the effectiveness of many impact assessment processes, including strategic environmental assessment (SEA), environmental impact assessment (EIA), social impact assessment (SIA) and health impact assessment (HIA). -- Highlights: • Conceptualising effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Identification of factors influencing effectiveness of impact assessment processes. • Development of criteria within a framework for evaluating IA effectiveness. • Applying the logic model to examine connections between effectiveness criteria.

  5. Enhancing impact: visualization of an integrated impact assessment strategy.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Gary R; Bouchard, Michel A; de Sa, Isabel Marques; Paris, Isabelle; Balge, Zachary; Williams, Dane; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-05-01

    The environmental impact assessment process is over 40 years old and has dramatically expanded. Topics, such as social, health and human rights impact are now included. The main body of an impact analysis is generally hundreds of pages long and supported by countless technical appendices. For large, oil/gas, mining and water resources projects both the volume and technical sophistication of the reports has far exceeded the processing ability of host communities. Instead of informing and empowering, the reports are abstruse and overwhelming. Reinvention is required. The development of a visual integrated impact assessment strategy that utilizes remote sensing and spatial analyses is described. PMID:22639133

  6. Handbook for value-impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Heaberlin, S.W.; Burnham, J.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Mullen, M.F.; Nesse, R.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.; Triplett, M.B.; Weakley, S.A.; Wusterbarth, A.R.

    1983-12-01

    The basic purpose of this handbook is to document a set of systematic procedures for providing information that can be used in performing value-impact assessments of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory actions. The handbook describes a structured but flexible process for performing the assessment. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the value-impact assessment process. Chapter 2 describes the attributes most frequently affected by proposed NRC actions, provides guidance concerningthe appropriate level of effort to be devoted to the assessment, suggests a standard format for documenting the assessment, and discusses the treatment of uncertainty. Chapter 3 contains detailed methods for evaluating each of the attributes affected by a regulatory action. The handbook has five appendixes containing background information, technical data, and example applications of the value-impact assessment procedures. This edition of the handbook focuses primarily on assessing nuclear power reactor safety issues.

  7. AIDA: Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Rivkin, A.; Reed, C.

    2012-12-01

    To protect the Earth from a hazardous asteroid impact, various mitigation methods have been proposed, including deflection of the asteroid by a spacecraft impact. AIDA, consisting of two mission elements, the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission, is a demonstration of asteroid deflection. To date, there has been no such demonstration, and there is major uncertainty in the result of a spacecraft impact onto an asteroid, that is, the amount of deflection produced by a given momentum input from the impact. This uncertainty is in part due to unknown physical properties of the asteroid surface, such as porosity and strength, and in part due to poorly understood impact physics such that the momentum carried off by ejecta is highly uncertain. A first mission to demonstrate asteroid deflection would not only be a major step towards gaining the capability to mitigate an asteroid hazard, but in addition it would return unique information on an asteroid's strength, other surface properties, and internal structure. This information return would be highly relevant to future human exploration of asteroids. We report initial results of the AIDA joint mission concept study undertaken by the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory and ESA with support from NASA centers including Goddard, Johnson and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. For AIDA, the DART spacecraft impactor study is coordinated with an ESA study of the AIM mission, which would rendezvous with the same asteroid to measure effects of the impact. Unlike the previous Don Quijote mission study performed by ESA in 2005-2007, DART envisions an impactor spacecraft to intercept the secondary member of a binary near-Earth asteroid. DART includes ground-based observations to measure the deflection independently of the rendezvous spacecraft observations from AIM, which also measures deflection and provides detailed characterization of the target asteroid. The joint mission AIDA

  8. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois; Gunn, Jill A.E.

    2014-02-15

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment.

  9. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An international workshop was held in Brussels on 11/29-30/1998, to discuss LCIA Sophistication. LCA experts from North America, Europs, and Asia attended. Critical reviews of associated factors, including current limitations of available assessment methodologies, and comparison...

  10. ASSESSMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION ECOLOGICAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CAMD works with research scientists and organizations in the academic community to assess and better understand the impacts of atmospheric deposition of power sector pollutant emissions on terrestrial and aquatic (including freshwater and marine) ecosystems. See peer review pr...

  11. Integrating Ecosystem Services Into Health Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a methodology for incorporating considerations of public health into planning and decision-making processes. HIA promotes interdisciplinary action, stakeholder participation, and timeliness and takes into account equity, sustainability, and...

  12. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of life cycle impact assessment has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe and Asia. Internationally researchers are working togethe...

  13. Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Geopressured-Geothermal Brine

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-01

    This white paper presents a unique plan for an Oil Industry-DOE cost sharing research project for Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery (TEOR) of medium and heavy oil using geopressured-geothermal brine. This technology would provide an environmentally clean method of recovery as opposed to the burning of crude oil or natural gas used widely by the industry, but presently under scrutiny by federal and state air quality agencies, as well as provide an alternative to the very expensive operational and mechanical problems associated with heating water on the surface for injection. An example test reservoir is a shallow, small structural reservoir about 1-l/2 miles long by 1/2 mile wide. It is presently producing heavy oil (18.6 API gravity) from 5 wells, and is marginally economic. One of three nearby geopressured-geothermal wells could be re-entered and recompleted to supply about 400 F brine from 13-16,000 feet. This brine can be used to heat and drive the heavy oil. It is anticipated that about one million barrels of oil may be recovered by this project. Over 3 million barrels are estimated to be in place; only 2.7% of the oil in place has been produced. The suggested teaming arrangement includes: (1) EG&G Idaho, Inc., which presently provides technical and management support to DOE in the Gulf EG&G would supply coordination, management and Coast Geopressured-Geothermal Program. technical support to DOE for the Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Project. (2) A small business which would supply the field, geologic and well data, production wells, and production operation. They would cost-share the project and provide revenue from increased production (5% of increased production) to help offset DOE costs. Though DOE would cost-share brine supply and injection system, they would not assume well ownership. The small business would supply engineering and operations for brine supply, injection system, and collection of field producing and injection data. Phase 1--Geologic, reservoir

  14. Devising an Environmental Impact Assessment Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Ralph A.

    1975-01-01

    The need for personnel trained in understanding environmental impact statements has become apparent. In an attempt to fill this need, the University of California developed a program designed to produce a select number of graduates qualified to assess environmental impact statements. (MA)

  15. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, Mårten Mörtberg, Ulla Balfors, Berit

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  16. Assessment for Learning: Effects and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flórez, María Teresa; Sammons, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The idea that schools can impact positively on student outcomes is a crucial driver in the rise of interest in school improvement research and practice. This review focuses on assessment for learning. Assessment for learning (AfL)--where the first priority is to promote learning--is a key means of initiating improvement. This review proposes that…

  17. Climate impact assessment, United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    This report considers unusual or abnormal meteorological or geophysical events (unusual in time, location, intensity, frequency or persistence) that will likely have an impact on societal or economic activities in a special and significant manner. This report considers: 1) violent meteorological events such as damaging thunderstorms, tornadoes, and tropical and winter storms, 2) non-violent meteorological events, including mild, unusually pleasant weather, lack of precipitation, and temperature extremes, 3) meteorologically related events, particularly drought, floods, forest fires and ice jams, and 4) geophysical events such as avalanches, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamies, waves, tides and shoreline erosion.

  18. Technical support for geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana; Final report, 1 January 1992--31 December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has operated continuous-recording, microearthquake monitoring networks at geopressured-geothermal test well sites since 1980. These microseismic networks were designed to detect microearthquakes indicative of fault activation and/or subsidence that can potentially result from the deep subsurface withdrawal and underground disposal of large volumes of brine during well testing. Seismic networks were established before the beginning of testing to obtain background levels of seismicity. Monitoring continued during testing and for some time after cessation of flow testing to assess any delayed microseismicity caused by the time dependence of stress migration within the earth. No flow testing has been done at the Hulin well since January 1990, and the Pleasant Bayou well has been shut down since September 1992. Microseismic monitoring continued at the Hulin and Pleasant Bayou sites until 31 December 1992, at which time both operations were shut down and field sites dismantled. During 1992, the networks recorded seismic signals from earthquakes, sonic booms, geophysical blasting, thunderstorms, etc. However, as in previous years, no local microseismic activity attributable to geopressured-geothermal well testing was recorded.

  19. Simulation of irreversible rock compaction effects on geopressured reservoir response: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Riney, T.D.

    1986-12-01

    A series of calculations are presented which quantitatively demonstrate the effects of nonlinear stress-deformation properties on the behavior of geopressured reservoirs. The range of stress-deformation parameters considered is based on information available from laboratory rock mechanics tests performed at the University of Texas at Austin and at Terra Tek, Inc. on cores recovered from geopressured wells. The effects of irreversible formation rock compaction, associated permeability reduction, and repetitive load/unload cycling are considered. The formation rock and geopressured brine properties are incorporated into an existing reservoir simulator using a bilinear model for the irreversible compaction process. Pressure drawdown and buildup testing of a well producing from the geopressured formation is simulated for a suite of calculations covering the range of formation parameters. The results are presented and discussed in terms of the inference (e.g., permeability and reservoir volume) that would be drawn from the simulated test data by an analyst using conventional methods.

  20. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 4: Bibliography (annotated only for all major reports)

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    This bibliography contains US Department of Energy sponsored Geopressured-Geothermal reports published after 1984. Reports published prior to 1984 are documented in the Geopressured Geothermal bibliography Volumes 1, 2, and 3 that the Center for Energy Studies at the University of Texas at Austin compiled in May 1985. It represents reports, papers and articles covering topics from the scientific and technical aspects of geopressured geothermal reservoirs to the social, environmental, and legal considerations of exploiting those reservoirs for their energy resources.

  1. Geopressured geothermal drilling and completions technology development needs

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, A.B.

    1981-03-01

    Geopressured geothermal formations found in the Texas and Louisiana gulf coast region and elsewhere have the potential to supply large quantities of energy in the form of natural gas and warm brine (200 to 300/sup 0/F). Advances are needed, however, in hardware technology, well design technology, and drilling and completion practices to enable production and testing of exploratory wells and to enable economic production of the resource should further development be warranted. This report identifies needed technology for drilling and completing geopressured geothermal source and reinjection wells to reduce the cost and to accelerate commercial recovery of this resource. A comprehensive prioritized list of tasks to develop necessary technology has been prepared. Tasks listed in this report address a wide range of technology needs including new diagnostic techniques, control technologies, hardware, instrumentation, operational procedure guidelines and further research to define failure modes and control techniques. Tasks are organized into the functional areas of well design, drilling, casing installation, cementing, completions, logging, brine reinjection and workovers.

  2. Hypervelocity impact damage assessment for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coronado, Alex R.; Gibbins, Martin N.; Stern, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    To inhibit damage and limit the probability of penetration of the Space Station pressure wall by micrometeoroids and orbital debris, a shield placed away from the wall is used to form a double wall. To determine shield effectiveness and assess impact damage, existing test data were reviewed and additional testing was performed for Space Station double wall designs. Empirical spallation and penetration functions derived from the data show that shield thickness and impact angle affect the damage to the wall. Thick shields reduce wall damage for low angle impacts but increase damage for oblique impacts. Multilayer insulation between the shield and wall reduces impact damage to the wall. A relationship between impact velocity and spall damage to the wall is demonstrated. Preliminary test results on Li-Al shield material indicate possible improved effectiveness over Al shields.

  3. Continuity and internal properties of Gulf Coast sandstones and their implications for geopressured fluid production

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Tyler, N.

    1983-01-01

    The intrinsic properties of the genetic sandstone units that typify many geopressured geothermal aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Gulf Coast region were systematically investigated classified, and differentiated. The following topics are coverd: structural and stratigraphic limits of sandstone reservoirs, characteristics and dimensions of Gulf Coast sandstones; fault-compartment areas; comparison of production and geologic estimates of aquifer fluid volume; geologic setting and reservoir characteristics, Wells of Opportunity; internal properties of sandstones; and implications for geopressured fluid production. (MHR)

  4. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 3: Applied and direct uses, resource feasibility, economics

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant: design, testing, and operation summary; Feasibility of hydraulic energy recovery from geopressured-geothermal resources: economic analysis of the Pelton turbine; Brine production as an exploration tool for water drive gas reservoirs; Study of supercritical Rankine cycles; Application of the geopressured-geothermal resource to pyrolytic conversion or decomposition/detoxification processes; Conclusions on wet air oxidation, pyrolytic conversion, decomposition/detoxification process; Co-location of medium to heavy oil reservoirs with geopressured-geothermal resources and the feasibility of oil recovery using geopressured-geothermal fluids; Economic analysis; Application of geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses; Industrial consortium for the utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resource; Power generation; Industrial desalination, gas use and sales, pollutant removal, thermal EOR, sulfur frasching, oil and natural gas pipelining, coal desulfurization and preparation, lumber and concrete products kilning; Agriculture and aquaculture applications; Paper and cane sugar industries; Chemical processing; Environmental considerations for geopressured-geothermal development. 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. Fluid sampling and chemical modeling of geopressured brines containing methane. Final report, March 1980-February 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dudak, B.; Galbraith, R.; Hansen, L.; Sverjensky, D.; Weres, O.

    1982-07-01

    The development of a flowthrough sampler capable of obtaining fluid samples from geopressured wells at temperatures up to 400/sup 0/F and pressures up to 20,000 psi is described. The sampler has been designed, fabricated from MP35N alloy, laboratory tested, and used to obtain fluid samples from a geothermal well at The Geysers, California. However, it has not yet been used in a geopressured well. The design features, test results, and operation of this device are described. Alternative sampler designs are also discussed. Another activity was to review the chemistry and geochemistry of geopressured brines and reservoirs, and to evaluate the utility of available computer codes for modeling the chemistry of geopressured brines. The thermodynamic data bases for such codes are usually the limiting factor in their application to geopressured systems, but it was concluded that existing codes can be updated with reasonable effort and can usefully explain and predict the chemical characteristics of geopressured systems, given suitable input data.

  6. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Detailed completions prognosis for geopressured-geothermal well of opportunity, prospect #1

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, Clovis A.

    1980-04-03

    This prospective well of opportunity was originally drilled and completed as a gas producer by Wrightsman Investment Company in early 1973. The original and present producing interval was from 15,216 to 15,238 feet. IMC Exploration Company, Inc. acquired the property from Wrightsman and is the present owner operator. The well is presently shut in s a non-economic producer and IMC proposed to perform plug and abandonment operations in April, 1980. This well has a good geopressured-geothermal water sand behind the 5-1/2 inch casing that has 94 feet of net sand thickness. Pursuant to DOE/NVO authorization of March 11,1980, Eaton negotiated an option agreement with IMC whereby IMC would delay their abandonment operations for a period of 90 days to permit DOE to evaluate the well for geopressure-geothermal testing. The IMC-Eaton option agreements provide that IMG will delay plugging the well until June 15, 1980. If Eaton exercises its option to acquire the well, IMC will sell the well bore, and an adjacent salt water disposal well, to Eaton for the sole consideration of Eaton assuming the obligation to plug and abandon the wells in accordance with lease and regulatory requirements. If Eaton does not exercise its option, then Eaton will pay IMC $95,000 cash and IMC will proceed with plugging and abandonment at the termination of the option period.

  7. Untapped potential of health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-04-01

    The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to "green economy" and "institutional framework" strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century's sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure. PMID:23599554

  8. Untapped potential of health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to “green economy” and “institutional framework” strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century’s sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure. PMID:23599554

  9. Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission: Kinetic impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Stickle, A.; Barnouin, O.; Ernst, C.; Atchison, J.; Pravec, P.; Richardson, D. C.

    2016-02-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will be the first space experiment to demonstrate asteroid impact hazard mitigation by using a kinetic impactor to deflect an asteroid. AIDA is an international cooperation, consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the ESA Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) rendezvous mission. The primary goals of AIDA are (i) to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid and (ii) to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The AIDA target will be the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos, with the deflection experiment to occur in late September, 2022. The DART impact on the secondary member of the binary at ~7 km/s is expected to alter the binary orbit period by about 4 minutes, assuming a simple transfer of momentum to the target, and this period change will be measured by Earth-based observatories. The AIM spacecraft will characterize the asteroid target and monitor results of the impact in situ at Didymos. The DART mission is a full-scale kinetic impact to deflect a 150 m diameter asteroid, with known impactor conditions and with target physical properties characterized by the AIM mission. Predictions for the momentum transfer efficiency of kinetic impacts are given for several possible target types of different porosities, using Housen and Holsapple (2011) crater scaling model for impact ejecta mass and velocity distributions. Results are compared to numerical simulation results using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code of Jutzi and Michel (2014) with good agreement. The model also predicts that the ejecta from the DART impact may make Didymos into an active asteroid, forming an ejecta coma that may be observable from Earth-based telescopes. The measurements from AIDA of the momentum transfer from the DART impact, the crater size and morphology, and the evolution of an ejecta coma will

  10. A Screening Method for Assessing Cumulative Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Alexeeff, George V.; Faust, John B.; August, Laura Meehan; Milanes, Carmen; Randles, Karen; Zeise, Lauren; Denton, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA) Environmental Justice Action Plan calls for guidelines for evaluating “cumulative impacts.” As a first step toward such guidelines, a screening methodology for assessing cumulative impacts in communities was developed. The method, presented here, is based on the working definition of cumulative impacts adopted by Cal/EPA [1]: “Cumulative impacts means exposures, public health or environmental effects from the combined emissions and discharges in a geographic area, including environmental pollution from all sources, whether single or multi-media, routinely, accidentally, or otherwise released. Impacts will take into account sensitive populations and socio-economic factors, where applicable and to the extent data are available.” The screening methodology is built on this definition as well as current scientific understanding of environmental pollution and its adverse impacts on health, including the influence of both intrinsic, biological factors and non-intrinsic socioeconomic factors in mediating the effects of pollutant exposures. It addresses disparities in the distribution of pollution and health outcomes. The methodology provides a science-based tool to screen places for relative cumulative impacts, incorporating both the pollution burden on a community- including exposures to pollutants, their public health and environmental effects- and community characteristics, specifically sensitivity and socioeconomic factors. The screening methodology provides relative rankings to distinguish more highly impacted communities from less impacted ones. It may also help identify which factors are the greatest contributors to a community’s cumulative impact. It is not designed to provide quantitative estimates of community-level health impacts. A pilot screening analysis is presented here to illustrate the application of this methodology. Once guidelines are adopted, the methodology can serve as a screening

  11. Developing perturbations for Climate Change Impact Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitson, Bruce

    Following the 2001 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report [TAR; IPCC, 2001], and the paucity of climate change impact assessments from developing nations, there has been a significant growth in activities to redress this shortcoming. However, undertaking impact assessments (in relation to malaria, crop stress, regional water supply, etc.) is contingent on available climate-scale scenarios at time and space scales of relevance to the regional issues of importance. These scales are commonly far finer than even the native resolution of the Global Climate Models (GCMs) (the principal tools for climate change research), let alone the skillful resolution (scales of aggregation at which GCM observational error is acceptable for a given application) of GCMs.Consequently, there is a growing demand for regional-scale scenarios, which in turn are reliant on techniques to downscale from GCMs, such as empirical downscaling or nested Regional Climate Models (RCMs). These methods require significant skill, experiential knowledge, and computational infrastructure in order to derive credible regional-scale scenarios. In contrast, it is often the case that impact assessment researchers in developing nations have inadequate resources with limited access to scientists in the broader international scientific community who have the time and expertise to assist. However, where developing effective downscaled scenarios is problematic, it is possible that much useful information can still be obtained for impact assessments by examining the system sensitivity to largerscale climate perturbations. Consequently, one may argue that the early phase of assessing sensitivity and vulnerability should first be characterized by evaluation of the first-order impacts, rather than immediately addressing the finer, secondary factors that are dependant on scenarios derived through downscaling.

  12. Imbibing Wisdom of Environmental Impact Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ian

    1992-01-01

    Describes a learning module for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the relationship between EIA objectives and those of the module. Discusses constraints influencing the form of the subject and the range of possible training techniques. Presents details of the module's structure and comments on its approach. (Contains 16 references.) (MDH)

  13. Unconventional gas sources. Volume IV. Geopressured brines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The following topics are covered: study objectives, regional geology and prospect evaluation, reservoir engineering, drilling and well costs, production and water disposal facilities, pressure maintenance, geothermal and hydraulic energy assessment, operating expense, economic evaluation, environmental considerations, legal considerations, and risks analysis. The study addresses only sandstone brine reservoirs in the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast onshore areas. (MHR)

  14. Minidoka Dam Wildlife Impact Assessment: Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Robert C.; Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1989-03-01

    A wildlife impact assessment has been developed for the US Bureau of Reclamation's Minidoka Dam and Reservoir in south central Idaho. This assessment was conducted to fulfill requirements of the Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of this study included the following: select target wildlife species, and identify their current status and management goals; estimate the net effects on target wildlife species resulting from hydroelectric development and operation; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals for target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation; and consult and coordinate impact assessment activities with the Northwest Power Planning Council, Bonneville Power Administration, US Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, and other entities expressing interest in the project. 62 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Assessing Meaningful Impact: Moving Beyond the Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S.; Bass, K.; Castori, P.; Wenger, M.

    2014-07-01

    Evaluation of program impacts is an essential part of program implementation from proposal writing, justifying expenses to funders, making improvements to programs, and demonstrating the value of program to stakeholders. Often, funding agencies ask for metrics but may not ask for more substantive outcomes. Alternatively, funding agencies are now asking for more and more evidence of program impacts resulting in broad questions about the type of assessments that are most appropriate for program evaluation. Assessing meaningful impacts presents no one-size-fits-all solution for all programs. Appropriate assessment is based on program goals, audience, activitie s, and resources. Panelists led a discussion about how to choose meaningful assessment for different situations, presenting examples from their own work. One of the best indicators of the value of a teacher professional development workshop is whether teachers can apply what they have learned to their classroom practice. Kristin Bass spoke about her experience documenting classroom implementation for the Galileo Educator Network (GEN) professional development project.

  16. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cecilia H.M. Ho, Wing-chung

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment.

  17. 40 CFR 227.22 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assessment of impact. 227.22 Section... FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.22 Assessment of impact. The assessment of impact on other...

  18. From impact assessment to recommendation: How are the impact assessment results presented and used?

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, T.

    1995-07-01

    Most work on impact assessment (IA) deals with data, technique, and procedures for making the assessment. While these things can influence the final choice of planning alternative, it is equally important how the assessment results are used in the political decision process. The case material concerns integrated transportation and land use plans for the 10 largest urban regions in Norway. It is demonstrated that application of the impact assessment results varies widely among the cities. The information potential of the impact calculations is considerably underexploited in many cases, and assessment results seem too easily ignored in the process of reaching a recommendation on planning strategy. Some factors are identified and discussed in an attempt to shed light on this phenomenon.

  19. AIDA: Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; Cheng, A.; Galvez, A.; Reed, C.; Carnelli, I.; Abell, P.; Ulamec, S.; Rivkin, A.; Biele, J.; Murdoch, N.

    2015-03-01

    AIDA (Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment) is a project of a joint mission demonstration of asteroid deflection and characterisation of the kinetic impact effects. It involves the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory (with support from members of NASA centers including Goddard Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory), and the European Space Agency (with support from members of the french CNRS/Cte dAzur Observatory and the german DLR). This assessment will be done using a binary asteroid target. AIDA consists of two independent but mutually supporting mission concepts, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor and the other is the characterisation spacecraft. The objective and status of the project will be presented.

  20. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  1. An Evaluation of the Available Energy Potential of the Gulf Coast Geopressured Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, R.K.; Osoba, J. S.; Hankin, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    The geopressured zones presently under serious study in the U.S. are tertiary sediments in the Gulf Coastal basin which are water saturated and exhibit pressures significantly greater than hydrostatic. These sediments are primarily shale, interbedded with sandstone. The top of the geopressured zone is frequently near 10,000 ft. or so, and extends to indeterminate depths. The water contained in these zones is at a moderately elevated temperature and, more significantly, appears to contain dissolved methane at near-saturation values. Conceptually, wells drilled into the geopressured zone might be expected to produce water without pumping, due to the high pressures. The dissolved methane could then be separated at the surface and used conventionally as natural gas. The water may contain sufficient heat to provide a useful source of geothermal energy, and the hydraulic energy might also provide useful work. Development of the geopressured/geothermal resource is largely dependent upon production characteristics of geopressured reservoirs. These in turn are intimately related to properties of the formations, and can be defined within reasonable limits.

  2. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-01-01

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated. PMID:26377091

  3. AIDA: The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Michel, P.; Cheng, A. F.; Reed, C.; Ulamec, S.; Biele, J.; Abell, P.; Landis, R.

    2013-09-01

    The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission, a joint effort of ESA, JHU/APL, NASA, OCA, and DLR, is the first demonstration of asteroid deflection and assessment via kinetic impact. AIDA consists of two independent but mutually supporting mission elements, one of which is the asteroid kinetic impactor and the other is the characterization spacecraft. These two missions are, respectively, JHU/APL's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and the European Space Agency's Asteroid Investigation Mission (AIM) missions. As in the separate DART and AIM studies, the target of this mission is the binary asteroid [65803] Didymos in October, 2022. For a successful joint mission, one spacecraft, DART, would impact the secondary of the Didymos system while AIM would observe and measure any change in the relative orbit. AIM will be the first probe to characterise a binary asteroid, especially from the dynamical point of view, but also considering its interior and subsurface composition. The mission concept focuses on the monitoring aspects i.e., the capability to determine in-situ the key physical properties of a binary asteroid playing a role in the system's dynamic behavior. DART will be the first ever space mission to deflect the trajectory of an asteroid in a measurable way.- It is expected that the deflection can be measured as a change in the relative orbit period with a precision better than 10%. The joint AIDA mission will return vital data to determine the momentum transfer efficiency of the kinetic impact [1,2].

  4. Life cycle assessment part 2: current impact assessment practice.

    PubMed

    Pennington, D W; Potting, J; Finnveden, G; Lindeijer, E; Jolliet, O; Rydberg, T; Rebitzer, G

    2004-07-01

    Providing our society with goods and services contributes to a wide range of environmental impacts. Waste generation, emissions and the consumption of resources occur at many stages in a product's life cycle-from raw material extraction, energy acquisition, production and manufacturing, use, reuse, recycling, through to ultimate disposal. These all contribute to impacts such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, photooxidant formation (smog), eutrophication, acidification, toxicological stress on human health and ecosystems, the depletion of resources and noise-among others. The need exists to address these product-related contributions more holistically and in an integrated manner, providing complimentary insights to those of regulatory/process-oriented methodologies. A previous article (Part 1, Rebitzer et al., 2004) outlined how to define and model a product's life cycle in current practice, as well as the methods and tools that are available for compiling the associated waste, emissions and resource consumption data into a life cycle inventory. This article highlights how practitioners and researchers from many domains have come together to provide indicators for the different impacts attributable to products in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of life cycle assessment (LCA). PMID:15051247

  5. Evaluation of NEPA-based environmental commitments at four geopressure design wells

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, A.W.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Roop, R.D.; Webb, J.W.

    1983-09-01

    The implementation of environmental mitigation and monitoring commitments made for four geopressure design well projects was evaluated. The evaluation was based on site visits conducted in August 1982 and April 1983 and on a review of monitoring and project activity reports provided by DOE contractors. The projects evaluated include: Pleasant Bayou No. 1 in Brazoria County, Texas; Dow Parcperdue in Vermilion Parish, Louisiana; and Gladys McCall and Sweet Lake No. 1 well sites in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. The contractors responsible for drilling and testing activities at the well sites have adequately implemented most of the mitigation measures described in each project's site-specific Environmental Assessment (EA). Exceptions include the lack of impermeable liners for drilling mud pits at the Dow Parcperdue, Gladys McCall, and Pleasant Bayou sites and the lack of a ring levee at the Pleasant Bayou site. Air and water quality and noise monitoring activities were not performed as strictly as outlined in the EAs. A review of the monitoring data collected to date indicates that no significant environmental degradation has occurred. This report recommends additional or future monitoring needs, especially with regard to soil contamination, subsidence, and microseismicity, and provides guidance for decommissioning.

  6. Impacts of a Warming Arctic - Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arctic Climate Impact Assessment

    2004-12-01

    The Arctic is now experiencing some of the most rapid and severe climate change on earth. Over the next 100 years, climate change is expected to accelerate, contributing to major physical, ecological, social, and economic changes, many of which have already begun. Changes in arctic climate will also affect the rest of the world through increased global warming and rising sea levels. Impacts of a Warming Arctic is a plain language synthesis of the key findings of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA), designed to be accessible to policymakers and the broader public. The ACIA is a comprehensively researched, fully referenced, and independently reviewed evaluation of arctic climate change. It has involved an international effort by hundreds of scientists. This report provides vital information to society as it contemplates its responses to one of the greatest challenges of our time. It is illustrated in full color throughout.

  7. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikari, L.

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence

  8. Recoverable Resource Estimate of Identified Onshore Geopressured Geothermal Energy in Texas and Louisiana (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, A.; Augustine, C.

    2012-04-01

    Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are characterized by high temperatures and high pressures with correspondingly large quantities of dissolved methane. Due to these characteristics, the reservoirs provide two sources of energy: chemical energy from the recovered methane, and thermal energy from the recovered fluid at temperatures high enough to operate a binary power plant for electricity production. Formations with the greatest potential for recoverable energy are located in the gulf coastal region of Texas and Louisiana where significantly overpressured and hot formations are abundant. This study estimates the total recoverable onshore geopressured geothermal resource for identified sites in Texas and Louisiana. In this study a geopressured geothermal resource is defined as a brine reservoir with fluid temperature greater than 212 degrees F and a pressure gradient greater than 0.7 psi/ft.

  9. Identification of geopressured occurrences outside of the Gulf Coast. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Strongin, O.

    1980-09-30

    As an extension of its efforts in the development of the geopressured resources of the Gulf Coast, the Division of Geothermal Energy of the US Department of Energy is interested in determining the extent and characteristics of geopressured occurrences in areas outside the Gulf Coast. The work undertaken involved a literature search of available information documenting such occurrences. Geopressured reservoirs have been reported from various types of sedimentary lithologies representing virtually all geologic ages and in a host of geologic environments, many of which are unlike those of the Gulf Coast. These include many Rocky Mountain basins (Green River, Big Horn, Powder River, Wind River, Uinta, Piceance, Denver, San Juan), Mid-Continent basins (Delaware, Anadorko, Interior Salt, Williston, Appalachian), California basins (Sacramento, San Joaquin, Los Angeles, Ventura, Coast Ranges), Alaskan onshore and offshore basins, Pacific Coast offshore basins, and other isolated occurrences, both onshore and offshore.

  10. The feasibility of applying geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunis, Ben C.; Dewys, Jane Negus; Plum, Martin M.; Lienau, Paul J.; Spencer, F. J.; Nitschke, George F.

    1991-09-01

    This study concludes that direct use technologies, especially desalinated water production, can contribute significantly to the value added process and the overall economic viability in developing a geopressured resource. Although agriculture and aquaculture applications are marginal projects when they are the only use of a geopressured well, the small margin of profitability can contribute to improving the overall economics of the direct use development. The added complexity from a technical and management aspect may add to the overall risk and unpredictability of the project. Six combinations of direct uses received economic evaluation that resulted in 15 percent discounted payback periods ranging from 4 to over 10 years. Many other combinations are possible depending on the resource and market variables. Selection of appropriate technologies and sizes of applications will be established by the developer that engages in geopressured resource utilization. Currently, many areas of the country where geopressured resources are located also have surplus electrical capacity and generation; thus power utilities have been selling power for less than two cents per kWH, well below a reasonable breakeven value for geopressured produced electricity. However, when the energy demand of the integrated geopressured facility is large enough to install power generation equipment, operating expenses can be reduced by not paying the 10 to 12 cents per kWH utility rate. The study includes an analysis of a geothermal turbine unit installed with a desalination and an agriculture/aquaculture facility, taking advantage of the cascading energy values. Results suggest that this scenario becomes profitable only where the market price for electricity exceeds five cents per kWH.

  11. The feasibility of applying geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.; Negus-de Wys, J.; Plum, M.M. ); Lienau, P.J. . Geo-Heat Center); Spencer, F.J. ); Nitschke, G.F. )

    1991-09-01

    This study concludes that direct use technologies, especially desalinated water production, can contribute significantly to the value added process and the overall economic viability in developing a geopressured resource. Although agriculture and aquaculture applications are marginal projects when they are the only use of a geopressured well, the small margin of profitability can contribute to improving the overall economics of the direct use development. The added complexity from a technical and management aspect may add to the overall risk and unpredictability of the project. Six combination of direct uses received economic evaluation that resulted in 15% discounted payback periods ranging from 4 to over 10 years. Many other combinations are possible depending on the resource and market variables. Selection of appropriate technologies and sizes of applications will be established by the developer that engages in geopressured resource utilization. Currently, many areas of the country where geopressured resources are located also have surplus electrical capacity and generation, thus power utilities have been selling power for less than 2 cents per kWH, well below a reasonable breakeven value for geopressured produced electricity. However, when the energy demand of the integrated geopressured facility is large enough to install power generation equipment, operating expenses can be reduced by not paying the 10 to 12 cents per kWH utility rate. The study includes an analysis of a geothermal turbine unit installed with a desalination and an agriculture/aquaculture facility, taking advantage of the cascading energy values. Results suggest that this scenario becomes profitable only where the market price for electricity exceeds five cents per kWH.

  12. 75 FR 51468 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is making available thirty-five Privacy Impact Assessments on various...'s Web site between October 1, 2009 and May 31, 2010. DATES: The Privacy Impact Assessments will...

  13. Integrated Climate Change Impacts Assessment in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayan, D. R.; Franco, G.; Meyer, R.; Anderson, M.; Bromirski, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes lessons learned from an ongoing series of climate change assessments for California, conducted by the scientific community and State and local agencies. A series of three Assessments have considered vulnerability and adaptation issues for both managed and natural systems. California's vulnerability is many faceted, arising because of an exceptionally drought prone climate, open coast and large estuary exposure to sea level rise, sensitive ecosystems and complex human footprint and economy. Key elements of the assessments have been a common set of climate and sea-level rise scenarios, based upon IPCC GCM simulations. Regionalized and localized output from GCM projections was provided to research teams investigating water supply, agriculture, coastal resources, ecosystem services, forestry, public health, and energy demand and hydropower generation. The assessment results are helping to investigate the broad range of uncertainty that is inherent in climate projections, and users are becoming better equipped to process an envelope of potential climate and impacts. Some projections suggest that without changes in California's present fresh-water delivery system, serious water shortages would take place, but that technical solutions are possible. Under a warmer climate, wildfire vulnerability is heightened markedly in some areas--estimated increases in burned area by the end of the 21st Century exceed 100% of the historical area burned in much of the forested areas of Northern California Along California coast and estuaries, projected rise in mean sea level will accelerate flooding occurrences, prompting the need for better education and preparedness. Many policymakers and agency personnel in California are factoring in results from the assessments and recognize the need for a sustained assessment process. An ongoing challenge, of course, is to achieve more engagement with a broader community of decision makers, and notably with the private sector.

  14. Comparing Two Approaches for Assessing Observation Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Langland and Baker introduced an approach to assess the impact of observations on the forecasts. In that approach, a state-space aspect of the forecast is defined and a procedure is derived ultimately relating changes in the aspect with changes in the observing system. Some features of the state-space approach are to be noted: the typical choice of forecast aspect is rather subjective and leads to incomplete assessment of the observing system, it requires availability of a verification state that is in practice correlated with the forecast, and it involves the adjoint operator of the entire data assimilation system and is thus constrained by the validity of this operator. This article revisits the topic of observation impacts from the perspective of estimation theory. An observation-space metric is used to allow inferring observation impact on the forecasts without the limitations just mentioned. Using differences of observation-minus-forecast residuals obtained from consecutive forecasts leads to the following advantages: (i) it suggests a rather natural choice of forecast aspect that directly links to the data assimilation procedure, (ii) it avoids introducing undesirable correlations in the forecast aspect since verification is done against the observations, and (iii) it does not involve linearization and use of adjoints. The observation-space approach has the additional advantage of being nearly cost free and very simple to implement. In its simplest form it reduces to evaluating the statistics of observationminus- background and observation-minus-analysis residuals with traditional methods. Illustrations comparing the approaches are given using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System.

  15. Groundwater resources impact assessment for triazine herbicides

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, E.; Barrett, M.R.; Behl, E.

    1996-10-01

    The Environmental Fate and Ground Water Branch of EPA`s Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has conducted a Water Resources Impact Assessment of the potential for triazine herbicides to be transported to ground and surface waters (only ground-water is discussed in this paper). The herbicides discussed in this document include atrazine, cyanazine, simazine, and prometon. Part of OPP`s regulatory mission is to prevent contamination of ground and surface water resources resulting from the normal use of registered pesticides. OPP has recently produced several resource documents to support such activities at the federal, state, and local levels (e.g., the Pesticides and Ground-Water Strategy and the Pesticides in Ground Water Database). This Water Resources Impact Assessment will also be useful in assisting state and regional agencies in customizing risk reduction strategies and to implement proposed pollution prevention measures. Major conclusions include: Atrazine is the most frequently detected pesticide in ground water in virtually the entire Midwestern United States, and especially in Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. The Pesticides in Ground Water Database 1992 Report indicates that atrazine has been detected in 32 out of the 40 states that have reported monitoring data, and in 1,512 wells (6%) of the wells sampled. Based on EPA`s National Pesticide Survey (NPS), 4.7% of rural domestic drinking water wells in the U.S. (490,000 wells) are estimated to contain atrazine, mostly at concentrations less than 0.12 {mu}g/L (the MCL for atrazine is 3 {mu}g/L). Triazine herbicides other than atrazine (simazine, cyanazine, and prometon) have had much less impact on ground-water quality than atrazine, primarily because they are less intensively used.

  16. STRATEGIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CLIMATE SCENARIOS FOR IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to create a strategy for the development of climate scenarios for use in impact assessment, potential techniques of development were reviewed and the information needs of potential users assessed. vailable techniques were assessed through literature reviews and consultat...

  17. AIDA: the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-07-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to assess the possibility of deflecting an asteroid trajectory by using a kinetic impactor. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is under Phase A/B1 study at ESA from March 2015 until summer 2016. AIM is set to rendez-vous with the asteroid system a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions: AIM will release a set of CubeSats in deep space and a lander on the surface of the smaller asteroid and for the first time, deep-space inter-satellite linking will be demonstrated between the main spacecraft, the CubeSats, and the lander, and data will also be transmitted from interplanetary space to Earth by a laser communication system. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Small asteroids are believed to result from collisions and other processes (e.g., spinup, shaking) that made them what they are now. Having direct information on their surface and internal properties will allow us to understand how these processes work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. So far, our understanding of the collisional process and the validation of numerical simulations of the impact process rely on impact experiments at laboratory scales. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the

  18. Assessing the Economic Impacts of Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazo, J. K.

    2008-05-01

    Understanding the socio-economic impacts of weather provides a basis for prioritizing actions to mitigate and respond to weather events and understanding the value of improvements in weather forecasts. In this talk we discuss two studies of the economic impacts of weather: (1) an empirical study of the sensitivity of state-sector level economic activity to weather variability and (2) an assessment of the quality of data on storm damages in the US as primarily collected through the National Weather Service's Storm Data Program. In the first study, 24 years of state level sector economic data and historical weather observations are used to form a panel combining weather information with economic data. A translog function is estimated of sectoral sensitivity and vulnerability to weather variability. Eleven sectors are ranked based on their degree of sensitivity to weather, states more sensitive to weather impacts are identified, and the aggregate dollar amount of variation in U.S. economic activity attributable to weather variability is calculated. Estimates indicate that US economic output varies by about 3.4% due to weather variability. While considerably smaller than prior estimates, our estimate represents about 469 billion a year in 2007 dollars. In our work to update and revise damage data in the Extreme Weather Sourcebook (www.sip.ucar.edu/sourcebook), we have confronted issues concerning the depth, accuracy and consistency of storm damage data collection. This type of data has been used in many studies exploring changes in weather impacts over time but there has been little recognition of the quality of the data. In the second study reported here, we examine issues with weather induced damage data quality to prompt a dialogue about reliability of scattered and inconsistent data from multiple sources. We hope this will lead to efforts to reduce the error in reported damages and to better reporting and organization of storm damage data in the future. We advocate

  19. A study of hydrocarbons associated with brines from DOE geopressured wells

    SciTech Connect

    Keeley, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    Accomplishments are summarized on the following tasks: distribution coefficients and solubilities, DOE design well sampling, analysis of well samples, review of theoretical models of geopressured reservoir hydrocarbons, monitor for aliphatic hydrocarbons, development of a ph meter probe, DOE design well scrubber analysis, removal and disposition of gas scrubber equipment at Pleasant Bayou Well, and disposition of archived brines.

  20. A study of hydrocarbons associated with brines from DOE geopressured wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keeley, D.F.

    1993-07-01

    Accomplishments are summarized on the following tasks: distribution coefficients and solubilities, DOE design well sampling, analysis of well samples, review of theoretical models of geopressured reservoir hydrocarbons, monitor for aliphatic hydrocarbons, development of a ph meter probe, DOE design well scrubber analysis, removal and disposition of gas scrubber equipment at Pleasant Bayou Well, and disposition of archived brines.

  1. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

  2. Catalysis-by-design impacts assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, L L; Young, J K; Sen, R K

    1991-05-01

    Catalyst researchers have always recognized the need to develop a detailed understanding of the mechanisms of catalytic processes, and have hoped that it would lead to developing a theoretical predictive base to guide the search for new catalysts. This understanding allows one to develop a set of hierarchical models, from fundamental atomic-level ab-initio models to detailed engineering simulations of reactor systems, to direct the search for optimized, efficient catalyst systems. During the last two decades, the explosions of advanced surface analysis techniques have helped considerably to develop the building blocks for understanding various catalytic reactions. An effort to couple these theoretical and experimental advances to develop a set of hierarchical models to predict the nature of catalytic materials is a program entitled Catalysis-by-Design (CRD).'' In assessing the potential impacts of CBD on US industry, the key point to remember is that the value of the program lies in developing a novel methodology to search for new catalyst systems. Industrial researchers can then use this methodology to develop proprietary catalysts. Most companies involved in catalyst R D have two types of ongoing projects. The first type, what we call market-driven R D,'' are projects that support and improve upon a company's existing product lines. Project of the second type, technology-driven R D,'' are longer term, involve the development of totally new catalysts, and are initiated through scientists' research ideas. The CBD approach will impact both types of projects. However, this analysis indicates that the near-term impacts will be on market-driven'' projects. The conclusions and recommendations presented in this report were obtained by the authors through personal interviews with individuals involved in a variety of industrial catalyst development programs and through the three CBD workshops held in the summer of 1989. 34 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. 40 CFR 227.22 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 227.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Other Uses of the Ocean § 227.22 Assessment of impact. The assessment of impact on other...

  4. An integrated approach to reservoir engineering at Pleasant Bayou Geopressured-Geothermal reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, G.M.

    1992-12-01

    A numerical model has been developed for the Pleasant Bayou Geothermal-Geopressured reservoir. This reservoir description is the result of integration of a variety of data, including geological and geophysical interpretations, pressure transient test analyses, and well operations. Transient test analyses suggested several enhancements to the geologic description provided by University of Texas Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG), including the presence of an internal fault not previously identified. The transient tests also suggested water influx from an adjacent aquifer during the long-term testing of Pleasant Bayou; comparisons between transient test analyses and the reservoir description from BEG suggests that this fault exhibits pressure-dependent behavior. Below some pressure difference across the fault, it remains a no-flow barrier; above this threshold pressure drop the barrier fails, and fluid moves across the fault. A history match exercise is presented, using the hypothesized {open_quotes}leaky fault.{close_quotes} Successful match of 4 years of production rates and estimates of average reservoir pressure supports the reservoir description developed herein. Sensitivity studies indicate that the degree of communication between the perforated interval and the upper and lower sands in the reservoir (termed {open_quotes}distal volume{close_quotes} by BEG) impact simulation results very little, whereas results are quite sensitive to storage and transport properties of this distal volume. The prediction phase of the study indicates that Pleasant Bayou is capable of producing 20,000 STB/d through 1997, with the final bottomhole pressure approximately 1600 psi above abandonment pressure.

  5. Practitioners, professional cultures, and perceptions of impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Richard K.; Hart, Andrew; Freeman, Claire; Coutts, Brian; Colwill, David; Hughes, Andrew

    2012-01-15

    The very nature of impact assessment (IA) means that it often involves practitioners from a very wide range of disciplinary and professional backgrounds, which open the possibility that how IA is perceived and practised may vary according to the professional background of the practitioner. The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which a practitioner's professional background influences their perceptions of the adequacy of impact assessment in New Zealand under the Resource Management Act (RMA). Information gathered concerned professional affiliations, training, understanding of impact assessment practise, and perceptions of adequacy in relation to impact assessment. The results showed a dominance of a legalistic, operational perspective of impact assessment under the Resource Management Act, across all the main professions represented in the study. However, among preparers of impact assessments there was clear evidence of differences between the four main professional groups - surveyors, planners, engineers and natural scientists - in the way they see the nature and purpose of impact assessment, the practical steps involved, and what constitutes adequacy. Similarly, impact assessment reviewers - predominantly planners and lawyers - showed variations in their expectations of impact assessment depending on their respective professional affiliation. Although in many cases the differences seem to be more of a matter of emphasis, rather than major disputes on what constitutes a good process, even those differences can add up to rather distinct professional cultures of impact assessment. The following factors are seen as leading to the emergence of such professional cultures: different professions often contribute in different ways to an impact assessment, affecting their perception of the nature and purpose of the process; impact assessment training will usually be a secondary concern, compared with the core professional training, which will be

  6. Technical support for geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana. Final report, 1 November 1983-31 October 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    This report describes environmental monitoring of microseismic activity, land-surface subsidence, and surface and ground-water quality at three designed geopressured-geothermal test well sites in Louisiana. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual sections. (ACR)

  7. Assessing Impact Submissions for REF 2014: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manville, Catriona; Guthrie, Susan; Henham, Marie-Louise; Garrod, Bryn; Sousa, Sonia; Kirtley, Anne; Castle-Clarke, Sophie; Ling, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The Research Excellence Framework (REF) is a new system for assessing the quality of research in UK higher education institutions (HEIs). For the first time, part of the assessment included the wider impact of research. RAND Europe was commissioned to evaluate the assessment process of the impact element of REF submissions, and to explore the…

  8. Depositional setting, structural style, and sandstone distribution in three geopressured geothermal areas, Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Winker, C.D.; Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Garcia, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    Three areas in the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain were studied using electric logs and seismic-reflection data to interpret their depositional and structural history and to compare their potential as geopressured-geothermal reservoirs. The Cuero study area, on the lower Wilcox (upper Paleocene) growth-fault trend, is characterized by closely and evenly spaced, subparallel, down-to-the-basin growth faults, relatively small expansion ratios, and minor block rotation. Distributary-channel sandstones in the geopressured lower Wilcox Group of the South Cook fault block appear to be the best geothermal aquifers in the Cuero area. The Blessing study area, on the lower Frio (Oligocene) growth-fault trend, shows wider and more variable fault spacing and much greater expansion ratios and block rotation, particularly during early Frio time. Thick geopressured sandstone aquifers are laterally more extensive in the Blessing area than in the Cuero area. The Pleasant Bayou study area, like the Blessing area, is on the Frio growth-fault trand, and its early structural development was similar rapid movement of widely spaced faults resulted in large expansion ratios and major block rotation. However, a late-stage pattern of salt uplift and withdrawal complicated the structural style. Thick geopressured lower Frio sandstone aquifers are highly permeable and laterally extensive, as in the Blessing area. In all three areas, geopressured aquifers were created where early, rapid movement along down-to-the-basin growth faults juxtaposed shallow-water sands against older shales, probably deposited in slope environments. Major transgressions followed the deposition of reservoir sands and probably also influenced the hydraulic isolation that allowed the build up of abnormal pressures. 26 refs., 49 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. The Geopressured-Geothermal Program: Energy conversion status and future possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, J.; Lawford, T.W.; Faulder, D.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Program, sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) began in 1976 with the Wells of Opportunity. This early research concentrated on resource characterization at several locations in Texas and Louisiana. More recently, the program has included well operations and supporting university research in geoscience and engineering. Long term flow testing, reinjection of brine, and scale prevention were accomplished at the Gladys McCall Well. The Pleasant Bayou Well provided additional data for modeling and predicting geopressured reservoir behavior. This year a hybrid power system (HPS) was constructed at Pleasant Bayou in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This is the first conversion of the geopressured-geothermal resource to electricity. An economic review of geopressured-geothermal resource development concludes that using off-the-shelf technology, electricity can be produced for $0.125/kWh from a Gladys McCall type resource (40,000 bpd brine production, 27 scf methane/bbl, 288{degree}F brine, and 10-year resource life). The Pleasant Bayou type resource can produce electricity for $0.32/kWh. Advanced technology could reduce the cost to $0.16/kWh. A review and status of the HPS is presented with future possibilities for the program, including (1) recovery of medium and heavy oil with hot geopressured brine, (2) direct use, especially aquaculture, and (3) development and use of advanced technology for conversion at the Hulin Well, the deepest, hottest well in the program. The estimated improvement in efficiencies with advanced conversion technology range from 100 to 160%. This would greatly reduce the cost to produce electricity. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Subsurface geology and potential for geopressured-geothermal energy in the Turtle Bayou field-Kent Bayou field area, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.R.

    1982-09-01

    A 216 square mile area approximately 65 miles southwest of New Orleans, Louisiana, has been geologically evaluated to determine its potential for geopressured-geothermal energy production. The structural and stratigraphic analyses were made with emphasis upon the Early and Middle Miocene age sediments which lie close to and within the geopressured section. Three geopressured sands, the Robulus (43) sand, Cibicides opima sand, and Cristellaria (I) sand, are evaluated for their potential of producing geothermal energy. Two of these sands, the Robulus (43) sand and the Cibicides opima sand, meet several of the United States Department of Energy's suggested minimum requirements for a prospective geopressured-geothermal energy reservoir.

  11. Assessing the impacts of climate change on natural resource systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, K.D.; Rosenberg, N.J.

    1994-11-30

    This volume is a collection of papers addressing the theme of potential impacts of climatic change. Papers are entitled Integrated Assessments of the Impacts of Climatic Change on Natural Resources: An Introductory Editorial; Framework for Integrated Assessments of Global Warming Impacts; Modeling Land Use and Cover as Part of Global Environmental Change; Assessing Impacts of Climatic Change on Forests: The State of Biological Modeling; Integrating Climatic Change and Forests: Economic and Ecological Assessments; Environmental Change in Grasslands: Assessment using Models; Assessing the Socio-economic Impacts of Climatic Change on Grazinglands; Modeling the Effects of Climatic Change on Water Resources- A Review; Assessing the Socioeconomic Consequences of Climate Change on Water Resources; and Conclusions, Remaining Issues, and Next Steps.

  12. Saline fluid flow and hydrocarbon migration and maturation as related to geopressure, Frio Formation, Brazoria County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, N.; Light, M.P.R.; Ewing, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Pleasant Bayou geopressured-geothermal test wells in Brazoria County, Texas, display a prominent thermal-maturity anomaly in the Oligocene Anahuac and Frio Formations. Highly geopressured, more-mature shales are interbedded with hydropressured to moderately geopressured sandstones in the upper Frio and Anahuac. In contrast, shales and sandstones in the lower Frio, including the Andrau geopressured-geothermal production zone, are highly geopressured but exhibit lower thermal maturities. Vitrinite-reflectance data, supported by hydrocarbon-maturation data and anomalous concentrations of C/sub 5/ to C/sub 7/ hydrocarbons at Pleasant Bayou, indicate that the upper Frio was subjected to an extended period of hot, extremely saline, basinal fluid flow which caused the above thermal anomaly. Regional salinity studies (Morton and others, 1983) suggest that regional growth faults were the conduits for vertical basinal brine movement at depth. At shallower levels the upwelling waters migrated laterally through permeable sandstone-rich sections such as the upper Frio. Anomalously mature gasoline-range (C/sub 5/-C/sub 7/) hydrocarbons were introduced into the upper Frio by this process. Fluid influx in the lower Frio was probably limited by high geopressure, consequently maturity in the deep Frio section (greater than 14,000 ft) remained consistent with the regional geothermal gradient.

  13. Developing the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) in the context of impact significance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ijaes, Asko; Kuitunen, Markku T.; Jalava, Kimmo

    2010-02-15

    In this paper the applicability of the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) is evaluated in the context of impact significance assessment. The methodological issues considered in the study are: 1) to test the possibilities of enlarging the scoring system used in the method, and 2) to compare the significance classifications of RIAM and unaided decision-making to estimate the consistency between these methods. The data used consisted of projects for which funding had been applied for via the European Union's Regional Development Trust in the area of Central Finland. Cases were evaluated with respect to their environmental, social and economic impacts using an assessment panel. The results showed the scoring framework used in RIAM could be modified according to the problem situation at hand, which enhances its application potential. However the changes made in criteria B did not significantly affect the final ratings of the method, which indicates the high importance of criteria A1 (importance) and A2 (magnitude) to the overall results. The significance classes obtained by the two methods diverged notably. In general the ratings given by RIAM tended to be smaller compared to intuitive judgement implying that the RIAM method may be somewhat conservative in character.

  14. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-15

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  15. Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions.

  16. 40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall assessment... on the effect on esthetic, recreational and economic values based on the factors set forth in...

  17. 40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall assessment... on the effect on esthetic, recreational and economic values based on the factors set forth in...

  18. NSTAR Ion Thruster Plume Impact Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Pencil, Eric J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Kussmaul, Michael; Oden, Katessha

    1995-01-01

    Tests were performed to establish 30-cm ion thruster plume impacts, including plume characterizations via near and farfield ion current measurements, contamination, and sputtering assessments. Current density measurements show that 95% of the beam was enclosed within a 22 deg half-angle and that the thrust vector shifted by less than 0.3 deg during throttling from 2.3 to 0.5 kW. The beam flatness parameter was found to be 0.47, and the ratio of doubly charged to singly charged ion current density decreased from 15% at 2.3 kW to 5% at 0.5 kW. Quartz sample erosion measurements showed that the samples eroded at a rate of between 11 and 13 pm/khr at 25 deg from the thruster axis, and that the rate dropped by a factor of four at 40 deg. Good agreement was obtained between extrapolated current densities and those calculated from tantalum target erosion measurements. Quartz crystal microbalance and witness plate measurements showed that ion beam sputtering of the tank resulted in a facility material backflux rate of -10 A/hr in a large space simulation chamber.

  19. Health Impact Assessment of Urban Waterway Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Aviles, Katia; Cummings, B.J.; Daniell, William; Erdmann, Jared; Garrison, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessments (HIA) promote the consideration of health in a wide range of public decisions. Although each HIA is different, common pathways, evidence bases, and strategies for community engagement tend to emerge in certain sectors, such as urban redevelopment, natural resource extraction, or transportation planning. To date, a limited number of HIAs have been conducted on decisions affecting water resources and waterfronts. This review presents four recent HIAs of water-related decisions in the United States and Puerto Rico. Although the four cases are topically and geographically diverse, several common themes emerged from the consideration of health in water-related decisions. Water resource decisions are characterized by multiple competing uses, inter-institutional and inter-jurisdictional complexity, scientific uncertainty, long time scales for environmental change, diverse cultural and historical human values, and tradeoffs between private use and public access. These four case studies reveal challenges and opportunities of examining waterfront decisions through a “health lens”. This review analyzes these cases, common themes, and lessons learned for the future practice of HIA in the waterfront zone and beyond. PMID:25547399

  20. The Impact of a Computerized Dietary Assessment on Nutrition Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensleigh, Katherine Elizabeth; Eddy, James M.; Wang, Min Qi; Dennison, Darwin; Chaney, J. Don

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many health educators have integrated computer applications into their health education program interventions. The assessment of the impact of these interventions is limited. This study assessed the impact of the Pyramid Challenge nutrition software program on nutrition knowledge levels of students enrolled in traditional personal…

  1. 78 FR 12337 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... of Records Notice, 77 FR 30297 (May 22, 2012). System: DHS/CBP/PIA-010 Analytical Framework for... Security (DHS) Privacy Office is making available thirty-eight Privacy Impact Assessments (PIA) on...

  2. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601 Section 75.601 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact....

  3. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601 Section 75.601 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact....

  4. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601 Section 75.601 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact....

  5. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601 Section 75.601 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact....

  6. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601 Section 75.601 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact....

  7. An environmental impact assessment system for agricultural R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Geraldo Stachetti; Campanhola, Clayton; Kitamura, Paulo Choji

    2003-03-01

    A strategic planning process has been implemented at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) to introduce sustainable agriculture concepts in all steps of Research and Development (R and D). An essential part of the devised mission statement called for the impact assessment of all technology innovation resulting from R and D, under field conditions (ex-post). However, methods for impact assessment of technology innovations at the farmstead level appropriate for the institutional context were lacking. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) system (AMBITEC-AGRO) developed to attend that demand is composed by a set of weighing matrices constructed in an electronic spreadsheet. Impact indicators are evaluated in the field in an interview/survey, and weighed according to their spatial scale and importance toward effecting environmental impacts. The results of these weighing procedures are expressed graphically in the assessment spreadsheets. Finally, the indicator evaluations are composed into an Environmental Impact Index for the agricultural technology innovation.

  8. Assessing Environmental Impact: A Secondary School Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nous, Albert P.

    This packet contains information on teaching about environmental impact. Background information is included on the role of environmental impact on our society and environmental risk is also discussed. Environmental impacts are studied using Stages of Assessment. Learning activities and seven lesson plans include: (1) "The Community Initiative";…

  9. Health and impact assessment: Are we seeing closer integration?

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Richard K.

    2011-07-15

    Health has always had a place in wider impact assessment activities, from the earliest days of the National Environmental Policy Act in the United States. However, early thinking tended to focus on health protection and environmental health issues, especially in relation to the effects of pollution. The adoption of wider models of health was reflected in impact assessment circles from the early 1990s, with particular emphasis on an integrated approach to impact assessment, especially at the project level, which would see health impact assessment benefiting from working with other forms of impact assessment, such as social and ecological. Yet twenty years later, integration still seems a distant prospect in many countries. In this paper I examine the case for integrating health considerations within the wider IA process, discuss some of the problems that have historically restricted progress towards this end, and explore the degree to which impact assessment practitioners have been successful in seeking to improve the consideration of health in IA. In New Zealand, project-level impact assessment is based on an integrated model under the Resource Management Act. In addition, HIA was recognised in the early 1990s as a valuable addition to the toolkit for project assessment. Since then policy-level HIA has grown supported by extensive capacity building. If health is being integrated into wider impact assessment, it should be happening in New Zealand where so many enabling conditions are met. Three major project proposals from New Zealand are examined, to characterise the broad trends in HIA development in New Zealand in the last ten years and to assess the degree to which health concerns are being reflected in wider impact assessments. The findings are discussed in the context of the issues outlined in the early part of the paper.

  10. Buoyancy-driven propagation of isolated fluid-filled fractures: Implications for fluid transport in Gulf of Mexico geopressured sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, J.A.

    1996-02-10

    A large portion of the sediments within the northern Gulf of Mexico contain pore fluid pressures in excess of hydrostatic. Development of geopressure is generally attributed to compaction disequilibrium caused by rapid deposition of low-permeability sediments in the Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene. Numerous studies have examined the formation of overpressures and/or expulsion of geopressured fluids into overlying hydropressured strata. However, very little attention has been given to fluid flow within the geopressured zone itself. Movement of oils from Cretaceous or older source rocks into Plio-Pleistocene reservoirs in the Gulf Basin requires as much as 10 km of vertical migration in a few million years. Precipitation of cements in some geopressured sediments also implies large-scale fluid flow. New evidence from a deep well in the Eugene Island area, offshore Louisiana, indicates that geopressured sediments are mechanically very weak with a Poisson`s ratio greater than 0.4 and a shear modulus or rigidity less than 1 GPa. In addition, large-scale fluid flow either through interconnected pores or fractures is not occurring in this location, at least at present. An alternative hypothesis is that upward fluid transport in geo-pressured sediments is caused by buoyancy-driven propagation of isolated fluid-filled fractures. Using linear fracture mechanics, I show that vertical fractures with lengths of a few meters can propagate at velocities of 1000 m/yr. Mass flux rates ({approximately} 100 kg/m{sup 2}/yr) are significant assuming a mechanism for formation of fluid-filled fractures exists, such as hydrofacturing when fluid pressures exceeded the minimum confining stress. Fracture propagation velocity and mass flux rate are strongly dependent on the shear modulus of geopressured sediments. 32 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Impacts assessment for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bay Area Economics

    1996-12-01

    This report documents the economic and other impacts that will be created by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction and ongoing operation, as well as the impacts that may be created by new technologies that may be developed as a result of NIF development and operation.

  12. Geopressured geothermal resource potential of Miocene Bayou Hebert Prospect, Vermilion and Iberia parishes, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloh, R.P.; Pino, M.A.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Bayou Hebert prospect is a fault-bounded block of lower Miocene shale and sandstone which covers a 75-square-mile area in southeastern Vermilion and southwestern Iberia parishes, southwestern Louisiana. The average depth to the top of the geopressured zone is 12,500 feet. Detailed correlation of shale resistivity patterns on well logs from this area has delineated faults, local unconformities, and changes in thickness and facies of lithologic units. Most faults revealed by this method are associated with the boundary fault zones, but the few delineated in the interior of the prospect could reduce the volume of potential reservoir units. Cross sections show that the lower Miocene section thickens across growth faults by addition of new units as well as by expansion. Of the parameters of reservoir volume, salinity, temperature, and permeability, reservoir volume shows the most significant variation and indicates that the eastern fourth of the prospect has the most geopressured geothermal potential.

  13. Parcperdue geopressure-geothermal project. Study a geopressured reservoir by drilling and producing a well in a limited geopressured water sand. Final technical report, September 28, 1979-December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.R.; Stanley, J.G.

    1984-01-15

    The behavior of geopressured reservoirs was investigated by drilling and producing a well in small, well defined, geopressured reservoir; and performing detailed pressure transient analysis together with geological, geophysical, chemical, and physical studies. The Dow-DOE L. R. Sweezy No. 1 well was drilled to a depth of 13,600 feet in Parcperdue field, just south of Lafayette, Louisiana, and began production in April, 1982. The production zone was a poorly consolidated sandstone which constantly produced sand into the well stream, causing damage to equipment and causing other problems. The amount of sand production was kept manageable by limiting the flow rate to below 10,000 barrels per day. Reservoir properties of size, thickness, depth, temperature, pressure, salinity, porosity, and permeability were close to predicted values. The reservoir brine was undersaturated with respect to gas, containing approximately 20 standard cubic feet of gas per barrel of brine. Shale dewatering either did not occur or was insignificant as a drive mechanism. Production terminated when the gravel-pack completion failed and the production well totally sanded in, February, 1983. Total production up to the sanding incident was 1.94 million barrels brine and 31.5 million standard cubic feet gas.

  14. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Detailed completion prognosis for geopressured-geothermal well of opportunity, prospect #2

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-01

    A geopressured-geothermal test of Martin Exploration Company's Crown Zellerbach Well No. 2 will be conducted in the Tuscaloosa Trend. The Crown Zellerbach Well No. 1 will be converted to a saltwater disposal well for disposal of produced brine. The well is located in the Satsuma Area, Livingston parish, Louisiana. Eaton proposes to test the Tuscaloosa by perforating the 7 inch casing from 16,718 feet to 16,754 feet. The reservoir pressure at an intermediate formation depth of 16,736 feet is anticipated to be 12,010 psi and the temperature is anticipated to be 297 F. Calculated water salinity is 16,000 ppm. The well is expected to produce a maximum of 16,000 barrels of water a day with a gas content of 51 SCF/bbl. Eaton will re-enter the test well, clean out to 17,000 feet, run production casing and complete the well. The disposal well will be re-entered and completed in the 9-5/8 inch casing for disposal of produced brine. Testing will be conducted similar to previous Eaton annular flow WOO tests. An optional test from 16,462 feet to 16,490 feet may be performed after the original test and will require a workover with a rig on location to perform the plugback. The surface production equipment utilized on previous tests will be utilized on this test. The equipment has worked satisfactorily and all parties involved in the testing are familiar with its operation. Weatherly Engineering will operate the test equipment. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) and Mr. Don Clark will handle sampling, testing and reservoir engineering evaluation, respectively. wireline work required will be awarded on basis of bid evaluation. At the conclusion of the test period, the D.O.E. owned test equipment will be removed from the test site, the test and disposal wells plugged and abandoned and the sites restored to the satisfaction of all parties.

  15. Assessing impacts of roads: Application of a standard assessment protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts of network impacts on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support adaptive management...

  16. NITARP: Impact Assessment, 2005-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Gorjian, V.; Brinkworth, C.; Squires, G. K.; Burtnyk, K.

    2014-01-01

    NITARP, the NASA/IPAC Training in Archival Research Program, gets educators involved in authentic astronomical research. We partner small groups of educators with a mentor professional astronomer for a year-long original research project. The educators incorporate the experience into their classrooms and share their experience with other teachers. The teams echo the entire research process, from writing a proposal, to doing the research, to writing up and presenting the results at an AAS meeting. The educators incorporate this experience into their classroom. This program differs from other programs that we know of that get real astronomy data into the classroom in that: (a) Each team works on an original, unique project. There are no canned labs here! (b) Each team presents their results in posters at the AAS, in science sessions (not just outreach sessions). The posters are distributed throughout the meeting, in amongst other researchers' work; the participants are not "given a free pass" because they are teachers. (c) The 'product' of this project is the scientific result, not a curriculum packet. (d) Because the teachers work with students throughout this project, the teachers have already begun to adapt their project to fit in their classroom environment. This poster will describe the program, with highlights of an impact assessment survey conducted of NITARP alumni in June 2013. Including all forms of the project from 2004-2013, there have been 80 educator participants from 33 states; 40 of them responded to our survey. There have been 37 science and 42 education AAS posters presented by NITARP-affiliated educators and scientists (with 8 more expected to be presented at this meeting). There have been 5 refereed journal articles in professional astronomy research journals that directly involve NITARP teachers and scientists (Howell et al. 2006, Guieu et al. 2010, Howell et al. 2008, Rebull et al., 2011, 2013), and 2 more astronomy journal articles describing

  17. Design and operation of a geopressurized-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.G.; Hattar, M.M.

    1991-02-01

    Geopressured-geothermal resources can contribute significantly to the national electricity supply once technical and economic obstacles are overcome. Power plant performance under the harsh conditions of a geopressured resource was unproven, so a demonstration power plant was built and operated on the Pleasant Bayou geopressured resource in Texas. This one megawatt facility provided valuable data over a range of operating conditions. This power plant was a first-of-a-kind demonstration of the hybrid cycle concept. A hybrid cycle was used to take advantage of the fact that geopressured resources contain energy in more than one form -- hot water and natural gas. Studies have shown that hybrid cycles can yield thirty percent more power than stand-alone geothermal and fossil fuel power plants operating on the same resource. In the hybrid cycle at Pleasant Bayou, gas was burned in engines to generate electricity directly. Exhaust heat from the engines was then combined with heat from the brine to generate additional electricity in a binary cycle. Heat from the gas engine was available at high temperature, thus improving the efficiency of the binary portion of the hybrid cycle. Design power output was achieved, and 3445 MWh of power were sold to the local utility over the course of the test. Plant availability was 97.5% and the capacity factor was over 80% for the extended run at maximum power production. The hybrid cycle power plant demonstrated that there are no technical obstacles to electricity generation at Pleasant Bayou. 14 refs., 38 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. Depositional setting, structural style, and sandstone distribution in three geopressured geothermal areas, Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Winker, C.D.; Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Garcia, D.D.

    1981-10-01

    Three areas in the Texas Gulf Coast region with different depositional settings, structural styles, and sandstone distribution were studied with well log and seismic data to evaluate some of the controls on subsurface conditions in geopressured aquifers. Structural and stratigraphic interpretations were made primarily on the basis of well log correlations. Seismic data confirm the log interpretations but also are useful in structure mapping at depths below well control.

  19. Gulf Coast Geopressured-Geothermal Program Summary Report Compilation. Volume I, Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Chacko, J. John; Maciasz, Gina; Harder, Brian J.

    1998-06-01

    The significant accomplishments of this program included (1) identification of the geopressured-geothermal onshore fairways in Louisiana and Texas, (2) determination that high brine flow rates of 20,000--40,000 barrels a day can be obtained for long periods of time, (3) brine, after gas extraction can be successfully reinjected into shallow aquifers without affecting the surface waters or the fresh water aquifers, (4) no observable subsidence or microseismic activity was induced due to the subsurface injection of brine, and no detrimental environmental effects attributable to geopressured--geothermal well testing were noticed, (5) sanding can be controlled by reducing flow rates, (6) corrosion controlled with inhibitors, (7) scaling controlled by phosphonate scale inhibitors, (8) demonstrated that production of gas from saturated brine under pressure was viable and (9) a hybrid power system can be successfully used for conversion of the thermal and chemical energy contained in the geopressured-geothermal resource for generation of electricity. The U. S. Department of Energy's geopressured-geothermal research program in the Gulf Coast achieved many significant findings and disproved and clarified many historical perceptions that had previously limited industry's interest in developing this resource. Though in today's economic market it may not be commercially profitable to exploit this resource, the rapid advance of technology in all its different aspects could potentially make this resource attractive in the not too distant future. The ideal situation would involve the development of a total energy system in which all three associated forms of energy--chemical, thermal and mechanical are utilized. The extraction of gas from brine combined with the large number of potential direct and indirect uses of this resource will add to its economic profitability. This U.S. DOE's visionary research program has essentially laid the foundations for characterization of this

  20. Unconventional gas resources. [Eastern Gas Shales, Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, Methane from Geopressured Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Komar, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This document describes the program goals, research activities, and the role of the Federal Government in a strategic plan to reduce the uncertainties surrounding the reserve potential of the unconventional gas resources, namely, the Eastern Gas Shales, the Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, and methane from Geopressured Aquifers. The intent is to provide a concise overview of the program and to identify the technical activities that must be completed in the successful achievement of the objectives.

  1. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Duarte, Oscar; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2013-11-15

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown.

  2. The Impact of Quality Assessment in Universities: Portuguese Students' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Sonia; Santiago, Rui; Sarrico, Claudia S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite being one of the major reasons for the development of quality assessment, students seem relatively unaware of its potential impact. Since one of the main purposes of assessment is to provide students with information on the quality of universities, this lack of awareness brings in to question the effectiveness of assessment as a device for…

  3. The Impact of Assessment Tasks on Subsequent Examination Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gaal, Frank; De Ridder, Annemieke

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the impact of assessment tasks on examination result (measured by examination grades) is investigated. Although many describe the advantages of electronic assessment tasks, few studies have been undertaken which compare a traditional approach using a classical examination with a new approach using assessment tasks. The main…

  4. Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierazzo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic impacts.

  5. Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into

  6. Industrial Assessment Center Program Impact Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.A.

    2000-01-26

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. The purpose of this program is to conduct energy, waste, and productivity assessments for small to medium-sized industrial firms. Assessments are conducted by 30 university-based industrial assessment centers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate energy and cost savings attributable to the assessments, the trained alumni, and the Websites sponsored by this program. How IAC assessments, alumni, and Web-based information may influence industrial energy efficiency decision making was also studied. It is concluded that appreciable energy and cost savings may be attributed to the IAC Program and that the IAC Program has resulted in more active and improved energy-efficiency decision making by industrial firms.

  7. Industrial Consortium for the Utilization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-deWys, J.

    1990-03-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Program, now in its fifteenth year, is entering the transition period to commercial use. The industry cost-shared proposals to the consortium, represented in the presentations included in these proceedings, attest to the interest developing in the industrial community in utilizing the geopressured-geothermal resource. Sixty-five participants attended these sessions, two-thirds of whom represented industry. The areas represented by cost-shared proposals include (1) thermal enhanced oil recovery, (2) direct process use of thermal energy, e.g., aquaculture and agriculture, (3) conversion of thermal energy to electricity, (4) environment related technologies, e.g., use of supercritical processes, and (5) operational proposals, e.g., a field manual for scale inhibitors. It is hoped that from this array of potential use projects, some will persist and be successful in proving the viability of using the geopressured-geothermal resource. Such industrial use of an alternative and relatively clean energy resource will benefit our nation and its people.

  8. Industrial Consortium for the Utilization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-deWys, J.

    1990-03-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Program, now in its fifteenth year, is entering the transition period to commercial use. The industry cost-shared proposals to the consortium, represented in the presentations included in these proceedings, attest to the interest developing in the industrial community in utilizing the geopressured-geothermal resource. Sixty-five participants attended these sessions, two-thirds of whom represented industry. The areas represented by cost-shared proposals include (1) thermal enhanced oil recovery, (2) direct process use of thermal energy, e.g., aquaculture and agriculture, (3) conversion of thermal energy to electricity, (4) environment related technologies, e.g., use of supercritical processes, and (5) operational proposals, e.g., a field manual for scale inhibitors. It is hoped that from this array of potential use projects, some will persist and be successful in proving the viability of using the geopressured-geothermal resource. Such industrial use of an alternative and relatively clean energy resource will benefit our nation and its people.

  9. Assessing the Impact of Tutorial Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticknor, Cindy S.; Shaw, Kimberly A.; Howard, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Many institutions struggle to develop a meaningful way to assess the effectiveness of drop-in tutorial services provided to students. This article discusses the development of a data collection system based on a visitor sign-in system that proved to be an efficient method of gathering assessment data, including frequency of visits, end-of-course…

  10. Cumulative impacts in environmental assessments: How well are they considered?

    SciTech Connect

    McCold, L.; Holman, J.

    1995-03-01

    The usual reason for preparing an environmental assessment (EA) is to ``provide sufficient evidence and analysis to determine whether to prepare a finding of no significant impact or an environmental impact statement`` (40 CFR 1508.9). Significant impacts may result from direct, indirect, or cumulative impacts. Thus, in addition to assessing direct and indirect impacts, EAs should give enough evidence and analysis to determine whether or not the action contributes to a cumulatively significant impact. Consideration of cumulative impacts in NEPA documents in general, and EAs in particular, is less fully developed than consideration of impacts resulting solely from the proposed action. The authors analyzed 89 EAs to determine the extent to which their treatment of cumulative impacts met the requirements of 40 CFR 1508. Only 35 EAs (39 %) mentioned cumulative impacts. Of these, 8 stated that there were no cumulative impacts without supporting evidence; 5 identified a potential for cumulative impacts and concluded they were insignificant but presented no evidence or analysis to support the conclusion; 19 addressed cumulative impacts of some resources but not others; and 18 EAs identified past, present, and future actions that could, with the proposed action, contribute to cumulative impacts, but only actions of a similar type were identified, usually those in the agency`s area of responsibility. The paper presents several recommendations: (1) Past, present, and reasonably foreseeable actions that could affect resources affected by the proposed action should be identified at the same time as, and listed with, the proposed action. (2) For each resource, the discussion of cumulative impacts should follow immediately after the discussion of direct impacts to that resource. (3) Conclusions about cumulative impacts should be supported by data and analyses. (4) Agencies need a central review function to ensure the quality of their EAs.

  11. Health impact assessment needs in south-east Asian countries.

    PubMed Central

    Caussy, Deoraj; Kumar, Priti; Than Sein, U.

    2003-01-01

    A situation analysis was undertaken to assess impediments to health impact assessment (HIA) in the South-East Asia Region of WHO (SEARO). The countries of the region were assessed on the policy framework and procedures for HIA, existing infrastructure required to support HIA, the capacity for undertaking HIA, and the potential for intersectoral collaboration. The findings show that environmental impact assessment (EIA) is being used implicitly as a substitute for HIA, which is not explicitly or routinely conducted in virtually all countries of the Region. Therefore, policy, infrastructure, capacity, and intersectoral collaboration need strengthening for the routine implementation of HIA. PMID:12894329

  12. Pricing commodity outpatient procedures assessing the impact.

    PubMed

    Cleverley, William O

    2015-10-01

    Hospitals should carefully consider all relevant factors before choosing to lower prices and payments for certain outpatient commodity services in an effort to remain competitive in their market. Key steps to take in the evaluation process include: Determining current profitability. Assessing profitability by payer class. Understanding overall cost positions. Assessing the relative payment terms of current commercial contracts. Determining the net revenue effect of proposed changes. PMID:26595979

  13. An Initial Assessment of Hanford Impact Performed with the System Assessment Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, Robert W.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Morasch, Launa F.

    2002-09-27

    The System Assessment Capability is an integrated system of computer models and databases to assess the impact of waste remaining at Hanford. This tool will help decision makers and the public evaluate the cumulative effects of contamination from Hanford. This report describes the results of an initial assessment performed with the System Assessment Capability tools.

  14. Satellite Power System (SPS) environmental impacts, preliminary assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, F. R.

    1978-01-01

    Present power plant assessment factors are used to present satellite power system (SPS) impacts. In contrast to oil, gas, nuclear and coal fueled power plants, the SPS and hydroelectric power plants produce air, water, and solid waste emissions only during the construction phase. Land use impacts result from the placement of rectennas used for microwave receiving and rectifying. Air quality impacts of the SPS resulting from the construction phase amount to 0.405 metric tons per megawatt year. Solid wastes impacts are 0.108 metric tons per year of operation. Other impacts such as those caused by heavy lift launch vehicle sites are also discussed.

  15. Berkeley's Course on Environmental Assessment and Impact Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColl, John G.; Nicholas, Tawna

    1976-01-01

    A four-quarter sequence of courses to assess environmental impact, to provide students with knowledge of environmental law, a strong interdisciplinary base, and an understanding of the processes of planning and policy formation, is described. (BT)

  16. Life Cycle Impact Assessment Research Developments and Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) developments are explained along with key publications which record discussions which comprised ISO 14042 and SETAC document development, UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative research, and research from public and private research institutions. It ...

  17. International Developments in Environmental and Social Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The author has been involved in international developments in comprehensive impact assessment since 1995. During that time she has participated in ISO 14040 series development, initiated and co-chaired three international workshops, participated in Society of Environmental Toxic...

  18. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE, II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Methodologies are currently available to address specific locations within North America, Europe, and Asia. Internationally, researchers are work...

  19. Impact of weather and climate scenarios on conservation assessment outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews selected watershed studies of the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) and interprets findings from the perspective of potential climate change impacts on conservation outcomes. Primary foci are runoff, soil erosion, sediment transport, watershed sediment yield, and asso...

  20. In Brief: Impacts of wind energy assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    By 2020, greater use of wind energy could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. energy sector by about 4.5%. However, greater effort is needed to address potentially negative impacts of this growing energy source, according to a new report from a committee of the U.S. National Research Council. Potential impacts of wind energy projects include deaths of birds and bats, reduced value of property located near a turbine, and habitat loss and fragmentation. However, because these are generally local projects, there is little information available to determine the cumulative effects of wind turbines over a whole region. The report makes several recommendations on how to improve regulation at the local, state, and federal levels. The report also sets out a guide for evaluating wind-energy projects, which includes questions about potential environmental, economic, cultural, and aesthetic impacts. The report, ``Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects,'' is available at http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11935

  1. Current Research in Land Use Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a continuing debate on how to best evaluate land use impacts within the LCA framework. While this problem is spatially and temporally complex, recent advances in tool development are providing options to allow a GIS-based analysis of various ecosystem services given the...

  2. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - MIDPOINTS VS. ENDPOINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The question of whether to use midpoints or endpoints or both in an LCIA framework is often dependent upon the goal and scope and the decision that is being supported by the LCIA. LCIAs for Enlightenment may not require an aggregation of impact categories and may be most useful ...

  3. STRIP MINE DRAINAGE--AQUATIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this research program is to demonstrate methodologies for predicting, on the basis of characteristics of the site to be mined, the impact of strip mining on downstream biotic communities. To accomplish this objective and provide data for model verificatio...

  4. LONG TERM HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (LTHIA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    LTHIA is a universal Urban Sprawl analysis tool that is available to all at no charge through the Internet. It estimates impacts on runoff, recharge and nonpoint source pollution resulting from past or proposed land use changes. It gives long-term average annual runoff for a lan...

  5. Developments in Impact Assessment in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

  6. Community Level Impact Assessment--Extension Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Mike D.; Doeksen, Gerald A.

    Using the Oklahoma State University (OSU) computerized community simulation model, extension professionals can provide local decision makers with information derived from an impact model that is dynamic, community specific, and easy to adapt to different communities. The four main sections of the OSU model are an economic account, a capital…

  7. Environmental impact assessment of the Dulang oilfield development project

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, M.N. ); ))

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss an environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the Dulang Oilfield Development Project, conducted to determine whether the project could proceed in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner. This is the first EIA for an offshore oilfield in Malaysian waters, and was conducted in anticipation of the Environmental Quality (Prescribed Activities) (Environmental Impact Assessment Order(1987)) which requires an EIA to be conducted for major oil and gas field development projects.

  8. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    PubMed

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research. PMID:24391285

  9. 40 CFR 227.19 - Assessment of impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 227.19 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Impact of the Proposed Dumping on Esthetic, Recreational and Economic Values § 227.19 Assessment of impact. An overall...

  10. Federal Research Impact Assessment: State-of-the-Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostoff, Ronald N.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the practice of federal evaluation of research impact through three approaches: retrospective methods; qualitative methods, including peer review; and quantitative methods. Recommended areas for study in federal research impact assessment are suggested, including predictive reliability, comparative studies, time and cost estimates,…

  11. Life Cycle Impact Assessment for Land Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to the Millennium Assessment: “Over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fiber, and fuel. This has ...

  12. Climate Change Impact Assessments for International Market Systems (CLIMARK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, J. A.; Andresen, J.; Black, J.; Bujdoso, G.; Chmielewski, F.; Kirschke, D.; Kurlus, R.; Liszewska, M.; Loveridge, S.; Niedzwiedz, T.; Nizalov, D.; Rothwell, N.; Tan, P.; Ustrnul, Z.; von Witzke, H.; Zavalloni, C.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, S.

    2012-12-01

    The vast majority of climate change impact assessments evaluate how local or regional systems and processes may be affected by a future climate. Alternative strategies that extend beyond the local or regional scale are needed when assessing the potential impacts of climate change on international market systems, including agricultural commodities. These industries have multiple production regions that are distributed worldwide and are likely to be differentially impacted by climate change. Furthermore, for many industries and market systems, especially those with long-term climate-dependent investments, temporal dynamics need to be incorporated into the assessment process, including changing patterns of international trade, consumption and production, and evolving adaptation strategies by industry stakeholder groups. A framework for conducting climate change assessments for international market systems, developed as part of the CLIMARK (Climate Change and International Markets) project is outlined, and progress toward applying the framework for an impact assessment for the international tart cherry industry is described. The tart cherry industry was selected for analysis in part because tart cherries are a perennial crop requiring long-term investments by the producer. Components of the project include the preparation of fine resolution climate scenarios, evaluation of phenological models for diverse production regions, the development of a yield model for tart cherry production, new methods for incorporating individual decision making and adaptation options into impact assessments, and modification of international trade models for use in impact studies. Innovative aspects of the project include linkages between model components and evaluation of the mega-uncertainty surrounding the assessment outcomes. Incorporation of spatial and temporal dynamics provides a more comprehensive evaluation of climate change impacts and an assessment product of potentially greater

  13. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Sadie; Nawaz, Kathleen; Sandor, Debra

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  14. Assessment of climate change impact on Eastern Washington agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An assessment of the potential impact of climate change and the concurrent increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration on eastern Washington State agriculture was conducted. Climate projections from four selected general circulation models (GCM) were chosen, and the assessment included the crops with ...

  15. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1993-09-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds on groundwater quality. The assessment reported herein expands upon the initial analysis conducted between 1989 and 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Plan.

  16. Training for Environmental Impact Assessment (E.I.A.).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vougias, S.

    1988-01-01

    Deals with the methodology and practices for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Describes the EIA process, prediction process, alternative assessment methods, training needs, major activities, training provision and material, main deficiencies and the precautions, and real world training examples. (Author/YP)

  17. IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND MEASUREMENT PROGRAM (IAM)-(SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Impact Assessment and Measurement (IAM) program focuses on the research, development and application of environmental impact assessment and progress measurement for environmental decision making. Current projects include development of impact assessment methodologies, tools, ...

  18. Impact assessment and policy learning in the European Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, Thomas F. Hilty, Lorenz M.

    2008-02-15

    Governance for sustainable development requires policy coherence and Environmental Policy Integration, which are being hindered by difficulties coordinating the two separate impact assessment processes being conducted in the European Commission. One of them, the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process, looks primarily at EU-internal impacts, whereas the other one, Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) in DG Trade, looks outward to other countries and intergovernmental organizations. Ideally, the two processes should complement one another, especially as the two are set to continue being done in parallel. The paper uses a case study of the reform of the European sugar regime under a World Trade Organization ruling to demonstrate how the two impact assessment processes could better complement one another. Feedback from the experience had with existing trade agreements could then promote policy learning and inform the negotiations on new agreements. The number of new bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements is expected to continue rising, thus increasing the importance of the Commission-wide Impact Assessment process required for them.

  19. Sensitivity to Uncertainty in Asteroid Impact Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, D.; Wheeler, L.; Prabhu, D. K.; Aftosmis, M.; Dotson, J.; Robertson, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Engineering Risk Assessment (ERA) team at NASA Ames Research Center is developing a physics-based impact risk model for probabilistically assessing threats from potential asteroid impacts on Earth. The model integrates probabilistic sampling of asteroid parameter ranges with physics-based analyses of entry, breakup, and impact to estimate damage areas and casualties from various impact scenarios. Assessing these threats is a highly coupled, dynamic problem involving significant uncertainties in the range of expected asteroid characteristics, how those characteristics may affect the level of damage, and the fidelity of various modeling approaches and assumptions. The presented model is used to explore the sensitivity of impact risk estimates to these uncertainties in order to gain insight into what additional data or modeling refinements are most important for producing effective, meaningful risk assessments. In the extreme cases of very small or very large impacts, the results are generally insensitive to many of the characterization and modeling assumptions. However, the nature of the sensitivity can change across moderate-sized impacts. Results will focus on the value of additional information in this critical, mid-size range, and how this additional data can support more robust mitigation decisions.

  20. VTAC: virtual terrain assisted impact assessment for cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argauer, Brian J.; Yang, Shanchieh J.

    2008-03-01

    Overwhelming intrusion alerts have made timely response to network security breaches a difficult task. Correlating alerts to produce a higher level view of intrusion state of a network, thus, becomes an essential element in network defense. This work proposes to analyze correlated or grouped alerts and determine their 'impact' to services and users of the network. A network is modeled as 'virtual terrain' where cyber attacks maneuver. Overlaying correlated attack tracks on virtual terrain exhibits the vulnerabilities exploited by each track and the relationships between them and different network entities. The proposed impact assessment algorithm utilizes the graph-based virtual terrain model and combines assessments of damages caused by the attacks. The combined impact scores allow to identify severely damaged network services and affected users. Several scenarios are examined to demonstrate the uses of the proposed Virtual Terrain Assisted Impact Assessment for Cyber Attacks (VTAC).

  1. Social impact assessment: A review and proposed approach: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, J A

    1986-12-01

    The objective of the report is to identify the essential components of a comprehensive plan to assess the potential social impacts of the proposed construction and operation of a high level radioactive waste repository by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. The tasks taken to achieve this objective are: examination of the literature on Social Impact Assessment (SIA); identification of different conceptual frameworks that have been proposed or used in SIA; examination of specific aspects of the frameworks; assessment of strengths and weaknesses of the frameworks; synthesis of common elements in these frameworks; and examination and evaluation of methods of data collection and analysis. 150 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Assessing the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Gerrit; Stone, Dáithí

    2016-05-01

    Impacts of recent regional changes in climate on natural and human systems are documented across the globe, yet studies explicitly linking these observations to anthropogenic forcing of the climate are scarce. Here we provide a systematic assessment of the role of anthropogenic climate change for the range of impacts of regional climate trends reported in the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report. We find that almost two-thirds of the impacts related to atmospheric and ocean temperature can be confidently attributed to anthropogenic forcing. In contrast, evidence connecting changes in precipitation and their respective impacts to human influence is still weak. Moreover, anthropogenic climate change has been a major influence for approximately three-quarters of the impacts observed on continental scales. Hence the effects of anthropogenic emissions can now be discerned not only globally, but also at more regional and local scales for a variety of natural and human systems.

  3. Trail resource impacts and an examination of alternative assessment techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.-F.

    2001-01-01

    Trails are a primary recreation resource facility on which recreation activities are performed. They provide safe access to non-roaded areas, support recreational opportunities such as hiking, biking, and wildlife observation, and protect natural resources by concentrating visitor traffic on resistant treads. However, increasing recreational use, coupled with poorly designed and/or maintained trails, has led to a variety of resource impacts. Trail managers require objective information on trails and their conditions to monitor trends, direct trail maintenance efforts, and evaluate the need for visitor management and resource protection actions. This paper reviews trail impacts and different types of trail assessments, including inventory, maintenance, and condition assessment approaches. Two assessment methods, point sampling and problem assessment, are compared empirically from separate assessments of a 15-mile segment of the Appalachian Trail in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Results indicate that point sampling and problem assessment methods yield distinctly different types of quantitative information. The point sampling method provides more accurate and precise measures of trail characteristics that are continuous or frequent (e.g., tread width or exposed soil). The problem assessment method is a preferred approach for monitoring trail characteristics that can be easily predefined or are infrequent (e.g., excessive width or secondary treads), particularly when information on the location of specific trail impact problems is needed. The advantages and limitations of these two assessment methods are examined in relation to various management and research information needs. The choice and utility of these assessment methods are also discussed.

  4. An Assessment of Commuter Aircraft Noise Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.; Silvati, Laura; Sneddon, Matthew

    1996-01-01

    This report examines several approaches to understanding 'the commuter aircraft noise problem.' The commuter aircraft noise problem in the sense addressed in this report is the belief that some aspect(s) of community response to noise produced by commuter aircraft operations may not be fully assessed by conventional environmental noise metrics and methods. The report offers alternate perspectives and approaches for understanding this issue. The report also develops a set of diagnostic screening questions; describes commuter aircraft noise situations at several airports; and makes recommendations for increasing understanding of the practical consequences of greater heterogeneity in the air transport fleet serving larger airports.

  5. Assessing the Assessment Methods: Climate Change and Hydrologic Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, L. D.; Clark, M. P.; Gutmann, E. D.; Mizukami, N.; Mendoza, P. A.; Rasmussen, R.; Ikeda, K.; Pruitt, T.; Arnold, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and other water management agencies have an interest in developing reliable, science-based methods for incorporating climate change information into longer-term water resources planning. Such assessments must quantify projections of future climate and hydrology, typically relying on some form of spatial downscaling and bias correction to produce watershed-scale weather information that subsequently drives hydrology and other water resource management analyses (e.g., water demands, water quality, and environmental habitat). Water agencies continue to face challenging method decisions in these endeavors: (1) which downscaling method should be applied and at what resolution; (2) what observational dataset should be used to drive downscaling and hydrologic analysis; (3) what hydrologic model(s) should be used and how should these models be configured and calibrated? There is a critical need to understand the ramification of these method decisions, as they affect the signal and uncertainties produced by climate change assessments and, thus, adaptation planning. This presentation summarizes results from a three-year effort to identify strengths and weaknesses of widely applied methods for downscaling climate projections and assessing hydrologic conditions. Methods were evaluated from two perspectives: historical fidelity, and tendency to modulate a global climate model's climate change signal. On downscaling, four methods were applied at multiple resolutions: statistically using Bias Correction Spatial Disaggregation, Bias Correction Constructed Analogs, and Asynchronous Regression; dynamically using the Weather Research and Forecasting model. Downscaling results were then used to drive hydrologic analyses over the contiguous U.S. using multiple models (VIC, CLM, PRMS), with added focus placed on case study basins within the Colorado Headwaters. The presentation will identify which types of climate changes are

  6. Formalizing expert judgment in the environmental impact assessment process

    SciTech Connect

    Lein, J.K. . Dept. of Geography)

    1993-01-01

    As the debate surrounding the adequacy of the environmental impact statement (EIS) process and its intended role in environmental decision-making continues, there is growing concern that the present guidelines used to develop the EIS may not be adequate given the methodological and theoretical advances that have been introduced in environmental impact assessment (EIA) since the last Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) revisions. This concern is particularly evident when the issues surrounding the application of expert judgment and the role it plays in impact prediction are considered. Presently, there is no standardized procedure for applying expert judgment in EIA, and although the use of expert judgment has long been acknowledged in the impact assessment literature, methodologies that draw upon expert judgment have not attempted to render those judgmental aspects of an assessment visible to decision-makers. This paper presents an approach for formalizing expert judgment using the experience gained from the development of expert systems designed to assist the EIA process. Following a critical examination of judgmental approaches to impact prediction, this paper illustrates how through the application of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence and fuzzy logic, substantive improvements in EIA can be made, moving the practice of impact assessment more closely into alignment with the goals expressed in Section 102(2)(a) and Section 102(2)(b) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969.

  7. How to assess extreme weather impacts - case European transport network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leviäkangas, P.

    2010-09-01

    To assess the impacts of climate change and preparing for impacts is a process. This process we must understand and learn to apply. EWENT (Extreme Weather impacts on European Networks of Transport) will be a test bench for one prospective approach. It has the following main components: 1) identifying what is "extreme", 2) assessing the change in the probabilities, 3) constructing the causal impact models, 4) finding appropriate methods of pricing and costing, 5) finding alternative strategy option, 6) assessing the efficiency of strategy option. This process follows actually the steps of standardized risk management process. Each step is challenging, but if EWENT project succeeds to assess the extreme weather impacts on European transport networks, it is one possible benchmark how to carry out similar analyses in other regions and on country level. EWENT approach could particularly useful for weather and climate information service providers, offering tools for transport authorities and financiers to assess weather risks, and then rationally managing the risks. EWENT project is financed by the European Commission and participated by met-service organisations and transport research institutes from different parts of Europe. The presentation will explain EWENT approach in detail and bring forth the findings of the first work packages.

  8. Cumulative impacts in environmental assessments: How well are they considered

    SciTech Connect

    McCold, L. ); Holman, J. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors analyzed 89 environmental assessments published in the Federal Register from January 1 through June 30, 1992, to determine the extent to which their treatment of cumulative impacts met the requirements of 40 CFR 1500-1508. Only 35 (39%) EAs mentioned cumulative impacts. Nineteen EAs addressed cumulative impacts of some resources, but not others. The paper presents several recommendations: (1) past, present and reasonable foreseeable actions that could affect resources affected by the proposed action should be identified at the same time as, and be listed with, the proposed action. (2) for each resource, the discussion of cumulative impacts should follow immediately after the discussion of direct impacts to that resource. (3) conclusions about cumulative impacts should be supported by data and analyses. (4) agencies need a central review function to ensure the quality of their EAs.

  9. Assessing MMOD Impacts on Seal Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Daniels, C.; Dunlap, P.; Steinetz, B.

    2007-01-01

    The elastomer seal needed to seal in cabin air when NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle is docked is exposed to space prior to docking. While open to space, the seal might be hit by orbital debris or meteoroids. The likelihood of damage of this type depends on the size of the particle. Our campaign is designed to find the smallest particle that will cause seal failure resulting in loss of mission. We will then be able to estimate environmental risks to the seal. Preliminary tests indicate seals can withstand a surprising amount of damage and still function. Collaborations with internal and external partners are in place and include seal leak testing, modeling of the space environment using a computer code known as BUMPER, and hypervelocity impact (HVI) studies at Caltech. Preliminary work at White Sands Test Facility showed a 0.5 mm diameter HVI damaged areas about 7 times that diameter, boring deep (5 mm) into elastomer specimens. BUMPER simulations indicate there is a 1 in 1440 chance of getting hit by a particle of diameter 0.08 cm for current Lunar missions; and 0.27 cm for a 10 year ISS LIDS seal area exposure.

  10. Impact assessment of land use planning driving forces on environment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Longgao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longqian; Li, Long

    2015-11-15

    Land use change may exert a negative impact on environmental quality. A state–impact–state (SIS) model describing a state transform under certain impacts has been integrated into land use planning (LUP) environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). This logical model is intuitive and easy to understand, but the exploration of impact is essential to establish the indicator system and to identify the scope of land use environmental impact when it is applied to a specific region. In this study, we investigated environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF), along with the conception, components, scope, and impact of LUPF. This method was illustrated by a case study in Zoucheng, China. Through the results, we concluded that (1) the LUPF on environment are impacts originated from the implementation of LUP on a regional environment, which are characterized by four aspects: magnitude, direction, action point, and its owner; (2) various scopes of LUPF on individual environmental elements based on different standards jointly define the final scope of LUPEA; (3) our case study in Zoucheng demonstrates the practicability of this proposed approach; (4) this method can be embedded into LUPEA with direction, magnitudes, and scopes of the LUPF on individual elements obtained, and the identified indicator system can be directly employed into LUPEA and (5) the assessment helps to identify key indicators and to set up a corresponding strategy to mitigate the negative impact of LUP on the environment, which are two important objectives of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in LUP. - Highlights: • Environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF) are investigated and categorized. • Our method can obtains the direction, magnitudes and scopes of environmental driving forces. • The LUPEA scope is determined by the combination of various scopes of LUPF on individual elements. • LUPF assessment can be embedded into LUPEA. • The method can help to

  11. Reservoir engineering studies of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal resource; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen-Min; Less, K.; Miller, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Transient pressure analysis techniques have been used to evaluate the performance of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal reservoir. A fault-controlled aquifer influx model has also been developed to account for pressure support observed during both reservoir depletion and recovery phases. The Gladys McCall No. 1 well was drilled and completed in the lower Miocene geopressured sandstones under the US Department of Energy geopressured-geothermal research program. The well was shut in October 1987 after producing over 27 MMstb of brine and 676 MMscf gas since October 1983. Eight pressure transient tests were conducted in the well. Analysis of transient pressure data provided a quantitative evaluation of reservoir characteristics, including: (a) formation transmissibility and skin, (b) the size and possible shape of the main producing reservoir, and (c) characteristics of the pressure support mechanism. The pressure behavior of 1983 Reservoir Limits Test (RLT) suggested that the Gladys McCall reservoir might have a long narrow shape with the well located off-center. An elongated numerical model developed accordingly was able to reproduce the pressure characteristics shown in the test. During both the reservoir production and shut-in periods, pressure buildup tests indicated some degree of external pressure support. Aquifer recharging was believed to be the main source. Based on reservoir material-balance calculations, an aquifer influx model was derived from a conceptual model of water leakage through a partially sealing fault into the reservoir under steady-state conditions. Moreover, a match of the pressure history required that the conductivity of the fault be a function of the pressure difference between the supporting aquifer and the reservoir.

  12. Reservoir engineering studies of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal resource. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, C.M.; Lee, K.; Miller, M.A.

    1993-09-01

    Transient pressure analysis techniques have been used to evaluate the performance of the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal reservoir. A fault-controlled aquifer influx model has also been developed to account for pressure support observed during both reservoir depletion and recovery phases. The Gladys McCall No. 1 well was drilled and completed in the lower Miocene geopressured sandstones under the US Department of energy geopressured-geothermal research program. The well was shut in october 1987 after producing over 27 MMstb of brine and 676 MMscf gas since October 1983. Eight pressure transient tests were conducted in the well. Analysis of transient pressure data provided a quantitative evaluation of reservoir characteristics, including: (a) formation transmissibility and skin, (b) the size and possible shape of the main producing reservoir, (c) characteristics of the pressure support mechanism. The pressure behavior of 1983 Reservoir Limits Test (RLT) suggested that the Gladys McCall reservoir might have a long narrow shape with the well located off-center. An elongated numerical model developed accordingly was able to reproduce the pressure characteristics show in the test. During both the reservoir production and shut-in periods, pressure buildup tests indicated some degree of external pressure support. Aquifer recharging was believed to be the main source. Based on reservoir material-balance calculations, an aquifer influx model was derived from a conceptual model of water leakage through a partially sealing fault into the reservoir under steady-state conditions. Moreover, a match of the pressure history required that the conductivity of the fault be a function of the pressure difference between the supporting aquifer and the reservoir.

  13. A new approach for environmental justice impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, C.H.; Brumburgh, G.P.; Edmunds, T.A.; Kay, D.

    1996-03-01

    President Clinton`s Executive Order 12898 calls for examination of disproportionately high and adverse impacts to minority and low-income communities. In addition to demographic mapping, environmental justice analyses should also include quantitative impact assessment to show presence or absence of disproportionate impacts. This study demonstrates use of a geographic information system (GIS) and a computer model. For this demonstration, a safety analysis report and a computer code were used to develop impact assessment data from a hypothetical facility accident producing a radiological airborne plume. The computer code modeled the plume, plotted dose contours, and provided latitude and longitude coordinates for transfer to the GIS. The GIS integrated and mapped the impact and demographic data toprovide a graphical representation of the plume with respect to the population. Impacts were then analyzed. The GIS was used to estimate the total dose to the exposed population under the plume, the dose to the low-income population under the plume, and the dose to the minority population under the plume. Impacts among the population groups were compared to determine whether a dispropotionate share of the impacts were borne by minority or low-income populations.

  14. Assessing the impact of breakthrough cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Burton, Beth; Zeppetella, Giovambattista

    Breakthrough pain is a transient exacerbation of pain that occurs either spontaneously or in relation to a specific predictable or unpredictable trigger despite relative stable and adequately controlled background pain. Breakthrough pain is a common and distinct component of cancer pain and is typically of rapid onset, severe in intensity, and generally self-limiting with an average duration of 30-60minutes. Despite the self-limiting nature of breakthrough pain, it can place significant physical, psychological, and economic burdens on both patients and their carers. Patients with breakthrough pain are often less satisfied with their analgesic therapy, they have decreased functioning because of their pain, and may also experience social and psychosocial consequences, such as increased levels of anxiety and depression. Successful management of breakthrough pain is best achieved by a thorough assessment which includes determining the severity, pathophysiology, and aetiology of the pain and takes into account both background and breakthrough pains while considering whether the underlying disease, co-morbidities or precipitating events are amenable to interventions. The features of breakthrough pain and the challenges it presents to patients, their carers, and health professionals are illustrated with a case study. PMID:21647006

  15. Radon in unconventional natural gas from gulf coast geopressured-geothermal reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, T.F.

    1986-01-01

    Radon-222 has been measured in natural gas produced from experimental geopressured-geothermal test wells. Comparison with published data suggests that while radon activity of this unconventional natural gas resource is higher than conventional gas produced in the gulf coast, it is within the range found for conventional gas produced throughout the U.S. A method of predicting the likely radon activity of this unconventional gas is described on the basis of the data presented, methane solubility, and known or assumed reservoir conditions of temperature, fluid pressure, and formation water salinity.

  16. Geopressured-geothermal testing of five dry holes during 1980 and 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Klauzinski, R.Z.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes the testing of five hot, geopressured aquifers in different geologic environments in Texas and Louisiana by Eaton Operating Company for the US Department of Energy. The results were encouraging. Natural gas-to-brine content ranged from 33.0 to 55.0 SCF/bbl. Gas production rates ranged from 93 to 600 MCFD. Sustained water production rates ranged from 1950 to 15,000 BWPD. Bottom-hole temperatures ranged from 260 to 327/sup 0/F. Reservoir pressures ranged from 6627 psia to 13,203 psia. A test near Beaumont resulted in discovery of oil and gas.

  17. Utility of fuzzy cross-impact simulation in environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, A.; Paliwal, R.; Rambabu, P.

    1997-11-01

    Fuzzy cross-impact simulation is a qualitative technique, where interactions within a system are represented by a cross-impact matrix that includes linguistic elements. It can be used effectively to visualize dynamic evolution of a system. The utility of the fuzzy cross-impact simulation approach is: (1) in dealing with uncertainties in environment-development systems; (2) scoping cumulative effect assessment; and (3) integrating societal response structure in environment impact assessment. Use of the method is illustrated in a case concerning the textile industry in Indore, India. Consequences of policy alternatives for cleanup and pollution abatement are predicted in terms of environmental quality and quality of life, using the simulation model. The consequence analysis is used to arrive at preferred policy options.

  18. Impact assessment procedures for sustainable development: A complexity theory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Nooteboom, Sibout

    2007-10-15

    The author assumes that effective Impact Assessment procedures should somehow contribute to sustainable development. There is no widely agreed framework for evaluating such effectiveness. The author suggests that complexity theories may offer criteria. The relevant question is 'do Impact Assessment Procedures contribute to the 'requisite variety' of a social system for it to deal with changing circumstances?' Requisite variety theoretically relates to the capability of a system to deal with changes in its environment. The author reconstructs how thinking about achieving sustainable development has developed in a sequence of discourses in The Netherlands since the 1970s. Each new discourse built on the previous ones, and is supposed to have added to 'requisite variety'. The author asserts that Impact Assessment procedures may be a necessary component in such sequences and derives possible criteria for effectiveness.

  19. Health Impact Assessment, Physical Activity and Federal Lands Trail Policy

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sally M.; Cruz, Theresa H.; Kozoll, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this paper are to describe the application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to inform trail decisions affecting a rural, under-resourced community and propose the routine integration of HIAs to enhance NEPA environmental assessments and environmental impact statements for trail decisions on federal lands. Methods Screening, scoping, assessment, recommendations, reporting, monitoring and evaluation are being used to examine the health impact of trail location and design. Results HIA recommendations are being integrated into the public lands National Environmental Protection Act process for planning access to a new segment of the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail. Potential users from a nearby rural New Mexico community and a region of almost one million may benefit from this HIA-informed planning. Conclusions HIA can be integrated into the policy and decision-making process for trails on public lands.

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process of V1 NPP Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Matejovic, Igor; Polak, Vincent

    2007-07-01

    Through the adoption of Governmental Resolution No. 801/99 the Slovak Republic undertook a commitment to shutdown units 1 and 2 of Jaslovske Bohunice V 1 NPP (WWER 230 reactor type) in 2006 and 2008 respectively. Therefore the more intensive preparation of a decommissioning documentation has been commenced. Namely, the VI NPP Conceptual Decommissioning Plan and subsequently the Environmental Impact Assessment Report of VI NPP Decommissioning were developed. Thus, the standard environmental impact assessment process was performed and the most suitable alternative of V1 NPP decommissioning was selected as a basis for development of further decommissioning documents. The status and main results of the environmental impact assessment process and EIA report are discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

  1. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 216-U-14 Ditch

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, K.M.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    Groundwater impact assessments are conducted at liquid effluent receiving sites on the Hanford Site to determine hydrologic and contaminant impacts caused by discharging wastewater to the soil column. The assessments conducted are pursuant to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00A and M-17-00B, as agreed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (Ecology et al. 1992). This report assesses impacts on the groundwater and vadose zone from wastewater discharged to the 216-U-14 Ditch. Contemporary effluent waste streams of interest are 242-S Evaporator Steam Condensate and UO{sub 3}/U Plant wastewater.

  2. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Münch, Anna K.; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human

  3. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  4. A programme for Health Impact Assessment in Brighton and Hove.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Thomas J; Lawrence, Lydie; Blair-Stevens, Terry; Nichols, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    HIA is based on the theory of health determinants, which recognizes that well-being is determined by a wide range of economic, social and environmental factors, by heredity and medical intervention. The intended HIA procedure represents a new approach to the evaluation of all local authority policies in order to assess their potential health impacts and to improve the quality of governmental decisions, through recommendations to enhance predicted positive health impacts and minimize negative ones. PMID:17191538

  5. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Lindhjem, Henrik . E-mail: henrik.lindhjem@econ.no; Hu Tao . E-mail: hu.tao@vip.163.com; Ma Zhong . E-mail: mazhong@public.bta.net.cn; Skjelvik, John Magne . E-mail: john.skjelvik@econ.no; Song Guojun . E-mail: songgj@public3.bta.net.cn; Vennemo, Haakon . E-mail: haakon.vennemo@econ.no; Wu Jian . E-mail: zhxwj@263.net; Zhang Shiqiu . E-mail: zhangshq@pku.edu.cn

    2007-01-15

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline.

  6. Environmental impact assessment: National approaches and international needs.

    PubMed

    Burton, I; Wilson, J; Munn, R E

    1983-06-01

    This paper examines the spread and development of 'environmental impact assessment' (EIA) since the enactment of the U.S. Environmental Policy Act on January 1, 1970, which established for the first time under any jurisdiction the formal requirement that an EIA be made and that an 'environmental impact statement' (EIS) be filed prior to implementation of certain major development projects.The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, we briefly review the forms of EIA introduced in the western industrial countries and contrast these with developments in the socialist countries of Eastern Europe, and in the Third World. The approaches to EIA adopted by five countries - the United States, Australia, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the Soviet Union - are used to illustrate the types of national approaches that have been followed. In the second part of the paper, we use some questions raised by impact assessments as codified in legislation or regulations at the national level to highlight some of the limitations of impact assessment. Finally, we turn to international impact assessments and describe the modest progress made to date. Key impediments to the development of appropriate conceptual and institutional frameworks and methodologies for international EIAs are noted.In conclusion, we offer some suggestions about needed actions at both the national and international levels. PMID:24258931

  7. Mars Rover Curriculum: Impact Assessment and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bering, E. A., III; Carlson, C.; Nieser, K.; Slagle, E. M.; Jacobs, L. T.; Kapral, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Houston is in the process of developing a flexible program that offers children an in-depth educational experience culminating in the design and construction of their own model Mars rover: the Mars Rover Model Celebration (MRC). It focuses on students, teachers and parents in grades 3-8. Students design and build a model of a Mars rover to carry out a student selected science mission on the surface of Mars. A total of 140 Mars Rover teachers from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 cohorts were invited to complete the Mars Rover Teacher Evaluation Survey. The survey was administered online and could be taken at the convenience of the participant. So far ~40 teachers have participated with responses still coming in. A total of 675 students from the 2013-2014 cohort were invited to submit brief self-assessments of their participation in the program. Teachers were asked to rate their current level of confidence in their ability to teach specific topics within the Earth and Life Science realms, as well as their confidence in their ability to implement teaching strategies with their students. The majority of teachers (81-90%) felt somewhat to very confident in their ability to effectively teach concepts related to earth and life sciences to their students. In addition, many of the teachers felt that their confidence in teaching these concepts increased somewhat to quite a bit as a result of their participation in the MRC program (54-88%). The most striking increase in this area was the reported 48% of teachers who felt their confidence in teaching "Earth and the solar system and universe" increased "Quite a bit" as a result of their participation in the MRC program. The vast majority of teachers (86-100%) felt somewhat to very confident in their ability to effectively implement all of the listed teaching strategies. The most striking increases were the percentage of teachers who felt their confidence increased "Quite a bit" as a result of their participation

  8. Scaling up: Assessing social impacts at the macro-scale

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Jacki

    2011-04-15

    Social impacts occur at various scales, from the micro-scale of the individual to the macro-scale of the community. Identifying the macro-scale social changes that results from an impacting event is a common goal of social impact assessment (SIA), but is challenging as multiple factors simultaneously influence social trends at any given time, and there are usually only a small number of cases available for examination. While some methods have been proposed for establishing the contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change, they remain relatively untested. This paper critically reviews methods recommended to assess macro-scale social impacts, and proposes and demonstrates a new approach. The 'scaling up' method involves developing a chain of logic linking change at the individual/site scale to the community scale. It enables a more problematised assessment of the likely contribution of an impacting event to macro-scale social change than previous approaches. The use of this approach in a recent study of change in dairy farming in south east Australia is described.

  9. A state-impact-state methodology for assessing environmental impact in land use planning

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Longgao; Yang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Longqian; Potter, Rebecca; Li, Yingkui

    2014-04-01

    The implementation of land use planning (LUP) has a large impact on environmental quality. There lacks a widely accepted and consolidated approach to assess the LUP environmental impact using Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). In this paper, we developed a state-impact-state (SIS) model employed in the LUP environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). With the usage of Matter-element (ME) and Extenics method, the methodology based on the SIS model was established and applied in the LUPEA of Zoucheng County, China. The results show that: (1) this methodology provides an intuitive and easy understanding logical model for both the theoretical analysis and application of LUPEA; (2) the spatial multi-temporal assessment from base year, near-future year to planning target year suggests the positive impact on the environmental quality in the whole County despite certain environmental degradation in some towns; (3) besides the spatial assessment, other achievements including the environmental elements influenced by land use and their weights, the identification of key indicators in LUPEA, and the appropriate environmental mitigation measures were obtained; and (4) this methodology can be used to achieve multi-temporal assessment of LUP environmental impact of County or Town level in other areas. - Highlights: • A State-Impact-State model for Land Use Planning Environmental Assessment (LUPEA). • Matter-element (ME) and Extenics methods were embedded in the LUPEA. • The model was applied to the LUPEA of Zoucheng County. • The assessment shows improving environment quality since 2000 in Zoucheng County. • The method provides a useful tool for the LUPEA in the county level.

  10. Criteria for assessing climate change impacts on ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Loehle, Craig

    2011-01-01

    There is concern about the potential impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems. To address this concern, a large body of literature has developed in which these impacts are assessed. In this study, criteria for conducting reliable and useful assessments of impacts of future climate are suggested. The major decisions involve: clearly defining an emissions scenario; selecting a climate model; evaluating climate model skill and bias; quantifying General Circulation Model (GCM) between-model variability; selecting an ecosystem model and assessing uncertainty; properly considering transient versus equilibrium responses; including effects of CO2 on plant response; evaluating implications of simplifying assumptions; and considering animal linkage with vegetation. A sample of the literature was surveyed in light of these criteria. Many of the studies used climate simulations that were >10 years old and not representative of best current models. Future effects of elevated CO2 on plant drought resistance and productivity were generally included in growth model studies but not in niche (habitat suitability) studies, causing the latter to forecast greater future adverse impacts. Overly simplified spatial representation was frequent and caused the existence of refugia to be underestimated. Few studies compared multiple climate simulations and ecosystem models (including parametric uncertainty), leading to a false impression of precision and potentially arbitrary results due to high between-model variance. No study assessed climate model retrodictive skill or bias. Overall, most current studies fail to meet all of the proposed criteria. Suggestions for improving assessments are provided. PMID:22393483

  11. GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR FOUR GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the second in a series of reports concerning the environmental assessments of effluent extraction, energy conversion, and waste disposal in geothermal systems. This study involves the subsurface environmental impact of the Imperial Valley and The Geysers, California; Klam...

  12. Microseismic monitoring of Chocolate Bayou, Texas: the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 geopressured/geothermal energy test well program

    SciTech Connect

    Mauk, F.J.; Kimball, B.; Davis, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Brazoria seismic network, instrumentation, design, and specifications are described. The data analysis procedures are presented. Seismicity is described in relation to the Pleasant Bayou production history. Seismicity originating near the chemical plant east of the geopressured/geothermal well is discussed. (MHR)

  13. Properties of geopressured brines and wells in the Gulf Coast and opportunities for industrial/research participation

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, J.

    1989-01-01

    Geopressured reservoirs exhibit pressure gradients in excess of the normal hydrostatic gradient. (In the Gulf Coast area the normal gradient is 0.465 psi/ft.) Pressures may approach lithostatic pressure and have been measured as high as 1.05 psi/ft in the Gulf Coast area. Geopressured basins exist worldwide and in a number of US locations, east, west, north and south. The Gulf Coast area has been studied extensively and is the subject of the DOE geopressured-geothermal research at present. Present industrial interest in the Pleasant Bayou and Hulin wells include: desalination plants, an economic study by a power company for regional use, use of generated electricity by a coalition of towns, aquaculture (catfish farming) research program, and an unsolicited proposal for enhanced oil recovery of heavy oil. Direct uses of the hot brine cover dozens of industries and processes. An example of multiple uses in the USSR is shown. A research spin-off: a sensitive in-line benzene monitor has been designed by USL and will be tested in the near future. An in-line pH monitor is also under development for the harsh conditions of the geopressured-geothermal wells. 24 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, Michael; Ura, Karma

    2011-01-15

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  15. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  16. Geologic, geophysical, and geochemical aspects of site-specific studies of the geopressured-geothermal energy resource of southern Louisiana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pilger, R.H. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The report consists of four sections dealing with progress in evaluating geologic, geochemical, and geophysical aspects of geopressured-geothermal energy resources in Louisiana. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual sections. (ACR)

  17. Contractor for geopressured-geothermal sites: Final contract report, Volume 1, fiscal years 1986--1990 (5 years), testing of wells through October 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Field tests and studies were conducted to determine the production behavior of geopressured-geothermal reservoirs and their potential as future energy sources. Results are presented for Gladys McCall Site, Pleasant Bayou Site, and Hulin Site.

  18. Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells. Summary of Gruy Federal's Well-of-Opportunity Program to January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Scouting and monitoring techniques peculiar to geopressured-geothermal wells and legal problems are presented. The following are tabulated: priority wells actively monitored, industry contacts, and the summary of industry responses to well-or-opportunity solicitation. (MHR)

  19. The role of geomorphology in environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallin, A.; Marchetti, M.; Panizza, M.; Soldati, M.

    1994-04-01

    This paper aims to define the role of Geomorphology in the assessment of the impact of human activities on the environment. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) should be carried out for specific projects, in order to evaluate their suitability for the quality of the environment. In fact, each planned activity may have an impact on various environmental components. Among these, the natural component must be examined in terms of geomorphological hazards, which may endanger a project, and of geomorphological assets (elements forming the educational and cultural heritage of the landscape), which may be damaged to various extents by human activities. The relationships between humans and environment are taken into account, with particular attention to the effects of a project on the geomorphological environment. From a geomorphological point of view, after having assessed the suitability of a certain location, mainly with respect to its morphography and morphometry, the geomorphological hazards of the area which may threaten the project (risk) must be considered; then the geomorphological assets, which may be damaged by the same project (direct impact) have to be individuated. Human activities may produce two other kinds of effect: the first refers to the consequences of the geomorphological hazards induced by a project on the project itself (direct risk) and on the surronding areas (indirect risk); the second takes into account the potential deterioration of a geomorphological asset due to hazards induced by the project (indirect impact). Examples of these different cases are presented.

  20. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental impacts associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate impacts of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental impact assessment and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on assessing a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy assessments. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare impacts versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying impacts and the policy choices.

  1. Assessing the Impact of Temperature on Grape Phenolic Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the impact of fruit temperature on the phenolic metabolism of grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) grown under field conditions with controlled exposure to sunlight. Individual cluster temperatures were manipulated in situ. Diurnal temperature fluctuation was damped by da...

  2. Assessing the Impact of New Student Campus Recreation Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zizzi, Samuel; Ayers, Suzan F.; Watson II, Jack C.; Keeler, Linda A.

    2004-01-01

    The student recreation center (SRC) at many colleges and universities has evolved from being a place to lift weights and take aerobics classes to becoming a high-powered recruitment tool (Colleges use recreation, 2002). The present study included the development of an instrument to assess the use and impact of SRCs. Students (N = 655; users = 537,…

  3. AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to p...

  4. Gainesville Junior College Community Impact Study/Needs Assessment Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Barbara; And Others

    Procedures, methodology, and findings are reported for a six-part study undertaken by Gainesville Junior College (GJC) to: assess the economic impact of the college on its service area; determine community attitudes concerning the degree to which GJC has met stated goals and objectives; and identify needed services and programs that GJC has yet to…

  5. Impact of a Reaffirmation Accreditation Program on Institutional Assessment Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Karen Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In the period between 2004 and 2006, several publications were released questioning the quality of higher education: One such report was from the 2006 Spellings Commission of the U.S. Secretary of Education, which prompted accrediting agencies to review institutional assessment practices. This research was designed to measure the impact Academy…

  6. 77 FR 46100 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... the Department of Homeland Security (DHS or Department) is making available fifteen new or updated... Privacy Office's Web site between March 1, 2012 and May 31, 2012. DATES: The PIAs will be available on...

  7. 77 FR 16846 - Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Published Privacy Impact Assessments on the Web AGENCY: Privacy Office... approved and published on the Privacy Office's Web site between December 1, 2011 and February 29, 2012. DATES: The PIAs will be available on the DHS Web site until May 21, 2012, after which they may...

  8. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT AN INTRODUCTION AND INTERNATIONAL UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research within the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) has greatly improved since the work of Heijungs and Guinee in 1992. Within the UNEP / SETAC Life Cycle Initiative an effort is underway to provide recommendations about the direction of research and selection of LC...

  9. Parametric assessment of climate change impacts of automotive material substitution.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Roland

    2008-09-15

    Quantifying the net climate change impact of automotive material substitution is not a trivial task. It requires the assessment of the mass reduction potential of automotive materials, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from their production and recycling, and their impact on GHG emissions from vehicle use. The model presented in this paper is based on life cycle assessment (LCA) and completely parameterized, i.e., its computational structure is separated from the required input data, which is not traditionally done in LCAs. The parameterization increases scientific rigor and transparency of the assessment methodology, facilitates sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the results, and also makes it possible to compare different studies and explain their disparities. The state of the art of the modeling methodology is reviewed and advanced. Assessment of the GHG emission impacts of material recycling through consequential system expansion shows that our understanding of this issue is still incomplete. This is a critical knowledge gap since a case study shows thatfor materials such as aluminum, the GHG emission impacts of material production and recycling are both of the same size as the use phase savings from vehicle mass reduction. PMID:18853818

  10. Integrated economic and climate projections for impact assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We designed scenarios for impact assessment that explicitly address policy choices and uncertainty in climate response. Economic projections and the resulting greenhouse gas emissions for the “no climate policy” scenario and two stabilization scenarios: at 4.5 W/m2 and 3.7 W/m2 b...

  11. AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT SOPHISTICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On November 29-30,1998 in Brussels, an international workshop was held to discuss Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) Sophistication. Approximately 50 LCA experts attended the workshop from North America, Europe, and Asia. Prominant practicioners and researchers were invited to ...

  12. Groundwater Impacts of Radioactive Wastes and Associated Environmental Modeling Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-11-01

    This article provides a review of the major sources of radioactive wastes and their impacts on groundwater contamination. The review discusses the major biogeochemical processes that control the transport and fate of radionuclide contaminants in groundwater, and describe the evolution of mathematical models designed to simulate and assess the transport and transformation of radionuclides in groundwater.

  13. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF EMISSIONS REDUCTION IMPACT FROM ROOFTOP PV

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort will determine the emissions impacts to the U.S. PV generated electricity when PV systems are installed on building rooftops and employed as demand-side power supplies. The national assessment will be based on data provided by existing rooftop PV systems that have be...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF RESOURCE RECOVERY ON THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment of the environmental impact of resource recovery examines the environmental effects that will derive from municipal solid waste disposal in 1990 and the changes in these effects that will result from implementation of resource recovery from municipal solid waste. ...

  15. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE GBU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyro-technic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD...

  16. LIFE-CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT DEMONSTRATION FOR THE BGU-24

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) approach using existing life-cycle inventory (LCI) data on one of the propellants, energetics, and pyrotechnic (PEP) materials of interest to the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)...

  17. Health Impact Assessment as a Student Service Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Cynthia; Greene, Marion S.

    2012-01-01

    Health Impact Assessments (HIAs) incorporate a combination of tools, methods, and procedures to evaluate the potential health effects of a proposed program, project, or policy. The university public health department, in collaboration with the county health department, and the local planning organization, developed a curriculum for a…

  18. Assessing the Impact of a University Teaching Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trigwell, Keith; Rodriguez, Katia Caballero; Han, Feifei

    2012-01-01

    Four different indicators are used to assess the impact of a year-long university teaching development programme in an Australian research-led university. All four indicators show small positive outcomes. Teachers who complete the programme have higher rates of receipt of teaching awards and teaching development grants than their colleagues who do…

  19. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured-geothermal resources in Texas. 1990 Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, J.A.; Seni, S.J.; DuBar, J.R.; Walter, T.G.

    1991-03-01

    In a five-county area of South Texas, geopressured-geothermal reservoirs in the upper Wilcox Group colocated with heavy-oil reservoirs in the overlying Jackson Group. In 1990, research at the Bureau of Economic Geology concentrated on evaluating the potential of using geopressured-geothermal water for hot-water flooding of heavy-oil reservoirs. Favorable geothermal reservoirs are defined by thick deltaic sandstones and growth-fault-bounded compartments. Potential geothermal reservoirs are present at a depth of 11,000 ft (3,350 m) to 15,000 ft (4,570 m) and contain water at temperatures of 350 F (177 C) to 383 F (195 C) in Fandango field, Zapata County. One potential geothermal reservoir sandstone in the upper Wilcox (R sandstone) is composed of a continuous sand body 100 ft (30 m) to greater than 200 ft (>61 m) thick. Fault blocks average 2 to 4 mi{sup 2} (5.2 to 10.4 km{sup 2}) in area.

  20. Analysis of three geopressured geothermal aquifer-natural gas fields; Duson Hollywood and Church Point, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L.A.; Boardman, C.R.

    1981-05-01

    The available well logs, production records and geological structure maps were analyzed for the Hollywood, Duson, and Church Point, Louisiana oil and gas field to determine the areal extent of the sealed geopressured blocks and to identify which aquifer sands within the blocks are connected to commercial production of hydrocarbons. The analysis showed that over the depth intervals of the geopressured zones shown on the logs essentially all of the sands of any substantial thickness had gas production from them somewhere or other in the fault block. It is therefore expected that the sands which are fully brine saturated in many of the wells are the water drive portion of the producing gas/oil somewhere else within the fault block. In this study only one deep sand was identified, in the Hollywood field, which was not connected to a producing horizon somewhere else in the field. Estimates of the reservoir parameters were made and a hypothetical production calculation showed the probable production to be less than 10,000 b/d. The required gas price to profitably produce this gas is well above the current market price.

  1. Depletion and recovery behavior of the Gladys McCall geopressured geothermal reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Riney, T.D. )

    1990-06-01

    Many sedimentary basins throughout the world contain sealed fault blocks in which the pore fluids are at higher pressures and temperatures than normal as a consequence of their depositional environment. The U.S. Department of Energy has drilled, completed, and tested four deep research wells in selected geopressured geothermal prospects in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast region to evaluate the recoverability of the thermal, hydraulic, and chemical (methane) energy in this potential energy resource. The wells are expensive and the specific energy of the fluids is relatively small, but the total recoverable energy from a single well can be extremely large. Long-term testing of the Gladys McCall No. 1 research well, located in Cameron Parish, Louisiana, U.S.A., has defined an impressively large geopressured geothermal reservoir. In this paper an integrated analysis of the test data is presented, and a numerical model is constructed that matches the available data for the 6.5-year test history of the well.

  2. The feasibility of recovering medium to heavy oil using geopressured- geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, J.; Kimmell, C.E.; Hart, G.F.; Plum, M.M.

    1991-09-01

    The feasibility, economics and environmental concerns of producing more domestic oil using thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) are reviewed and the unique nature of geopressured-geothermal (GPGT) fluids for thermal recovery are outlined. Current methods of TEOR are briefly discussed and it is noted that these methods are presently under scrutiny by both federal and state air quality agencies; and moreover, they often involve costly operational and mechanical problems associated with heating water on the surface for injection into the target reservoir. The characteristics of the GPGT resources as seen through previous Department of Energy (DOE) studies from sites in Louisiana and Texas are discussed. These studies indicate sufficient quantities of GPGT fluids can be produced to sustain a TEOR project. The Alworth Field in the south Texas Mirando Trend is proposed as a TEOR pilot site. The target reservoirs for injection of the GPGT fluids are the Jackson and Yegua sandstones of the upper Eocene Epoch. The reservoirs contain an estimated 4 MMbbls of heavy oil in place (OIP) (18.6{degree}API) of which it is estimated that at least 1 MMbbls could be recovered by TEOR. The problems associated with using the GPGT fluids for TEOR include those normally associated with hot water flooding but in addition the reaction of the brine from the geopressured-geothermal reservoir with the target reservoir is uncertain. Under the elevated temperatures associated with GPGT TEOR, actual increased porosity and permeability are possible. 120 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Pleasant Bayou geopressured/geothermal testing project, Brazoria County, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ortego, P.K.

    1985-07-01

    Phase II-B production testing of the Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well began September 22, 1982. The test plan was designed to evaluate the capabilities of the geopressured-geothermal reservoir during an extended flow period. Tests were conducted to determine reservoir areal extent; aquifer fluid properties; fluid property change with production; information on reservoir production drive mechanism; long-term scale and corrosion control methods; and disposal well operations. Operatinal aspects of geopressured-geothermal production were also evaluated. The test was discontinued prematurely in May 1983 because of a production tubing failure. Most of the production tubing was recovered from the well and cause of the failure was determined. Plans for recompletion of the well were prepared. However, the well was not recompleted because of funding constraints and/or program rescheduling. In March 1984, the Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) directed that the site be placed in a standby-secured condition. In August 1984, the site was secured. Routine site maintenance and security was provided during the secured period.

  4. Elements of impact assessment: a case study with cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shanchieh Jay; Holsopple, Jared; Liu, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Extensive discussions have taken place in recent year regarding impact assessment - what is it and how can we do it? It is especially intriguing in this modern era where non-traditional warfare has caused either information overload or limited understanding of adversary doctrines. This work provides a methodical discussion of key elements for the broad definition of impact assessment (IA). The discussion will start with a process flow involving components related to IA. Two key functional components, impact estimation and threat projection, are compared and illustrated in detail. These details include a discussion of when to model red and blue knowledge. Algorithmic approaches will be discussed, augmented with lessons learned from our IA development for cyber situation awareness. This paper aims at providing the community with a systematic understanding of IA and its open issues with specific examples.

  5. Environmental impact assessment of cottage industries of Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Wani, Khursheed Ahmad; Jaiswal, Y K

    2011-07-01

    Our objective was to carry out environmental impact assessment of small scale industries in Kashmir (India). A prepared questionnaire was circulated among the workers, owners and residents to assess the pros and cons of the small scale industries in Kashmir. The study revealed that most of the small scale industries in Kashmir valley have an impact on the quality of the environment and may cause discomfort to the people living very close to these industries. It has been observed that small scale industries lack efficient waste management system. However, the generated wastes from these units may be used effectively, as a raw material in various ways when managed properly and may minimize the impact on the quality of the environment and may also contribute in improving the economy of the State. The proliferation of small scale industries has caused an irreversible damage to the agricultural land of the area studied. PMID:23029939

  6. Ultrasonic impact damage assessment in 3D woven composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannai, E.; Lamboul, B.; Roche, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    An ultrasonic nondestructive methodology is proposed for the assessment of low velocity impact damage in a 3D woven composite material. The output data is intended for material scientists and numerical scientists to validate the damage tolerance performance of the manufactured materials and the reliability of damage modeling predictions. A depth-dependent threshold based on the reflectivity of flat bottom holes is applied to the ultrasonic data to remove the structural noise and isolate echoes of interest. The methodology was applied to a 3 mm thick 3D woven composite plate impacted with different energies. An artificial 3D representation of the detected echoes is proposed to enhance the spatial perception of the generated damage by the end user. The paper finally highlights some statistics made on the detected echoes to quantitatively assess the impact damage resistance of the tested specimens.

  7. Tsunami Forecast Technology for Asteroid Impact Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Over 75% of all historically documented tsunamis have been generated by earthquakes. As the result, all existing Tsunami Warning and Forecast systems focus almost exclusively on detecting, warning and forecasting earthquake-generated tsunamis.The sequence of devastating tsunamis across the globe over the past 10 years has significantly heightened awareness and preparation activities associated with these high-impact events. Since the catastrophic 2004 Sumatra tsunami, NOAA has invested significant efforts in modernizing the U.S. tsunami warning system. Recent developments in tsunami modeling capability, inundation forecasting, sensing networks, dissemination capability and local preparation and mitigation activities have gone a long way toward enhancing tsunami resilience within the United States. The remaining quarter of the tsunami hazard problem is related to other mechanisms of tsunami generation, that may not have received adequate attention. Among those tsunami sources, the asteroid impact may be the most exotic, but possible one of the most devastating tsunami generation mechanisms. Tsunami forecast capabilities that have been developed for the tsunami warning system can be used to explore both, hazard assessment and the forecast of a tsunami generated by the asteroid impact. Existing tsunami flooding forecast technology allows for forecast for non-seismically generated tsunamis (asteroid impact, meteo-generated tsunamis, landslides, etc.), given an adequate data for the tsunami source parameters. Problems and opportunities for forecast of tsunamis from asteroid impact will be discussed. Preliminary results of impact-generated tsunami analysis for forecast and hazard assessment will be presented.

  8. Continuity and internal properties of Gulf Coast sandstones and their implications for geopressured energy development. Annual report, November 1, 1980-October 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Tyler, N.

    1982-06-01

    Systematic investigation, classification, and differentiation of the intrinsic properties of genetic sandstone units that typify many geopressured geothermal aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Gulf Coast region are provided. The following are included: structural and stratigraphic limits of sandstone reservoirs; characteristics and dimensions of Gulf Coast Sandstones; fault compartment areas; comparison of production and geologic estimates of aquifer volume; geologic setting and reservoir characteristics, wells of opportunity; internal properties of sandstones and implications for geopressured energy development. (MHR)

  9. Environmental health impact assessment of National Aluminum Company, Orissa

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Health Impact Assessment of industries is an important tool help decision-makers make choices about alternatives and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health around industrial sites. A rapid environmental health hazard and vulnerability assessment of National Aluminum Company was undertaken in the villages in the vicinity plant in Angul region of Orissa. Aluminum smelter plant was known to discharge hundreds of tones of fluoride in to the environment contaminating the ecosystem around the plant. The present Environmental health impact assessment was carried out in 2005-06 at the request of officials from Government of Orissa. The findings showed adverse effects on human, veterinary and ecological health. Human health effects manifestations included dental and skeletal fluorosis. Veternary health effects were manifested through skeletal fluorosis. Ecological adverse effects were manifested by damage to paddy fields and crop yield. PMID:22223954

  10. Environmental health impact assessment of National Aluminum Company, Orissa.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R

    2011-05-01

    Environmental Health Impact Assessment of industries is an important tool help decision-makers make choices about alternatives and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health around industrial sites. A rapid environmental health hazard and vulnerability assessment of National Aluminum Company was undertaken in the villages in the vicinity plant in Angul region of Orissa. Aluminum smelter plant was known to discharge hundreds of tones of fluoride in to the environment contaminating the ecosystem around the plant. The present Environmental health impact assessment was carried out in 2005-06 at the request of officials from Government of Orissa. The findings showed adverse effects on human, veterinary and ecological health. Human health effects manifestations included dental and skeletal fluorosis. Veternary health effects were manifested through skeletal fluorosis. Ecological adverse effects were manifested by damage to paddy fields and crop yield. PMID:22223954

  11. INVENTION SUMMARY: TRACI: TOOL FOR THE REDUCTION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRACI is an impact assessment tool being developed by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory, EPA, Cincinnati to assist environmental decision making. It includes impact assessment methodologies and supporting databases to allow a screening level assessment in seven im...

  12. Automated Research Impact Assessment: A New Bibliometrics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Christina H.; Pettibone, Kristianna G.; Finch, Fallis Owen; Giles, Douglas; Jordan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As federal programs are held more accountable for their research investments, The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has developed a new method to quantify the impact of our funded research on the scientific and broader communities. In this article we review traditional bibliometric analyses, address challenges associated with them, and describe a new bibliometric analysis method, the Automated Research Impact Assessment (ARIA). ARIA taps into a resource that has only rarely been used for bibliometric analyses: references cited in “important” research artifacts, such as policies, regulations, clinical guidelines, and expert panel reports. The approach includes new statistics that science managers can use to benchmark contributions to research by funding source. This new method provides the ability to conduct automated impact analyses of federal research that can be incorporated in program evaluations. We apply this method to several case studies to examine the impact of NIEHS funded research. PMID:26989272

  13. Consequences Validity Evidence: Evaluating the Impact of Educational Assessments.

    PubMed

    Cook, David A; Lineberry, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Because tests that do not alter management (i.e., influence decisions and actions) should not be performed, data on the consequences of assessment constitute a critical source of validity evidence. Consequences validity evidence is challenging for many educators to understand, perhaps because it has no counterpart in the older framework of content, criterion, and construct validity. The authors' purpose is to explain consequences validity evidence and propose a framework for organizing its collection and interpretation.Both clinical and educational assessments can be viewed as interventions. The act of administering or taking a test, the interpretation of scores, and the ensuing decisions and actions influence those being assessed (e.g., patients or students) and other people and systems (e.g., physicians, teachers, hospitals, schools). Consequences validity evidence examines such impacts of assessments. Despite its importance, consequences evidence is reported infrequently in health professions education (range 5%-20% of studies in recent systematic reviews) and is typically limited in scope and rigor.Consequences validity evidence can derive from evaluations of the impact on examinees, educators, schools, or the end target of practice (e.g., patients or health care systems); and the downstream impact of classifications (e.g., different score cut points and labels). Impact can result from the uses of scores or from the assessment activity itself, and can be intended or unintended and beneficial or harmful. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods are useful. The type, quantity, and rigor of consequences evidence required will vary depending on the assessment and the claims for its use. PMID:26839945

  14. Injury risk assessment of non-lethal projectile head impacts.

    PubMed

    Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as "force wall approach" suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the "force wall approach" and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

  15. Injury Risk Assessment of Non-Lethal Projectile Head Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Oukara, Amar; Nsiampa, Nestor; Robbe, Cyril; Papy, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic energy non-lethal projectiles are used to impart sufficient effect onto a person in order to deter uncivil or hazardous behavior with a low probability of permanent injury. Since their first use, real cases indicate that the injuries inflicted by such projectiles may be irreversible and sometimes lead to death, especially for the head impacts. Given the high velocities and the low masses involved in such impacts, the assessment approaches proposed in automotive crash tests and sports may not be appropriate. Therefore, there is a need of a specific approach to assess the lethality of these projectiles. In this framework, some recent research data referred in this article as “force wall approach” suggest the use of three lesional thresholds (unconsciousness, meningeal damages and bone damages) that depend on the intracranial pressure. Three corresponding critical impact forces are determined for a reference projectile. Based on the principle that equal rigid wall maximal impact forces will produce equal damage on the head, these limits can be determined for any other projectile. In order to validate the consistence of this innovative method, it is necessary to compare the results with other existing assessment methods. This paper proposes a comparison between the “force wall approach” and two different head models. The first one is a numerical model (Strasbourg University Finite Element Head Model-SUFEHM) from Strasbourg University; the second one is a mechanical surrogate (Ballistics Load Sensing Headform-BLSH) from Biokinetics. PMID:25400712

  16. Climate impacts of bioenergy: Inclusion of carbon cycle and albedo dynamics in life cycle impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, Ryan M. Cherubini, Francesco; Stromman, Anders H.

    2012-11-15

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be an invaluable tool for the structured environmental impact assessment of bioenergy product systems. However, the methodology's static temporal and spatial scope combined with its restriction to emission-based metrics in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) inhibits its effectiveness at assessing climate change impacts that stem from dynamic land surface-atmosphere interactions inherent to all biomass-based product systems. In this paper, we focus on two dynamic issues related to anthropogenic land use that can significantly influence the climate impacts of bioenergy systems: i) temporary changes to the terrestrial carbon cycle; and ii) temporary changes in land surface albedo-and illustrate how they can be integrated within the LCA framework. In the context of active land use management for bioenergy, we discuss these dynamics and their relevancy and outline the methodological steps that would be required to derive case-specific biogenic CO{sub 2} and albedo change characterization factors for inclusion in LCIA. We demonstrate our concepts and metrics with application to a case study of transportation biofuel sourced from managed boreal forest biomass in northern Europe. We derive GWP indices for three land management cases of varying site productivities to illustrate the importance and need to consider case- or region-specific characterization factors for bioenergy product systems. Uncertainties and limitations of the proposed metrics are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for including temporary surface albedo and carbon cycle changes in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concepts are applied to a single bioenergy case whereby a range of feedstock productivities are shown to influence results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results imply that case- and site-specific characterization factors can be essential for a more informed impact assessment. Black

  17. Cyber threat impact assessment and analysis for space vehicle architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Robert M.; Fowler, Mark J.; Umphress, David; MacDonald, Richard A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper covers research into an assessment of potential impacts and techniques to detect and mitigate cyber attacks that affect the networks and control systems of space vehicles. Such systems, if subverted by malicious insiders, external hackers and/or supply chain threats, can be controlled in a manner to cause physical damage to the space platforms. Similar attacks on Earth-borne cyber physical systems include the Shamoon, Duqu, Flame and Stuxnet exploits. These have been used to bring down foreign power generation and refining systems. This paper discusses the potential impacts of similar cyber attacks on space-based platforms through the use of simulation models, including custom models developed in Python using SimPy and commercial SATCOM analysis tools, as an example STK/SOLIS. The paper discusses the architecture and fidelity of the simulation model that has been developed for performing the impact assessment. The paper walks through the application of an attack vector at the subsystem level and how it affects the control and orientation of the space vehicle. SimPy is used to model and extract raw impact data at the bus level, while STK/SOLIS is used to extract raw impact data at the subsystem level and to visually display the effect on the physical plant of the space vehicle.

  18. A Contribution to the Built Heritage Environmental Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žarnić, R.; Rajčić, V.; Skordaki, N.

    2015-08-01

    The understanding and assessment of environmental impact on heritage assets is of the highest importance for heritage preservation through well-organized maintenance based on proper decision-making. The effort towards development of protocol that would enable comparison of data on heritage assets in Europe and Mediterranean countries was done through EU Project European Cultural Heritage Identity Card. The special attention was paid to classification of environmental and man-induced risks to heritage. In the present paper the idea of EU CHIC is presented. Environmental risks are discussed in context of their influence on structure of heritage buildings that are exposed to sudden environmental impacts.

  19. Assessing the impact of alcohol use on communities.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Andrea; Wells, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    Community indicators are used to assess the impact of alcohol on communities. This article reviews the main data sources for community indicators, discusses their strengths and limitations, and discusses indicators used in reference to four main topics relating to alcohol use and problems at the community level: alcohol use, patterns, and problems; alcohol availability; alcohol-related health outcomes/trauma; and alcohol-related crime and enforcement. It also reviews the challenges associated with collecting community indicator data, along with important innovations in the field that have contributed to better knowledge of how to collect and analyze community-level data on the impact of alcohol. PMID:24881322

  20. Assessing research impact in academic clinical medicine: a study using Research Excellence Framework pilot impact indicators

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Funders of medical research the world over are increasingly seeking, in research assessment, to complement traditional output measures of scientific publications with more outcome-based indicators of societal and economic impact. In the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) developed proposals for the Research Excellence Framework (REF) to allocate public research funding to higher education institutions, inter alia, on the basis of the social and economic impact of their research. In 2010, it conducted a pilot exercise to test these proposals and refine impact indicators and criteria. Methods The impact indicators proposed in the 2010 REF impact pilot exercise are critically reviewed and appraised using insights from the relevant literature and empirical data collected for the University of Oxford’s REF pilot submission in clinical medicine. The empirical data were gathered from existing administrative sources and an online administrative survey carried out by the university’s Medical Sciences Division among 289 clinical medicine faculty members (48.1% response rate). Results The feasibility and scope of measuring research impact in clinical medicine in a given university are assessed. Twenty impact indicators from seven categories proposed by HEFCE are presented; their strengths and limitations are discussed using insights from the relevant biomedical and research policy literature. Conclusions While the 2010 pilot exercise has confirmed that the majority of the proposed indicators have some validity, there are significant challenges in operationalising and measuring these indicators reliably, as well as in comparing evidence of research impact across different cases in a standardised manner. It is suggested that the public funding agencies, medical research charities, universities, and the wider medical research community work together to develop more robust methodologies for capturing and describing impact

  1. Assessment strategy for land-use impacts on natural resources

    SciTech Connect

    McCord, R.; Dale, V.H.; King, A.W.

    1995-06-01

    An assessment strategy for land-use impacts on natural resources on DoD/DOE lands is being developed under the DoD Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. The {open_quotes}strawman{close_quotes} for the assessment strategy includes an integration of spatially-explicit environmental data from Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with computer models which simulate changes in land-cover in response to land-use impacts. The computer models will also simulate susceptibility of selected species to changes in habitat suitability and landscape patterns. The interpretation of the modelling results will be performed with a risk assessment framework. Such a framework will allow for the comparison of numerous, proposed land-use scenarios to be considered during the planning process for ecosystem management. The development of a single methodology which can be applied to many sites will allow for inter-site comparisons and regional assessments. A standard approach will also help prioritize the collection and maintenance of natural resource information about the DoD and DOE lands. This {open_quotes}strawman{close_quotes} will be refined based on needs identified by DoD and DOE land managers, and the sensitivity of the results to the varying resolution of resource information. This assessment strategy supports the concurrent objectives associated with the mission and use of the site and the conservation of its natural resources.

  2. Assessing regional and warming level dependent differences in climate impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohland, Jan; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Lissner, Tabea; Fischer, Erich M.; Frieler, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Differentiation between climate impacts at different levels of warming is of great relevance for scientists and policy makers. Knowledge of the consequences of different development and temperature pathways is essential to inform international climate negotiations and regional adaptation planning alike. At the same time, not only the warming dimension but also the regional dimension of changes in impacts is of interest, since regional changes might not be linearly related to global mean temperature increase. A detailed understanding of regionally differentiated impacts is an important basis on which to develop suitable coping strategies and adaptation options. Here we present a framework that allows for a differentiation of regional changes in climate impacts at different levels of temperature increase. Based on data from the CMIP5 archive as well as output from the AgMIP project, we assess the climate impact projections for an increase in global mean surface air temperature of 1.5 and 2 °C above pre-industrial levels for the 26 regions used in the IPCC SREX report. We show results for several extreme event indices as well as projections of water availability and agricultural yields. Based on a method developed by Fischer et al. (2013), we are able to test for statistical significance of changes in climate impact projections between the different warming levels across the model ensemble. References: Fischer, E. M., Beyerle, U. & Knutti, R. Robust spatially aggregated projections of climate extremes. Nature Climate Change 3, 1033-1038 (2013).

  3. Organisational impact: Definition and assessment methods for medical devices.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Christophe; Carbonneil, Cédric; Audry, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) is a rapidly developing area and the value of taking non-clinical fields into consideration is growing. Although the health-economic aspect is commonly recognised, evaluating organisational impact has not been studied nearly as much. The goal of this work was to provide a definition of organisational impact in the sector of medical devices by defining its contours and exploring the evaluation methods specific to this field. Following an analysis of the literature concerning the impact of technologies on organisations as well as the medical literature, and also after reviewing the regulatory texts in this respect, the group of experts identified 12 types of organisational impact. A number of medical devices were carefully screened using the criteria grid, which proved to be operational and to differentiate properly. From the analysis of the practice and of the methods described, the group was then able to derive a few guidelines to successfully evaluate organisational impact. This work shows that taking organisational impact into consideration may be critical alongside of the other criteria currently in favour (clinically and economically). What remains is to confer a role in the decision-making process on this factor and one that meets the economic efficiency principle. PMID:27080633

  4. Probabilistic Assessment of Asteroid Impacts: Observations and Risk Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Stanford Engineering Risk Research Group has developed a method for assessing the risks associated with asteroid impacts with the Earth. The model is intended to inform policy and decision makers who are charged with allocating limited resources to planetary defense missions. Our model and method have been used to perform baseline assessments of risk and compare options for mitigation. We extend that analysis to examine the risk reductions associated with observation missions that have been active over the last decade. We present the basic model, summarize our past work, describe our current results and findings, and examine the role of observations in reducing risks.

  5. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions. PMID:2278245

  6. Impact assessment of extreme storm events using a Bayesian network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    den Heijer, C.(Kees); Knipping, Dirk T.J.A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; van Thiel de Vries, Jaap S. M.; Baart, Fedor; van Gelder, Pieter H. A. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation on the usefulness of Bayesian Networks in the safety assessment of dune coasts. A network has been created that predicts the erosion volume based on hydraulic boundary conditions and a number of cross-shore profile indicators. Field measurement data along a large part of the Dutch coast has been used to train the network. Corresponding storm impact on the dunes was calculated with an empirical dune erosion model named duros+. Comparison between the Bayesian Network predictions and the original duros+ results, here considered as observations, results in a skill up to 0.88, provided that the training data covers the range of predictions. Hence, the predictions from a deterministic model (duros+) can be captured in a probabilistic model (Bayesian Network) such that both the process knowledge and uncertainties can be included in impact and vulnerability assessments.

  7. An airport community noise-impact assessment model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1980-01-01

    A computer model was developed to assess the noise impact of an airport on the community which it serves. Assessments are made using the Fractional Impact Method by which a single number describes the community aircraft noise environment in terms of exposed population and multiple event noise level. The model is comprised of three elements: a conventional noise footprint model, a site specific population distribution model, and a dose response transfer function. The footprint model provides the noise distribution for a given aircraft operating scenario. This is combined with the site specific population distribution obtained from a national census data base to yield the number of residents exposed to a given level of noise. The dose response relationship relates noise exposure levels to the percentage of individuals highly annoyed by those levels.

  8. Environmental impact assessment as a complement of life cycle assessment. Case study: Upgrading of biogas.

    PubMed

    Morero, Betzabet; Rodriguez, María B; Campanella, Enrique A

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a comparison between an environmental impact assessment (EIA) and a life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study: upgrading of biogas. The upgrading of biogas is studied using three solvents: water, physical solvent and amine. The EIA follows the requirements of the legislation of Santa Fe Province (Argentina), and the LCA follows ISO 14040. The LCA results showed that water produces a minor impact in most of the considered categories whereas the high impact in the process with amines is the result of its high energy consumptions. The positive results obtained in the EIA (mainly associated with the cultural and socioeconomic components) make the project feasible and all the negative impacts can be mitigated by preventive and remedial measures. From the strengths and weaknesses of each tool, it is inferred that the EIA is a procedure that can complement the LCA. PMID:25971645

  9. Properties of Geopressured Brines and Wells in the Gulf Coast and Opportunities for Industrial/Research Participation

    SciTech Connect

    Wys, J. Nequs- de

    1989-03-21

    Geopressured reservoirs exhibit pressure gradients in excess of the normal hydrostatic gradient. In the Gulf Coast area the normal gradient is 0.465 psi/ft. Pressures may approach lithostatic pressure and have been measured as high as 1.05 psi/ft in the Gulf Coast area. Geopressured basins exist worldwide and in a number of U.S. locations, east, west, north and south. The Gulf Coast area has been studied extensively and is the subject of the DOE geopressured-geothermal research at present. The assumed ranges in resource characteristics include: depth from -12,000 to > -20,000 feet, brine flow rate from 20,000 to 40,000 bpd, temperature from 300 to 400 F, bottomhole pressure from 12,000 to 18,500 psi; salinity from 20,000 to 200,000 mg/L, gas-water ratio from 40 to 80 scf/bbl., and condensate from a trace to production. Energy in the geopressured resource includes gas, thermal, and hydraulic energy. It has been estimated that there are 6,000 quads of methane and 11,000 quads of thermal energy in the Gulf Coast area geopressured-geothermal reservoirs. Estimates run as high as 50,000 quad for the thermal energy (Wallace et al, 1978). Present industrial interest in the Pleasant Bayou and Hulin wells includes: desalination plants, an economic study by a power company for regional use, use of generated electricity by a coalition of towns, aquaculture (catfish farming) research program, and an unsolicited proposal for enhanced oil recovery of heavy oil. Direct uses of the hot brine cover dozens of industries and processes. An example of multiple uses in the USSR is shown. Outside agency interest includes the U.S.G.S., N.S.F., G.R.I., and possibly other areas within DOE. A research spin-off: a sensitive in-line benzene monitor has been designed by USL and will be tested in the near future. An in-line pH monitor is also under development for the harsh conditions of the geopressured-geothermal wells.

  10. Environmental Impact Assessment in the Visegrad Group countries

    SciTech Connect

    Gałaś, Slávka; Gałaś, Andrzej; Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka; Fialová, Jitka; and others

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Comparison and evaluation of EIA systems in the V4 countries are presented. • Strengths and weaknesses of EIA systems based on a questionnaire survey are stated. • The function and efficiency of the EIA application in the V4 countries are analysed. • Irregularities and shortcomings of EIA systems in the V4 should be eliminated. The Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (EIA Directive) has created a reference framework for the implementation of the system of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) into the legal systems of the Member States of the European Union, including the countries belonging to the Visegrad Group (V4): Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary. The Directive was the basis for the introduction of compulsory stages of the EIA process in the V4. The stages were then adapted to national requirements, including thresholds of the qualifying criteria of projects at the screening and scoping stages. The EIA system in the analysed countries has been growing, changing and being modified together with the political and economic changes of the last 30 years. Although all Visegrad Group countries are members of the EU and should harmonize the provisions of the EIA Directive and its amendments, there still exist singularities in each country's national EIA legislation, in terms of complementarities among the V4 countries, access to information resources, protection of natural resources, mitigation of socio-environmental impacts, or transboundary impact assessment. The article compares and evaluates the EIA systems in the four countries, specifies similarities and differences in the implementation of administrative proceedings and points out opportunities to strengthen the system. It presents selected results of a study conducted in 2013 within the framework of the international project “Assessment of the quality of the environment in the V4 Countries” (AQE V4). This paper indicates examples of good practice in the EIA

  11. Health impact assessment of climate change in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Deborah Imel

    2003-05-01

    Global climate change (GCC) may have serious and irreversible impacts. Improved methods are needed to predict and quantify health impacts, so that appropriate risk management strategies can be focused on vulnerable areas. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is proposed as an effective tool in environmental health impact assessment (HIA). The DALY accounts for years of life lost to premature death and/or morbidity. Both the DALY and the determinants-of-health approach are applied to HIA of GCC in Bangladesh. Based on historical data, a major storm event may result in approximately 290 DALY per 1000 population, including both deaths and injuries, compared to a current all-cause rate of about 280 per 1000 in the region. A more precise result would require a large input of data; however, this level of analysis may be sufficient to rank risks, and to motivate and target risk management efforts.

  12. Assessing transportation infrastructure impacts on rangelands: test of a standard rangeland assessment protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Pyke, David A.; Toledo, David

    2010-01-01

    Linear disturbances associated with on- and off-road vehicle use on rangelands has increased dramatically throughout the world in recent decades. This increase is due to a variety of factors including increased availability of all-terrain vehicles, infrastructure development (oil, gas, renewable energy, and ex-urban), and recreational activities. In addition to the direct impacts of road development, the presence and use of roads may alter resilience of adjoining areas through indirect effects such as altered site hydrologic and eolian processes, invasive seed dispersal, and sediment transport. There are few standardized methods for assessing impacts of transportation-related land-use activities on soils and vegetation in arid and semi-arid rangelands. Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) is an internationally accepted qualitative assessment that is applied widely to rangelands. We tested the sensitivity of IIRH to impacts of roads, trails, and pipelines on adjacent lands by surveying plots at three distances from these linear disturbances. We performed tests at 16 randomly selected sites in each of three ecosystems (Northern High Plains, Colorado Plateau, and Chihuahuan Desert) for a total of 208 evaluation plots. We also evaluated the repeatability of IIRH when applied to road-related disturbance gradients. Finally, we tested extent of correlations between IIRH plot attribute departure classes and trends in a suite of quantitative indicators. Results indicated that the IIRH technique is sensitive to direct and indirect impacts of transportation activities with greater departure from reference condition near disturbances than far from disturbances. Trends in degradation of ecological processes detected with qualitative assessments were highly correlated with quantitative data. Qualitative and quantitative assessments employed in this study can be used to assess impacts of transportation features at the plot scale. Through integration with remote

  13. Advances and challenges of incorporating ecosystem services into impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Josianne Claudia Sales; Sánchez, Luis E

    2016-09-15

    An ecosystem services approach (ESA) to assess the environmental and social impacts of projects is a conceptual innovation that contributes to overcome two widely acknowledged deficiencies of impact assessment (IA): integration of knowledge areas and participation of affected communities. This potential was demonstrated through a practical application to a large mining project, showing evidence of advances in relation to current practice and identifying challenges. Data was obtained from the environmental impact study of the reviewed project and its supplements; additional data to fulfill the needs of the ESA were collected using rapid appraisal techniques. Results show that the ESA provides: (i) a more effective scoping; (ii) a contribution to delimitate the study area; (iii) a more detailed identification of impacts; (iv) a determination of significance inclusive of the perspective of affected communities; (v) a design of mitigation focused on human well-being. The challenges of using the ESA fall into two groups: the limitations inherent to the concept and those that can be overcome by furthering research and advancing practical applications. This research added evidence to previous studies showing that incorporating ecosystem services into IA can improve practice. PMID:27285950

  14. Health impact assessment: where does the law come in?

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, David Q.C

    2004-02-01

    The European Convention on Human Rights has profound implications for HIA. Public authorities have a positive obligation to stop others from infringing citizens' rights to life and to respect for private and family life. These rights are qualified and have now been interpreted in many thousands of cases. Authorities must, as best they reasonably can, secure the safety of citizens and inform the citizens about the safety or otherwise of any development. Authorities have to strike a balance between the individuals rights and the public benefit. Any public authority before approving a scheme or reaching a regulatory decision which may impact on human rights must consider the nature of that impact, its seriousness and whether it can be justified on public interest grounds. A number of court judgements in cases concerning these issues are discussed. This article is not about how certain of the ideas underlying Health Impact Assessment, in certain circumstances, are or can be incorporated in existing legally recognised instruments such as Environmental Impact Assessments. Nor is it about the statutory powers which authorities--local and national--could, if so inclined, exercise, to further the health and well-being of their constituents. It is about something rather more general, important and yet rather formless, namely the duties identified by the European Court of Human Rights as resting upon public authorities to take steps to safeguard the public health rights of their citizens.

  15. On assessment of success and the IMPACT of FAIR.

    PubMed

    Leslie, J; Richmond, P

    2001-08-01

    Early in 2001, the authors were awarded an Accompanying Measure by the Agri-Food Directorate of DG Research to assess the IMPACT of a selected subset of projects recently completed within the FAIR RTD program. We have three aims: To specifically evaluate the impact of 25 projects supported under the EU FAIR Programme. To develop and validate a methodology for assessing the impact of collaborative projects in the food area. To identify any generic messages which could relate to the forthcoming European Research Area (ERA). A series of Workshops are being held with FAIR participants and stakeholders around the Community to facilitate the development of the methodology. At the time of writing meetings have been held in the UK, Ireland and Denmark. Diet and Health will a key driver for innovation in food during the 21st century and will play a major role in both EU and national research. Participation in the HEALFO Food and Health Conference allowed us to meet and discuss IMPACT with an important group of both past and future contributors to EU research. This paper outlines the workshop methodology and outlines some interim findings together with emerging hypotheses. PMID:11894752

  16. Impact assessment of waste management options in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, Reginald B H; Khoo, Hsien H

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes the application of life cycle assessment for evaluating various waste management options in Singapore, a small-island city state. The impact assessment method by SimaPro is carried out for comparing the potential environmental impacts of waste treatment options including landfilling, incineration, recycling, and composting. The inventory data include gases and leachate from landfills, air emissions and energy recovery from incinerators, energy (and emission) savings from recycling, composting gases, and transport pollution. The impact assessment results for climate change, acidification, and ecotoxicity show that the incineration of materials imposes considerable harm to both human health and the environment, especially for the burning of plastics, paper/cardboard, and ferrous metals. The results also show that, although some amount of energy can be derived from the incineration of wastes, these benefits are outweighed by the air pollution (heavy metals and dioxins/furans) that incinerators produce. For Singapore, landfill gases and leachate generate minimal environmental damage because of the nation's policy to landfill only 10% of the total disposed wastes. Land transportation and separation of waste materials also pose minimal environmental damage. However, sea transportation to the landfill could contribute significantly to acidification because of the emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from barges. The composting of horticultural wastes hardly imposes any environmental damage. Out of all the waste strategies, the recycling of wastes offers the best solution for environmental protection and improved human health for the nation. Significant emission savings can be realized through recycling. PMID:16573187

  17. Risk assessment by dynamic representation of vulnerability, exploitation, and impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cam, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    Assessing and quantifying cyber risk accurately in real-time is essential to providing security and mission assurance in any system and network. This paper presents a modeling and dynamic analysis approach to assessing cyber risk of a network in real-time by representing dynamically its vulnerabilities, exploitations, and impact using integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. Given the set of vulnerabilities detected by a vulnerability scanner in a network, this paper addresses how its risk can be assessed by estimating in real-time the exploit likelihood and impact of vulnerability exploitation on the network, based on real-time observations and measurements over the network. The dynamic representation of the network in terms of its vulnerabilities, sensor measurements, and observations is constructed dynamically using the integrated Bayesian network and Markov models. The transition rates of outgoing and incoming links of states in hidden Markov models are used in determining exploit likelihood and impact of attacks, whereas emission rates help quantify the attack states of vulnerabilities. Simulation results show the quantification and evolving risk scores over time for individual and aggregated vulnerabilities of a network.

  18. Preliminary impact assessment of effusive eruptions at Etna volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappello, Annalisa; Michaud-Dubuy, Audrey; Branca, Stefano; De Beni, Emanuela; Del Negro, Ciro

    2016-04-01

    Lava flows are a recurring and widespread form of volcanic activity that threaten people and property around the world. The growing demographic congestion around volcanic structures increases the potential risks and costs that lava flows represent, and leads to a pressing need for faster and more accurate assessment of lava flow impact. To fully evaluate potential effects and losses that an effusive eruption may cause to society, property and environment, it is necessary to consider the hazard, the distribution of the exposed elements at stake and the associated vulnerability. Lava flow hazard assessment is at an advanced state, whereas comprehensive vulnerability assessment is lacking. Cataloguing and analyzing volcanic impacts provide insight on likely societal and physical vulnerabilities during future eruptions. Here we quantify the lava flow impact of two past main effusive eruptions of Etna volcano: the 1669, which is the biggest and destructive flank eruption to have occurred on Etna in historical time, and the 1981, lasting only 6 days, but characterized by an intense eruptive dynamics. Different elements at stake are considered, including population, hospitals, critical facilities, buildings of historic value, industrial infrastructures, gas and electricity networks, railways, roads, footways and finally land use. All these elements were combined with the 1669 and 1981 lava flow fields to quantify the social damage and economic loss.

  19. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Bønløkke, Jakob; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M residents in Denmark into 99 municipalities. Three sets of demographic assumptions were used: (1) a static year 2005 population, (2) morbidity and mortality fixed at the year 2005 level, or (3) an expected development. Results. The health impact of air pollution was estimated at 672,000, 290,000, and 280,000 lost life years depending on demographic assumptions and the corresponding social costs at 430.4 M€, 317.5 M€, and 261.6 M€ through the modeled years 2005–2050. Conclusion. The modeled health impact of air pollution differed widely with the demographic assumptions, and thus demographics and assumptions on demographics played a key role in making health impact assessments on air pollution. PMID:23762084

  20. Using soil functional indices to assess wildfire impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Poma, Rosario; Mayor, Ángeles G.; Bautista, Susana

    2014-05-01

    Disturbance impact on ecosystem are often based on functional indicators, which provide integrated and yet simple and affordable measures of key ecosystem functions. In this work, we studied the amount of change (resistance) and the recovery (resilience) of soil functions after fire as a function of vegetation type for a variety of Mediterranean shrublands. We used the Landscape Functional Analysis methodology to assess soil stability, water infiltration, and nutrient cycling functions for different types of vegetation patches and for bare-soil interpatches in repeatedly burned shrubland communities two weeks before, and two and nine months after experimental fires. We assessed the impact of fire on soil functions using resistance and resilience indices. The resistance and resilience of soil surface functions to fire was mediated by vegetation traits associated to the fuel structure and the post-fire regenerative strategy of the species. Resistance was higher in vegetation patches that accumulated low contents of fine dead fuel, whereas resilience was higher in patches of resprouter species. The variation in resistance and resilience of soil functions to fire in Mediterranean shrublands depends greatly on variation in fire-related plant structural and functional traits. Although originally designed for the assessment of dryland ecosystems LFA has proved to have great potential for the assessment of the soil functional status of recently burned areas.

  1. Data for the screening assessment. Volume 1: Text, Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, T.B.; O`Neil, T.K.; Gilbert, R.O.; Klevgard, L.A.; Walters, T.B.

    1996-06-01

    The Columbia River is a critical resource for residents of the Pacific Northwest. This resource drew the Manhattan Project`s planners to the site now called Hanford to produce nuclear weapon materials. Production of those materials has left behind a legacy of chemical and radioactive contamination and materials that have, are, and will continue to pose a threat to the Columbia river for the foreseeable future. To evaluate the impact to the river from this Hanford-derived contamination, the US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and State of Washington Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party agencies) initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, stakeholder, tribal, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. A major CRCIA Team decision was to organize CRCIA into phases, with additional phases to be identified as warranted after completion of the initial phase. The initial phase is comprised of two parts: (1) a screening assessment to evaluate the current impact to the river resulting from Hanford-derived contamination and (2) identification of requirements considered necessary by the CRCIA Management Team for a comprehensive assessment of impact to the river. The purpose of the screening assessment is to support cleanup decisions. The scope of the screening assessment is to evaluate the current risk to humans and the environment resulting from Hanford-derived contaminants. The screening assessment has the primary components of: identifying contaminants to be assessed; identifying a variety of exposure scenarios to evaluate human contaminant exposure; identifying a variety of other species to evaluate ecological contaminant exposure; and assessing risks posed by exposure of humans and other species to the contaminants.

  2. Impact of self-assessment by students on their learning

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajeev; Jain, Amit; Gupta, Naveenta; Garg, Sonia; Batta, Meenal; Dhir, Shashi Kant

    2016-01-01

    Context: Tutor assessment is sometimes also considered as an exercise of power by the assessor over assesses. Student self-assessment is the process by which the students gather information about and reflect on their own learning and is considered to be a very important component of learning. Aim: The primary objective of this study was to analyze the impact of self-assessment by undergraduate medical students on their subsequent academic performance. The secondary objective was to obtain the perception of students and faculty about self-assessment as a tool for enhanced learning. Materials and Methods: The study was based on the evaluation of two theory tests consisting of both essay type and short answer questions, administered to students of the 1st year MBBS (n = 89). They self-assessed their performance after 3 days of the first test followed by marking of faculty and feedback. Then, a nonidentical theory test on the same topic with the same difficulty level was conducted after 7 days and assessed by the teachers. The feedback about the perception of students and faculty about this intervention was obtained. Results: Significant improvement in the academic performance after the process of self-assessment was observed (P < 0.001). There was a significantly positive correlation between student and teacher marking (r = 0.79). Both students and faculty perceived it to be helpful for developing self-directed learning skills. Conclusions: Self-assessment can increase the interest and motivation level of students for the subjects leading to enhanced learning and better academic performance, helping them in development of critical skills for analysis of their own work.

  3. Environmental impact assessment of pharmaceutical prescriptions: Does location matter?

    PubMed

    Oldenkamp, Rik; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hollander, Anne; Ragas, Ad M J

    2014-11-01

    A methodology was developed for the assessment and comparison of the environmental impact of two alternative pharmaceutical prescriptions. This methodology provides physicians with the opportunity to include environmental considerations in their choice of prescription. A case study with the two antibiotics ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin at three locations throughout Europe showed that the preference for a pharmaceutical might show spatial variation, i.e. comparison of two pharmaceuticals might yield different results when prescribed at different locations. This holds when the comparison is based on both the impact on the aquatic environment and the impact on human health. The relative impacts of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on human health were largely determined by the local handling of secondary sludge, agricultural disposal practices, the extent of secondary sewage treatment, and local food consumption patterns. The relative impacts of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on the aquatic environment were mostly explained by the presence of specific sewage treatment techniques, as effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are the most relevant emission pathway for the aquatic environment. PMID:24508156

  4. Arctic Cities and Climate Change: A Geographic Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic climate change is a concern for the engineering community, land-use planners and policy makers as it may have significant impacts on socio-economic development and human activities in the northern regions. A warmer climate has potential for a series of positive economic effects, such as development of maritime transportation, enhanced agricultural production and decrease in energy consumption. However, these potential benefits may be outwaited by negative impacts related to transportation accessibility and stability of existing infrastructure, especially in permafrost regions. Compared with the Arctic zones of other countries, the Russian Arctic is characterized by higher population, greater industrial development and urbanization. Arctic urban areas and associated industrial sites are the location of some of intense interaction between man and nature. However, while there is considerable research on various aspects of Arctic climate change impacts on human society, few address effects on Arctic cities and their related industries. This presentation overviews potential climate-change impacts on Russian urban environments in the Arctic and discusses methodology for addressing complex interactions between climatic, permafrost and socio-economic systems at the range of geographical scales. We also provide a geographic assessment of selected positive and negative climate change impacts affecting several diverse Russian Arctic cities.

  5. Human scenarios for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Harper, B.L.; Lane, N.K.; Strenge, D.L.; Spivey, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Impact Assessment (CRCIA) was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to humans. Because humans affected by the Columbia river are involved in a wide range of activities, various scenarios have been developed on which to base the risk assessments. The scenarios illustrate the range of activities possible by members of the public coming in contact with the Columbia River so that the impact of contaminants in the river on human health can be assessed. Each scenario illustrates particular activity patterns by a specific group. Risk will be assessed at the screening level for each scenario. This report defines the scenarios and the exposure factors that will be the basis for estimating the potential range of risk to human health from Hanford-derived radioactive as well as non-radioactive contaminants associated with the Columbia River.

  6. Evaluation of geopressured brine injectability: Department of Energy, Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well, Brazoria County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.; Blair, C.K.; Harrar, J.E.; Netherton, R.

    1980-10-28

    A field evaluation of geopressured brine injectability was completed during September 22 to 25, 1980 at the DOE, Brazoria test site in Texas. Membrane filters, with pore sizes of 0.4-..mu..m and 10.0-..mu..m, were used as the basis for obtaining suspended solids data and for developing performance-life estimates of typical spent brine injection wells. Field measurements were made at 130/sup 0/C and line pressures up to 3800 psig. Scale inhibited (phosphonate-polyacrylate threshold-type, carbonate scale inhibitor), prefiltered-scale-inhibited, and untreated brine were evaluated. Test results indicated that raw brine was highly injectable, while scale-inhibited brine had extremely low quality. The poor injectability of scale-inhibited brine resulted from partial precipitation of the scale inhibitor.

  7. Uranium geochemistry in geopressured-geothermal aquifers of the U.S. Gulf Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, T.F.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1986-01-01

    Formation water from U.S. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal sandstone aquifers has been analyzed to determine the geochemistry of uranium in these systems. Results of chemical analyses and chemical equilibrium modeling indicate the formation waters are in equilibrium with uraninite (UO2) and coffinite (USiO4). The 234U 238U activity ratios in the formation waters range from 1.06 to 1.69. These isotopic data suggest that at formation temperatures uranium is continually reequilibrating chemically and isotopically between water, a solid phase of either UO2 or USiO4 and a component of 234U supplied to solution from the aquifer matrix material by alpha recoil processes. ?? 1986.

  8. Laboratory determination of mechanical properties of rocks from the Parcperdue geopressured/geothermal site

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, K.P.; Borschel, T.F.; Holland, M.T.; Schatz, J.F.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    The deformational behavior and fluid flow characteristics of rock samples obtained from DOW/DOE L.R. Sweezy No. 1 Test Well at the Parcperdue Geopressured/Geothermal Site have been investigated in the laboratory. Elastic moduli, compressibility, uniaxial compaction coefficient, strength, creep parameters, permeability, acoustic velocites (all at reservoir conditions) and changes in these quantities induced by simulated reservoir production have been obtained from tests on several sandstone and shale samples from different depths. Tests consisting of several hydrostatic and triaxial loading phases and pore pressure reduction were designed to provide measurements to be used for calculating several of the above mentioned parameters in a single test. Pore volume changes were measured during some phases of the tests.

  9. The industrial consortium for the utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resource

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, J.

    1991-02-15

    Four feasibility studies have been developed by the INEL on thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) Use of Supercritical Fluid processes for Detoxification of Pollutants, and Hydraulic Conversion to Electricity, and Direct Use. The studies provide information bases for potential industrial partners in the resource utilization. A joint proposal from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and INEL on supercritical fluid processes in going forward. Western Resources Technology has begun development of a dozen geopressured well projects. An hydraulic turbine test will be conducted at Pleasant Bayou in Summer of 1991. Dr. Wayne Steele of Anglewood, TX, a retired medical doctor, is proposing to raise fresh water Australian lobsters in the Pleasant Bayou Well fire water pond. Additional projects such as catfish farming, crayfish, desalintion plant and agricultural greenhouse use of the resource heat are waiting in the wings'' for the DOE wells to become available for pilot use projects. 2 figs.

  10. Methodology for qualitative uncertainty assessment of climate impact indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Juliane; Keup-Thiel, Elke; Rechid, Diana; Hänsler, Andreas; Pfeifer, Susanne; Roth, Ellinor; Jacob, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    The FP7 project "Climate Information Portal for Copernicus" (CLIPC) is developing an integrated platform of climate data services to provide a single point of access for authoritative scientific information on climate change and climate change impacts. In this project, the Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS) has been in charge of the development of a methodology on how to assess the uncertainties related to climate impact indicators. Existing climate data portals mainly treat the uncertainties in two ways: Either they provide generic guidance and/or express with statistical measures the quantifiable fraction of the uncertainty. However, none of the climate data portals give the users a qualitative guidance how confident they can be in the validity of the displayed data. The need for such guidance was identified in CLIPC user consultations. Therefore, we aim to provide an uncertainty assessment that provides the users with climate impact indicator-specific guidance on the degree to which they can trust the outcome. We will present an approach that provides information on the importance of different sources of uncertainties associated with a specific climate impact indicator and how these sources affect the overall 'degree of confidence' of this respective indicator. To meet users requirements in the effective communication of uncertainties, their feedback has been involved during the development process of the methodology. Assessing and visualising the quantitative component of uncertainty is part of the qualitative guidance. As visual analysis method, we apply the Climate Signal Maps (Pfeifer et al. 2015), which highlight only those areas with robust climate change signals. Here, robustness is defined as a combination of model agreement and the significance of the individual model projections. Reference Pfeifer, S., Bülow, K., Gobiet, A., Hänsler, A., Mudelsee, M., Otto, J., Rechid, D., Teichmann, C. and Jacob, D.: Robustness of Ensemble Climate Projections

  11. Evaluation of Petrophysical Data for Geopressure Analysis in HPHT Settings: A Case Study of the UK Sector of the Central North Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwozor, K. K.; Yardley, G.

    2015-12-01

    Drilling into high pressure-high temperature (HPHT) reservoirs requires accurate understanding of the formation fluid pressures. Many wells have been drilled in the Central North Sea but it still remains a challenge to understand its high pressure, high temperature geopressure regimes. This lack of understanding complicates the development of the deep Jurassic and Triassic aged prospects. Most of these concerns arise because the nature of the pressure transition from relatively low pressures at the top of the Chalk Group, to extremely high pressures in the deep Jurassic / Triassic reservoirs is not well known. Consequently, several models of the pressure transition zone have been proposed and tried by industry operators but with mixed success. In this study, well logs and measured pressure data have been analysed by several methods including a new tool: the Late Geopressure Indicator (LGI). It is shown that overpressure is generated by both disequilibrium compaction and late geopressure mechanisms. Disequilibrium compaction is dominant in the Cenozoic mudstones where its magnitude is related to recent burial while late geopressure dominates in deeper and older successions that lie beneath the Chalk. In the sub-Chalk settings, both the total overpressure and the prevalence of late geopressure are higher in the deeper Central Graben area (up to 8000 psi overpressure, 80% from late geopressure mechanisms) than in the basin margins (approximately 2000 psi overpressure, 15% due to late mechanisms). Contrary to some schools of thought that prefer the Chalk as the main reservoir seal, it is demonstrated that the top unit of a pressure cell can be situated anywhere between the Chalk and Heather Formation. This new approach to geopressure study offers better understanding of the cause of overpressure, shape of pressure transition zones and the location of the top of reservoir pressure cells which will help open a new window of opportunities for HPHT prospects.

  12. Uncertainty assessment tool for climate change impact indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Juliane; Keup-Thiel, Elke; Jacob, Daniela; Rechid, Diana; Lückenkötter, Johannes; Juckes, Martin

    2015-04-01

    A major difficulty in the study of climate change impact indicators is dealing with the numerous sources of uncertainties of climate and non-climate data . Its assessment, however, is needed to communicate to users the degree of certainty of climate change impact indicators. This communication of uncertainty is an important component of the FP7 project "Climate Information Portal for Copernicus" (CLIPC). CLIPC is developing a portal to provide a central point of access for authoritative scientific information on climate change. In this project the Climate Service Center 2.0 is in charge of the development of a tool to assess the uncertainty of climate change impact indicators. The calculation of climate change impact indicators will include climate data from satellite and in-situ observations, climate models and re-analyses, and non-climate data. There is a lack of a systematic classification of uncertainties arising from the whole range of climate change impact indicators. We develop a framework that intends to clarify the potential sources of uncertainty of a given indicator and provides - if possible - solutions how to quantify the uncertainties. To structure the sources of uncertainties of climate change impact indicators, we first classify uncertainties along a 'cascade of uncertainty' (Reyer 2013). Our cascade consists of three levels which correspond to the CLIPC meta-classification of impact indicators: Tier-1 indicators are intended to give information on the climate system. Tier-2 indicators attempt to quantify the impacts of climate change on biophysical systems (i.e. flood risks). Tier-3 indicators primarily aim at providing information on the socio-economic systems affected by climate change. At each level, the potential sources of uncertainty of the input data sets and its processing will be discussed. Reference: Reyer, C. (2013): The cascade of uncertainty in modeling forest ecosystem responses to environmental change and the challenge of sustainable

  13. Effectiveness of Health Impact Assessments: A Synthesis of Data From Five Impact Evaluation Reports

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Since the 1990s, the use of health impact assessments (HIAs) has grown for considering the potential health impacts of proposed policies, plans, programs, and projects in various sectors. Evaluation of HIA impacts is needed for understanding the value of HIAs, improving the methods involved in HIAs, and potentially expanding their application. Impact evaluations examine whether HIAs affect decisions and lead to other effects. Methods I reviewed HIA impact evaluations identified by literature review and professional networking. I abstracted and synthesized data on key findings, success factors, and challenges from 5 large evaluations conducted in the United States, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand and published from 2006 through 2015. These studies analyzed impacts of approximately 200 individual HIAs. Results Major impacts of HIAs were directly influencing some decisions, improving collaboration among stakeholders, increasing awareness of health issues among decision makers, and giving community members a stronger voice in local decisions. Factors that contributed to successful HIAs included engaging stakeholders, timeliness, policy and systems support for conducting HIAs, having people with appropriate skills on the HIA team, obtaining the support of decision makers, and providing clearly articulated, feasible recommendations. Challenges that may have reduced HIA success were poor timeliness, underestimation of time and resources needed, difficulty in accessing relevant data, use of jargon in HIA reports, difficulty in involving decision makers in the HIA process, and absence of a requirement to conduct HIAs. Conclusion HIAs can be useful to promote health and mitigate adverse impacts of decisions made outside of the health sector. Stakeholder interactions and community engagement may be as important as direct impacts of HIAs. Multiple factors are required for HIA success. Further work could strengthen the role of HIAs in promoting equity, examine

  14. Assessing the impacts of climatic change on mountain water resources.

    PubMed

    Beniston, Martin; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-09-15

    As the evidence for human induced climate change becomes clearer, so too does the realization that its effects will have impacts on numerous environmental and socio-economic systems. Mountains are recognized as very sensitive physical environments with populations whose histories and current social positions often strain their capacity to accommodate intense and rapid changes to their resource base. It is thus essential to assess the impacts of a changing climate, focusing on the quantity of water originating in mountain regions, particularly where snow and ice melt represent a large streamflow component as well as a local resource in terms of freshwater supply, hydropower generation, or irrigation. Increasing evidence of glacier retreat, permafrost degradation and reduced mountain snowpack has been observed in many regions, thereby suggesting that climate change may seriously affect streamflow regimes. These changes could in turn threaten the availability of water resources for many environmental and economic systems, and exacerbate a range of natural hazards that would compound these impacts. As a consequence, socio-economic structures of downstream living populations would be also impacted, calling for better preparedness and strategies to avoid conflicts of interest between water-dependent economic actors. This paper is thus an introduction to the Special Issue of this journal dedicated to the European Union Seventh Framework Program (EU-FP7) project ACQWA (Assessing Climate Impacts on the Quantity and Quality of WAter), a major European network of scientists that was coordinated by the University of Geneva from 2008 to 2014. The goal of ACQWA has been to address a number of these issues and propose a range of solutions for adaptation to change and to help improve water governance in regions where quantity, seasonality, and perhaps quality of water may substantially change in coming decades. PMID:24360916

  15. The Exxon Valdez oil spill: Initial environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The March 24, 1989, grounding of the Exxon Valdez on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, was unprecedented in scale. So too was Exxon's response to the oil spill and the subsequent shoreline cleaning program, including the employment of more than 11,000 people, utilization of essentially the entire world supply of containment booms and skimmers, and an expenditure of more than two billion dollars. In the days immediately following the Valdez spill, Exxon mobilized a massive environmental assessment program. A large field and laboratory staff of experienced environmental professionals and internationally recognized experts was assembled that included intertidal ecologists, fishery biologists, marine and hydrocarbon chemists. This field program to measure spill impacts and recovery rates was initiated with the cooperation of state and federal agencies. Through the end of 1989, this program has resulted in well over 45,000 separate samples of water, sediment, and biota used to assess spill impacts. This paper provides initial observations and preliminary conclusions from several of the 1989 studies. These conclusions are based on factual, scientific data from studies designed to objectively measure the extent of the impacts from the spill. Data from these studies indicate that wildlife and habitats are recovering from the impacts of the spill and that commercial catches of herring and salmon in Prince William Sound are at record high levels. Ecosystem recovery from spill impacts is due to the combined efforts of the cleanup program as well as natural physical, chemical, and biological processes. From all indications this recovery process can be expected to continue.

  16. Porosity and pressure: Role of compaction disequilibrium in the development of geopressures in a Gulf Coast Pleistocene basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, B.S.; Flemings, P.B.; Deshpande, A. )

    1995-01-01

    Measured pressures in Pleistocene strata of the Eugene Island block 330 area of offshore Louisiana reach approx. nine-tenths of the lithostatic pressures below 2 km depth; three-fourths of these geopressures are due to compaction disequilibrium. We show the relation between effective stress and porosity for compacting sediments to be exponential in shallow, normally pressured strata, then use the relation to calculate fluid pressure at depth in geopressured strata. Measured pressures below 2 km exceed our predicted values. A plot of effective stress vs. porosity demonstrates that compaction disequilibrium accounts for about three-quarters of the overpressures. We infer that the remainder must be due to pore-pressure generation at depth that occurred after the rocks reached their present porosity. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Computer simulation of production from geothermal-geopressured aquifers. Final report, October 1, 1978-January 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, M.G.; Poonawala, N.A.

    1983-07-01

    This is the final report on research conducted to improve the technical and scientific understanding of geopressured and geothermal resources. The effort utilized a computer to interpret the results of well tests and compile data on gas solubility in brine and the viscosity of brine. A detailed computer reservoir study of a geopressured test well that had been abandoned as a dry hole but became a commercial producer of hydrocarbons is presented. A number of special topical reports pertaining to test activities performed on Department of Energy test wells (MG-T/DOE Amoco Fee No. 1 Well, Leroy Sweezy No. 1 Well, and Pleasant Bayou No. 2 Well) are appended to the report. A referenced article written under this study that appeared in the Journal of Petroleum Technology is also reproduced.

  18. A Protocol for the Global Sensitivity Analysis of Impact Assessment Models in Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Cucurachi, S; Borgonovo, E; Heijungs, R

    2016-02-01

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) framework has established itself as the leading tool for the assessment of the environmental impact of products. Several works have established the need of integrating the LCA and risk analysis methodologies, due to the several common aspects. One of the ways to reach such integration is through guaranteeing that uncertainties in LCA modeling are carefully treated. It has been claimed that more attention should be paid to quantifying the uncertainties present in the various phases of LCA. Though the topic has been attracting increasing attention of practitioners and experts in LCA, there is still a lack of understanding and a limited use of the available statistical tools. In this work, we introduce a protocol to conduct global sensitivity analysis in LCA. The article focuses on the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and particularly on the relevance of global techniques for the development of trustable impact assessment models. We use a novel characterization model developed for the quantification of the impacts of noise on humans as a test case. We show that global SA is fundamental to guarantee that the modeler has a complete understanding of: (i) the structure of the model and (ii) the importance of uncertain model inputs and the interaction among them. PMID:26595377

  19. Balance in scientific impact assessment: the EGU Awards Committe experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of scientific impact is becoming an essential step all over the world for assigning academic positions, funding and recognition. Impact is generally assessed by means of objective bibliometric indicators which are frequently integrated with a subjective evaluation by one or more individuals. An essential requirement of impact assessment is to ensure balance across several potential discriminating factors, including gender, ethnics, culture, scientific field and many others. Scientific associations need to ensure balance in any step of their activity and in particular when electing their representatives, evaluating scientific contributions, reviewing papers and assigning awards. While ensuring balance is a strict necessity, how to get to target is still a matter of vivid debates. In fact, the context of science is very different with respect to the general context of society and the need for scientific associations to maintain confidentiality in their evaluation procedures makes the application of transparent procedures more complicated. This talk aims to present the experience and the efforts of the European Geosciences Union to ensure balance, with a particular focus on gender balance. Data and statistics will be presented in the attempt to provide constructive indications to get to the target of giving equal opportunities to researchers across gender, continents and ethnic groups. Science is a unifying discipline and balance will be vital to ensure that humans and our planet co-evolve sustainably.

  20. Gender impact assessment in microfinance and microenterprise: why and how.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S

    2000-02-01

    This article discusses the reasons for conducting gender impact assessment in microfinance and microenterprise. Although women are increasingly being targeted in microfinance and microenterprise projects, this does not necessarily mean that gender relations are being taken into account. Rather, targeting women raises a host of questions about the context in which women are operating their businesses or handling finance. Assessing gender impact in microfinance and microenterprise can help answer the questions in order to understand whether women are able to use the services and make the anticipated improvements in their livelihoods. Moreover, several approaches are suggested: 1) establish a gender baseline; 2) consider the potential impacts of the project on gender relations; 3) establish the information and indicators required; and 4) collect and analyze the data using tools and techniques appropriate to the task. However, in the context of gender relations there remains much ground, which often cannot be openly discussed. The discussion of how people organize their financial and economic affairs inside the household is usually a delicate area. Hence, it is suggested that such matters should be handled very carefully and to consider the composition and dynamics of the research team itself. PMID:12295962

  1. Bates solar industrial process steam application environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-30

    It is planned to install 34,440 square feet of linear parabolic trough solar collectors at a new corrugator plant for making corrugated boxes. The system is to operate in parallel with a fossil fuel boiler. An assessment is presented of the impacts of the solar energy system on the existing environment and to determine whether or not a more detailed environmental impact statement is needed. The environmental assessment is based on actual operational data obtained on the collector, fluid, and heat transport system. A description of the design of the solar energy system and its application is given. Also included is a discussion of the location of the new plant in Fort Worth, Texas, and of the surrounding environment. Environmental impacts are discussed in detail, and alternatives to the solar industrial process steam retrofit application are offered. It is concluded that the overall benefits from the solar industrial process heat system outweigh any negative environmental factors. Benefits include reduced fossil fuel demand, with attending reductions in air pollutants. The selection of a stable heat transfer fluid with low toxicity and biodegradable qualities minimizes environmental damage due to fluid spills, personal exposure, and degradation byproducts. The collector is found to be aesthetically attractive with minimal hazards due to glare. (LEW)

  2. The Value of Mainstreaming Human Rights into Health Impact Assessment

    PubMed Central

    MacNaughton, Gillian; Forman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation [1]. This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international human rights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming human rights into HIA is illustrated with the example of impact assessments that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international human rights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well. PMID:25264683

  3. Health Impact Assessment Practice and Potential for Integration within Environmental Impact and Strategic Environmental Assessments in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Linzalone, Nunzia; Assennato, Giorgio; Ballarini, Adele; Cadum, Ennio; Cirillo, Mario; Cori, Liliana; De Maio, Francesca; Musmeci, Loredana; Natali, Marinella; Rieti, Sabrina; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental impact is the driving idea behind protecting a population’s health via Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs). However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA and SEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health, significant technical and methodological gaps are present when assessing health systematically, and their basic principles regarding assessment are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection of the environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest. PMID:25493391

  4. Subsurface geology and geopressured/geothermal resource evaluation of the Lirette-Chauvin-Lake Boudreaux area, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.S.

    1982-12-01

    The geology of a 125 square mile area located about 85 miles southeast of Baton Rouge and about 12 miles southeast of Houma, Louisiana, has been studied to evaluate its potential for geopressured/geothermal energy resources. Structure, stratigraphy, and sedimentation were studied in conjunction with pressure and temperature distributions over a broad area to locate and identify reservoirs that may be prospective. Recommendations concerning future site specific studies within the current area are proposed based on these findings.

  5. The variable pressure supercritical Rankine cycle for integrated natural gas and power production from the geopressured geothermal resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsberry, F. L.

    1982-03-01

    A small-scale power plant cycle that utilizes both a variable pressure vaporizer (heater) and a floating pressure (and temperature) air-cooled condenser is described. Further, it defends this choice on the basis of classical thermodynamics and minimum capital cost by supporting these conclusions with actual comparative examples. The application suggested is for the geopressured geothermal resource. The arguments cited in this application apply to any process (petrochemical, nuclear, etc.) involving waste heat recovery.

  6. Characterisation factors for life cycle impact assessment of sound emissions.

    PubMed

    Cucurachi, S; Heijungs, R

    2014-01-15

    Noise is a serious stressor affecting the health of millions of citizens. It has been suggested that disturbance by noise is responsible for a substantial part of the damage to human health. However, no recommended approach to address noise impacts was proposed by the handbook for life cycle assessment (LCA) of the European Commission, nor are characterisation factors (CFs) and appropriate inventory data available in commonly used databases. This contribution provides CFs to allow for the quantification of noise impacts on human health in the LCA framework. Noise propagation standards and international reports on acoustics and noise impacts were used to define the model parameters. Spatial data was used to calculate spatially-defined CFs in the form of 10-by-10-km maps. The results of this analysis were combined with data from the literature to select input data for representative archetypal situations of emission (e.g. urban day with a frequency of 63 Hz, rural night at 8000 Hz, etc.). A total of 32 spatial and 216 archetypal CFs were produced to evaluate noise impacts at a European level (i.e. EU27). The possibility of a user-defined characterisation factor was added to support the possibility of portraying the situation of full availability of information, as well as a highly-localised impact analysis. A Monte Carlo-based quantitative global sensitivity analysis method was applied to evaluate the importance of the input factors in determining the variance of the output. The factors produced are ready to be implemented in the available LCA databases and software. The spatial approach and archetypal approach may be combined and selected according to the amount of information available and the life cycle under study. The framework proposed and used for calculations is flexible enough to be expanded to account for impacts on target subjects other than humans and to continents other than Europe. PMID:24035845

  7. Towards a meaningful assessment of marine ecological impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA).

    PubMed

    Woods, John S; Veltman, Karin; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Verones, Francesca; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2016-01-01

    Human demands on marine resources and space are currently unprecedented and concerns are rising over observed declines in marine biodiversity. A quantitative understanding of the impact of industrial activities on the marine environment is thus essential. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a widely applied method for quantifying the environmental impact of products and processes. LCA was originally developed to assess the impacts of land-based industries on mainly terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. As such, impact indicators for major drivers of marine biodiversity loss are currently lacking. We review quantitative approaches for cause-effect assessment of seven major drivers of marine biodiversity loss: climate change, ocean acidification, eutrophication-induced hypoxia, seabed damage, overexploitation of biotic resources, invasive species and marine plastic debris. Our review shows that impact indicators can be developed for all identified drivers, albeit at different levels of coverage of cause-effect pathways and variable levels of uncertainty and spatial coverage. Modeling approaches to predict the spatial distribution and intensity of human-driven interventions in the marine environment are relatively well-established and can be employed to develop spatially-explicit LCA fate factors. Modeling approaches to quantify the effects of these interventions on marine biodiversity are less well-developed. We highlight specific research challenges to facilitate a coherent incorporation of marine biodiversity loss in LCA, thereby making LCA a more comprehensive and robust environmental impact assessment tool. Research challenges of particular importance include i) incorporation of the non-linear behavior of global circulation models (GCMs) within an LCA framework and ii) improving spatial differentiation, especially the representation of coastal regions in GCMs and ocean-carbon cycle models. PMID:26826362

  8. The development of ecological impact assessment in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuehua; Li, Zhouyuan; Liao, Chenghao; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Annah; Li, Dong; Li, Yajun; Tang, Zhuo

    2015-12-01

    The balance between economic development and ecological conservation in China has become a critical issue in recent decades. Ecological impact assessment (EcoIA) was established beginning in the 1980s as a component of environmental impact assessment (EIA) that focuses specifically on human-related changes in ecosystem structure and function. EcoIA has since been widely applied throughout the country with continuous refinements in theory and practice. As compared to EIA, EcoIA is often performed at a larger scale in the long-term, and thus requires more advanced tools and techniques to quantify and assess. This paper reviews the development of EcoIA over the past 30years in China, with specific consideration given to refinements in legislation and methodology. Three stages in the development of EcoIA in China are identified, along with their achievements and limitations. Supplementing this qualitative analysis, the paper also provides a quantitative bibliometrics review of academic publications concerning EcoIA in China over the three identified stages. Lastly, general trends in the development of EcoIA are summarized with the aim of conveying potential future trajectories. This review is intended to introduce the EcoIA system to scholars interested in the growing field of environmental management in China. PMID:26318514

  9. Assessing the end-of-life impacts of buildings.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Pedro Santos; Horvath, Arpad

    2008-07-01

    This paper builds on previous research on end of life of products by synthesizing some of the theories proposed in the literature and presenting a method for environmental decision-making related to buildings. This is achieved through different solutions, but most significantly through the use of hybrid life-cycle assessment and the definition of allocation boundaries in a way that decreases the uncertainty associated with technologicalforecasting. Results show that there is no significant difference between the results of two major end-of-life assessment approaches (attributional and consequential), and that the choice between the use of one or the other for buildings may not be a critical decision. Assessing the impacts of recycling polices requires accounting for product substitutions, market analysis, and the full supply chain impacts of the recycling chains. Increasing the recycling of concrete from deconstructed buildings from the current 27% rate to 50% could yield a 2-3% (2.7-5.6 million metric tons of CO2 equivalents) reduction in buildings' greenhouse gas emissions, or the equivalent of removing 408,000-847,000 typical cars from U.S. roads. PMID:18677988

  10. Vulnerability assessment of atmospheric environment driven by human impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Shen, Jing; Ding, Feng; Li, Yu; He, Li

    2016-11-15

    Atmospheric environment quality worsening is a substantial threat to public health worldwide, and in many places, air pollution due to the intensification of the human activity is increasing dramatically. However, no studies have been investigated the integration of vulnerability assessment and atmospheric environment driven by human impacts. The objective of this study was to identify and prioritize the undesirable environmental changes as an early warning system for environment managers and decision makers in term of human, atmospheric environment, and social economic elements. We conduct a vulnerability assessment method of atmospheric environment associated with human impact, this method integrates spatial context of Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators under the Exposure-Sensitivity- Adaptive Capacity (ESA) framework. Decision makers can find out relevant vulnerability assessment results with different vulnerable attitudes. In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China, we further applied this developed method and proved it to be reliable and consistent with the China Environmental Status Bulletin. Results indicate that the vulnerability of atmospheric environment in the BTH region is not optimistic, and environment managers should do more about air pollution. Thus, the most appropriate strategic decision and development program of city or state can be picked out assisting by the vulnerable results. PMID:27424115

  11. Ecohydrological modeling for large-scale environmental impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Esfahanian, Elaheh; Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Ecohydrological models are frequently used to assess the biological integrity of unsampled streams. These models vary in complexity and scale, and their utility depends on their final application. Tradeoffs are usually made in model scale, where large-scale models are useful for determining broad impacts of human activities on biological conditions, and regional-scale (e.g. watershed or ecoregion) models provide stakeholders greater detail at the individual stream reach level. Given these tradeoffs, the objective of this study was to develop large-scale stream health models with reach level accuracy similar to regional-scale models thereby allowing for impacts assessments and improved decision-making capabilities. To accomplish this, four measures of biological integrity (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT), Family Index of Biotic Integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI)) were modeled based on four thermal classes (cold, cold-transitional, cool, and warm) of streams that broadly dictate the distribution of aquatic biota in Michigan. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow and water quality in seven watersheds and the Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate 171 ecologically relevant flow regime variables. Unique variables were selected for each thermal class using a Bayesian variable selection method. The variables were then used in development of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) models of EPT, FIBI, HBI, and IBI. ANFIS model accuracy improved when accounting for stream thermal class rather than developing a global model. PMID:26595397

  12. Social impact assessments: Developing a consolidated conceptual framework

    SciTech Connect

    Arce-Gomez, Antonio Donovan, Jerome D. Bedggood, Rowan E.

    2015-01-15

    Social Impact Assessments (SIAs) have played an increasingly important role in the conduct of planned interventions, providing proponents the capacity to assess and manage the social consequences of their activities. Whilst the SIA field has experienced significant conceptual and practical development over the last decade, efforts at consolidating this within one framework have been limited. In this paper, we incorporate this new knowledge by redeveloping and thus updating the SIA procedural framework developed by Interorganizational Committee on Guidelines and Principles for Social Impact Assessment. In doing so, this updated procedural framework has attempted to incorporate current ‘best practice’ that focuses on participatory approaches to undertaking an SIA. This involved making adaptions to two steps, expansions to five steps, integration of a stronger participatory approach to six steps, and the development of a new step, Management and Evaluation reflecting moves towards ex-post use of SIA processes. It is hoped that this consolidation of the literature of a decade's worth of key findings in SIA research will lead to further efforts towards a meta-evaluation of SIA literature and a platform from which newer developments may be further investigated.

  13. Geopressured-geothermal well report. Volume I. Drilling and completion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Gladys McCall site activities are covered through the completion of the test well and salt water disposal well. The test well was drilled to a total depth of 16,510 feet, then plugged back to 15,831 feet. Three 4'' diameter diamond cores were taken for analysis. An existing well on site, the Getty-Butts Gladys McCall No. 1, was reentered and completed to a depth of 3514 feet as a salt water disposal well. The geologic interpretation of the Gladys McCall site indicated target sands for testing at 15,080 feet through 15, 831 feet. Reservoir fluid temperature at this depth is estimated to be approximately 313/sup 0/F and pressure is estimated to be +-12,800 psi. The preliminary reservoir volume estimate is 3.6 billion barrels of brine. The design wells program includes environmental monitoring of the Gladys McCall site by Louisiana State University. Field stations are set up to monitor surface and ground water quality, subsidence, land loss and shoreline erosion, and seismicity. As of December 31, 1981 the study shows no significant impact on the environment by site operations.

  14. Assessment of antipodal-impact terrains on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David A.; Greeley, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    The regions anitpodal to Mars' three largest impact basins, Hellas, Isidis, and Argyre, were assessed for evidence of impact-induced disrupted terrains. Photogeology and computer modeling using the Simplified Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (SALE) finite element code suggest that such terrains could have been found by the Hellas impact. Maximum antipodal pressures are 1100 MPa for Hellas, 520 MPa for Isidis, and 150 MPa for Argyre. The results suggest that if antipodal fracturing were associated with later volcanism, then Alba Patera may be related to the Hellas event, as proposed by Peterson (1978). Alba Patera is a unique volcano in the solar system, being a shield volcano which emitted large volume lava flows. This volcanism could be the result of the focusing of seismic energy which created a fractured region that served as a volcanic conduit for the future release of large volumes of magma. No disrupted terrain features are observed antipodal to the Isidis or Argyre basins, although some of the old fractures in Noctis Labyrinthus could have originated in response to the Isidis impact, and later have been reactivated by the Tharsis tectonics assumed to have produced Noctis. If the lower calculated antipodal pressures for Argyre were capable of producing disrupted terrains, then the terrains have been covered subsequently by volcanic or aeolian material, or modified beyond recognition.

  15. Structural styles of the Wilcox and Frio growth-fault trends in Texas: Constraints on geopressured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    The wide variability in structural styles within the growth-faulted, geopressured trends of the Texas Gulf Coast is illustrated by detailed structural maps of selected areas of the Wilcox and Frio growth-fault trends and quantified by statistical analysis of fault compartment geometries. Structural variability is a key determinant of the size of geopressured aquifers in the deep subsurface. Two major structural styles exist in the Wilcox trend. (1) In southeast and Central Texas, the trend consists of continuous, closely spaced faults that have little associated rollover despite moderate expansion of section; the fault plane flattens little with depth. (2) By contrast, in South Texas a narrow band of growth faults having high expansion and moderate rollover lies above and downdip of a ridge of deformed, overpressured shale but updip of a deep basin formed by withdrawal of overpressured shale. Frio fault systems generally display greater rollover and wider spacing than do Wilcox fault systems; however, the Frio trend displays distinctive features in each study area. Most of the Frio growth faults, however, have a similar geometry, showing substantial rollover, expansion of section, and a moderate flattening of the fault zone with depth, possibly related to a deep decollement surface. The local variability in style is related to the magnitude of Frio sedimentation and progradation and to the presence of thick salt or shale. Finding and developing a large geopressured aquifer require recognition of a favorable combination of sand-body geometry, reservoir quality, and fault compartment size and shape.

  16. Continuity and productivity analysis of three geopressured geothermal aquifer-natural gas fields: Duson, Hollywood and Church Point, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, L.A.; Boardman, C.R.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    The available well logs, production records and geological structure maps were analyzed for the Hollywood, Duson, and Church Point, Louisiana oil and gas fields to determine the areal extent of the sealed geopressured blocks and to identify which aquifer sands within the blocks are connected to commercial production of hydrocarbons. Studies such as these are needed for the Department of Energy program to identify geopressured brine reservoirs that are not connected to commercial productions. The analysis showed that over the depth intervals at the geopressured zones shown on the logs essentially all of the sands of any substantial thickness had gas production from them somewhere or other in the fault block. It is therefore expected that the sands which are fully brine saturated in many of the wells are the water drive portion of the producing gas/oil somewhere else within the fault block. In this study only one deep sand was identified, in the Hollywood field, which was apparently not connected to a producing horizon somewhere else in the field. Estimates of the reservoir parameters were made for this sand and a hypothetical production calculation showed the probable production to be less than 10,000 b/d. The required gas price to profitably produce this gas is well above the current market price.

  17. Assessment of the Health Impacts of Climate Change in Kiribati

    PubMed Central

    McIver, Lachlan; Woodward, Alistair; Davies, Seren; Tibwe, Tebikau; Iddings, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Kiribati—a low-lying, resource-poor Pacific atoll nation—is one of the most vulnerable countries in the World to the impacts of climate change, including the likely detrimental effects on human health. We describe the preparation of a climate change and health adaptation plan for Kiribati carried out by the World Health Organization and the Kiribati Ministry of Health and Medical Services, including an assessment of risks to health, sources of vulnerability and suggestions for highest priority adaptation responses. This paper identifies advantages and disadvantages in the process that was followed, lays out a future direction of climate change and health adaptation work in Kiribati, and proposes lessons that may be applicable to other small, developing island nations as they prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate change on health. PMID:24830452

  18. Assessment of the health impacts of climate change in Kiribati.

    PubMed

    McIver, Lachlan; Woodward, Alistair; Davies, Seren; Tibwe, Tebikau; Iddings, Steven

    2014-05-01

    Kiribati-a low-lying, resource-poor Pacific atoll nation-is one of the most vulnerable countries in the World to the impacts of climate change, including the likely detrimental effects on human health. We describe the preparation of a climate change and health adaptation plan for Kiribati carried out by the World Health Organization and the Kiribati Ministry of Health and Medical Services, including an assessment of risks to health, sources of vulnerability and suggestions for highest priority adaptation responses. This paper identifies advantages and disadvantages in the process that was followed, lays out a future direction of climate change and health adaptation work in Kiribati, and proposes lessons that may be applicable to other small, developing island nations as they prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate change on health. PMID:24830452

  19. Quantitative estimation in Health Impact Assessment: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Seto, Edmund

    2011-04-15

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) considers multiple effects on health of policies, programs, plans and projects and thus requires the use of diverse analytic tools and sources of evidence. Quantitative estimation has desirable properties for the purpose of HIA but adequate tools for quantification exist currently for a limited number of health impacts and decision settings; furthermore, quantitative estimation generates thorny questions about the precision of estimates and the validity of methodological assumptions. In the United States, HIA has only recently emerged as an independent practice apart from integrated EIA, and this article aims to synthesize the experience with quantitative health effects estimation within that practice. We use examples identified through a scan of available identified instances of quantitative estimation in the U.S. practice experience to illustrate methods applied in different policy settings along with their strengths and limitations. We then discuss opportunity areas and practical considerations for the use of quantitative estimation in HIA.

  20. Meteorological assessment of SRM exhaust products' environmental impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingle, A. N.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental impact of solid rocket motor (SRM) exhaust products discharged into the free air stream upon the launching of space vehicles that depend upon SRM boosters to obtain large thrust was assessed. The emission of Al2O3 to the troposphere from the SRMs in each Shuttle launch is considered. The Al2O3 appears as particles suitable for heterogeneous nucleation of hydrochloric acid which under frequently occurring atmospheric conditions may form a highly acidic rain capable of damaging property and crops and of impacting upon the health of human and animal populations. The cloud processes leading to the formation of acid rain and the concentration of the acid that then reaches the ground, and the atmospheric situations that lead to the production of cloud and rain at and near a launch site, and the prediction of weather conditions that may permit or prohibit a launch operation are studied.

  1. Process and impact evaluation of the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy Health Impact Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Kaaren R; Harris-Roxas, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Background despite health impact assessment (HIA) being increasingly widely used internationally, fundamental questions about its impact on decision-making, implementation and practices remain. In 2005 a collaboration between public health and local government authorities performed an HIA on the Christchurch Urban Development Strategy Options paper in New Zealand. The findings of this were incorporated into the Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy; Methods using multiple qualitative methodologies including key informant interviews, focus groups and questionnaires, this study performs process and impact evaluations of the Christchurch HIA including evaluation of costs and resource use; Results the evaluation found that the HIA had demonstrable direct impacts on planning and implementation of the final Urban Development Strategy as well as indirect impacts on understandings and ways of working within and between organisations. It also points out future directions and ways of working in this successful collaboration between public health and local government authorities. It summarises the modest resource use and discusses the important role HIA can play in urban planning with intersectoral collaboration and enhanced relationships as both catalysts and outcomes of the HIA process; Conclusion as one of the few evaluations of HIA that have been published to date, this paper makes a substantial contribution to the literature on the impact, utility and effectiveness of HIA. PMID:19344529

  2. Assessment of potential aquatic herbicide impacts to California aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K

    2008-10-01

    A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential impacts in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-case" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential impacts. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-case scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited assessments for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk assessments for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem impacts. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds. PMID:18293029

  3. Climate Change Impact Assessment of Food- and Waterborne Diseases.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Jan C; Herbst, Susanne; Rechenburg, Andrea; Suk, Jonathan E; Höser, Christoph; Schreiber, Christiane; Kistemann, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    The PubMed and ScienceDirect bibliographic databases were searched for the period of 1998-2009 to evaluate the impact of climatic and environmental determinants on food- and waterborne diseases. The authors assessed 1,642 short and concise sentences (key facts), which were extracted from 722 relevant articles and stored in a climate change knowledge base. Key facts pertaining to temperature, precipitation, water, and food for 6 selected pathogens were scrutinized, evaluated, and compiled according to exposure pathways. These key facts (corresponding to approximately 50,000 words) were mapped to 275 terminology terms identified in the literature, which generated 6,341 connections. These relationships were plotted on semantic network maps to examine the interconnections between variables. The risk of campylobacteriosis is associated with mean weekly temperatures, although this link is shown more strongly in the literature relating to salmonellosis. Irregular and severe rain events are associated with Cryptosporidium sp. outbreaks, while noncholera Vibrio sp. displays increased growth rates in coastal waters during hot summers. In contrast, for Norovirus and Listeria sp. the association with climatic variables was relatively weak, but much stronger for food determinants. Electronic data mining to assess the impact of climate change on food- and waterborne diseases assured a methodical appraisal of the field. This climate change knowledge base can support national climate change vulnerability, impact, and adaptation assessments and facilitate the management of future threats from infectious diseases. In the light of diminishing resources for public health this approach can help balance different climate change adaptation options. PMID:24808720

  4. Climate Change Impact Assessment of Food- and Waterborne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, Jan C.; Herbst, Susanne; Rechenburg, Andrea; Suk, Jonathan E.; Höser, Christoph; Schreiber, Christiane; Kistemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The PubMed and ScienceDirect bibliographic databases were searched for the period of 1998–2009 to evaluate the impact of climatic and environmental determinants on food- and waterborne diseases. The authors assessed 1,642 short and concise sentences (key facts), which were extracted from 722 relevant articles and stored in a climate change knowledge base. Key facts pertaining to temperature, precipitation, water, and food for 6 selected pathogens were scrutinized, evaluated, and compiled according to exposure pathways. These key facts (corresponding to approximately 50,000 words) were mapped to 275 terminology terms identified in the literature, which generated 6,341 connections. These relationships were plotted on semantic network maps to examine the interconnections between variables. The risk of campylobacteriosis is associated with mean weekly temperatures, although this link is shown more strongly in the literature relating to salmonellosis. Irregular and severe rain events are associated with Cryptosporidium sp. outbreaks, while noncholera Vibrio sp. displays increased growth rates in coastal waters during hot summers. In contrast, for Norovirus and Listeria sp. the association with climatic variables was relatively weak, but much stronger for food determinants. Electronic data mining to assess the impact of climate change on food- and waterborne diseases assured a methodical appraisal of the field. This climate change knowledge base can support national climate change vulnerability, impact, and adaptation assessments and facilitate the management of future threats from infectious diseases. In the light of diminishing resources for public health this approach can help balance different climate change adaptation options. PMID:24808720

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT TAXONOMY PROVIDING COMPREHENSIVE COVERAGE OF MIDPOINTS, ENDPOINTS, DAMAGES, AND AREAS OF PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to conducting a comprehensive impact assessment, such as a Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), there is a need to discuss the range of impacts which could and should be included. Up to this point in time, there has not been available a comprehensive list of impacts for po...

  6. Assessing Distributional Impacts of Forest Policies and Projects: An Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Zhi

    1994-01-01

    Identifies the demand for distributional impact assessment related to forest policies and projects and the linkages between distributional impacts and sustainable development. An integrated model is developed to assess the distributional impact of forest policies and projects. Studying the impact of the introduction of structural particleboard…

  7. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify... the impacts of these activities, in order, inter alia, to: (1) Enable assessments to be made of...

  8. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify... the impacts of these activities, in order, inter alia, to: (1) Enable assessments to be made of...

  9. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify... the impacts of these activities, in order, inter alia, to: (1) Enable assessments to be made of...

  10. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify... the impacts of these activities, in order, inter alia, to: (1) Enable assessments to be made of...

  11. 40 CFR 8.9 - Measures to assess and verify environmental impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... environmental impacts. 8.9 Section 8.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.9 Measures to assess and verify... the impacts of these activities, in order, inter alia, to: (1) Enable assessments to be made of...

  12. Evaluating variability and uncertainty in radiological impact assessment using SYMBIOSE.

    PubMed

    Simon-Cornu, M; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Boyer, P; Calmon, P; Garcia-Sanchez, L; Mourlon, C; Nicoulaud, V; Sy, M; Gonze, M A

    2015-01-01

    SYMBIOSE is a modelling platform that accounts for variability and uncertainty in radiological impact assessments, when simulating the environmental fate of radionuclides and assessing doses to human populations. The default database of SYMBIOSE is partly based on parameter values that are summarized within International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) documents. To characterize uncertainty on the transfer parameters, 331 Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) were defined from the summary statistics provided within the IAEA documents (i.e. sample size, minimal and maximum values, arithmetic and geometric means, standard and geometric standard deviations) and are made available as spreadsheet files. The methods used to derive the PDFs without complete data sets, but merely the summary statistics, are presented. Then, a simple case-study illustrates the use of the database in a second-order Monte Carlo calculation, separating parametric uncertainty and inter-individual variability. PMID:25464045

  13. Environmental analysis of geopressured-geothermal prospect areas, De Witt and Colorado counties, Texas. Final report, March 1 - August 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, T.C.; Reeder, F.S.; Badger, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Information collected and analyzed for a preliminary environmental analysis of geopressured geothermal prospect areas in Colorado and DeWitt Counties, Texas is presented. Specific environmental concerns for each geopressured geothermal prospect area are identified and discussed. Approximately 218 km/sup 2/(85 mi/sup 2/) were studied in the vicinity of each prospect area to: (1) conduct an environmental analysis to identify more and less suited areas for geopressured test wells; and (2) provide an environmental data base for future development of geopressured geothermal energy resources. A series of maps and tables are included to illustrate environmental characteristics including: geology, water resources, soils, current land use, vegetation, wildlife, and meteorological characteristics, and additional relevant information on cultural resources, power- and pipelines, and regulatory agencies. A series of transparent overlays at the scale of the original mapping has also been produced for the purposes of identifying and ranking areas of potential conflict between geopressured geothermal development and environmental characteristics. The methodology for ranking suitability of areas within the two prospect areas is discussed in the appendix. (MHR)

  14. Asteroid Impact Mission (aim) & Deflection Assessment: AN Opportunity to Understand Impact Dynamics and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Fontaine, M.; Corral Van Damme, C.

    2012-09-01

    ESA's Future Preparation and Strategic Studies Office has carried out the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) study with the objective of defining an affordable and fully independent mission element that ESA could contribute to an Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment campaign (AIDA), a joint effort of ESA, JHU/APL, NASA, OCA and DLR. The mission design foresees two independent spacecraft, one impactor (DART) and one rendezvous probe (AIM). The target of this mission is the binary asteroid system (65803) Didymos (1996 GT): one spacecraft, DART, would impact the secondary of the Didymos binary system while AIM would observe and measure any the change in the relative orbit. For this joint project, the timing of the experiment is set (maximum proximity of the target to Earth allowing for ground-based characterisation of the experiment) but the spacecraft are still able to pursue their missions fully independently. This paper describes in particular the AIM rendezvous mission concept.

  15. Ranking potential impacts of priority and emerging pollutants in urban wastewater through life cycle impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ivan; José Gómez, M; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2008-12-01

    Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), a feature of the Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, is used in this work outside the LCA framework, as a means to quantify the potential environmental impacts on ecotoxicity and human toxicity of wastewater containing priority and emerging pollutants. In order to do this, so-called characterisation factors are obtained for 98 frequently detected pollutants, using two characterisation models, EDIP97 and USES-LCA. The applicability of this methodology is shown in a case study in which wastewater influent and effluent samples from a Spanish wastewater treatment plant located in the Mediterranean coast were analysed. Characterisation factors were applied to the average concentration of each pollutant, obtaining impact scores for different scenarios: discharging wastewater to aquatic recipient, and using it for crop irrigation. The results show that treated wastewater involves a substantially lower environmental impact when compared to the influent, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are very important contributors to toxicity in this wastewater. Ciprofloxacin, fluoxetine, and nicotine constitute the main PPCPs of concern in this case study, while 2,3,7,8-TCDD, Nickel, and hexachlorobenzene are the priority pollutants with highest contribution. Nevertheless, it must be stressed that the new characterisation factors are based on very limited data, especially with regard to toxicology, and therefore they must be seen as a first screening to be improved in the future when more and higher quality data is available. PMID:18951608

  16. Cost Analysis of Water Transport for Climate Change Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szaleniec, V.; Buytaert, W.

    2012-04-01

    It is expected that climate change will have a strong impact on water resources worldwide. Many studies exist that couple the output of global climate models with hydrological models to assess the impact of climate change on physical water availability. However, the water resources topology of many regions and especially that of cities can be very complex. Changes in physical water availability do therefore not translate easily into impacts on water resources for cities. This is especially the case for cities with a complex water supply topology, for instance because of geographical barriers, strong gradients in precipitation patterns, or competing water uses. In this study we explore the use of cost maps to enable the inclusion of water supply topologies in climate change impact studies. We use the city of Lima as a case study. Lima is the second largest desert city in the world. Although Peru as a whole has no water shortage, extreme gradients exist. Most of the economic activities including the city of Lima are located in the coastal desert. This region is geographically disconnected from the wet Amazon basin because of the Andes mountain range. Hence, water supply is precarious, provided by a complex combination of high mountain ecosystems including wetlands and glaciers, as well as groundwater aquifers depending on recharge from the mountains. We investigate the feasibility and costs of different water abstraction scenarios and the impact of climate change using cost functions for different resources. The option of building inter basins tunnels across the Andes is compared to the costs of desalinating seawater from the Pacific Ocean under different climate change scenarios and population growth scenarios. This approach yields recommendations for the most cost-effective options for the future.

  17. Using public surveys to assess aesthetic resource impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, T.

    1995-12-31

    FERC regulations require that hydropower license applicants prepare reports that describe the visual characteristics of the project area and discuss any expected impacts to aesthetic resources. While describing the visual character of the project area is relatively straightforward, scenic beauty and aesthetic quality are far more difficult to define and quantify. How do you determine the aesthetic consequences of lake level fluctuations or changes in streamflow, for example? What conditions are acceptable? Is there some threshold beyond which adverse impacts on scenic quality occur? Mitigation measures for aesthetic resources (such as increased minimum flows) may have significant consequences on project economics. Therefore, it is important that aesthetic resource evaluations be conducted in a fashion that provides reasonable and defensible conclusions. The inherently subjective nature of aesthetics dictates that evaluations be conducted in a rigorous, systematic manor. A study approach based on a well designed and implemented public survey accomplishes these goals. Most aesthetic impact assessments are carried out by one or two highly trained individuals. Unfortunately, these {open_quotes}professional judgement{close_quotes} methods may be sensitive to bias. Public survey techniques which rely on data representative of the public-at-large offer significant advantages. This paper describes how public surveys have been used by EDAW to identify impacts of hydropower developments and operations on aesthetic resources drawing on recent applications at Mono Lake California, and the North Umpqua River in Oregon. Studies at Mono Lake focused on the potential scenic quality impacts of different lake levels being considered as management alternatives. Studies of the North Umpqua River focused on the relationship between streamflows associated with hydropower operations the aesthetic quality of the river channel and several popular waterfalls.

  18. Damage assessment in CFRP laminates exposed to impact fatigue loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigkourakos, George; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.; Ashcroft, I. A.

    2011-07-01

    Demand for advanced engineering composites in the aerospace industry is increasing continuously. Lately, carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFRPs) became one of the most important structural materials in the industry due to a combination of characteristics such as: excellent stiffness, high strength-to-weight ratio, and ease of manufacture according to application. In service, aerospace composite components and structures are exposed to various transient loads, some of which can propagate in them as cyclic impacts. A typical example is an effect of the wind gusts during flight. This type of loading is known as impact fatigue (IF); it is a repetition of low-energy impacts. Such loads can cause various types of damage in composites: fibre breaking, transverse matrix cracking, de-bonding between fibres and matrix and delamination resulting in reduction of residual stiffness and loss of functionality. Furthermore, this damage is often sub-surface, which reinforces the need for more regular inspection. The effects of IF are of major importance due its detrimental effect on the structural integrity of components that can be generated after relatively few impacts at low force levels compared to those in a standard fatigue regime. This study utilises an innovative testing system with the capability of subjecting specimens to a series of repetitive impacts. The primary subject of this paper is to assess the damaging effect of IF on the behaviour of drilled CFRP specimens, exposed to such loading. A detailed damage analysis is implemented utilising an X-ray micro computed tomography system. The main findings suggested that at early stages of life damage is governed by o degree splits along the length of the specimens resulting in a 20% reduction of stiffness. The final failure damage scenario indicated that transverse crasks in the 90 degree plies are the main reason for complete delamination which can be translated to a 50% stiffness reduction.

  19. Development of Guidelines for Health Impact Assessment in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bert, Fabrizio; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Di Stanislao, Francesco; Siliquini, Roberta; Tozzi, Quinto; Pizzuti, Renato; Rizzo, Liliana; Scondotto, Salvatore; Bux, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a multidisciplinary method aimed at assessing the health effects of policies, plans, and projects using quantitative, qualitative, and participatory techniques. In many European countries, such as in Italy, there is a lack of implementation of HIA procedures and it would be necessary to develop instruments and protocols in order to improve the specific skills of professionals involved in the assessment process. This article aims to describe the development and implementation of HIA guidelines, promoted by the Italian National Agency for Regional Health Services (AGENAS), in 4 Southern Italian regions. Public health search engine and institutional Web sites were consulted to collect international data existing in this field. Monthly workshops were then organized with regional representatives to discuss the scientific literature and to identify the guidelines' contents: source of data, stakeholders, screening- and scoping-phase checklist tools, priority areas, monitoring, and reporting plans. Four regions (Calabria, Campania, Puglia, and Sicilia) took part in the project. This article describes the methodology of development and implementation of HIA guidelines in the Italian context. The tools created to collect data and assess health consequences (such as screening and scoping grids) are reported. This project represents the first structured initiative proposed and supported by the Ministry of Health aiming to introduce HIA in Italy. HIA should be considered a priority in the public health agenda, as a fundamental instrument in helping decision makers to make choices about alternatives to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health. PMID:26125232

  20. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Batishko, N.C.; Heise-Craff, D.A.; Jarvis, M.F.; Snyder, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem.

  1. Participation in health impact assessment: objectives, methods and core values.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John; Parry, Jayne; Mathers, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a multidisciplinary aid to decision-making that assesses the impact of policy on public health and on health inequalities. Its purpose is to assist decision-makers to maximize health gains and to reduce inequalities. The 1999 Gothenburg Consensus Paper (GCP) provides researchers with a rationale for establishing community participation as a core value of HIA. According to the GCP, participation in HIA empowers people within the decision-making process and redresses the democratic deficit between government and society. Participation in HIA generates a sense that health and decision-making is community-owned, and the personal experiences of citizens become integral to the formulation of policy. However, the participatory and empowering dimensions of HIA may prove difficult to operationalize. In this review of the participation strategies adopted in key applications of HIA in the United Kingdom, we found that HIA's aim of influencing decision-making creates tension between its participatory and knowledge-gathering dimensions. Accordingly, researchers have decreased the participatory dimension of HIA by reducing the importance attached to the community's experience of empowerment, ownership and democracy, while enlarging its knowledge-gathering dimension by giving pre-eminence to "expert" and "research-generated" evidence. Recent applications of HIA offer a serviceable rationale for participation as a means of information gathering and it is no longer tenable to uphold HIA as a means of empowering communities and advancing the aims of participatory democracy. PMID:15682250

  2. Assessing multi-disciplinary Earth observation impacts on societal benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, J.

    2011-12-01

    Multi-disciplinary interactions are becoming more important as demands for science-driven information needed for decision-making are increasing. Further development of systems to improve the scientific understanding of Earth's system and its response to natural or human-induced changes are required to meet this need. These would facilitate modeling and analyses in many critical areas such as climate prediction, food security, water availability and ecosystem sustainability among others. It is intuitive that better information will have a positive impact on decision outcomes. Yet this is difficult to quantitate. The impacts of multi-disciplinary work are particularly difficult to assess, yet it is hard to predict climate change without considering oceans, land use and many other Earth system characteristics. There are several steps that are important to quantitate the benefits. Some of these have been discussed at IIASA, RFI and other centers of excellence in this area. The key is to establish a program with metrics, a community of practice to propagate the metrics and clear case studies that will demonstrate effectiveness. A workshop was held to set the foundations for this approach and recommendations from a team of global experts are evolving into a program. This presentation discusses the indicators and metrics, examines their efficacy and looks at a case study to assess and validate the development.

  3. Social cost impact assessment of pipeline infrastructure projects

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, John C.; Allouche, Erez N.; Sterling, Raymond L.

    2015-01-15

    A key advantage of trenchless construction methods compared with traditional open-cut methods is their ability to install or rehabilitate underground utility systems with limited disruption to the surrounding built and natural environments. The equivalent monetary values of these disruptions are commonly called social costs. Social costs are often ignored by engineers or project managers during project planning and design phases, partially because they cannot be calculated using standard estimating methods. In recent years some approaches for estimating social costs were presented. Nevertheless, the cost data needed for validation of these estimating methods is lacking. Development of such social cost databases can be accomplished by compiling relevant information reported in various case histories. This paper identifies eight most important social cost categories, presents mathematical methods for calculating them, and summarizes the social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects. The case histories are analyzed in order to identify trends for the various social cost categories. The effectiveness of the methods used to estimate these values is also discussed. These findings are valuable for pipeline infrastructure engineers making renewal technology selection decisions by providing a more accurate process for the assessment of social costs and impacts. - Highlights: • Identified the eight most important social cost factors for pipeline construction • Presented mathematical methods for calculating those social cost factors • Summarized social cost impacts for two pipeline construction projects • Analyzed those projects to identify trends for the social cost factors.

  4. Hyper-velocity impact risk assessment study for LOFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perinati, Emanuele

    Within the ESA Cosmic Vision programme, the Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT) mission is one of the candidates for the M3 slot opportunity. LOFT is an x-ray (2-30 keV) experiment with two instruments on-board: the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). Both are based on Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs). Due to the design of the instrumental configuration, hyper-velocity impacts of micrometeoroids and orbital debris represent a significant hazard factor. During the three-year assessment phase of LOFT, we performed experimental test campaigns at the MPIK Van de Graaff accelerator to measure the degradation of LOFT SDD prototypes induced by hyper-velocity impacts. For the WFM, to mitigate the impact risk we designed and tested at the TUM plasma accelerator a compact double-wall shield using thin (~10 micron) foils of Kapton and Polypropylene, capable to effectively stop hyper-velocity particles up to 70 micron in size, in a remarkable agreement with simulations performed in ESABASE2. We present the results of these activities in the context of LOFT, and brievly discuss the potential applicability of the SDD as a debris detector.

  5. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    SciTech Connect

    Prenzel, Paula V. Vanclay, Frank

    2014-02-15

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution.

  6. Use of animal species data in environmental impact assessments.

    PubMed

    Knegtering, Edo; Drees, J Marijke; Geertsema, Paul; Huitema, Hans J; Uiterkamp, Anton J M Schoot

    2005-12-01

    Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) should ideally help minimize adverse effects on biological diversity by considering impacts of projects on wide ranges of species. This paper investigates how recent Dutch EIAs included the species comprising animal diversity. We present results of two studies on fauna data used in the EIAs. Objectives were to determine for different taxa (a) the relative representation of species in Environmental Impact Statements (EISs); (b) the extent to which EISs referred to specific species and the accuracy of survey data referred to; and (c) apparent roles of different EIA actors in species inclusion. EIAs were found to use data on various taxa but on limited numbers of species. The frequency with which taxa were included varied significantly. Birds were most frequently included, followed by mammals, amphibians, and other species groups. The quality of data on birds exceeded that regarding other vertebrates. Our results indicate that (a) EIA working groups of independent experts were the most influential in determining the data to be used; (b) on average, proponents included data more often than required by guidelines; and (c) in 30 to 40% of the EIAs, the participation of nongovernmental organizations prompted use of data. Despite the key role of experts in data inclusion, the taxon rankings found in the EIAs showed little deviation from those observed in studies on people's preferences for species. Given the limited ranges of species considered, it is doubtful that the EIAs examined effectively contributed to conserving animal species diversity. PMID:16215653

  7. Assessment of Modeling Capability for Reproducing Storm Impacts on TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, J. S.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Rastaetter, L.; Bilitza, D.; Codrescu, M.; Coster, A. J.; Emery, B. A.; Foerster, M.; Foster, B.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Huba, J. D.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Mannucci, A. J.; Namgaladze, A. A.; Pi, X.; Prokhorov, B. E.; Ridley, A. J.; Scherliess, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.; Zhu, L.

    2014-12-01

    During geomagnetic storm, the energy transfer from solar wind to magnetosphere-ionosphere system adversely affects the communication and navigation systems. Quantifying storm impacts on TEC (Total Electron Content) and assessment of modeling capability of reproducing storm impacts on TEC are of importance to specifying and forecasting space weather. In order to quantify storm impacts on TEC, we considered several parameters: TEC changes compared to quiet time (the day before storm), TEC difference between 24-hour intervals, and maximum increase/decrease during the storm. We investigated the spatial and temporal variations of the parameters during the 2006 AGU storm event (14-15 Dec. 2006) using ground-based GPS TEC measurements in the selected 5 degree eight longitude sectors. The latitudinal variations were also studied in two longitude sectors among the eight sectors where data coverage is relatively better. We obtained modeled TEC from various ionosphere/thermosphere (IT) models. The parameters from the models were compared with each other and with the observed values. We quantified performance of the models in reproducing the TEC variations during the storm using skill scores. This study has been supported by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Model outputs and observational data used for the study will be permanently posted at the CCMC website (http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) for the space science communities to use.

  8. Life cycle impact assessment of various waste conversion technologies.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hsien H

    2009-06-01

    Advanced thermal treatment technologies utilizing pyrolysis or gasification, as well as a combined approach, are introduced as sustainable methods to treat wastes in Singapore. Eight different technologies are evaluated: pyrolysis-gasification of MSW; pyrolysis of MSW; thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW; combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW; steam gasification of wood; circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of organic wastes; gasification of RDF; and the gasification of tyres. Life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impacts of the various waste conversion systems including global warming potential, acidification potential, terrestrial eutrophication and ozone photochemical formation. The normalization and weighting results, calculated according to Singapore national emission inventories, showed that the two highest impacts are from thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of RDF; and the least are from the steam gasification of wood and the pyrolysis-gasification of MSW. A simplified life cycle cost comparison showed that the two most costs-effective waste conversion systems are the CFB gasification of organic waste and the combined pyrolysis, gasification and oxidation of MSW. The least favorable - highest environmental impact as well as highest costs - are the thermal cracking gasification of granulated MSW and the gasification of tyres. PMID:19157835

  9. Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results: The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion: Determining the principles of HIA from peer

  10. Environmental and health impact assessment for ports in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chanchang, Chamchan; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Supanitayanon, Thanawat

    2016-01-01

    Port development in Thailand is an essential part of the national maritime interest in connection with ship and shore activities. The growth of maritime industry and transportation has led to the expansion of ports' areas and capacity. Each port type causes different environmental impacts. Therefore, the Port Authority of Thailand has set up guidelines on ports' environmental management. This is divided into 3 major phases; namely, planning, construction and operation commencement periods. The Report of Environmental and Health Impact Assessment (EIA, HIA and EHIA) is regarded as the environmental management process in the planning period. It is a key tool to anticipate and prevent any adverse effects that might occur on the environment as well as community health resulting from the project implementation. This measure, in turn, creates advance preparation on both the preventive and problem-solving means before the project gets off the ground. At present, the majority of new projects on port development have still been in the process of information gathering for EHIA submission. Some cannot start to operate due to their EHIA failure. For example, the Tha-sala port which did not pass EHIA, mainly because emphasis had been focused on adhering to legal regulations without taking into consideration the in-depth analysis of data being conducted by community entities in the area. Thus caused the project to be finally abolished. Impact assessment on environment and health should be aimed at detailed understanding of the community in each particular area so that effective data of objective achievement in preventing environmental problems could actually be carried out and welcomed by the concerned society. PMID:27364177

  11. Health impact assessment: assessing opportunities and barriers to intersectoral health improvement in an expanded European Union.

    PubMed

    Lock, Karen; McKee, Martin

    2005-05-01

    On 1 May 2004 the European Union (EU) underwent unprecedented enlargement, from 15 to 25 countries, increasing its population by 20% to over 450 million. Although EU law has limited specific competence in the area of health, its influence on other policy sectors such as agriculture, trade, and employment has wide ranging implications for health. Yet with the exception of provisions on communicable disease control and food safety, public health considerations have played little part in negotiations on EU accession. This paper argues for an intersectoral public health approach in the expanded EU. It reviews the legal basis for assessing the health impacts of policy in the EU and, using health impact assessment as a case study, it examines how well the new member states may be prepared to tackle intersectoral public health action within the constraints imposed by EU policy. PMID:15831682

  12. Health impact assessment of global climate change: expanding on comparative risk assessment approaches for policy making.

    PubMed

    Patz, Jonathan; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gibbs, Holly; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is projected to have adverse impacts on public health. Cobenefits may be possible from more upstream mitigation of greenhouse gases causing climate change. To help measure such cobenefits alongside averted disease-specific risks, a health impact assessment (HIA) framework can more comprehensively serve as a decision support tool. HIA also considers health equity, clearly part of the climate change problem. New choices for energy must be made carefully considering such effects as additional pressure on the world's forests through large-scale expansion of soybean and oil palm plantations, leading to forest clearing, biodiversity loss and disease emergence, expulsion of subsistence farmers, and potential increases in food prices and emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Investigators must consider the full range of policy options, supported by more comprehensive, flexible, and transparent assessment methods. PMID:18173382

  13. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  14. Assessment of impact damage of composite rocket motor cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1994-01-01

    cylinders since there are significant differences in out time of the resins relative to full scale cylinder fabrication, differences in hoop fiber tensioning and unsatisfactory coupon configurations. It appears that development of a new test method for subscale cylinders is merited. Damage tolerance may be improved by material optimization that uses fiber treatments and matrix modifications to control the fiber matrix interface bonding. It is difficult to develop process optimization in subscale cylinders without also modeling the longer out times resins experience in full scale testing. A major breakthrough in characterizing the effect of impact damage on residual strength, and understanding how to scale results of subscale evaluations, will be a sound micromechanical model that described progressive failure of the composite. Such models will utilize a three dimensional stress analysis due to the complex nature of low velocity impact stresses in thick composites. When these models are coupled with non-contact NDE methods that geometrically characterize the damage and acoustic methods that characterize the effective local elastic properties, accurate assessment of residual strength from impact damage may be possible. Directions for further development are suggested.

  15. Health impact assessment of traffic noise in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Tobías, Aurelio; Recio, Alberto; Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between environmental noise and health has been examined in depth. In view of the sheer number of persons exposed, attention should be focused on road traffic noise. The city of Madrid (Spain) is a densely populated metropolitan area in which 80% of all environmental noise exposure is attributed to traffic. The aim of this study was to quantify avoidable deaths resulting from reducing the impact of equivalent diurnal noise levels (LeqD) on daily cardiovascular and respiratory mortality among people aged ≥65 years in Madrid. A health impact assessment of (average 24h) LeqD and PM2.5 levels was conducted by using previously reported risk estimates of mortality rates for the period 2003-2005: For cardiovascular causes: LeqD 1.048 (1.005, 1.092) and PM2.5 1.041(1.020, 1.062) and for respiratory causes: LeqD 1.060 (1.000, 1.123) and PM2.5 1.030 (1.000, 1.062). The association found between LeqD exposure and mortality for both causes suggests an important health effect. A reduction of 1dB(A) in LeqD implies an avoidable annual mortality of 284 (31, 523) cardiovascular- and 184 (0, 190) respiratory-related deaths in the study population. The magnitude of the health impact is similar to reducing average PM2.5 levels by 10µg/m(3). Regardless of air pollution, exposure to traffic noise should be considered an important environmental factor having a significant impact on health. PMID:25531818

  16. Regional Risk Assessment for climate change impacts on coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, F; Rizzi, J; Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2015-12-15

    Coastal aquifers have been identified as particularly vulnerable to impacts on water quantity and quality due to the high density of socio-economic activities and human assets in coastal regions and to the projected rising sea levels, contributing to the process of saltwater intrusion. This paper proposes a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrated with a chain of numerical models to evaluate potential climate change-related impacts on coastal aquifers and linked natural and human systems (i.e., wells, river, agricultural areas, lakes, forests and semi-natural environments). The RRA methodology employs Multi Criteria Decision Analysis methods and Geographic Information Systems functionalities to integrate heterogeneous spatial data on hazard, susceptibility and risk for saltwater intrusion and groundwater level variation. The proposed approach was applied on the Esino River basin (Italy) using future climate hazard scenarios based on a chain of climate, hydrological, hydraulic and groundwater system models running at different spatial scales. Models were forced with the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario for the period 2071-2100 over four seasons (i.e., winter, spring, summer and autumn). Results indicate that in future seasons, climate change will cause few impacts on the lower Esino River valley. Groundwater level decrease will have limited effects: agricultural areas, forests and semi-natural environments will be at risk only in a region close to the coastline which covers less than 5% of the total surface of the considered receptors; less than 3.5% of the wells will be exposed in the worst scenario. Saltwater intrusion impact in future scenarios will be restricted to a narrow region close to the coastline (only few hundred meters), and thus it is expected to have very limited effects on the Esino coastal aquifer with no consequences on the considered natural and human systems. PMID:26282744

  17. Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA): Applications for Assessing the Impact of Urban Growth and the use of Low Impact Development Practices.

    EPA Science Inventory

    New tools and functionality have been incorporated into the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA) to assess the impact of urban growth and evaluate the effects of low impact development (LID) practices. AGWA (see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa or http://www.epa.gov...

  18. Assessing risk by impacts: a probabilistic approach for drought assessment in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin; Vogt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    The risk of natural disasters in a very general sense is a combination of hazard and vulnerability. For drought, the hazard is commonly derived from the statistical analysis of one or a set of drought indicators. Their selection mostly depends on the focus of the study, with the usage of standardized indices experiencing growing popularity. Vulnerability to drought is typically estimated by a subjectively weighted combination of relevant factors describing different aspects of vulnerability, such as exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. This epistemic approach requires explicit information on physical, ecological, institutional and socioeconomic parameters. Even though impacts are known as symptoms of vulnerability and risk is often defined as the likelihood of impact occurrence (e.g. by the IPCC 2012 SREX report), information on past impacts is only poorly integrated in current drought risk assessment. Only few approaches have verified their vulnerability index with past impact information. We present a probabilistic approach to estimate drought risk based on the assumption that a system is vulnerable if it was impacted during a certain hazard. Thatfore, information on past drought impacts from the European Drought Impact report Inventory (EDII) can function as a proxy for vulnerability to drought. Multivariable logistic regression is then applied to find non-subjective combinations of drought indices and vulnerability factors to predict the likelihood of drought impact occurrence. The Combined Drought Indicator (CDI) of the European Drought Observatory, SPI and SPEI (1-36) are considered as drought indices; vulnerability factors are gathered from quantitative and qualitative data of statistical databases (e.g. Eurostat, Aquastat). Thus, sector- specific drought risk maps for selected hazard levels were developed for Europe. This work reconsiders the practice of current research philosophies and highlights the importance to detect vulnerability by its

  19. The key role of eyewitnesses in rapid earthquake impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, Rémy; Steed, Robert; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Roussel, Frédéric; Etivant, Caroline

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainties in rapid earthquake impact models are intrinsically large even when excluding potential indirect losses (fires, landslides, tsunami…). The reason is that they are based on several factors which are themselves difficult to constrain, such as the geographical distribution of shaking intensity, building type inventory and vulnerability functions. The difficulties can be illustrated by two boundary cases. For moderate (around M6) earthquakes, the size of potential damage zone and the epicentral location uncertainty share comparable dimension of about 10-15km. When such an earthquake strikes close to an urban area, like in 1999, in Athens (M5.9), earthquake location uncertainties alone can lead to dramatically different impact scenario. Furthermore, for moderate magnitude, the overall impact is often controlled by individual accidents, like in 2002 in Molise, Italy (M5.7), in Bingol, Turkey (M6.4) in 2003 or in Christchurch, New Zealand (M6.3) where respectively 23 out of 30, 84 out of 176 and 115 out of 185 of the causalities perished in a single building failure. Contrastingly, for major earthquakes (M>7), the point source approximation is not valid anymore, and impact assessment requires knowing exactly where the seismic rupture took place, whether it was unilateral, bilateral etc.… and this information is not readily available directly after the earthquake's occurrence. In-situ observations of actual impact provided by eyewitnesses can dramatically reduce impact models uncertainties. We will present the overall strategy developed at the EMSC which comprises of crowdsourcing and flashsourcing techniques, the development of citizen operated seismic networks, and the use of social networks to engage with eyewitnesses within minutes of an earthquake occurrence. For instance, testimonies are collected through online questionnaires available in 32 languages and automatically processed in maps of effects. Geo-located pictures are collected and then

  20. Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following a postulated accident in PHWRS

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, N.; Kansal, M.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.

    2012-07-01

    Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) following postulated accident i.e Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) with failed Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), performed as part of the reactor safety analysis of a typical 700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor(PHWR). The rationale behind the assessment is that the public needs to be protected in the event that the postulated accident results in radionuclide release outside containment. Radionuclides deliver dose to the human body through various pathways namely, plume submersion, exposure due to ground deposition, inhalation and ingestion. The total exposure dose measured in terms of total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) is the sum of doses to a hypothetical adult human at exclusion zone boundary by all the exposure pathways. The analysis provides the important inputs to decide upon the type of emergency counter measures to be adopted during the postulated accident. The importance of the various pathways in terms of contribution to the total effective dose equivalent(TEDE) is also assessed with respect to time of exposure. Inhalation and plume gamma dose are the major contributors towards TEDE during initial period of accident whereas ingestion and ground shine dose start dominating in TEDE in the extended period of exposure. Moreover, TEDE is initially dominated by I-131, Kr-88, Te-132, I-133 and Sr-89, whereas, as time progresses, Xe-133,I-131 and Te-132 become the main contributors. (authors)

  1. Multi-jurisdictional environmental impact assessment: Canadian experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Sinclair, A. John

    2009-07-15

    This research examines complexities surrounding environmental impact assessment (EIA) in a multi-jurisdictional environment, with a specific focus on opportunities for public participation. With almost universal adoption of EIA, projects are increasingly subject to more than one assessment process. Thus there is demand to facilitate inter-jurisdictional coordination of EIAs. Canada has growing expertise with multijuristictional EIA that serves to illustrate the costs and opportunities associated with three different approaches to coordination: standardization, harmonization and substitution. Findings suggest that, although fraught with issues, harmonization is the most realistic approach for coordinating efforts. Harmonization has the potential to minimize duplication, avoid process uncertainty and increase efficiency and effectiveness in EIA. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrates that a bilateral agreement between jurisdictions is the best approach to harmonization, so long as negotiation of the agreement includes opportunities for meaningful participation, and implementation includes activities designed to communicate the assessment responsibilities of each jurisdiction, activities and schedules to the public. The experience of participants of different coordinated EIAs in Canada serves as counsel for on-going and future efforts to facilitate inter-jurisdictional coordination.

  2. A health impact assessment framework for assessing vulnerability and adaptation planning for climate change.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru. PMID:25514146

  3. A Health Impact Assessment framework for assessing vulnerability and adaptation planning for climate change.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such,aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru. PMID:25587609

  4. A Health Impact Assessment Framework for Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Planning for Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru. PMID:25514146

  5. Watershed Model Parameterization for Assessing Impacts due to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yactayo, G. A.; Bhatt, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Chesapeake Bay (CB) Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program drives water quality policy and management in parts of six states — Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia — along with the District of Columbia to achieve water quality standards in the Bay through reductions in nutrient and sediment pollution. The HSPF Watershed Model (WSM) is used as an accounting tool in the development of the TMDL to track progress and guide implementations of best management practices. Published research has shown that precipitation has increased in the US during 20th century by about ten percent, and half of the increase is due to changes in frequency and intensity in the upper tenth percentile of the distribution. Projections from global climate models suggest that these trends are anticipated to continue over the next century. Our analysis of climate data over the last three decades show similar trends in observed precipitation in the CB Watershed. The impact of climate change on the CB TMDL will be examined in a 2017 assessment of progress in the State and Federal partnership of the Chesapeake Bay Program. This is consistent with the CB Executive Order of May 12, 2009 mandates assessment of the impacts of climate change on the CB TMDL. The WSM has a simulation period of more than 3 decades from 1985 to 2011. Over the simulation period precipitation intensity, temperatures, and CO2 levels are increasing. A study conducted by Najjar et al. (2010) that included regional climate projections suggests that pollutant loads in the CB region will increase over the next century. Butcher et al. (2014) demonstrated that a watershed model parameter needs to be adjusted to compensate for the effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on plant transpiration in climate projection applications. This raises the question of whether parameters within a watershed model calibrated using historical climate data are sufficient for assessing hydrologic and water

  6. Rapid assessment of oxygen transfer impact for Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Käß, Friedrich; Prasad, Arjun; Tillack, Jana; Moch, Matthias; Giese, Heiner; Büchs, Jochen; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Oxygen supply is crucial in industrial application of microbial systems, such as Corynebacterium glutamicum, but oxygen transfer is often neglected in early strain characterizations, typically done under aerobic conditions. In this work, a new procedure for oxygen transfer screening is presented, assessing the impact of maximum oxygen transfer conditions (OTRmax) within microtiter plate-based cultivation for enhanced throughput. Oxygen-dependent growth and productivity were characterized for C. glutamicum ATCC13032 and C. glutamicum DM1933 (lysine producer). Biomass and lysine product yield are affected at OTRmax below 14 mmol L(-1) h(-1) in a standardized batch process, but not by further increase of OTRmax above this threshold value indicating a reasonable tradeoff between power input and oxygen transfer capacity OTRmax. The described oxygen transfer screening allows comparative determination of metabolic robustness against oxygen transfer limitation and serves identification of potential problems or opportunities later created during scale-up. PMID:24981020

  7. Data Compendium for the Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Huesties, L.R.; Maughan, A.D.; Miley, T.B.; Walters, W.H.

    1994-04-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). The CRCIA is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The purpose of the CRCIA is to evaluate the current human and ecological risk from the Columbia River attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. Human risk will be addressed for radioactive and hazardous materials over a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The initial effort for the CRCIA is the development of a compendium of existing data on Columbia River contamination. This document provides the data compendium. It also includes a discussion of data sources, descriptions of the physical format of the data, and descriptions of the search process used to identify data.

  8. Scoping in environmental impact assessment: Balancing precaution and efficiency?

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Tim . E-mail: t.snell@adamshendry.co.uk; Cowell, Richard . E-mail: cowellrj@cardiff.ac.uk

    2006-05-15

    Scoping is a crucial yet under-researched stage of environmental impact assessment, in which practice falls well behind conceptual ideals. We argue that such 'implementation deficits' reflect dilemmas between two key rationales for scoping - environmental precaution and decision-making efficiency - and between technical and participatory conceptions of the decision-making process. We use qualitative research to understand how scoping practice in the UK reconciles these competing imperatives. Our findings suggest that practitioners mainly rationalise their approach in terms of decision-making efficiency, while justifying excluding the public from scoping on grounds of prematurity, delay and risks of causing confusion. The tendency to scope issues in rather than exclude them reflects a pervasive concern for legal challenge, rather than environmental precaution, but this reinforces standard lists of environmental considerations rather than the investigation of novel, cumulative or indirect risks.

  9. Application of fisheries-management techniques to assessing impacts

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.H.; Simmons, M.A.; Skalski, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Monitoring methods used in fisheries-management assessments were examined and their potential applicability in confirmatory impact monitoring were evaluated using case studies from selected nuclear power plants. A report on Task I of the project examined the application of Catch-Per-Unit-Effort (CPUE) techniques in monitoring programs at riverine, large lake and ocean sites. Included in this final report is an examination of CPUE data for the Oconee Nuclear Plant on Lake Keowee, a reservoir site. This report also presents a summary of results obtained over the life of the project and guidelines for designing and implementing data collection programs and for data analysis and interpretation. Analysis of monitoring data from Lake Keowee confirmed findings from previous analyses of surveys at nuclear power plants on large lakes, rivers and coastal sites. CPUE techniques as applied to these monitoring programs do not provide data necessary to separate changes induced by plant operation from naturally occurring changes.

  10. Decadal predictive skill assessment - ensemble and hindcast sample size impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienz, Frank; Müller, Wolfgang; Pohlmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Hindcast, respectively retrospective prediction experiments have to be performed to validate decadal prediction systems. These are necessarily restricted in the number due to the computational constrains. From weather and seasonal prediction it is known that, the ensemble size is crucial. A similar dependency is likely for decadal predictions but, differences are expected due to the differing time-scales of the involved processes and the longer prediction horizon. It is shown here, that the ensemble and hindcast sample size have a large impact on the uncertainty assessment of the ensemble mean, as well as for the detection of prediction skill. For that purpose a conceptual model is developed, which enables the systematic analysis of statistical properties and its dependencies in a framework close to that of real decadal predictions. In addition, a set of extended range hindcast experiments have been undertaken, covering the entire 20th century.

  11. Differing forms, differing purposes: A typology of health impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Harris-Roxas, Ben Harris, Elizabeth

    2011-07-15

    There is currently considerable diversity in health impact assessment (HIA) practice internationally. Historically this diversity has been described as simple dichotomies, for example the differences between HIAs of projects and policies. However these distinctions have failed to adequately describe the differences that can be observed between different forms of HIAs. This paper describes the three historical and disciplinary fields from which HIA has emerged - environmental health, a social view of health, and health equity. It also puts forward a typology of four different forms of HIA that can be observed in current HIA practice: mandated, decision-support, advocacy, and community-led HIAs. This paper argues that these different forms of HIA serve different purposes and are not necessarily in competition; rather they allow HIA to be responsive to a range of population health concerns and purposes.

  12. Principles for social impact assessment: A critical comparison between the international and US documents

    SciTech Connect

    Vanclay, Frank . E-mail: Frank.Vanclay@utas.edu.au

    2006-01-15

    The 'International Principles for Social Impact Assessment' and the 'Principles and Guidelines for Social Impact Assessment in the USA', both developed under the auspices of the International Association for Impact Assessment and published in 2003, are compared. Major differences in the definition and approach to social impact assessment (SIA) are identified. The US Principles and Guidelines is shown to be positivist/technocratic while the International Principles is identified as being democratic, participatory and constructivist. Deficiencies in both documents are identified. The field of SIA is changing to go beyond the prevention of negative impacts, to include issues of building social capital, capacity building, good governance, community engagement and social inclusion.

  13. Preliminary assessment of soil erosion impact during forest restoration process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yen-Jen; Chang, Cheng-Sheng; Tsao, Tsung-Ming; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Chiang, Po-Neng; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan has a fragile geology and steep terrain. The 921 earthquake, Typhoon Toraji, Typhoon Morakot, and the exploitation and use of the woodland by local residents have severely damaged the landscape and posed more severe challenges to the montane ecosystem. A land conservation project has been implemented by the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University which reclaimed approximately 1,500 hectares of leased woodland from 2008 to 2010, primarily used to grow bamboo, tea trees, betel nut, fruit, and vegetable and about 1,298 hectares have been reforested. The process of forest restoration involves clear cutting, soil preparation and a six-year weeding and tending period which may affect the amount of soil erosion dramatically. This study tried to assess the impact of forest restoration from the perspective of soil erosion through leased-land recovery periods and would like to benefit the practical implementation of reforestation in the future. A new plantation reforested in the early 2013 and a nearby 29-year-old mature forest were chosen as experimental and comparison sites. A self-designed weir was set up in a small watershed of each site for the runoff and sediment yield observation. According to the observed results from May to August 2013, a raining season in Taiwan, the runoff and erosion would not as high as we expected, because the in-situ soil texture of both sites is sandy loam to sandy with high percentage of coarse fragment which increased the infiltration. There were around 200 kg to 250 kg of wet sand/soil yielded in mature forest during the hit of Typhoon Soulik while the rest of the time only suspended material be yielded at both sites. To further investigate the influence of the six-year weeding and tending period, long term observations are needed for a more completed assessment of soil erosion impact.

  14. Coupled Dynamic Modeling to Assess Human Impact on Watershed Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, I. N.; Tsai, Y.; Turnbull, S.; Bomblies, A.; Zia, A.

    2014-12-01

    Humans are intrinsic to the hydrologic system, both as agents of change and as beneficiaries of ecosystem services. This connection has been underappreciated in hydrology. We present a modeling linkage framework of an agent-based land use change model with a physical-based watershed model. The coupled model framework presented constitutes part of an integrated assessment model that is being developed to study human-ecosystem interaction in Missisquoi Bay, spanning Vermont and Québec, which is experiencing high concentrations of nutrients from the Missisquoi River watershed. The integrated assessment approach proposed is comprised of linking two simulation models: the Interactive Land-Use Transition Agent-Based Model (ILUTABM) and a physically based process model, the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys). The ILUTABM treats both landscape and landowners as agents and simulates annual land-use patterns resulting from landowners annual land-use decisions and Best Management Practices (BMPs) adaptations to landowners utilities, land productivity and perceived impacts of floods. The Missisquoi River at Swanton watershed RHESSys model (drainage area of 2,200 km2) driven by climate data was first calibrated to daily streamflows and water quality sensor data at the watershed outlet. Simulated land-use patterns were then processed to drive the calibrated RHESSys model to obtain streamflow nutrient loading realizations. Nutrients loading realizations are then examined and routed back to the ILUTAB model to obtain public polices needed to manage the Missisquoi watershed as well as the Lake Champlain in general. We infer that the applicability of this approach can be generalized to other similar watersheds. Index Terms: 0402: Agricultural systems; 1800: Hydrology; 1803: Anthropogenic effects; 1834 Human impacts; 6344: System operation and management; 6334: Regional Planning

  15. Including ecotoxic impacts on warm-blooded predators in life cycle impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Golsteijn, Laura; van Zelm, Rosalie; Veltman, Karin; Musters, Gijs; Hendriks, A Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2012-04-01

    In current life cycle impact assessment, the focus of ecotoxicity is on cold-blooded species. We developed a method to calculate characterization factors (CFs) for the impact assessment of chemical emissions on warm-blooded predators in freshwater food chains. The method was applied to 329 organic chemicals. The CF for these predators was defined as a multiplication of the fate factor (FF), exposure factor (XF), bioaccumulation factor (BF), and effect factor (EF). Fate factors and XFs were calculated with the model USES-LCA 2.0. Bioaccumulation factors were calculated with the model OMEGA, for chemical uptake via freshwater, food, and air. Effect factors were calculated based on experimental, median lethal doses (LD50). The concentration buildup (CB) of the chemicals (i.e., FF, XF, and BF over the 3 routes of exposure) showed a range of 7 to 9 orders of magnitude, depending on the emission compartment. Effect factors displayed a range of 7 orders of magnitude. Characterization factors ranged 9 orders of magnitude. After emissions to freshwater, the relative contribution of the uptake routes to CB were 1% (90% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-2%) for uptake from air, 43% (11%-50%) for uptake from water, and 56% (50%-87%) for uptake from food. After an emission to agricultural soil, the contribution was 11% (0%-80%) for uptake from air, 39% (5%-50%) for uptake from water, and 50% (11%-83%) for uptake from food. Uptake from air was mainly relevant for emissions to air (on average 42%, 90% CI: 5%-98%). Characterization factors for cold-blooded species were typically 4 orders of magnitude higher than CFs for warm-blooded predators. The correlation between both types of CFs was low, which means that a high relative impact on cold-blooded species does not necessarily indicate a high relative impact on warm-blooded predators. Depending on the weighing method to be considered, the inclusion of impacts on warm-blooded predators can change the relative ranking of toxic chemicals

  16. Ecological compensation and Environmental Impact Assessment in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Villarroya, Ana; Puig, Jordi

    2010-11-15

    To achieve meaningful sustainable development, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should avoid the net losses in the environment resource base. But EIA practice does not always avoid the losses caused by the implementation of the projects under EIA regulation. Some environmental impacts are, simply, admitted, even without enforcing any form of compensation. When applied, compensation is sometimes just a monetary payment to offset the environmental loss. This paper looks for evidence on the role that compensation is given at present in EIA practice in Spain, and for some of its conceptual and regulatory roots. Specifically, it explores how compensation is addressed in 1302 records of decision (RODs) on those projects subject to the Spanish EIA regulation published during the years 2006 and 2007, to know how far Spain is from preserving the environmental resource base managed through this particular aspect of EIA practice. As a result, it is concluded that the practice of ecological compensation in EIA in Spain is much lower than it could be expected in a theoretical sustainability context committed to avoid net losses in the environment resource base, mainly due to an EIA practice focused on on-site mitigation that allows these net losses.

  17. Recent Extremes in European Climate: Assessment, Case Studies and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiou, P.; Vautard, R.; D'Andrea, F.; Cattiaux, J.; Naveau, P.; Ciais, P.; Garnier, E.

    2008-12-01

    During the last centuries and up to the present decade, extreme climate events have certainly had larger economic impacts than any trend of temperature in Europe. In addition to an intrinsic scientific interest, their study is thus essential for society. One of the challenges of their investigation is that, depending on their definition, extreme climate events potentially have a behavior that is not connected to the secular temperature trend in a simple fashion. This presentation will review the statistical assessments of extremes in Europe, focusing on surface temperature, precipitation, and their connections with large-scale features of the atmospheric circulation. In particular, the questions of modeling their severity and frequency will be discussed in the first part of the presentation. I will then give two kinds of examples of European climate extremes: summer heatwaves and droughts, and winter warm waves. The mechanisms leading to such phenomena will be explored, and I will examine some of the impacts on the biosphere that were recently observed. In order to provide a long term perspective of those events, examples of historical droughts in France will be presented and connected with proxy records of temperature. It appears that the mechanisms that are favored for present-day climate might still have been valid during the past centuries. To conclude, new challenges for dynamical and statistical modeling will be explored.

  18. Effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment system in Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Heinma, Kaupo; Poder, Tonis

    2010-07-15

    To be effective, an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) system, first, has to minimize the probability that projects with significant environmental effects are implemented without EIA, and second, minimize the number of EIAs, which do not provide decision makers with essential information, so that the decision is improved as a result of EIA. The objective of this study was to find out how frequently in Estonia the projects implemented without EIA have caused significant environmental effects, and to measure the relative frequency of EIAs that have no influence on decision. An extensive survey with e-mail distributed questionnaires was carried out to reveal information from governmental agencies, local self-governments, and developers. There was no evidence that projects authorized without EIA have had environmental impacts, which could have been mitigated as a result of EIA. In contrast, about half of EIAs did not alter the decision of relevant authorities. This proportion was valid to both mandatory EIAs and those initiated on judgement basis. In our view, the proportion of no-influence EIAs was excessive and indicated the need to reconsider the provisions applying to the projects with a mandatory EIA requirement as well as judgements practice.

  19. Evaluation of environmental impact assessment system in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Nadeem, Obaidullah Hameed, Rizwan

    2008-11-15

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was first introduced in Pakistan based on the Environmental Protection Ordinance 1983. The EIA process was further strengthened under the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997, which became operational under EIA Regulations 2000. Despite a sound legal basis and comprehensive guidelines, evidence suggests that EIA has not yet evolved satisfactorily in Pakistan. An evaluation of the EIA system against systematic evaluation criteria, based on interviews with EIA approval authorities, consulting firms and experts, reveals various shortcomings of the EIA system. These mainly include; inadequate capacity of EIA approval authorities, deficiencies in screening and scoping, poor EIA quality, inadequate public participation and weak monitoring. Overall, EIA is used presently as a project justification tool rather than as a project planning tool to contribute to achieving sustainable development. Whilst shortcomings are challenging, central government has recently shown a high degree of commitment to the environmental protection by making EIA compulsory for all the public sector projects likely to have adverse environmental impacts. The paper identifies opportunities for taking advantage of the current environment for strengthening the EIA process.

  20. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as ‘a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain’. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions. PMID:23171406

  1. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Pascal, Mathilde; Smolders, Roel; Skjetne, Erik; Dusinska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as 'a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain'. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions. PMID:23171406

  2. Assessing the impact of oil spills on a commercial fishery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    An oil spill fishery impact assessment system composed of fishery, hydrodynamic, ichthyoplankton transport and fates submodels has been applied to assess the probable impact of oil spills on several key fisheries in the Georges Bank - Gulf of Maine region. The model system addresses direct impacts of oil on the commercial fishery through hydrocarbon induced egg and larval mortality.

  3. The Connectivity Between Site-Specific Life Cycle Impact Assessment and Site-Specific Weighting

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of many LCIAs is to come to a single score with all of the impacts from a wide variety of impact assessments weighted to form this single score. My past experiences with developing site-specific impact assessment methodologies and how this can change the valuation porti...

  4. Public participation in environmental impact assessment: why, who and how?

    SciTech Connect

    Glucker, Anne N.; Driessen, Peter P.J.; Kolhoff, Arend; Runhaar, Hens A.C.

    2013-11-15

    Even a cursory glance at the literature on environmental impact assessment (EIA) reveals that public participation is being considered as an integral part of the assessment procedure. Public participation in EIA is commonly deemed to foster democratic policy-making and to render EIA more effective. Yet a closer look at the literature unveils that, beyond this general assertion, opinions of the precise meaning, objectives and adequate representation of public participation in EIA considerably diverge. Against this background, in this article we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the academic debate on public participation in EIA concerning its meaning, objectives and adequate level of inclusiveness. In so doing, we hope to stimulate a more focused debate on the subject, which is key to advancing the research agenda. Furthermore, this paper may serve as a starting point for practitioners involved in defining the role of public participation in EIA practice. -- Highlights: • There is little reflection on the meaning, objectives and adequate level of inclusiveness of public participation in EIA. • We provide a comprehensive overview of the academic debate on public participation in EIA concerning the meaning, objectives and adequate level of inclusiveness. • Theoretical claims put forth by scholars are contrasted with empirical evidence. • Overview shall stimulate a more focused debate on the subject. • This paper may serve as a starting point for practitioners involved in defining the role of public participation in EIA.

  5. Tracking long-distance migration to assess marine pollution impact.

    PubMed

    Montevecchi, William; Fifield, David; Burke, Chantelle; Garthe, Stefan; Hedd, April; Rail, Jean-François; Robertson, Gregory

    2012-04-23

    Animal tracking provides new means to assess far-reaching environmental impacts. In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, a long-distance migrant, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) suffered the highest oiling among beach-wrecked birds recovered. Analysis of bird-borne tracking data indicated that 25 per cent of their North American population from multiple colonies in eastern Canada migrated to the pollution zone. Findings contrasted sharply with available mark-recapture (band recovery) data. The timing of movement into and out of the Gulf indicates that immature birds would have absorbed most oil-induced mortality. Consequently, one of two outcomes is likely: either a lagged (likely difficult to assess) population decrease, or an undetectable population response buffered by age-related life-history adaptations. Tracking research is especially useful when little information on animal distributions in pollution zones is available, as is the case in the Gulf of Mexico. Ongoing research highlights current risks and conservation concerns. PMID:22012949

  6. Tracking long-distance migration to assess marine pollution impact

    PubMed Central

    Montevecchi, William; Fifield, David; Burke, Chantelle; Garthe, Stefan; Hedd, April; Rail, Jean-François; Robertson, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Animal tracking provides new means to assess far-reaching environmental impacts. In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in the Gulf of Mexico, a long-distance migrant, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus) suffered the highest oiling among beach-wrecked birds recovered. Analysis of bird-borne tracking data indicated that 25 per cent of their North American population from multiple colonies in eastern Canada migrated to the pollution zone. Findings contrasted sharply with available mark-recapture (band recovery) data. The timing of movement into and out of the Gulf indicates that immature birds would have absorbed most oil-induced mortality. Consequently, one of two outcomes is likely: either a lagged (likely difficult to assess) population decrease, or an undetectable population response buffered by age-related life-history adaptations. Tracking research is especially useful when little information on animal distributions in pollution zones is available, as is the case in the Gulf of Mexico. Ongoing research highlights current risks and conservation concerns. PMID:22012949

  7. Integrating environmental justice (EJ) methodologies into environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental Justice (EJ) concerns are now a pervasive part of environmental policy. Moreover, Federal Executive Order 12898 mandates its diffusion throughout federal government programs, and many states are developing similar programs. EJ concerns first arose in the environmental field in the context of hazardous waste facilities. Thus, hazardous waste applications provide important analytical models for EJ issues addressed in other programs, such as environmental assessment (EA). At the present time, EJ concerns are treated largely qualitatively in EAs and environmental impact statements (EISs) in sections dealing with neighborhood and community character or socioeconomics. The manner in which EJ issues are examined in EISs is described using examples from recent EISs, and an approach to quantifying EJ in terms of demographic patterns is presented using techniques previously applied by the author to hazardous waste sites (primarily sites on the National Priorities List under the Superfund program). Various geographic levels and demographic parameters are discussed and compared. A key point is the manner in which the choice of a comparison area influences conclusions about a particular area. these methods are critical in addressing such issues as whether proposed projects are being located in areas with relatively greater proportions of {open_quotes}vulnerable{close_quotes} populations or, in the case of public service projects, how these populations are served relative to other populations by the facilities that are the subject of the assessment.

  8. An equity tool for health impact assessments: Reflections from Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Jeremy; Wagler, Meghan; Lkhagvasuren, Oyun; Laing, Lory; Davison, Colleen; Janes, Craig

    2012-04-15

    A health impact assessment (HIA) is a tool for assessing the potential effects of a project or policy on a population's health. In this paper, we discuss a tool for successfully integrating equity concerns into HIAs. This discussion is the product of collaboration by Mongolian and Canadian experts, and it incorporates comments and suggestions of participants of a workshop on equity focused HIAs that took place in Mongolia in October, 2010. Our motivation for discussing this tool is based on the observation that existing HIAs tend either to fail to define equity or use problematic accounts of this concept. In this paper we give an overview of socio-demographic and health indicators in Mongolia and briefly discuss its mining industry. We then review three accounts of equity and argue for the importance of developing a consensus understanding of this concept when integrating considerations of equity into an HIA. Finally, we present findings from the workshop in Mongolia and outline a tool, derived from lessons from this workshop, for critically considering and integrating the concept of equity into an HIA.

  9. A Multihazard Regional Level Impact Assessment for South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Alahacoon, Niranga; Aggarwal, Pramod; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    To prioritize climate adaptation strategies, there is a need for quantitative and systematic regional-level assessments which are comparable across multiple climatic hazard regimes. Assessing which countries in a region are most vulnerable to climate change requires analysis of multiple climatic hazards including: droughts, floods, extreme temperature as well as rainfall and sea-level rise. These five climatic hazards, along with population densities were modelled using GIS which enabled a summary of associated human exposure and agriculture losses. A combined index based on hazard, exposure and adaptive capacity is introduced to identify areas of extreme risks. The analysis results in population climate hazard exposure defined as the relative likelihood that a person in a given location was exposed to a given climate-hazard event in a given period of time. The study presents a detailed and coherent approach to fine-scale climate hazard mapping and identification of risks areas for the regions of South Asia that, for the first time, combines the following unique features: (a) methodological consistency across different climate-related hazards, (b) assessment of total exposure on population and agricultural losses, (c) regional-level spatial coverage, and (d) development of customized tools using ArcGIS toolbox that allow assessment of changes in exposure over time and easy replacement of existing datasets with a newly released or superior datasets. The resulting maps enable comparison of the most vulnerable regions in South Asia to climate-related hazards and is among the most urgent of policy needs. Subnational areas (regions/districts/provinces) most vulnerable to climate change impacts in South Asia are documented. The approach involves overlaying climate hazard maps, sensitivity maps, and adaptive capacity maps following the vulnerability assessment framework of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The study used data on the

  10. Compensatory mitigation and screening rules in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Macintosh, Andrew Waugh, Lauren

    2014-11-15

    Concerns about the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) have prompted proposals to improve its performance by limiting the discretion of decision-makers in screening. To investigate whether such proposals are likely to generate the desired results, we conducted an evaluation of the screening process under the Australian government's EIA regime from its introduction on 16 July 2000 to 30 June 2013 (study period). Almost 1 in 5 ‘particular manner’ decisions—a type of screening decision under the regime—were found to be unlawful. The extent of non-compliance is explained on the basis of convenience. The department was required to assess a large number of projects under tight timeframes and with limited resources, while being pressured by proponents to allow their projects to bypass EIA. These pressures resulted in the development of an informal custom whereby the formal compensatory mitigation restrictions were frequently ignored. The results highlight the relative significance of formal and informal institutions in EIA. Formal EIA rules typically provide a mere outline of the process. The informal institutions adopted by administrators often have a greater influence on how the process operates and what it achieves. - Highlights: • Concerns about the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) have prompted proposals to improve its performance by limiting the discretion of decision-makers in screening. • To investigate whether such proposals are likely to generate the desired results, we conducted an evaluation of the Australian government's screening process, looking at the extent of compliance with a formal prohibition on the consideration of compensatory mitigation. • Almost 1 in 5 ‘particular manner’ decisions – a type of screening decision under the regime – were found to be unlawful (with a 95% confidence interval of between 1:4 and 1:7) because of a failure to abide by the compensatory mitigation restrictions

  11. Stakeholder participation in health impact assessment: A multicultural approach

    SciTech Connect

    Negev, Maya; Davidovitch, Nadav; Garb, Yaakov; Tal, Alon

    2013-11-15

    The literature on impact assessment (HIA) registers the importance of stakeholder participation in the assessment process, but still lacks a model for engaging stakeholders of diverse ethnic, professional and sectorial backgrounds. This paper suggests that the multicultural approach can contribute to HIA through a revision of the generic 5-step HIA model, and its implementation in a metropolitan plan in Southern Israel. The health issue scoped by the stakeholders in the HIA is related to land uses in the vicinity of the national hazardous industry and hazardous waste site. The stakeholders were representatives of the diverse populations at stake, including rural Bedouins and Jewish city dwellers, as well as representatives from the public sector, private sector, non-governmental organizations and academia. The case study revealed that a multicultural stakeholder participation process helps to uncover health issues known to the community which were not addressed in the original plan, and provides local knowledge regarding health conditions that is especially valuable when scientific data is uncertain or absent. It enables diverse stakeholders to prioritize the health issues that will be assessed. The case study also reveals ways in which the model needs revisions and improvements such as in recruitment of diverse participants. This paper presents a multicultural model of HIA and discusses some of the challenges that are faced when HIA is implemented in the context of current decision-making culture. -- Highlights: • We revised the generic HIA model in light of the multicultural approach. • We tested the model in a case study of zoning a hazardous industry site. • Multicultural stakeholder participation uncovers health issues known to communities. • It enables community prioritization of health issues. • We present a model for multicultural stakeholder participation in HIA.

  12. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 806b - Privacy Impact Assessment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Privacy Impact Assessment E Appendix E to Part... PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806b, App. E Appendix E to Part 806b—Privacy Impact Assessment Section A—Introduction and Overview The Privacy Act Assessment. The Air Force recognizes the importance of protecting...

  13. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 806b - Privacy Impact Assessment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Privacy Impact Assessment E Appendix E to Part... PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 806b, App. E Appendix E to Part 806b—Privacy Impact Assessment Section A—Introduction and Overview The Privacy Act Assessment. The Air Force recognizes the importance of protecting...

  14. Strategic environmental assessment can help solve environmental impact assessment failures in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Alshuwaikhat, Habib M. . E-mail: habibms@kfupm.edu.sa

    2005-05-15

    The current trend of industrialization and urbanization in developing nations has a huge impact on anthropogenic and natural ecosystems. Pollution sources increase with the expansion of cities and cause contamination of water, air and soil. The absence of urban environmental planning and management strategies has resulted in greater concern for future urban development. This paper advocates the adoption of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a means to achieve sustainable development in developing countries. It investigates project-level environmental impact assessment (EIA) and its limitations. The exploration of SEA and its features are addressed. The effective implementation of SEA can create a roadmap for sustainable development. In many developing countries, the lack of transparency and accountability and ineffective public participation in the development of the policy, plan and program (PPP) would be mitigated by the SEA process. Moreover, the proactive and broadly based characteristics of SEA would benefit the institutional development of the PPP process, which is rarely experienced in many developing countries. The paper also explores the prospects for SEA and its guiding principles in developing countries. Finally, the paper calls for a coordinated effort between all government, nongovernment and international organizations involved with PPPs to enable developing countries to pursue a path of sustainable development through the development and application of strategic environmental assessment.

  15. Clay mineralogy and depositional history of the Frio Formation in two geopressured wells, Brazoria County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Freed, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-three shale samples ranging in depth from 5194 ft to 13,246 ft from Gulf Oil Corporation No. 2 Texas State Lease 53034 well and 33 shale samples ranging in depth from 2185 ft to 15,592 ft from General Crude Oil Company/Department of Energy No. 1 Pleasant Bayou well were examined by x-ray techniques to determine the mineralogy of the geopressured zone in the Brazoria Fairway. Both wells have similar weight-percent trends with depth for a portion of the mineralogy. Calcite decreases, and plagioclase, quartz and total clay increase slightly. Within the clays, illite in mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S) increases and smectite in mixed-layer I/S decreases. Four minerals have distinctly different trends with depth for each well. In the No. 2 Texas State Lease 53034 well, potassium feldspar and mixed-layer I/S decrease, kaolinite increases, and discrete illite is constant. In the No. 1 Pleasant Bayou well, potassium feldspar and kaolinite are constant, mixed-layer I/S increases, and discrete illite decreases.

  16. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured geothermal resources in Texas. 1982 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Kaiser, W.R.; Finley, R.J.

    1983-03-01

    Detailed structural mapping at several horizons in selected study areas within the Frio growth-fault trend demonstrates a pronounced variability in structural style. At Sarita in South Texas, shale mobilization produced one or more shale ridges, one of which localized a low-angle growth fault trapping a wedge of deltaic sediments. At Corpus Christi, shale mobilization produced a series of large growth faults, shale-cored domed anticlines, and shale-withdrawal basins, which become progressively younger basinward. At Blessing, major growth faults trapped sands of the Greta/Carancahua barrier system with little progradation. At Pleasant Bayou, a major early growth-fault pattern was overprinted by later salt tectonics - the intrusion of Danbury Dome and the development of a salt-withdrawal basin. At Port Arthur, low-displacement, long-lived faults formed on a sand-poor shelf margin contemporaneously with broad salt uplifts and basins. Variability in styles is related to the nature and extent of Frio sedimentation and shelf-margin progradation and to the presence or absence of salt. Structural styles that are conducive to the development of large geothermal reservoirs include blocks between widely spaced growth faults having dip reversal, salt-withdrawal basins, and shale-withdrawal basins. These styles are widespread on the Texas Gulf Coast. However, actually finding a large reservoir depends on demonstrating the existence of sufficient sandstone with adequate quality to support geopressured geothermal energy production.

  17. Methods for collection and analysis of geopressured geothermal and oil field waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lico, Michael S.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Carothers, William W.; Wright, Victoria A.

    1982-01-01

    Present methods are described for the collection, preservation, and chemical analysis of waters produced from geopressured geothermal and petroleum wells. Detailed procedures for collection include precautions and equipment necessary to ensure that the sample is representative of the water produced. Procedures for sample preservation include filtration, acidification, dilution for silica, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) extraction of aluminum, addition of potassium permanganate to preserve mercury, and precipitation of carbonate species as strontium carbonate for stable carbon isotopes and total dissolved carbonate analysis. Characteristics determined at the well site are sulfide, pH, ammonia, and conductivity. Laboratory procedures are given for the analysis of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, iron, manganese, zinc, lead, aluminum, .and mercury by atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy. Chloride is determined by silver nitrate titration and fluoride by ion-specific electrode. Bromide and iodide concentrations are determined by the hypochlorite oxidation method. Sulfate is analyzed by titration using barium chloride with thorin indicator after pretreatment with alumina. Boron and silica are determined colorimetrically by the carmine and molybdate-blue methods, respectively. Aliphatic acid anions (C2 through C5) are determined by gas chromatography after separation and concentration in a chloroform-butanol mixture.

  18. Methods for collection and analysis of geopressured geothermal and oil field waters

    SciTech Connect

    Lico, M.S.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.; Wright, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Present methods are described for the collection, preservation, and chemical analysis of waters produced from geopressured geothermal and petroleum wells. Detailed procedures for collection include precautions and equipment necessary to ensure that the sample is representative of the water produced. Procedures for sample preservation include filtration, acidification, dilution for silica, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) extraction of aluminum, addition of potassium permanganate to preserve mercury, and precipitation of carbonate species as strontium carbonate for stable carbon isotopes and total dissolved carbonate analysis. Characteristics determined at the well site are sulfide, pH, ammonia, and conductivity. Laboratory procedures are given for the analysis of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, iron, manganese, zinc, lead, aluminum, and mercury by atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy. Chloride is determined by silver nitrate titration and fluoride by ion-specific electrode. Bromide and iodide concentrations are determined by the hypochlorite oxidation method. Sulfate is analyzed by titration using barium chloride with thorin indicator after pretreatment with alumina. Boron and silica are determined colorimetrically by the carmine and molybdate-blue methods, respectively. Aliphatic acid anions (C/sub 2/ through C/sub 5/) are determined by gas chromatography after separation and concentration in a chloroform-butanol mixture.

  19. Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Variable intensity of diagenesis is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the upper and lower Texas coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstone from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. The regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production. However, in predicting reservoir quality on a site-specific basis, locally variable factors such as relative proportions for porosity types, pore geometry as related to permeability, and local depositional environment must also be considered. Even in an area of regionally favorable reservoir quality, such local factors can significantly affect reservoir quality and, hence, the geothermal production potential of a specific sandstone unit.

  20. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  1. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  2. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  3. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  4. The impact and effectiveness of health impact assessment: A conceptual framework

    SciTech Connect

    Harris-Roxas, Ben Harris, Elizabeth

    2013-09-15

    The use of health impact assessment (HIA) has expanded rapidly and there are increasing demands for it to demonstrate its effectiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for evaluating HIA and describes its development through (i) a review of the literature, (ii) a review of work undertaken as part of a major HIA capacity building project and (iii) an in-depth study of seven completed HIAs. The framework emphasises context, process and impacts as key domains in understanding and evaluating the effectiveness of an HIA. This new framework builds upon the existing approaches to evaluating HIA and extends them to reflect the broad range of factors that comprise and influence the effectiveness of HIAs. It may be of use in evaluating completed HIAs and in planning HIAs that are yet to be undertaken. -- Highlights: ► The first empirically-derived conceptual framework for evaluating HIA ► It may also be useful for planning and reporting on HIAs. ► The framework emphasises context, process and impacts as key domains. ► A broad range of factors influence the effectiveness of HIAs.

  5. TRACI - THE TOOL FOR THE REDUCTION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRACI, The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts, is described along with its history, the underlying research, methodologies, and insights within individual impact categories. TRACI facilitates the characterization of stressors that ma...

  6. Fluid movement and diagenesis in fine-grained geopressured sediments of Frio Formation (Oligocene), Kaplan field, southwestern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.A.; Ferrell, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    Investigation of structure, temperature, pressure, salinity, and core samples at Kaplan field yields information on diagenesis of fine-grained sandstones deposited in an outer shelf/upper slope depositional environment The shallow occurrence of geopressure is related to structure and a high shale/sand ratio. Low isothermal surfaces in the down fault blocks accompanied by anomalous high temperatures in the upthrown blocks indicate vertical leakage of fluids along growth faults from underlying geopressured aquifers. The Frio Formation core samples from 16,700 to 19,600 ft (5090 to 5974 m) of depth, representing channel and channel-edge turbidite sandstones, were examined petrographically and by SEM. The arkosic composition of late stage diagenesis sandstones at Kaplan field suggests an original arkose or lithic arkose composition (classification of McBride). Nonferroan calcite cementation, chlorite rims and cement, and quartz overgrowths characterize early diagenesis. At a middle stage of diagenesis secondary porosity is developed by dissolution of unstable grains and calcite cement. Samples flushed by geopressured waters from greater depth show kaolinite pore-fill and quartz over-growths, chlorite (polytype IIb) and illite cement, and feldspar overgrowths in the late diagenetic stage. The low permeability of sandstones with extensive early chlorite cement (channel-edge sandstones) precludes development of extensive secondary porosity. In contrast, sandstones with little early chlorite cement develop and maintain secondary porosity through the late diagenetic stage. Restriction of fluid movement by early chlorite cement has ramifications for migration of hydrocarbons or geothermal waters, and for gas production at Kaplan field.

  7. Short term impact risk assessment for asteroids 2011 AG5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, D.; Pravec, P.; Nolan, M.

    2013-04-01

    statistically derive some maximum intensity of Yarkovsky force, without any assumptions on the physical parameters. This will help to assess the maximum deviation expected on the geocentric distance expressed in the 2023 target plane. This deviation will have a direct consequence on the impact probability. Finally, a deeper study will include a Monte Carlo test on the orbital fit in order to compute virtual asteroids (VA) moving under gravity, relativistic and Yarkovsky perturbations. Using a simple model of Yarkovsky force as a perturbation along the transverse component and inversely proportional to the heliocentric square distance of the asteroid, we include a random deviation da/dt to assess the number of VA becoming virtual impactors (VI). We will compare this number to the one obtained with VA moving only under gravity and relativistic perturbations.

  8. Air quality and public health impacts of UK airports. Part II: Impacts and policy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Stettler, Marc E. J.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-03-01

    The potential adverse human health impacts of emissions from UK airports have become a significant issue of public concern. We produce an inventory of UK airport emissions - including emissions from aircraft landing and takeoff operations, aircraft auxiliary power units (APUs) and ground support equipment (GSE) - with quantified uncertainty. Emissions due to more than 95% of UK passenger enplanements are accounted for. We apply a multi-scale air quality modelling approach to assess the air quality impacts of UK airports. Using a concentration-response function we estimate that 110 (90% CI: 72-160) early deaths occur in the UK each year (based on 2005 data) due to UK airport emissions. We estimate that up to 65% of the health impacts of UK airports could be mitigated by desulphurising jet fuel, electrifying GSE, avoiding use of APUs and use of single engine taxiing. Two plans for the expansion of UK airport capacity are examined - expansion of London Heathrow and new hub airport in the Thames Estuary. Even if capacity is constrained, we find that the health impacts of UK airports still increases by 170% in 2030 due to an increasing and aging population, increasing emissions, and a changing atmosphere. We estimate that if Heathrow were to be expanded as per previous UK Government plans, UK-wide health impacts in 2030 would increase by 4% relative to the 2030 constrained case, but this increase could become a 48% reduction if emissions mitigation measures were employed. We calculate that 24% of UK-wide aviation-attributable early deaths could be avoided in 2030 if Heathrow were replaced by a new airport in Thames Estuary because the location is downwind of London, where this reduction occurs notwithstanding the increase in aircraft emissions. A Thames hub airport would (isolated from knock-on effects at other airports) cause 60-70% fewer early deaths than an expanded Heathrow, or 55-63% fewer early deaths than an unexpanded Heathrow. Finally, replacing Heathrow by a

  9. Assessing the Impacts of Wind Integration in the Western Provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopinka, Amy

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels and the fear of irreversible climate change has prompted policy makers to implement renewable portfolio standards. These renewable portfolio standards are meant to encourage the adoption of renewable energy technologies thereby reducing carbon emissions associated with fossil fuel-fired electricity generation. The ability to efficiently adopt and utilize high levels of renewable energy technology, such as wind power, depends upon the composition of the extant generation within the grid. Western Canadian electric grids are poised to integrate high levels of wind and although Alberta has sufficient and, at times, an excess supply of electricity, it does not have the inherent generator flexibility required to mirror the variability of its wind generation. British Columbia, with its large reservoir storage capacities and rapid ramping hydroelectric generation could easily provide the firming services required by Alberta; however, the two grids are connected only by a small, constrained intertie. We use a simulation model to assess the economic impacts of high wind penetrations in the Alberta grid under various balancing protocols. We find that adding wind capacity to the system impacts grid reliability, increasing the frequency of system imbalances and unscheduled intertie flow. In order for British Columbia to be viable firming resource, it must have sufficient generation capability to meet and exceed the province's electricity self-sufficiency requirements. We use a linear programming model to evaluate the province's ability to meet domestic load under various water and trade conditions. We then examine the effects of drought and wind penetration on the interconnected Alberta -- British Columbia system given differing interconnection sizes.

  10. Assessing the organizational impact of patient involvement: a first STEPP.

    PubMed

    Kreindler, Sara A; Struthers, Ashley

    2016-05-01

    Purpose - Patient involvement in the design and improvement of health services is increasingly recognized as an essential part of patient-centred care. Yet little research, and no measurement tool, has addressed the organizational impacts of such involvement. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - The authors developed and piloted the scoresheet for tangible effects of patient participation (STEPP) to measure the instrumental use of patient input. Its items assess the magnitude of each recommendation or issue brought forward by patients, the extent of the organization's response, and the apparent degree of patient influence on this response. In collaboration with teams (staff) from five involvement initiatives, the authors collected interview and documentary data and scored the STEPP, first independently then jointly. Feedback meetings and a "challenges log" supported ongoing improvement. Findings - Although researchers' and teams' initial scores often diverged, the authors quickly reached consensus as new information was shared. Composite scores appeared to credibly reflect the degree of organizational impact, and were associated with salient features of the involvement initiatives. Teams described the STEPP as easy to use and useful for monitoring and accountability purposes. The tool seemed most suitable for initiatives in which patients generated novel, concrete recommendations; less so for broad public consultations of which instrumental use was not a primary goal. Originality/value - The STEPP is a promising, first-in-class tool with potential usefulness to both researchers and practitioners. With further research to better establish its reliability and validity, it could make a valuable contribution to full mixed-methods evaluation of patient involvement. PMID:27142952

  11. Understanding Orbital Uncertainty and Assessing Impact Risk in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puckett, Andrew W.; Rector, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    We present a software toolkit enabling the assessment of asteroid impact risk in the undergraduate classroom. This is part of an NSF-funded CCLI grant to develop Research Based Science Education (RBSE) curricula for undergraduate non-majors. These curricula include six projects covering astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic techniques, which are being tested at multiple schools of varying sizes around the country. The toolkit begins with a Java plugin we have developed for the public-domain image-processor ImageJ. Students perform both astrometry and aperture photometry on research-grade astronomical images, producing output suitable for submission to the Minor Planet Center. They then feed this astrometric record into the freeware orbit-determination software Find_Orb, which computes elements for hundreds of possible orbits by the method of observational Monte Carlo. After format conversion with an online utility we have written, this custom orbit database is fed into the Starry Night planetarium program. Students are then able to visualize the uncertainty region from any desired perspective, and to observe how that region changes with time and/or additional data. Alternatively, the output from the ImageJ plugin can be used directly to measure the lightcurves of minor planets, leading to an improved understanding of their shapes. The recent near-Earth and Mars-crossing asteroid 2007 WD5 presents an ideal scenario for testing this toolkit. All observations fall within 90 days of its 2008 Jan 30 close approach with Mars, and the 1-in-25 impact probability resulting from the inclusion of SDSS precovery observations is sufficiently large to be replicated with a relatively small number of "clone” orbits. Our plugin is the first FITS reader to produce correct time-stamps for minor planet observations found in the SDSS, which observes in drift-scan mode. We report on the first test of this project with undergraduate students at the University of Alaska Anchorage.

  12. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 100-D Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.

    1993-07-01

    The 183-D Water Treatment Facility (WTF) discharges effluent to the 120-0-1 Ponds (100-D Ponds) located north of the 100-D Area perimeter fence. This report satisfies one of the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-17-00B as agreed by the US Department of Energy, Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00B includes a requirement to assess impacts to groundwater from disposal of the 183-D WTF effluent to the 100-D Ponds. In addition, the 100-D Ponds are a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 treatment, storage, and disposal facility covered by the 100-D Ponds Closure Plan (DOE-RL 1993a). There is evidence of groundwater contamination, primarily nitrate, tritium, and chromium, in the unconfined aquifer beneath the 100-D Area and 100 Areas in general. The contaminant plumes are area wide and are a result of past-practice reactor and disposal operations in the 100-D Area currently being investigated as part of the 100-DR-1 and 100-HR-3 Operable Units (DOE-RL 1992b, 1992a). Based on current effluent conditions, continued operation of the 100-D Ponds will not adversely affect the groundwater quality in the 100-D Area. Monitoring wells near the pond have slightly higher alkaline pH values than wells in the rest of the area. Concentrations of known contaminants in these wells are lower than ambient 100-D Area groundwater conditions and exhibit a localized dilution effect associated with discharges to the pond. Hydraulic impact to the local groundwater system from these discharges is minor. The groundwater monitoring well network for the 100-D Ponds is adequate.

  13. Assessing Climate Impacts on Air Pollution from Models and Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.; Plachinski, S. D.; Morton, J. L.; Spak, S.

    2011-12-01

    It is well known that large-scale patterns in temperature, humidity, solar radiation and atmospheric circulation affect formation and transport of atmospheric constituents. These relationships have supported a growing body of work projecting changes in ozone (O3), and to a lesser extent aerosols, as a function of changing climate. Typically, global and regional chemical transport models are used to quantify climate impacts on air pollution, but the ability of these models to assess weather-dependent chemical processes has not been thoroughly evaluated. Quantifying model sensitivity to climate poses the additional challenge of isolating the local to synoptic scale effects of meteorological conditions on chemistry and transport from concurrent trends in emissions, hemispheric background concentrations, and land cover change. Understanding how well models capture historic climate-chemistry relationships is essential in projecting future climate impacts, in that it allows for better evaluation of model skill and improved understanding of climate-chemistry relationships. We compare the sensitivity of chemistry-climate relationships, as simulated by the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, with observed historical response characteristics from EPA Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring data. We present results for O3, sulfate and nitrate aerosols, and ambient mercury concentrations. Despite the fact that CMAQ over-predicts daily maximum 8-hour ground-level O3 concentrations relative to AQS data, the model does an excellent job at simulating the response of O3 to daily maximum temperature. In both model and observations, we find that higher temperatures produce higher O3 across most of the U.S., as expected in summertime conditions. However, distinct regions appear in both datasets where temperature and O3 are anti-correlated - for example, over the Upper Midwestern U.S. states of Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana in July 2002. Characterizing uncertainties

  14. COST IMPACT OF ROD CONSOLIDATION ON THE VIABILITY ASSESSMENT DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    D. Lancaster

    1999-03-29

    The cost impact to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System of using rod consolidation is evaluated. Previous work has demonstrated that the fuel rods of two assemblies can be packed into a canister that can fit into the same size space as that used to store a single assembly. The remaining fuel assembly hardware can be compacted into the same size canisters with a ratio of 1 hardware canister per each 6 to 12 assemblies. Transportation casks of the same size as currently available can load twice the number of assemblies by placing the compacted assemblies in the slots currently designed for a single assembly. Waste packages similarly could contain twice the number of assemblies; however, thermal constraints would require considering either a low burnup or cooling. The analysis evaluates the impact of rod consolidation on CRWMS costs for consolidation at prior to transportation and for consolidation at the Monitored Geological Repository surface facility. For this study, no design changes were made to either the transport casks or waste packages. Waste package designs used for the Viability Assessment design were employed but derated to make the thermal limits. A logistics analysis of the waste was performed to determine the number of each waste package with each loading. A review of past rod consolidation experience found cost estimates which range from $10/kgU to $32/kgU. $30/kgU was assumed for rod consolidation costs prior to transportation. Transportation cost savings are about $17/kgU and waste package cost savings are about $21/kgU. The net saving to the system is approximately $500 million if the consolidation is performed prior to transportation. If consolidation were performed at the repository surface facilities, it would cost approximately $15/kgU. No transportation savings would be realized. The net savings for consolidation at the repository site would be about $400 million dollars.

  15. Computer simulation of production from geothermal-geopressured aquifers. Final report, October 1, 1978 through January 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, M.G.; Poonawala, N.A.

    1983-07-01

    The effort utilized a computer to interpret the results of well tests and compile data on gas solubility in brine and the viscosity of brine. A detailed computer reservoir study of a geopressured test well that had been abandoned as a dry hole but became a commercial producer of hydrocarbons is presented. A number of special topical reports pertaining to test activities performed on Department of Energy test wells (MG-T/DOE Amoco Fee No. 1 Well, Leroy Sweezy No. 1 Well, and Pleasant Bayou No. 2 Well) are appended. A referenced article written under this study that appeared in the Journal of Petroleum Technology is also reproduced.

  16. Second California Assessment: Integrated climate change impacts assessment of natural and managed systems. Guest editorial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franco, G.; Cayan, D.R.; Moser, S.; Hanemann, M.; Jones, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006 the scientific community in California, in cooperation with resource managers, has been conducting periodic statewide studies about the potential impacts of climate change on natural and managed systems. This Special Issue is a compilation of revised papers that originate from the most recent assessment that concluded in 2009. As with the 2006 studies that influenced the passage of California's landmark Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32), these papers have informed policy formulation at the state level, helping bring climate adaptation as a complementary measure to mitigation. We provide here a brief introduction to the papers included in this Special Issue focusing on how they are coordinated and support each other. We describe the common set of downscaled climate and sea-level rise scenarios used in this assessment that came from six different global climate models (GCMs) run under two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios: B1 (low emissions) and A2 (a medium-high emissions). Recommendations for future state assessments, some of which are being implemented in an on-going new assessment that will be completed in 2012, are offered. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. A review of uncertainty research in impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Wanda; Noble, Bram; Gunn, Jill; Jaeger, Jochen A.G.

    2015-01-15

    This paper examines uncertainty research in Impact Assessment (IA) and the focus of attention of the IA scholarly literature. We do so by first exploring ‘outside’ the IA literature, identifying three main themes of uncertainty research, and then apply these themes to examine the focus of scholarly research on uncertainty ‘inside’ IA. Based on a search of the database Scopus, we identified 134 journal papers published between 1970 and 2013 that address uncertainty in IA, 75% of which were published since 2005. We found that 90% of IA research addressing uncertainty focused on uncertainty in the practice of IA, including uncertainty in impact predictions, models and managing environmental impacts. Notwithstanding early guidance on uncertainty treatment in IA from the 1980s, we found no common, underlying conceptual framework that was guiding research on uncertainty in IA practice. Considerably less attention, only 9% of papers, focused on uncertainty communication, disclosure and decision-making under uncertain conditions, the majority of which focused on the need to disclose uncertainties as opposed to providing guidance on how to do so and effectively use that information to inform decisions. Finally, research focused on theory building for explaining human behavior with respect to uncertainty avoidance constituted only 1% of the IA published literature. We suggest the need for further conceptual framework development for researchers focused on identifying and addressing uncertainty in IA practice; the need for guidance on how best to communicate uncertainties in practice, versus criticizing practitioners for not doing so; research that explores how best to interpret and use disclosures about uncertainty when making decisions about project approvals, and the implications of doing so; and academic theory building and exploring the utility of existing theories to better understand and explain uncertainty avoidance behavior in IA. - Highlights: • We

  18. An Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, K. S.

    2009-09-01

    adaptation, mitigation and post-hazard recovery and resettlement measures. Providing basic necessities such as water, food and power, maintaining public health, implementing protective measures in the coastal zones and modifications in the urban infrastructure, especially in the coastal megacities become expensive. Impact of extremes on rails, roads and building are also becoming a major issue in the coastal zones and urban centres. Industrial sector is facing a threat from the falling reliable supply of water and power. However, procedure for the implementation of the strategies to mitigate the climate change impact and of the policy for the adaptation to climate change is slow. There are several hurdles for this, including various ecological, socio-economic, technical and political issues, alterations of the physical environment, inability of certain habitats and species to adapt to a new environment, abject poverty, lack of awareness, and the inefficient administrative mechanism. A comprehensive assessment of the shifts in regional climate and the impact of climate change on different facets of life in India, and of the current strategies and polices to face such challenges is made in this study. Suggestions for the improvement of the climate policy and adaptation strategy have been provided.

  19. Assessment of the impact of radionuclides in coal ash

    SciTech Connect

    Styron, C.E.; Bishop, C.T.; Casella, V.R.; Jenkins, P.H.; Yanko, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    An assessment of the potential environmental and health impacts of radionuclides in the coal fuel cycle is being conducted at Mound. This paper describes our studies evaluating the potential for migration of radionuclides from ash disposal sites. Studies at a power plant burning western US coal dealt with an assessment of potential radiation doses from coal ash ponds and leachate discharges of radionuclides from the ponds. Emanation of radon-222 from the ash is relatively low. The emanation of radon-222 from the ash pond (radium-226 at 4.5 pCi/g) is predicted to be about six times less than from soil (radium-226 at 1 pCi/g). Ash with radium-226 at 25 pCi/g would approximate emanation of radon-222 from soil. At 1000 m from the center of the ash pond area, radon-222 from the ash pond is predicted to be 1000 to 6000 times less than background (0.1 to 0.5 pCi/liter). Pathways exist for transport of radionuclides leached from ash into the aquifer beneath the holding ponds, but concentrations of radionuclides in water leaving the pond are lower than concentrations in groundwater which is upgradient of the ponds. Leachability of the ash is quite low, on the order of 0.002% in one month, and flow of ash sluicing water (3% of the volume of the ponds each day) has actually diluted normal background concentrations of radionuclides in the aquifer between the ponds and the adjacent river.

  20. Tools to Assess the Impact of Teacher Enhancement Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heatherly, S. A.; Maddalena, R. J.; Govett, A.; Hemler, D.

    1997-05-01

    Beginning in 1994, the NRAO has hosted an NSF-funded program, ``Research Experience in Teacher Preparation (RETP),'' in which inservice and preservice science teachers participate in residential institutes lasting one or two weeks. While on site, they conduct open-ended investigations using a 40-foot diameter working radio telescope. The aim of RETP has been to deepen and personalize participants' understanding of the nature of science, and to assist them in applying their newfound knowledge to their classroom teaching. So far RETP, and the teacher enhancement programs from which it evolved, have trained 434 inservice and 69 preservice teachers. The impact of the research experience on teachers' perceptions of themselves as professionals and their views of science was initially assessed through open-ended questionnaires and participant journals. From teachers' responses we learned that the research experience has a profound, positive influence on participants' views of science and increased their confidence in using research-based teaching methods. However, determining what actually happens in the classroom is harder to evaluate and requires a more structured approach. Therefore, to determine what changes occurred in teachers and their students, five survey instruments were developed. The instruments: 1) assess changes in teachers' perceptions of their ability to conduct research; 2) gauge teachers' perceptions of three aspects of the institute; 3) measure changes in teachers' concerns about implementing classroom research projects; 4) evaluate the development of teachers' understanding into the nature of science; and 5) determine changes in their students' perceptions of science and science class. To increase the reliability of the instruments, the survey questions were tested for internal consistency. Early results show that the RETP program has significantly affected participants and their students. These instruments are useful not only for evaluating this

  1. Health impact assessment of air pollution using a dynamic exposure profile: Implications for exposure and health impact estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Dhondt, Stijn; Beckx, Carolien; Degraeuwe, Bart; Lefebvre, Wouter; Kochan, Bruno; Bellemans, Tom; Int Panis, Luc; Macharis, Cathy; Putman, Koen

    2012-09-15

    In both ambient air pollution epidemiology and health impact assessment an accurate assessment of the population exposure is crucial. Although considerable advances have been made in assessing human exposure outdoors, the assessments often do not consider the impact of individual travel behavior on such exposures. Population-based exposures to NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} using only home addresses were compared with models that integrate all time-activity patterns-including time in commute-for Flanders and Brussels. The exposure estimates were used to estimate the air pollution impact on years of life lost due to respiratory mortality. Health impact of NO{sub 2} using an exposure that integrates time-activity information was on average 1.2% higher than when assuming that people are always at their home address. For ozone the overall estimated health impact was 0.8% lower. Local differences could be much larger, with estimates that differ up to 12% from the exposure using residential addresses only. Depending on age and gender, deviations from the population average were seen. Our results showed modest differences on a regional level. At the local level, however, time-activity patterns indicated larger differences in exposure and health impact estimates, mainly for people living in more rural areas. These results suggest that for local analyses the dynamic approach can contribute to an improved assessment of the health impact of various types of pollution and to the understanding of exposure differences between population groups. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to ambient air pollution was assessed integrating population mobility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This dynamic exposure was integrated into a health impact assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences between the dynamic and residential exposure were quantified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modest differences in health impact were found at a regional level. Black

  2. Assessing the Impact of Global GNSS-VLBI Hybrid Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Younghee; Boehm, Johannes; Hobiger, Thomas; Plank, Lucia

    2015-04-01

    GNSS-VLBI hybrid observations refer to an approach where GNSS signals are received by GNSS antennas and correlated with VLBI correlators. The VLBI-like GNSS single differences (two stations to one satellite) are then analyzed together with standard VLBI observations. In this work, we use GNSS observations during CONT11, a continuous VLBI campaign over 15 days in September 2011. During CONT11, GNSS and VLBI are connected to the identical clocks at seven sites, which mean clock parameters can be regarded as site common parameters. We construct GNSS single differences between the ranges from two stations to a satellite, using post-processed range measurements from a precise point positioning (PPP) GPS solution with the C5++ software. Combining VLBI and VLBI-like GNSS delays during CONT11, we estimate station coordinates, Earth orientation parameters, and site common parameters, i.e. zenith wet delays and clock parameters with the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS). We compare combined solutions with single technique solutions and assess the impact of GNSS-VLBI hybrid observations with respect to those parameters.

  3. Health impact assessment in China: Emergence, progress and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Zheng

    2012-01-15

    The values, concepts and approaches of health impact assessment (HIA) were outlined in the Gothenburg consensus paper and some industrialized countries have implemented HIA for many years. HIA has played an important role in environmental protection in China, however, the emergence, progress and challenges of HIA in China have not been well described. In this paper, the evolution of HIA in China was analyzed and the challenges of HIA were presented based on the author's experiences. HIA contributed to decision-making for large capital construction projects, such as the Three Gorges Dam project, in its emergence stage. Increasing attention has been given to HIA in recent years due to supportive policies underpinning development of the draft HIA guidelines in 2008. However enormous challenges lie ahead in ensuring the institutionalization of HIA into project, program and policy decision-making process due to limited scope, immature tools and insufficient professionals in HIA practice. HIA should broaden its horizons by encompassing physical, chemical, biological and socio-economic aspects and constant attempts should be made to integrate HIA into the decision-making process, not only for projects and programs but also for policies as well.

  4. The modelling and assessment of whale-watching impacts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    New, Leslie; Hall, Ailsa J.; Harcourt, Robert; Kaufman, Greg; Parsons, E.C.M.; Pearson, Heidi C.; Cosentino, A. Mel; Schick, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been significant interest in modelling cumulative effects and the population consequences of individual changes in cetacean behaviour and physiology due to disturbance. One potential source of disturbance that has garnered particular interest is whale-watching. Though perceived as ‘green’ or eco-friendly tourism, there is evidence that whale-watching can result in statistically significant and biologically meaningful changes in cetacean behaviour, raising the question whether whale-watching is in fact a long term sustainable activity. However, an assessment of the impacts of whale-watching on cetaceans requires an understanding of the potential behavioural and physiological effects, data to effectively address the question and suitable modelling techniques. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the viability of long-term whale-watching, as well as logistical limitations and potential opportunities. We conclude that an integrated, coordinated approach will be needed to further understanding of the possible effects of whale-watching on cetaceans.

  5. Assessment of the radiological impact of oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Bakr, W F

    2010-03-01

    The field of radiation protection and corresponding national and international regulations has evolved to ensure safety in the use of radioactive materials. Oil and gas production processing operations have been known to cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) to accumulate at elevated concentrations as by-product waste streams. A comprehensive radiological study on the oil refining industry in Egypt was carried out to assess the radiological impact of this industry on the workers. Scales, sludge, water and crude oil samples were collected at each stage of the refining process. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were determined using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of the determined isotopes are lower than the IAEA exempt activity levels for NORM isotopes. Different exposure scenarios were studied. The average annual effective dose for workers due to direct exposure to gamma radiation and dust inhalation found to be 0.6 microSv and 3.2 mSv, respectively. Based on the ALARA principle, the results indicate that special care must be taken during cleaning operations in order to reduce the personnel's exposure due to maintenance as well as to avoid contamination of the environment. PMID:20005611

  6. Impact assessment of odours emitted by a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Beghi, Sandra P; Santos, Jane Méri; Reis, Neyval Costa; de Sá, Leandro Melo; Goulart, Elisa Valentim; de Abreu Costa, Elza

    2012-01-01

    Complaints from the Domingos Martins population about sewage odours in the city made the district attorney order an impact assessment of the odours emitted by the city wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This study comprised various techniques, models and population surveys. In 2007, an odour emission model proved that the main hydrogen sulphide emitter was the aeration tank of the WWTP (13.5 g h(-1)) and such emissions, according to CALPUFF model, should be perceived in the whole Domingos Martins city centre area. In this area, 58% of those interviewed were annoyed by the WWTP odours. However, in 2009, the odour monitoring panel recorded few odour occurrences. A second population survey showed that hereafter only 20% of those interviewed were annoyed by the WWTP emissions. Odour emission and dispersion models run with 2010 data proved a drastic reduction of the WWTP aeration tank emissions and consequently the city centre was not bothered by WWTP emissions anymore. The odour emission reduction was due to the modification of the WWTP aeration tank system. Despite the odour emission reduction, houses located southeast of the WWTP were still annoyed by sewage odours. However, in this part of the town, other sources of sewage odours have been found. PMID:22949255

  7. Treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of electricity power transmission lines: A Finnish case review

    SciTech Connect

    Soederman, Tarja . E-mail: tarja.soderman@ymparisto.fi

    2006-05-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process concerning the route of a 400 kV power transmission line between Loviisa and Hikiae in southern Finland was reviewed in order to assess how biodiversity issues are treated and to provide suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of treatment of biodiversity issues in impact assessment of linear development projects. The review covered the whole assessment process, including interviews of stakeholders, participation in the interest group meetings and review of all documents from the project. The baseline studies and assessment of direct impacts in the case study were detailed but the documentation, both the assessment programme and the assessment report, only gave a partial picture of the assessment process. All existing information, baseline survey and assessment methods should be addressed in the scoping phase in order to promote interaction between all stakeholders. In contrast to the assessment of the direct effects, which first emphasized impacts on the nationally important and protected flying squirrel but later expanded to deal with the assessment of impacts on ecologically important sites, the indirect and cumulative impacts of the power line were poorly addressed. The public was given the opportunity to become involved in the EIA process. However, they were more concerned with impacts on their properties and less so on biodiversity and species protection issues. This suggests that the public needs to become more informed about locally important features of biodiversity.

  8. G. M. Koelemay well No. 1, Jefferson County, Texas. Volume I. Completion and testing: testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The acquisition, completion, and testing of a geopressured-geothermal well are described. The following are covered: geology; petrophysics; re-entry and completion operations - test well; drilling and completion operations - disposal well; test objectives; surface testing facilities; pre-test operations; test sequence; test results and analysis; and return of wells and location to operator. (MHR)

  9. United States Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal program. Special projects research and coordination assistance. Final report, 1 December 1978-30 October 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfman, M.H.; Morton, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    Work for the period, December 1, 1978 through October 31, 1980, is documented. The following activities are covered: project technical coordination assistance and liaison; technical assistance for review and evaluation of proposals and contract results; technical assistance for geopressured-geothermal test wells; technical assistance, coordination, and planning of surface utilization program; legal research; and special projects. (MHR)

  10. Global water resources assessment at a sub-annual timescale: Application to climate change impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Hanasaki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Hijioka, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Several reports have assessed water scarcity globally using the widely accepted withdrawal-to-water resources ratio (hereafter WWR). This index is defined as the ratio of annual withdrawal to the annual renewable water resources (runoff). The index has also been used widely to assess the impact of climate change on global water resources. Here, we ask whether it is appropriate to use the WWR to assess the impact of climate change. Global warming is projected to increase the mean annual runoff in many parts of the world. Therefore, in these regions, the WWR decreases, by definition. However, water scarcity may not always be alleviated in these regions. Global warming is also projected to increase the temporal and spatial variability of precipitation, decrease snowfall, and change the timing of snowmelt. These phenomena may increase the temporal gap between water availability and water demand, which might worsen local water scarcity, even if the mean annual runoff is increased. To assess the impact of climate change on global water resources incorporating subannual time-scale phenomena, this study applies a new water scarcity index, the cumulative withdrawal-to-demand ratio (hereafter CWD). This index is defined as the ratio of the accumulation of daily water withdrawal from local water resources to the accumulation of daily water demand. To estimate daily water withdrawal and water demand, we used the state-of-the-art H08 global water resources model. Our results indicated that global warming increased the mean annual runoff in 52% of the total land area globally. However, in 22% of the area where runoff increased, the CWD showed increased water stress. Those regions included India, northern China, and northern Europe. For India, the increase in water stress was attributed to the seasonal gap between runoff increase and water demand. The increased runoff was concentrated in a few months, while the high water demand months differed and were much longer. For Europe

  11. Challenges in using probabilistic climate change information for impact assessments: an example from the water sector.

    PubMed

    New, Mark; Lopez, Ana; Dessai, Suraje; Wilby, Rob

    2007-08-15

    Climate change impacts and adaptation assessments have traditionally adopted a scenario-based approach, which precludes an assessment of the relative risks of particular adaptation options. Probabilistic impact assessments, especially if based on a thorough analysis of the uncertainty in an impact forecast system, enable adoption of a risk-based assessment framework. However, probabilistic impacts information is conditional and will change over time. We explore the implications of a probabilistic end-to-end risk-based framework for climate impacts assessment, using the example of water resources in the Thames River, UK. We show that a probabilistic approach provides more informative results that enable the potential risk of impacts to be quantified, but that details of the risks are dependent on the approach used in the analysis. PMID:17569650

  12. TRACI - TOOL FOR THE REDUCTION AND ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS (SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRACI is an impact assessment tool being developed to assist in environmental decision making for programs in Pollution Prevention (P2), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Sustainable Development (SD). TRACI includes impact assessment methodologies and supporting databases to allow ...

  13. Readings in technology assessment. [in relation to social impact and the law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Papers are presented which reflect research in the following areas: development of the concept of technology assessment; institutionalization of technology assessment; the interface between law and technology assessment; and assessment case studies. Case studies include hazards of the medical use of X-rays, environmental noise effects in transportation planning, genetic technology, impact of underground coal mining, and aircraft/airport noise abatement.

  14. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... environmental assessment; eligibility for categorical exclusion. 51.25 Section 51.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... environmental assessment; eligibility for categorical exclusion. Before taking a proposed action subject to the... impact statement or an environmental assessment should be prepared. An environmental assessment is...

  15. Assessing corporate project impacts in changeable contexts: A human rights perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    Project-level impact assessment was originally conceived as a snapshot taken in advance of project implementation, contrasting current conditions with a likely future scenario involving a variety of predicted impacts. Current best practice guidance has encouraged a shift towards longitudinal assessments from the pre-project stage through the implementation and operating phases. Experience and study show, however, that assessment of infrastructure-intensive projects rarely endures past the project's construction phase. Negative consequences for environmental, social and health outcomes have been documented. Such consequences clarify the pressing need for longitudinal assessment in each of these domains, with human rights impact assessment (HRIA) as an umbrella over, and critical augmentation of, environmental, social and health assessments. Project impacts on human rights are more closely linked to political, economic and other factors beyond immediate effects of a company's policy and action throughout the project lifecycle. Delineating these processes requires an adequate framework, with strategies for collecting longitudinal data, protocols that provide core information for impact assessment and guidance for adaptive mitigation strategies as project-related effects change over time. This article presents general principles for the design and implementation of sustained, longitudinal HRIA, based on experience assessing and responding to human rights impact in a uranium mining project in Malawi. The case study demonstrates the value of longitudinal assessment both for limiting corporate risk and improving human welfare. - Graphical abstract: Assessing changes in human rights condition as affected by both project and context, over time. - Highlights: • Corporate capital projects affect human rights in myriad ways. • Ongoing, longitudinal impact assessment techniques are needed. • We present an approach for conducting longitudinal human rights impact assessment

  16. Health impact assessment of air pollution in Valladolid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cárdaba Arranz, Mario; Muñoz Moreno, María Fe; Armentia Medina, Alicia; Alonso Capitán, Margarita; Carreras Vaquer, Fernando; Almaraz Gómez, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the attributable and targeted avoidable deaths (ADs; TADs) of outdoor air pollution by ambient particulate matter (PM10), PM2.5 and O3 according to specific WHO methodology. Design Health impact assessment. Setting City of Valladolid, Spain (around 300 000 residents). Data sources Demographics; mortality; pollutant concentrations collected 1999–2008. Main outcome measures Attributable fractions; ADs and TADs per year for 1999–2008. Results Higher TADs estimates (shown here) were obtained when assuming as ‘target’ concentrations WHO Air Quality Guidelines instead of Directive 2008/50/EC. ADs are considered relative to pollutant background levels. All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (all ages): 52 ADs (95% CI 39 to 64); 31 TADs (95% CI 24 to 39).All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (<5 years): 0 ADs (95% CI 0 to 1); 0 TADs (95% CI 0 to 1). All-cause mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30 years): 326 ADs (95% CI 217 to 422); 231 TADs (95% CI 153 to 301). Cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30 years): ▸ Cardiopulmonary: 186 ADs (95% CI 74 to 280); 94 TADs (95% CI 36 to 148). ▸ Lung cancer : 51 ADs (95% CI 21 to 73); 27 TADs (95% CI 10 to 41).All-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality associated to O3 (all ages): ▸ All-cause: 52ADs (95% CI 25 to 77) ; 31 TADs (95% CI 15 to 45). ▸ Respiratory: 5ADs (95% CI −2 to 13) ; 3 TADs (95% CI −1 to 8). ▸ Cardiovascular: 30 ADs (95% CI 8 to 51) ; 17 TADs (95% CI 5 to 30). Negative estimates which should be read as zero were obtained when pollutant concentrations were below counterfactuals or assumed risk coefficients were below one. Conclusions Our estimates suggest a not negligible negative impact on mortality of outdoor air pollution. The implementation of WHO methodology provides critical information to distinguish an improvement range in air pollution control. PMID:25326212

  17. GIS-based coastline segmentation for human impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanchev, H.; Palazov, A.

    2009-04-01

    The study presents an example of developed GIS methodology applied to detailed segmentation of a part of the Bulgarian Black Sea coast by natural and technogenous compartments as a part of geospatial database, which have been established in the Bulgarian Oceanographic Data Center. GIS application is illustrated as a case study on a coastal section, located at the North Bulgarian Black Sea coast, between cape Ekrene on the north and cape Galata on the south, with 31 494 m length of the coastline. The research aims to identify natural landforms and human structures in the study area in order to assess the anthropogenic impact on the coastline. Two types of data sources were used for mapping and classifying different coastline segments: data extracted from maps and GPS survey data. Topographical maps in scale 1:5 000, published in 1983 and nautical maps in scale 1:10 000, published in 1994 were scanned, geo-referenced and digitized in GIS environment. The detailed field research in the coastal section between capes of Ekrene and Galata were carried out in May 2007 by means of GPS "Garmin 12". Digital photographs were taken as the most representative illustration of each of identified segments and were included in the Web GIS. Data proceeding, mapping of natural landforms and human structures, and analysis of technogenous impact on the studied coastal area were performed with tools of GIS ArcInfo 9.2. In result, the segmentation of the coastline between two capes was implemented. 117 various segments with total length of 42245 m were identified and mapped along the study area. The collected and produced information for the coastal section between capes of Ekrene and Galata supported by advantages of GIS capacity provides establishment of initial spatial database, which can be easily and incessantly upgraded with other types of investigations and information. The ability to add new data sets (such as aerial, satellite, DGPS etc.) allows to enrich generated coastal

  18. Groundwater Impact Assessment of Tailings Storage Facility, Western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peksezer-Sayit, A.; Yazicigil, H.

    2015-12-01

    A tailings storage facility (TSF) is a fundamental part of the mining process and should be carefully designed and managed to prevent any adverse environmental effects. TSF is site-specific and its design criteria are determined by regulations. The new mine waste regulation for the deposition of hazardous waste in a tailings storage facility in Turkey enforces, from bottom to top, 0.5 m thick compacted clay layer with K less than or equal to 1X10-9 m/s , 2 mm thick HDPE geomembrane, and a protective natural material or geotextile. Although these criteria seem to be enough to prevent leakage from the base, in practice, manufacturing and application errors may cause leakage and subsequent contamination of groundwater. The purpose of this study is to assess potential impacts of leakage from the base of TSF on groundwater quality both in operational and post-closure period of a mine site in western Turkey. For this purpose, analytical and 2-D and 3-D numerical models are used together. The potential leakage rate of sulphate-bearing solution from the base of TSF is determined from analytical model. 2-D finite element models (SEEP/W and CTRAN/W) are used to simulate unsaturated flow conditions and advective-dispersive contaminant transport below the TSF under steady-state and transient conditions for the operating period. The long-term impacts of leakage from the base of TSF on groundwater resources are evaluated by 3-D numerical groundwater flow (MODFLOW) and contaminant transport models (MT3DMS). The model results suggest that sulphate-bearing solution leaking from the base of TSF can reach water table in about 290 years. Hence, during the operational period (i.e. 21 years), no interaction is expected between the solution and groundwater. Moreover, long-term simulation results show that about 500 years later, the sulphate concentration in groundwater will be below the maximum allowable limits (i.e. 250 mg/L).

  19. A method proposal for cumulative environmental impact assessment based on the landscape vulnerability evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlickova, Katarina; Vyskupova, Monika

    2015-01-15

    Cumulative environmental impact assessment deals with the occasional use in practical application of environmental impact assessment process. The main reasons are the difficulty of cumulative impact identification caused by lack of data, inability to measure the intensity and spatial effect of all types of impacts and the uncertainty of their future evolution. This work presents a method proposal to predict cumulative impacts on the basis of landscape vulnerability evaluation. For this purpose, qualitative assessment of landscape ecological stability is conducted and major vulnerability indicators of environmental and socio-economic receptors are specified and valuated. Potential cumulative impacts and the overall impact significance are predicted quantitatively in modified Argonne multiple matrixes while considering the vulnerability of affected landscape receptors and the significance of impacts identified individually. The method was employed in the concrete environmental impact assessment process conducted in Slovakia. The results obtained in this case study reflect that this methodology is simple to apply, valid for all types of impacts and projects, inexpensive and not time-consuming. The objectivity of the partial methods used in this procedure is improved by quantitative landscape ecological stability evaluation, assignment of weights to vulnerability indicators based on the detailed characteristics of affected factors, and grading impact significance. - Highlights: • This paper suggests a method proposal for cumulative impact prediction. • The method includes landscape vulnerability evaluation. • The vulnerability of affected receptors is determined by their sensitivity. • This method can increase the objectivity of impact prediction in the EIA process.

  20. Laboratory development and field application of a novel water-based drill-in fluid for geopressured horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, J.W.; Harrison, J.C.; Hale, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Research has identified a novel water-based drill-in fluid for drilling and completing geopressured horizontal wells. This fluid has a unique combination of properties which make it especially suitable for geopressured applications. They include the use of calcium and/or zinc bromide as a base brine, minimal concentration of calcium carbonate as bridging material, low plastic viscosity, tight fluid loss control, good filter cake properties, and excellent return permeability. This drill-in fluid has been used successfully to drill a 1,200 foot production interval, 4.75 inch diameter wellbore in the Gulf of Mexico with a system weight of 13.2 lbm/gal, bottom hole temperature of 185{degrees} F., and a 1400 to 1700 psi overbalance. The system functioned very well in both the drilling and completion operations. Fluid rheology was easily maintainable and the hole conditions were excellent without torque or drag problems. Initial production data suggests that the well is producing at expected rates with low drawdown pressure.

  1. Assessing climate change impact by integrated hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lajer Hojberg, Anker; Jørgen Henriksen, Hans; Olsen, Martin; der Keur Peter, van; Seaby, Lauren Paige; Troldborg, Lars; Sonnenborg, Torben; Refsgaard, Jens Christian

    2013-04-01

    Future climate may have a profound effect on the freshwater cycle, which must be taken into consideration by water management for future planning. Developments in the future climate are nevertheless uncertain, thus adding to the challenge of managing an uncertain system. To support the water managers at various levels in Denmark, the national water resources model (DK-model) (Højberg et al., 2012; Stisen et al., 2012) was used to propagate future climate to hydrological response under considerations of the main sources of uncertainty. The DK-model is a physically based and fully distributed model constructed on the basis of the MIKE SHE/MIKE11 model system describing groundwater and surface water systems and the interaction between the domains. The model has been constructed for the entire 43.000 km2 land area of Denmark only excluding minor islands. Future climate from General Circulation Models (GCM) was downscaled by Regional Climate Models (RCM) by a distribution-based scaling method (Seaby et al., 2012). The same dataset was used to train all combinations of GCM-RCMs and they were found to represent the mean and variance at the seasonal basis equally well. Changes in hydrological response were computed by comparing the short term development from the period 1990 - 2010 to 2021 - 2050, which is the time span relevant for water management. To account for uncertainty in future climate predictions, hydrological response from the DK-model using nine combinations of GCMs and RCMs was analysed for two catchments representing the various hydrogeological conditions in Denmark. Three GCM-RCM combinations displaying high, mean and low future impacts were selected as representative climate models for which climate impact studies were carried out for the entire country. Parameter uncertainty was addressed by sensitivity analysis and was generally found to be of less importance compared to the uncertainty spanned by the GCM-RCM combinations. Analysis of the simulations

  2. The feasibility of recovering medium to heavy oil using geopressured-geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Nequs-De Wys, J.; Plum, M.M. ); Kimmell, C.E. ); Hart, G.F. )

    1991-08-01

    Thermal enhanced oil recovery using geopressured-geothermal (GPGT) fluids is a unique concept for recovering heavy and medium oils that are bypassed during conventional production processes. The successful implementation of this technology would provide an environmentally clean and less expensive method of thermal recovery as opposed to the burning of crude oil or natural gas used widely by industry at the present time. GPGT fluids are under high pressure in their parent reservoir and, when linked to shallow reservoirs by suitable plumbing, will provide a self-propelled method of heat transfer to a target reservoir existing at shallow depth. GPGT fluids will heat the reservoir as in conventional thermal enhanced oil recovery. This will reduce the residual oil saturation and lower the viscosity of the oil so that it can be moved more easily and in greater amounts. The method is similar to hot water flooding, and thus the basic technology already exists. Alworth field of the south Texas Mirando trend is proposed as a pilot site. The temperatures of the upper Wilcox GPGT fluids in this region range form 350 to 500F, and salinities in the range of 3600 to 70,000 mg/L. The pressures are from 800 to 3500 psia flowing well-head pressure. The target reservoirs for injection of the GPGT fluids are the upper Eocene Jackson and Yegua sandstones. These reservoirs contain an estimated four million bbl of heavy oil in place (18 API) of which at least one million bbl could be recovered by thermal enhanced oil recovery. An additional 1.5 billion bbl of oil is recoverable from the 87 fields within the Mirando trend. Run of the economic model on the Alworth field suggests that it will be economic.

  3. Regional maps of subsurface geopressure gradients of the onshore and offshore Gulf of Mexico basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Lauri A.; Kinney, Scott A.; Dubiel, Russell F.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey created a comprehensive geopressure-gradient model of the regional pressure system spanning the onshore and offshore Gulf of Mexico basin, USA. This model was used to generate ten maps that included (1) five contour maps characterizing the depth to the surface defined by the first occurrence of isopressure gradients ranging from 0.60 psi/ft to 1.00 psi/ft, in 0.10-psi/ft increments; and (2) five supporting maps illustrating the spatial density of the data used to construct the contour maps. These contour maps of isopressure-gradients at various increments enable the identification and quantification of the occurrence, magnitude, location, and depth of the subsurface pressure system, which allows for the broad characterization of regions exhibiting overpressured, underpressured, and normally pressured strata. Identification of overpressured regions is critical for exploration and evaluation of potential undiscovered hydrocarbon accumulations based on petroleum-generation pressure signatures and pressure-retention properties of reservoir seals. Characterization of normally pressured regions is essential for field development decisions such as determining the dominant production drive mechanisms, evaluating well placement and drainage patterns, and deciding on well stimulation methods such as hydraulic fracturing. Identification of underpressured regions is essential for evaluating the feasibility of geological sequestration and long-term containment of fluids such as supercritical carbon dioxide for alternative disposal methods of greenhouse gases. This study is the first, quantitative investigation of the regional pressure systems of one of the most important petroleum provinces in the United States. Although this methodology was developed for pressure studies in the Gulf of Mexico basin, it is applicable to any basin worldwide.

  4. A geopressured-geothermal, solar conversion system to produce potable water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitschke, George Samuel

    A design is presented for recovering Geopressured-Geothermal (GPGT) reservoir brines for conversion into solar ponds to renewably power coastal seawater desalination. The hot, gas-cut, high-pressure GPGT brine is flowed through a well-bore to surface systems which concentrate the brine in multi-effect evaporators and recover the gas. The gas and distilled water are used for thermal enhanced oil recovery, and the concentrated brine is used to construct solar ponds. The thermal energy from the solar ponds is used to produce electricity, which is then used to renewably power coastal desalination plants for large-scale potable water production from the sea. The design is proposed for deployment in California and Texas, where the two largest U.S. GPGT basins exist. Projections show that the design fully deployed in California could provide 5 MAF/y (million acre-ft per year) while yielding a 45% Rate of Return (combined oil and water revenues); the California municipal water load is 10 MAF/y. The dissertation contains a feasibility study of the design approach, supported by engineering analyses and simulation models, included in the appendices. A range of systems configurations and GPGT flow conditions are modeled to illustrate how the approach lends itself to modular implementation, i.e., incrementally installing a single system, tens of systems, up to 1000 systems, which corresponds to full deployment in California for the scenario analyzed. The dissertation includes a method for launching and piloting the approach, starting from a single system installation.

  5. Measurement error in biomarkers: sources, assessment, and impact on studies.

    PubMed

    White, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Measurement error in a biomarker refers to the error of a biomarker measure applied in a specific way to a specific population, versus the true (etiologic) exposure. In epidemiologic studies, this error includes not only laboratory error, but also errors (variations) introduced during specimen collection and storage, and due to day-to-day, month-to-month, and year-to-year within-subject variability of the biomarker. Validity and reliability studies that aim to assess the degree of biomarker error for use of a specific biomarker in epidemiologic studies must be properly designed to measure all of these sources of error. Validity studies compare the biomarker to be used in an epidemiologic study to a perfect measure in a group of subjects. The parameters used to quantify the error in a binary marker are sensitivity and specificity. For continuous biomarkers, the parameters used are bias (the mean difference between the biomarker and the true exposure) and the validity coefficient (correlation of the biomarker with the true exposure). Often a perfect measure of the exposure is not available, so reliability (repeatability) studies are conducted. These are analysed using kappa for binary biomarkers and the intraclass correlation coefficient for continuous biomarkers. Equations are given which use these parameters from validity or reliability studies to estimate the impact of nondifferential biomarker measurement error on the risk ratio in an epidemiologic study that will use the biomarker. Under nondifferential error, the attenuation of the risk ratio is towards the null and is often quite substantial, even for reasonably accurate biomarker measures. Differential biomarker error between cases and controls can bias the risk ratio in any direction and completely invalidate an epidemiologic study. PMID:22997860

  6. Assessing the impact of temperature on grape phenolic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Seth D; Tarara, Julie M; Kennedy, James A

    2008-07-21

    This study assessed the impact of fruit temperature on the phenolic metabolism of grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) grown under field conditions with controlled exposure to sunlight. Individual cluster temperatures were manipulated in situ. Diurnal temperature fluctuation was damped by daytime cooling and nighttime heating of clusters. Daytime-only and nighttime-only temperature controls were applied for comparison. Berry temperatures were recorded continuously to compare the chemical data. Samples collected at véraison indicated that damping the diurnal temperature fluctuation advanced the onset of ripening. Those berries were larger (double-damped: 0.753+/-0.015gberry(-1) vs control: 0.512+/-0.034gberry(-1)) and more colored than all others. Development of phenolic metabolites was followed by two reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography methods and gel permeation chromatography. These methods provided information on anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, flavan-3-ol monomers, and polymeric material. Damping the diurnal temperature fluctuation reduced proanthocyanidin mean degree of polymerization (double-damped: 21.8+/-1.0 vs control: 28.0+/-1.7). Proanthocyanidin accumulation at véraison was linearly related to heat summation over the developmental period with nighttime heating yielding the highest concentration and daytime cooling yielding the lowest (night-heat: 1.46+/-0.13mgberry(-1) vs day-cool: 0.97+/-0.09mgberry(-1)). Damping the diurnal temperature fluctuation had a marked effect on the rate of fruit development whereas total heat summation had more of an effect on phenolic metabolism alone. The results provide insight on the direct effect of temperature on phenolic metabolism. PMID:18573371

  7. Challenges Inherent in the Assessment of the Impact of Prerequisite Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abou-Sayf, Frank K.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the different types of research designs used to assess the impact of prerequisite courses are presented. Supported by an in-depth literature review, the challenges that are faced in the assessment of the impact of prerequisites, from statistical to political, are identified and their pitfalls are pointed out. In particular, the…

  8. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and...) 466-8191, not a toll-free call). (ii) If a copy of an EIA Summary is not available from the...

  9. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and...) 466-8191, not a toll-free call). (ii) If a copy of an EIA Summary is not available from the...

  10. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and...) 466-8191, not a toll-free call). (ii) If a copy of an EIA Summary is not available from the...

  11. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and...) 466-8191, not a toll-free call). (ii) If a copy of an EIA Summary is not available from the...

  12. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and...) 466-8191, not a toll-free call). (ii) If a copy of an EIA Summary is not available from the...

  13. Groundwater impact assessment for the 216-U-17 Crib, 200 West Area

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Johnson, V.G.; Kline, N.W.

    1993-06-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact to groundwater from discharge of process condensate to the ground at the 216-U-17 Crib. The assessment considers impacts associated with moisture movement through soil beneath the crib and the potential transport of contaminants to the groundwater.

  14. Walking the sustainability assessment talk - Progressing the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois

    2012-09-15

    Internationally there is a growing demand for environmental impact assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA practice in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the research suggests that notwithstanding a strong and explicit sustainability mandate through policy and legislation, the effectiveness of EIA practice falls far short of what is mandated. This shows that further legislative reform is not required to improve effectiveness but rather a focus on changing the behaviour of individual professionals. We conclude by inviting further debate on what exactly practitioners can do to give effect to sustainability in EIA practice.

  15. Assessing the Organisational Impact of External Quality Assurance: Hypothesising Key Dimensions and Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stensaker, Bjørn; Leiber, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to provide a framework in which the organisational impact of external quality assurance (EQA) can be assessed. Based on existing studies of the impact of EQA in universities and colleges it is suggested that greater systematisation of how impact is measured is needed for a better understanding of how EQA can be used as a…

  16. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental assessment must be made and when necessary, an enviornmental impact statement. Detailed guidance on when and... Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  17. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental assessment must be made and when necessary, an enviornmental impact statement. Detailed guidance on when and... Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  18. 77 FR 31353 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... AGENCY An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK AGENCY... of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska'' (EPA-910-R-12-004a-d). The... significance of Bristol Bay's ecological resources and evaluate the potential impacts of large-scale mining...

  19. A prospective health impact assessment of the international astronomy and space exploration centre

    PubMed Central

    Winters, L

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES—Assess the potential health impacts of the proposed International Astronomy and Space Exploration Centre on the population of New Wallasey. Contribute to the piloting of health impact assessment methods.
DESIGN—Prospective health impact assessment involving brainstorming sessions and individual interviews with key informants and a literature review.
SETTING—New Wallasey Single Regeneration Budget 4 area.
PARTICIPANTS—Key stakeholders including local residents' groups selected through purposeful snowball sampling.
MAIN RESULTS—Recommendations are made that cover issues around: transport and traffic; civic design; security; public safety, employment and training.
CONCLUSIONS—Health impact assessment is a useful pragmatic tool for facilitating wide consultation. In particular engaging the local population in the early planning stages of a proposed development, and assisting in highlighting changes to maximise the positive health influences on affected communities.


Keywords: health impact assessment; health determinants PMID:11351002

  20. Protecting Health Using an Environmental Impact Assessment: A Case Study of San Francisco Land Use Decisionmaking

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Rajiv

    2007-01-01

    Laws and regulations for an environmental impact assessment enable a health impact assessment whenever physical changes in the environment may significantly affect health. In this case study, I describe 2 instances in which a local public health agency used the procedural requirements for an environmental impact assessment to account for societal-level health determinants that are not traditionally evaluated in land-use decisions. These examples show that a public health critique can contribute both to the scope of analysis in an environmental impact assessment and to substantive changes in land-use decisions. I have evaluated this health appraisal approach as a form of a health impact assessment and will make recommendations for law, research, and practice that support its technical, cultural, and political feasibility. PMID:17267726

  1. The mechanism of impact of summative assessment on medical students’ learning

    PubMed Central

    Schuwirth, Lambert W.; Adendorff, Hanelie J.; Herman, Nicoline; van der Vleuten, Cees P.

    2010-01-01

    It has become axiomatic that assessment impacts powerfully on student learning, but there is a surprising dearth of research on how. This study explored the mechanism of impact of summative assessment on the process of learning of theory in higher education. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with medical students and analyzed qualitatively. The impact of assessment on learning was mediated through various determinants of action. Respondents’ learning behaviour was influenced by: appraising the impact of assessment; appraising their learning response; their perceptions of agency; and contextual factors. This study adds to scant extant evidence and proposes a mechanism to explain this impact. It should help enhance the use of assessment as a tool to augment learning. PMID:20455078

  2. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T.

    2014-11-15

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state.

  3. A multi-scale metrics approach to forest fragmentation for Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eunyoung; Song, Wonkyong; Lee, Dongkun

    2013-09-15

    Forests are becoming severely fragmented as a result of land development. South Korea has responded to changing community concerns about environmental issues. The nation has developed and is extending a broad range of tools for use in environmental management. Although legally mandated environmental compliance requirements in South Korea have been implemented to predict and evaluate the impacts of land-development projects, these legal instruments are often insufficient to assess the subsequent impact of development on the surrounding forests. It is especially difficult to examine impacts on multiple (e.g., regional and local) scales in detail. Forest configuration and size, including forest fragmentation by land development, are considered on a regional scale. Moreover, forest structure and composition, including biodiversity, are considered on a local scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Recently, the government amended the Environmental Impact Assessment Act, including the SEA, EIA, and small-scale EIA, to require an integrated approach. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish an impact assessment system that minimizes the impacts of land development using an approach that is integrated across multiple scales. This study focused on forest fragmentation due to residential development and road construction sites in selected Congestion Restraint Zones (CRZs) in the Greater Seoul Area of South Korea. Based on a review of multiple-scale impacts, this paper integrates models that assess the impacts of land development on forest ecosystems. The applicability of the integrated model for assessing impacts on forest ecosystems through the SEIA process is considered. On a regional scale, it is possible to evaluate the location and size of a land-development project by considering aspects of forest fragmentation, such as the stability of the forest structure and the degree of fragmentation. On a local scale, land-development projects should

  4. The Impact of Teacher Training on State Alternate Assessment Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Diane M.; Karvonen, Meagan; Davis, Stephanie; Fallin, Kathy; Courtade-Little, Ginevra

    2005-01-01

    With the passage of No Child Left Behind and the start of the high-stakes accountability movement, it has become increasingly important that teachers are able to appropriately assess all students, including those who qualify for alternate assessments. If suitable assessment is occurring, teachers can use these data to help improve student…

  5. Drought impact functions as intermediate step towards drought damage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmair, Sophie; Svensson, Cecilia; Prosdocimi, Ilaria; Hannaford, Jamie; Helm Smith, Kelly; Svoboda, Mark; Stahl, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    While damage or vulnerability functions for floods and seismic hazards have gained considerable attention, there is comparably little knowledge on drought damage or loss. On the one hand this is due to the complexity of the drought hazard affecting different domains of the hydrological cycle and different sectors of human activity. Hence, a single hazard indicator is likely not able to fully capture this multifaceted hazard. On the other hand, drought impacts are often non-structural and hard to quantify or monetize. Examples are impaired navigability of streams, restrictions on domestic water use, reduced hydropower production, reduced tree growth, and irreversible deterioration/loss of wetlands. Apart from reduced crop yield, data about drought damage or loss with adequate spatial and temporal resolution is scarce, making the development of drought damage functions difficult. As an intermediate step towards drought damage functions we exploit text-based reports on drought impacts from the European Drought Impact report Inventory and the US Drought Impact Reporter to derive surrogate information for drought damage or loss. First, text-based information on drought impacts is converted into timeseries of absence versus presence of impacts, or number of impact occurrences. Second, meaningful hydro-meteorological indicators characterizing drought intensity are identified. Third, different statistical models are tested as link functions relating drought hazard indicators with drought impacts: 1) logistic regression for drought impacts coded as binary response variable; and 2) mixture/hurdle models (zero-inflated/zero-altered negative binomial regression) and an ensemble regression tree approach for modeling the number of drought impact occurrences. Testing the predictability of (number of) drought impact occurrences based on cross-validation revealed a good agreement between observed and modeled (number of) impacts for regions at the scale of federal states or

  6. Legal and institutional framework of environmental impact assessment in Nigeria: An initial assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Olokesusi, F.

    1998-03-01

    Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa, has high rates of urbanization and industrialization. Until recently, decisions on most large-scale projects such as expressways, harbors, industries, dams, and irrigation were considered with an emphasis on traditional technical and cost-benefit analysis. Spurred by massive environmental degradation and persistent community agitation in oil producing areas, environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation was passed in late 1992. The main purpose of this article is to review and assess the content of this legislation and the guidelines produced by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), the institution responsible for EIA administration. Some EIA reports have been prepared and reviewed by FEPA since 1994. There are some positive outcomes and expectations, but some problems have been identified as well, including: deliberate restriction of public involvement and participation by proponents and/or their consultants, interagency conflict leading to high cost and project delays especially in the oil industry, and restriction of public access to final EIA reports. These are discussed, and recommendations for improving the process are made.

  7. High-resolution assessment of land use impacts on biodiversity in life cycle assessment using species habitat suitability models.

    PubMed

    de Baan, Laura; Curran, Michael; Rondinini, Carlo; Visconti, Piero; Hellweg, Stefanie; Koellner, Thomas

    2015-02-17

    Agricultural land use is a main driver of global biodiversity loss. The assessment of land use impacts in decision-support tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) requires spatially explicit models, but existing approaches are either not spatially differentiated or modeled at very coarse scales (e.g., biomes or ecoregions). In this paper, we develop a high-resolution (900 m) assessment method for land use impacts on biodiversity based on habitat suitability models (HSM) of mammal species. This method considers potential land use effects on individual species, and impacts are weighted by the species' conservation status and global rarity. We illustrate the method using a case study of crop production in East Africa, but the underlying HSMs developed by the Global Mammals Assessment are available globally. We calculate impacts of three major export crops and compare the results to two previously developed methods (focusing on local and regional impacts, respectively) to assess the relevance of the methodological innovations proposed in this paper. The results highlight hotspots of product-related biodiversity impacts that help characterize the links among agricultural production, consumption, and biodiversity loss. PMID:25584628

  8. Assessing Impact on Family Caregivers to Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talkington-Boyer, Shannon; Snyder, Douglas K.

    1994-01-01

    Examined impact of caregiving among 110 caregivers to aging family member with Alzheimer's disease. Family caregivers' appraisals along dimensions of subjective burden, negative impact, caregiving satisfaction, and caregiver mastery were correlated with extent of memory and behavior problems of patient and caregivers' coping style, locus of…

  9. Parameters for the assessment of odour impacts on communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshaw, Paul; Nicell, James; Sikdar, Anamika

    Odorous emissions are the cause of most air pollution complaints that are made by the public to regulatory agencies. Methods need to be developed to objectively access the impact of odours so that odour-producing facilities have a pro-active means of reducing their impact on surrounding communities. These methods must consider the sub- and supra-threshold effects of odour over the range of concentrations that can be experienced as the odour disperses over a community. In addition, the influence of local meteorological and terrain conditions can be accommodated through conventional dispersion models. However, metrics of odour impact need to be developed which take into account the concentration and frequency of odours at receptors, as well as the population density at those receptors. This paper proposes and demonstrates the use of six impact parameters that may be used as metrics of the impact of a stationary odour source on a community. These odour impact parameters are maximum concentration, maximum probability of response, footprint area, concentration-weighted footprint area, probability-weighted footprint area and population impact. The utility of these parameters were demonstrated by evaluating them to quantify the impact of an industrial facility that produces an odorous chemical.

  10. Assessing Impacts of Global Warming on Tropical Cyclone Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Li-Guang; Wang, Bin

    2003-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to assess the possible impacts of the global climate change on tropical cyclone (TC) tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) basin. The idea is based on the premise that the future change of TC track characteristics is primarily determined by changes in large-scale environmental steering flows. It is demonstrated that the main characteristics of the current climatology of TC tracks can be derived from the climatological mean velocity field of TC motion by using a trajectory model. The climatological mean velocity of TC motion, which is composed of the large-scale steering and beta drift, is determined on each grid of the basin. The mean beta drift is estimated from the best track data, and the mean large-scale steering flow is computed from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis for the current climate state. The derived mean beta drift agrees well with the results of previous observational and numerical studies in terms of its direction and magnitude. The outputs of experiments A2 and B2 of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) R30 climate model suggest that the subtropical high will be persistently weak over the western part of the WNP or shift eastward during July-September in response to the future climate change. By assuming that the mean beta drift in the future climate state is unchanged, the change in the general circulation by 2059 will decrease the TC activities in the WNP, but favor a northward shift of typical TC tracks. As a result, the storm activities in the South China Sea will decrease by about 12%, while the Japan region will experience an increase of TCs by 12-15%. During the period of 2000-2029, the tropical storms that affect the China region will increase by 5-6%, but return to the current level during 2030-2059. It is also suggested that, during the period of 2030-2059 tropical storms will more frequently affect Japan and the middle latitude region of China given that the formation locations remain the same as in the

  11. Comparative assessment of transport risks--how it can contribute to health impact assessment of transport policies.

    PubMed Central

    Kjellstrom, Tord; van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Bammer, Gabriele; McMichael, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) and comparative risk assessment (CRA) are important tools with which governments and communities can compare and integrate different sources of information about various health impacts into a single framework for policy-makers and planners. Both tools have strengths that may be combined usefully when conducting comprehensive assessments of decisions that affect complex health issues, such as the health risks and impacts of transport policy and planning activities. As yet, however, HIA and CRA have not been applied widely to the area of transport. We draw on the limited experience of the application of these tools in the context of road transport to explore how comparative assessment of transport risks can contribute to HIA of transport policies. PMID:12894331

  12. The transitional impact scale: assessing the material and psychological impact of life transitions.

    PubMed

    Svob, Connie; Brown, Norman R; Reddon, John R; Uzer, Tugba; Lee, Peter J

    2014-06-01

    The Transitional Impact Scale (TIS) advances the measurement of event cognition into the real world. The TIS was created to provide a measure of change for important life transitions, including an index of their transitional properties and magnitude. Pilot work prior to Study 1 led to the creation of a 95-item version (TIS-95). A principal components analysis of TIS-95 (n = 215) resulted in two dimensions that we rotated to a Varimax criterion and interpreted as (1) material change (e.g., "This event changed where I live") and (2) psychological change (e.g., "This event changed the way I think about things"). TIS-95 was reduced to 25 items. In Study 2, the structure of TIS-25 was replicated (n = 531) using the same method. The best 12 items were retained. TIS-12 was evaluated in two random split-half samples (n = 557 and n = 553). These samples produced essentially identical results, as assessed through factor comparison. The cumulative scales formed from items constituting each factor demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ranged from .79 to .86). PMID:23943584

  13. Reclamation of automotive batteries: Assessment of health impacts and recycling technology. Task 2: Assessment of health impacts; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Unnasch, S.

    1999-04-01

    The task 2 report compares the relative health and hazard impacts of EV battery recycling technologies. Task 2 compared the relative impact of recycling EV batteries in terms of cancer, toxicity, and ecotoxicological potential, as well as leachability, flammability, and corrosivity/reactivity hazards. Impacts were evaluated for lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, sodium sulfur, sodium-nickel chloride, lithium-iron sulfide and disulfide, lithium-polymer, lithium-ion, and zinc-air batteries. Health/hazard impacts were evaluated for recycling methods including smelting, electrowinning, and other appropriate techniques that apply to different battery technologies.

  14. The sensitivity of agricultural impacts assessment to climate data and scenario methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2011-12-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on the agricultural sector are crucially important from the farm- to global levels. While impacts assessments have made wide and creative use of data products, climate models, and methods for downscaling and scenario generation, this variety also hinders our ability to compare impacts from one study to other assessments. The unique nature of many impacts assessments is especially problematic when evaluating the impacts of climate change on large agricultural regions and global production; a crucial scale in understanding the economic impacts and market influence on food security and land use. This presentation examines the influence of methodological choices on agricultural impacts assessment by describing results from several projects. First, the utility of a wide variety of global and regional observational data products are compared for an agricultural system in the Florida Panhandle to determine the influence of observational uncertainties, reanalysis products, remotely sensed information, and downscaled models on impacts assessment. Second, the role of future climate scenarios is isolated by running the same Panhandle station with scenarios generated through a variety of generation methods with a focus on downscaling methodologies and the climate statistics allowed to change. Finally, an ensemble of weather generators are compared across an ensemble of wheat models in a variety of major agricultural regions, isolating important sensitivities in the crop models and corresponding strengths and weaknesses in the weather generators.

  15. The Non-Impact of Scientific Reviews of Oil Sands Environmental Impact Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, S. W.; Byrne, J.

    2008-12-01

    Schindler (Science, Vol. 192: 509; 1976) stated that Environmental Impact Assessments authors "conduct the studies regardless of how quickly results are demanded, write large, diffuse reports containing reams of uninterpreted and incomplete descriptive data, and in some cases, construct "predictive" models, irrespective of the quality of the data base." Schindler offered a solution: "If we are to protect both our resources and scientific integrity, environmental scientists must seek to put their studies on a scientifically credible basis-to see that problems, terms of reference, funding, time constraints, reports, and conclusions are all within a bona fide scientific framework." When the first scientific panel was formed in 2003 by the Mikisew Cree First Nations (MCFN), Alberta, to objectively review EIAs of proposed oil sands mining projects, the scientific panel uncovered many severe omissions, errors, and a significant lack of substance that could not withstand scientific scrutiny. Neither the Terms of Reference for two major oilsands projects, estimated to be worth approximately CND 15 billion, nor the EIAs (one single EIA was over 11,000 pages long) contained the terms "climate change", "trend analysis", or "risk analysis", and nearly all environmental impacts were described by the proponents as "negligible". The Hydrology Section (over 950 pages in length) of one EIA did not contain a single peer-reviewed scientific publication. In summary, nothing had changed since Schindler's observations 27 years earlier. Since 2003, the authors have reviewed more than a dozen EIAs of proposed oilsands projects in northern Alberta. The "non-impact" of scientific reviews on the quality of EIAs and the insincerity of the stewards of the land are very sobering: apart from cosmetic improvements in the requirements of the Terms of Reference and the writing of the EIAs, no meaningful improvement of scientific content has been made. Key environmental concerns around water

  16. Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework

    SciTech Connect

    Spickett, Jeffery T.; Brown, Helen L.; Katscherian, Dianne

    2011-04-15

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to

  17. Assessing the contribution of centaur impacts to ice giant luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Voyager 2 observations revealed that Neptune's internal luminosity is an order of magnitude higher than that of Uranus. If the two planets have similar interior structures and cooling histories, Neptune's luminosity can only be explained by invoking some energy source beyond gravitational contraction. This paper investigates whether centaur impacts could provide the energy necessary to produce Neptune's luminosity. The major findings are (1) that impacts on both Uranus and Neptune are too infrequent to provide luminosities of order Neptune's observed value, even for optimistic impact-rate estimates and (2) that Uranus and Neptune rarely have significantly different impact-generated luminosities at any given time. Uranus and Neptune most likely have structural differences that force them to cool and contract at different rates.

  18. Trust, Distrust and Their Impact on Assessment Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper puts forward the case that one of the factors constraining principled learning-oriented assessment practices is lack of trust. It examines a number of assessment dimensions in which trust or distrust plays a role. These issues are illustrated via a discussion of two different iterations of the same module taught in a teacher education…

  19. Teachers Developing Assessment for Learning: Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan; Lee, Clare; Harrison, Christine; Black, Paul

    2004-01-01

    While it is generally acknowledged that increased use of formative assessment (or assessment for learning) leads to higher quality learning, it is often claimed that the pressure in schools to improve the results achieved by students in externally-set tests and examinations precludes its use. This paper reports on the achievement of secondary…

  20. Impact of Animation on Assessment of Conceptual Understanding in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancy, Melissa H.; Beichner, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of computer animation on assessment and the conditions under which animation may improve or hinder assessment of conceptual understanding in physics. An instrument was developed by replacing static pictures and descriptions of motion with computer animations on the Force Concept Inventory, a commonly used pencil…