Science.gov

Sample records for impact factor eigenfactor

  1. The Eigenfactor Metrics™: A Network Approach to Assessing Scholarly Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Jevin D.; Bergstrom, Theodore C.; Bergstrom, Carl T.

    2010-01-01

    Limited time and budgets have created a legitimate need for quantitative measures of scholarly work. The well-known journal impact factor is the leading measure of this sort; here we describe an alternative approach based on the full structure of the scholarly citation network. The Eigenfactor Metrics--Eigenfactor Score and Article Influence…

  2. Journal quality metrics: options to consider other than impact factors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Journal quality metrics (also referred to as bibliometrics), such as impact factors, are increasingly being used as a measure of researchers' and educators' success and prestige. Occupational therapists who submit articles to peer-reviewed journals may face a professional and research dilemma: Do they submit their articles to journals that largely have a professional audience and potentially do not have an impact factor, or do they opt not to publish their research material in occupational therapy-oriented journals? Occupational therapy authors can consider other journal quality metric alternatives, in addition to the impact factor option, including the Eigenfactor Score, Article Influence Score, h-index, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), Source Normalised Impact per Paper (SNIP), and discipline-specific generated journal quality measures. These other journal quality metrics can be important reference points for occupational therapists who publish and may encourage authors to publish in journals relevant to the discipline. This process, in turn, will build the occupational therapy body of knowledge as well as provide an essential, growing reference source for evidence-based practice. PMID:21675341

  3. Milestones and Impact Factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Environmental Health has just received its first Impact Factor by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "factors" in that impact. PMID:20615249

  4. What does impact factor depend upon?

    PubMed

    Roussakis, A G; Stamatelopoulos, A; Balaka, C

    2007-01-01

    Nobody doubts the importance of the scientific performance's evaluation. The journal impact factor is increasingly employed to evaluate the quality of scientific research. The use of term "impact factor" has gradually evolved, especially in Europe, to include both journal and author impact. This ambiguity often causes problems. It is one thing to use impact factors to compare journals and quite another to use them to compare authors. Journals impact factors generally involve relatively large numbers of articles and citations. Individual authors, on average, produce much smaller numbers of articles. Many scientists consider that impact factor is not the perfect tool to measure the quality of articles but there is nothing better and it has the advantage of already being in existence and is, therefore, a good technique for scientific evaluation. However, the use of journal impact factor is probably the most controversial issue. PMID:17918300

  5. Results from a Web Impact Factor Crawler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Web impact factors (WIFs), Web versions of the impact factors for journals, and how they can be calculated by using search engines. Highlights include HTML and document indexing; Web page links; a Web crawler designed for calculating WIFs; and WIFs for United Kingdom universities that measured research profiles or capability. (Author/LRW)

  6. [Impact factor and/or Hirsch index?].

    PubMed

    Gracza, Tünde; Somoskövi, Istvánné

    2007-05-01

    Is the best measure of a scientist's worth the total number of his or her published papers? For many years Institute for Scientific Information has been publishing the lists of impact factors providing quantitative tools for ranking scientists. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. Impact factors are calculated each year by the Institute for Scientific Information for those journals which it indexes, and are published in Journal Citation Reports. These measures apply only to journals, not individual articles or individual scientists. For the impact factor of individual scientists, there exists the h-index or Hirsch number. The Hirsch-index (h-index) has recently been defined by Hirsch as a new method for measuring the scientific activity. If a scientist has published n articles which all have been cited at least n times, then he will have a h-index of n . The h-index seeks to describe the impact of individual researchers, rather than journals. The h-index is the result of the balance between the number of publications and the number of citations per publication. H-index: Impact of Individual Scientists. H-index or/and impact factor - it is the question of the future. PMID:17468068

  7. Photon impact factor in the NLO

    SciTech Connect

    Balitsky, Ian

    2013-04-01

    The photon impact factor for the BFKL pomeron is calculated in the next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation using the operator expansion in Wilson lines. The result is represented as a NLO k{sub T}-factorization formula for the structure functions of small-x deep inelastic scattering.

  8. Author Impact Factor: tracking the dynamics of individual scientific impact

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Fortunato, Santo

    2014-01-01

    The impact factor (IF) of scientific journals has acquired a major role in the evaluations of the output of scholars, departments and whole institutions. Typically papers appearing in journals with large values of the IF receive a high weight in such evaluations. However, at the end of the day one is interested in assessing the impact of individuals, rather than papers. Here we introduce Author Impact Factor (AIF), which is the extension of the IF to authors. The AIF of an author A in year t is the average number of citations given by papers published in year t to papers published by A in a period of Δt years before year t. Due to its intrinsic dynamic character, AIF is capable to capture trends and variations of the impact of the scientific output of scholars in time, unlike the h-index, which is a growing measure taking into account the whole career path. PMID:24814674

  9. Author Impact Factor: tracking the dynamics of individual scientific impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Fortunato, Santo

    2014-05-01

    The impact factor (IF) of scientific journals has acquired a major role in the evaluations of the output of scholars, departments and whole institutions. Typically papers appearing in journals with large values of the IF receive a high weight in such evaluations. However, at the end of the day one is interested in assessing the impact of individuals, rather than papers. Here we introduce Author Impact Factor (AIF), which is the extension of the IF to authors. The AIF of an author A in year t is the average number of citations given by papers published in year t to papers published by A in a period of Δt years before year t. Due to its intrinsic dynamic character, AIF is capable to capture trends and variations of the impact of the scientific output of scholars in time, unlike the h-index, which is a growing measure taking into account the whole career path.

  10. Journal Production and Journal Impact Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald; Van Hooydonk, Guido

    1996-01-01

    Describes a direct linear relation between the number of articles in a journal and the journal's impact factor. Hypotheses are presented; theoretical considerations are discussed; and results are described that show exceptions for review journals and translation journals, as well as for journals in mathematics and chemistry. (Author/LRW)

  11. Median Citation Index vs Journal Impact Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2015-03-01

    The Journal Impact Factor is an arithmetic mean: It is the average number of citations, in a year, to a journal's articles that were published the previous two years. But for the vast majority of scholarly journals, the distribution of these citations is skewed (non-symmetric). We argue that a more representative member of the skewed distribution of citations is its median, not the mean. We thus introduce the Median Citation Index (MCI) and compare it to the journal Impact Factor (JIF) as a potentially more suitable choice of the ``center'' of the distribution, or its typical value. Unlike the JIF, the MCI is far less sensitive to outlier (very highly cited) papers or to gaming, and does not lend itself to the hype of calculating it to three decimal digits.

  12. Childhood incontinence: risk factors and impact.

    PubMed

    Joinson, Carol

    Continence problems in children can persist into later childhood and have a serious effect on quality of life. Research into its causes and impact is scarce, and useful resources are limited. A Medical Research Council grant is funding a project at the University of Bristol, which aims to improve understanding of the risk factors and outcomes of continence problems in children and adolescents. This article outlines the initial findings, which could help in the production of resources for parents, children and young people. PMID:27386707

  13. Causes for the Persistence of Impact Factor Mania

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous essays have addressed the misuse of the journal impact factor for judging the value of science, but the practice continues, primarily as a result of the actions of scientists themselves. This seemingly irrational behavior is referred to as “impact factor mania.” Although the literature on the impact factor is extensive, little has been written on the underlying causes of impact factor mania. In this perspective, we consider the reasons for the persistence of impact factor mania and its pernicious effects on science. We conclude that impact factor mania persists because it confers significant benefits to individual scientists and journals. Impact factor mania is a variation of the economic theory known as the “tragedy of the commons,” in which scientists act rationally in their own self-interests despite the detrimental consequences of their actions on the overall scientific enterprise. Various measures to reduce the influence of the impact factor are considered. PMID:24643863

  14. Factors Impacting the Child with Behavioral Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbuckle, Suzanne R.

    2010-01-01

    Various factors influence the developmental course of the behaviorally inhibited child. These factors include reciprocating, contextual factors, such as the child's own traits, the environment, the maternal characteristics, and the environment. Behaviorally inhibited children show physiological and behavioral signs of fear and anxiety when…

  15. Building a List of Journals with Constructed Impact Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegmann, Johannes

    1999-01-01

    Describes the building of a list of constructed-impact factors (CIF) for biomedical journals not included in the 1996 editions of the "Journal Citation Reports." The online retrieval from the host DIMDI of the data needed for impact-factor calculation is described. The top 100 (of 338 titles, ranked according to their CIFs) are presented. (AEF)

  16. Factors That Impact the Ethical Behavior of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Jacob; Berry, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This study examines factors impacting ethical behavior of 182 college students in the midwestern and northwestern United States. Ethical behavior of peers had the most significant impact on ethical behavior of students. Success (in terms of grade point average) of students, and gender of the respondents, also significantly impacted ethical…

  17. Research on the Relationships between Chinese Journal Impact Factors and External Web Link Counts and Web Impact Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Lu; Qiu, Junping

    2004-01-01

    Journal impact factors (JIFs) as determined by the Institute for Scientific and Technological Information of China (ISTIC) of forty-two Chinese engineering journals were compared with external Web link counts, obtained from Lycos, and Web Impact Factors (WIFs) of corresponding journal Web sites to determine if any significant correlation existed…

  18. Impact of Life Factors upon Attitudes toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Kevin J.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated impact of life factors on college students' (N=47) feelings about death. Most important life factors clustered into three categories: Death of Significant Other, Religious Upbringing, and Near-Death Experiences. Although factors had mixed effects across individuals, they were significant predictors of current feelings about death.…

  19. Factors impacting bladder underactivity and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Van Koeveringe, G A; Rademakers, K L J

    2015-06-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms in the voiding phase can be due to an underactive bladder, but are usually similar to symptoms of infravesical obstruction or dysfunctional voiding. The underactive bladder can be caused by an impaired detrusor contraction but also by a derangement of local and central neuro-cognitive regulatory systems or an impairment of bladder sensation. Potential risk factors of bladder underactivity include: ageing, diabetes, neurogenic disease, cardiovascular disease, obstruction and psychological causes. Comprehensive diagnostic and detection techniques for an underactive detrusor are necessary. To establish the diagnosis and follow up new treatments, useful urodynamic parameters and threshold values have to be determined. As neuro-cognitive regulation plays an important role in the control of voiding, psychological factors have to be taken into account during the assessment in these patients. Ambulatory urodynamic techniques therefore have to be considered. Voiding is determined by the balance of both the detrusor contraction and the resistance of the bladder outlet, a dysfunction in one factor can be compensated by a counter-acting function of the other factor. Therefore, to predict voiding problems in the future, it will be indicated to assess the compensatory capacity of the detrusor contractility, contractile reserve, and the outlet relaxation capacity. If novel treatments and evaluation techniques have become available, it is likely that in the future, many patients that get a TURP now, can be treated by pharmacological agents directed towards increasing the bladder contractility in a balanced combination with medication directed towards lowering the bladder outlet resistance. PMID:25645344

  20. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  1. Inflated impact factors? The true impact of evolutionary papers in non-evolutionary journals.

    PubMed

    Postma, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Amongst the numerous problems associated with the use of impact factors as a measure of quality are the systematic differences in impact factors that exist among scientific fields. While in theory this can be circumvented by limiting comparisons to journals within the same field, for a diverse and multidisciplinary field like evolutionary biology, in which the majority of papers are published in journals that publish both evolutionary and non-evolutionary papers, this is impossible. However, a journal's overall impact factor may well be a poor predictor for the impact of its evolutionary papers. The extremely high impact factors of some multidisciplinary journals, for example, are by many believed to be driven mostly by publications from other fields. Despite plenty of speculation, however, we know as yet very little about the true impact of evolutionary papers in journals not specifically classified as evolutionary. Here I present, for a wide range of journals, an analysis of the number of evolutionary papers they publish and their average impact. I show that there are large differences in impact among evolutionary and non-evolutionary papers within journals; while the impact of evolutionary papers published in multidisciplinary journals is substantially overestimated by their overall impact factor, the impact of evolutionary papers in many of the more specialized, non-evolutionary journals is significantly underestimated. This suggests that, for evolutionary biologists, publishing in high-impact multidisciplinary journals should not receive as much weight as it does now, while evolutionary papers in more narrowly defined journals are currently undervalued. Importantly, however, their ranking remains largely unaffected. While journal impact factors may thus indeed provide a meaningful qualitative measure of impact, a fair quantitative comparison requires a more sophisticated journal classification system, together with multiple field-specific impact statistics per

  2. Norming of Student Evaluations of Instruction: Impact of Noninstructional Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nargundkar, Satish; Shrikhande, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Student Evaluations of Instruction (SEIs) from about 6,000 sections over 4 years representing over 100,000 students at the college of business at a large public university are analyzed, to study the impact of noninstructional factors on student ratings. Administrative factors like semester, time of day, location, and instructor attributes like…

  3. Impacts of environmental factors on urban heating.

    PubMed

    Memon, Rizwan Ahmed; Leung, Dennis Y C

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of important environmental variables (i.e., wind speed, solar radiation and cloud cover) on urban heating. Meteorological parameters for fifteen years (from 1990 to 2005), collected at a well developed and densely populated commercial area (Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong), were analyzed in details. Urban heat island intensity (UHII), a well known indicator of urban heating, has been determined as the spatially averaged air-temperature difference between Tsim Sha Tsui and Ta Kwu Ling (a thinly populated rural area with lush vegetation). Results showed that the UHII and cloud cover have increased by around 9.3% and 4%, respectively, whereas the wind speed and solar radiation have decreased by around 24% and 8.5%, respectively. The month of December experienced the highest UHII (10.2 degrees C) but the lowest wind speed (2.6 m/sec) and cloud cover (3.8 oktas). Conversely, the month of April observed the highest increases in the UHII (over 100%) and the highest decreases in wind speed (over 40%) over fifteen years. Notably, the increases in the UHII and reductions in the wind speed were the highest during the night-time and early morning. Conversely, the intensity of solar radiation reduced while the intensity of urban cool island (UCII) increased during solar noon-time. Results demonstrated strong negative correlation between the UHII and wind speed (coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.8) but no negative correlation between UCII and solar radiation attenuation. A possible negative correlation between UHII and cloud cover was investigated but could not be substantiated. PMID:21462708

  4. Integrated Impacts of environmental factors on the degradation of fumigants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Yates, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Volatilization of fumigants has been concerned as one of air pollution sources. Fumigants are used to control nematodes and soil-born pathogens for a pre-plant treatment to increase the production of high-cash crops. One of technologies to reduce the volatilization of fumigants to atmosphere is to enhance the degradation of fumigants in soil. Fumigant degradation is affected by environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature, initial concentration of injected fumigants, and soil properties. However, effects of each factor on the degradation were limitedly characterized and integrated Impacts from environmental factors has not been described yet. Degradation of 1,3- dichloropropene (1,3-D) was investigated in various condition of temperatures (20-60 °C), moisture contents (0 ¡V 30 %) and initial concentrations (0.6 ¡V 60 mg/kg) with Arlington sandy loam soil. Abiotic and biotic degradation processes were distinguished using two sterilization methods with HgCl2 and autoclave and impacts of environmental factors were separately assessed for abiotic and biotic degradations. Initially, degradation rates (k) of cis and trans 1,3-D isomers were estimated by first-order kinetics and modified depending on impacts from environmental factors. Arrhenius equation and Walker¡¦s equation which were conventionally used to describe temperature and moisture effects on degradation were assessed for integrated impacts from environmental factors and logarithmical correlation was observed between initial concentrations of applied fumigants and degradation rates. Understanding integrated impacts of environmental factors on degradation will help to design more effective emission reduction schemes in various conditions and provide more practical parameters for modeling simulations.

  5. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Kende, D; Rener-Sitar, K; Reissmann, D R

    2014-09-01

    Previous exploratory analyses suggest that the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) consists of four correlated dimensions and that individual differences in OHIP total scores reflect an underlying higher-order factor. The aim of this report is to corroborate these findings in the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Validation Sample (n = 5022), we conducted confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 4993 subjects with sufficiently complete data. In particular, we compared the psychometric performance of three models: a unidimensional model, a four-factor model and a bifactor model that included one general factor and four group factors. Using model-fit criteria and factor interpretability as guides, the four-factor model was deemed best in terms of strong item loadings, model fit (RMSEA = 0·05, CFI = 0·99) and interpretability. These results corroborate our previous findings that four highly correlated factors - which we have named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact - can be reliably extracted from the OHIP item pool. However, the good fit of the unidimensional model and the high interfactor correlations in the four-factor solution suggest that OHRQoL can also be sufficiently described with one score. PMID:24909797

  6. Photon impact factor and k{sub T} factorization in the next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Balitsky

    2012-12-01

    The photon impact factor for the BFKL pomeron is calculated in the next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation using the operator expansion in Wilson lines. The result is represented as a NLO k{sub T}-factorization formula for the structure functions of small-x deep inelastic scattering.

  7. Evaluating Academic Journals Using Impact Factor and Local Citation Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a method for journal collection evaluation using citation analysis. Cost-per-use (CPU) for each title is used to measure cost-effectiveness with higher CPU scores indicating cost-effective titles. Use data are based on the impact factor and locally collected citation score of each title and is compared to the cost of managing…

  8. Factors Influencing Observed Tillage Impacts on Herbicide Transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widespread use and potential human health effects of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate have generated interest in establishing how no-tillage impacts loading of these herbicides to runoff water in comparison to other tillage practices. In this study, potentially confounding factors such as ...

  9. Evaluating Academic Journals without Impact Factors for Collection Management Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilevko, Juris; Atkinson, Esther

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of evaluating academic journals for collection management decisions focuses on a methodological framework for evaluating journals not ranked by impact factors in Journal Citation Reports. Compares nonranked journals with ranked journals and then applies this framework to a case study in the field of medical science. (LRW)

  10. ASM Journals Eliminate Impact Factor Information from Journal Websites.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Bertuzzi, Stefano; Buchmeier, Michael J; Davis, Roger J; Drake, Harold; Fang, Ferric C; Gilbert, Jack; Goldman, Barbara M; Imperiale, Michael J; Matsumura, Philip; McAdam, Alexander J; Pasetti, Marcela F; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M; Silhavy, Thomas; Rice, Louis; Young, Jo-Anne H; Shenk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists attempt to publish their work in a journal with the highest possible journal impact factor (IF). Despite widespread condemnation of the use of journal IFs to assess the significance of published work, these numbers continue to be widely misused in publication, hiring, funding, and promotion decisions (1, 2). PMID:27408939

  11. Watson's theory of transpersonal caring: factors impacting nurses professional caring.

    PubMed

    Vandenhouten, Christine; Kubsch, Sylvia; Peterson, Margaret; Murdock, Jennifer; Lehrer, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This study's purpose was to identify factors impacting nurses' perceived professional caring. The sample of 242 nurses completed a researcher-developed survey based on Watson's theory of transpersonal caring. Results showed that experienced, hospital-based nurses and those demonstrating greater familiarity with Watson's theory had higher caring scores. Implications for education, practice, and research are suggested. PMID:23075749

  12. Characterisation factors for life cycle impact assessment of sound emissions.

    PubMed

    Cucurachi, S; Heijungs, R

    2014-01-15

    Noise is a serious stressor affecting the health of millions of citizens. It has been suggested that disturbance by noise is responsible for a substantial part of the damage to human health. However, no recommended approach to address noise impacts was proposed by the handbook for life cycle assessment (LCA) of the European Commission, nor are characterisation factors (CFs) and appropriate inventory data available in commonly used databases. This contribution provides CFs to allow for the quantification of noise impacts on human health in the LCA framework. Noise propagation standards and international reports on acoustics and noise impacts were used to define the model parameters. Spatial data was used to calculate spatially-defined CFs in the form of 10-by-10-km maps. The results of this analysis were combined with data from the literature to select input data for representative archetypal situations of emission (e.g. urban day with a frequency of 63 Hz, rural night at 8000 Hz, etc.). A total of 32 spatial and 216 archetypal CFs were produced to evaluate noise impacts at a European level (i.e. EU27). The possibility of a user-defined characterisation factor was added to support the possibility of portraying the situation of full availability of information, as well as a highly-localised impact analysis. A Monte Carlo-based quantitative global sensitivity analysis method was applied to evaluate the importance of the input factors in determining the variance of the output. The factors produced are ready to be implemented in the available LCA databases and software. The spatial approach and archetypal approach may be combined and selected according to the amount of information available and the life cycle under study. The framework proposed and used for calculations is flexible enough to be expanded to account for impacts on target subjects other than humans and to continents other than Europe. PMID:24035845

  13. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP. PMID:24909881

  14. Method to characterize collective impact of factors on indoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Maciejewska, Monika; Teuerle, Marek; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka

    2015-02-01

    One of the most important problems in studies of building environment is a description of how it is influenced by various dynamically changing factors. In this paper we characterized the joint impact of a collection of factors on indoor air quality (IAQ). We assumed that the influence is reflected in the temporal variability of IAQ parameters and may be deduced from it. The proposed method utilizes mean square displacement (MSD) analysis which was originally developed for studying the dynamics in various systems. Based on the MSD time-dependence descriptor β, we distinguished three types of the collective impact of factors on IAQ: retarding, stabilizing and promoting. We presented how the aggregated factors influence the temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentration, as these parameters are informative for the condition of indoor air. We discovered, that during a model day there are encountered one, two or even three types of influence. The presented method allows us to study the impacts from the perspective of the dynamics of indoor air.

  15. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Andrea; Malchow, Berend; Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudinal disease course confirm this hypothesis. Apart from the influence of risk genes in severe psychiatric disorders, environmental factors may also impact brain development during the perinatal period. Several environmental factors such as antenatal maternal virus infections, obstetric complications entailing hypoxia as common factor or stress during neurodevelopment have been identified to play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, possibly contributing to smaller hippocampal volumes. In major depression, psychosocial stress during the perinatal period or in adulthood is an important trigger. In animal studies, chronic stress or repeated administration of glucocorticoids have been shown to induce degeneration of glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms altering the chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation may mediate effects of environmental factors to transcriptional regulation of specific genes and be a prominent factor in gene-environmental interaction. In animal models, gene-environmental interaction should be investigated more intensely to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms. These findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies influencing epigenetic targets in severe psychiatric disorders. PMID:24574956

  16. [Concepts, confusions and contradictions on the impact factor in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Leon, Martha E

    2007-01-01

    Latin American scientists are making tremendous efforts to conduct good-quality research worthy of being published internationally. However, Colciencias, an entity created to support this research in Colombia, introduced scienciometric evaluations which had been re-evaluated elsewhere some time ago, based on measurements of aspects such as the ill-termed "impact factor". Even more serious is that the aforementioned government office is unaware that measures are based on debated mathematical principles, placing Colombian science at imminent risk of suffering from an academic yatrogeny of irreparable consequences. Therefore, an urgent restructuring of the way in which Colombia's scientific production is to be evaluated is thus mandatory before these measures have a negative impact thereon. PMID:17639682

  17. Impacts of environmental factors on fine root lifespan

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, M. Luke; Guo, Dali

    2014-01-01

    The lifespan of fast-cycling roots is a critical parameter determining a large flux of plant carbon into soil through root turnover and is a biological feature regulating the capacity of a plant to capture soil water and nutrients via root-age-related physiological processes. While the importance of root lifespan to whole-plant and ecosystem processes is increasingly recognized, robust descriptions of this dynamic process and its response to changes in climatic and edaphic factors are lacking. Here we synthesize available information and propose testable hypotheses using conceptual models to describe how changes in temperature, water, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) availability impact fine root lifespan within a species. Each model is based on intrinsic responses including root physiological activity and alteration of carbohydrate allocation at the whole-plant level as well as extrinsic factors including mycorrhizal fungi and pressure from pathogens, herbivores, and other microbes. Simplifying interactions among these factors, we propose three general principles describing fine root responses to complex environmental gradients. First, increases in a factor that strongly constrains plant growth (temperature, water, N, or P) should result in increased fine root lifespan. Second, increases in a factor that exceeds plant demand or tolerance should result in decreased lifespan. Third, as multiple factors interact fine root responses should be determined by the most dominant factor controlling plant growth. Moving forward, field experiments should determine which types of species (e.g., coarse vs. fine rooted, obligate vs. facultative mycotrophs) will express greater plasticity in response to environmental gradients while ecosystem models may begin to incorporate more detailed descriptions of root lifespan and turnover. Together these efforts will improve quantitative understanding of root dynamics and help to identify areas where future research should be focused

  18. Retraction policies of top scientific journals ranked by impact factor

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Wager, Elizabeth; Kissling, Grace E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study gathered information about the retraction policies of the top 200 scientific journals, ranked by impact factor. Methods Editors of the top 200 science journals for the year 2012 were contacted by email. Results One hundred forty-seven journals (74%) responded to a request for information. Of these, 95 (65%) had a retraction policy. Of journals with a retraction policy, 94% had a policy that allows the editors to retract articles without authors’ consent. Conclusions The majority of journals in this sample had a retraction policy, and almost all of them would retract an article without the authors’ permission. PMID:26213505

  19. The top-ten in journal impact factor manipulation.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Alexiou, Vangelis G

    2008-01-01

    A considerable part of the scientific community is, at least to some degree, involved in the "impact factor game". Editors strive to increase their journals' impact factor (IF) in order to gain influence in the fields of basic and applied research and scientists seek to profit from the "added value" of publishing in top IF journals. In this article we point out the most common "tricks" of engineering and manipulating the IF undertaken by a portion of professionals of the scientific publishing industry. They attempt to increase the nominator or decrease the denominator of the IF equation by taking advantage of certain design flaws and disadvantages of the IF that permit a degree of artificial and arbitrary inflation. Some of these practices, if not scientifically unethical, are at least questionable and should be abandoned. Editors and publishers should strive for quality through fair and thoughtful selection of papers forwarded for peer review and editorial comments that enhance the quality and scientific accuracy of a manuscript. PMID:18661263

  20. Is impact factor necessary for "Prilozi (Contributions)" and Macedonia?

    PubMed

    Gucev, Zoran; Polenakovic, Momir

    2013-01-01

    58 years after the creation of impact factor (IF) the professional public shows interest in IFs and their significance for academia and individuals. Really, is a medical journal with IF needed for Macedonia? Some other small and developing countries have pursued and accomplished this goal: Serbia, Slovenia, and Croatia. On the other hand the survey of publications in Macedonian medical journals has been found to lack quality. We believe that to strive to obtain an IF would be beneficial for all Macedonian interest groups involved. This would introduce an ambition among the members of Macedonian academia to publish (so far rare), than to publish in Pubmed listed journals (ambition present in very few Macedonian academics) and then to publish in journals with the highest IF possible (so far a very exclusive group of Macedonian medical professionals). In time this will help in creating and enforcing legal obligation for the academia for a promotion based on merit of IF scientific publications. We believe that this is possible only by Parliament legislation. This will be of benefit for Macedonian patients, the medical community and will unable this country to contribute to the universe of science. Lastly it would certainly be helpful in getting a Macedonian university in the prestigious first 500 Shangai list. Key words: impact factor, Macedonia, medical journals. PMID:24280884

  1. Time trends in the impact factor of Public Health journals

    PubMed Central

    López-Abente, Gonzalo; Muñoz-Tinoco, Concha

    2005-01-01

    Background Journal impact factor (IF) is linked to the probability of a paper being cited and is progressively becoming incorporated into researchers' curricula vitae. Furthermore, the decision as to which journal a given study should be submitted, may well be based on the trend in the journal's overall quality. This study sought to assess time trends in journal IF in the field of public, environmental and occupational health. Methods We used the IFs of 80 public health journals that were registered by the Science Citation Index from 1992 through 2003 and had been listed for a minimum period of the previous 3 years. Impact factor time trends were assessed using a linear regression model, in which the dependent variable was IF and the independent variable, the year. The slope of the model and its statistical significance were taken as the indicator of annual change. Results The IF range for the journals covered went from 0.18 to 5.2 in 2003. Although there was no statistical association between annual change and mean IF, most of the fastest growing journals registered mean IFs in excess of 1.5, and some represented emerging areas of public health research. Graphs displaying IF trends are shown. Conclusion In view of the delay between the publication of IFs and that of any given paper, knowing the trend in IF is essential in order to make a correct choice of journal. PMID:15777471

  2. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Schwake, David Otto; Alum, Absar; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water. PMID:25996405

  3. Conversion during thoracoscopic lobectomy: related factors and learning curve impact.

    PubMed

    Smith, David E; Dietrich, Agustin; Nicolas, Matias; Da Lozzo, Alejandro; Beveraggi, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy has become a standard procedure for lung cancer treatment. Conversion-related factors and learning curve impacts, were poorly described. The aim of this study was to review the reasons and related factor for conversion in VATS lobectomy and the impact on this of the surgeon's learning curve. From June 2009 to May 2014, 154 patients who underwent a VATS lobectomy were included in our study. Patients' characteristics, pathology background, operative times, overall length of stay, overall morbidity and type of major complications were recorded for all patients and compared between non converted (n = 133) and converted (n = 21) patients. To evaluate surgeon's learning curve, we analyzed rates and causes of conversion in the first period (first 77 patients) and in the last period (78-154 patients). Patients characteristics were similar between converted and non-converted groups. Patients who were converted to open thoracotomy presented more frecuently tumors >3 cms (P = 0.02). The average of operative times and the length of stay were not significantly different between groups. Overall morbidity and major complications were also similar in both groups. There were no impact of surgeon's learning curve in overall rate conversion in both groups. Emergency conversion was always secondary to vascular accidents, all in the first group (p = 0.059). Surgeons should be expecting to perform a conversion to a thoracotomy in patients who present in preoperative studies, tumors greater than 3 cms. Learning curve only affected the emergency conversion, occurred all in the first half of our series. PMID:26561493

  4. Major osteoporotic fragility fractures: Risk factor updates and societal impact

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Paola; Renna, Maria Daniela; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Ernesto; Di Paola, Marco; Quarta, Eugenio; Muratore, Maurizio; Casciaro, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a silent disease without any evidence of disease until a fracture occurs. Approximately 200 million people in the world are affected by osteoporosis and 8.9 million fractures occur each year worldwide. Fractures of the hip are a major public health burden, by means of both social cost and health condition of the elderly because these fractures are one of the main causes of morbidity, impairment, decreased quality of life and mortality in women and men. The aim of this review is to analyze the most important factors related to the enormous impact of osteoporotic fractures on population. Among the most common risk factors, low body mass index; history of fragility fracture, environmental risk, early menopause, smoking, lack of vitamin D, endocrine disorders (for example insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), use of glucocorticoids, excessive alcohol intake, immobility and others represented the main clinical risk factors associated with augmented risk of fragility fracture. The increasing trend of osteoporosis is accompanied by an underutilization of the available preventive strategies and only a small number of patients at high fracture risk are recognized and successively referred for therapy. This report provides analytic evidences to assess the best practices in osteoporosis management and indications for the adoption of a correct healthcare strategy to significantly reduce the osteoporosis burden. Early diagnosis is the key to resize the impact of osteoporosis on healthcare system. In this context, attention must be focused on the identification of high fracture risk among osteoporotic patients. It is necessary to increase national awareness campaigns across countries in order to reduce the osteoporotic fractures incidence. PMID:27004165

  5. Major osteoporotic fragility fractures: Risk factor updates and societal impact.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Paola; Renna, Maria Daniela; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Ernesto; Di Paola, Marco; Quarta, Eugenio; Muratore, Maurizio; Casciaro, Sergio

    2016-03-18

    Osteoporosis is a silent disease without any evidence of disease until a fracture occurs. Approximately 200 million people in the world are affected by osteoporosis and 8.9 million fractures occur each year worldwide. Fractures of the hip are a major public health burden, by means of both social cost and health condition of the elderly because these fractures are one of the main causes of morbidity, impairment, decreased quality of life and mortality in women and men. The aim of this review is to analyze the most important factors related to the enormous impact of osteoporotic fractures on population. Among the most common risk factors, low body mass index; history of fragility fracture, environmental risk, early menopause, smoking, lack of vitamin D, endocrine disorders (for example insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), use of glucocorticoids, excessive alcohol intake, immobility and others represented the main clinical risk factors associated with augmented risk of fragility fracture. The increasing trend of osteoporosis is accompanied by an underutilization of the available preventive strategies and only a small number of patients at high fracture risk are recognized and successively referred for therapy. This report provides analytic evidences to assess the best practices in osteoporosis management and indications for the adoption of a correct healthcare strategy to significantly reduce the osteoporosis burden. Early diagnosis is the key to resize the impact of osteoporosis on healthcare system. In this context, attention must be focused on the identification of high fracture risk among osteoporotic patients. It is necessary to increase national awareness campaigns across countries in order to reduce the osteoporotic fractures incidence. PMID:27004165

  6. Impact of Multiple Factors on the Degree of Tinnitus Distress

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Petra; Szczepek, Agnieszka J.; Rose, Matthias; McKenna, Laurence; Olze, Heidi; Mazurek, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The primary cause of subjective tinnitus is a dysfunction of the auditory system; however, the degree of distress tinnitus causes depends largely on the psychological status of the patient. Our goal was to attempt to associate the grade of tinnitus-related distress with the psychological distress, physical, or psychological discomfort patients experienced, as well as potentially relevant social parameters, through a simultaneous analysis of these factors. Methods: We determined the level of tinnitus-related distress in 531 tinnitus patients using the German version of the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ). In addition, we used the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ); General Depression Scale Allgemeine Depression Skala (ADS), Berlin Mood Questionnaire (BSF); somatic symptoms inventory (BI), and SF-8 health survey as well as general information collected through a medical history. Results: The TQ score significantly correlated with a score obtained using PSQ, ADS, BSF, BI, and SF-8 alongside psychosocial factors such as age, gender, and marital status. The level of hearing loss and the auditory properties of the specific tinnitus combined with perceived stress and the degree of depressive mood and somatic discomfort of a patient were identified as medium-strong predictors of chronic tinnitus. Social factors such as gender, age, or marital status also had an impact on the degree of tinnitus distress. The results that were obtained were implemented in a specific cortical distress network model. Conclusions: Using a large representative sample of patients with chronic tinnitus permitted a simultaneous statistical measurement of psychometric and audiological parameters in predicting tinnitus distress. We demonstrate that single factors can be distinguished in a manner that explains their causative association and influence on the induction of tinnitus-related distress. PMID:27445776

  7. Research Misconduct Policies of Social Science Journals and Impact Factor

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Patrone, Daniel; Peddada, Shyamal

    2010-01-01

    In this study we gathered data on the misconduct policies of social science journals and combined it with the data from our previous study on journal misconduct policies, which did not include enough social science journals for data analysis. Consistent with our earlier finding, impact factor of the journal was the only variable significantly associated with whether a journal had a formal (written) misconduct policy with an odds-ratio of 1.72 (p < 0.01). We did not find that type of science (physical, biomedical, or social) or publisher had a significant effect on whether a journal had a policy. Another important finding is that less than half of the journals that responded to the survey had a formal misconduct policy. PMID:20306350

  8. Impact Factors Show Increased Use of AGU Journals in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Barbara Meyers

    2009-07-01

    The latest numbers released from Journal Citation Reports (JCR), published annually by Thomson Reuters, show large increases in the impact factor (IF) for several AGU journals. IFs are one way for publishers to know that readers have found their journals useful and of value in research. A journal's IF is calculated by taking the total number of citations to articles published by a given journal in the past 2 years and dividing it by the total number of papers published by the journal in the same time period. More generally, it can be seen as the frequency with which articles in a journal have been cited over the past year. The numbers speak for themselves (see Table 1).

  9. The story of fake impact factor companies and how we detected them

    PubMed Central

    Jalalian, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Beginning about three years ago, the world of academic publishing has become infected by fake impact factors and misleading metrics that are launched by bogus companies. The misleading metrics and fake impact factors have damaged the prestige and reliability of scientific research and scholarly journals. This article presents the in-depth story of some of the main bogus impact factors, how they approached the academic world, and how the author identified them. Some names that they use are Universal Impact Factor (UIF), Global Impact Factor (GIF), and Citefactor, and there even is a fake Thomson Reuters Company. PMID:26120416

  10. Journal Impact Factor: Do the Numerator and Denominator Need Correction?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue-Li; Gai, Shuang-Shuang; Zhou, Jing

    2016-01-01

    To correct the incongruence of document types between the numerator and denominator in the traditional impact factor (IF), we make a corresponding adjustment to its formula and present five corrective IFs: IFTotal/Total, IFTotal/AREL, IFAR/AR, IFAREL/AR, and IFAREL/AREL. Based on a survey of researchers in the fields of ophthalmology and mathematics, we obtained the real impact ranking of sample journals in the minds of peer experts. The correlations between various IFs and questionnaire score were analyzed to verify their journal evaluation effects. The results show that it is scientific and reasonable to use five corrective IFs for journal evaluation for both ophthalmology and mathematics. For ophthalmology, the journal evaluation effects of the five corrective IFs are superior than those of traditional IF: the corrective effect of IFAR/AR is the best, IFAREL/AR is better than IFTotal/Total, followed by IFTotal/AREL, and IFAREL/AREL. For mathematics, the journal evaluation effect of traditional IF is superior than those of the five corrective IFs: the corrective effect of IFTotal/Total is best, IFAREL/AR is better than IFTotal/AREL and IFAREL/AREL, and the corrective effect of IFAR/AR is the worst. In conclusion, not all disciplinary journal IF need correction. The results in the current paper show that to correct the IF of ophthalmologic journals may be valuable, but it seems to be meaningless for mathematic journals. PMID:26977697

  11. The impact of psychosis on social inclusion and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    White, Sarah; Lalvani, Nabeela; Berg, Rachel; Thachil, Ajoy; Kallumpuram, Sen; Nasiruddin, Omar; Wright, Christine; Mezey, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Background: People with mental health problems are known to be socially excluded but the contribution of pre-morbid characteristics, symptoms and needs, and the impact on quality of life is unknown. Aims: To investigate change in social inclusion after the development of a psychotic Illness and factors associated with this. Methods: A cross-sectional community survey of people with psychosis was carried out in three areas of London. Five domains of social inclusion (social integration, consumption, access to services, productivity, political engagement) were assessed prior to the onset of illness and currently using the Social Inclusion Questionnaire User Experience. Quality of life, symptoms and needs were also assessed using standardized measures. Factors associated with change in social inclusion were investigated using multiple regression. Results: Productivity and social integration among the 67 participants reduced after the onset of psychosis. Older age at onset and longer duration of illness were associated with greater reduction in productivity. Less reduction in social integration was associated with greater quality of life. Participants reported barriers to social inclusion that were directly related to symptoms of their illness, low confidence and poor self-esteem. Conclusions: A greater focus on interventions that can facilitate the occupation and the social networks of people with psychosis is required. Interventions that tackle ‘self-stigma’ may also prove useful in mitigating the social exclusion experienced by people with psychosis. PMID:23399990

  12. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Kang; Hashim, Syed I; Yong, Kimberley L Y; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture. Calcium supplementation was previously regarded as a useful treatment during physical rehabilitation. However, recent data suggests calcium supplementation has a negative impact on atherosclerotic conditions. Vitamin D intake may prevent osteoporosis and fractures in patients with stroke. Although drugs such as teriparatide show some benefits in preventing osteoporosis, additional clinical trials are needed to determine the most effective conditions for post-stroke applications. PMID:26929915

  13. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Huo, Kang; Hashim, Syed I; Yong, Kimberley L Y; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-02-20

    Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture. Calcium supplementation was previously regarded as a useful treatment during physical rehabilitation. However, recent data suggests calcium supplementation has a negative impact on atherosclerotic conditions. Vitamin D intake may prevent osteoporosis and fractures in patients with stroke. Although drugs such as teriparatide show some benefits in preventing osteoporosis, additional clinical trials are needed to determine the most effective conditions for post-stroke applications. PMID:26929915

  14. Impact of "JOBM": ISI Impact Factor Places the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" Third in Applied Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    The ISI Impact Factor for "JOBM" is 1.793, placing it third in the JCR rankings for journals in applied psychology with a sharply accelerating linear trend over the past 5 years. This article reviews the Impact Factor and raises questions regarding its reliability and validity and then considers a citation analysis of "JOBM" in light of the…

  15. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Dan

    2013-10-01

    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  16. BM-35CLINICAL FACTORS IMPACTING SURVIVAL IN BRAIN METASTASES

    PubMed Central

    Veilleux, Olivier; Cottin, Sylvine; Michaud, Karine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metastatic brain tumors are a common complication of systemic cancers. Good performance status, absence of extracranial metastases, age < 65 years and control of the primary tumor are the strongest predictors of survival. Controversy exists regarding best adjuvant treatment for patients. Therefore, careful evaluation of patient features and tumor characteristics must be considered when determining treatment modality. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the treatment management and clinical features of metastatic brain neoplasms following a neurosurgical procedure and evaluate factors conditioning survival. METHODS: Between January 1st 2009 and January 1st 2013, medical files of patients who underwent a surgical procedure for metastatic brain tumors at Hôpital de l'Enfant-Jésus in Québec City were reviewed. Data on patient features, primary and metastatic neoplasm characteristics, procedure and survival were recorded. Wilcoxon rank sum test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Cox proportional-hazards regression for survival data were used to assess the impact of treatments and patient characteristics on survival. Efficacy of whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and combined treatment in terms of patient survival were also evaluated. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty six patient files were reviewed and 109 were included for analysis. The mean survival time for patients was 537.9 days. Age below 65 years (p = 0.08) was a protective factor. WBRT combined with SRS (p < 0.0001), the use of WBRT alone (p = 0.002) or SRS alone (p = 0.004) all significantly improved survival. SRS, when compared to WBRT alone or to combined WBRT and SRS treatment, did not show significant difference in survival. CONCLUSION: Survival in our population is influenced by age and the use of adjuvant treatment. The choice of treatment modality after surgery remains somewhat controversial and our results support the need for further studies to compare

  17. Factors affecting benthic impacts at Scottish fish farms.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Daniel J; Zuur, Alain F; Solan, Martin; Paton, Graeme I; Killham, Ken

    2010-03-15

    The factors affecting patterns of benthic [seabed] biology and chemistry around 50 Scottish fish farms were investigated using linear mixed-effects models that account for inherent correlations between observations from the same farm. The abundance of benthic macrofauna and sediment concentrations of organic carbon were both influenced by a significant, albeit weak, interaction between farm size, defined as the maximum weight of fish permitted on site at any one time, and current speed. Above a farm size threshold of between 800 and 1000 t, the magnitude of effects at farms located in areas of elevated current speeds were greater than at equivalent farms located in more quiescent waters. Sediment concentrations of total organic matter were influenced by an interaction between distance and depth, indicating that wind-driven resuspension events may help reduce the accumulation of organic waste at farms located in shallow waters. The analyses presented here demonstrate that the production and subsequent fate of organic waste at fish farms is more complex than is often assumed; in isolation, current speed, water depth, and farr size are not necessarily good predictors of benthic impact. PMID:20178333

  18. Impact Factors and Prediction of Popular Topics in a Journal.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M B; Seitz, K

    2016-08-01

    The impact factor (IF) for 2015 was recently released and this could be the time to once again reflect on its use as a metric of a journal. Problems and concerns regarding the IF have been addressed extensively elsewhere 1 2. The principle of the IF for a given year is that it represents the average number of citations of articles published in the journal in the two previous years.While authors frequently cite the IF as a determining factor for submission, the IF does not predict how many times individual articles will be cited. In a study from a peer-reviewed cardiovascular journal, nearly half of all published articles were poorly cited, i. e., less than five citations in five years 3. A similar percentage seems to apply to our journal. In nearly all journals we estimate that the majority of citations relate to a minority of the articles. Some articles are never cited. 13 % of the articles published in our journal from 2010 to 2013 have never been cited. Even authors of poorly cited articles benefit from the IF since many institutions use the combined impact factors of their published papers to measure research activity and this may be reflected in their research budgets.The competition for the printed pages in the six annual issues of Ultraschall in der Medizin/European Journal of Ultrasound (UiM/EJU) has resulted in high rejection rates (between 80 % and 90 %). One negative review with recommendation of major revision may therefore result in rejection. Peer-review fraud where the submitting author listed recommended reviewers with fake email addresses supplying fabricated peer reviews has recently been described in the New England Journal of Medicine 4. Some of the editors of our journal believe they have experienced this as well. Fabricating reviews in order to get a high IF for an article is to be considered fraud and is inexcusable.One aspect of using impact factors as a measure of the quality of a journal is that the IF only goes back two years

  19. Impact phenomena as factors in the evolution of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieve, R. A. F.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    It is estimated that 30 to 200 large impact basins could have been formed on the early Earth. These large impacts may have resulted in extensive volcanism and enhanced endogenic geologic activity over large areas. Initial modelling of the thermal and subsidence history of large terrestrial basins indicates that they created geologic and thermal anomalies which lasted for geologically significant times. The role of large-scale impact in the biological evolution of the Earth has been highlighted by the discovery of siderophile anomalies at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and associated with North American microtektites. Although in neither case has an associated crater been identified, the observations are consistent with the deposition of projectile-contaminated high-speed ejecta from major impact events. Consideration of impact processes reveals a number of mechanisms by which large-scale impact may induce extinctions.

  20. Impact of haze-fog days to radon progeny equilibrium factor and discussion of related factors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Changsong; Shang, Bing; Zhang, Qingzhao; Cui, Hongxing; Wu, Yunyun; Deng, Jun

    2015-11-01

    The equilibrium factor F between radon and its short-lived progenies is an important parameter to estimate radon exposure of humans. Therefore, indoor and outdoor concentrations of radon and its short-lived radon progeny were measured in Beijing area using a continuously measuring device, in an effort to obtain information on the F value. The results showed that the mean values of F were 0.58 ± 0.13 (0.25-0.95, n = 305) and 0.52 ± 0.12 (0.31-0.91, n = 64) for indoor and outdoor, respectively. The indoor F value during haze-fog days was higher than the typical value of 0.4 recommended by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and it was also higher than the values of 0.47 and 0.49 reported in the literature. A positive correlation was observed between indoor F values and PM2.5 concentrations (R (2) = 0.71). Since 2013, owing to frequent heavy haze-fog events in Beijing and surrounding areas, the number of the days with severe pollution remains at a high level. Future studies on the impact of the ambient fine particulate matter on indoor radon progeny equilibrium factor F could be important. PMID:26143065

  1. Photon impact factor and k{sub T}-factorization for DIS in the next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Balitsky, Giovanni Chirilli

    2013-01-01

    The photon impact factor for the BFKL pomeron is calculated in the next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation using the operator expansion in Wilson lines. The result is represented as an NLO k{sub T}-factorization formula for structure functions of small-x deep inelastic scattering.

  2. Studying Overseas: Factors Impacting Intention of Female Students in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jie; Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that impact Chinese female students' intention to study overseas. This study also aimed to understand how these factors impact female students' decision making process. Using a survey questionnaire, data were collected from 96 female undergraduates who enrolled in a 4-year public university…

  3. Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bryan D.; Olden, Julian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend…

  4. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  5. Factors Influencing Pediatric Injury in Side Impact Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Moll, Elisa K.; Morris, Shannon D.; Anderko, Rebecca L.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2000-01-01

    Side impacts collisions pose a great risk to children in crashes but information about the injury mechanisms is limited. The heights and weights of children vary widely and as a result, the injury patterns may vary across the pediatric age range. This study involves a case series of children in side impact collisions who were identified through Partners for Child Passenger Safety, a large child-focused crash surveillance system. The aim of the current study was to use in-depth crash investigations to identify injury mechanisms to children in side impact collisions. 93 children in 55 side impact crashes were studied. 23% (n=22) of the children received an AIS ≥2 (clinically significant) injury. In these 22 children, head (39%), extremity (22%), and abdominal injuries (17%) were the most common significant injuries. The cases revealed that serious injuries occur even in minor crashes. Cases that illustrate body region-specific injury mechanisms are discussed. PMID:11558098

  6. The evaluation of the individual impact factor of researchers and research centers using the RC algorithm.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Villafáfila, Amelia; Ramos-Brieva, Jesus A

    2015-01-01

    The RC algorithm quantitatively evaluates the personal impact factor of the scientific production of isolated researchers. The authors propose an adaptation of RC to evaluate the personal impact factor of research centers, hospitals and other research groups. Thus, these could be classified according to the accredited impact of the results of their scientific work between researchers of the same scientific area. This could be useful for channelling budgets and grants for research. PMID:25023181

  7. HERMES impact for the access of Compton form factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumerički, K.; Müller, D.; Murray, M.

    2014-07-01

    We utilize the DVCS asymmetry measurements of the HERMES collaboration for access to Compton form factors in the deeply virtual regime and to generalized parton distributions. In particular, the (almost) complete measurement of DVCS observables allows us to map various asymmetries into the space of Compton form factors, where we still rely in this analysis on dominance of twist-two associated Compton form factors. We compare this one-to-one map with local Compton form factor fits and a model dependent global fit.

  8. Economic and Demographic Factors Impacting Placement of Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Paschall, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Educational placement of students with autism is often associated with child factors, such as IQ and communication skills. However, variability in placement patterns across states suggests that other factors are at play. This study used hierarchical cluster analysis techniques to identify demographic, economic, and educational covariates…

  9. Factors Influencing Ball-Player Impact Probability in Youth Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Philip A.; Myers, Joseph B.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Altering the weight of baseballs for youth play has been studied out of concern for player safety. Research has shown that decreasing the weight of baseballs may limit the severity of both chronic arm and collision injuries. Unfortunately, reducing the weight of the ball also increases its exit velocity, leaving pitchers and nonpitchers with less time to defend themselves. The purpose of this study was to examine impact probability for pitchers and nonpitchers. Hypothesis: Reducing the available time to respond by 10% (expected from reducing ball weight from 142 g to 113 g) would increase impact probability for pitchers and nonpitchers, and players’ mean simple response time would be a primary predictor of impact probability for all participants. Study Design: Nineteen subjects between the ages of 9 and 13 years performed 3 experiments in a controlled laboratory setting: a simple response time test, an avoidance response time test, and a pitching response time test. Methods: Each subject performed these tests in order. The simple reaction time test tested the subjects’ mean simple response time, the avoidance reaction time test tested the subjects’ ability to avoid a simulated batted ball as a fielder, and the pitching reaction time test tested the subjects’ ability to avoid a simulated batted ball as a pitcher. Results: Reducing the weight of a standard baseball from 142 g to 113 g led to a less than 5% increase in impact probability for nonpitchers. However, the results indicate that the impact probability for pitchers could increase by more than 25%. Conclusion: Pitching may greatly increase the amount of time needed to react and defend oneself from a batted ball. Clinical Relevance: Impact injuries to youth baseball players may increase if a 113-g ball is used. PMID:25984261

  10. Impact of Environmental Factors on the Regulation of Cyanotoxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, Thangavelu; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are capable of thriving in almost all environments. Recent changes in climatic conditions due to increased human activities favor the occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial bloom all over the world. Knowledge of the regulation of cyanotoxins by the various environmental factors is essential for effective management of toxic cyanobacterial bloom. In recent years, progress in the field of molecular mechanisms involved in cyanotoxin production has paved the way for assessing the role of various factors on the cyanotoxin production. In this review, we present an overview of the influence of various environmental factors on the production of major group of cyanotoxins, including microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxins and saxitoxins. PMID:24967641

  11. Factors Impacting the Advancement of Female Leaders to the Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Sally Utley

    2009-01-01

    The position of the superintendency is a critical and influential one. It sets the strategic goals for teaching and learning for school divisions throughout the United States. It serves as a role model for future school leaders. The educational programs provided to students in public schools have a significant impact on the success of our youth.…

  12. Impact of exercise training on psychological risk factors.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Milani, Richard V; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Although the role of psychological risk factors has been underemphasized, considerable evidence indicates the adverse effects of various psychosocial stressors in the pathogenesis and recovery from cardiovascular diseases. Substantial data, especially from cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training programs, have demonstrated the role of physical activity, exercise training, and cardiorespiratory fitness, to improve psychological risk factors, including depression, anxiety, hostility, and total psychological stress, as well as stress-related mortality. PMID:21545933

  13. Factors associated with the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) for Urology and Nephrology Journals

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Joseph M.; Adejoro, Oluwakayode O.; Fleck, Joseph R.; Wolfson, Julian A.; Konety, Badrinath R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is an index used to compare a journal's quality among academic journals and it is commonly used as a proxy for journal quality. We sought to examine the JIF in order to elucidate the main predictors of the index while generating awareness among scientific community regarding need to modify the index calculation in the attempt to turn it more accurate. Materials and Methods: Under the Urology and Nephrology category in the Journal Citations Report Website, the top 17 Journals by JIF in 2011 were chosen for the study. All manuscripts’ abstracts published from 2009-2010 were reviewed; each article was categorized based on its research design (Retrospective, Review, etc). T and correlation tests were performed for categorical and continuous variables respectively. The JIF was the dependent variable. All variables were then included in a multivariate model. Results: 23,012 articles from seventeen journals were evaluated with a median of 1,048 (range=78-6,342) articles per journal. Journals with a society affiliation were associated with a higher JIF (p=0.05). Self-citations (rho=0.57, p=0.02), citations for citable articles (rho=0.73, p=0.001), citations to non-citable articles (rho=0.65, p=0.0046), and retrospective studies (rho=-0.51, p=0.03) showed a strong correlation. Slight modifications to include the non-citable articles in the denominator yield drastic changes in the JIF and the ranking of the journals. Conclusion: The JIF appears to be closely associated with the number of citable articles published. A change in the formula for calculating JIF to include all types of published articles in the denominator would result in a more accurate representation. PMID:26742962

  14. Bibliometric indexes, databases and impact factors in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Bienert, Igor R C; Oliveira, Rogério Carvalho de; Andrade, Pedro Beraldo de; Caramori, Carlos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometry is a quantitative statistical technique to measure levels of production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as a useful tool to track the development of an scientific area. The valuation of production required for recognition of researchers and magazines is accomplished through tools called bibliometric indexes, divided into quality indicators and scientific impact. Initially developed for monographs of statistical measures especially in libraries, today bibliometrics is mainly used to evaluate productivity of authors and citation repercussion. However, these tools have limitations and sometimes provoke controversies about indiscriminate application, leading to the development of newer indexes. It is important to know the most common search indexes and use it properly even acknowledging its limitations as it has a direct impact in their daily practice, reputation and funds achievement. PMID:26107458

  15. Bibliometric indexes, databases and impact factors in cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Bienert, Igor R C; de Oliveira, Rogério Carvalho; de Andrade, Pedro Beraldo; Caramori, Carlos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometry is a quantitative statistical technique to measure levels of production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as a useful tool to track the development of an scientific area. The valuation of production required for recognition of researchers and magazines is accomplished through tools called bibliometricindexes, divided into quality indicators and scientific impact. Initially developed for monographs of statistical measures especially in libraries, today bibliometrics is mainly used to evaluate productivity of authors and citation repercussion. However, these tools have limitations and sometimes provoke controversies about indiscriminate application, leading to the development of newer indexes. It is important to know the most common search indexes and use it properly even acknowledging its limitations as it has a direct impact in their daily practice, reputation and funds achievement. PMID:26107458

  16. Cancer family history reporting: impact of method and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Remy, Amber; DeSimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-06-01

    Family history is one the greatest risk factors for disease and one of the most important informational tools in medical genetics for the purpose of diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention and treatment. However, research is needed on the comparability of different methods of cancer family history assessment and the influence of psychosocial factors in family history reports. The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals had discrepancies between written and interview reports of cancer family history and the role of psychosocial factors in these discrepancies. Oncology patients (n=104) were administered a survey to assess psychosocial factors (i.e., information-seeking, worry, perceived risk, and health literacy) and were asked to provide family history in a written and an interview form. Randomization determined which form individuals received first. No differences in the amount of missing data or the amount of unspecified data were noted between the written and interview method. Psychosocial factors did not differentiate between those who had discrepancies in family history reports and those who did not have discrepancies in family history reports; although there was a trend for those with lower literacy and those who were blunters to be more discrepant on type of cancer diagnosis. In sum, this preliminary study indicates that written and interview methods of family history assessment for first degree relatives may be used interchangeably. The ability to use written methods will facilitate collection of basic family history information in the oncology clinic. PMID:17318453

  17. Impact factors for Reggeon-gluon transition in N=4 SYM with large number of colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. S.; Fiore, R.

    2014-06-01

    We calculate impact factors for Reggeon-gluon transition in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with four supercharges at large number of colours Nc. In the next-to-leading order impact factors are not uniquely defined and must accord with BFKL kernels and energy scales. We obtain the impact factor corresponding to the kernel and the energy evolution parameter, which is invariant under Möbius transformation in momentum space, and show that it is also Möbius invariant up to terms taken into account in the BDS ansatz.

  18. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  19. The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

  20. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  1. Factors Impacting Superintendent Turnover: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Jimmy K.; Drews, Celia; Johnson, Jeanie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine contributing factors influencing superintendent tenure among Texas public school superintendents. The results of the Cox Regression analysis revealed that strained relationships with the school board president, not being able to get decisions made at the Board level, and superintendent/school board…

  2. Factors Impacting Teachers' Adoption of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Callum, Kathryn; Jeffrey, Lynn; Kinshuk

    2014-01-01

    As mobile technology has advanced, awareness is growing that these technologies may benefit teaching and learning. However, despite this interest, the factors that will determine the acceptance of mobile technology by lecturers have been limited. This study proposed and tested a new model that extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) with…

  3. Factors Impacting on the School Counselor Hiring Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert J.; Lesisko, Lee J.

    2011-01-01

    There has been a major paradigm shift in the professional expectations for the role of school counselors. The possibility that this shift is having a role in the hiring process for school counselors was studied. The research question was the identification of latent factors that are part of the decision process used by school administrators in…

  4. Factors Influencing Observed Tillage Impacts on Herbicide Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, E. A.; Huang, C.; Smith, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    The widespread use and potential human health effects of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate have generated interest in establishing how no-tillage impacts loading of these herbicides to runoff water in comparison to other tillage practices. In this study, potentially confounding factos such as time in tillage practice and type and distribution of residue cover, are weighed against inherent tillage impacts to soil structure in terms of relative effects on herbicide transport with runoff water. In this study, two small watersheds (one in no-till (NT) and one rotational till (RT)) were monitored during the first three years since conversion of the RT watershed from NT. In addition, rainfall simulation was applied to plots within each watershed during the first, third, and fifth years since the conversion. Runoff atrazine and glyphosate losses from RT areas were compared to losses from NT areas as a ratio of RT:NT. Results indicate a trend of increasing RT:NT value with time in tillage. Watershed monitoring indicated greater herbicide loading to runoff water from the NT watershed than the RT watershed during the first year since RT conversion, but this relationship reversed by the third year since conversion to RT. In addition, rainfall simulations were performed on small boxes of NT or RT soil having varying types and levels of residue cover in an attempt to isolate residue cover effects from true tillage effects.

  5. Impact of psychological factors in the experience of pain.

    PubMed

    Linton, Steven J; Shaw, William S

    2011-05-01

    This article reviews the role of psychological factors in the development of persistent pain and disability, with a focus on how basic psychological processes have been incorporated into theoretical models that have implications for physical therapy. To this end, the key psychological factors associated with the experience of pain are summarized, and an overview of how they have been integrated into the major models of pain and disability in the scientific literature is presented. Pain has clear emotional and behavioral consequences that influence the development of persistent problems and the outcome of treatment. Yet, these psychological factors are not routinely assessed in physical therapy clinics, nor are they sufficiently utilized to enhance treatment. Based on a review of the scientific evidence, a set of 10 principles that have likely implications for clinical practice is offered. Because psychological processes have an influence on both the experience of pain and the treatment outcome, the integration of psychological principles into physical therapy treatment would seem to have potential to enhance outcomes. PMID:21451097

  6. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    SciTech Connect

    Boussarie, R.; Grabovsky, A.V.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2015-04-10

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the photon to quark, antiquark and gluon transition within Balitsky’s shock-wave formalism. We also rederive the impact factor for photon to quark and antiquark transition. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering as well as for two and three jets diffractive production which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  7. Factors Impacting Sense of Belonging at a Hispanic-Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestas, Ricardo; Vaquera, Gloria S.; Zehr, Linda Munoz

    2007-01-01

    This study examines factors that impact students' sense of belonging at a Hispanic-serving institution. Findings indicate that various variables measuring academic and social integration as well as experiences with and perceptions of diversity have a positive impact on sense of belonging. Implications support the idea that campus diversity may…

  8. Factors Impacting upon the Performance of Workplace Assessors: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a research project that elicits the main factors impacting on the performance of workplace assessors in the oil and gas industry. The purpose of the paper is to reveal the significance of the role of workplace assessors and the subsequent impact upon workforce engagement. One model of employee competency…

  9. Factors impacting on career progression for nurse executives.

    PubMed

    Moran, Phyllis; Duffield, Christine M; Donoghue, Judith; Stasa, Helen; Blay, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This discursive paper examines recent research on career progression for nurse executives in Australia. In particular, it focuses on the personal, work-related and professional factors which influence progression. The role of gender, location and the provision of mentoring are also considered. It is suggested that family friendly policies (such as the option to job share or to perform an executive role on a part-time basis), the availability of a mentor, and the opportunity to pursue further education/training are vital in assisting nurses to progress in their executive careers. PMID:21854237

  10. Socioeconomic Factors Impact Inpatient Mortality in Pediatric Lymphoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, Yana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Our objective was to determine the risk factors for inpatient mortality of pediatric patients diagnosed with lymphoma through the utilization of a large national pediatric database. Methods: This cross-sectional study uses data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database (HCUP KID) for the year of 2012 to estimate the risk factors for inpatient mortality for pediatric patients diagnosed with lymphoma. All patients diagnosed with lymphoma between the ages of one and 18 years were included. Chi-square test was used to analyze categorical variables. Independent t-test was used to analyze continuous variables. Results: A total of 2,908 study subjects with lymphoma were analyzed. Of those, 56.1% were male and the average age was three years old. Total inpatient mortality was 1.2% or 34 patients. We found that patients with four or more chronic conditions were much more likely to die while hospitalized (p < 0.0001). In addition, we also saw that patients with median household incomes below $47,999 dollars (p = 0.05) having a need for a major procedure (p = 0.008) were associated with inpatient mortality. Congestive heart failure, renal failure, coagulopathy, metastatic disease, and electrolyte abnormalities were all found to be associated with inpatient mortality. Conclusions: Pediatric lymphoma mortality in children is not only influenced by their medical condition but also by their socioeconomic condition as well. PMID:27433403

  11. Impact of surgeon factor on radiocephalic fistula patency rates

    PubMed Central

    Arer, Ilker Murat; Yabanoglu, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hemodialysis with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) has been widely accepted treatment modality for patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Radiocephalic fistulas are considered to be the most desirable for the initial vascular access. The aim of this study is to investigate the surgeon factor on radiocephalic fistula patency rates. Methods A total of 186 patients with diagnosis of CRF underwent Radiocephalic fistula for hemodialysis access were included. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to operating surgeon. Patients were evaluated according to demographic characteristics, secondary patency rates, second AVF creation and complications. Results Mean age was 57.7 ± 14.8 years. The most common etiology of CRF was idiopathic (66.6%). 40 (75.5%) patients in group 1 and 122 (91.7%) patients in group 2 were pre-dialysis patients (p < 0.05). Overall secondary patency rate was 77.4%. Patients in group 1 and group 2 have secondary patency rates of 83% and 75.2%, respectively (p = 0.458). Second AVF creation was done in 2 (3.8%) patients in group 1 and 23 (17.3%) patients in group 2 (p < 0.05). Postoperative complication rate was 9.6%. Conclusion Operating surgeon is not a major factor of secondary patency in radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas. PMID:26900457

  12. Impact factors of forensic science and toxicology journals: what do the numbers really mean?

    PubMed

    Jones, A W

    2003-04-23

    This article presents review and opinion about the use and abuse of journal impact factors for judging the importance and prestige of scientific journals in the field of forensic science and toxicology. The application of impact factors for evaluating the published work of individual scientists is also discussed. The impact factor of a particular journal is calculated by dividing the number of current year citations to a journal's articles that were published in the previous 2 years by the total number of citable items (articles and reviews) published in the same 2-year period. Journal impact factors differ from discipline to discipline and range from 0 for a journal whose articles are not cited in the previous 2 years to 46 for a journal where the average recent article is cited 46 times per year. The impact factor reflects the citation rate of the average article in a journal and not a specific article. Many parameters influence the citation rate of a particular journal's articles and, therefore, its impact factor. These include the visibility and size of the circulation of the journal including availability of electronic formats and options for on-line search and retrieval. Other things to consider are editorial standards especially rapid and effective peer-reviewing and a short time lag between acceptance and appearance in print. The number of self-citations and citation density (the ratio of references to articles) and also the inclusion of many review articles containing hundreds of references to recently published articles will boost the impact factor. Judging the importance of a scientist's work based on the average or median impact factor of the journals used to publish articles is not recommended. Instead an article-by-article citation count should be done, but this involves much more time and effort. Moreover, some weighting factor is necessary to allow for the number of co-authors on each article and the relative positioning of the individual names

  13. Impact of gestational risk factors on maternal cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Luaces, María; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Barakat, Rubén; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Scarce evidence is available on the potential cardiovascular abnormalities associated with some common gestational complications. We aimed to analyze the potential maternal cardiac alterations related to gestational complications, including body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, or developing antenatal depression. Methods The design of this study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiovascular indicators of maternal hemodynamic, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular (LV) function in 59 sedentary pregnant women at 20 and 34 weeks of gestation. Results Starting pregnancy with a BMI >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, and developing antenatal depression had no cardiovascular impact on maternal health (P value >0.002). Depressed women were more likely to exceed weight gain recommendations than non-depressed women (P value <0.002). Conclusions The evaluated gestational complications seem not to induce cardiovascular alterations in hemodynamic, remodeling and LV function indicators. However, developing antenatal depression increases the risk of an excessive weight gain. This finding is potentially important because excessive weight gain during pregnancy associates with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. PMID:27500154

  14. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells.

    PubMed

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip J; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul L

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquifer, a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate, while in an aquifer with a stream the effect of the pumping rate was insignificant. Pesticide application history and properties have also a great impact on the effect of the pumping rate on the concentration at the well. The findings of the study show that variable pumping rates can generate temporal variability in the concentration at the well, which helps understanding the results of groundwater monitoring programs. The results are used to provide guidance on the design of pumping and regulatory changes for the long-term supply of safe groundwater. The fate of selected pesticides is examined, for example, if the application of bentazone in a region with a layered aquifer stops today, the concentration at the well can continue to increase for 20 years if a low pumping rate is applied. This study concludes that because of the rapid response of the pesticide concentration at the drinking water well due to changes in pumping, wellhead management is important for managing pesticide concentrations. PMID:25243476

  15. IMPACT OF FIVE TREATMENT FACTORS ON MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-12-08

    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify factors that affect mussel kill. Test results reported herein indicate that mussel kill should not be affected by: (1) air bubbles being carried by currents through power plant pipes; (2) pipe orientation (e.g., vertical or horizontal); (3) whether the bacterial cell concentration during a treatment is constant or slightly varying; (4) whether a treatment is between 3 hr and 12 hr in duration, given that the total quantity of bacteria being applied to the pipe is a constant; and (5) whether the water temperature is between 13 C and 23 C.

  16. Impact of social factors on labour discrimination of disabled women.

    PubMed

    Mondéjar-Jiménez, José; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel; Meseguer-Santamaría, María-Leticia; Mondéjar-Jiménez, Juan-Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Disabled women suffer from a double labour discrimination due to their gender and their disability. In rural areas, in addition, they also suffer from a lack of specific services, the isolation of the disabled associations, problems with public transport, the dispersion of population centres, and a limited access to information that could improve their chances of entering the labour market. The current work adopts a constructivist perspective on disability and offers a preliminary examination of the influence of social factors, such as the rural or urban nature of the disabled women's place of residence, the assistance they receive from their family or outside the family, the quantity of information they receive about the labour market, and their educational level, on the activity and employment status of this group of people. PMID:19692206

  17. [Smoking among the unemployed: impact of structural factors on lifestyle].

    PubMed

    Kłos, Jan; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    In times of economic crisis, questions arise about its relationship to the state of public health. One of the responses might be to investigate health behaviors of people who suffer most from the crisis, which is the unemployed. This study focuses on the many links between smoking among the jobless and other aspects of their lifestyle as well as selected social factors. In our research, we used statistical methods and a questionnaire. based survey. The research was conducted in 2007 and it covered 1,068 unemployed persons registered with the District Employment Office in Poznan. The prevalence of smoking among the unemployed is higher than the national average and is associated with their socio-economic status, gender and such lifestyle aspects as the amount of alcohol consumed, the amount of free time, body mass index, the number of meals consumed, the number of persons the unemployed can rely on, and the amount of time devoted to exercise. PMID:20301929

  18. Factors that Impact Susceptibility to Fiber-Induced Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Below, Jennifer E.; Cox, Nancy J.; Fukagawa, Naomi K.; Hirvonen, Ari; Testa, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    Asbestos and related fibers are associated with a number of adverse health effects, including malignant mesothelioma (MM), an aggressive cancer that generally develops in the surface serosal cells of the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. Although approximately 80% of individuals with MM are exposed to asbestos, fewer than 5% of asbestos workers develop MM. In addition to asbestos, other mineralogical, environmental, genetic, and possibly viral factors might contribute to MM susceptibility. Given this complex etiology of MM, understanding susceptibility to MM needs to be a priority for investigators in order to reduce exposure of those most at risk to known environmental carcinogens. In this review, the current body of literature related to fiber-associated disease susceptibility including age, sex, nutrition, genetics, asbestos, and other mineral exposure is addressed with a focus on MM, and critical areas for further study are recommended. PMID:21534090

  19. Adult Prostitution Recidivism: Risk Factors and Impact of a Diversion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique E.; Hickle, Kristine E.; Loubert, Martha Perez; Egan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors and the impact of a prostitution diversion program on prostitution recidivism. Risk factors and recidivism were explored using chi-square, t tests, and survival analysis. Participants were 448 individuals who were arrested for prostitution and attended a prostitution-focused diversion…

  20. Reintegration Success and Failure: Factors Impacting Reintegration among Incarcerated and Formerly Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobbina, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists have explored the reentry experience of formerly incarcerated adults, documented the pressing challenges of reentry, the correlates of recidivism, and the causes of desistance. Given scholars' focus on reentry to explain what factors impact criminal outcome, this raises the interesting question of whether and how such factors shape…

  1. The Impact of Risk Factors on the Treatment of Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Sharon M.; Lewis, Kathy; Sigal, Janet

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact that 5 selected risk factors have on the treatment outcome of adolescent male sex offenders. The results indicated that the greatest risk factor among sex offenders was having a mother who had a substance abuse problem. Study participants were 35 adolescent boys in a New Jersey residential facility for…

  2. Quantitative Analyses in a Multivariate Study of Language Attrition: The Impact of Extralinguistic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Monika S.; Dusseldorp, Elise

    2010-01-01

    Most linguistic processes--acquisition, change, deterioration--take place in and are determined by a complex and multifactorial web of language internal and language external influences. This implies that the impact of each individual factor can only be determined on the basis of a careful consideration of its interplay with all other factors. The…

  3. How to Identify and Prioritize Psychosocial Factors Impacting Stress Level

    PubMed Central

    Hocine, Mounia N.; Aït Bouziad, Karim; Légeron, Patrick; Dab, William; Saporta, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    We develop a methodological approach to identify and prioritize psychosocial factors (stressors) requiring priority action to reduce stress levels. Data analysis was carried out on a random sample of 10 000 French employees who completed, during a routine interview with the occupational physician, a 25-item questionnaire about stress levels, as well as a questionnaire about 58 stressors grouped into 5 latent variables: job control, job context, relationships at work, tasks performed and recognition. Our method combines Importance-Performance Analysis, a valuable approach for prioritizing improvements in the quality of services, with Partial Least Squares-Path modeling, a Structural Equation Modeling approach widely applied in psychosocial research. Findings on our data suggest two areas worthy of attention: one with five stressors on which decision makers should concentrate, and another with five stressors that managers should leave alone when acting to reduce stress levels. We show that IPA is robust when answers to questions are dichotomized, as opposed to the initial 6-point Likert scale. We believe that our approach will be a useful tool for experts and decision-makers in the field of stress management and prevention. PMID:27304854

  4. How to Identify and Prioritize Psychosocial Factors Impacting Stress Level.

    PubMed

    Hocine, Mounia N; Aït Bouziad, Karim; Légeron, Patrick; Dab, William; Saporta, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    We develop a methodological approach to identify and prioritize psychosocial factors (stressors) requiring priority action to reduce stress levels. Data analysis was carried out on a random sample of 10 000 French employees who completed, during a routine interview with the occupational physician, a 25-item questionnaire about stress levels, as well as a questionnaire about 58 stressors grouped into 5 latent variables: job control, job context, relationships at work, tasks performed and recognition. Our method combines Importance-Performance Analysis, a valuable approach for prioritizing improvements in the quality of services, with Partial Least Squares-Path modeling, a Structural Equation Modeling approach widely applied in psychosocial research. Findings on our data suggest two areas worthy of attention: one with five stressors on which decision makers should concentrate, and another with five stressors that managers should leave alone when acting to reduce stress levels. We show that IPA is robust when answers to questions are dichotomized, as opposed to the initial 6-point Likert scale. We believe that our approach will be a useful tool for experts and decision-makers in the field of stress management and prevention. PMID:27304854

  5. Outcome analysis of factors impacting the plastic surgery match.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jeyhan S; David, Lisa R

    2010-06-01

    Matching into an integrated plastic surgery program has become highly competitive. As a result it has become more difficult for both the applicants and the residency programs to determine which attributes are most important to match in plastic surgery and, more importantly, to make a surgeon who will contribute to the future of our specialty. This study was conducted to analyze potential associations between a successful match into plastic surgery and the number of interviews offered and attended, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) membership, and participation in away rotations. Increased competitiveness of the specialty also has required that the applicant spend significant time and money on the match process to improve his chances. Therefore, we looked at the financial impact of the interview process as well as at compliance with the new communication mandate by the Plastic Surgery Residency Review Committee designed to decrease some of the time and monetary costs associated with the match process. An anonymous 30-item survey was e-mailed to all the applicants to our institution last year. The survey consisted of questions addressing applicant profile with specific questions regarding the interview process. Descriptive statistics, including frequencies and proportions for each of the questions, were calculated. To assess the relationship between categorical outcomes, a Fisher exact test was used. Results with a P value less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Considering matching as the primary outcome measure, a statistically significant relationship was found with the number of plastic surgery interview invitations received and attended (P < 0.0001 for both), as well as with AOA membership (P = 0.018), with 89% (32/36) of the responders in AOA matching into plastic surgery. Although doing an away rotation did not have a significant association with match rate, one-third of responders matched where they did an away rotation. Gender was not found to

  6. A review of major factors influencing plant responses to recreation impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuss, Fred R.

    1986-09-01

    This article reviews some of the more important factors found to influence the susceptibility of plants to trampling impacts associated with recreational use of natural areas. A three-way interaction mediates plant responses to impacts: plant x environment x stress level(s). Plant responses vary in part according to the genetic constitution of the plant, life and growth form, the adaptive flexibility of the plant, and anatomical differences inherent to growth habit and morphology. Other factors that influence plant sensitivities to impacts are the habitat environments in which plants grow, since a number of conditions such as moisture excesses or deficiencies, nitrogen or oxygen starvation, late frosts, etc., cause physiological injury and may increase plant sensitivity to impacts. Among the environmental factors that may increase or lessen plant sensitivities to impacts are soil moisture levels, canopy density, elevation, aspect, microclimate, soil drainage, texture, fertility and productivity. Seasonal influences also bear consideration since environmental changes and phonological and physiological events are mediated by time of year. Stresses are caused by both direct and indirect forms of impact and vary according to season of use, frequency and amount of use, and the type of activity. These interactions are further complicated by evidence that inter- and intraspecific competition, antagonism, and commensalism may influence differences in the sensitivity of plant communities to impacts.

  7. The Impact of Psychological Factors on Device Removal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Golbakhsh, Mohammadreza; Sadaat, Mirmostafa; Noughani, Fatemeh; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Gholizadeh, Amirmohammad; Abedi, Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Background Implant removal is a common procedure in orthopedic surgery which can be associated with many complications such as scar formation, hematoma, nerve injury, infection, and refracture. Indications for orthopedic implant removal have declined in recent years. Most studies have considered orthopedic hardware removal as an unnecessary procedure in the absence of severe complications such as nonunion. Some studies have reported the complications of orthopedic hardware removal to be 24% to 50% dependent on their types and locations as well as on other factors such as patient’s condition and the orthopedist’s experience. Objectives The present study surveyed possible mental and psychological causes among patients who asked for removal procedures in spite of orthopedic surgeons’ advice and being aware of complications. Patients and Methods Patients who had undergone plating for the treatment of radius and ulna fractures from 2011 to 2013, were told that it is not necessary to remove the plate and they were warned of all the risks of removal surgery, such as anesthesia, possible nerve or vascular damage, and the cost of surgery. Then, their tendency to remove the plate was examined based on evaluation criteria scores. Patients were divided into two groups: patients who insisted on surgery despite all the risks and patients who had little tendency or gave up after explanations. Both groups were given visual analog pain scale (VAS), symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90), and pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) questionnaires. The questions were explained for patients by an expert trained in the clinic and in case of ambiguity further explanations were given to the patients. The data were then entered into statistical package for the social science (SPSS) version 20 for analysis. Results A total of 29 patients with plates were enrolled. The first group consisted of 16 male and 13 female patients. In the control group (group II), there were 30 patients with no tendency for

  8. Factors impacting the decision to participate in and satisfaction with public/community psychiatry fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Michael; LeMelle, Stephanie; Ranz, Jules

    2014-10-01

    During yearly meetings of the recently developed network of 15 public/community psychiatry fellowships, it has been noted that programs are having varying degrees of success with regard to recruitment. To understand factors that impact recruitment, a quality improvement survey of fellows and alumni was conducted. Respondents were asked to rate overall satisfaction with their fellowship training as well as perceived benefits and obstacles to participating in a fellowship program, and impact on their careers. A total of 155 (57%) fellows and alumni responded. Factor analysis was used to condense the variables, and a multiple regression explored factors predicting overall fellowship program satisfaction. Factors that represented perceived benefits had higher means than did factors that represent obstacles. Respondents highly valued the extent to which these fellowships enhanced their careers, with regard to job opportunities, academics, networking and leadership. PMID:24477510

  9. Risk Factors for Interstage Mortality Following the Norwood Procedure: Impact of Sociodemographic Factors.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Laura C; Burke, Brendan; Donohue, Janet E; Yu, Sunkyung; Hirsch-Romano, Jennifer C; Ohye, Richard G; Goldberg, Caren S

    2016-01-01

    Interstage mortality remains significant for patients undergoing staged palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and other related single right ventricle malformations (HLV). The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to demographics, socioeconomic position, and perioperative course associated with post-Norwood hospital discharge, pre-stage 2, interstage mortality (ISM). Medical record review was conducted for patients with HLV, born from 1/2000 to 7/2009 and discharged alive following the Norwood procedure. Sociodemographic and perioperative factors were reviewed. Patients were determined to have ISM if they died between Norwood procedure hospital discharge and stage 2 palliation. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to identify risk factors associated with ISM. A total of 273 patients were included in the analysis; ISM occurred in 32 patients (12%). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that independent risk factors for interstage mortality included teen mothers [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 6.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-22.5], single adult caregivers (AOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2-14.4), postoperative dysrhythmia (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.4), and longer ICU stay (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.1). Anatomic and surgical course variables were not associated with ISM in multivariable analysis. Patients with HLV are at increased risk of ISM if born to a teen mother, if they lived in a home with only one adult caregiver, suffered a postoperative dysrhythmia, or experienced a prolonged ICU stay. These risk factors are identifiable, and thus these infants may be targeted for interventions to reduce ISM. PMID:26260093

  10. [Citation characteristics of German authors in "Der Chirurg": hegemony of the impact factor].

    PubMed

    Hasse, W; Fischer, R J

    2010-04-01

    Characteristics of citation and language in publications of German authors from the journal "Der Chirurg" (vol 78, 2007) were analysed. Out of a total of 3,342 citations, 756 (22.62%) were from German authors with 248 (32.8) self-citations. The hegemony of the impact factor in science, research and education is critically discussed. The imbalance between the number of surgeons in the US and United Kingdom (66,032) and surgeons in the German speaking countries in Europe (25,300) is compared with respect to the counting methods used to create the impact factor of a journal. The creation of an independent impact factor in Europe and the development of an EU-based citation data bank which allows unselected access to national language scientific literature are strongly needed. PMID:19760378

  11. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, hazard indicators and vulnerability factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauhut, V.; Stahl, K.; Stagge, J. H.; Tallaksen, L. M.; De Stefano, L.; Vogt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work (1) tests the capability of commonly applied hazard indicators and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and (2) combines information on past drought impacts, drought hazard indicators, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This "hybrid approach" bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact forecast in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro region specific sensitivities of hazard indicators, with the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for a twelve month aggregation period (SPEI-12) as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictor, with information about landuse and water resources as best vulnerability-based predictors. (3) The application of the "hybrid approach" revealed strong regional (NUTS combo level) and sector specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer aggregation periods, and a combination of information on landuse and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information

  12. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin; Stagge, James Howard; Tallaksen, Lena M.; De Stefano, Lucia; Vogt, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, meant as the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work tests the capability of commonly applied drought indices and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and combines information on past drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This hybrid approach bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact prediction in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro-region-specific sensitivities of drought indices, with the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) for a 12-month accumulation period as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictors, with information about land use and water resources being the best vulnerability-based predictors. The application of the hybrid approach revealed strong regional and sector-specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of the best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer accumulation periods, and a combination of information on land use and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information with drought risk prediction

  13. Prioritization of factors impacting on performance of power looms using AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulange, S. R.; Pundir, A. K.; Ganapathy, L.

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical success factors influencing the performance of power loom textiles, to evaluate their impact on the organizational performance and to find out the effect of these factors on the organizational performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Solapur (Maharashtra) industrial sector using AHP. In the methodology adopted, factors are identified through the literature survey and finalization of these factors is done by taking the opinion of experts in the Indian context. By cognitive map, the relation between these factors (direct and indirect effect) is determined and cause and effect diagram is prepared. Then these factors are arranged hierarchically and tree diagram is prepared. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among the experts; data is collected. Using expert choice software data is filled to quantify by pair-wise comparison of these factors and are prioritized. The weights demonstrate several key findings: local and global priority reveals that there is a substantial effect of the human resource, product style, and volume on the organizational performance. The skills and technology upgradation impact on organizational performance. Maintenance plays an important role in improving the organizational performances of the SMEs. Overall, the results showed the central role of the operational factors are important. The research is subject to the normal limitations of AHP. The study is using perceptual data provided by Experts which may not provide clear measures of impact factors. However, this can be overcome using more experts to collect data in future studies. Interestingly, the findings here may be generalisable outside Solapur like Ichalkarnji, Malegaon, and Bhiwadi (Maharashtra). Solapur power loom SMEs should consider AHP as an innovative tool for quantification of factors impacting on performance and improving operational and organizational performance in today's dynamic

  14. Space station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 3: Safety impact of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockoff, L. A.; Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for Initial Operational Capability (IOC) during the early 1990's was considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris. Of particular interest here is volume three (of five volumes) pertaining to the safety impact of human factors.

  15. Impact of some field factors on inhalation exposure levels to bitumen emissions during road paving operations.

    PubMed

    Deygout, François; Auburtin, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Variability in occupational exposure levels to bitumen emissions has been observed during road paving operations. This is due to recurrent field factors impacting the level of exposure experienced by workers during paving. The present study was undertaken in order to quantify the impact of such factors. Pre-identified variables currently encountered in the field were monitored and recorded during paving surveys, and were conducted randomly covering current applications performed by road crews. Multivariate variance analysis and regressions were then used on computerized field data. The statistical investigations were limited due to the relatively small size of the study (36 data). Nevertheless, the particular use of the step-wise regression tool enabled the quantification of the impact of several predictors despite the existing collinearity between variables. The two bitumen organic fractions (particulates and volatiles) are associated with different field factors. The process conditions (machinery used and delivery temperature) have a significant impact on the production of airborne particulates and explain up to 44% of variability. This confirms the outcomes described by previous studies. The influence of the production factors is limited though, and should be complemented by studying factors involving the worker such as work style and the mix of tasks. The residual volatile compounds, being part of the bituminous binder and released during paving operations, control the volatile emissions; 73% of the encountered field variability is explained by the composition of the bitumen batch. PMID:25335938

  16. The Impact of an Incentive-Based Worksite Health Promotion Program on Modifiable Health Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Kathleen; Kumpfer, Karol; Pett, Marjorie

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of participating in an incentive-based employee health promotion program on modifiable health risk factors over 4 years. Data from physiological and self-report measures indicated that modifiable health risks improved over time (smoking, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and seat belt use). Cholesterol…

  17. Journal impact factors and the influence of age and number of citations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact factor (IF) of a scientific journal is considered a measure of how important a journal is within its discipline, and it is based on a simple relationship between the number of citations of the journal’s articles divided by the number of articles in the scientific journal (http://en.wikipe...

  18. An Analysis of Factors That Impact Secondary Science Outcomes in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Suzanne Lawson

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze school and district characteristics for 2005-2006 through 2007-2008 to determine which factors impacted science achievement for the graduating class of 2008-2009 in Tennessee. School size, socioeconomic status, per pupil instructional expenditures and rurality/urbanicity were predictor variables.…

  19. Percentile-Based Journal Impact Factors: A Neglected Collection Development Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Various normalization techniques to transform journal impact factors (JIFs) into a standard scale or range of values have been reported a number of times in the literature, but have seldom been part of collection development librarians' tool kits. In this paper, JIFs as reported in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database are converted to…

  20. A Large-Scale Analysis of Impact Factor Biased Journal Self-Citations

    PubMed Central

    Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Based on three decades of citation data from across scientific fields of science, we study trends in impact factor biased self-citations of scholarly journals, using a purpose-built and easy to use citation based measure. Our measure is given by the ratio between i) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in the last two years, and ii) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in preceding years. A ratio higher than one suggests that a journal’s impact factor is disproportionally affected (inflated) by self-citations. Using recently reported survey data, we show that there is a relation between high values of our proposed measure and coercive journal self-citation malpractices. We use our measure to perform a large-scale analysis of impact factor biased journal self-citations. Our main empirical result is, that the share of journals for which our measure has a (very) high value has remained stable between the 1980s and the early 2000s, but has since risen strongly in all fields of science. This time span corresponds well with the growing obsession with the impact factor as a journal evaluation measure over the last decade. Taken together, this suggests a trend of increasingly pervasive journal self-citation malpractices, with all due unwanted consequences such as inflated perceived importance of journals and biased journal rankings. PMID:27560807

  1. The "Human Factor" in Pure and in Applied Mathematics. Systems Everywhere: Their Impact on Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the impact that the relationship between people and mathematics could have on the development of pure and applied mathematics. Argues for (1) a growing interest in philosophy, history and sociology of science; (2) new models in educational and psychological research; and (3) a growing awareness of the human factor in technology,…

  2. Held Back: The Impact of Curricular and Pedagogical Factors on Tested Achievement in High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agvanian, Zara

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of curricular factors and teaching practices on students' tested achievement in mathematics, explored the best predictors of the tested achievement, and examined differences in the tested achievement among student subgroups. The study utilized qualitative and quantitative methods and triangulated findings from…

  3. The Analysis of the Impact of Individual Weighting Factor on Individual Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Gulsen Bagci; Cakan, Mehtap

    2006-01-01

    In this study, category-based self and peer assessment were applied twice in a semester in an Elementary Science Teaching Methods course in order to assess individual contributions of group members to group projects as well as to analyze the impact of Individual Weighting Factors (IWF) on individual scores and individual grades. IWF were…

  4. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. Age of calf was...

  5. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. This study util...

  6. Using CCSSE Data to Analyze the Impact of Risk Factors on Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a methodology for examining the impact of risk factors on student learning and engagement at a community college using the Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE). The two primary objectives associated with the study were to examine differences between students who took the CCSSE based on…

  7. Impact of Environmental Factors on Community Participation of Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonschot, Manon M. L.; de Witte, L. P.; Reichrath, E.; Buntinx, W. H. E.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design: A systematic review of the literature. Objectives: To describe which environmental factors have an impact on community participation of persons with an intellectual disability. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for the period of 1996-2006 in Pubmed, CINAHL and PSYCINFO. Search terms were derived from the…

  8. Judicious Use of Journal Impact Factors and the Preservation of Our Fields of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    This article comments on the judicious use of journal impact factors. It aims to preserve our fields of study within the context of increased scholarly scrutiny and the hierarchical structures inherent in academia. It concludes by recommending actions for "JOPERD," other journals in the field, and the producers and evaluators of…

  9. The Impact of Contextual Factors on the Use of Students' Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Yilmaz; Karaaslan, Emre Harun; Ayas, Alipasa

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of contextual factors on the use of students' conceptions. A total of 106 students received a questionnaire involving open-ended questions on acid-base and equilibrium concepts. Of these students, 16 students who provided complete and accurate responses to the questions participated in an interview. In…

  10. Form or Flesh: Social Factors That Impact Women's Practice of Breast Self-Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Patricia A.

    The social factors that impact Caucasian middle-class women's practice of breast self-examination (BSE) were examined through in-depth interviews with 15 women who were selected to represent a mix of women who practiced BSE monthly, occasionally, or never. The meaning of BSE was analyzed in relation to body image and the social definition of being…

  11. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  12. Factors that Impact Software Project Success in Offshore Information Technology (IT) Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edara, Venkatarao

    2011-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are unsuccessful at a rate of 65% to 75% per year, in spite of employing the latest technologies and training employees. Although many studies have been conducted on project successes in U.S. companies, there is a lack of research studying the impact of various factors on software project success in offshore IT…

  13. [SOME CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE INTRINSIC VALUE OF THE IMPACT FACTOR OF SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS].

    PubMed

    Franco-López, Ángeles; González-Gallego, Javier; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Tuñón, María Jesús; García-De-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-01-01

    The reason of higher number of citations of some articles is discussed. Some considerations about the journals' impact factor, its merits and its pitfalls are also made. Scientific journals' impact factor, popularized by the Institute for Scientific Information, has become an objective parameter for authors' evaluation and also for institutions and other related circumstances. There is no reason for the impact factor's gap between some English journals and those written in other languages. English journals probably benefit of the "Mathew's effect", according to which eminent scientists are more rewarded by similar contributions than others less known. It is paradoxical that most of the major achievements of our age do not appear among the 100 most cited articles. There is no homogeneity among all the articles appearing in each scientific journal: half of the articles are cited ten times more than the other half. However, those articles cited 0 times are credited like the better ones. Each article should be evaluated by its own citations, which would be its impact factor; the authors should be evaluated by their H index. PMID:26667681

  14. The Journal Impact Factor: Does It Devalue Applied Research in Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Elward K.

    2012-01-01

    A troubling trend in research is the reliance on the journal impact factor (IF) to establish a perceived "value" or importance of scholarly publications. Given that the IF of different scholarly journals may vary greatly, this phenomenon not only influences which journals receive submissions, but is beginning to influence the type of research that…

  15. A Tale of Two Web Spaces: Comparing Sites Using Web Impact Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alastair

    1999-01-01

    Explains the Web impact factor (WIF) for comparing the relative attractiveness or influence of Web spaces, where the WIF is the number of pages linking to a Web space divided by the number of pages in the Web space. Compares WIFs for Australasian universities and for Australasian electronic journals. (Author/LRW)

  16. Web Link Counts Correlate with ISI Impact Factors: Evidence from Two Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Liwen; Thelwall, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study that compared counts of links to the Web home pages of academic journals with the citation based Journal Impact Factor (JIF) for two disciplines: library and information science, and law. Highlights include compiling the lists of journals (which are appended); locating Web pages; and correlations between JIF and link counts.…

  17. Student Performance in Teacher Education in Norway: The Impact of Student, Institutional and Structural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikan, Gerd; Bugge, Liv Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Many education systems face a challenge in recruiting graduates as teachers. This is also the situation in Norway and the newest estimates tell us that we will lack 9000 teachers in 2020. The situation is made even worse by the high number of dropouts and low performance rates in teacher education. There are many factors which have an impact on…

  18. Factors Impacting University-Level Language Teachers' Technology Use and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabulut ilgu, Aliye

    2013-01-01

    Despite the documented affordances of technology to enhance language teaching and learning, technology use does not seem to be normalized just yet. This dissertation investigates the factors that impact university-level language teachers' technology use and integration. Adopting the ecological perspective as a guiding framework, this study…

  19. Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact…

  20. Factors impacting the assessment of maternal culpability in cases of alleged fetal abuse.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Monica L

    2003-01-01

    These studies explored attitudes toward maternal culpability in cases of alleged fetal abuse. In experiment one, general culpability for the use of various substances during pregnancy was assessed as well as the impact of other potentially relevant factors. One hundred and twenty students completed the survey. Participants overwhelmingly supported treating drug use by pregnant women as a criminal offense. With regard to the assessment of more specific questions, the lack of consensus regarding what factors effect culpability is striking. Experiment two examined the possible impact of the mothers' race (White or Black) and social class (Poor or Middle class) on the assessment of culpability. One hundred and sixty-four community members responded to a survey sent to randomly selected persons in upstate South Carolina. The results indicate that at least in response to a brief, written, case scenario, neither race nor social class make a large impact on participants' sanction recommendations. PMID:15022861

  1. Multi-Factor Impact Analysis of Agricultural Production in Bangladesh with Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Major, David C.; Yu, Winston H.; Alam, Mozaharul; Hussain, Sk. Ghulam; Khan, Abu Saleh; Hassan, Ahmadul; Al Hossain, Bhuiya Md. Tamim; Goldberg, Richard; Horton, Radley M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Diverse vulnerabilities of Bangladesh's agricultural sector in 16 sub-regions are assessed using experiments designed to investigate climate impact factors in isolation and in combination. Climate information from a suite of global climate models (GCMs) is used to drive models assessing the agricultural impact of changes in temperature, precipitation, carbon dioxide concentrations, river floods, and sea level rise for the 2040-2069 period in comparison to a historical baseline. Using the multi-factor impacts analysis framework developed in Yu et al. (2010), this study provides new sub-regional vulnerability analyses and quantifies key uncertainties in climate and production. Rice (aman, boro, and aus seasons) and wheat production are simulated in each sub-region using the biophysical Crop Environment REsource Synthesis (CERES) models. These simulations are then combined with the MIKE BASIN hydrologic model for river floods in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Basins, and the MIKE21Two-Dimensional Estuary Model to determine coastal inundation under conditions of higher mean sea level. The impacts of each factor depend on GCM configurations, emissions pathways, sub-regions, and particular seasons and crops. Temperature increases generally reduce production across all scenarios. Precipitation changes can have either a positive or a negative impact, with a high degree of uncertainty across GCMs. Carbon dioxide impacts on crop production are positive and depend on the emissions pathway. Increasing river flood areas reduce production in affected sub-regions. Precipitation uncertainties from different GCMs and emissions scenarios are reduced when integrated across the large GBM Basins' hydrology. Agriculture in Southern Bangladesh is severely affected by sea level rise even when cyclonic surges are not fully considered, with impacts increasing under the higher emissions scenario.

  2. The impact of adipose tissue-derived factors on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis.

    PubMed

    Tsatsanis, Christos; Dermitzaki, Eirini; Avgoustinaki, Pavlina; Malliaraki, Niki; Mytaras, Vasilis; Margioris, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue produces factors, including adipokines, cytokines and chemokines which, when released, systemically exert endocrine effects on multiple tissues thereby affecting their physiology. Adipokines also affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis both centrally, at the hypothalamic-pituitary level, and peripherally acting on the gonads themselves. Among the adipokines, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, chemerin and the peptide kisspeptin have pleiotropic actions on the HPG axis affecting male and female fertility. Furthermore, adipokines and adipose tissue-produced factors readily affect the immune system resulting in inflammation, which in turn impact the HPG axis, thus evidencing a link between metabolic inflammation and fertility. In this review we provide an overview of the existing extensive bibliography on the crosstalk between adipose tissue-derived factors and the HPG axis, with particular focus on the impact of obesity and the metabolic syndrome on gonadal function and fertility. PMID:26859602

  3. Secondary Collisions Following a Traffic Barrier Impact: Frequency, Factors, and Occupant Risk

    PubMed Central

    Gabauer, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    This study has investigated secondary collisions following an initial barrier impact in tow-away level crashes. The analysis included 2026 barrier impact cases that were selected from 12-years of in-depth crash data available through the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) / Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). Secondary collisions were found to occur in approximately one-third of tow-away level crashes where a traffic barrier was the first object struck. Secondary crashes were found to primarily involve an impact to another vehicle, an impact to another barrier, or a rollover; tree and pole impacts were found to represent a much smaller proportion of secondary impacts. Through a detailed analysis of vehicle trajectory, this study supports previous research suggesting secondary collision risk is substantial even for vehicles not ultimately involved in a secondary collision. Compared to a single barrier impact, the occurrence of a secondary collision was found to increase the risk of serious occupant injury by a factor of 3.5, equivalent to the serious injury risk difference found between a belted and unbelted occupant in a traffic barrier crash. PMID:21050605

  4. Degradation Factor Approach for Impacted Composite Structural Assessment: MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Project No. 96-17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, R.; Price, J. M.; Fox, D.

    2000-01-01

    This technical memorandum documents the results of the research to develop a concept for assessing the structural integrity of impacted composite structures using the strength degradation factor in conjunction with available finite element tools. For this purpose, a literature search was conducted, a plan for conducting impact testing on two laminates was developed, and a finite element model of the impact process was created. Specimens for the impact testing were fabricated to support the impact testing plan.

  5. Accounting for uncertainty factors in biodiversity impact assessment: lessons from a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Geneletti, D.; Beinat, E.; Chung, C.F.; Fabbri, A.G.; Scholten, H.J

    2003-07-01

    For an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to effectively contribute to decision-making, it must include one crucial step: the estimation of the uncertainty factors affecting the impact evaluation and of their effect on the evaluation results. Knowledge of the uncertainties better orients the strategy of the decision-makers and underlines the most critical data or methodological steps of the procedure. Accounting for uncertainty factors is particularly relevant when dealing with ecological impacts, whose forecasts are typically affected by a high degree of simplification. By means of a case study dealing with the evaluation of road alternatives, this paper explores and discusses the main uncertainties that are related to the typical stages of a biodiversity impact assessment: uncertainty in the data that are used, in the methodologies that are applied, and in the value judgments provided by the experts. Subsequently, the effects of such uncertainty factors are tracked back to the result of the evaluation, i.e., to the relative performance of the project alternatives under consideration. This allows to test the sensitivity of the results, and consequently to provide a more informative ranking of the alternatives. The papers concludes by discussing the added-value for decision-making provided by uncertainty analysis within EIA.

  6. Ten factors that affect the severity of environmental impacts of visitors in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2010-02-01

    Protected areas represent the major method for conserving biodiversity. However, visitor use can threaten their conservation value. Based on a review of recent research, I have categorized factors that affect the severity of environmental impacts of visitor use. These factors need to be considered or evaluated when assessing visitor use of sites in protected areas. They are: (i) the conservation value of the site, (ii) its resistance to use, (iii) its recovery from use, (iv) its susceptibility to erosion, (v) the severity of direct impacts associated with specific activities, (vi) the severity of indirect impacts, (vii) the amount of use, (viii) the social and (ix) ecological dimensions to the timing of use, and (x) the total area affected. Although the factors may not be of equal importance or necessarily assessed on an equal scale, they allow people to make more informed assessments of potential impacts, assist in identifying where monitoring may be required, and indicate where additional site- or activity-specific research may be appropriate. PMID:20496654

  7. Relationships between non-acoustic factors and subjective reactions to floor impact noise in apartment buildings.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hee; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Yang, Kwan Seop; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an understanding of how residents in apartment buildings perceive and react to impact sounds coming from the upstairs neighbours' dwellings. Based on existing theoretical and empirical studies on environmental noise, a conceptual model was developed to explain relationships among noise annoyance and non-acoustic factors. The model was then tested using structural equation modelling with survey data from residents living in apartment buildings (N = 487). The findings showed that the conceptual model was consistent with other models developed for environmental noises. The results indicated that annoyance induced by floor impact noise was associated with perceived disturbance, coping, and self-reported health complaints. Noise sensitivity had a direct impact on perceived disturbance and an indirect impact on annoyance, and moderating variables affected the non-acoustic factors. Exposure to footstep noises increased the impact size of noise sensitivity to disturbance. Predictability, marital status, and house ownership were found to influence the relationship between attitudes towards authorities and coping. In addition, a negative attitude towards neighbours (i.e., the noise source) moderated the positive relationship between annoyance and coping. PMID:27036252

  8. Comparison of acceleration and impact stress as possible loading factors in phonation: a computer modeling study.

    PubMed

    Horácek, Jaromír; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Sidlof, Petr; Murphy, Peter; Svec, Jan G

    2009-01-01

    Impact stress (the impact force divided by the contact area of the vocal folds) has been suspected to be the main traumatizing mechanism in voice production, and the main cause of vocal fold nodules. However, there are also other factors, such as the repetitive acceleration and deceleration, which may traumatize the vocal fold tissues. Using an aeroelastic model of voice production, the present study quantifies the acceleration and impact stress values in relation to lung pressure, fundamental frequency (F0) and prephonatory glottal half-width. Both impact stress and acceleration were found to increase with lung pressure. Compared to impact stress, acceleration was less dependent on prephonatory glottal width and, thus, on voice production type. Maximum acceleration values were about 5-10 times greater for high F0 (approx. 400 Hz) compared to low F0 (approx. 100 Hz), whereas maximum impact stress remained nearly unchanged. This suggests that acceleration, i.e. the inertia forces, may present at high F0 a greater load for the vocal folds, and in addition to the collision forces may contribute to the fact that females develop vocal fold nodules and other vocal fold traumas more frequently than males. PMID:19571548

  9. Impact of the Fano Factor on Position and Energy Estimation in Scintillation Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Vaibhav; Barrett, Harrison H.; Jha, Abhinav K.; Clarkson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Fano factor for an integer-valued random variable is defined as the ratio of its variance to its mean. Light from various scintillation crystals have been reported to have Fano factors from sub-Poisson (Fano factor < 1) to super-Poisson (Fano factor > 1). For a given mean, a smaller Fano factor implies a smaller variance and thus less noise. We investigated if lower noise in the scintillation light will result in better spatial and energy resolutions. The impact of Fano factor on the estimation of position of interaction and energy deposited in simple gamma-camera geometries is estimated by two methods - calculating the Cramér-Rao bound and estimating the variance of a maximum likelihood estimator. The methods are consistent with each other and indicate that when estimating the position of interaction and energy deposited by a gamma-ray photon, the Fano factor of a scintillator does not affect the spatial resolution. A smaller Fano factor results in a better energy resolution. PMID:26523069

  10. Impact of detector-element active-area shape and fill factor on super-resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardie, Russell; Droege, Douglas; Dapore, Alexander; Greiner, Mark

    2015-05-01

    In many undersampled imaging systems, spatial integration from the individual detector elements is the dominant component of the system point spread function (PSF). Conventional focal plane arrays (FPAs) utilize square detector elements with a nearly 100% fill factor, where fill factor is defined as the fraction of the detector element area that is active in light detection. A large fill factor is generally considered to be desirable because more photons are collected for a given pitch, and this leads to a higher signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). However, the large active area works against super-resolution (SR) image restoration by acting as an additional low pass filter in the overall PSF when modeled on the SR sampling grid. A high fill factor also tends to increase blurring from pixel cross-talk. In this paper, we study the impact of FPA detector-element shape and fill factor on SR. A detailed modulation transfer function analysis is provided along with a number of experimental results with both simulated data and real data acquired with a midwave infrared (MWIR) imaging system. We demonstrate the potential advantage of low fill factor detector elements when combined with SR image restoration. Our results suggest that low fill factor circular detector elements may be the best choice. New video results are presented using robust adaptive Wiener filter SR processing applied to data from a commercial MWIR imaging system with both high and low detector element fill factors.

  11. Impact of the Fano Factor on Position and Energy Estimation in Scintillation Detectors.

    PubMed

    Bora, Vaibhav; Barrett, Harrison H; Jha, Abhinav K; Clarkson, Eric

    2015-02-01

    The Fano factor for an integer-valued random variable is defined as the ratio of its variance to its mean. Light from various scintillation crystals have been reported to have Fano factors from sub-Poisson (Fano factor < 1) to super-Poisson (Fano factor > 1). For a given mean, a smaller Fano factor implies a smaller variance and thus less noise. We investigated if lower noise in the scintillation light will result in better spatial and energy resolutions. The impact of Fano factor on the estimation of position of interaction and energy deposited in simple gamma-camera geometries is estimated by two methods - calculating the Cramér-Rao bound and estimating the variance of a maximum likelihood estimator. The methods are consistent with each other and indicate that when estimating the position of interaction and energy deposited by a gamma-ray photon, the Fano factor of a scintillator does not affect the spatial resolution. A smaller Fano factor results in a better energy resolution. PMID:26523069

  12. Factors affecting the impact toughness of low carbon bainitic weld metal

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, J.M.; Vassilaros, M.; Fox, A.

    1996-12-31

    Welds were produced using the GMA and GTA welding processes with 100% argon and 95% argon-5% CO{sub 2} shielding gases. This resulted in different microstructures and varying levels of strength, chemistry and toughness. The factors affecting CVN impact toughness were determined. The resulting toughness was dependent upon the strength, carbon content, the average size and amount of non-metallic inclusions, and metallurgical structure. Improvement in toughness occurred with decreasing strength, carbon content, inclusion size, volume fraction of inclusions, and amount of as deposited columnar structure. When these factors were minimized, the low carbon bainitic weld metal exhibited toughness behavior similar to that of tempered martensite.

  13. Impact Factors for the "Journal of Teaching in Physical Education"--What Are They and Are They Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The notion of an impact factor was first posited by Eugene Garfield (1972) to study the use, prestige, and status of scientific journals. The Institute for Scientific Information created the impact factor as a means to measure the number of times an "average article" published in a journal was cited over a particular time period ("The impact…

  14. Growth conditions and environmental factors impact aerosolization but not virulence of Francisella tularensis infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Faith, Seth A.; Smith, Le'Kneitah P.; Swatland, Angela S.; Reed, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    In refining methodology to develop a mouse model for inhalation of Francisella tularensis, it was noted that both relative humidity and growth media impacted the aerosol concentration of the live vaccine strain (LVS) of F. tularensis. A relative humidity of less than 55% had a negative impact on the spray factor, the ratio between the concentration of LVS in the aerosol and the nebulizer. The spray factor was significantly higher for LVS grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth than LVS grown in Mueller–Hinton broth (MHb) or Chamberlain's chemically defined medium (CCDM). The variability between aerosol exposures was also considerably less with BHI. LVS grown in BHI survived desiccation far longer than MHb-grown or CCDM-grown LVS (~70% at 20 min for BHI compared to <50% for MHb and CCDM). Removal of the capsule by hypertonic treatment impacted the spray factor for CCDM-grown LVS or MHb-grown LVS but not BHI-grown LVS, suggesting the choice of culture media altered the adherence of the capsule to the cell membrane. The choice of growth media did not impact the LD50 of LVS but the LD99 of BHI-grown LVS was 1 log lower than that for MHb-grown LVS or CCDM-grown LVS. Splenomegaly was prominent in mice that succumbed to MHb- and BHI-grown LVS but not CCDM-grown LVS. Environmental factors and growth conditions should be evaluated when developing new animal models for aerosol infection, particularly for vegetative bacterial pathogens. PMID:23087911

  15. Hydrological drought types in cold climates: quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative survey of impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Ploum, S. W.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A. K.; Garnier, E.; Laaha, G.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.

    2015-04-01

    For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the existing hydrological drought typology, we here define two new drought types related to snow and ice. A snowmelt drought is a deficiency in the snowmelt discharge peak in spring in snow-influenced basins and a glaciermelt drought is a deficiency in the glaciermelt discharge peak in summer in glacierised basins. In 21 catchments in Austria and Norway we studied the meteorological conditions in the seasons preceding and at the time of snowmelt and glaciermelt drought events. Snowmelt droughts in Norway were mainly controlled by below-average winter precipitation, while in Austria both temperature and precipitation played a role. For glaciermelt droughts, the effect of below-average summer air temperature was dominant, both in Austria and Norway. Subsequently, we investigated the impacts of temperature-related drought types (i.e. snowmelt and glaciermelt drought, but also cold and warm snow season drought and rain-to-snow-season drought). In historical archives and drought databases for the US and Europe many impacts were found that can be attributed to these temperature-related hydrological drought types, mainly in the agriculture and electricity production (hydropower) sectors. However, drawing conclusions on the frequency of occurrence of different drought types from reported impacts is difficult, mainly because of reporting biases and the inevitably limited spatial and temporal scales of the information. Finally, this study shows that complete integration of quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative analysis of impacts of temperature-related droughts is not yet possible. Analysis of selected events, however, points out that it can be a promising research

  16. Factors Governing the Impact of Emerged Salt Diapirs on Water Resources.

    PubMed

    Zarei, M

    2016-05-01

    Salt diapirs in southern Iran are typically in contact with karstic and alluvial aquifers and consequently they are the most likely sources of groundwater salinization in this arid region. However, there are some salt diapirs that have no significant degradation effect on adjacent aquifers. Assessments of 62 of 122 Iranian-emerged salt diapirs based on geological, geomorphological, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical investigations indicated that 45% of the studied salt diapirs did not have a negative impact on surrounding water resources, whereas 55% of the salt diapirs have degraded water quality of adjacent aquifers. The impacts ranged from low- to high-grade salinization. We characterize here four major factors that control the impact of salt diapirs on surrounding water resources: (1) the evolutionary stage of the diapir, (2) the geological and (3) hydrogeological setting of the diapir, and (4) human activities. Identification of the major factors governing the influence of salt diapirs on the adjacent aquifers is necessary to understand the mechanism of salt diapir impact on adjacent aquifers, and subsequently to decide how to mitigate the deteriorating effect of the diapirs on the surrounding water resources. PMID:26394154

  17. Psychosocial impact of mothers with perinatal loss and its contributing factors: an insight*

    PubMed Central

    Sutan, Rosnah; Amin, Rosnah Mohamad; Ariffin, Khatija Banu; Teng, Tang Zoun; Kamal, Mohd Faiz; Rusli, Rusli Zaim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychosocial impact among mothers with perinatal loss and its contributing factors. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) from April 2008 to May 2009 using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and self administered questionnaire. Results: Sixty-two respondents were included and most of them were working mothers (77.4%). The mean age of the respondents was (31.0±5.6) years and a majority of the subjects aged between 20–34 years (77.4%). According to the EPDS score, 53.2% of the respondents had a psychosocial impact with a total score of >9, out of 30. There was a significant relationship between psychosocial impact after perinatal loss and support from friends (P=0.019). However, there were no significant differences between psychosocial impact and history of previous perinatal loss, ethnicity, occupation, educational level, age or total income. Conclusion: Mothers with perinatal loss should be screened for psychosocial impact and offered support when needed. Family and friends should continue to provide emotional support. People who have experienced similar problem before will be able to provide better support than those who have not. PMID:20205307

  18. Dental caries and social factors: impact on quality of life in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Milene Torres; Sardenberg, Fernanda; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries and social determinants in the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 1,204 children aged 8 to 10 years randomly selected from 19 public and private schools. The children were clinically examined at school by two trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.78 - 1.00). The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMF-T and dmf-t) was used for the diagnosis of dental caries. The social factors were determined by parents'/caregivers' schooling, household income, number of people in the household, type of school, and by the Social Vulnerability Index. The Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for ages 8 to 10 years was used to assess the impact on quality of life. A total of 278 (23.1%) out of 1,204 children had at least one cavitated carious lesion and 47.0% presented a negative impact on OHRQoL. In the final multivariate Poisson's regression model, household income and presence of untreated dental caries were statistically associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL (p < 0.001).Children with dental caries and from low-income families had a higher negative impact on OHRQoL. PMID:26892354

  19. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  20. Coping with and factors impacting upon the experience of lung cancer in patients and primary carers.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J; Lloyd Williams, M; Wagland, R; Bailey, C; Molassiotis, A

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of research exploring patients' and their informal carers' experience of coping with and factors impacting on the lung cancer experience. This study aims to explore how patients and their informal carers cope with a diagnosis of lung cancer and describe the key factors that mediate distress in this population in order that they may be better supported in the future. This was a qualitative study employing semi-structured interviews and framework analysis to elicit the experience of 37 patients with lung cancer and 23 primary carers regarding their coping with and factors influencing patient/carer distress. The findings illustrate that participants used both emotional- and problem-focused coping strategies, including accepting the reality of lung cancer, adopting a positive attitude/fighting spirit, denial, avoidance and distraction and information seeking. Maintaining normality was also important. Key factors that mediate the lung cancer experience were also identified including hope, social network, prior experience of cancer and other chronic illnesses, the competing coping strategies of patients and their primary carers, the unpredictable nature of patients' behaviour, changing symptomatology, the perceived attitudes of health professionals and the impact of perceived delays in diagnosis. This study provides important insights into how patients with lung cancer and their primary carers might be better supported. PMID:22978743

  1. Large-scale identification of sequence variants impacting human transcription factor occupancy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Maurano, Matthew T.; Haugen, Eric; Sandstrom, Richard; Vierstra, Jeff; Shafer, Anthony; Kaul, Rajinder; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The function of human regulatory regions depends exquisitely on their local genomic environment and cellular context, complicating experimental analysis of the expanding pool of common disease- and trait-associated variants that localize within regulatory DNA. We leverage allelically resolved genomic DNaseI footprinting data encompassing 166 individuals and 114 cell types to identify >60,000 common variants that directly impact transcription factor occupancy and regulatory DNA accessibility in vivo. The unprecedented scale of these data enable systematic analysis of the impact of sequence variation on transcription factor occupancy in vivo. We leverage this analysis to develop accurate models of variation affecting the recognition sites for diverse transcription factors, and apply these models to discriminate nearly 500,000 common regulatory variants likely to affect transcription factor occupancy across the human genome. The approach and results provide a novel foundation for analysis and interpretation of noncoding variation in complete human genomes, and for systems-level investigation of disease-associated variants. PMID:26502339

  2. Early pancreatic carcinogenesis - risk factors, early symptoms, and the impact of antidiabetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Frič, Přemysl; Škrha, Jan; Šedo, Aleksi; Bušek, Petr; Kmochová, Klára; Laclav, Martin; Solař, Svatopluk; Bunganič, Bohuš; Zavoral, Miroslav

    2016-07-01

    Risk factors (long-term diabetes, obesity) and early symptoms (new-onset diabetes, loss of weight, or persistent low body mass) are the initial symptoms of pancreatic carcinogenesis. They may be influenced by antidiabetic drugs and their correct evaluation is a prerequisite for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PC). We review the risk factors, early symptoms, and the impact of antidiabetic drugs on early pancreatic carcinogenesis. The main source of data was the database Medline/PubMed and abstracts of international congresses (DDW, UEGW). The risk factors and early symptoms are integral components of the familial PC surveillance and sporadic PC screening. Preventive programs should always be include multistep and multidisciplinary procedures. The correct evaluation of antidiabetic drugs and their interactions with other components of pancreatic carcinogenesis may influence the early diagnosis of PC. PMID:27120389

  3. Burnout among corrections-based drug treatment staff: impact of individual and organizational factors.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bryan R; Knight, Kevin; Simpson, D Dwayne

    2007-10-01

    As a result of limited budgets, many treatment programs are forced to operate for extended periods at or beyond their capacity. The resulting pressure and stress on treatment staff can be taxing and lead to serious problems, including job burnout. Although the concept of burnout within other social service professions has been broadly researched, less attention has been given to burnout among drug abuse treatment staff, especially among corrections-based drug treatment staff. The goal of this article is to extend this area of research by exploring the impact of individual factors and organizational factors on burnout. Findings revealed that although a number of factors were related to staff burnout, younger counselor age, lower adaptability, poorer clarity of agency mission, and higher stress were most significant. Ways in which treatment programs might address these issues affecting staff burnout are discussed. PMID:17615435

  4. Concentration of Elements in Food: How Can It Reflect Impact of Environmental and Other Influencing Factors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Klavins, Maris

    2013-12-01

    Element content of food is variable and can be influenced by different factors. The aim of the present study was to discover the linkage between macro- and microelement concentrations in food produced in Latvia, and possible impacts of environmental factors. More than 300 fresh food samples such as eggs, cottage cheese, honey, root vegetables, apple juice, apple wine were collected in the time period from 2009 to 2011. Samples were mineralised or analysed directly by appropriate method of quantitative analysis: atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Statistical analysis of data revealed that food elemental content can be influenced by sitespecific factors such as geographical origin, seasonality, environmental pollution.

  5. Dynamic Young's Modulus And Loss Factor Of Plastic Foams For Impact Sound Isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritz, T.

    1994-12-01

    The frequency and amplitude dependences of the dynamic Young's modulus and loss factor of polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE) foams usable for impact sound isolation in floating floors, measured at room temperature, in the frequency range of 100-3000 Hz, and in the range of strain amplitude of 10 -5-10 -2 respectively, are given in the paper. It is shown that the frame loss factor of the PS and PE foams is low (˜0·01 and ˜0·1, respectively), and that of the foam sheets including air is also low (˜0·1). The frame dynamic Young's modulus of both foams slightly increases with frequency. The dynamic behaviour of the foams is linear up to the strain amplitude of about 10 -3, above which the dynamic Young's modulus decreases, whereas the loss factor increases with increasing strain.

  6. The Impact of Neighborhood, Family, and Individual Risk Factors on Toddlers’ Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Heberle, Amy E.; Thomas, Yolanda M.; Wagmiller, Robert L.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for behavior problems in school aged children but their impact in toddlerhood is unknown. Relations between toddlers’ disruptive behavior and neighborhood disadvantage, family disadvantage, violence or conflict exposure, parent depressive symptoms, and parenting behavior were examined using multilevel, multi-group (girl/boy) models. Participants were 1204 families (mean child age = 24.7 months). Unique associations between disruptive behavior and all risk factors were observed, but the effect of neighborhood disadvantage was negligible when all of the more proximal factors were accounted for. The results suggest both that children in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at greater risk of behavior problems than children in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods and that optimal prevention/intervention work with these children will attend to proximal risk factors. PMID:24773306

  7. Factor analysis of two versions of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance scale.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Luciane M; Scalco, Giovana P C; Abegg, Claides; Celeste, Roger K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the factorial structure and agreement of two scoring versions of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) scale, and to compare the fit of the originally proposed factorial structure, as opposed to an alternative model. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were conducted to explore the dimensional structure of the OIDP on a convenience sample of 200 adults (S1). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed on a random sample of 720 adults (S2). The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the total and frequency versions of the OIDP scale were, respectively, 0.81 and 0.70 for S1, and 0.82 and 0.79 for S2, with a quadratic Kappa κ = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75-0.89) in S1 and κ = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.89-0.94) in S2. Exploratory factor analyses showed one factor for the total version and three factors (non-interpretable) for the frequency version. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the frequency version for the one-factor model (Model 1) had the best fit [Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.04; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.98; Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.97, χ(2) P-value < 0.01]. The one-factor model was not significantly different from the original three-factor model. These findings suggest that the scale captures only one overall quality of life dimension, and that the frequency version was the most parsimonious model of the OIDP scale. PMID:26935779

  8. App Usage Factor: A Simple Metric to Compare the Population Impact of Mobile Medical Apps

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2015-01-01

    Background One factor when assessing the quality of mobile apps is quantifying the impact of a given app on a population. There is currently no metric which can be used to compare the population impact of a mobile app across different health care disciplines. Objective The objective of this study is to create a novel metric to characterize the impact of a mobile app on a population. Methods We developed the simple novel metric, app usage factor (AUF), defined as the logarithm of the product of the number of active users of a mobile app with the median number of daily uses of the app. The behavior of this metric was modeled using simulated modeling in Python, a general-purpose programming language. Three simulations were conducted to explore the temporal and numerical stability of our metric and a simulated app ecosystem model using a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps. Results Simulations confirmed the metric was stable between predicted usage limits and remained stable at extremes of these limits. Analysis of a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps calculated an average value for the app usage factor of 4.90 (SD 0.78). A temporal simulation showed that the metric remained stable over time and suitable limits for its use were identified. Conclusions A key component when assessing app risk and potential harm is understanding the potential population impact of each mobile app. Our metric has many potential uses for a wide range of stakeholders in the app ecosystem, including users, regulators, developers, and health care professionals. Furthermore, this metric forms part of the overall estimate of risk and potential for harm or benefit posed by a mobile medical app. We identify the merits and limitations of this metric, as well as potential avenues for future validation and research. PMID:26290093

  9. Impact factors and the optimal parameter of acoustic structure quantification in the assessment of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Liu, Guang-Jian; Liao, Bing; Huang, Guang-Liang; Liang, Jin-Yu; Zhou, Lu-Yao; Wang, Fen; Li, Wei; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Wei; Lu, Ming-De

    2015-09-01

    The aims of the present study are to assess the impact factors on acoustic structure quantification (ASQ) ultrasound and find the optimal parameter for the assessment of liver fibrosis. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent ASQ examinations to evaluate impact factors in ASQ image acquisition and analysis. An additional 113 patients with liver diseases underwent standardized ASQ examinations, and the results were compared with histologic staging of liver fibrosis. We found that the right liver displayed lower values of ASQ parameters than the left (p = 0.000-0.021). Receive gain experienced no significant impact except gain 70 (p = 0.193-1.000). With regard to different diameter of involved vessels in regions of interest, the group ≤2.0 mm differed significantly with the group 2.1-5.0 mm (p = 0.000-0.033) and the group >5.0 mm (p = 0.000-0.062). However, the region of interest size (p = 0.438-1.000) and depth (p = 0.072-0.764) had no statistical impact. Good intra- and inter-operator reproducibilities were found in both image acquisitions and offline image analyses. In the liver fibrosis study, the focal disturbance ratio had the highest correlation with histologic fibrosis stage (r = 0.67, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the testing position, receive gain and involved vessels were the main factors in ASQ examinations and focal disturbance ratio was the optimal parameter in the assessment of liver fibrosis. PMID:26055966

  10. Assessment of impact factors on shear wave based liver stiffness measurement.

    PubMed

    Ling, Wenwu; Lu, Qiang; Quan, Jierong; Ma, Lin; Luo, Yan

    2013-02-01

    Shear wave based ultrasound elastographies have been implemented as non-invasive methods for quantitative assessment of liver stiffness. Nonetheless, there are only a few studies that have investigated impact factors on liver stiffness measurement (LSM). Moreover, standard examination protocols for LSM are still lacking in clinical practice. Our study aimed to assess the impact factors on LSM to establish its standard examination protocols in clinical practice. We applied shear wave based elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) in 21 healthy individuals to determine the impact of liver location (segments I-VIII), breathing phase (end-inspiration and end-expiration), probe position (sub-costal and inter-costal position) and examiner on LSM. Additional studies in 175 healthy individuals were also performed to determine the influence of gender and age on liver stiffness. We found significant impact of liver location on LSM, while the liver segment V displayed the lowest coefficient of variation (CV 21%). The liver stiffness at the end-expiration was significantly higher than that at the end-inspiration (P=2.1E-05). The liver stiffness was 8% higher in men than in women (3.8 ± 0.7 kPa vs. 3.5 ± 0.4 kPa, P=0.0168). In contrast, the liver stiffness was comparable in the different probe positions, examiners and age groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study reveals significant impact from liver location, breathing phase and gender on LSM, while furthermore strengthening the necessity for the development of standard examination protocols on LSM. PMID:23116805

  11. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

  12. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  13. The Carbon_h-Factor: Predicting Individuals' Research Impact at Early Stages of Their Career

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2011-01-01

    Assessing an individual's research impact on the basis of a transparent algorithm is an important task for evaluation and comparison purposes. Besides simple but also inaccurate indices such as counting the mere number of publications or the accumulation of overall citations, and highly complex but also overwhelming full-range publication lists in their raw format, Hirsch (2005) introduced a single figure cleverly combining different approaches. The so-called h-index has undoubtedly become the standard in scientometrics of individuals' research impact (note: in the present paper I will always use the term “research impact” to describe the research performance as the logic of the paper is based on the h-index, which quantifies the specific “impact” of, e.g., researchers, but also because the genuine meaning of impact refers to quality as well). As the h-index reflects the number h of papers a researcher has published with at least h citations, the index is inherently positively biased towards senior level researchers. This might sometimes be problematic when predictive tools are needed for assessing young scientists' potential, especially when recruiting early career positions or equipping young scientists' labs. To be compatible with the standard h-index, the proposed index integrates the scientist's research age (Carbon_h-factor) into the h-index, thus reporting the average gain of h-index per year. Comprehensive calculations of the Carbon_h-factor were made for a broad variety of four research-disciplines (economics, neuroscience, physics and psychology) and for researchers performing on three high levels of research impact (substantial, outstanding and epochal) with ten researchers per category. For all research areas and output levels we obtained linear developments of the h-index demonstrating the validity of predicting one's later impact in terms of research impact already at an early stage of their career with the Carbon_h-factor being approx. 0.4, 0

  14. [Spanish versus English as a language of publication and impact factor of Neurologia].

    PubMed

    Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Valderrama Zurián, J C; Alonso-Arroyo, A; Miguel-Dasit, A; González de Dios, J; de Granda Orive, Ji

    2007-01-01

    Although the English language is considered nowadays as the international language of medical publications, some important Spanish journals with impact factor in the Journal Citation Reports as Neurologia, they bet for the publication in Spanish. Neurologia is the official publication of the Sociedad Española de Neurología and there is the conviction that you can have a Spanish language journal with a high quality and a strong impact. Its presence in the most important international data bases and the possibility of free access to its contents through Internet guarantees its proper diffusion around the world. From the point of view of citation, the repercussion of the language for Neurologia, is reflected in the fact that the 46,8 % of the citations that receive are from journals that are published in Spanish. The main factor to improve the impact of the journal is the quality of their papers, as well as the fulfillment of the international rules about periodical publications, the punctuality in its edition and distribution, the presence in national and international bibliographical data bases, its free diffusion in Internet, the training of its researchers and their sensitivity to consult and cite articles that have been published in quality Spanish journals, when necessary. PMID:17315099

  15. Reasons for Journal Impact Factor Changes: Influence of Changing Source Items

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Both the concept and the application of the impact factor (IF) have been subject to widespread critique, including concerns over its potential manipulation. This study provides a systematic analysis of significant journal Impact Factor changes, based on the relative contribution of either one or both variables of the IF equation (i.e. citations / articles as the numerator / denominator of the quotient). A cohort of JCR-listed journals which faced the most dramatic absolute IF changes between 2013 and 2014 (ΔIF ≥ 3.0, n = 49) was analyzed for the causes resulting in IF changes that theses journals have experienced in the last five years. Along with the variation by number of articles and citations, this analysis includes the relative change of both variables compared to each other and offers a classification of `valid`and `invalid`scenarios of IF variation in terms of the intended goal of the IF to measure journal quality. The sample cohort features a considerable incidence of IF increases (18%) which are qualified as `invalid`according to this classification because the IF increase is merely based on a favorably changing number of articles (denominator). The results of this analysis point out the potentially delusive effect of IF increases gained through effective shrinkage of publication output. Therefore, careful consideration of the details of the IF equation and possible implementation of control mechanisms versus the volatile factor of number of articles may help to improve the expressiveness of this metric. PMID:27105434

  16. Most species are not driven to extinction before genetic factors impact them

    PubMed Central

    Spielman, Derek; Brook, Barry W.; Frankham, Richard

    2004-01-01

    There is controversy concerning the role of genetic factors in species extinctions. Many authors have asserted that species are usually driven to extinction before genetic factors have time to impact them, but few studies have seriously addressed this issue. If this assertion is true, there will be little difference in genetic diversity between threatened and taxonomically related nonthreatened species. We compared average heterozygosities in 170 threatened taxa with those in taxonomically related nonthreatened taxa in a comprehensive metaanalysis. Heterozygosity was lower in threatened taxa in 77% of comparisons, a highly significant departure from the predictions of the no genetic impact hypothesis. Heterozygosity was on average 35% lower (median 40%) in threatened taxa than in related nonthreatened ones. These differences in heterozygosity indicate lowered evolutionary potential, compromised reproductive fitness, and elevated extinction risk in the wild. Independent evidence from stochastic computer projections has demonstrated that inbreeding depression elevates extinction risk for threatened species in natural habitats when all other threatening processes are included in the models. Thus, most taxa are not driven to extinction before genetic factors affect them adversely. PMID:15477597

  17. Impact of age on epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Suda, Kenichi; Soh, Junichi; Yatabe, Yasushi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2012-12-01

    Aging is one of the best, but rarely referred, risk factors for various types of cancer including lung cancer, because age could be a surrogate for accumulation of genetic events in cancers. Smoking inversely associates with the presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in lung cancer, but its strong confounding with age and sex makes it difficult to evaluate sole impact of age. To clarify an impact of age on EGFR mutation, we conducted a cross-sectional study based on data of 1262 lung cancer patients. The associations between EGFR mutation and age, considering sex, smoking and histology, were evaluated using logistic regression models. In multivariate analysis, we found a significant increase of EGFR mutation prevalence by increase of age (p-trend=0.0004). Consistent trend was observed among never-smoking females (p-trend=0.011) and never-smoking males also showed similar trend although not significant. These were consistently observed when we limit the subject to those with adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, age independently associates with EGFR mutation among lung cancer. Positive association between EGFR mutation and age among never-smokers regardless of sex might indicate that EGFR mutation occurs cumulatively by unidentified internal/external factors other than smoking. PMID:23036155

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Critical Factors for the Climate Impact of Landfill Mining.

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Cencic, Oliver; Svensson, Niclas; Krook, Joakim

    2016-07-01

    Landfill mining has been proposed as an innovative strategy to mitigate environmental risks associated with landfills, to recover secondary raw materials and energy from the deposited waste, and to enable high-valued land uses at the site. The present study quantitatively assesses the importance of specific factors and conditions for the net contribution of landfill mining to global warming using a novel, set-based modeling approach and provides policy recommendations for facilitating the development of projects contributing to global warming mitigation. Building on life-cycle assessment, scenario modeling and sensitivity analysis methods are used to identify critical factors for the climate impact of landfill mining. The net contributions to global warming of the scenarios range from -1550 (saving) to 640 (burden) kg CO2e per Mg of excavated waste. Nearly 90% of the results' total variation can be explained by changes in four factors, namely the landfill gas management in the reference case (i.e., alternative to mining the landfill), the background energy system, the composition of the excavated waste, and the applied waste-to-energy technology. Based on the analyses, circumstances under which landfill mining should be prioritized or not are identified and sensitive parameters for the climate impact assessment of landfill mining are highlighted. PMID:27282202

  19. Reasons for Journal Impact Factor Changes: Influence of Changing Source Items.

    PubMed

    Kiesslich, Tobias; Weineck, Silke B; Koelblinger, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    Both the concept and the application of the impact factor (IF) have been subject to widespread critique, including concerns over its potential manipulation. This study provides a systematic analysis of significant journal Impact Factor changes, based on the relative contribution of either one or both variables of the IF equation (i.e. citations / articles as the numerator / denominator of the quotient). A cohort of JCR-listed journals which faced the most dramatic absolute IF changes between 2013 and 2014 (ΔIF ≥ 3.0, n = 49) was analyzed for the causes resulting in IF changes that theses journals have experienced in the last five years. Along with the variation by number of articles and citations, this analysis includes the relative change of both variables compared to each other and offers a classification of `valid`and `invalid`scenarios of IF variation in terms of the intended goal of the IF to measure journal quality. The sample cohort features a considerable incidence of IF increases (18%) which are qualified as `invalid`according to this classification because the IF increase is merely based on a favorably changing number of articles (denominator). The results of this analysis point out the potentially delusive effect of IF increases gained through effective shrinkage of publication output. Therefore, careful consideration of the details of the IF equation and possible implementation of control mechanisms versus the volatile factor of number of articles may help to improve the expressiveness of this metric. PMID:27105434

  20. Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Low Back: I. Overview of Large Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2001-03-01

    Scientific and medical data have been gathered for nearly 500 motor-vehicle occupants, whose dynamic response[1-2] was calculated to determine the forces generated at all potential injury sites. Particular attention was paid to the load within the lumbosacral spine to examine the influence of certain variables relating to the occupant (height, weight, sex), the impact (magnitude, direction), and the low back itself (local vector, anatomical level). Exhaustive efforts were made to match the force with each variable using linear and logarithmic fits, but correlation coefficients were generally not high. These results might be influenced by the emphasis in this research to obtain the best statistics with large groupings of patients. Hence, a separate study with more detail is proposed as a significant continuation of this effort. 1. Proper Treatment of Complex Human Structures, Announcer 27 (4), 100 (1997); 2. Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Neck: I & II, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 45, 1018 (2000).

  1. Factors in pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham: a review.

    PubMed

    Candek-Potokar, M; Skrlep, M

    2012-02-01

    This study reviews the factors of pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham. When processing is standardized, the quality of the final dry-cured product is primarily determined by the quality of the meat before curing (green ham). This has been defined as the aptitude for seasoning and is determined by the green ham weight, adipose tissue quantity and quality, meat physico-chemical properties and the absence of visual defects. Various ante-mortem factors including pig age and weight, genetic type, diet, feeding strategy and slaughter conditions determine green ham properties such as the dynamics of water loss, salt intake and, as a consequence, proteolysis and lipolysis. Muscle conditions (pH, salt concentration, water content and availability, temperature) influence enzymatic activity and development of characteristic texture and flavor. Generally, hams of older and heavier pigs present better seasoning aptitude because of higher adiposity. Adiposity is also positively correlated with fat saturation, which is desired to avoid rancidity and oiliness. The fatty acid profile of tissue lipids can be manipulated by diet composition. Feeding strategy affects tissue accretion and protein turnover, thus directly impacting proteolysis. With respect to the impact of pig genotype on dry-cured ham quality, local breeds are generally considered more suitable for producing quality dry hams; however, the majority of dry-cured hams on the market today are from modern pig breeds raised in conventional systems, providing lean hams. The importance of all these factors of pig production is discussed and synthesized, with an emphasis on the main difficulties encountered in dry-cured ham production. PMID:22436192

  2. Auto-correlation of journal impact factor for consensus research reporting statements: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Journal Citation Reports journal impact factors (JIFs) are widely used to rank and evaluate journals, standing as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. However, numerous criticisms have been made of use of a JIF to evaluate importance. This problem is exacerbated when the use of JIFs is extended to evaluate not only the journals, but the papers therein. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the relationship between the number of citations and journal IF for identical articles published simultaneously in multiple journals. Methods. Eligible articles were consensus research reporting statements listed on the EQUATOR Network website that were published simultaneously in three or more journals. The correlation between the citation count for each article and the median journal JIF over the published period, and between the citation count and number of article accesses was calculated for each reporting statement. Results. Nine research reporting statements were included in this analysis, representing 85 articles published across 58 journals in biomedicine. The number of citations was strongly correlated to the JIF for six of the nine reporting guidelines, with moderate correlation shown for the remaining three guidelines (median r = 0.66, 95% CI [0.45-0.90]). There was also a strong positive correlation between the number of citations and the number of article accesses (median r = 0.71, 95% CI [0.5-0.8]), although the number of data points for this analysis were limited. When adjusted for the individual reporting guidelines, each logarithm unit of JIF predicted a median increase of 0.8 logarithm units of citation counts (95% CI [-0.4-5.2]), and each logarithm unit of article accesses predicted a median increase of 0.1 logarithm units of citation counts (95% CI [-0.9-1.4]). This model explained 26% of the variance in citations (median adjusted r (2) = 0.26, range 0.18-1.0). Conclusion. The impact factor of the

  3. Neuroprotective Activities of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Following Controlled Cortical Impact

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Matthew L.; Elliott, Bret R.; Haverland, Nicole A.; Mosley, R. Lee; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegeneration after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is facilitated by innate and adaptive immunity and can be harnessed to effect brain repair. In mice subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) we show that treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) affects regulatory T cell numbers coincident with decreased lesion volumes and increased cortical tissue sparing. This paralleled increases in neurofilament and diminished reactive microglial staining. Transcriptomic analysis showed that GM-CSF induces robust immune neuroprotective responses seven days following CCI. Together, these results support the therapeutic potential of GM-CSF for TBI. PMID:25468272

  4. Impact factor, H index, peer comparisons, and Retrovirology: is it time to individualize citation metrics?

    PubMed Central

    Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2007-01-01

    There is a natural tendency to judge a gift by the attractiveness of its wrapping. In some respect, this reflects current mores of measuring the gravitas of a scientific paper based on the journal cover in which the work appears. Most journals have an impact factor (IF) which some proudly display on their face page. Although historically journal IF has been a convenient quantitative shorthand, has its (mis)use contributed to inaccurate perceptions of the quality of scientific articles? Is now the time that equally convenient but more individually accurate metrics be adopted? PMID:17577403

  5. Auto-correlation of journal impact factor for consensus research reporting statements: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Journal Citation Reports journal impact factors (JIFs) are widely used to rank and evaluate journals, standing as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. However, numerous criticisms have been made of use of a JIF to evaluate importance. This problem is exacerbated when the use of JIFs is extended to evaluate not only the journals, but the papers therein. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the relationship between the number of citations and journal IF for identical articles published simultaneously in multiple journals. Methods. Eligible articles were consensus research reporting statements listed on the EQUATOR Network website that were published simultaneously in three or more journals. The correlation between the citation count for each article and the median journal JIF over the published period, and between the citation count and number of article accesses was calculated for each reporting statement. Results. Nine research reporting statements were included in this analysis, representing 85 articles published across 58 journals in biomedicine. The number of citations was strongly correlated to the JIF for six of the nine reporting guidelines, with moderate correlation shown for the remaining three guidelines (median r = 0.66, 95% CI [0.45–0.90]). There was also a strong positive correlation between the number of citations and the number of article accesses (median r = 0.71, 95% CI [0.5–0.8]), although the number of data points for this analysis were limited. When adjusted for the individual reporting guidelines, each logarithm unit of JIF predicted a median increase of 0.8 logarithm units of citation counts (95% CI [−0.4–5.2]), and each logarithm unit of article accesses predicted a median increase of 0.1 logarithm units of citation counts (95% CI [−0.9–1.4]). This model explained 26% of the variance in citations (median adjusted r2 = 0.26, range 0.18–1.0). Conclusion. The impact

  6. Sexual Violence Among Youth in New Mexico: Risk and Resiliency Factors That Impact Behavioral Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reed, Danielle; Reno, Jessica; Green, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between history of forced sex and poor behavioral health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to describe this relationship among high school students and to explore the impact of resiliency factors. Using data from the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey, we found that history of forced sex was associated with negative behavioral health outcomes for males and females, regardless of sexual orientation and disability status. Furthermore, the presence of a caring adult at home appeared to reduce the risk of substance abuse and suicidality among students with and without a history of forced sex. PMID:26882412

  7. Calibration of relative sensitivity factors for impact ionization detectors with high-velocity silicate microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiege, Katherina; Trieloff, Mario; Hillier, Jon K.; Guglielmino, Massimo; Postberg, Frank; Srama, Ralf; Kempf, Sascha; Blum, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    Impact ionization mass spectrometers, e.g., the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard the Cassini spacecraft can quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of impacting particles, if the ionization efficiencies of the elements to be quantified are appropriately calibrated. Although silicates are an abundant dust species inside and outside the Solar System, an experimental calibration was not available for elements typically found in silicates. We performed such a calibration by accelerating orthopyroxene dust of known composition with a modified Van de Graaff accelerator to velocities of up to 37.9 km s-1 and subsequent analyses by a high resolution impact ionization mass spectrometer, the Large Area Mass Analyzer (LAMA). The orthopyroxene dust, prepared from a natural rock sample, contains ∼90% orthopyroxene and ∼10% additional mineral species, such as clinopyroxene, spinel, amphibole, olivine and glasses, which are present as impurities within the orthopyroxene, due to inclusion or intergrowth. Hence, the dust material can be regarded as a multi-mineral mixture. After analyses, we find that most particle data cluster at a composition ascribed to pure orthopyroxene. Some data scatter is caused by stochastic effects, other data scatter is caused by the chemically different mineral impurities. Our data indicate that these minor mineral phases can be recognized within a multi-mineral mixture. Here, for the first time, we present experimentally derived relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) for impact ionization mass spectroscopy of silicates, enabling the quantitative determination of the composition of cosmic dust grains. Orthopyroxene data were used to infer RSFs for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe and K, for particles with radii ranging from 0.04 μm to 0.2 μm and velocities between 19 and 37.9 km s-1, impacting on a Rh-target.

  8. Preliminary Results In Quantifying The Climatic Impact Forcing Factors Around 3 Ma Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluteau, F.; Ramstein, G.; Duringer, P.; Schuster, M.; Tiercelin, J. J.

    What is exactly the control of climate changes on the development of the Hominids ? Is it possible to quantify such changes ? and which are the forcing factors that create these changes ? We use here a General Circulation Model to investigate the climate sensitivity of 3 different forcing factors : the uplift of the East African Rift, the ex- tent (more than twenty time PD surfaces) of the Chad Lake and ultimately we shall with a coupled oceanatmospher GCM test the the effect of Indonesian throughflow changes. To achieve these goals, we need a multidisciplinary group to assess the evo- lution of the Rift and the extent of the Lake. We prescribe these different boundary conditions to the GCM and use a biome model to assess the vegetation changes. In this presentation we will only focus on the Rift uplift and the Chad lake impacts on Atmospheric circulation, monsoon and their environmental consequences in term of vegetation changes.

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adults: Impact, Comorbidity, Risk Factors, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    During the last 30 years, there has been a substantial increase in the study of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several high-profile traumatic events, such as the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the terrorist attacks of September 11 on the World Trade Center, have led to a greater public interest in the risk and protective factors for PTSD. In this In Review paper, I discuss some of the important advances in PTSD. The paper provides a concise review of the evolution of PTSD diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, impact of PTSD in the community, an overview of the established risk factors for developing PTSD, and assessment and treatment. Throughout the paper, controversies and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25565692

  10. Functional Impact of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Exposure on Tau Phosphorylation and Axon Transport

    PubMed Central

    Le, Michelle H.; Weissmiller, April M.; Monte, Louise; Lin, Po Han; Hexom, Tia C.; Natera, Orlangie; Wu, Chengbiao; Rissman, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Stress exposure or increased levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) induce hippocampal tau phosphorylation (tau-P) in rodent models, a process that is dependent on the type-1 CRF receptor (CRFR1). Although these preclinical studies on stress-induced tau-P provide mechanistic insight for epidemiological work that identifies stress as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the actual impact of stress-induced tau-P on neuronal function remains unclear. To determine the functional consequences of stress-induced tau-P, we developed a novel mouse neuronal cell culture system to explore the impact of acute (0.5hr) and chronic (2hr) CRF treatment on tau-P and integral cell processes such as axon transport. Consistent with in vivo reports, we found that chronic CRF treatment increased tau-P levels and caused globular accumulations of phosphorylated tau in dendritic and axonal processes. Furthermore, while both acute and chronic CRF treatment led to significant reduction in CREB activation and axon transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), this was not the case with mitochondrial transport. Acute CRF treatment caused increased mitochondrial velocity and distance traveled in neurons, while chronic CRF treatment modestly decreased mitochondrial velocity and greatly increased distance traveled. These results suggest that transport of cellular energetics may take priority over growth factors during stress. Tau-P was required for these changes, as co-treatment of CRF with a GSK kinase inhibitor prevented CRF-induced tau-P and all axon transport changes. Collectively, our results provide mechanistic insight into the consequences of stress peptide-induced tau-P and provide an explanation for how chronic stress via CRF may lead to neuronal vulnerability in AD. PMID:26790099

  11. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    PubMed

    Loidl, Verena; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Ballert, Carolina; Coenen, Michaela; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity. PMID:27077872

  12. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    PubMed Central

    Loidl, Verena; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Ballert, Carolina; Coenen, Michaela; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity. PMID:27077872

  13. Where should family medicine papers be published - following the impact factor?

    PubMed

    Peleg, Roni; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2006-01-01

    Academic institutions weigh the research contribution of family physicians and take this factor into account when determining eligibility for the candidates' promotion. Among other parameters, these institutions consider the journals in which family physicians publish. In this respect, the impact factor (IF) has gained a foothold as one of the most accepted means to measure this contribution. The IF may be a measure of the main importance of a scientific journal. IF has a huge, but controversial, influence on the perception and evaluation of published scientific research. It is important for family physicians to understand and be aware of the importance of the IF and the way it is calculated. The IF is one consideration in the decision-making process of a researcher as to where to publish because the IF of most family medicine journals is less than 2.0. Thus publication in these journals might not yield the proper "score" for academic promotion in many institutions. On the other hand, publication in journals with higher IF that are not necessarily widely read by primary care physicians could result in a small impact of their findings on direct patient care. PMID:17090797

  14. Comparative impact of climatic and nonclimatic factors on global terrestrial carbon and water cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christoph; Bondeau, Alberte; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Cramer, Wolfgang; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2006-12-01

    The coupled global carbon and water cycles are influenced by multiple factors of human activity such as fossil-fuel emissions and land use change. We used the LPJmL Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) to quantify the potential influences of human demography, diet, and land allocation, and compare these to the effects of fossil-fuel emissions and corresponding climate change. For this purpose, we generate 12 land use patterns in which these factors are analyzed in a comparative static setting, providing information on their relative importance and the range of potential impacts on the terrestrial carbon and water balance. We show that these aspects of human interference are equally important to climate change and historic fossil-fuel emissions for global carbon stocks but less important for net primary production (NPP). Demand for agricultural area and thus the magnitude of impacts on the carbon and water cycles are mainly determined by constraints on localizing agricultural production and modulated by total demand for agricultural products.

  15. Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure for Life Cycle Assessment: Regional Health Impact Factors for Households.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K; Meijer, Arjen; Demou, Evangelia; Hellweg, Stefanie; Jolliet, Olivier; Lam, Nicholas L; Margni, Manuele; McKone, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    Human exposure to indoor pollutant concentrations is receiving increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). We address this issue by incorporating an indoor compartment into the USEtox model, as well as by providing recommended parameter values for households in four different regions of the world differing geographically, economically, and socially. With these parameter values, intake fractions and comparative toxicity potentials for indoor emissions of dwellings for different air tightness levels were calculated. The resulting intake fractions for indoor exposure vary by 2 orders of magnitude, due to the variability of ventilation rate, building occupation, and volume. To compare health impacts as a result of indoor exposure with those from outdoor exposure, the indoor exposure characterization factors determined with the modified USEtox model were applied in a case study on cooking in non-OECD countries. This study demonstrates the appropriateness and significance of integrating indoor environments into LCA, which ensures a more holistic account of all exposure environments and allows for a better accountability of health impacts. The model, intake fractions, and characterization factors are made available for use in standard LCA studies via www.usetox.org and in standard LCA software. PMID:26444519

  16. [Impact of chemical and physical environmental factors on the course and outcome of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Slama, R; Cordier, S

    2013-09-01

    We review the epidemiological literature on the possible impact of chemical and physical factors on pregnancy outcome. Effects of in-utero exposures on child health are not considered here. The highest levels of evidence concern the effects of passive smoking (on fetal growth), of lead (pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal growth), of some Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB; on fetal growth) and, to a lesser extent, of atmospheric pollutants (on fetal growth and preterm delivery). For the other compounds, in particular non-persistent chemicals, the literature, which is generally based on poor exposure assessment, is less informative. In conclusion, the last decades have witnessed the development of mother-child cohorts in which exposure biomarkers have been assayed, allowing a large number of publications. For some persistent compounds, for which efficient exposure assessment approaches have been used, the literature indicates a likely impact on pregnancy outcomes. With the exception of air pollutants, the literature on non-persistent compounds is little conclusive; the assay of exposure biomarkers in repeated biological samples collected at relevant time points could help further increase knowledge regarding any health impact. PMID:23764229

  17. Factors Influencing the Stability of Stems Fixed with Impaction Graft in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Masanori; Ebara, Tsuneyuki; Okamoto, Yusaku; Kou, Hironori

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical stability of the stem is believed to be an important factor in successful impaction grafting in revision THA. We asked whether particle size, femoral bone deficiencies, stem design, graft composition, and impaction technique influenced the initial stability of the stem in vitro using model femora and human bone particles. Bone particles made with a reciprocating blade-type bone mill contained larger particles with a broader size distribution than those made by a rotating drum-type bone mill and had higher stiffness on compression testing. The stiffness on torsional testing decreased as the degree of proximal-medial segmental deficiencies increased. The stiffness and maximum torque in a stem with a rectangular cross section and wide anteroposterior surface were higher in torsional tests. Adding hydroxyapatite granules to the bone particles increased the torsional stability. To facilitate compact bone particles, we developed a spacer between the guidewire and modified femoral packers. This spacer facilitated compacting bone particles from the middle up to the proximal and the technique increased the amount of impacted bone particles at the middle of the stem and also improved the initial stability of the stem. Stem design and degree of deficiencies influenced stiffness in the torsional test and the addition of hydroxyapatite granules enhanced torsional stiffness. PMID:19184265

  18. An Assessment of the Predictive Validity of Impact Factor Scores: Implications for Academic Employment Decisions in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Rosenberg, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Onghena, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Bibliometrics is a method of examining scholarly communications. Concerns regarding the use of bibliometrics in general, and the impact factor score (IFS) in particular, have been discussed across disciplines including social work. Although there are frequent mentions in the literature of the IFS as an indicator of the impact or quality…

  19. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  20. An Exploration of Factors That Impact the Satisfaction and Success of Low Socioeconomic Status Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Damon A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explored multiple factors that impact the satisfaction and success of low socioeconomic status students at a California community college. In an effort to illuminate this impact, a quantitative study investigating extant data collected from a campus climate survey was conducted. The researcher was specifically interested in…

  1. Tumor-Intrinsic and Tumor-Extrinsic Factors Impacting Hsp90-Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon, S. V.; Mollapour, M.; Lee, M.-J.; Tsutsumi, S.; Lee, S.; Kim, Y. S.; Prince, T.; Apolo, A.; Giaccone, G.; Xu, W.; Neckers, L. M.; Trepel, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    In 1994 the first heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor was identified and Hsp90 was reported to be a target for anticancer therapeutics. In the past 18 years there have been 17 distinct Hsp90 inhibitors entered into clinical trial, and the small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors have been highly valuable as probes of the role of Hsp90 and its client proteins in cancer. Although no Hsp90 inhibitor has achieved regulatory approval, recently there has been significant progress in Hsp90 inhibitor clinical development, and in the past year RECIST responses have been documented in HER2-positive breast cancer and EML4-ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer. All of the clinical Hsp90 inhibitors studied to date are specific in their target, i.e. they bind exclusively to Hsp90 and two related heat shock proteins. However, Hsp90 inhibitors are markedly pleiotropic, causing degradation of over 200 client proteins and impacting critical multiprotein complexes. Furthermore, it has only recently been appreciated that Hsp90 inhibitors can, paradoxically, cause transient activation of the protein kinase clients they are chaperoning, resulting in initiation of signal transduction and significant physiological events in both tumor and tumor microenvironment. An additional area of recent progress in Hsp90 research is in studies of the posttranslational modifications of Hsp90 itself and Hsp90 co-chaperone proteins. Together, a picture is emerging in which the impact of Hsp90 inhibitors is shaped by the tumor intracellular and extracellular milieu, and in which Hsp90 inhibitors impact tumor and host on a microenvironmental and systems level. Here we review the tumor intrinsic and extrinsic factors that impact the efficacy of small molecules engaging the Hsp90 chaperone machine. PMID:22804236

  2. Extended criteria donors in liver transplantation Part I: reviewing the impact of determining factors.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Balázs; Gámán, György; Polak, Wojciech G; Gelley, Fanni; Hara, Takanobu; Ono, Shinichiro; Baimakhanov, Zhassulan; Piros, Laszlo; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-07-01

    The definition and factors of extended criteria donors have already been set; however, details of the various opinions still differ in many respects. In this review, we summarize the impact of these factors and their clinical relevance. Elderly livers must not be allocated for hepatitis C virus (HCV) positives, or patients with acute liver failure. In cases of markedly increased serum transaminases, donor hemodynamics is an essential consideration. A prolonged hypotension of the donor does not always lead to an increase in post-transplantation graft loss if post-OLT care is proper. Hypernatremia of less than 160 mEq/L is not an absolute contraindication to accept a liver graft per se. The presence of steatosis is an independent and determinant risk factor for the outcome. The gold standard of the diagnosis is the biopsy. This is recommended in all doubtful cases. The use of HCV+ grafts for HCV+ recipients is comparable in outcome. The leading risk factor for HCV recurrence is the actual RNA positivity of the donor. The presence of a proper anti-HBs level seems to protect from de novo HBV infection. A favourable outcome can be expected if a donation after cardiac death liver is transplanted in a favourable condition, meaning, a warm ischemia time < 30 minutes, cold ischemia time < 8-10 hours, and donor age 50-60 years. The pathway of organ quality assessment is to obtain the most relevant information (e.g. biopsy), consider the co-existing donor risk factors and the reserve capacity of the recipient, and avoid further technical issues. PMID:26838962

  3. Impact of Article Language in Multi-Language Medical Journals - a Bibliometric Analysis of Self-Citations and Impact Factor

    PubMed Central

    Diekhoff, Torsten; Schlattmann, Peter; Dewey, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background In times of globalization there is an increasing use of English in the medical literature. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of English-language articles in multi-language medical journals on their international recognition – as measured by a lower rate of self-citations and higher impact factor (IF). Methods and Findings We analyzed publications in multi-language journals in 2008 and 2009 using the Web of Science (WoS) of Thomson Reuters (former Institute of Scientific Information) and PubMed as sources of information. The proportion of English-language articles during the period was compared with both the share of self-citations in the year 2010 and the IF with and without self-citations. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to analyze these factors as well as the influence of the journals‘ countries of origin and of the other language(s) used in publications besides English. We identified 168 multi-language journals that were listed in WoS as well as in PubMed and met our criteria. We found a significant positive correlation of the share of English articles in 2008 and 2009 with the IF calculated without self-citations (Pearson r=0.56, p = <0.0001), a correlation with the overall IF (Pearson r = 0.47, p = <0.0001) and with the cites to years of IF calculation (Pearson r = 0.34, p = <0.0001), and a weak negative correlation with the share of self-citations (Pearson r = -0.2, p = 0.009). The IF without self-citations also correlated with the journal‘s country of origin – North American journals had a higher IF compared to Middle and South American or European journals. Conclusion Our findings suggest that a larger share of English articles in multi-language medical journals is associated with greater international recognition. Fewer self-citations were found in multi-language journals with a greater share of original articles in English. PMID:24146929

  4. Prevalence of voice complaints, risk factors and impact of voice problems in female student teachers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, George; de Jong, Felix I C R S; Cremers, Cor W R J; Kooijman, Piet G C

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was done among 457 female student teachers and 144 females in the general population. The conclusions are based on the opinions of student teachers and the general population. The results of this study show that 39.6% of the student teachers and 32.6% of the general population reported voice complaints at the moment and/or over the past year (p=0.198). The association between various risk factors (vocal loading factors, physical factors, environmental factors and psycho-emotional factors) and voice complaints were examined. Vocal load was reported in both the student teachers and the general population (p=0.322). Among the subjects with voice complaints, the student teachers were significantly more of the opinion than the general population that environmental irritants in the classroom (p=0.001) and the composition of the group they communicate with (p=0.033) have a negative influence on their voice. In the groups with voice complaints, the student teachers reported significantly less than the general population that stress (p=0.004) and the deterioration of their general physical condition (p=0.003) have a negative influence on their voice. Remarkably, over a third of the student teachers and one fifth of the general population with voice complaints were of the opinion that decrease of hearing has a negative influence on their voices (p=0.113). There was no significant difference in Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores (p=0.284) and impact of voice complaints among student teachers and the general population. Over 15% of the student teachers and the general population with voice complaints reported being or having been disabled due to the voice problem, probably reflecting the severity of the voice problem (p=0.838). The groups reporting voice complaints and disability in relation to their voice complaints have significantly higher VHI scores than those without voice complaints and disability, which indicates a higher

  5. The effects of human corticotrophin releasing factor on motor and cognitive deficits after impact acceleration injury.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, A; Marmarou, C; Marmarou, A

    2000-10-01

    Corticotrophin releasing factor has been shown in several models of tissue injury to be an effective treatment for edema. In a previous study we demonstrated this ability in two models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to assess whether human corticotrophin releasing factor (hCRF) could additionally improve motor and cognitive deficits. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into five groups and injured with the Impact Acceleration Model of TBI. Groups I and II received sham injury followed by treatment with either drug vehicle or 100 micrograms kg-1 hCRF respectively. Group III was injured with no treatment; Group IV animals were injured and treated with 50 micrograms kg-1 hCRF and Group V were injured and treated with 100 micrograms kg-1 hCRF. Animals were assessed both before and after injury with a battery of standardised neuropsychological tests including the Morris Water Maze, the Beam Walk Test, the Beam Balance Test and the Inclined Plane Test. Both 50 micrograms kg-1 and 100 micrograms kg-1 hCRF caused significant improvements in motor and cognitive functioning, confirming that in addition to edema-reducing properties, human corticotrophin releasing factor is also capable of improving motor and cognitive functioning. Given the beneficial experimental effects of this compound, hCRF may be a useful clinical treatment, which requires formal evaluation. PMID:11091970

  6. Impact of known risk factors on endometrial cancer burden in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Yang, Gong; Wen, Wanqing; Cai, Qiu-Yin; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to provide data on the impact of known risk factors on endometrial cancer burden. Using data on 1199 endometrial cancer cases and 1212 frequency matched controls from a population-based case-control study carried out in urban Shanghai, China from 1997 to 2003, multivariable adjusted odds ratios were obtained from unconditional logistic regression analyses. Partial population-attributable risks were calculated and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a bootstrap method. An estimated 16.94% of endometrial cancer cases were attributed to overweight or obesity; 8.39% to meat intake; 5.45% to nonregular tea drinking; 5.23% to physical inactivity; and 1.77% to family history of endometrial, breast, or colorectal cancers. Overall, these risk factors accounted for 36.01% (95% confidence interval: 28.55-43.11%) of total endometrial cancer cases. Similar results were observed when analysis was restricted to postmenopausal women. Among modifiable lifestyle factors, overweight and obesity accounted for the largest proportion of endometrial cancer in the study population. Lifestyle alterations, such as maintenance of healthy weight, regular exercise, consumption of less meat, and tea drinking, could potentially reduce endometrial cancer by more than one-third. PMID:26075656

  7. Impact of heat waves on nonaccidental deaths in Jinan, China, and associated risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Shouqin; Han, Jing; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yueling; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    An ecological study and a case-crossover analysis were conducted to evaluate the impact of heat waves on nonaccidental deaths, and to identify contributing factors of population vulnerability to heat-related deaths in Jinan, China. Daily death data and meteorological data were collected for summer months (June to August) of 2012-2013. Excess mortality was calculated and multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the increased risk of heat waves on deaths. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to estimate the odd ratios (ORs) of risk factors and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, heat waves were related to 24.88 % excess deaths of total nonaccidental deaths and 31.33 % excess deaths of circulatory diseases, with an OR of 16.07 (95 % CI 8.80-23.33) for total nonaccidental deaths and 12.46 (95 % CI 7.39-17.53) for deaths of circulatory diseases. The case-crossover analysis indicated that older people were more likely to die during heat waves (OR = 1.233, 95 % CI 1.076-1.413) and more deaths occurred outside a hospital during heat waves (OR = 1.142, 95 % CI 1.006-1.296). In conclusion, heat waves have caused excess deaths and significantly increased the risk of circulatory deaths. The risk factors identified in our study have implications for public health interventions to reduce heat-related mortality during extreme heat events.

  8. A Multilevel Modelling Approach to Investigating Factors Impacting Science Achievement for Secondary School Students: PISA Hong Kong Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Letao; Bradley, Kelly D.; Akers, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment Hong Kong sample to investigate the factors that impact the science achievement of 15-year-old students. A multilevel model was used to examine the factors from both student and school perspectives. At the student level, the results indicated that male students,…

  9. Significant impact on effective doses received during commercial flights calculated using the new ICRP radiation weighting factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Mares, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This note discusses the significant impact on effective doses received during commercial flights calculated using the new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) radiation weighting factors. It also provides an update on adult effective doses given in a previous article in Health Physics when the old ICRP radiation weighting factors were used. PMID:19959953

  10. Impact of cardiovascular risk factors on carotid intima–media thickness: sex differences

    PubMed Central

    Łoboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Jaroch, Joanna; Bociąga, Zbigniew; Rzyczkowska, Barbara; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Polański, Jacek; Dudek, Krzysztof; Szuba, Andrzej; Łoboz-Grudzień, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose There has been growing interest in the sex-related differences in the impact of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT). Therefore, we aimed at examining the influence of CV risk factors on CIMT in men and women and identifying differences between males and females in the risk profiles affecting CIMT. Patients and methods The study group consisted of 256 patients (mean age 54.7 years), including 134 females (52%), with the following CV risk factors: arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, nicotine addiction, overweight, and obesity. Subjects with the history of any overt CV disease were excluded. CIMT was measured through B-mode ultrasound examination of the right common carotid artery. In the analysis of CIMT values at different ages, the patients were divided into three age groups: 1) <45 years, 2) 45–60 years, and 3) >60 years. Regression analysis was used to examine the influence of CV risk factors on CIMT in men and women. Results CIMT increased with age in both men and women. Women had lower values of CIMT than men (0.54 mm vs 0.60 mm, P=0.011). The analysis in three age subgroups revealed that CIMT values were comparable in men and women in group 1 (0.48 mm vs 0.48 mm, P=0.861), but over the age of 45 years, CIMT values became significantly lower in women compared to men (group 2: 0.51 mm vs 0.63 mm, P=0.005; group 3: 0.63 mm vs 0.72 mm, P=0.020). Significant differences were observed between the sexes in terms of risk factor impact on CIMT. In men, only three factors significantly affected CIMT: age (b=+0.009, P<0.0001), hypertension (b=+0.067, P<0.05), and type 2 diabetes (b=+0.073, P<0.05). In women, apart from age (b=+0.008, P<0.0001) and type 2 diabetes (b=+0.111, P<0.01), significant factors were pulse pressure (PP; b=+0.005, P<0.0001), body mass index (b=+0.007, P<0.05), increased waist circumference (b=+0.092, P<0.01), and metabolic syndrome (b=+0.071, P<0.05). In the

  11. The Impact of Environmental and Genetic Factors on Neonatal Late-Onset Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Bizzarro, Matthew J.; Jiang, Yuan; Hussain, Naveed; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Bhandari, Vineet; Zhang, Heping

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the genetic contribution to late-onset sepsis in twins in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU). Study design A retrospective cohort analysis of twins born from 1994 to 2009 was performed on data collected from the NICUs at Yale University and the University of Connecticut. Sepsis concordance rates were compared between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Mixed effects logistic regression (MELR) analysis was performed to determine the impact of selected non-genetic factors on late-onset sepsis. The influence of additive genetic and common and residual environmental effects were analyzed and quantified. Results 170 monozygotic and 665 dizygotic twin pairs were analyzed and sepsis identified in 8.9%. Mean gestational age and birth weight of the cohort was 31.1 weeks and 1637 grams, respectively. MELR determined birth weight (regression coefficient=−0.001; 95% CI: −0.003–0.000; p=0.028), respiratory distress syndrome (regression coefficient=1.769; 95% CI: 0.943–2.596; p<0.001) and duration of total parenteral nutrition (regression coefficient=0.041; 95% CI: 0.017–0.064; p<0.001) as significant non-genetic factors. Further analysis determined 49.0% (p=0.002) of the variance in liability to late-onset sepsis was due to genetic factors alone, and 51.0% (p=0.001) the result of residual environmental factors. Conclusions Our data support significant genetic susceptibility to late-onset sepsis in the NICU population. PMID:20850766

  12. Impact of insulin like growth factor-1 in development of coronary artery ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Biyik, Ismail; Yalcin, Ahmet Arif; Isiksacan, Nilgun; Celik, Omer; Ozturk, Derya; Erturk, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is characterized by inappropriate dilatation of the coronary vasculature. The mechanisms of CAE are not well known. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) may make endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells more sensitive to the effects of growth hormone. In the present study, we hypothesized that IGF-1 may have an impact on the formation of ectasia and aneurysm in arterial system, and aimed to investigate the associations between the presence of CAE and serum IGF-1 levels in patients undergoing coronary angiography. The study included 2.980 subjects undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography. We selected 40 patients diagnosed with CAE as CAE group and 44 subjects with absolutely normal coronary arteries were assigned as normal control group. IGF-1 levels were measured in both groups of patients. Groups were similar in terms of age, sex and coronary artery disease risk factors. The serum IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in CAE patients with 109.64±54.64 ng/mL than in controls with 84.76±34.01 ng/mL (p=0.016). HDL levels were lower in ectasia group with 41.5±10.7 mg/dL than controls with 47.7±10.4 mg/dL (p=0.018). By means of logistic regression analysis, high IGF-1 and low HDL levels were found to be independent risk factors for the presence of CAE (p<0.02, p<0.016, respectively). The study revealed that there was a positive correlation between serum IGF-1 levels and presence of CAE, and high IGF-1 levels and low HDL levels were independent risk factors for the presence of CAE. Future studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25428678

  13. Analyzing the impact of social factors on homelessness: a Fuzzy Cognitive Map approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature. Social forces such as addictions, family breakdown, and mental illness are compounded by structural forces such as lack of available low-cost housing, poor economic conditions, and insufficient mental health services. Together these factors impact levels of homelessness through their dynamic relations. Historic models, which are static in nature, have only been marginally successful in capturing these relationships. Methods Fuzzy Logic (FL) and fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) are particularly suited to the modeling of complex social problems, such as homelessness, due to their inherent ability to model intricate, interactive systems often described in vague conceptual terms and then organize them into a specific, concrete form (i.e., the FCM) which can be readily understood by social scientists and others. Using FL we converted information, taken from recently published, peer reviewed articles, for a select group of factors related to homelessness and then calculated the strength of influence (weights) for pairs of factors. We then used these weighted relationships in a FCM to test the effects of increasing or decreasing individual or groups of factors. Results of these trials were explainable according to current empirical knowledge related to homelessness. Results Prior graphic maps of homelessness have been of limited use due to the dynamic nature of the concepts related to homelessness. The FCM technique captures greater degrees of dynamism and complexity than static models, allowing relevant concepts to be manipulated and interacted. This, in turn, allows for a much more realistic picture of homelessness. Through network analysis of the FCM we determined that Education exerts the greatest force in the model and hence impacts the dynamism and complexity of a social problem such as homelessness. Conclusions The FCM built to model the complex social system of homelessness

  14. The Impact of Preventive Health Behaviors and Risk Factors on Health Status of Ghanaians

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Bashiru I. I.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Zhao, Xicang

    2013-01-01

    The article here investigated the impact of Preventive Health Behaviors and Risk Factors as measures of Health Status of Ghanaians. We carry out a cross-sectional analysis of 5573 adults who participated and had indicated that they needed to state their health description in the three years prior to the phase 2007 World Health Organization, a study on Global Ageing and Adult health (SAGE) conducted in Ghana. The ordinal logistic regression model was employed for analysis using R. The results suggest that, there is incontrovertible evidence showing a strong relationship between preventive health behaviors and health status of Ghanaians. Again, the lifestyle of Ghanaians clearly manifests in their positive correlation with the good and moderate health state due to the high percentage (38.96% and 39.04%) respectively. The outcome points to a potential link with the Ghanaian social and health policies. PMID:23985114

  15. [Colciencias and disdain for Colombian scientists: from the Stone Age to the impact factor].

    PubMed

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Bayona, Edgardo; Leon, Martha E

    2005-01-01

    Writing has dramatically evolved in the world; however, qualification of scientific production in Colombia has not, including the improper use of decree 1444/93 and 1279/02. The last of these decrees authorized Colciencias, the Colombian government institute created to support scientific research in Colombia, to establish rules for its implementation. Colciencias decided to evaluate scientific papers produced in Colombia based on the non-scientific method of the "impact factor", and considered that citations in MEDLINE/PubMed and PsylNFO were second line publications thus violating Colombian law. This affects not only the progress of scientific research in Colombia but also researchers' income and puts Colombia's scientific journals and publications at great disadvantage. Scientific papers indexed in qualified databases such as MEDLINE/PubMed must be judged according to law in order to prevent further injuries to the developing Colombian scientific production. PMID:16149281

  16. The impact of psychosocial factors on subjective well-being among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Barczyk, Amanda N; Thompson, Sanna J; Rew, Lynn

    2014-08-01

    Homeless young adults are one of this country's most vulnerable populations, and information surrounding issues of subjective well-being among this particularly diverse population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact social support, future expectations, and homeless cultural factors have on subjective well-being among homeless young adults. A purposive sample of 185 homeless young people, ages 18 to 23, and known to use alcohol or drugs, participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who had a higher level of subjective well-being reported significantly higher levels of social support, more optimistic expectations of the future, and a better perception of the flow of time. More fatalistic views of the future significantly predicted lower levels of subjective well-being. Findings suggest that service providers should focus on understanding the strengths of individuals and, specifically, gain a deeper understanding of homeless young adults' support networks and views of the future. PMID:25095630

  17. Impact of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase on virulence factor production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Jonathan B; Scoffield, Jessica; Woolnough, Jessica L; Silo-Suh, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa establishes life-long chronic infections in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung by utilizing various adaptation strategies. Some of these strategies include altering metabolic pathways to utilize readily available nutrients present in the host environment. The airway sputum contains various host-derived nutrients that can be utilized by P. aeruginosa, including phosphatidylcholine, a major component of lung surfactant. Pseudomonas aeruginosa can degrade phosphatidylcholine to glycerol and fatty acids to increase the availability of usable carbon sources in the CF lung. In this study, we show that some CF-adapted P. aeruginosa isolates utilize glycerol more efficiently as a carbon source than nonadapted isolates. Furthermore, a mutation in a gene required for glycerol utilization impacts the production of several virulence factors in both acute and chronic isolates of P. aeruginosa. Taken together, the results suggest that interference with this metabolic pathway may have potential therapeutic benefits. PMID:25409940

  18. Journal Impact Factor Shapes Scientists’ Reward Signal in the Prospect of Publication

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Frieder Michel; Rademacher, Lena; Schäfer, Theo Alexander Jose; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören

    2015-01-01

    The incentive structure of a scientist’s life is increasingly mimicking economic principles. While intensely criticized, the journal impact factor (JIF) has taken a role as the new currency for scientists. Successful goal-directed behavior in academia thus requires knowledge about the JIF. Using functional neuroimaging we examined how the JIF, as a powerful incentive in academia, has shaped the behavior of scientists and the reward signal in the striatum. We demonstrate that the reward signal in the nucleus accumbens increases with higher JIF during the anticipation of a publication and found a positive correlation with the personal publication record (pJIF) supporting the notion that scientists have incorporated the predominant reward principle of the scientific community in their reward system. The implications of this behavioral adaptation within the ecological niche of the scientist’s habitat remain unknown, but may also have effects which were not intended by the community. PMID:26555725

  19. Older Women's Sexual Desire Problems: Biopsychosocial Factors Impacting Them and Barriers to Their Clinical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Michelle; Laganà, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Sexual desire is a major component of sexuality at any age, and inhibited desire is one of the main sexual dysfunctions reported by older women. Nonetheless, in medical settings, for a variety of reasons discussed herein, its assessment—as well as the assessment of older women's sexual health in general—is typically avoided or conducted by asking a single sex question. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature (most of which is preliminary in nature) regarding the main psychosocial and health factors that could impact older women's sexual desire, as well as potential obstacles to the assessment and treatment of this geriatric sexual issue. It is certainly advisable that medical care providers who are uncomfortable discussing older women's sexual concerns be prepared to make appropriate referrals to clinicians who possess the proper training to accurately assess and treat sexual challenges (and female sexual interest problems in particular) in this neglected patient population. PMID:24995267

  20. [Preliminary study on main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies].

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Geng, Dong-Mei; Rong, Xue; Li, Zi; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Xu, Si-Qun; Jie, Xiao-Qian

    2013-05-01

    The brand equity is valuable intangible assets of traditional Chinese medicine companies, who are excellent representatives of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises and the most promising ones to good international medicine brands. However, there is still no systematic study on how to correctly evaluate the brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies at present. To make it clear, the main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, both structured open outline pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for the field survey, and some suggestions for how to protect and enhance the brand equity were also presented on the basis of survey and analysis, in the hope of improving the brand management level of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, and making a beneficial exploration for the development of brand theory of the traditional Chinese medicine industry. PMID:23944085

  1. Impacts of anthropogenic factors on land degradation during the anthropocene in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Curebal, Isa; Efe, Recep; Soykan, Abdullah; Sonmez, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the factors that effected the beginning of the Anthropogenic Era (human age) in Turkey and formation of biomes. Destruction of vegetation, soil erosion and land degradation are the most important factors in the formation of anthropogenic biomes in Turkey. For this reason, first of all, a literature review about land degradation, which has been going on for past 300 years in Turkey, and about its causes was made. Changes that have occurred over the last 70 years were studied with the help of aerial photos and satellite images. In addition, studies we have conducted in the last 35 years have contributed substantially to the determination of the extent of the destruction of vegetation and land degradation in Turkey. As a result of research based on literature reviews and fieldwork, the impact of humans on the natural habitat were identified, and the current situation was studied. The findings about the current situation that emerged due to human impact were then transferred to an electronic environment, and a map of anthropogenic biomes was produced with the help of ArcGIS Desktop software. Based on the results obtained, one can say that the natural habitat has considerably changed over the last 200 years; vegetation has been damaged, and land degradation has become faster because of human activities. These results indicate that 97% of natural biomes have become anthropogenic biomes, and this change has become more obvious during 20h century in Turkey. The results also show that the change has been more influential after 1950. PMID:26591882

  2. A thesis investigating the impact of energy related environmental factors on domestic window design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Michael Edward

    In recent years the extent of glazing in houses has been tightly controlled by the Building Regulations in order to save energy. In addition guidelines derived from passive solar principles prescribe the distribution of domestic windows between elevations according to their orientation. This thesis studies the impact of these energy-related environmental factors on domestic window design. The first of these investigations determined the degree to which limitations on the area and arrangement of windows are significant in terms of daylighting. The experiments measured the effect that passive solar requirements and detailed aspects of window design have on the quality of daylighting in houses. The volume of background ventilation required for domestic accommodation has recently been increased. As a result, in a well-sealed construction, heat loss due to background ventilation becomes a larger part of the total heat loss and larger air movements become a potential cause of draughts. The ventilation experiment sought to establish the impact of these more onerous requirements on comfort within rooms. The third experiment combines these factors and asks the question: Could windows be actively involved in overcoming some of these difficulties by being used to preheat ventilation air in order to diminish the extent of heat loss and to alleviate the problem of cold draughts? Also by designing the window to reclaim heat from the room might it be possible to offset the window's thermal inadequacy? Through analysis of responses to a questionnaire and the use of optimisation techniques, scenarios were suggested for the future modification of windows in relation to energy and health expectations. The conclusions form a commentary on recent and future revisions to the Building Regulations and determine whether or not the Regulations facilitate the environmental engineering of windows as an active component of a building's whole environmental system.

  3. Childhood bruxism: Related factors and impact on oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Castilho, Thuanny; Marinho, Marcello; Fraga, Renato Silva; Antunes, Leonardo Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess childhood bruxism relating associated factors and the bruxism's impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A case-control study was performed with 3- to 6-year-old children obtained from public preschools in Brazil. The case and control groups had 21 and 40 children, respectively. Associations between bruxism and respiratory problems (p = 0.04, OR: 0.33, CI: 0.09 to 1.14), dental wear (p < 0.01, OR: 0.01, CI: 0.00 to 0.05), malocclusion (p < 0.01, OR: 0.06, CI: 0.01 to 0.35), and dental caries (p = 0.02, OR: 0.22, CI: 0.04 to 1.04) were observed. The OHRQoL overall mean score and subscales were relatively low independent of the evaluated group (p > 0.05). The association between presence and absence of impact with bruxism or other variables showed no statistical relationship (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that childhood bruxism is related to respiratory problems, dental wear, dental caries, and malocclusion. Despite being a topic that demands special care in dentistry, bruxism does not significantly affect the OHRQoL. PMID:26388123

  4. Are good ideas enough? The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO commercialisation.

    PubMed

    Vàzquez-Salat, Núria

    2013-01-01

    In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance. PMID:24510133

  5. Factors Impacting Habitable Volume Requirements: Results from the 2011 Habitable Volume Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M.; Whitmire, A.; Otto, C.; Neubek, D. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Habitable Volume Workshop held April 18-21, 2011 in Houston, TX at the Center for Advanced Space Studies-Universities Space Research Association. The workshop was convened by NASA to examine the factors that feed into understanding minimum habitable volume requirements for long duration space missions. While there have been confinement studies and analogs that have provided the basis for the guidance found in current habitability standards, determining the adequacy of the volume for future long duration exploration missions is a more complicated endeavor. It was determined that an improved understanding of the relationship between behavioral and psychosocial stressors, available habitable and net habitable volume, and interior layouts was needed to judge the adequacy of long duration habitat designs. The workshop brought together a multi-disciplinary group of experts from the medical and behavioral sciences, spaceflight, human habitability disciplines and design professionals. These subject matter experts identified the most salient design-related stressors anticipated for a long duration exploration mission. The selected stressors were based on scientific evidence, as well as personal experiences from spaceflight and analogs. They were organized into eight major categories: allocation of space; workspace; general and individual control of environment; sensory deprivation; social monotony; crew composition; physical and medical issues; and contingency readiness. Mitigation strategies for the identified stressors and their subsequent impact to habitat design were identified. Recommendations for future research to address the stressors and mitigating design impacts are presented.

  6. Impact of experience-dependent and -independent factors on gene expression in songbird brain.

    PubMed

    Drnevich, Jenny; Replogle, Kirstin L; Lovell, Peter; Hahn, Thomas P; Johnson, Frank; Mast, Thomas G; Nordeen, Ernest; Nordeen, Kathy; Strand, Christy; London, Sarah E; Mukai, Motoko; Wingfield, John C; Arnold, Arthur P; Ball, Gregory F; Brenowitz, Eliot A; Wade, Juli; Mello, Claudio V; Clayton, David F

    2012-10-16

    Songbirds provide rich natural models for studying the relationships between brain anatomy, behavior, environmental signals, and gene expression. Under the Songbird Neurogenomics Initiative, investigators from 11 laboratories collected brain samples from six species of songbird under a range of experimental conditions, and 488 of these samples were analyzed systematically for gene expression by microarray. ANOVA was used to test 32 planned contrasts in the data, revealing the relative impact of different factors. The brain region from which tissue was taken had the greatest influence on gene expression profile, affecting the majority of signals measured by 18,848 cDNA spots on the microarray. Social and environmental manipulations had a highly variable impact, interpreted here as a manifestation of paradoxical "constitutive plasticity" (fewer inducible genes) during periods of enhanced behavioral responsiveness. Several specific genes were identified that may be important in the evolution of linkages between environmental signals and behavior. The data were also analyzed using weighted gene coexpression network analysis, followed by gene ontology analysis. This revealed modules of coexpressed genes that are also enriched for specific functional annotations, such as "ribosome" (expressed more highly in juvenile brain) and "dopamine metabolic process" (expressed more highly in striatal song control nucleus area X). These results underscore the complexity of influences on neural gene expression and provide a resource for studying how these influences are integrated during natural experience. PMID:23045667

  7. Fibroblast growth factor deficiencies impact anxiety-like behavior and the serotonergic system

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Leah R.; Enix, Courtney L.; Rich, Samuel C.; Magno, Jinno A.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Tsai, Pei-San

    2014-01-01

    Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) are organized in anatomically distinct subregions that form connections with specific brain structures to modulate diverse behaviors, including anxiety-like behavior. It is unclear if the functional heterogeneity of these neurons is coupled to their developmental heterogeneity, and if abnormal development of specific DR serotonergic subregions can permanently impact anxiety circuits and behavior. The goal of this study was to examine if deficiencies in different components of fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling could preferentially impact the development of specific populations of DR serotonergic neurons to alter anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. Wild-type and heterozygous male mice globally hypomorphic for Fgf8, Fgfr1, or both (Fgfr1/Fgf8) were tested in an anxiety-related behavioral battery. Both Fgf8- and Fgfr1/Fgf8-deficient mice display increased anxiety-like behavior as measured in the elevated plus-maze and the open-field tests. Immunohistochemical staining of a serotonergic marker, tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph), revealed reductions in specific populations of serotonergic neurons in the ventral, interfascicular, and ventrolateral/ventrolateral periaqueductal gray subregions of the DR in all Fgf-deficient mice, suggesting a neuroanatomical basis for increased anxiety-like behavior. Overall, this study suggests Fgf signaling selectively modulates the development of different serotonergic neuron subpopulations. Further, it suggests anxiety-like behavior may stem from developmental disruption of these neurons, and individuals with inactivating mutations in Fgf signaling genes may be predisposed to anxiety disorders. PMID:24512770

  8. Impacts of N-Butylphthalide on expression of growth factors in rats with focal cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Sun, Leyu; Xuan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of n-butylphthalide (NBP) on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in rats with focal cerebral ischemia. The thread embolization method was used to prepare the rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR). The animals were divided into a sham operation group, a model control group and NBP treatment group. The NBP group was orally administered 25 mg/kg NBP twice a day after the surgery. The immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were performed to observe the protein and mRNA expressions of VEGF and TGF-β 16 hours, 1 day and 2 days after inducing CIR. The mRNA and protein expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 in the model control group and the NBP treatment group were all increased after CIR, and those of the NBP treatment group at each post-CIR time point were higher than the model control group (p < 0.01). After CIR, the expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 increased, suggesting that VEGF and TGF-β1 exhibited protective effects towards the ischemic brain injuries, and that NBP could upregulate the expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 in the peri-infarcted area, thus possibly protecting the ischemic brain tissues through this mechanism. PMID:26773175

  9. The impact of vascular factors on language localization in the superior temporal sulcus

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    The left superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been shown in numerous functional imaging studies to be a critical region for language processing, as it is reliably activated when language comprehension is compared to acoustically matched control conditions. Studies in non-human primates have demonstrated several subdivisions in the STS, yet the precise region(s) within the STS that are important for language remain unclear, in large part because the presence of draining veins in the sulcus makes it difficult to determine whether neural activity is localized to the dorsal or ventral bank of the sulcus. We used functional MRI to localize language regions, and then acquired several additional sequences in order to account for the impact of vascular factors. A breath-holding task was used to induce hypercapnia in order to normalize voxel-wise differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responsivity, and veins were identified on susceptibility-weighted and T2*-weighted BOLD images, and masked out. We found that the precise locations of language areas in individual participants were strongly influenced by vascular factors, but that these vascular effects could be ameliorated by hypercapnic normalization and vein masking. After these corrections were applied, the majority of regions activated by language processing were localized to the dorsal bank of the STS. PMID:24452906

  10. Adsorption of cadmium by biochar derived from municipal sewage sludge: Impact factors and adsorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tan; Zhou, Zeyu; Han, Rong; Meng, Ruihong; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing

    2015-09-01

    Static equilibrium experiments were carried out to investigate the impact factors and the mechanism of cadmium adsorption on biochar derived from municipal sewage sludge. An appropriate dosage of biochar is sufficient; in the experiment, 0.2% is the optimal dosage for the largest removal capacity, while the removal capacity of biochar reduces with the increasing dosage. pH is another dominant factor of the adsorption process. The removal capacity of biochar is lower than 20 mg·g(-1) when the solution initial pH is lower than 2 pH units, comparatively retaining more than 40 mg·g(-1) at the solution initial pH higher than 3 pH units. Temperature has weak influence on the adsorptive performance. The main mechanism of the adsorption process of biochar for cadmium mainly involves (1) surface precipitation by forming insoluble cadmium compounds in alkaline condition, and (2) ion exchange for cadmium with exchangeable cations in the biochar, such as calcium ions. PMID:25966459

  11. Impact of the Chromatin Remodeling Factor CHD1 on Gut Microbiome Composition of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Krogsdam, Anne; Orth-Höller, Dorothea; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Lusser, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota of Drosophila has been studied in some detail in recent years. Environmental, developmental and host-specific genetic factors influence microbiome composition in the fly. Our previous work has indicated that intestinal bacterial load can be affected by chromatin-targeted regulatory mechanisms. Here we studied a potential role of the conserved chromatin assembly and remodeling factor CHD1 in the shaping of the gut microbiome in Drosophila melanogaster. Using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we found that Chd1 deletion mutant flies exhibit significantly reduced microbial diversity compared to rescued control strains. Specifically, although Acetobacteraceae dominated the microbiota of both Chd1 wild-type and mutant guts, Chd1 mutants were virtually monoassociated with this bacterial family, whereas in control flies other bacterial taxa constituted ~20% of the microbiome. We further show age-linked differences in microbial load and microbiota composition between Chd1 mutant and control flies. Finally, diet supplementation experiments with Lactobacillus plantarum revealed that, in contrast to wild-type flies, Chd1 mutant flies were unable to maintain higher L. plantarum titres over time. Collectively, these data provide evidence that loss of the chromatin remodeler CHD1 has a major impact on the gut microbiome of Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:27093431

  12. Impacts of Lithological and Anthropogenic Factors Affecting Water Chemistry in the Upper Paraguay River Basin.

    PubMed

    Rezende-Filho, Ary T; Valles, Vincent; Furian, Sônia; Oliveira, Célia M S C; Ouardi, Jamila; Barbiero, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Located in the Upper Paraguay River Basin (UPRB), the Pantanal is considered the world's largest wetland, being rather pristine although increasingly threatened by development programs. The main objective of this paper is to provide a baseline of water chemistry for this region, which is largely unknown as a result of poor accessibility. We used two datasets (70 and 122 water samples) collected in the Pantanal floodplain and surrounding uplands during the wet season occurring from November to March. From the major-ion mineral chemistry, dissolved silica, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and the ionic forms of N, principal components analysis (PCA) treatments were used to identify and rank the main factors of variability and decipher the associated processes affecting the water chemistry. The results revealed that the water mineral concentration was a major factor of variability and it must be attributed first to lithology and second to agricultural inputs from extensive crop cultivation areas that mainly affects sulfate (SO) concentration on the eastern edge of the Pantanal. These processes influence the floodplain, where (i) the mixing of waters remains the main process, (ii) the weight of the biological and redox processes increased, and (iii) the chemical signature of the extensive cropping is transferred along the São Lourenço Basin down to its confluence with the Cuiaba River. Optimized parameters based on projections in the main factorial score plots were used for the mapping of lithological and agricultural impacts on water chemistry. PMID:26641335

  13. Impact of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication on MLO-Y4 Sclerostin and Soluble Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    York, S L; Sethu, P; Saunders, M M

    2016-04-01

    Bone remodeling is a continual process in which old bone is resorbed by osteoclasts and new bone is formed by osteoblasts, providing a mechanism for bones' ability to adapt to changes in its mechanical environment. While the role of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in bone remodeling is well understood, the cellular regulation of bone remodeling is unclear. One theory is that osteocytes, found within bone, play an important role in controlling the bone remodeling response. Osteocytes possess gap junctions, narrow channels that extend between nearby cells and allow communication between cells via the transfer of small molecules and ions. This work investigated the potential role of gap junctional intercellular communication in bone remodeling by exposing osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells to mechanical strains and quantifying the expression of soluble factors, including sclerostin, a protein closely associated with bone remodeling. The soluble factors and sclerostin expression were further examined after inhibiting gap junctional intercellular communication to study the impact of the communication. At supraphysiologic strains, the inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication led to increases in sclerostin expression relative to cells in which communication was present, indicating that the communication may play a significant role in regulating bone remodeling. PMID:26154422

  14. Impact of the Chromatin Remodeling Factor CHD1 on Gut Microbiome Composition of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sebald, Johanna; Willi, Michaela; Schoberleitner, Ines; Krogsdam, Anne; Orth-Höller, Dorothea; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Lusser, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota of Drosophila has been studied in some detail in recent years. Environmental, developmental and host-specific genetic factors influence microbiome composition in the fly. Our previous work has indicated that intestinal bacterial load can be affected by chromatin-targeted regulatory mechanisms. Here we studied a potential role of the conserved chromatin assembly and remodeling factor CHD1 in the shaping of the gut microbiome in Drosophila melanogaster. Using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we found that Chd1 deletion mutant flies exhibit significantly reduced microbial diversity compared to rescued control strains. Specifically, although Acetobacteraceae dominated the microbiota of both Chd1 wild-type and mutant guts, Chd1 mutants were virtually monoassociated with this bacterial family, whereas in control flies other bacterial taxa constituted ~20% of the microbiome. We further show age-linked differences in microbial load and microbiota composition between Chd1 mutant and control flies. Finally, diet supplementation experiments with Lactobacillus plantarum revealed that, in contrast to wild-type flies, Chd1 mutant flies were unable to maintain higher L. plantarum titres over time. Collectively, these data provide evidence that loss of the chromatin remodeler CHD1 has a major impact on the gut microbiome of Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:27093431

  15. SPAD-based leaf nitrogen estimation is impacted by environmental factors and crop leaf characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Dongliang; Chen, Jia; Yu, Tingting; Gao, Wanlin; Ling, Xiaoxia; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll meters are widely used to guide nitrogen (N) management by monitoring leaf N status in agricultural systems, but the effects of environmental factors and leaf characteristics on leaf N estimations are still unclear. In the present study, we estimated the relationships among SPAD readings, chlorophyll content and leaf N content per leaf area for seven species grown in multiple environments. There were similar relationships between SPAD readings and chlorophyll content per leaf area for the species groups, but the relationship between chlorophyll content and leaf N content per leaf area, and the relationship between SPAD readings and leaf N content per leaf area varied widely among the species groups. A significant impact of light-dependent chloroplast movement on SPAD readings was observed under low leaf N supplementation in both rice and soybean but not under high N supplementation. Furthermore, the allocation of leaf N to chlorophyll was strongly influenced by short-term changes in growth light. We demonstrate that the relationship between SPAD readings and leaf N content per leaf area is profoundly affected by environmental factors and leaf features of crop species, which should be accounted for when using a chlorophyll meter to guide N management in agricultural systems. PMID:26303807

  16. Extraction of impacted third molars. A longitudinal prospective study on factors that affect postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Capuzzi, P; Montebugnoli, L; Vaccaro, M A

    1994-04-01

    A longitudinal prospective trial was carried out on 146 patients to evaluate which factors can have an effect on postoperative recovery after extraction of impacted third molars or wisdom teeth. The following factors were considered: (1) age, (2) sex, (3) smoking habits, (4) use of the birth control pill, (5) previous history of pericoronitis, (6) degree of difficulty of the extraction, (7) expertise of the surgeon, (8) length of surgery, and (9) antibiotic prophylaxis. The following results were obtained and statistically significant differences were noted with respect to the pain in the context of (1) sex-males noted more pain on the 1st and 3rd days (p < 0.05) compared with females; (2) expertise of the surgeon--patients treated by surgeons with considerable or average expertise reported less pain on the first and third days (p < 0.05) compared with patients treated by surgeons with little expertise; and (3) age--a direct correlation was noted between age and pain (p < 0.05). PMID:8015796

  17. Phylogenetic and ecological factors impact the gut microbiota of two Neotropical primate species.

    PubMed

    Amato, Katherine R; Martinez-Mota, Rodolfo; Righini, Nicoletta; Raguet-Schofield, Melissa; Corcione, Fabiana Paola; Marini, Elisabetta; Humphrey, Greg; Gogul, Grant; Gaffney, James; Lovelace, Elijah; Williams, LaShanda; Luong, Albert; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Stumpf, Rebecca M; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that variation in diet across time and space results in changes in the mammalian gut microbiota. This variation may ultimately impact host ecology by altering nutritional status and health. Wild animal populations provide an excellent opportunity for understanding these interactions. However, compared to clinical studies, microbial research targeting wild animals is currently limited, and many published studies focus only on a single population of a single host species. In this study we utilize fecal samples from two species of howler monkey (Alouatta pigra and A. palliata) collected at four sites to investigate factors influencing the gut microbiota at three scales: taxonomic (host species), ecosystemic (forest type), and local (habitat disturbance/season). The results demonstrate that the effect of host species on the gut microbiota is stronger than the effect of host forest type, which is stronger than the effect of habitat disturbance or seasonality. Nevertheless, within host species, gut microbiota composition differs in response to forest type, habitat disturbance, and season. Variations in the effect size of these factors are associated both with host species and environment. This information may be beneficial for understanding ecological and evolutionary questions associated with Mesoamerican howler monkeys, as well as determining conservation challenges facing each species. These mechanisms may also provide insight into the ecology of other species of howler monkeys, non-human primates, and mammals. PMID:26597549

  18. The global impact factors of net primary production in different land cover types from 2005 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bo; Chen, Fang

    2016-01-01

    With the seriously polluted environment due to social development, the sustainability of net primary production (NPP), which is used to feed most lives on the earth, has become one of the biggest concerns that we have to consider for the sake of food shortage. There have been many researches analyzing one or two potential impact factors of NPP based on field observation data, which brings about many uncertainties for further calculation. Moreover, the frequently used process-based models heavily depend on the understandings of researchers about the NPP process. The premises of such models hinder the impact factor analysis from being objective and confident. To overcome such shortages, we collected 27 potential impact factors of global NPP in terms of eight land cover types. The feature variables include atmosphere, biosphere, anthroposphere and lithosphere parameters, which can be obtained from public available remote sensed products. The experiment shows that latitude, irradiance ultraviolet and normalized difference vegetation index are dominant factors impacting global NPP. Anthropogenic activities, precipitation and surface emissivity are influencing NPP calculation largely. However, some commonly used biosphere parameters in process-based models are actually not playing that important roles in NPP estimation. This work provides a new insight in analyzing NPP impact factors, being more objective and comprehensive compared with frequently used process-based models. PMID:27536518

  19. Risk Factors and Clinical Impact of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase–Producing K. pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Gasink, Leanne B.; Edelstein, Paul H.; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Synnestvedt, Marie; Fishman, Neil O.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing K. pneumoniae is an emerging pathogen with serious clinical and infection control implications. To our knowledge, no study has specifically examined risk factors for KPC-producing K. pneumoniae or its impact on mortality. METHODS To identify risk factors for infection or colonization with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae, a case-control study was performed. Case patients with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae were compared with control subjects with carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae. A cohort study evaluated the association between KPC-producing K. pneumoniae and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS Fifty-six case patients and 863 control subjects were identified. In multivariable analysis, independent risk factors for KPC-producing K. pneumoniae were (1) severe illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.25–8.25), (2) prior fluoroquinolone use (AOR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.50, 7.66), and (3) prior extended-spectrum cephalosporin use (AOR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.18, 5.52). Compared with samples from other anatomic locations, K. pneumoniae isolates from blood samples were less likely to harbor KPC (AOR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12, 0.86). KPC-producing K. pneumoniae was independently associated with in-hospital mortality (AOR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.87–6.91). CONCLUSIONS KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is an emerging pathogen associated with significant mortality. Our findings highlight the urgent need to develop strategies for prevention and infection control. Limiting use of certain antimicrobials, specifically fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, use may be effective strategies. PMID:19860564

  20. Impact of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Graft Outcome Disparities in Black Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Taber, David J; Hunt, Kelly J; Fominaya, Cory E; Payne, Elizabeth H; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Srinivas, Titte R; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-09-01

    Although outcome inequalities for non-Hispanic black (NHB) kidney transplant recipients are well documented, there is paucity in data assessing the impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on this disparity in kidney transplantation. This was a longitudinal study of a national cohort of veteran kidney recipients transplanted between January 2001 and December 2007. Data included baseline characteristics acquired through the United States Renal Data System linked to detailed clinical follow-up information acquired through the Veterans Affairs electronic health records. Analyses were conducted using sequential multivariable modeling (Cox regression), incorporating blocks of variables into iterative nested models; 3139 patients were included (2095 non-Hispanic whites [66.7%] and 1044 NHBs [33.3%]). NHBs had a higher prevalence of hypertension (100% versus 99%; P<0.01) and post-transplant diabetes mellitus (59% versus 53%; P<0.01) with reduced control of hypertension (blood pressure <140/90 60% versus 69%; P<0.01), diabetes mellitus (A1c <7%, 35% versus 47%; P<0.01), and low-density lipoprotein (<100 mg/dL, 55% versus 61%; P<0.01). Adherence to medications used to manage CVD risk was significantly lower in NHBs. In the fully adjusted models, the independent risk of graft loss in NHBs was substantially reduced (unadjusted hazard ratio, 2.00 versus adjusted hazard ratio, 1.49). CVD risk factors and control reduced the influence of NHB race by 9% to 18%. Similar trends were noted for mortality, and estimates were robust across in sensitivity analyses. These results demonstrate that NHB kidney transplant recipients have significantly higher rates of CVD risk factors and reduced CVD risk control. These issues are likely partly related to medication nonadherence and meaningfully contribute to racial disparities for graft outcomes. PMID:27402921

  1. Functional impacts of the diversity of the meningococcal factor H binding protein.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eva; Giorgini, Dario; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2012-12-17

    Neisseria meningitidis is a human pathogenic bacterium responsible for life threatening and rapidly evolving invasive infections. Several bacterial virulence factors may play primordial roles during host-bacteria interactions. The meningococcal factor H binding protein, fHbp, interacts with the complement negative regulator, factor H (fH), to enhance meningococcal survival. fHbp is a major component in recombinant vaccines against meningococci that are under development. In 2010, we detected variations in fhbp gene during an outbreak provoked by serogroup C isolates belonging to the clonal complex, ST-11. We therefore explored 680 meningococcal isolates (88% of all invasive isolates in 2009 and 2010) by DNA sequencing of fhbp gene. The level of fHbp at the bacterial surface was determined by ELISA and flow cytometry using anti-fHbp antibodies. We also analyzed the interaction of fHbp with human fH as well as the deposition of C3b complement component. We observed important sequence diversity of fHbp in particular within regions known to interact with fH. The distribution of fhbp alleles differed among meningococcal serogroups and clonal complexes. This diversity affected directly binding of fH to fHbp and seemed to influence the deposition of the complement C3b component on the bacterial surface. However, bacterial killing by anti-fHbp antibodies was still achieved and required a minimum level of fHbp at the bacterial surface regardless the binding to fH or sequence diversity. These data have impacts on our understanding of the role of fHbp in meningococcal pathogenesis. They also provide data on the diversity of fhbp before the introduction of vaccines targeting fHbp and stress the need to include characterization of fHbp in typing schemes of meningococcal isolates. PMID:23123023

  2. Discriminating impacts of geomorphological and human factors on vineyard soil erosion (Burgundy, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevigny, Emmanuel; Quiquerez, Amélie; Petit, Christophe; Curmi, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The Burgundy vineyards have been recognized for the high diversity of Terroirs, controlled by complex interactions between natural features, historical parameters and soil management practices. Vineyards are known to undergo substantial soil loss in comparison with other types of agricultural land. Hydric erosion on vineyards is controlled by complex interactions of natural and anthropogenic factors leading to intra-plot spatial heterogeneities of topsoil at a scale of a metre. Studying the relationship between soils and their degradation is crucial in this situation where soil sustainability is threatened. This study explores the relative influences of historical and present-day anthropogenic factors and geomorphological processes controlling soil erosion on vineyard hillslopes. The selected area was located in the Monthelie vineyard (Côte de Beaune, France) where intensive erosion occurred during high-intensity rainfall events. Soil erosion quantification was performed at a square-metre scale using dendrogeomorphology. This method is based on the measurement of the unearthing of the stock located on the vine plants, considered as a passive marker of soil-surface vertical displacement since the year of plantation. The obtained maps, together with various complementary datasets, such as geological and geomorphological data, but also historical documents (cadastral plans, cadastral matrices and old aerial photographs) allow landscape evolution to be assessed. The combination of all these data shows that spatial distribution and intensity of erosion are controlled mainly by lithology and slope value. However, our study highlights that the sediment dynamics in this vineyard plot is highly related to historical former plot limits and present-day management practices. Nonetheless, quantification of sediment dynamic for the last decade reveals that the impacts of historical structures are disappearing gradually, in response to present-day management practices and

  3. Overall impact of speed-related initiatives and factors on crash outcomes.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, A; Newstead, S; Cameron, M

    2007-01-01

    From December 2000 until July 2002 a package of speed-related initiatives and factors took place in Victoria, Australia. The broad aim of this study was to evaluate the overall impact of the package on crash outcomes. Monthly crash counts and injury severity proportions were assessed using Poisson and logistic regression models respectively. The model measured the overall effect of the package after adjusting as far as possible for non-speed road safety initiatives and socio-economic factors. The speed-related package was associated with statistically significant estimated reductions in casualty crashes and suggested reductions in injury severity with trends towards increased reductions over time. From December 2000 until July 2002, three new speed enforcement initiatives were implemented in Victoria, Australia. These initiatives were introduced in stages and involved the following key components: More covert operations of mobile speed cameras, including flash-less operations; 50% increase in speed camera operating hours; and lowering of cameras' speed detection threshold. In addition, during the period 2001 to 2002, the 50 km/h General Urban Speed Limit (GUSL) was introduced (January 2001), there was an increase in speed-related advertising including the "Wipe Off 5" campaign, media announcements were made related to the above enforcement initiatives and there was a speeding penalty restructure. The above elements combine to make up a package of speed-related initiatives and factors. The package represents a broad, long term program by Victorian government agencies to reduce speed based on three linked strategies: more intensive Police enforcement of speed limits to deter potential offenders, i.e. the three new speed enforcement initiatives just described - supported by higher penalties; a reduction in the speed limit on local streets throughout Victoria from 60 km/h to 50 km/h; and provision of information using the mass media (television, radio and billboard) to

  4. Risk factors associated with impact severity of cyberbullying victimization: a qualitative study of adolescent online social networking.

    PubMed

    Dredge, Rebecca; Gleeson, John F M; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl

    2014-05-01

    Cyberbullying victimization is associated with a range of emotional and behavioral outcomes for adolescents. However, previous research has shown that this type of victimization does not affect all individuals negatively. The factors that account for individual differences in reactions to the same online experiences are not well understood. Using a qualitative inductive approach, a set of strong themes relating to factors that either increased the severity of impact of cyberbullying victimization or buffered victims against the impact emerged from interviews with 25 adolescents aged 15-24 years. Themes related to publicity, anonymity of perpetrators, features of the medium, presence of bystanders, and individual level factors were identified as potential influences upon impact severity. The implications of these results for further research and for school/university cyberbullying prevention programs for victims, perpetrators, and bystanders are discussed. PMID:24611734

  5. Impact factor for gluon production in multi-Regge kinematics in the next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, M. G. Reznichenko, A. V. Fadin, V. S.

    2012-07-15

    The one-loop correction to the impact factor for gluon production upon the transition of a one-Reggeon state in the t channel to a two-Reggeon state is found. This impact factor is an element of multiparticle amplitudes in multi-Regge kinematics. The correction in question is necessary for developing the theory of Regge and multi-Regge processes. In particular, it is necessary for proving the multi-Regge form of the amplitude in the next-to-leading-logarithm approximation. This correction also makes it possible to complete the verification of the last of the unproven bootstrap conditions for gluon Reggeization and to prove, in this approximation, the validity of the multi-Regge form of the amplitude. All necessary calculations are presented, and an explicit expression for the impact factor in front of all possible color states in the t channel is given.

  6. Reduced impact of nodal metastases as a prognostic factor for tonsil cancer in the HPV era.

    PubMed

    Vila, Peter M; Stucken, Chaz L; Morris, Luc G T; Posner, Marshall R; Genden, Eric M; Boffetta, Paolo; Sikora, Andrew G

    2014-09-01

    Metastatic lymph nodes (LN) are an adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nodal metastases have reduced impact on survival in tonsil cancer in the HPV-predominant era. Incidence and mortality data of tonsil and oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2007 were obtained from the SEER database. Based on published literature, we considered cases of tonsil cancer from 1988 to 1997 as the pre-HPV cohort (N = 752), and 1998-2007 as the HPV-predominant cohort (N = 2,755). Comparing the two cohorts, Kaplan-Meier 5-year overall survival (OS) for tonsil SCC improved from 54.0 to 74.3 % (p < 0.0001), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) improved from 66.0 to 82.9 % (p < 0.0001). Stratifying by LN involvement showed improved OS in the HPV-predominant cohort with one (63.6 vs. 79.7 %, p < 0.0001), two to three (54.2 vs. 75.9 %, p < 0.0001), four to eight (40.3 vs. 68.9 %, p < 0.0001), and greater than eight positive nodes (25.5 vs. 41.9 %, p < 0.0001). While metastatic LNs still negatively affect prognosis, their impact on OPC survival has diminished in the HPV-predominant era. This finding provides a rationale for additional studies of the prognostic significance of LN metastases in OPC cohorts of defined HPV status, and supports the concept that HPV-related OPC is a disease distinct from "classical" OPC, with unique prognostic features. PMID:24190760

  7. Reduced Impact of Nodal Metastases as a Prognostic Factor for Tonsil Cancer in the HPV Era

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Peter M.; Stucken, Chaz L.; Morris, Luc G.T.; Posner, Marshall R.; Genden, Eric M.; Boffetta, Paolo; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Metastatic lymph nodes (LN) are an adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nodal metastases have reduced impact on survival in tonsil cancer in the HPV-predominant era. Methods Incidence and mortality data of tonsil and oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2007 was obtained from the SEER database. Based on published literature, we considered cases of tonsil cancer from 1988–1997 the pre-HPV cohort (N=752), and 1998–2007 as the HPV-predominant cohort (N=2,755). Results Comparing the two cohorts, Kaplan-Meier five-year overall survival (OS) for tonsil SCC improved from 54.0% to 74.3% (p<0.0001), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) improved from 66.0 to 82.9% (p<0.0001). Stratifying by LN involvement showed improved OS in the HPV-predominant cohort with one (63.6 vs. 79.7%, p<0.0001), two to three (54.2 vs. 75.9%, P<0.0001), four to eight (40.3 vs. 68.9%, p<0.0001), and greater than eight positive nodes (25.5 vs. 41.9%, p<0.0001). Conclusion While metastatic LNs still negatively affect prognosis, their impact on OPC survival has diminished in the HPV-predominant era. This finding provides a rationale for additional studies of the prognostic significance of LN metastases in OPC cohorts of defined HPV status, and supports the concept that HPV-related OPC is a disease distinct from “classical” OPC, with unique prognostic features. PMID:24190760

  8. Identification of High-Impact cis-Regulatory Mutations Using Transcription Factor Specific Random Forest Models

    PubMed Central

    Svetlichnyy, Dmitry; Imrichova, Hana; Fiers, Mark; Kalender Atak, Zeynep; Aerts, Stein

    2015-01-01

    Cancer genomes contain vast amounts of somatic mutations, many of which are passenger mutations not involved in oncogenesis. Whereas driver mutations in protein-coding genes can be distinguished from passenger mutations based on their recurrence, non-coding mutations are usually not recurrent at the same position. Therefore, it is still unclear how to identify cis-regulatory driver mutations, particularly when chromatin data from the same patient is not available, thus relying only on sequence and expression information. Here we use machine-learning methods to predict functional regulatory regions using sequence information alone, and compare the predicted activity of the mutated region with the reference sequence. This way we define the Predicted Regulatory Impact of a Mutation in an Enhancer (PRIME). We find that the recently identified driver mutation in the TAL1 enhancer has a high PRIME score, representing a “gain-of-target” for MYB, whereas the highly recurrent TERT promoter mutation has a surprisingly low PRIME score. We trained Random Forest models for 45 cancer-related transcription factors, and used these to score variations in the HeLa genome and somatic mutations across more than five hundred cancer genomes. Each model predicts only a small fraction of non-coding mutations with a potential impact on the function of the encompassing regulatory region. Nevertheless, as these few candidate driver mutations are often linked to gains in chromatin activity and gene expression, they may contribute to the oncogenic program by altering the expression levels of specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. PMID:26562774

  9. Identification of High-Impact cis-Regulatory Mutations Using Transcription Factor Specific Random Forest Models.

    PubMed

    Svetlichnyy, Dmitry; Imrichova, Hana; Fiers, Mark; Kalender Atak, Zeynep; Aerts, Stein

    2015-11-01

    Cancer genomes contain vast amounts of somatic mutations, many of which are passenger mutations not involved in oncogenesis. Whereas driver mutations in protein-coding genes can be distinguished from passenger mutations based on their recurrence, non-coding mutations are usually not recurrent at the same position. Therefore, it is still unclear how to identify cis-regulatory driver mutations, particularly when chromatin data from the same patient is not available, thus relying only on sequence and expression information. Here we use machine-learning methods to predict functional regulatory regions using sequence information alone, and compare the predicted activity of the mutated region with the reference sequence. This way we define the Predicted Regulatory Impact of a Mutation in an Enhancer (PRIME). We find that the recently identified driver mutation in the TAL1 enhancer has a high PRIME score, representing a "gain-of-target" for MYB, whereas the highly recurrent TERT promoter mutation has a surprisingly low PRIME score. We trained Random Forest models for 45 cancer-related transcription factors, and used these to score variations in the HeLa genome and somatic mutations across more than five hundred cancer genomes. Each model predicts only a small fraction of non-coding mutations with a potential impact on the function of the encompassing regulatory region. Nevertheless, as these few candidate driver mutations are often linked to gains in chromatin activity and gene expression, they may contribute to the oncogenic program by altering the expression levels of specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. PMID:26562774

  10. Identification of Variables and Factors Impacting Consumer Behavior in On-line Shopping in India: An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhikara, Sudesh

    On-line shopping is a recent phenomenon in the field of E-Business and is definitely going to be the future of shopping in the world. Most of the companies are running their on-line portals to sell their products/services. Though online shopping is very common outside India, its growth in Indian Market, which is a large and strategic consumer market, is still not in line with the global market. The potential growth of on-line shopping has triggered the idea of conducting a study on on-line shopping in India. The present research paper has used exploratory study to depict and highlight the various categories of factors and variables impacting the behavior of consumers towards on-line shopping in India. The data was collected through in-depth interviews on a sample of 41 respondents from Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Bangalore. The results of the study show that on-line shopping in India is basically impacted by five categories of factors like demographics factor, Psychographics factor, Online shopping feature and policies, Technological factor, Security factor. The results of the study are used to present a comprehensive model of on-line shopping which could be further used by the researchers and practitioners for conducting future studies in the similar area. A brief operational definition of all the factors and variables impacting on-line shopping in India is also described. And finally practical implications of the study are also elucidated.

  11. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Espejo, Emmanuel P.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents who were administered diagnostic and life stress interviews at ages 15 and 20. Participants’ appraisals of the negative impact of LEs reported at age 15 were statistically adjusted using investigator-based ratings to control for objective differences across LEs. Higher appraisals of the negative impact of LEs were associated with both past and current depressive and anxiety disorders at age 15 and predicted subsequent first onsets of depressive and anxiety disorders occurring between ages 15 and 20. In addition, appraisals of the negative impact of LEs were particularly elevated among those experiencing both a depressive and anxiety disorder over the course of the study. The findings suggest that systematically elevated appraisals of the negative impact of LEs is a predisposing factor for depression and anxiety disorders and may represent a specific risk factor for co-morbid depression and anxiety in mid-adolescence and early adulthood. Keywords: depression; anxiety; stress appraisals; prospective study; PMID:21845380

  12. Journals Not Included in BIOSIS Previews Have a Notable Impact in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lascar, Claudia; Barnett, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal influential journals used by life scientists; journals not currently included in "BIOSIS Previews," but included in either "PubMed" or "Science Citation Index Expanded". These 252 journals were revealed by the Eigenfactor, an iterative ranking scheme which quantitatively measures the scientific influence of…

  13. Research on impacts of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yayun; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan Shi, Zhaohui

    2015-11-15

    Carbon emissions related to population factors have aroused great attention around the world. A multitude of literature mainly focused on single demographic impacts on environmental issues at the national level, and comprehensive studies concerning population-related factors at a city level are rare. This paper employed STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model incorporating PLS (Partial least squares) regression method to examine the influence of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012. Empirically results manifest that urbanization is the paramount driver. Changes in population age structure have significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions, and shrinking young population, continuous expansion of working age population and aging population will keep on increasing environmental pressures. Meanwhile, shrinking household size and expanding floating population boost the discharge of carbon emissions. Besides, per capita consumption is an important contributor of carbon emissions, while industry energy intensity is the main inhibitory factor. Based upon these findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, policies such as promoting clean and renewable energy, improving population quality and advocating low carbon lifestyles should be enhanced to achieve targeted emissions reductions. - Highlights: • We employed the STIRPAT model to identify population-related factors of carbon emissions in Beijing. • Urbanization is the paramount driver of carbon emissions. • Changes in population age structure exert significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions. • Shrinking household size, expanding floating population and improving consumption level increase carbon emissions. • Industry energy intensity decreases carbon emissions.

  14. Factors impacting the success of post-mortem sperm rescue in the rhinoceros.

    PubMed

    Roth, T L; Stoops, M A; Robeck, T R; O'Brien, J K

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to identify factors that influenced the ability to successfully rescue sperm post-mortem from rhinoceroses maintained in North American zoos. Factors considered included procedural technicalities, individual rhinoceros characteristics and timing. Gross testicular pathology was noted in 17.4% of males (4/23) but did not impact sperm recovery except in one case of azoospermia (4.3%). Of the males in which sperm recovery was attempted (n=21), 62% yielded quality samples considered adequate for cryopreservation (≥ 30% motility with ≥ 2.0 forward progressive status). A high percentage of males (70.6%; 12/17) from which reproductive tissue was removed an d cooled ≤ 4 h after death yielded quality sperm samples, whereas only 25% (1/4) of males from which tissue was removed>4h after death yielded quality samples. Quality samples were recovered 1-51 h post-mortem from rhinoceroses 8 to 36 years old. Neither type of illness (prolonged or acute), or method of death (euthanasia or natural) affected the ability to harvest quality samples (P > 0.05). The Indian rhinoceros yielded significantly more sperm on average (40 × 10(9)) than the African black rhinoceros (3.6 × 10(9); P < 0.01) and the African white rhinoceros (3.2 × 10(9); P < 0.05). Across all species and samples assessed (n = 11), mean post-thaw sperm motility (41%), was only 15% less than pre-freeze motility (56%) and only decreased to 22% during the 6h post-thaw assessment period. Rhinoceros sperm rescue post-mortem is relatively successful across a wide range of variables, especially when tissues are removed and cooled promptly after death, and should be considered standard practice among zoos. PMID:26879096

  15. Factors impacting the likelihood of death in patients with small TBSA burns.

    PubMed

    Travis, Taryn E; Moffatt, Lauren T; Jordan, Marion H; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Survival rates of burn patients have increased greatly over the past several decades. There are, however, still patients with relatively small burns who do not survive their hospitalizations. This work aimed to elucidate factors common to this select subset of patients. The NBR Main dataset was queried for record numbers associated with TBSA between 0.1 and 10 and a discharge status indicating death. Using SAS statistical software, the patients were matched for age, sex, and TBSA. Chi-square analyses of independence on categorical variables and unpaired, two-tailed Students' t-tests with unequal variance on continuous variables were used to identify fields of further interest. SAS was then used to build multivariate logistic regression models examining variables affecting discharge status. The NBR complications child dataset was queried and categorized for the types of complications for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression for discharge status, comorbidities, and complications showed that the presence of a complication significantly impacted discharge status. The presence of an identified complication (other than death) increased the odds ratio of a discharge status of death by a factor of 3.023 (95% confidence interval [2.306, 3.964], P < .0001). Pulmonary and infection-related complications were the most frequently seen across all the records analyzed, but infection-related complications did not reach statistical significance in relation to discharge status. Multivariate logistic regression of complications in a model for discharge status identified four categories as statistically significant: neurologic, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal. In patients with small TBSA burns, the presence of complications significantly increases the odds ratio of death as judged by the NBR data. The complications which appear to be of particular interest are cardiovascular, neurologic, renal, and pulmonary, and those patients who are likely most susceptible to these

  16. Impact of socio-psychological factors on treatment adherence of TB patients in Russia.

    PubMed

    Jakubowiak, W M; Bogorodskaya, E M; Borisov, S E; Danilova, I D; Lomakina, O B; Kourbatova, E V

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social and psychological factors on treatment adherence of patients with tuberculosis (TB). To this end a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among TB patients in four Russian regions (Orel, Vladimir, Belgorod oblasts, and Republic of Mari-El) from 01/04/2004 to 31/03/2005. A total of 87 non-adherent and 1302 adherent patients were interviewed. Compared to adherents, non-adherents were significantly more likely to be male, unemployed, have a technical college education, have a history of imprisonment, have a negative emotional status, consider themselves "not sick", not know the treatment period, have negative feelings and distrust for medical staff, not believe they will fully recover, and not want to continue treatment. Patients at highest risk for non-adherence should be identified at the start of treatment, and offered the services of a psychologist. A case management and patient-centered approach should be applied. PMID:18501675

  17. Methods and analysis of factors impact on the efficiency of the photovoltaic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianze, Li; Xia, Zhang; Chuan, Jiang; Luan, Hou

    2011-02-01

    First of all, the thesis elaborates two important breakthroughs which happened In the field of the application of solar energy in the 1950s.The 21st century the development of solar photovoltaic power generation will have the following characteristics: the continued high growth of industrial development, the significantly reducing cost of the solar cell, the large-scale high-tech development of photovoltaic industries, the breakthroughs of the film battery technology, the rapid development of solar PV buildings integration and combined to the grids. The paper makes principles of solar cells the theoretical analysis. On the basis, we study the conversion efficiency of solar cells, find the factors impact on the efficiency of the photovoltaic generation, solve solar cell conversion efficiency of technical problems through the development of new technology, and open up new ways to improve the solar cell conversion efficiency. Finally, the paper connecting with the practice establishes policies and legislation to the use of encourage renewable energy, development strategy, basic applied research etc.

  18. The impact of the various chemical and physical factors on the degradation rate of bronopol.

    PubMed

    Matczuk, M; Obarski, N; Mojski, M

    2012-10-01

    Bronopol (2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol) is used as preservative in cosmetic industry. Its main role in commercial products consists in protection of the cosmetic composition stability by inhibiting the development of micro-organisms. Unfortunately, preservatives can also undergo the degradation processes. The aim of examinations was to prove that bronopol decomposes in aqueous solutions and storage conditions have a significance influence on its degradation rate. High-performance liquid chromatography method (methanol/water with hydrochloric acid 5:95 v/v) with spectrophotometric detection (210 nm) was used for examining the decomposition rate of bronopol. The impact of chemical (addition of cosmetics components: citric acid and/or sodium dodecylsulfate) and physical (elevated and ambient temperature, sunlight or ultraviolet radiation and air access) factors has been elaborated. Bronopol decomposes most rapidly (independently on the sample surrounding conditions) when it is in solution with sodium dodecylsulfate, the inverse dependence is observed in the presence of two compounds - citric acid and sodium dodecylsulfate. Additionally, the elevated temperature causes the acceleration of decomposition. Bronopol degradation by-products were also identified as methanol, formic acid, tris(hydroxymethyl)methane and 2-bromo-2-nitroethanol. PMID:22612984

  19. Endoscope reprocessing methods: a prospective study on the impact of human factors and automation.

    PubMed

    Ofstead, Cori L; Wetzler, Harry P; Snyder, Alycea K; Horton, Rebecca A

    2010-01-01

    The main cause of endoscopy-associated infections is failure to adhere to reprocessing guidelines. More information about factors impacting compliance is needed to support the development of effective interventions. The purpose of this multisite, observational study was to evaluate reprocessing practices, employee perceptions, and occupational health issues. Data were collected utilizing interviews, surveys, and direct observation. Written reprocessing policies and procedures were in place at all five sites, and employees affirmed the importance of most recommended steps. Nevertheless, observers documented guideline adherence, with only 1.4% of endoscopes reprocessed using manual cleaning methods with automated high-level disinfection versus 75.4% of those reprocessed using an automated endoscope cleaner and reprocessor. The majority reported health problems (i.e., pain, decreased flexibility, numbness, or tingling). Physical discomfort was associated with time spent reprocessing (p = .041). Discomfort diminished after installation of automated endoscope cleaners and reprocessors (p = .001). Enhanced training and accountability, combined with increased automation, may ensure guideline adherence and patient safety while improving employee satisfaction and health. PMID:20679783

  20. [Source emission characteristics and impact factors of volatile halogenated organic compounds from wastewater treatment plant].

    PubMed

    He, Jie; Wang, Bo-Guang; Liu, Shu-Le; Zhao, De-Jun; Tang, Xiao-Dong; Zou, Yu

    2011-12-01

    A low enrichment method of using Tenax as absorbent and liquid nitrogen as refrigerant has been established to sample the volatile halogenated organic compounds in Guangzhou Liede municipal wastewater treatment plant as well as its ambient air. The composition and concentration of target halogenated hydrocarbons were analyzed by combined thermal desorption/GC-MS to explore its sources profile and impact factors. The result showed that 19 halogenated organic compounds were detected, including 11 halogenated alkanets, 3 halogenated alkenes, 3 halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and 2 haloesters, with their total concentrations ranged from 34.91 microg x m(-3) to 127.74 microg x m(-3) and mean concentrations ranged from n.d. to 33.39 microg x m(-3). Main pollutants of the studied plant were CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CFC-12, C2H4Cl2, CFC-11, C2HCl3 and C2Cl4, they came from the wastewater by volatilization. Among the six processing units, the dehydration room showed the highest level of halogenated organic compounds, followed by pumping station, while the sludge thickener was the lowest. The emissions from pumping station, aeration tank and biochemical pool were significantly affected by temperature and humidity of environment. PMID:22468521

  1. Soil factors of ecosystems' disturbance risk reduction under the impact of rocket fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krechetov, Pavel; Koroleva, Tatyana; Sharapova, Anna; Chernitsova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    Environmental impacts occur at all stages of space rocket launch. One of the most dangerous consequences of a missile launch is pollution by components of rocket fuels ((unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH)). The areas subjected to falls of the used stages of carrier rockets launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome occupy thousands of square kilometers of different natural landscapes: from dry steppes of Kazakhstan to the taiga of West Siberia and mountains of the Altai-Sayany region. The study aims at assessing the environmental risk of adverse effects of rocket fuel on the soil. Experimental studies have been performed on soil and rock samples with specified parameters of the material composition. The effect of organic matter, acid-base properties, particle size distribution, and mineralogy on the decrease in the concentration of UDMH in equilibrium solutions has been studied. It has been found that the soil factors are arranged in the following series according to the effect on UDMH mobility: acid-base properties > organic matter content >clay fraction mineralogy > particle size distribution. The estimation of the rate of self-purification of contaminated soil is carried out. Experimental study of the behavior of UDMH in soil allowed to define a model for calculating critical loads of UDMH in terrestrial ecosystems.

  2. Impact of Rurality, Broiler Operations, and Community Socioeconomic Factors on the Risk of Campylobacteriosis in Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Zappe Pasturel, Barbara; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Rosenberg Goldstein, Rachel E.; Palmer, Amanda; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Hogan, Brenna; Jung, Carrianne; Joseph, Sam W.; Wang, Min Qi; Ting Lee, Mei-Ling; Puett, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the combined impact of community-level environmental and socioeconomic factors on the risk of campylobacteriosis. Methods. We obtained Campylobacter case data (2002–2010; n = 3694) from the Maryland Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network. We obtained community-level socioeconomic and environmental data from the 2000 US Census and the 2007 US Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code. We derived incidence rate ratios by Poisson regressions. We mapped a subset of zip code–level characteristics. Results. In zip codes that were 100% rural, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of campylobacteriosis were 6 times (IRR = 6.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.19, 11.97) greater than those in urban zip codes. In zip codes with broiler chicken operations, incidence rates were 1.45 times greater than those in zip codes without broilers (IRR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.34, 1.58). We also observed higher rates in zip codes whose populations were predominantly White and had high median incomes. Conclusions. The community and environment in which one lives may significantly influence the risk of campylobacteriosis. PMID:24134343

  3. Astronomical phenomena: events with high impact factor in teaching optics and photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curticapean, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Astronomical phenomena fascinate people from the very beginning of mankind up to today. They have a enthusiastic effect, especially on young people. Among the most amazing and well-known phenomena are the sun and moon eclipses. The impact factor of such events is very high, as they are being covered by mass media reports and the Internet, which provides encyclopedic content and discussion in social networks. The principal optics and photonics topics that can be included in such lessons originate from geometrical optics and the basic phenomena of reflection, refraction and total internal reflection. Lenses and lens systems up to astronomical instruments also have a good opportunity to be presented. The scientific content can be focused on geometrical optics but also diffractive and quantum optics can be incorporated successfully. The author will present how live streams of the moon eclipses can be used to captivate the interest of young listeners for optics and photonics. The gathered experience of the last two moon eclipses visible from Germany (on Dec, 21 2010 and Jun, 15 2011) will be considered. In an interactive broadcast we reached visitors from more than 135 countries.

  4. Measuring Research Quality Using the Journal Impact Factor, Citations and "Ranked Journals": Blunt Instruments or Inspired Metrics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarwal, Som D.; Brion, Andrew M.; King, Maxwell L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines whether three bibliometric indicators--the journal impact factor, citations per paper and the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) initiative's list of "ranked journals"--can predict the quality of individual research articles as assessed by international experts, both overall and within broad disciplinary groupings. The…

  5. Observations Concerning the Two- and Three-Year Synchronous Impact Factor, Based on the "Chinese Science Citation Database."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald; Jin, Bihui; Liu, Xiaomin; Yang, Ninghui

    2001-01-01

    Discusses synchronous impact factors and theoretical models derived from observations based on "Science Citation Index", and presents an exception to the general rules based on data from the "Chinese Science Citation Database". Considers that the observed discrepancies could be statistical fluctuations of the basic publication-citation model.…

  6. Factors of Significant Impact on Proficiency Levels of Adult ESL Learners within Post-Secondary Education in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study seeks to identify factors that have a significant impact on the second language proficiency levels of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) learners at a four-year university in Puerto Rico. Current data indicate that a significant percentage of adult ESL learners encounter major difficulties within the process of…

  7. Factors Impacting Job Performance and Role Attractiveness in Academic Directors and Their Implications for Policy and Practice in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilkinas, Tricia; Ladyshewsky, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that impacted on the performance and attractiveness of the Academic Director's role. Academic Directors are responsible for leading and managing an academic qualification. Academic Directors (n = 101) participating in a leadership development programme were invited to respond to an online 360…

  8. The Psychological Impact of Forced Displacement and Related Risk Factors on Eastern Congolese Adolescents Affected by War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mels, Cindy; Derluyn, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric; Rosseel, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Background: While the current knowledge base on the mental health effects of displacement is mainly limited to refugees residing in industrialised countries, this paper examines the impact of war-induced displacement and related risk factors on the mental health of Eastern Congolese adolescents, and compares currently internally displaced…

  9. The Impact of Protective Factors in Desistance from Violent Reoffending: A Study in Three Samples of Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of protective factors, assessed by means of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), on desistance from violent reoffending in adolescents. Three samples included male adolescents in different stages of the judicial process: pre-trial (n = 111); during residential treatment (n = 66); and after…

  10. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined…

  11. Randomized Trial of a Statewide Home Visiting Program to Prevent Child Abuse: Impact in Reducing Parental Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duggan, Anne; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the impact of a home visiting program in reducing malleable parental risk factors for child abuse in families of newborns identified, through population-based screening, as at-risk of child abuse. Methods: This randomized trial focused on Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based organizations on…

  12. METHOD AND LOCATION OF GROUND WATER SAMPLING: IMPACT ON ATTENUATION FACTORS FOR ASSESSING IMPACT ON VAPOR INTRUSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Draft EPA Subsurface Vapor Intrusion Guidance Document was established to "address the incremental increases in exposures and risks from subsurface contaminants that my be intruding into indoor air". The document utilizes attenuation factors based on indoor air/soil gas or i...

  13. Fibroblast growth factor 23 signaling in hippocampal cells: impact on neuronal morphology and synaptic density.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Niko; Schön, Anne; Konen, Timo; Lübben, Verena; Förthmann, Benjamin; Baron, Olga; Grothe, Claudia; Leifheit-Nestler, Maren; Claus, Peter; Haffner, Dieter

    2016-06-01

    Endocrine fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is predominantly secreted by osteocytes and facilitates renal phosphate excretion. However, FGF23 is also present in cerebrospinal fluid. In chronic kidney disease, FGF23 serum levels are excessively elevated and associated with learning and memory deficits. Structural plasticity of the hippocampus such as formation of new synapses or an altered dendritic arborization comprises a cellular and morphological correlate of memory formation. Therefore, we hypothesize that FGF23 alters hippocampal neuron morphology and synapses. To address this, we prepared primary murine hippocampal cultures and incubated them with recombinant FGF23 alone or together with a soluble isoform of its co-receptor α-Klotho. Neuronal expression of a fluorescent reporter allowed for a detailed evaluation of the neuronal morphology by Sholl analysis. Additionally, we evaluated synaptic density, identified by stainings, for synaptic markers. We show an enhanced number of primary neurites combined with a reduced arborization, resulting in a less complex morphology of neurons treated with FGF23. Moreover, FGF23 enhances the synaptic density in a FGF-receptor (FGF-R) dependent manner. Finally, we addressed the corresponding signaling events downstream of FGF-R employing a combination of western blots and quantitative immunofluorescence. Interestingly, FGF23 induces phospholipase Cγ activity in primary hippocampal neurons. Co-application of soluble α-Klotho leads to activation of the Akt-pathway and modifies FGF23-impact on neuronal morphology and synaptic density. Compared with other FGFs, this alternative signaling pattern is a possible reason for differential effects of FGF23 on hippocampal neurons and may thereby contribute to learning and memory deficits in chronic kidney disease patients. In this study, we show that fibroblast growth factor 23 inhibits neuronal ramification and enhances the synaptic density in primary hippocampal cultures

  14. "3 . . 2 . . 1 . . Impact [factor]: target [academic career] destroyed!": just another statistical casualty.

    PubMed

    Brumback, Roger A

    2012-12-01

    "Publish or perish" is the time-honored "principle" for academicians who race to accumulate lines under the "publications" section of a curriculum vitae. The original intent of publication-to inform others of findings and further scientific knowledge-has been corrupted by factors including (1) exponential growth of journals and the journal industry, fueled in part by intrusion of the Internet into all aspects of academic life; and (2) adoption of journal metrics (rather than written content) as the measure of scientific quality. The proprietary Thomson Reuters Impact Factor is the most pernicious metric, having caused editors and publishers to change editorial practices to boost the number. At the same time, gullible administrators and government agencies have been persuaded that metrics for the journal in which materials are published can be used as a measure of the worth of individual investigators (and institutions) and their research efforts: simple numbers can be substituted for the burdensome effort required to read and assess research quality. Thus, granting of research funds, awarding of academic rank and tenure, and determination of salaries (including bonus payments) have become tied to manipulable journal metrics rather than the significance or quality of reported research. Therefore, it is no wonder that the integrity of science is more often being questioned. How should a young investigator approach the "publish or perish" dilemma? Performing sound research and preparing optimal materials for publication must remain the overriding goals: properly articulate the question addressed by the study; thoroughly document all methods and case information; carefully describe results including any conflicting or negative findings; discuss the importance of the findings along with how the results address the initial question and whether findings refute or confirm previous studies; prepare properly cited bibliographic references; list all author contributions

  15. Factors influencing the spatial extent of mobile source air pollution impacts: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Levy, Jonathan I

    2007-01-01

    Background There has been growing interest among exposure assessors, epidemiologists, and policymakers in the concept of "hot spots", or more broadly, the "spatial extent" of impacts from traffic-related air pollutants. This review attempts to quantitatively synthesize findings about the spatial extent under various circumstances. Methods We include both the peer-reviewed literature and government reports, and focus on four significant air pollutants: carbon monoxide, benzene, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter (including both ultrafine particle counts and fine particle mass). From the identified studies, we extracted information about significant factors that would be hypothesized to influence the spatial extent within the study, such as the study type (e.g., monitoring, air dispersion modeling, GIS-based epidemiological studies), focus on concentrations or health risks, pollutant under study, background concentration, emission rate, and meteorological factors, as well as the study's implicit or explicit definition of spatial extent. We supplement this meta-analysis with results from some illustrative atmospheric dispersion modeling. Results We found that pollutant characteristics and background concentrations best explained variability in previously published spatial extent estimates, with a modifying influence of local meteorology, once some extreme values based on health risk estimates were removed from the analysis. As hypothesized, inert pollutants with high background concentrations had the largest spatial extent (often demonstrating no significant gradient), and pollutants formed in near-source chemical reactions (e.g., nitrogen dioxide) had a larger spatial extent than pollutants depleted in near-source chemical reactions or removed through coagulation processes (e.g., nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particles). Our illustrative dispersion model illustrated the complex interplay of spatial extent definitions, emission rates, background concentrations

  16. Impact of fertility transmission and other sociodemographic factors on reproductive success and coalescent trees.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Jean-Tristan; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Toupance, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    Summary Fertility transmission (FT) is a phenomenon with a cultural and/or genetic basis, whereby a positive correlation exists between the number of offspring of an individual and that of his/her parents. Theoretical studies using a haploid individual-based model have shown that FT increases the variance and intergenerational correlation in reproductive success and results in an imbalance in the coalescent tree of sampled genes. This phenomenon has been documented in several demographic studies conducted on the correlation in fertility between generations, or through the reconstruction of the genealogical trees of mitochondrial DNA sequences. However, as mtDNA is a single locus, potentially subject to other forces (e.g. natural selection), it is of interest to extend the theory of FT to nuclear loci. We show that because random mating between individuals leads to a mixing of their fertility profiles, FT in these cases will have less influence on the variance and intergenerational correlation of reproductive success. This, in turn, results in less impact on the shape of the coalescent trees. Nevertheless, in the presence of FT, high heterogeneity in reproductive success and homogamy for family size will increase the imbalance in the coalescent tree. Thus, FT should be easier to detect when occurring in conjunction with these other factors. We also show the utility of analysing different kinds of loci (X-linked, Y-linked, mitochondrial and autosomal) to assess whether FT is matrilineal, patrilineal or biparental. Finally, we demonstrate that the shape of the coalescent tree depends upon population size, in contrast to the classical Kingman's model. PMID:22647505

  17. No impact of tumor necrosis-factor antagonists on the joint manifestations of sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Banse, Christopher; Bisson-Vaivre, Aurélia; Kozyreff-Meurice, Marie; Vittecoq, Olivier; Goëb, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Objective The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents to treat joint manifestations of sarcoidosis has not been described. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of three such biologics in patients with these symptoms refractory to conventional therapy (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and/or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs). Methods This retrospective study, covering January 2001 to September 2011, examined clinical–biological parameters collected before anti-TNF treatment (age, sex, duration of disease evolution, drugs taken), and at introduction and under anti-TNF therapy (number of painful and swollen joints, visual analog scale score of global disease activity, disease-activity score of 28 joints with erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, TNF-antagonist duration). At 3, 6, and 12 months, anti-TNF impact on joints and the therapeutic response according to European League Against Rheumatism criteria used for rheumatoid arthritis were assessed. Results Ten patients’ data were evaluated; some of them had received several anti-TNF agents (median [range] duration on each biotherapy was 10 [4–30] months), which enabled analysis of 19 prescriptions. The total duration of anti-TNF exposure was 17.6 patient-years, which was started a median of 3 (0.33–17) years after sarcoidosis diagnosis. The median numbers of painful and swollen joints were 1 (0–28) and 0 (0–9), respectively. Despite rapid efficacy, after 1 year of treatment, clinical (especially joint) and biological parameters were comparable to pretreatment, and only the corticosteroid dose was significantly lower (P=0.03). One case of mild skin toxicity was noted. Conclusion TNF antagonists allowed significant steroid sparing and were well tolerated, but do not seem to be effective against sarcoidosis joint involvement. PMID:23901289

  18. Structural factors impacting carrier transport and electroluminescence from Si nanocluster-sensitized Er ions.

    PubMed

    Cueff, Sébastien; Labbé, Christophe; Jambois, Olivier; Berencén, Yonder; Kenyon, Anthony J; Garrido, Blas; Rizk, Richard

    2012-09-24

    We present an analysis of factors influencing carrier transport and electroluminescence (EL) at 1.5 µm from erbium-doped silicon-rich silica (SiOx) layers. The effects of both the active layer thickness and the Si-excess content on the electrical excitation of erbium are studied. We demonstrate that when the thickness is decreased from a few hundred to tens of nanometers the conductivity is greatly enhanced. Carrier transport is well described in all cases by a Poole-Frenkel mechanism, while the thickness-dependent current density suggests an evolution of both density and distribution of trapping states induced by Si nanoinclusions. We ascribe this observation to stress-induced effects prevailing in thin films, which inhibit the agglomeration of Si atoms, resulting in a high density of sub-nm Si inclusions that induce traps much shallower than those generated by Si nanoclusters (Si-ncs) formed in thicker films. There is no direct correlation between high conductivity and optimized EL intensity at 1.5 µm. Our results suggest that the main excitation mechanism governing the EL signal is impact excitation, which gradually becomes more efficient as film thickness increases, thanks to the increased segregation of Si-ncs, which in turn allows more efficient injection of hot electrons into the oxide matrix. Optimization of the EL signal is thus found to be a compromise between conductivity and both number and degree of segregation of Si-ncs, all of which are governed by a combination of excess Si content and sample thickness. This material study has strong implications for many electrically-driven devices using Si-ncs or Si-excess mediated EL. PMID:23037398

  19. Optimized scheduling of VLBI UT1 intensive sessions for twin telescopes employing impact factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leek, Judith; Artz, Thomas; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-09-01

    Daily Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) intensive measurements make an important contribution to the regular monitoring of Earth rotation variations. Since these variations are quite rapid, their knowledge is important for navigation with global navigation satellite system and for investigations in Earth sciences. Unfortunately, the precision of VLBI intensive observations is 2-3 times worse than the precision of regular 24h-VLBI measurements with networks of 5-10 radio telescopes. The major advancement of research in this paper is the improvement of VLBI intensive results by (a) using twin telescopes instead of single telescopes and (b) applying an entirely new scheduling concept for the individual observations. Preparatory investigations of standardintensive sessions suggest that the impact factors of the observations are well suited for the identification of the most influential observations which are needed for the determination of certain parameters within the entire design of a VLBI session. Based on this experience, the scheduling method is designed for optimizing the observations' geometry for a given network of radio telescopes and a predefined set of parameters to be estimated. The configuration of at least two twin telescopes, or one twin and two single telescopes, offers the possibility of building pairwise sub-nets that observe two different sources simultaneously. In addition to an optimized observing plan, a special parametrization for twin telescopes leads to an improved determination of Earth rotation variations, as it is shown by simulated observations. In general, an improvement of about 50 % in the formal errors can be realized using twin radio telescopes. This result is only due to geometric improvements as higher slew rates of the twin telescopes are not taken into account.

  20. Aromatic compound emissions from municipal solid waste landfill: Emission factors and their impact on air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjun; Lu, Wenjing; Guo, Hanwen; Ming, Zhongyuan; Wang, Chi; Xu, Sai; Liu, Yanting; Wang, Hongtao

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic compounds (ACs) are major components of volatile organic compounds emitted from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The ACs emissions from the working face of a landfill in Beijing were studied from 2014 to 2015 using a modified wind tunnel system. Emission factors (EFs) of fugitive ACs emissions from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to statistical analyses to cope with their uncertainty. And their impacts on air quality were assessed for the first time. Toluene was the dominant AC with an average emission rate of 38.8 ± 43.0 μg m-2 s-1 (at a sweeping velocity of 0.26 m s-1). An increasing trend in AC emission rates was observed from 12:00 to 18:00 and then peaked at 21:00 (314.3 μg m-2 s-1). The probability density functions (PDFs) of AC emission rates could be classified into three distributions: Gaussian, log-normal, and logistic. EFs of ACs from the working face of the landfill were proposed according to the 95th percentile cumulative emission rates and the wind effects on ACs emissions. The annual ozone formation and secondary organic aerosol formation potential caused by AC emissions from landfills in Beijing were estimated to be 8.86 × 105 kg year-1 and 3.46 × 104 kg year-1, respectively. Toluene, m + p-xylene, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the most significant contributors to air pollution. Although ACs pollutions from landfills accounts for less percentage (∼0.1%) compared with other anthropogenic sources, their fugitive emissions which cannot be controlled efficiently deserve more attention and further investigation.

  1. Risk Factors and Impact of Secondary Failure of Platelet Recovery After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Akahoshi, Yu; Kanda, Junya; Gomyo, Ayumi; Hayakawa, Jin; Komiya, Yusuke; Harada, Naonori; Kameda, Kazuaki; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Ishihara, Yuko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Sato, Miki; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Kikuchi, Misato; Nakasone, Hideki; Kako, Shinichi; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2016-09-01

    Secondary failure of platelet recovery (SFPR), a late decrease in the platelet count after primary platelet recovery that is not due to relapse or graft rejection, occasionally occurs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The risk factors and impact of SFPR on transplantation outcomes are not well known in the clinical setting. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated 184 adult patients who underwent their first allogeneic HSCT and achieved primary platelet recovery. The cumulative incidence of SFPR, defined as a decrease in the platelet count to below 20,000/µL for more than 7 days, was 12.2% at 3 years, with a median onset of 81 days (range, 39 to 729) after HSCT. Among patients who developed SFPR (n = 23), 19 (82.6%) showed recovery to a sustained platelet count of more than 20,000/µL without transfusion support, and the median duration of SFPR was 23 days (range, 7 to 1048 days). A multivariate analysis showed that in vivo T cell depletion (hazard ratio [HR], 6.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.31 to 20.7; P < .001), grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (HR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.52 to 10.5; P = .005), and the use of ganciclovir or valganciclovir (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.05 to 7.77; P = .039) were associated with an increased risk for SFPR. The occurrence of SFPR as a time-dependent covariate was significantly associated with inferior overall survival (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.18 to 4.46; P = .015) in a multivariate analysis. These findings may help to improve the management and treatment strategy for SFPR. PMID:27288954

  2. Impact of environmental factors and biological soil crust types on soil respiration in a desert ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Zhang, Yuqing; Jia, Xin; Wu, Bin; Zha, Tianshan; Qin, Shugao; Wang, Ben; Shao, Chenxi; Liu, Jiabin; Fa, Keyu

    2014-01-01

    The responses of soil respiration to environmental conditions have been studied extensively in various ecosystems. However, little is known about the impacts of temperature and moisture on soils respiration under biological soil crusts. In this study, CO2 efflux from biologically-crusted soils was measured continuously with an automated chamber system in Ningxia, northwest China, from June to October 2012. The highest soil respiration was observed in lichen-crusted soil (0.93 ± 0.43 µmol m-2 s-1) and the lowest values in algae-crusted soil (0.73 ± 0.31 µmol m-2 s-1). Over the diurnal scale, soil respiration was highest in the morning whereas soil temperature was highest in the midday, which resulted in diurnal hysteresis between the two variables. In addition, the lag time between soil respiration and soil temperature was negatively correlated with the soil volumetric water content and was reduced as soil water content increased. Over the seasonal scale, daily mean nighttime soil respiration was positively correlated with soil temperature when moisture exceeded 0.075 and 0.085 m3 m-3 in lichen- and moss-crusted soil, respectively. However, moisture did not affect on soil respiration in algae-crusted soil during the study period. Daily mean nighttime soil respiration normalized by soil temperature increased with water content in lichen- and moss-crusted soil. Our results indicated that different types of biological soil crusts could affect response of soil respiration to environmental factors. There is a need to consider the spatial distribution of different types of biological soil crusts and their relative contributions to the total C budgets at the ecosystem or landscape level. PMID:25050837

  3. Factors affecting miniature Izod impact strength of tungsten-fiber-metal-matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winsa, E. A.; Petrasek, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The miniature Izod and Charpy impact strengths of copper, copper-nickel, and nickel-base superalloy uniaxially reinforced with continuous tungsten fibers were studied. In most cases, impact strength was increased by increasing fiber or matrix toughness, decreasing fibermatrix reaction, increasing test temperature, hot working, or heat treating. Notch sensitivity was reduced by increasing fiber content or matrix toughness. An equation relating impact strength to fiber and matrix properties and fiber content was developed. Program results imply that tungsten alloy-fiber/superalloy matrix composites can be made with adequate impact resistance for turbine blade or vane applications.

  4. Impact factors identification of spatial heterogeneity of herbaceous plant diversity on five southern islands of Miaodao Archipelago in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Yuan; Shi, Honghua; Wang, Xiaoli; Qin, Xuebo; Zheng, Wei; Peng, Shitao

    2016-09-01

    Herbaceous plants are widely distributed on islands and where they exhibit spatial heterogeneity. Accurately identifying the impact factors that drive spatial heterogeneity can reveal typical island biodiversity patterns. Five southern islands in the Miaodao Archipelago, North China were studied herein. The spatial distribution of herbaceous plant diversity on these islands was analyzed, and the impact factors and their degree of impact on spatial heterogeneity were identified using CCA ordination and ANOVA. The results reveal 114 herbaceous plant species, belonging to 94 genera from 34 families in the 50 plots sampled. The total species numbers on different islands were significantly positively correlated with island area, and the average α diversity was correlated with human activities, while the β diversity among islands was more affected by island area than mutual distances. Spatial heterogeneity within islands indicated that the diversities were generally high in areas with higher altitude, slope, total nitrogen, total carbon, and canopy density, and lower moisture content, pH, total phosphorus, total potassium, and aspect. Among the environmental factors, pH, canopy density, total K, total P, moisture content, altitude, and slope had significant gross effects, but only canopy density exhibited a significant net effect. Terrain affected diversity by restricting plantation, plantation in turn influenced soil properties and the two together affected diversity. Therefore, plantation was ultimately the fundamental driving factor for spatial heterogeneity in herbaceous plant diversity on the five islands.

  5. Evaluating the impact of implementation factors on family-based prevention programming: methods for strengthening causal inference.

    PubMed

    Crowley, D Max; Coffman, Donna L; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L

    2014-04-01

    Despite growing recognition of the important role implementation plays in successful prevention efforts, relatively little work has sought to demonstrate a causal relationship between implementation factors and participant outcomes. In turn, failure to explore the implementation-to-outcome link limits our understanding of the mechanisms essential to successful programming. This gap is partially due to the inability of current methodological procedures within prevention science to account for the multitude of confounders responsible for variation in implementation factors (i.e., selection bias). The current paper illustrates how propensity and marginal structural models can be used to improve causal inferences involving implementation factors not easily randomized (e.g., participant attendance). We first present analytic steps for simultaneously evaluating the impact of multiple implementation factors on prevention program outcome. Then, we demonstrate this approach for evaluating the impact of enrollment and attendance in a family program, over and above the impact of a school-based program, within PROSPER, a large-scale real-world prevention trial. Findings illustrate the capacity of this approach to successfully account for confounders that influence enrollment and attendance, thereby more accurately representing true causal relations. For instance, after accounting for selection bias, we observed a 5% reduction in the prevalence of 11th grade underage drinking for those who chose to receive a family program and school program compared to those who received only the school program. Further, we detected a 7% reduction in underage drinking for those with high attendance in the family program. PMID:23430578

  6. Impact factors identification of spatial heterogeneity of herbaceous plant diversity on five southern islands of Miaodao Archipelago in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Yuan; Shi, Honghua; Wang, Xiaoli; Qin, Xuebo; Zheng, Wei; Peng, Shitao

    2016-01-01

    Herbaceous plants are widely distributed on islands and where they exhibit spatial heterogeneity. Accurately identifying the impact factors that drive spatial heterogeneity can reveal typical island biodiversity patterns. Five southern islands in the Miaodao Archipelago, North China were studied herein. The spatial distribution of herbaceous plant diversity on these islands was analyzed, and the impact factors and their degree of impact on spatial heterogeneity were identified using CCA ordination and ANOVA. The results reveal 114 herbaceous plant species, belonging to 94 genera from 34 families in the 50 plots sampled. The total species numbers on different islands were significantly positively correlated with island area, and the average α diversity was correlated with human activities, while the β diversity among islands was more affected by island area than mutual distances. Spatial heterogeneity within islands indicated that the diversities were generally high in areas with higher altitude, slope, total nitrogen, total carbon, and canopy density, and lower moisture content, pH, total phosphorus, total potassium, and aspect. Among the environmental factors, pH, canopy density, total K, total P, moisture content, altitude, and slope had significant gross effects, but only canopy density exhibited a significant net effect. Terrain affected diversity by restricting plantation, plantation in turn influenced soil properties and the two together affected diversity. Therefore, plantation was ultimately the fundamental driving factor for spatial heterogeneity in herbaceous plant diversity on the five islands.

  7. Associated factors to erosive tooth wear and its impact on quality of life in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Abanto, Jenny; Shitsuka, Caleb; Murakami, Christiana; Ciamponi, Ana Lídia; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the presence and associated factors of erosive tooth wear (ETW) in children with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as its impact on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Parents of 60 CP children, between 6 and 14 years of age, answered the Brazilian version of the parental-caregivers perception questionnaire (P-CPQ). The ETW diagnosis was performed by a single calibrated examiner according to the O'Brien´s modified index. Associated factors such as family income, behavioral factors, and type of CP were also collected. OHRQoL was measured through P-CPQ domains and total score, and Poisson regression was used to correlate ETW to associated factors and to the scores. ETW was present in 48.3% of the children. The multivariate adjusted model showed that the presence of ETW was associated with more than 2 days of soft drink intake per week (p = 0.003), daily intake of powdered juice (p = 0.002) and reported gastroesophageal reflux (p = 0.016). The family income higher than one Brazilian minimum wage showed a positive impact on the CP children's OHRQoL (RR = 0.53; p ≤ 0.001). ETW in CP children is associated to frequent consumption of soft drinks, powdered juices, and reported gastroesophageal reflux; however, ETW has not a negative impact on the OHRQoL. PMID:24738748

  8. Laboratory investigations of marine impact events: Factors influencing crater formation and projectile survivability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, D. J.; Baldwin, E. C.; Burchell, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Given that the Earth’s surface is covered in around two-thirds water, the majority of impact events should have occurred in marine environments. However, with the presence of a water layer, crater formation may be prohibited. Indeed, formation is greatly controlled by the water depth to projectile diameter ratio, as discussed in this paper. Previous work has shown that the underlying target material also influences crater formation (e.g., Gault and Sonett 1982; Baldwin et al. 2007). In addition to the above parameters we also show the influence of impact angle, impact velocity and projectile density for a variety of water depths on crater formation and projectile survivability. The limiting ratio of water depth to projectile diameter on cratering represents the point at which the projectile is significantly slowed by transit through the water layer to reduce the impact energy to that which prohibits cratering. We therefore study the velocity decay produced by a water layer using laboratory, analytical and numerical modelling techniques, and determine the peak pressures endured by the projectile. For an impact into a water depth five times the projectile diameter, the velocity of the projectile is found to be reduced to 26-32% its original value. For deep water impacts we find that up to 60% of the original mass of the projectile survives in an oblique impact, where survivability is defined as the solid or melted mass fraction of the projectile that could be collected after impact.

  9. Asthma phenotypes modify the impact of environmetnal factors on lung function

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have examined the role of childhood asthma phenotypes based on clinical history on asthma severity and symptom aggravation by environmental risk factors. The current study focuses on the associations between lung function in childhood and environmental factors an...

  10. Examining the Impact of Gender on the Factor Structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory--Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anestis, Joye C.; Caron, Kelly M.; Carbonell, Joyce L.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the factor structure of psychopathy has yielded mixed results, supporting anywhere from one to three factors. Additionally, most of this research has used all-male samples, and the possibility of structural invariance across gender has not been examined. Using a mixed-gender sample of 360 undergraduates, the factor structure of the…

  11. Impact of Modifiable Risk Factors on B-type Natriuretic Peptide and Cardiac Troponin T Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pratyaksh K; Pradhan, Aruna D; Cook, Nancy R; Ridker, Paul M; Everett, Brendan M

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use, physical activity, diet, and cigarette smoking are modifiable cardiovascular risk factors that have a substantial impact on the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death. We hypothesized that these behaviors may alter concentrations of cardiac troponin, a marker of myocyte injury, and B-type natriuretic peptide, a marker of myocyte stress. Both markers have shown strong association with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In 519 women with no evidence of cardiovascular disease, we measured circulating concentrations of cardiac troponin T, using a high-sensitivity assay (hsTnT), and the N-terminal fragment of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). We used logistic regression to determine if these behaviors were associated with hsTnT ≥ 3 ng/l or with NT-proBNP in the highest quartile (≥ 127.3 ng/l). The median (Q1 to Q3) NT-proBNP of the cohort was 68.8 ng/l (40.3 to 127.3 ng/l), and 30.8% (160 of 519) of the cohort had circulating hsTnT ≥ 3 ng/l. In adjusted models, women who drank 1 to 6 drinks/week had lower odds of having a hsTnT ≥ 3 ng/l (odds ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.34 to 0.96) and lower odds of having an elevated NT-proBNP (odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.96). We were subsequently able to validate the results for B-type natriuretic peptide in a large independent cohort. In conclusion, our results suggest that regular alcohol consumption is associated with lower concentrations of hsTnT and NT-proBNP, 2 cardiovascular biomarkers associated with cardiovascular risk, and raise the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of alcohol consumption may be mediated by direct effects on the myocardium. PMID:26739393

  12. Impact of environmental factor variation on desertification: an example from the Shule River Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yushu; Li, Xiangyun; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Hongqi

    2003-07-01

    Variation of environmental factors plays an important roll in the process of desertification. In this paper, taking Shule River as an example, the variation and correlation coefficient was calculated to evaluate the main environmental factors" changes and its relation to the state of desertification. The results obtained indicate that the variations of factors including meteorological factors and human active factors are obvious. Since 80"s the annual precipitation and annual number of sandstorm days have been declining in a fluctuating state. The population and the area of cultivated land have been increasing. The correlation analysis shows that there exist positive correlations between desertification and population and area of cultivated land. The correlation between area of desertification and annual wind speed, annual number of sandstorm days is significant. In Shule River area, desertification state has more obvious relation with human active factor, comparing with meteorological factors.

  13. Examining the impact of gender on the factor structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Joye C; Caron, Kelly M; Carbonell, Joyce L

    2011-09-01

    Research on the factor structure of psychopathy has yielded mixed results, supporting anywhere from one to three factors. Additionally, most of this research has used all-male samples, and the possibility of structural invariance across gender has not been examined. Using a mixed-gender sample of 360 undergraduates, the factor structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised was examined using confirmatory factor analysis and multiple group analysis. One-, two-, and three-factor models were tested and compared with each other. When males and females were combined, none of the three models provided adequate fit to the data. Multiple group analyses revealed partial invariance across gender for all three models. Model comparison criteria supported use of both the one- and two-factor models, taking into account variable factor structure across gender. The importance of considering structural differences based on biological sex when assessing psychopathic traits is discussed. PMID:21490056

  14. Time-Series Analysis of Continuously Monitored Blood Glucose: The Impacts of Geographic and Daily Lifestyle Factors

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is known to be associated with environmental, behavioral, and lifestyle factors. However, the actual impacts of these factors on blood glucose (BG) variation throughout the day have remained relatively unexplored. Continuous blood glucose monitors combined with human activity tracking technologies afford new opportunities for exploration in a naturalistic setting. Data from a study of 40 patients with diabetes is utilized in this paper, including continuously monitored BG, food/medicine intake, and patient activity/location tracked using global positioning systems over a 4-day period. Standard linear regression and more disaggregated time-series analysis using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) are used to explore patient BG variation throughout the day and over space. The ARIMA models revealed a wide variety of BG correlating factors related to specific activity types, locations (especially those far from home), and travel modes, although the impacts were highly personal. Traditional variables related to food intake and medications were less often significant. Overall, the time-series analysis revealed considerable patient-by-patient variation in the effects of geographic and daily lifestyle factors. We would suggest that maps of BG spatial variation or an interactive messaging system could provide new tools to engage patients and highlight potential risk factors. PMID:25893201

  15. Time-series analysis of continuously monitored blood glucose: the impacts of geographic and daily lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Sean T; Greaves, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is known to be associated with environmental, behavioral, and lifestyle factors. However, the actual impacts of these factors on blood glucose (BG) variation throughout the day have remained relatively unexplored. Continuous blood glucose monitors combined with human activity tracking technologies afford new opportunities for exploration in a naturalistic setting. Data from a study of 40 patients with diabetes is utilized in this paper, including continuously monitored BG, food/medicine intake, and patient activity/location tracked using global positioning systems over a 4-day period. Standard linear regression and more disaggregated time-series analysis using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) are used to explore patient BG variation throughout the day and over space. The ARIMA models revealed a wide variety of BG correlating factors related to specific activity types, locations (especially those far from home), and travel modes, although the impacts were highly personal. Traditional variables related to food intake and medications were less often significant. Overall, the time-series analysis revealed considerable patient-by-patient variation in the effects of geographic and daily lifestyle factors. We would suggest that maps of BG spatial variation or an interactive messaging system could provide new tools to engage patients and highlight potential risk factors. PMID:25893201

  16. A Mathematical Model of the Immune and Neuroendocrine Systems Mutual Regulation under the Technogenic Chemical Factors Impact

    PubMed Central

    Zaitseva, N. V.; Kiryanov, D. A.; Lanin, D. V.; Chigvintsev, V. M.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the triad regulatory metasystem, which includes the neuroendocrine and immune regulation systems, is currently generally accepted. Changes occurring in each of the regulatory systems in response to the impact of technogenic chemical factors are also well known. This paper presents mathematical models of the immune and neuroendocrine system functioning, using the interaction between these systems in response to bacterial invasion as an example, and changes in their performance under exposure to chemical factors, taking into account the stage of functional disorders in a producing organ, using the performance of the bone marrow as an example. PMID:24872840

  17. Individual and Population Level Impact of Key HIV Risk Factors on HIV Incidence Rates in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ramjee, Gita; Moonsamy, Suri; Abbai, Nathlee Samantha; Wand, Handan

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the individual and joint impact of age, marital status and diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on HIV acquisition among young women at a population level in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 3,978 HIV seronegative women were recruited for four biomedical intervention trials from 2002–2009. Point and interval estimates of partial population attributable risk (PAR) were used to quantify the proportion of HIV seroconversions which can be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. More than 70% of the observed HIV acquisitions were collectively attributed to the three risk factors: younger age (<25 years old), unmarried and not cohabiting with a stable/regular partner and diagnosis with STIs. Addressing these risks requires targeted structural, behavioural, biomedical and cultural interventions in order to impact on unacceptably high HIV incidence rates among young women and the population as a whole. PMID:27104835

  18. Potential factors impacting season-long expression of Cry1Ac in 13 commercial varieties of Bollgard cotton.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, J J; Sumerford, D V

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen commercial varieties of transgenic Cry1Ac Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) cotton were examined across two sites in 2000 for potential factors that impact endotoxin expression. In all cases, two varieties (NuCOTN 33B and DP 458B/RR, Delta & Pineland Co., Scott, MS) expressed more Cry1Ac than the other 11 varieties in various plant structures. These two varieties share the same parental background (DP 5415). Furthermore, when the next generation of plants were tested in the greenhouse, the same varietal patterns were exhibited. These data strongly suggest that factors such as parental background had a stronger impact on the expression of Cry1Ac than the environment. PMID:15455073

  19. Infectious disease, shifting climates, and opportunistic predators: cumulative factors potentially impacting wild salmon declines

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kristina M; Teffer, Amy; Tucker, Strahan; Li, Shaorong; Schulze, Angela D; Trudel, Marc; Juanes, Francis; Tabata, Amy; Kaukinen, Karia H; Ginther, Norma G; Ming, Tobi J; Cooke, Steven J; Hipfner, J Mark; Patterson, David A; Hinch, Scott G

    2014-01-01

    Emerging diseases are impacting animals under high-density culture, yet few studies assess their importance to wild populations. Microparasites selected for enhanced virulence in culture settings should be less successful maintaining infectivity in wild populations, as once the host dies, there are limited opportunities to infect new individuals. Instead, moderately virulent microparasites persisting for long periods across multiple environments are of greatest concern. Evolved resistance to endemic microparasites may reduce susceptibilities, but as barriers to microparasite distributions are weakened, and environments become more stressful, unexposed populations may be impacted and pathogenicity enhanced. We provide an overview of the evolutionary and ecological impacts of infectious diseases in wild salmon and suggest ways in which modern technologies can elucidate the microparasites of greatest potential import. We present four case studies that resolve microparasite impacts on adult salmon migration success, impact of river warming on microparasite replication, and infection status on susceptibility to predation. Future health of wild salmon must be considered in a holistic context that includes the cumulative or synergistic impacts of multiple stressors. These approaches will identify populations at greatest risk, critically needed to manage and potentially ameliorate the shifts in current or future trajectories of wild populations. PMID:25469162

  20. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation) have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of psychological factors such as

  1. Wetting state and maximum spreading factor of microdroplets impacting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces with anisotropic arrays of pillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Dae Hee; Huh, Hyung Kyu; Lee, Sang Joon

    2013-07-01

    The dynamic behaviors of microdroplets that impact on textured surfaces with various patterns of microscale pillars are experimentally investigated in this study. A piezoelectric inkjet is used to generate the microdroplets that have a diameter of less than 46 μm and a controlled Weber number. The impact and spreading dynamics of an individual droplet are captured by using a high-speed imaging system. The anisotropic and directional wettability and the wetting states on the textured surfaces with anisotropically arranged pillars are revealed for the first time in this study. The impalement transition from the Cassie-Baxter state to the partially impaled state is evaluated by balancing the wetting pressure P wet and the capillary pressure P C even on the anisotropic textured surfaces. The maximum spreading factor is measured and compared with the theoretical prediction to elucidate the wettability of the textured surfaces. For a given Weber number, the maximum spreading factor decreases as the texture area fraction of the textured surface decreases. In addition, the maximum spreading factors along the direction of longer inter-pillar spacing always have smaller values than those along the direction of shorter inter-pillar spacing when a droplet impacts on the anisotropic arrays of pillars.

  2. Projecting Burden of Dementia in Spain, 2010-2050: Impact of Modifying Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Soto-Gordoa, Myriam; Arrospide, Arantzazu; Moreno-Izco, Fermín; Martínez-Lage, Pablo; Castilla, Iván; Mar, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Risk and protective factors such as obesity, hypercholesterolemia, physical activity, and hypertension can play a role in the development of dementia. Our objective was to measure the effect of modification of risk and protective factors on the prevalence and economic burden of dementia in the aging Spanish population during 2010-2050. A discrete event simulation model including risk and protective factors according to CAIDE (Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Incidence of Dementia) Risk Score was built to represent the natural history of dementia. Prevalence of dementia was calculated from 2010 to 2050 according to different scenarios of risk factor prevalence to assess the annual social and health care costs of dementia. The model also supplied hazard ratios for dementia. Aging will increase between 49% and 16% each decade in the number of subjects with dementia. The number of working-age individuals per person with dementia will decrease to a quarter by 2050. An intervention leading to a 20% change in risk and protective factors would reduce dementia by 9% , prevent over 100,000 cases, and save nearly 4,900 million euros in 2050. Switching individuals from a group with a specific risk factor to one without it nearly halved the risk of the development of dementia. Dementia prevalence will grow unmanageable if effective prevention strategies are not developed. Interventions aiming to reduce modifiable risk factor prevalence represent valid and effective alternatives to reduce dementia burden. However, further research is needed to identify causal relationships between dementia and risk factors. PMID:26402090

  3. Why do residential recycled water schemes fail? A comprehensive review of risk factors and impact on objectives.

    PubMed

    West, Camilla; Kenway, Steven; Hassall, Maureen; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-10-01

    In Australia, recycled water schemes have been implemented in residential developments to contribute to sustainable urban development, improve water supply security and reduce pollutant discharges to the environment. A proportion of these schemes, however, have been decommissioned well before the end of their design life which raises questions about the adequacy of the risk assessment and management practices adopted for recycled water schemes. Through a detailed literature review, an investigation of 21 residential recycled water schemes and in-depth interviews with nine scheme stakeholders, we identified 34 risk factors arising from six sources which have the potential to impact the long-term viability of residential recycled water schemes. Of the 34 risk factors identified, 17 were reported to have occurred during the development and implementation of the 21 schemes investigated. The overall risk rating of the 17 factors was qualitatively defined on the basis of the likelihood of occurrence and the impact of the risk factors on the scheme objectives. The outcomes of the assessment indicate that the critical risks to the long-term viability of residential recycled water schemes are 1. unanticipated operational costs, 2. legal and contractual arrangements, 3. regulatory requirements and approval process and 4. customer complaints and expectations not met. To date, public health risks associated with the provision of recycled water have been of primary concern, though the outcomes of this study indicate that the impact to public health has been low. Evidently there is a need for improved assessment and management practices which address the range of critical risk factors, in addition to the routine consideration of public health risks. PMID:27362447

  4. Reciprocal impact of host factors and Helicobacter pylori genotypes on gastric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Honarmand-Jahromy, Sahar; Siavoshi, Farideh; Malekzadeh, Reza; Nejad Sattari, Taher; Latifi-Navid, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) genotypes and patient age and sex on the development of gastric diseases. METHODS: H. pylori-infected patients (n = 233) referred to the endoscopy unit at Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) were diagnosed with chronic gastritis (CG), gastric ulcer (GU), or duodenal ulcer (DU). Brucella blood agar was used for biopsy cultures and H. pylori isolation under microaerobic conditions. H. pylori isolates were confirmed with biochemical tests and through amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. DNA was extracted from fresh cultures of the H. pylori isolates and used for amplification of vacA alleles and the cagA gene. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the association between H. pylori genotypes, age (< 40 years vs > 40 years) and sex of the patient, and gastric diseases. RESULTS: CG was the most prevalent gastric disease (113/233; 48.5%), compared to GU (64/233; 27.5%) and DU (56/233; 24%). More patients were male, and gastric diseases were more frequent in patients > 40 years (P < 0.05). The percentage of CG and GU patients that were male and female did not show a significant difference; however DU was more common in males (P < 0.05). Interestingly, a diagnosis of CG in patients > 40 years was more common in females (18.5%) than males (11.6%) (P = 0.05), whereas a diagnosis of GU or DU in patients > 40 years was more frequent in males (14.6% vs 10.7% and 12.4% vs 4.3%, respectively). Overall, genotyping of the H. pylori isolates revealed that the vacA s1 (82%), vacA m2 (70%), and cagA+ (72.5%) alleles were more frequent than vacA s2 (18%), vacA m1 (29.2%), and cagA- (all P < 0.05). The vacA s1m2cagA+ genotype was the most prevalent within the three disease groups. vacA s1m2 frequency was 56.2% with a similar occurrence in all diagnoses, while vacA s1m1 appeared more often in DU patients (33.9%). A genotype of vacA s2m2 occurred in 15% of isolates and was more common in CG patients (21

  5. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies.

    PubMed

    Chanchai, Withaya; Songkham, Wanpen; Ketsomporn, Pranom; Sappakitchanchai, Punnarat; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2) OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3) MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE) approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4) RESULTS: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%). The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5) CONCLUSIONS: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment. PMID:27153076

  6. Contextual Factors Impacting Battered Women's Intentions to Reuse the Criminal Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury-Steiner, Ruth E.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.; Belknap, Joanne; Melton, Heather C.

    2006-01-01

    While a small number of past studies have examined either situational, relational, or systems-level factors that influence battered women's use of either the police, prosecutorial, or court systems, no study to date has examined how these factors each influence women's intentions to reuse these systems. To address this gap, in-person interviews…

  7. The Impact of Employee Engagement Factors and Job Satisfaction on Turnover Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Mary Lynn; Morris, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    The current literature review examined a proposed relationship between the antecedent-employee engagement factors--and the outcome variable turnover intent mediated by job satisfaction. Kahn's Personal Engagement Theory, Equity Theory, and Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction were used as the theoretical underpinnings for the review.…

  8. Laptops in the K-12 Classrooms: Exploring Factors Impacting Instructional Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inan, Fethi A.; Lowther, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting teachers' integration of laptops into classroom instruction. A research-based path model was tested based on data gathered from 379 K-12 school teachers to examine direct and indirect contributions of relevant institutional factors (overall support for school technology, technical support,…

  9. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies

    PubMed Central

    Chanchai, Withaya; Songkham, Wanpen; Ketsomporn, Pranom; Sappakitchanchai, Punnarat; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2) Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3) Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE) approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4) Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%). The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5) Conclusions: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment. PMID:27153076

  10. Impact of Health-Related Family Factors on School Enrollment in Bolivia: Implications for Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madanat, Hala; Dearden, Kirk; Heaton, Tim; Forste, Renata

    2005-01-01

    This study identified the extent to which family factors increase school enrollment in Bolivia, after adjusting for human and financial capital. The sample was drawn from the 1998 Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression models were used to determine the effect of human capital, financial capital and family factors on school enrollment.…

  11. The Impacts of System and Human Factors on Online Learning Systems Use and Learner Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshare, Khaled A.; Freeze, Ronald D.; Lane, Peggy L.; Wen, H. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Success in an online learning environment is tied to both human and system factors. This study illuminates the unique contributions of human factors (comfort with online learning, self-management of learning, and perceived Web self-efficacy) to online learning system success, which is measured in terms of usage and satisfaction. The research model…

  12. The Impact of Different Portability Factors during the Life Cycle of an Educational Software Adaptation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty A.; De Diana, Italo

    1990-01-01

    Provides an example that illustrates the interrelationship of the factors that influence educational software portability. Nielsen's seven-level approach to human-computer interaction is used as the basis for a model for factors that influence portability, and five phases in the life cycle of a software product being adapted are considered. (10…

  13. Examination of Factors Impacting Student Satisfaction with a New Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lucy Santos; Inan, Fethi A.; Denton, Bree

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors that influenced student satisfaction with a new learning management system and to identify which of these factors were most important. The data was collected using an an online survey tool that was administered to students enrolled in courses designed and taught by faculty who participated in a…

  14. Interactions between life stress factors and carrying the APOE4 allele adversely impact self-reported health in old adults.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi; Hughes, Claude L; Lewis, Megan A; Li, Jianxin; Zhang, Fengyu

    2011-10-01

    Based on the multiple logistic regression analysis of data from a random sample of 1,023 old adults collected in Taiwan in 2000, we found that interactions between carrying the APOE4 allele and one of four life stress factors (relocated mainlander, living in a crowded household with six or more persons, living in an earthquake-damaged house, and monthly financial difficulty) significantly increased the odds ratio of poor self-reported health. Correlations between carrying the APOE4 allele and the life stress factors were ruled out by statistical tests. These life stress factors had a substantially larger adverse impact on self-reported health in APOE4 allele carriers than in noncarriers. This study provides evidence that interaction between carrying APOE4 allele and chronic life stressors has significant impacts on self-reported health while controlling for various sociodemographic and health behavior factors. Further studies with richer biomarkers are warranted for deeper understanding of the biological mechanisms. PMID:21768502

  15. Heterogeneous impacts of gender-interpreted contributing factors on driver injury severities in single-vehicle rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Chen, Cong; Tarefder, Rafiqul; Wang, Haizhong; Wei, Heng

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a mixed logit model is developed to identify the heterogeneous impacts of gender-interpreted contributing factors on driver injury severities in single-vehicle rollover crashes. The random parameter of the variables in the mixed logit model, the heterogeneous mean, is elaborated by driver gender-based linear regression models. The model is estimated using crash data in New Mexico from 2010 to 2012. The percentage changes of factors' predicted probabilities are calculated in order to better understand the model specifications. Female drivers are found more likely to experience severe or fatal injuries in rollover crashes than male drivers. However, the probability of male drivers being severely injured is higher than female drivers when the road surface is unpaved. Two other factors with fixed parameters are also found to significantly increase driver injury severities, including Wet and Alcohol Influenced. This study provides a better understanding of contributing factors influencing driver injury severities in rollover crashes as well as their heterogeneous impacts in terms of driver gender. Those results are also helpful to develop appropriate countermeasures and policies to reduce driver injury severities in single-vehicle rollover crashes. PMID:27240126

  16. The psychological impact of the Israel-Hezbollah War on Jews and Arabs in Israel: the impact of risk and resilience factors.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Patrick A; Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Galea, Sandro; Johnson, Robert J; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2008-10-01

    Although there is abundant evidence that mass traumas are associated with adverse mental health consequences, few studies have used nationally representative samples to examine the impact of war on civilians, and none have examined the impact of the Israel-Hezbollah War, which involved unprecedented levels of civilian trauma exposure from July 12 to August 14, 2006. The aims of this study were to document probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), determined by the PTSD Symptom Scale and self-reported functional impairment, in Jewish and Arab residents of Israel immediately after the Israel-Hezbollah War and to assess potential risk and resilience factors. A telephone survey was conducted August 15-October 5, 2006, following the cessation of rocket attacks. Stratified random sampling methods yielded a nationally representative population sample of 1200 adult Israeli residents. The rate of probable PTSD was 7.2%. Higher risk of probable PTSD was associated with being a woman, recent trauma exposure, economic loss, and higher psychosocial resource loss. Lower risk of probable PTSD was associated with higher education. The results suggest that economic and psychosocial resource loss, in addition to trauma exposure, have an impact on post-trauma functioning. Thus, interventions that bolster these resources might prove effective in alleviating civilian psychopathology during war. PMID:18667263

  17. Factors influencing the implementation of antibiotic de-escalation and impact of this strategy in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A rational use of antibiotics is of paramount importance in order to prevent the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria that can lead to therapeutic impasse, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). A de-escalation strategy is therefore naturally advocated as part of better antibiotics usage. However, the clinical impact of such a strategy has not been widely studied. We aimed to assess the feasibility and the clinical impact of a de-escalation strategy in a medical ICU and to identify factors associated when de-escalation was possible. Methods We performed a retrospective study of patients hospitalized in a medical ICU over a period of six months. Independent factors associated with de-escalation and its clinical impact were assessed. Results Two hundred and twenty-nine patients were included in the study. Antibiotics were de-escalated in 117 patients (51%). The appropriateness of initial antibiotic therapy was the only independent factor associated with the performance of de-escalation (OR = 2.9, 95% CI, 1.5-5.7; P = 0.002). By contrast, inadequacy of initial antibiotic therapy (OR = 0.1, 0.0 to 0.1, P <0.001) and the presence of multidrug resistant bacteria (OR = 0.2, 0.1 to 0.7, P = 0.006) prevented from de-escalation. There were no differences in terms of short (ICU) or long-term (at 1 year) mortality rates or any secondary criteria such as ICU length of stay, duration of antibiotic therapy, mechanical ventilation, incidence of ICU-acquired infection, or multi-drug resistant bacteria emergence. Conclusions De-escalation appears feasible in most cases without any obvious negative clinical impact in a medical ICU. PMID:23849321

  18. Climate change impacts: The challenge of quantifying multi-factor causation, multi-component responses, and leveraging from extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, C. B.

    2012-12-01

    Modeling climate change impacts is challenging for a variety of reasons. Some of these are related to causation. A weather or climate event is rarely the sole cause of an impact, and, for many impacts, social, economic, cultural, or ecological factors may play a larger role than climate. Other challenges are related to outcomes. Consequences of an event are often most severe when several kinds of responses interact, typically in unexpected ways. Many kinds of consequences are difficult to quantify, especially when they include a mix of market, cultural, personal, and ecological values. In addition, scale can be tremendously important. Modest impacts over large areas present very different challenges than severe but very local impacts. Finally, impacts may respond non-linearly to forcing, with behavior that changes qualitatively at one or more thresholds and with unexpected outcomes in extremes. Modeling these potentially complex interactions between drivers and impacts presents one set of challenges. Evaluating the models presents another. At least five kinds of approaches can contribute to the evaluation of impact models designed to provide insights in multi-driver, multi-responder, multi-scale, and extreme-driven contexts, even though none of these approaches is a complete or "silver-bullet" solution. The starting point for much of the evaluation in this space is case studies. Case studies can help illustrate links between processes and scales. They can highlight factors that amplify or suppress sensitivity to climate drivers, and they can suggest the consequences of intervening at different points. While case studies rarely provide concrete evidence about mechanisms, they can help move a mechanistic case from circumstantial to sound. Novel approaches to data collection, including crowd sourcing, can potentially provide tools and the number of relevant examples to develop case studies as statistically robust data sources. A critical condition for progress in this

  19. Analyzing the impact of climate and management factors on the productivity and soil carbon sequestration of poplar plantations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Fan, Jiazhi; Jing, Panpan; Cheng, Yong; Ruan, Honghua

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to investigate how climate and management factors impact poplar plantation production and soil carbon sequestration interactively. We extracted above-ground net primary production (ANPP), climate and management factors from peer-reviewed journal articles and analyzed impact of management factor and climate on the mean annual increment (MAI) of poplar ANPP statistically. Previously validated mechanistic model (ED) is used to perform case simulations for managed poplar plantations under different harvesting rotations. The meta-analysis indicate that the dry matter MAI was 6.3 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (n=641, sd=4.9) globally, and 5.1 (n=292, sd=4.0), 8.1 (n=224, sd=4.7) and 4.4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (n=125, sd=3.2) in Europe, the US and China, respectively. Poplar MAI showed a significant response to GDD, precipitation and planting density and formed a quadratic relationship with stand age. The low annual production for poplar globally was probably caused by suboptimal water availability, rotation length and planting density. SEM attributes the variance of poplar growth rate more to climate than to management effects. Case simulations indicated that longer rotation cycle significantly increased soil carbon storage. Findings of this work suggests that management factor of rotation cycle alone could have dramatic impact on the above ground growth, as well as on the soil carbon sequestration of poplar plantations and will be helpful to quantify the long-term carbon sequestration through short rotation plantation. The findings of this study are useful in guiding further research, policy and management decisions towards sustainable poplar plantations. PMID:26531329

  20. The Impact Factor: Why We Can't Neglect Professional Learning Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    For educators to be successful in ensuring that students are college-and career-ready, they must have high-quality professional learning. This article describes how the foundation and guidance for evaluating the impact of professional learning can be enhanced with the "Standards for Professional Learning Tool" (Learning Forward, 2011).…

  1. Factors of Teacher Induction Which Impact Job Satisfaction and Attrition in Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larabee, Michelle Ann

    2009-01-01

    High quality induction for novice teachers has reduced the attrition rates for many states. The methods of implementation, components of the induction, and quality of the induction vary from district to district. The purpose of this research was to examine the components of novice teacher induction which may have a positive impact on novice…

  2. The Impact of Familial and Environmental Factors on the Adjustment of Immigrants: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mirsky, Julia; Rubinstein, Ludmila; Nauck, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of family interaction, perceived discrimination, stressful life events, and the hosting country on the adjustment of Israeli and German immigrants. Results show that changes in self-esteem between the 1st year of immigration and 2 and 4 years later were significantly related to family relations: the better the…

  3. Economy Impacts Staffing, Family Factors According to 2009 Principals' Partnership Poll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew; Williamson, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Members of The Principals' Partnership are seeing negative aspects to the current economic downturn that are likely to impact the quality of education provided in public high schools. They also would like to see changes in the accountability requirements of No Child Left Behind. Those were the key findings in the 2009 Principals' Partnership Poll…

  4. Key Factors Associated with the Effective Implementation and Impact of California's Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, David D.

    This study focused on the implementation of "top-down" California state-initiated reform in secondary schools and the impact of that process on several outcomes: student academic achievement and the capacity of the organization to carry out ongoing reform. The research was part of a broader study of secondary school reform and how the reforms led…

  5. A Study of Factors That Impact Teacher Job Satisfaction in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumgartner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that low job satisfaction among teachers may lead to undesired consequences for educators, students, and communities. The greatest impact appears to be a high rate of attrition among teachers, which is growing (NCTAF, 2007). Teacher effectiveness, teacher retention, and student achievement can be directly…

  6. The Impact Factor: Measuring Student Professional Growth in an Online Doctoral Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Swapna; Dawson, Kara

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the impact of an online Ed.D. in educational technology based on data collected from students at regular intervals during the program. It documents how students who were working professionals applied learning from the program within their practice, enculturated into the educational technology community, and grew…

  7. Key Factors for Determining Risk of Groundwater Impacts Due to Leakage from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Susan; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; Dai, Zhenue; Sun, Yunwei; Trainor-Guitton, Whitney; Brown, Chris; Bacon, Diana

    2014-01-06

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow underwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models,l referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could result from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which "no impact" to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur.

  8. Institutional Factors That Positively Impact First-Year Students' Sense of Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmening, Debra S.; Jacob, Stacy A.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study conducted at a single institution in the Midwest examines how institutional context and environment impact college students' sense of well-being. Twenty-seven first-year students participated in one to two hour, in-depth interviews where they talked about their first-year experiences, their concepts of well-being, and…

  9. Factors Impacting the Successful Implementation of Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs in Nova Scotia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Ron; Sumarah, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses factors that contribute to the successful implementation of comprehensive guidance and counseling programs at the elementary, junior, and senior high school levels in Nova Scotia. Examines counselors' perceptions of what helps or hinders successful implementation. (Contains 15 references.) (GCP)

  10. How to Do It. Impact of Environmental Factors on Populations of Soil Microorganisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Francoise M.

    1990-01-01

    Described are simple experiments designed to demonstrate the effect of some factors of the environment (dryness, temperature, and fungicide application) on the size of some populations of soil microorganisms. Materials, media, techniques, procedures, and results are discussed. (CW)

  11. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting and their impact on design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leowenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  12. On the potential impact of the newly proposed quality factors on space radiation protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1987-01-01

    The recently proposed changes in the defined quality factor hold great potential for easing some of the protection requirements from electrons and protons in the near-Earth environment. At the same time, the high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) components play an even more important role which must be further evaluated. Several recommendations are made which need to be addressed before these new quality factors can be implemented into space radiation potection practice.

  13. Influence of Human Factor Issues on Patient-Centered mHealth Apps' Impact; Where Do We Stand?

    PubMed

    Wildenbos, G A; Peute, L W; Jaspers, M W M

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the preliminary results of a literature review on studies published in 2014-2015 concerning patient-centered mHealth applications' (apps) impact. Abstracts were included when they described a mHealth app targeted at patients and reported on the effects of this app on patient care. From a total of 559 potentially relevant articles, 17 papers were finally included. Nine studies reported a positive impact of the patient-centered mHealth app on patient care; 4 of these studies were randomized controlled trials. Measured impacts in the 17 studies focused on improving patients' physical activity, self-efficacy and medication adherence. Human factors issues potentially mediating these effects were discussed in all studies. Transitions in the interaction between healthcare providers and their patients were most often discussed as influencing the impact of the mHealth app. More research is needed, focussing on human issues mediating the effect of patient-centered mHealth apps to precipitate knowledge on the effectiveness of mHealth. This research should preferably be guided by socio-technical models. PMID:27577369

  14. An exploration of factors affecting the long term psychological impact and deterioration of mental health in flooded households.

    PubMed

    Lamond, Jessica Elizabeth; Joseph, Rotimi D; Proverbs, David G

    2015-07-01

    The long term psychological effect of the distress and trauma caused by the memory of damage and losses associated with flooding of communities remains an under researched impact of flooding. This is particularly important for communities that are likely to be repeatedly flooded where levels of mental health disorder will damage long term resilience to future flooding. There are a variety of factors that affect the prevalence of mental health disorders in the aftermath of flooding including pre-existing mental health, socio-economic factors and flood severity. However previous research has tended to focus on the short term impacts immediately following the flood event and much less focus has been given to the longer terms effects of flooding. Understanding of factors affecting the longer term mental health outcomes for flooded households is critical in order to support communities in improving social resilience. Hence, the aim of this study was to explore the characteristics associated with psychological distress and mental health deterioration over the longer term. The research examined responses from a postal survey of households flooded during the 2007 flood event across England. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and binomial logistic regression were applied to data representing household characteristics, flood event characteristics and post-flood stressors and coping strategies. These factors were related to reported measures of stress, anxiety, depression and mental health deterioration. The results showed that household income, depth of flooding; having to move out during reinstatement and mitigating actions are related to the prevalence of psycho-social symptoms in previously flooded households. In particular relocation and household income were the most predictive factors. The practical implication of these findings for recovery after flooding are: to consider the preferences of households in terms of the need to move out during restorative

  15. The criteria weight determination of factors impacting the melt flow index of degradable plastics using Lambda-Max method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dom, Rosma Mohd; Saadon, Nurul Adzlyana; Mohamad, Daud

    2013-09-01

    Three common methods of determining criteria weights using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) are extent analysis, logarithmic least square method (LLSM) and Lambda-Max. Lambda-Max criteria weights determination method uses pair wise comparison of criteria considered. Studies have shown that Lambda-Max is a preferred criteria weight determination method since it involves lesser computation with consistent results of precise criteria weights generated. In this paper the criteria weights of four factors impacting the Melt Flow Index of degradable plastics are calculated using Lambda-Max method. The input factors (criteria) are the percentages by mass of polyethylene, oil palm biomass, palm olein and starch used in the formulation of degradable plastics. The criteria weights are calculated using Lambda-Max based on input given by four experts. The finding indicates the feasibility of using Lambda-Max method in criteria weight determination for determining the impact of four factors in the formulation of degradable plastics as reflected by the consistency control index value calculated.

  16. The impact of individual and combined abiotic factors on daily otolith growth in a coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Amelia S.; Whinney, James; Taylor, Brett; Kroon, Frederieke

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are increasingly subjected to both local and global stressors, however, there is limited information on how reef organisms respond to their combined effects under natural conditions. This field study examined the growth response of the damselfish Neopomacentrus bankieri to the individual and combined effects of multiple abiotic factors. Turbidity, temperature, tidal movement, and wave action were recorded every 10 minutes for four months, after which the daily otolith growth of N. bankieri was aligned with corresponding abiotic conditions. Temperature was the only significant driver of daily otolith increment width, with increasing temperatures resulting in decreasing width. Although tidal movement was not a significant driver of increment width by itself, the combined effect of tidal movement and temperature had a greater negative effect on growth than temperature alone. Our results indicate that temperature can drive changes in growth even at very fine scales, and demonstrate that the cumulative impact of abiotic factors can be substantially greater than individual effects. As abiotic factors continue to change in intensity and duration, the combined impacts of them will become increasingly important drivers of physiological and ecological change. PMID:27350589

  17. Dogs on the Move: Factors Impacting Animal Shelter and Rescue Organizations’ Decisions to Accept Dogs from Distant Locations

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Kaitlyn E.; Hoffman, Christy L.

    2016-01-01

    Long-distance dog transfer programs are a topic of burgeoning interest in the animal welfare community, but little research has focused on such programs. This exploratory study, which surveyed 193 individuals associated with animal shelter and rescue organizations in the United States, evaluated factors that impacted organizations’ decisions to transfer in dogs over long distances (>100 miles) and assessed what criteria were commonly valued by destination organizations. Specifically, we examined the following aspects of long-distance transfer programs: (1) logistics of long-distance dog transfers; (2) factors impacting dog selection; (3) medical requirements; (4) partnerships formed between source and destination organizations; and (5) perceptions of long-distance dog transfer programs by individuals affiliated with the destination organizations. This study revealed that many logistical considerations factor into transfer decisions and the formation of healthy partnerships between source and destination organizations. Participants indicated their organization’s willingness to receive dogs of various sizes, coat colors and ages, but organizations often had restrictions regarding the breeds they would accept. Study findings indicate some organizations have strict quarantine policies and pre-transfer medical requirements, while others have no such requirements. PMID:26848694

  18. The impact of individual and combined abiotic factors on daily otolith growth in a coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Amelia S; Whinney, James; Taylor, Brett; Kroon, Frederieke

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are increasingly subjected to both local and global stressors, however, there is limited information on how reef organisms respond to their combined effects under natural conditions. This field study examined the growth response of the damselfish Neopomacentrus bankieri to the individual and combined effects of multiple abiotic factors. Turbidity, temperature, tidal movement, and wave action were recorded every 10 minutes for four months, after which the daily otolith growth of N. bankieri was aligned with corresponding abiotic conditions. Temperature was the only significant driver of daily otolith increment width, with increasing temperatures resulting in decreasing width. Although tidal movement was not a significant driver of increment width by itself, the combined effect of tidal movement and temperature had a greater negative effect on growth than temperature alone. Our results indicate that temperature can drive changes in growth even at very fine scales, and demonstrate that the cumulative impact of abiotic factors can be substantially greater than individual effects. As abiotic factors continue to change in intensity and duration, the combined impacts of them will become increasingly important drivers of physiological and ecological change. PMID:27350589

  19. Multiple impacts of epilepsy and contributing factors: findings from an ethnographic study in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Nuran; Vu Trung, Dang; Snape, Dee; Baker, Gus A; Jacoby, Ann

    2009-01-01

    We investigated issues related to treatment, impact of epilepsy, attitudes toward epilepsy and disclosure in Vietnam by using in depth interviews with people with epilepsy (PWE) and their family members. We found that although participants prefer Western treatment methods more than traditional ones, they experience problems in accessing different kinds of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and higher-level treatment facilities and with respect to treatment expenses. The impact of epilepsy can be observed in a wide range of daily living activities which include working, education, marriage prospects and family formation. Although both families and society at large do not hold negative attitudes toward epilepsy, most PWE reported a sense of burden to others. Both PWE and family members generally prefer disclosing epilepsy rather than concealing it from others. Our findings strongly suggest a need for different types of AEDs, and supporting information for PWE, family members and general public about epilepsy. PMID:19800851

  20. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Susanne; Gründer, Gerhard; Hilgers, Ralf D; Holtemöller, Oliver; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual's financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation, and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002) lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version). Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor "source of funding": students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships) had much higher rates of relative risk aversion (RRA) than subjects with support from family (ΔRRA = 0.22; p = 0.018). Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the intelligence quotient significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors "agreeableness" and "openness" showed moderate to modest - but significant - effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion. PMID:24624100

  1. Impact of personal economic environment and personality factors on individual financial decision making

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Susanne; Gründer, Gerhard; Hilgers, Ralf D.; Holtemöller, Oliver; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study on healthy young male students aimed to enlighten the associations between an individual’s financial decision making and surrogate makers for environmental factors covering long-term financial socialization, the current financial security/responsibility, and the personal affinity to financial affairs as represented by parental income, funding situation, and field of study. A group of 150 male young healthy students underwent two versions of the Holt and Laury (2002) lottery paradigm (matrix and random sequential version). Their financial decision was mainly driven by the factor “source of funding”: students with strict performance control (grants, scholarships) had much higher rates of relative risk aversion (RRA) than subjects with support from family (ΔRRA = 0.22; p = 0.018). Personality scores only modestly affected the outcome. In an ANOVA, however, also the intelligence quotient significantly and relevantly contributed to the explanation of variance; the effects of parental income and the personality factors “agreeableness” and “openness” showed moderate to modest – but significant – effects. These findings suggest that environmental factors more than personality factors affect risk aversion. PMID:24624100

  2. The evaluation of the environmental impact and the external factors of urban transport in Constanta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanca, C.; Stîngă, V. G.; Georgescu, S.; Cupşa, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    Transport activities are known to have a substantial negative environmental impact especially when referring to the urban transport. Studies have shown that external costs (as accidents, congestion, air emissions, climate change or noise) are an important subject of the European Union, that is why were carried out several research projects. This paper will highlight the current requirements and methodologies used by the European Union regarding the impact of the external costs of urban transport in most of the growth poles of Europe. Taking into consideration that Constanta is considered to be one of the seven major growth poles of Romania for the 2014-2020 period, this study aims at analyzing how the results of similar studies made in others centers of the European Union can be applied in Constanta, showing different methodologies and evaluations regarding the external costs and their impact. We will analyze how the conclusions obtained in previous projects are applicable to data collected by us throughout a field research on the technical description of the means of transport used it this city. As methodology, we will use one that was adopted by the European Union regarding the estimation of urban external costs, taking into consideration that each externality has a different method for estimating it. The results of this study may be useful in developing the sustainable urban mobility plan for Constanta, as a strategic plan design to reduce the impact of urban transport for a better quality of life at present and in the future. Through this paper we will get an insight into the urban transport in Constanta, but also data on external costs generated by the urban transport, given that road transport is considered to be the most polluting transport mode.

  3. Complex interactions between dietary and genetic factors impact lycopene metabolism and distribution

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Nancy E.; Erdman, John W.; Clinton, Steven K.

    2013-01-01

    Intake of lycopene, a red, tetraterpene carotenoid found in tomatoes is epidemiologically associated with a decreased risk of chronic disease processes, and lycopene has demonstrated bioactivity in numerous in vitro and animal models. However, our understanding of absorption, tissue distribution, and biological impact in humans remains very limited. Lycopene absorption is strongly impacted by dietary composition, especially the amount of fat. Concentrations of circulating lycopene in lipoproteins may be further influenced by a number of variations in genes related to lipid absorption and metabolism. Lycopene is not uniformly distributed among tissues, with adipose, liver, and blood being the major body pools, while the testes, adrenals, and liver have the greatest concentrations compared to other organs. Tissue concentrations of lycopene are likely dictated by expression of and genetic variation in lipoprotein receptors, cholesterol transporters, and carotenoid metabolizing enzymes, thus impacting lycopene accumulation at target sites of action. The novel application of genetic evaluation in concert with lycopene tracers will allow determination of which genes and polymorphisms define individual lycopene metabolic phenotypes, response to dietary variables, and ultimately determine biological and clinical outcomes. A better understanding of the relationship between diet, genetics, and lycopene distribution will provide necessary information to interpret epidemiological findings more accurately and to design effective, personalized clinical nutritional interventions addressing hypotheses regarding health outcomes. PMID:23845854

  4. Do community factors have a differential impact on the health outcomes of boys and girls? Evidence from rural Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Jessica

    2006-05-01

    In countries with large gender disparities in health status, can investments in local communities mitigate the gender bias observed in intra-household resource allocations? This paper explores the evidence for gender differences in the impact of community prices and infrastructure on child nutritional outcomes. Standardized heights and weights of rural Pakistani children are used as health indicators, while community factors include wheat prices, availability of piped water, accessibility of shops and government health clinics and the quality of the closest health facilities. The results suggest that food subsidies and programmes designed to improve the access and quality of local services may reduce the impact of intra-household gender bias on child nutrition, particularly in the long run. Specifically, by increasing the affordability of staple foods, improving the access to shops and government health centres and enhancing the quality of local care, particularly (gender-neutral) prenatal care, gender gaps in health outcomes are likely to diminish. PMID:16571620

  5. Hypoxia-Inducible Factors (HIFs) and Phosphorylation: Impact on Stability, Localization, and Transactivity

    PubMed Central

    Kietzmann, Thomas; Mennerich, Daniela; Dimova, Elitsa Y.

    2016-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor α-subunits (HIFα) are key transcription factors in the mammalian response to oxygen deficiency. The HIFα regulation in response to hypoxia occurs primarily on the level of protein stability due to posttranslational hydroxylation and proteasomal degradation. However, HIF α-subunits also respond to various growth factors, hormones, or cytokines under normoxia indicating involvement of different kinase pathways in their regulation. Because these proteins participate in angiogenesis, glycolysis, programmed cell death, cancer, and ischemia, HIFα regulating kinases are attractive therapeutic targets. Although numerous kinases were reported to regulate HIFα indirectly, direct phosphorylation of HIFα affects HIFα stability, nuclear localization, and transactivity. Herein, we review the role of phosphorylation-dependent HIFα regulation with emphasis on protein stability, subcellular localization, and transactivation. PMID:26942179

  6. Preferences for Genetic and Behavioral Health Information: The Impact of Risk Factors and Disease Attributions

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Suzanne C.; McBride, Colleen M.; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased availability of genetic risk information may lead the public to give precedence to genetic causation over behavioral/environmental factors, decreasing behavior change motivation. Few population-based data inform these concerns. Purpose We assess the association of family history, behavioral risks, and causal attributions for diseases and the perceived value of pursuing information emphasizing health habits or genes. Method 1959 healthy adults completed a survey that assessed behavioral risk factors, family history, causal attributions of eight diseases, and health information preferences. Results Participants’ causal beliefs favored health behaviors over genetics. Interest in behavioral information was higher than in genetic information. As behavioral risk factors increased, inclination toward genetic explanations increased; interest in how health habits affect disease risk decreased. Conclusions Those at greatest need for behavior change may hold attributions that diminish interest in behavior change information. Enhancing understanding of gene-environment influences could be explored to increase engagement with health information. PMID:20532842

  7. Key factors for determining groundwater impacts due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Susan A.; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; Dai, Zhenxue; Sun, Yunwei; Trainor-Guitton, Whitney; Brown, Chris; Bacon, Diana

    2014-09-07

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow groundwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models, referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could result from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which no impact to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur. To facilitate this, multi-phase flow and reactive transport simulations and emulations were developed for two classes of aquifers, considering uncertainty in leakage source terms and aquifer hydrogeology. We targeted an unconfined fractured carbonate aquifer based on the Edwards aquifer in Texas and a confined alluvium aquifer based on the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, which share characteristics typical of many drinking water aquifers in the United States. The hypothetical leakage scenarios centered on the notion that wellbores

  8. Key factors for determining groundwater impacts due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration reservoirs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carroll, Susan A.; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; Dai, Zhenxue; Sun, Yunwei; Trainor-Guitton, Whitney; Brown, Chris; Bacon, Diana

    2014-09-07

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow groundwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models, referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could resultmore » from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which no impact to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur. To facilitate this, multi-phase flow and reactive transport simulations and emulations were developed for two classes of aquifers, considering uncertainty in leakage source terms and aquifer hydrogeology. We targeted an unconfined fractured carbonate aquifer based on the Edwards aquifer in Texas and a confined alluvium aquifer based on the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, which share characteristics typical of many drinking water aquifers in the United States. The hypothetical leakage scenarios centered on the notion that wellbores are the most likely

  9. Maternal health interventions in resource limited countries: a systematic review of packages, impacts and factors for change

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of maternal mortality in resource limited countries is still huge despite being at the top of the global public health agenda for over the last 20 years. We systematically reviewed the impacts of interventions on maternal health and factors for change in these countries. Methods A systematic review was carried out using the guidelines for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Articles published in the English language reporting on implementation of interventions, their impacts and underlying factors for maternal health in resource limited countries in the past 23 years were searched from PubMed, Popline, African Index Medicus, internet sources including reproductive health gateway and Google, hand-searching, reference lists and grey literature. Results Out of a total of 5084 articles resulting from the search only 58 qualified for systematic review. Programs integrating multiple interventions were more likely to have significant positive impacts on maternal outcomes. Training in emergency obstetric care (EmOC), placement of care providers, refurbishment of existing health facility infrastructure and improved supply of drugs, consumables and equipment for obstetric care were the most frequent interventions integrated in 52% - 65% of all 54 reviewed programs. Statistically significant reduction of maternal mortality ratio and case fatality rate were reported in 55% and 40% of the programs respectively. Births in EmOC facilities and caesarean section rates increased significantly in 71% - 75% of programs using these indicators. Insufficient implementation of evidence-based interventions in resources limited countries was closely linked to a lack of national resources, leadership skills and end-users factors. Conclusions This article presents a list of evidenced-based packages of interventions for maternal health, their impacts and factors for change in resource limited countries. It indicates that no single

  10. Engaging Online Adult Learners in Higher Education: Motivational Factors Impacted by Gender, Age, and Prior Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Sun Joo; Huang, Wenhao David

    2013-01-01

    As the number of online degree programs continues to grow among higher education institutions in the United States, engaging online adult learners to online degree programs is getting more difficult than before. Therefore, this study, situated in a land grant university, investigated the motivational factors that contribute to adult learners'…

  11. Retention in Higher Education: Faculty and Student Perceptions of Retention Programs and Factors Impacting Attrition Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Malinda; O'Leary, Erin; Webb, Shekeita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine faculty and student perceptions of what factors are contributing to drop-out rates in a Northern Indiana higher educational facility and to study whether or not the drop-out prevention programs that are in place are effective. Survey links were sent out to all adjuncts and some full-time faculty at a local…

  12. Electronic Portfolios in the Classroom: Factors Impacting Teachers' Integration of New Technologies and New Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, E. J.; Abrami, P. C.; Wade, A.; Scherzer, R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a study on the use of an electronic portfolio (EP) in 16 elementary classrooms across Canada. Using a mixed-methods approach, data were collected to understand how teachers used EPs in their classrooms, to what extent they integrated the EP into their practice, and the factors influencing their use. Using…

  13. Identification and Quantification of Cumulative Factors that Increase Environmental Exposures and Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the combined adverse effects of multiple stressors upon human health is an imperative component of cumulative risk assessment (CRA)1. In addition to chemical stressors, other non-chemical factors are also considered. For examples, smoking will elevate the risks of havi...

  14. A Review of Research on Factors that Impact Aspects of Online Discussions Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spatariu, Alexandru; Quinn, Linda F.; Hartley, Kendall

    2007-01-01

    In support of online discussions research, this review classifies and describes instructional interventions and learner characteristics that affect the quality of discussions. The review will help educators better understand factors such as group structure, mentoring, argumentation, and learner characteristics that play a role in shaping online…

  15. A Prospective Study Investigating the Impact of School Belonging Factors on Negative Affect in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.; Furlong, Michael J.; Homel, Ross

    2011-01-01

    School belonging, measured as a unidimensional construct, is an important predictor of negative affective problems in adolescents, including depression and anxiety symptoms. A recent study found that one such measure, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, actually comprises three factors: Caring Relations, Acceptance, and Rejection.…

  16. The Impacts of Ignoring a Crossed Factor in Analyzing Cross-Classified Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wen; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2009-01-01

    Cross-classified random-effects models (CCREMs) are used for modeling nonhierarchical multilevel data. Misspecifying CCREMs as hierarchical linear models (i.e., treating the cross-classified data as strictly hierarchical by ignoring one of the crossed factors) causes biases in the variance component estimates, which in turn, results in biased…

  17. The Impact of Situational Factors on the Corporate Instructional Development Practitioner's Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Chaoyun Chaucer

    A conceptual framework is proposed which will advance instructional development (ID) theory, especially at the macro level which encompasses planning, development, and implementation. The influence of critical and situational factors and the interaction between the practitioner and the surrounding context is explored and illuminated. Situational…

  18. Impact of non-oncological factors on tumor recurrence after liver transplantation in hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiang-Qian; Zheng, Wei-Ping; Teng, Da-Hong; Sun, Ji-San; Zheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary neoplasm of the liver and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Liver transplantation (LT) has become one of the best curative therapeutic options for patients with HCC, although tumor recurrence after LT is a major and unaddressed cause of mortality. Furthermore, the factors that are associated with recurrence are not fully understood, and most previous studies have focused on the biological properties of HCC, such as the number and size of the HCC nodules, the degree of differentiation, the presence of hepatic vascular invasion, elevated serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein, and the tumor stage outside of the Milan criteria. Thus, little attention has been given to factors that are not directly related to HCC (i.e., “non-oncological factors”), which have emerged as predictors of tumor recurrence. This review was performed to assess the effects of non-oncological factors on tumor recurrence after LT. The identification of these factors may provide new research directions and clinical strategies for the prophylaxis and surveillance of tumor recurrence after LT, which can help reduce recurrence and improve patient survival. PMID:26973413

  19. Factors that Impact West Virginia Head Start Parental Involvement in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausell, Arlene Midget

    2010-01-01

    The research problem is: Many parents are not involved in their children's early literacy education. Some Head Start parents experience issues that keep them from teaching their children early literacy skills. The research questions were: What are the factors for parental involvement in the support of early literacy skill development for their…

  20. The Impact of Sample Size and Other Factors When Estimating Multilevel Logistic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeneberger, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    The design of research studies utilizing binary multilevel models must necessarily incorporate knowledge of multiple factors, including estimation method, variance component size, or number of predictors, in addition to sample sizes. This Monte Carlo study examined the performance of random effect binary outcome multilevel models under varying…

  1. Perceived Danger in Urban Public Space. The Impacts of Physical Features and Personal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blobaum, Anke; Hunecke, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    What are the most relevant factors influencing perceived danger in urban public space? To answer this question, a field experiment of students(N = 122) was carried out on a German university campus within which perceived danger was analyzed under systematic variation of lighting, prospect, and opportunities of escape. Two standardized…

  2. Understanding the Impact of School Factors on School Counselor Burnout: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardhoshi, Gerta; Schweinle, Amy; Duncan, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between burnout and performing noncounseling duties among a national sample of professional school counselors, while identifying school factors that could attenuate this relationship. Results of regression analyses indicate that performing noncounseling duties significantly predicted burnout…

  3. Student Engagement in the Classroom: The Impact of Classroom, Teacher, and Student Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykstra Steinbrenner, Jessica R.; Watson, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have highlighted engagement as a critical component of effective interventions for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet there is limited research related to engagement in school-age children with ASD. This descriptive study was designed to examine joint engagement and its relationship with classroom factors and student…

  4. Factors Impacting on Teachers' Job Satisfaction Related to Science Teaching: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, S.; Mustafa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Science teachers' job satisfaction is identified as a major factor that affects the quality of a science program. This research investigated to what extent a science program supports science teachers in terms of curriculum materials or extracurricular activities. It also examined the relationships among schools' curriculum support, the number of…

  5. Impact of genetic and environmental factors on hsCRP concentrations and response to therapeutic agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays an instrumental role in all stages of atherosclerosis. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a systemic inflammatory marker, has been gaining recognition as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both baseline hsCRP concentrations and drug-...

  6. Societal Factors Impacting Child Welfare: Validating the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Zeitlin, Wendy; Augsberger, Astraea; McGowan, Brenda G.; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This research examines the psychometric properties of the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale (PCWS). This instrument is designed to assess child welfare workers' understanding of how society views their role and their work. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was utilized to analyze data on 538 child welfare workers. Results:…

  7. Genetic and Environmental Factors That Impact Gestation Length in Dairy Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and environmental factors that might affect gestation length (GL) were investigated. Data from over 9 million parturitions from 1999 through 2006 for 7 dairy breeds were assembled from lactation, reproduction, and dystocia records from across the United States. Effects examined were year of ...

  8. Implementing e-Learning in the Jordanian Higher Education System: Factors Affecting Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-adwan, Ahmad; Smedley, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The increased involvement of technology in all aspects of our lives places educational institutions under pressure to include these aspects at the heart of their learning. This ensures that they continue to be competitive in a constantly changing market with international and cultural links. This study explores the factors that influenced the…

  9. An Emerging View of Scientific Collaboration: Scientists' Perspectives on Collaboration and Factors That Impact Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hara, Noriko; Solomon, Paul; Kim, Seung-Lye; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    Describes collaboration among a group of scientists and considers how their experiences are socially shaped. Data analysis of interviews, observations of videoconferences and meetings, and a sociometric survey led to the development of a framework that identifies forms of collaboration that emerged among scientists and factors which influenced…

  10. Choosing Employment: Factors that Impact Employment Decisions for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Jaimie Ciulla; Hall, Allison Cohen; Bose, Jennifer; Wolfe, Ashley; Winsor, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the factors that shape the employment-related decisions of individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities. Findings from qualitative interviews with individuals, their family members, and employment-support professionals from four community rehabilitation providers throughout Massachusetts were reported.…

  11. The Impact of Individual, Interpersonal, and Institutional Factors on Latina/o College Students' Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vela, Javier C.; Ikonomopoulos, James; Hinojosa, Karina; Gonzalez, Stacey L.; Duque, Omar; Calvillo, Megan

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript investigated the contributions of individual, interpersonal, and institutional factors on Latina/o college students' life satisfaction. Participants included 130 Latina/o students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution. Results indicated that search for meaning in life, mentoring, and family support were significant predictors…

  12. Analysis of Impact of Various Factors on Downwind Deposition Using a Simulation Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drift of aerially applied crop protection and production materials was studied using a novel simulation-based Design of Experiments (DOE) approach. Many factors that can potentially contribute to downwind deposition from aerial spray application were considered. This new approach can provide valuabl...

  13. Impact of Provoking Risk Factors on the Prognosis of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Jae; Noh, Sang-Mi; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kim, Jong S.; Kwon, Sun U.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Little is known about the relationships between provoking risk factors, prognosis, and optimal duration of anticoagulation in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), especially in Asians. We aimed to investigate whether the prognosis and required duration of anticoagulation in CVT patients differ according to the provoking risk factors. Methods Prospectively recorded data from a tertiary medical center in South Korea were retrospectively reviewed. CVTs were categorized into three groups: unprovoked, those with possibly resolved provoking factors (PR), and those with persistent provoking factors (PP). The baseline characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of patients in these three groups were analyzed. Results From 2000 to 2015, 61 patients presented with CVT: 19 (31.1%) unprovoked, 11 (18.0%) with PR, and 31 (50.9%) with PP. The patients in our cohort had a slight female predominance and lower frequency of oral contraceptive use compared to Western cohorts. Median follow-up and duration of anticoagulation were 35 and 8 months, respectively. Despite the similarities in baseline characteristics, deaths (n=3; P=0.256) and recurrences (n=7; P=0.020) were observed only in the PP group. The median intervals to death and recurrence were 9 and 13 months, respectively. Death was associated with underlying disease activity, not with CVT progression. Recurrences in the PP group were associated with lack of anticoagulation (P=0.012). Conclusions Although the prognosis of CVT is generally benign in Koreans, recurrence and death were observed in patients with persistent risk factors, suggesting their need for long-term treatment with anticoagulants. PMID:27165266

  14. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I.

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined young adult externalizing and internalizing problems (aged 18-19 years) and adolescent protective factors related to self-reported bullying perpetration and victimization among over 650 Victorians aged 16-17 years. Opportunities for prosocial involvement in the family lessened subsequent involvement in nonviolent antisocial behavior, as an outcome of prior bullying. High academic performance and having strategies to cope with stress reduced young adult depressive symptoms for participants who had been victims of bullying. The implications for bullying prevention and early intervention programs are discussed. PMID:25419190

  15. Protective Factors Against the Impact of School Bullying Perpetration and Victimization on Young Adult Externalizing and Internalizing Problems.

    PubMed

    Hemphill, Sheryl A; Tollit, Michelle; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2014-01-01

    School-based bullying perpetration and victimization is common worldwide and has profound impacts on student behavior and mental health. However, few studies have examined young adult outcomes of bullying perpetration or victimization. Research on factors that protect students who have bullied or been bullied is also lacking. This study examined young adult externalizing and internalizing problems (aged 18-19 years) and adolescent protective factors related to self-reported bullying perpetration and victimization among over 650 Victorians aged 16-17 years. Opportunities for prosocial involvement in the family lessened subsequent involvement in nonviolent antisocial behavior, as an outcome of prior bullying. High academic performance and having strategies to cope with stress reduced young adult depressive symptoms for participants who had been victims of bullying. The implications for bullying prevention and early intervention programs are discussed. PMID:25419190

  16. Impacts of test factors on heavy ion single event multiple-cell upsets in nanometer-scale SRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yinhong, Luo; Fengqi, Zhang; Hongxia, Guo; Yao, Xiao; Wen, Zhao; Lili, Ding; Yuanming, Wang

    2015-11-01

    Single event multiple-cell upsets (MCU) increase sharply with the semiconductor devices scaling. The impacts of several test factors on heavy ion single event MCU in 65 nm SRAM are studied based on the buildup of MCU test data acquiring and processing technique, including the heavy ion LET, the tilt angle, the device orientation, the test pattern and the supply voltage; the MCU physical bitmaps are extracted correspondingly. The dependencies of parameters such as the MCU percentage, MCU mean and topological pattern on these factors are summarized and analyzed. This work is meaningful for developing a more reasonable single event test method and assessing the effectiveness of anti-MCU strategies on nanometer-scale devices.

  17. Factors influencing future transit efficiency: Demographic impact on urban guideway transit systems. Report for July 1993-December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, L.D.; Xiong, Y.; Lee, Y.K.

    1994-12-01

    This report identifies and studies the demographic factors. To study demographic trends, data is gathered from the metropolitan areas of Miami, Florida, Atlanta, Georgia, Greater Washington, D.C. and Boston, Massachusetts. The relationship between the guideway transit ridership and demographic characteristics is modeled using both traditional methods including correlation statistics and multiple regression analyses, and nontraditional methods including geographic information systems (GIS) and artificial neural network (ANN). Results obtained from the four selected urban areas reveal that the following demographic characteristics have the high impacts on guideway transit ridership: private vehicle ownership, residential density, population of children, distance to the guideway station, commuters who leave home in the morning peak hour, level of college education, unemployed population and household size. Races and gender are not important factors in most cities.

  18. The Impact of External Factors on the Epigenome: In Utero and over Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Toraño, Estela G.; García, María G.; Fernández-Morera, Juan Luis; Niño-García, Pilar; Fernández, Agustín F.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic marks change during fetal development, adult life, and aging. Some changes play an important role in the establishment and regulation of gene programs, but others seem to occur without any apparent physiological role. An important future challenge in the field of epigenetics will be to describe how the environment affects both of these types of epigenetic change and to learn if interaction between them can determine healthy and disease phenotypes during lifetime. Here we discuss how chemical and physical environmental stressors, diet, life habits, and pharmacological treatments can affect the epigenome during lifetime and the possible impact of these epigenetic changes on pathophysiological processes. PMID:27294112

  19. The Impact of External Factors on the Epigenome: In Utero and over Lifetime.

    PubMed

    Toraño, Estela G; García, María G; Fernández-Morera, Juan Luis; Niño-García, Pilar; Fernández, Agustín F

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic marks change during fetal development, adult life, and aging. Some changes play an important role in the establishment and regulation of gene programs, but others seem to occur without any apparent physiological role. An important future challenge in the field of epigenetics will be to describe how the environment affects both of these types of epigenetic change and to learn if interaction between them can determine healthy and disease phenotypes during lifetime. Here we discuss how chemical and physical environmental stressors, diet, life habits, and pharmacological treatments can affect the epigenome during lifetime and the possible impact of these epigenetic changes on pathophysiological processes. PMID:27294112

  20. Impact of disease, cognitive and behavioural factors on caregiver outcome in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Watermeyer, Tamlyn J; Brown, Richard G; Sidle, Katie C L; Oliver, David J; Allen, Christopher; Karlsson, Joanna; Ellis, Cathy; Shaw, Christopher E; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Goldstein, Laura H

    2015-01-01

    Up to 50% of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) show mild to moderate cognitive-behavioural change alongside their progressive functional impairment. This study examines the relative impact of patients' disease symptoms, behavioural change and current executive function and social cognition abilities on psychosocial outcomes in spouse caregivers of people with ALS. Thirty-five spouse caregivers rated their own levels of depression and anxiety, subjective burden and marital satisfaction. Caregivers also rated their partner's everyday behaviour. The patients were assessed for disease severity and cognitive function, with composite scores derived for executive function and social cognition. Regression analyses revealed that caregiver burden was predicted by the severity of patients' limb involvement and behavioural problems. Depression was predicted by patients' limb involvement, while behavioural problems and patient age predicted caregiver anxiety. Current marital satisfaction was predicted by patient behavioural problems beyond the level of pre-illness marital satisfaction. In conclusion, the study highlights the potential impact of ALS patients' functional impairment and behavioural change on ALS caregivers' psychosocial functioning. Clinical communication with ALS families should emphasise both physical and psychological challenges presented by the disease. PMID:26199108

  1. Factors impacting providers' perceptions regarding a midwestern university-based EMR.

    PubMed

    Whitten, Pamela; Buis, Lorraine; Mackert, Michael

    2007-08-01

    The potential for Information Technology (IT) to enhance the healthcare provision has long been recognized. One application of IT in healthcare, Electronic Medical Records (EMR) systems, has generated particular interest. Technical and structural barriers are often analyzed to understand EMR deployment. This study sought to examine cultural barriers to better explain the potential success and failure of EMRs. Successful EMR implementations are of interest to telemedicine researchers as they provide an IT infrastructure on which many telemedicine applications can be built. This investigation sought to understand the role and impact of individual and organizational issues on perceptions regarding EMRs by providers now employing an EMR system at Michigan State University (MSU). A 144-item survey was administered to 41 participants and descriptive statistics were employed for data analyses. Data indicated that providers reported mixed results regarding perceptions of EMRs at MSU. More than 45% of the respondents reported that they consider the MSU EMR system a bad choice. Yet, these same providers reported high levels of satisfaction across multiple aspects of system usability. Demographic variables did not emerge as highly correlated with perceptions of the EMR system at MSU. However, positive perceptions about EMRs in general were highly correlated with positive perceptions of the EMR system at MSU. Because results indicate that perceptions of the impacts of EMRs in general are more often correlated with perceptions of a specific EMR implementation than demographic variables, health organizations should focus their energies on EMR education and training. PMID:17848107

  2. Impact of wearable technology on psychosocial factors of osteoarthritis management: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Belsi, Athina; Papi, Enrica; McGregor, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the impact the use of wearable technology could have in patients with osteoarthritis in terms of communication with healthcare providers and patients’ empowerment to manage their condition. Design Qualitative study using focus groups with patients with osteoarthritis; data from patients’ responses were analysed using Framework Methodology. Participants 21 patients with knee osteoarthritis from the London area (age range 45–65 years) participated in a total of four focus groups. Recruitment continued until data saturation. Setting The study was conducted in a university setting. Results Patients’ responses suggested a positive attitude on the impact wearable technology could have on the management of osteoarthritis. It was perceived that the use of wearable devices would benefit patients in terms of feeling in control of their condition, providing them with awareness of their progress, empowering in terms of self-management and improving communication with their clinician. Conclusions This paper suggests positive patient perspectives on the perceived benefits wearable technology could have on the management of osteoarthritis. The data that could be collected with the use of wearable technology could be beneficial both to patients and clinicians. The information obtained from this study suggests that introducing wearable technology into patient-centred care could enhance patient experience in the field of osteoarthritis and beyond. PMID:26842273

  3. Factors That Could Impact on Liver Fibrosis Staging by Transient Elastography.

    PubMed

    Perazzo, Hugo; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hyde, Chris; Castro, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Transient elastography (TE) based on liver stiffness measurement (LSM) is one of the most validated noninvasive methods for liver fibrosis staging in patients with chronic liver diseases. This method is painless, has no potential complications, is rapid (<10 min), and can be performed at the patient's bedside. However, several points should be considered when interpreting TE results. This review aims to discuss the critical points that might influence liver stiffness and TE results. Spectrum bias and the impact of the prevalence of fibrosis stages should be taken into account when interpreting the studies that validated this method using liver biopsy as a gold-standard. LSM might be influenced by nonfasting status, flare of transaminases, heart failure, extrahepatic cholestasis, presence of steatosis, aetiology of liver disease, type and position of probe, and operator's experience. In addition, interobserver variability can impact on the management of patients with chronic liver diseases. TE should be performed by an experienced operator (>100 exams), in a 3-hour fasting status, and its results should be handled by specialist clinicians that are aware of the limitations of this method. PMID:26770833

  4. Intimate partner violence and women's health and wellbeing: impacts, risk factors and responses.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessica; Mellor, David

    2014-01-01

    Women have approximately a one in four chance of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Those who do are at increased risk of developing physical and mental health problems including traumatic brain injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance-related disorders. Nurses, in whatever situation they work, are therefore highly likely to encounter women who are victims of IPV. This paper explores the prevalence of physical and mental health issues for women with an experience of IPV. Factors that influence a woman's experience of IPV such as culture, remaining in an abusive relationship, and childhood sexual abuse as a risk factor of IPV are also examined. Recommended responses for women with an experience of IPV are discussed. PMID:24787250

  5. An Empirical Research on the Factors Impacting the Development Scale of Chinese Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Xu; Liang, Xu

    Since the reform and opening up, especially since the 1990s, Chinese higher education has achieved great development. Especially in recent years, various universities ceaselessly expanding enrolment and constructing new campus of higher education. Therefore, the scale of higher education is expanding. But blindly expanding higher education scale will also bring about tremendous risks, so, higher education development scale and its influence factors become a focus of economic research and education. In this paper, we, first, put forward the background and meaning of researching higher education development. Secondly, according to both domestic and overseas research results of higher education, we screened influence factors of higher education development and made use of statistical methods to analyze the data of related indicators. Finally, we carried out the analysis and summary on the above-mentioned calculation result.

  6. Intimate Partner Violence and Women's Health and Wellbeing: Impacts, risk factors and responses.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessica; Mellor, David

    2013-10-26

    Abstract Women have approximately a one in four chance of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Those who do are at increased risk of developing physical and mental health problems including traumatic brain injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance-related disorders. Nurses, in whatever situation they work, are therefore highly likely to encounter women who are victims of IPV. This paper explores the prevalence of physical and mental health issues for women with an experience of IPV. Factors that influence a woman's experience of IPV such as culture, remaining in an abusive relationship, and childhood sexual abuse as a risk factor of IPV are also examined. Recommended responses for women with an experience of IPV are discussed. PMID:24160437

  7. Non-clinical factors associated with TB: important for DOTS impact evaluation and disease elimination.

    PubMed

    Hill, Philip C; Whalen, Christopher C

    2014-09-01

    Initial optimism that DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course) would have a dramatic effect on TB incidence rates in developing countries has not been supported by the evidence accumulated so far. Indeed, where TB incidence rates have decreased, non-clinical socio-economic factors appear to have played at least as great a role. We postulate that in those settings with little or no decrease in TB incidence, there are likely to be common pathway blockages that interfere with the effectiveness of DOTS implementation as socio-economic factors evolve. Measuring socio-economic trends, as well as DOTS implementation, is important for understanding TB control and opens up the opportunity for broader public health engagement. PMID:25059524

  8. Factors influencing the degradation of garbage in methanogenic bioreactors and impacts on biogas formation.

    PubMed

    Morita, Masahiko; Sasaki, Kengo

    2012-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of garbage is attracting much attention because of its application in waste volume reduction and the recovery of biogas for use as an energy source. In this review, various factors influencing the degradation of garbage and the production of biogas are discussed. The surface hydrophobicity and porosity of supporting materials are important factors in retaining microorganisms such as aceticlastic methanogens and in attaining a higher degradation of garbage and a higher production of biogas. Ammonia concentration, changes in environmental parameters such as temperature and pH, and adaptation of microbial community to ammonia have been related to ammonia inhibition. The effects of drawing electrons from the methanogenic community and donating electrons into the methanogenic community on methane production have been shown in microbial fuel cells and bioelectrochemical reactors. The influences of trace elements, phase separation, and co-digestion are also summarized in this review. PMID:22395906

  9. Student Engagement in the Classroom: The Impact of Classroom, Teacher, and Student Factors.

    PubMed

    Dykstra Steinbrenner, Jessica R; Watson, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    Researchers have highlighted engagement as a critical component of effective interventions for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet there is limited research related to engagement in school-age children with ASD. This descriptive study was designed to examine joint engagement and its relationship with classroom factors and student characteristics. The sample included 25 elementary and middle school students with ASD. Mixed level modeling was used to examine relationships between joint engagement and classroom factors and student characteristics. Joint engagement was significantly related to group size, use of student-directed practices, autism severity, and expressive communication skills. These findings have important implications for educational policies and practices and future research related to engagement and effective interventions for students with ASD. PMID:25733160

  10. Impact of heterogeneity and socioeconomic factors on individual behavior in decentralized sharing ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Gavaldà-Miralles, Arnau; Choffnes, David R.; Otto, John S.; Sánchez, Mario A.; Bustamante, Fabián E.; Amaral, Luís A. N.; Duch, Jordi; Guimerà, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Tens of millions of individuals around the world use decentralized content distribution systems, a fact of growing social, economic, and technological importance. These sharing systems are poorly understood because, unlike in other technosocial systems, it is difficult to gather large-scale data about user behavior. Here, we investigate user activity patterns and the socioeconomic factors that could explain the behavior. Our analysis reveals that (i) the ecosystem is heterogeneous at several levels: content types are heterogeneous, users specialize in a few content types, and countries are heterogeneous in user profiles; and (ii) there is a strong correlation between socioeconomic indicators of a country and users behavior. Our findings open a research area on the dynamics of decentralized sharing ecosystems and the socioeconomic factors affecting them, and may have implications for the design of algorithms and for policymaking. PMID:25288755

  11. Impact of Prenatal Risk Factors on Congenital Heart Disease in the Current Era

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Alan; Manlhiot, Cedric; Naik, Sapna; Rosenberg, Herschel; Smythe, John; Lougheed, Jane; Mondal, Tapas; Chitayat, David; McCrindle, Brian W.; Mital, Seema

    2013-01-01

    Background The healthcare burden related to congenital heart disease (CHD) is increasing with improving survival. We assessed changing trends in prenatal risk factors for CHD in the current era in a Canadian cohort. Methods and Results CHD patients <18 years old (n=2339) and controls without structural heart disease (n=199) were prospectively enrolled in an Ontario province‐wide biobank registry from 2008–2011. Family history, frequency of extra‐cardiac anomalies (ECAs), and antenatal risk factors were assessed. Temporal trends were analyzed and associations with CHD were measured using linear and logistic regression. Family history of CHD and frequency of major ECAs was higher in cases versus controls (P<0.001). Despite an increase in genetic testing in the recent era, only 9.5% of cases with CHD had a confirmed genetic diagnosis. Yield of genetic testing (ie, frequency of abnormal results) was higher in familial and syndromic cases. There was an increase in parental age at conception, maternal prepregnancy body mass index, maternal urinary tract infections, type 1 diabetes, and exposure to nonfertility medications during pregnancy from 1990–2011. Later year of birth, family history of CHD, presence of major ECAs, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and maternal medication exposure were associated with increased odds of CHD (P<0.05 for all). Advanced parental age was associated with increased odds of CHD caused by genetic abnormalities. Conclusions The increase in prenatal risk factors for CHD highlights the need for more rigorous ascertainment of genetic and environmental factors including gene‐environment interactions that contribute to CHD. PMID:23727699

  12. Factors impacting HIV testing: a review--perspectives from Australia, Canada, and the UK.

    PubMed

    Bolsewicz, K; Vallely, A; Debattista, J; Whittaker, A; Fitzgerald, L

    2015-01-01

    With the current global focus on strengthening HIV prevention through greater testing and treatment uptake, it is increasingly salient to identify and address barriers to testing. A review of the published, peer-reviewed literature and national reports from Australia, Canada, and the UK (2003-2013) on barriers to HIV testing was conducted to provide new information relevant to Australia and to complement earlier reviews from Canada and the UK. A systematic database search using keywords and a set of inclusion criteria yielded 36 studies (Australia = 13; Canada = 6; and the UK = 17). In addition 17 unpublished reports were included in the review. Our study uses a novel, comprehensive framework to describe barriers to HIV testing, and thus contributes to moving beyond the traditional patient-provider-system categorization. Within that framework, barriers are categorized as either intrapersonal (reported in 15 studies), interpersonal (21), or extrapersonal (16) and conceptualized within wider sociocultural and structural contexts. People's abilities and motivations to test (intrapersonal factors) are influenced by a host of interconnected factors spanning relationship (interpersonal) and broader socioeconomic, political and cultural (extrapersonal) factors. We suggest that the relative effects of interventions targeting barriers to HIV testing at the intrapersonal and interpersonal levels are limited by the extent to which the social determinants of health are addressed. The framework may also lend itself to thinking about the enabling factors for HIV testing, and future research may investigate the application of that framework for strategizing the most effective response. Future studies should also capture the lived experiences of barriers to HIV testing experienced by patients, especially in populations which are hard to reach based on social and geographic distance. Context-specific studies to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of various interventions

  13. Recent trends in cancer incidence: impact of risk factors, diagnostic activities and data quality of registration.

    PubMed

    Dehler, Silvia; Tonev, Simeon; Korol, Dimitri; Rohrmann, Sabine; Dimitrova, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    Aims and background. Cancer incidence variations are influenced by different factors including socioeconomic status, risk factors and use of screening. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in cancer incidence in two urban areas in Europe showing differences in influencing factors but also some common characteristics in the context of data quality of the corresponding cancer registries.Methods. Age-standardized incidence rates (world standard - ASRW) for cases diagnosed in 2000-2009 for Sofia (Bulgaria) and the Canton of Zurich (Switzerland) were calculated using data from the corresponding cancer registries. Average annual percent change (AAPC) was estimated with Joinpoint regression analysis. Data quality was estimated in terms of proportions of microscopically verified (MV%) and death-certificate-only (DCO%) cases. Results. ASRWs for all sites were higher in Zurich for men (311 vs 262 per 100,000) and women (241 vs 231 per 100,000) than in Sofia. Colorectal (both sexes), lung (men), cervical and corpus uteri cancer had a higher incidence in Sofia. Prostate, breast and lung (women) cancer were more often diagnosed in Zurich. A significant increase in female lung cancer incidence was observed in both areas. Overall incidence decreased in Zurich, while it did not significantly change in Sofia. MV% was lower in Sofia than in the Canton of Zurich but increased steadily up to 85% in 2009, whereas in the Canton of Zurich MV% was more or less stable around 95%. The DCO% of Sofia was 19% in 2000 and steadily decreased to 8% in 2009. In the Canton of Zurich, the DCO% decreased from 5% in 2000 but increased again from 2006 onwards, up to 3% in 2009. Conclusions. Cancer incidence rates differ between Sofia and Zurich. Differences concerning socioeconomic status, risk factors, use of cancer screening but also data quality may influence these results. PMID:25296588

  14. Impact of Socio-Health Factors on Life Expectancy in the Low and Lower Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    MONDAL, Md. Nazrul Islam; SHITAN, Mahendran

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This study is concerned with understanding the impact of demographic changes, socioeconomic inequalities, and the availability of health factors on life expectancy (LE) in the low and lower middle income countries. Methods The cross-country data were collected from 91 countries from the United Nations agencies in 2012. LE is the response variable with demographics (total fertility rate, and adolescent fertility rate), socioeconomic status (mean year of schooling, and gross national income per capita), and health factors (physician density, and HIV prevalence rate) are as the three main predictors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis is used to extract the main factors. Results The necessity of more healthcare resources and higher levels of socioeconomic advantages are more likely to increase LE. On the other hand, demographic changes and health factors are more likely to increase LE by way of de-cease fertility rates and disease prevalence. Conclusion These findings suggest that international efforts should aim at increasing LE, especially in the low income countries through the elimination of HIV prevalence, adolescent fertility, and illiteracy. PMID:26060637

  15. A Multi-level Analysis of the Impact of Neighborhood Structural and Social Factors on Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Emily M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper examined the effects of neighborhood structural (i.e., economic disadvantage, immigrant concentration, residential stability) and social (e.g., collective efficacy, social network interactions, intolerance of drug use, legal cynicism) factors on the likelihood of any adolescent tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Methods Analyses drew upon information from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Data were obtained from a survey of adult residents of 79 Chicago neighborhoods, two waves of interviews with 1,657 to 1,664 care-givers and youth aged 8 to 16 years, and information from the 1990 U.S. Census Bureau. Hierarchical Bernoulli regression models estimated the impact of neighborhood factors on substance use controlling for individual-level demographic characteristics and psycho-social risk factors. Results Few neighborhood factors had statistically significant direct effects on adolescent tobacco, alcohol or marijuana use, although youth living in neighborhoods with greater levels of immigrant concentration were less likely to report any drinking. Conclusion Additional theorizing and more empirical research are needed to better understand the ways in which contextual influences affect adolescent substance use and delinquency. PMID:26049206

  16. Impact of Climate and Environmental Factors on West Nile Virus Circulation in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadnejad, Farzaneh; Otarod, Vahid; Fathnia, Amanollah; Ahmadabadi, Ali; Fallah, Mohammad H.; Zavareh, Alireza; Miandehi, Nargess; Durand, Benoit; Sabatier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Geographic distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) is heterogeneous in Iran by a high circulation in the southern-western areas. The objective of our study was to determine environmental and climatic factors associated with the risk of WNV equine seropositivity in Iran. Methods: Serological data were obtained from a serosurvey conducted in equine population in 260 districts in Iran. The climate and environmental parameters included in the models were distance to the nearest wetland area, type of stable, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), annual mean temperature, humidity and precipitation. Results: The important risk factors included annual mean temperature, distance to wetlands, local and seasonal NDVI differences. The effect of local NDVI differences in spring was particularly notable. This was a normalized difference of average NDVI between two areas: a 5 km radius area centered on the stable and the 5–10 km surrounding area. Conclusion: The model indicated that local NDVI’s contrast during spring is a major risk factor of the transmission of West-Nile virus in Iran. This so-called oasis effect consistent with the seasonal production of vegetation in spring, and is associated to the attractiveness of the local NDVI environment for WNV vectors and hosts. PMID:27308290

  17. Impact of identifying factors which trigger bothersome tinnitus on the treatment outcome in tinnitus retraining therapy.

    PubMed

    Molini, Egisto; Faralli, Mario; Calzolaro, Lucia; Ricci, Giampietro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to ascertain any differences in the effectiveness of rehabilitation therapy in relation to the presence or absence of a known negative reinforcement responsible for the tinnitus-related pathology. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2008, we recruited 294 subjects suffering from incapacitating tinnitus and/or hyperacusis. The patients underwent tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) according to the methods described by Jastreboff and Hazell [Tinnitus Retraining Therapy: Implementing the Neurophysiological Model. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp 121-133]. We clinically assessed the presence or absence of known phenomena of associative learning, regarding the presence of adverse events temporally correlated with tinnitus and the treatment outcome. The separate analysis of the 2 subgroups shows a statistically significant difference in the improvement rate between the group with a known triggering factor and the group without a triggering factor, with a preponderance of the former with a 91% improvement rate versus approximately 56% for the latter. In our study, the inability to identify factors triggering bothersome tinnitus negatively affected the treatment outcome in TRT. PMID:24777173

  18. Impact of Biopsychosocial Factors on Chronic Pain in Persons With Myotonic and Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Miró, Jordi; Raichle, Katherine A.; Carter, Gregory T.; O’Brien, Sarah A.; Abresch, Richard T.; McDonald, Craig M.; Jensen, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the role of biopsychosocial factors in patients with type 1 myotonic and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (MMD1/FSHD) with chronic pain. Associations between psychosocial factors were found to be important in other samples of persons with pain and both psychological functioning and pain interference in a sample of patients suffering from MMD/FSHD. Prospective, multiple group, survey study of 182 patients with confirmed MMD1 and FSHD. Participants completed surveys assessing pain interference and psychological functioning, as well as psychosocial, demographic, and injury-related variables. Analyses indicated that greater catastrophizing was associated with increased pain interference and poorer psychological functioning, pain attitudes were significantly related to both pain interference and psychological functioning, and coping responses were significantly related only to pain interference. In addition, greater perceived social support was associated with better psychological functioning. The results support the use of studying pain in persons with MMD/FSHD from a biopsychosocial perspective, and the importance of identifying psychosocial factors that may play a role in the adjustment to and response to pain secondary to MMD/FSHD. PMID:19414560

  19. Risk factors and impact of retained fetal membranes on performance of dairy bovines reared under subtropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Susavi; Prasad, Shiv; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Manimaran, Ayyasamy; Patbandha, Tapas Kumar; Pathak, Rupal; Boro, Prasanta; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Ravi, Sanjay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    The risk factors and impact of retained fetal membranes (RFM) on productive and reproductive performance of crossbred cattle, Zebu cattle, and Murrah buffalos were evaluated using data spread over 12 years. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors and to quantify their odds ratio (OR). Overall incidence of RFM in crossbred cattle, Zebu cattle, and Murrah buffalos were 26, 16, and 13 %, respectively; and significant risk factors for RFM in crossbred cattle were abortion (OR = 3.9), dead calf (OR = 4.1), dystocia (OR = 4.3), pluriparity (OR = 1.5), and shorter gestation length (OR = 4.3). In Zebu cattle, abortion (OR = 4.0), dead calf (OR = 3.7), dystocia (OR = 3.9), lower birth weight of calf (OR = 1.6), and shorter gestation length (OR = 6.4) were significant risk factors for RFM. In Murrah buffalos, abortion (OR = 19.2), dead calf (OR = 4.4), dystocia (OR = 4.7), pluriparity (OR = 1.7), shorter gestation length (OR = 12.7), and calving during summer season (OR = 1.8) were the risk factors for RFM. Although the occurrence of RFM did not affect fertility parameters, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in 305-day milk yield and total milk yield was observed in RFM-affected crossbred cattle. Taken together, it may be concluded that increased parity, abnormal calving, and short gestation length were the main risk factors for RFM in dairy bovine. PMID:25377506

  20. Impacts of climate change and environmental factors on reproduction and development in wildlife.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Stuart R; Holt, William V; Lloyd, Rhiannon

    2009-11-27

    The robustness of the growth of the human population in the face of environmental impacts is in contrast to the sensitivity of wildlife. There is a danger that the success of reproduction of humans provides a false sense of security for the public, media and politicians with respect to wildlife survival, the maintenance of viable ecosystems and the capacity for recovery of damaged ecosystems and endangered species. In reality, the success of humans to populate the planet has been dependent on the combination of the ability to reproduce successfully and to minimize loss of offspring through controlling and manipulating their own micro-environment. In contrast, reproduction in wildlife is threatened by environmental changes operating at many different physiological levels. PMID:19833643

  1. Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Neck: I. Overview of Large Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2000-03-01

    Scientific and medical data have been gathered for nearly 500 motor-vehicle occupants, whose dynamic response[1-2] was calculated to determine the forces generated at all potential injury sites. Particular attention was paid to the load within the cervical spine to examine the influence of certain variables relating to the occupant (height, weight, sex), the impact (magnitude, direction), and the neck itself (local vector, anatomical level). Exhaustive efforts were made to match the force with each variable using linear and logarithmic fits, but correlation coefficients were generally not high. These results might be influenced by the emphasis in this research to obtain the best statistics with large groupings of patients. Hence, a separate study with more detail is proposed as a significant continuation of this effort. 1. Proper Treatment of Complex Human Structures, Announcer 27 (4), 100 (1997); 2. Physics as a Key Element in the Complete Description of Dichotomies in Injury Distribution, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 44, 274 (1999).

  2. Impact of Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, and Urbanization on Risk Factor Profiles of Cardiovascular Disease in Africa.

    PubMed

    Sliwa, Karen; Acquah, Letitia; Gersh, Bernard J; Mocumbi, Ana Olga

    2016-03-22

    Africa is a continent characterized by marked ethnic, sociodemographic, and economic diversity, with profound changes in many regions over the past 2 decades. This diversity has an impact on cardiovascular disease presentation and outcomes. Within Africa and within the individual countries, one can find regions having predominantly communicable diseases such as rheumatic heart disease, tuberculous pericarditis, or cardiomyopathy and others having a marked increase in noncommunicable disease such as hypertension and hypertensive heart disease. Ischemic heart disease remains rare in most countries. Difficulties in the planning and implementation of effective health care in most African countries are compounded by a paucity of studies and a low rate of investment in research and data acquisition. The fiduciary responsibilities of companies working in Africa should include the effective and efficient use of natural resources to promote the overall health of populations. PMID:27002082

  3. A mixed methods study of the factors that influence whether intervention research has policy and practice impacts: perceptions of Australian researchers

    PubMed Central

    Newson, Robyn; King, Lesley; Rychetnik, Lucie; Bauman, Adrian E; Redman, Sally; Milat, Andrew J; Schroeder, Jacqueline; Cohen, Gillian; Chapman, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate researchers’ perceptions about the factors that influenced the policy and practice impacts (or lack of impact) of one of their own funded intervention research studies. Design Mixed method, cross-sectional study. Setting Intervention research conducted in Australia and funded by Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council between 2003 and 2007. Participants The chief investigators from 50 funded intervention research studies were interviewed to determine if their study had achieved policy and practice impacts, how and why these impacts had (or had not) occurred and the approach to dissemination they had employed. Results We found that statistically significant intervention effects and publication of results influenced whether there were policy and practice impacts, along with factors related to the nature of the intervention itself, the researchers’ experience and connections, their dissemination and translation efforts, and the postresearch context. Conclusions This study indicates that sophisticated approaches to intervention development, dissemination actions and translational efforts are actually widespread among experienced researches, and can achieve policy and practice impacts. However, it was the links between the intervention results, further dissemination actions by researchers and a variety of postresearch contextual factors that ultimately determined whether a study had policy and practice impacts. Given the complicated interplay between the various factors, there appears to be no simple formula for determining which intervention studies should be funded in order to achieve optimal policy and practice impacts. PMID:26198428

  4. Space Environmental Factor Impacts upon Murine Colon Microbiota and Mucosal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, Stella S.; Weeks, Brad R.; Lima, Florence; Bloomfield, Susan A.; Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    Astronaut intestinal health may be impacted by microgravity, radiation, and diet. The aim of this study was to characterize how high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, microgravity, and elevated dietary iron affect colon microbiota (determined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing) and colon function. Three independent experiments were conducted to achieve these goals: 1) fractionated low LET γ radiation (137Cs, 3 Gy, RAD), high Fe diet (IRON) (650 mg/kg diet), and a combination of low LET γ radiation and high Fe diet (IRON+RAD) in male Sprague-Dawley rats; 2) high LET 38Si particle exposure (0.050 Gy), 1/6 G partial weight bearing (PWB), and a combination of high LET38Si particle exposure and PWB in female BalbC/ByJ mice; and 3) 13 d spaceflight in female C57BL/6 mice. Low LET radiation, IRON and spaceflight increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes. RAD and IRON+RAD increased Lactobacillales and lowered Clostridiales compared to the control (CON) and IRON treatments. Low LET radiation, IRON, and spaceflight did not significantly affect diversity or richness, or elevate pathogenic genera. Spaceflight increased Clostridiales and decreased Lactobacillales, and similar trends were observed in the experiment using a ground-based model of microgravity, suggesting altered gravity may affect colonic microbiota. Although we noted no differences in colon epithelial injury or inflammation, spaceflight elevated TGFβ gene expression. Microbiota and mucosal characterization in these models is a first step in understanding the impact of the space environment on intestinal health. PMID:26083373

  5. Behavioral functioning in cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome: Risk factors and impact on parenting experience.

    PubMed

    Pierpont, Elizabeth I; Wolford, Melinda

    2016-08-01

    The present study is an investigation of behavioral functioning in children with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC). CFC is a rare single-gene disorder associated with cardiac disease, characteristic skin and facial features, intellectual disability, and neurological complications such as seizures and structural brain anomalies. Emotional and behavioral features of CFC have not been systematically investigated. We aimed to identify key variables that contribute to psychopathology during childhood and adolescence, and to examine the impact of challenging behaviors on the caregiving experience. Parents of 34 children and adolescents with CFC completed standardized broadband measures of child emotional and behavioral functioning, as well as measures of sensory modulation, functional communication, and caregiver stress. Results indicate that children with CFC syndrome are at heightened risk for psychopathology, with attention problems, social difficulties, and unusual behaviors (e.g., obsessive thoughts, strange behaviors, repetitive acts) found to be especially prevalent. Behavioral challenges in children with CFC syndrome were significantly associated with a history of obstetric complications and with problems modulating sensory information. With regard to the impact of child neurocognitive and behavioral issues on the caregiving experience, parent self-reported stress was significantly higher among parents of children who engaged in more problem behaviors, and lower among parents whose children could communicate effectively with others. Results of this study suggest avenues to help families cope with CFC-related stressors and enhance overall functioning. In particular, this study highlights the need for educational and treatment interventions aimed at addressing sensory needs, increasing functional communication, and identifying and managing challenging behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27149079

  6. Space Environmental Factor Impacts upon Murine Colon Microbiota and Mucosal Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lauren E; Taddeo, Stella S; Weeks, Brad R; Lima, Florence; Bloomfield, Susan A; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Zwart, Sara R; Smith, Scott M; Turner, Nancy D

    2015-01-01

    Astronaut intestinal health may be impacted by microgravity, radiation, and diet. The aim of this study was to characterize how high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, microgravity, and elevated dietary iron affect colon microbiota (determined by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing) and colon function. Three independent experiments were conducted to achieve these goals: 1) fractionated low LET γ radiation (137Cs, 3 Gy, RAD), high Fe diet (IRON) (650 mg/kg diet), and a combination of low LET γ radiation and high Fe diet (IRON+RAD) in male Sprague-Dawley rats; 2) high LET 38Si particle exposure (0.050 Gy), 1/6 G partial weight bearing (PWB), and a combination of high LET38Si particle exposure and PWB in female BalbC/ByJ mice; and 3) 13 d spaceflight in female C57BL/6 mice. Low LET radiation, IRON and spaceflight increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes. RAD and IRON+RAD increased Lactobacillales and lowered Clostridiales compared to the control (CON) and IRON treatments. Low LET radiation, IRON, and spaceflight did not significantly affect diversity or richness, or elevate pathogenic genera. Spaceflight increased Clostridiales and decreased Lactobacillales, and similar trends were observed in the experiment using a ground-based model of microgravity, suggesting altered gravity may affect colonic microbiota. Although we noted no differences in colon epithelial injury or inflammation, spaceflight elevated TGFβ gene expression. Microbiota and mucosal characterization in these models is a first step in understanding the impact of the space environment on intestinal health. PMID:26083373

  7. Relative dominance of hydrologic versus biogeochemical factors on solute export across impact gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. E.; Basu, N. B.; Lascurain, J., Jr.; Aubeneau, A.; Rao, P. S. C.

    2011-10-01

    Many processes lead to variability of catchment concentration-discharge relationships, but exports of geogenic (weathering derived) solutes and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus species) from agricultural basins display relatively constant concentrations despite large variations in streamflow. These "chemostatic" responses are hypothesized to arise when a large mass store, the parent material for geogenics or chemically recalcitrant legacies of fertilization in agricultural catchments, buffers concentration variability. This hypothesis implies that (1) chemostatic behavior should be a general response to elevated external inputs to a catchment and (2) chemostatic behavior should be predictable from theory. Data- and model-based analyses were used to explore these hypotheses. We evaluated concentration variability relative to discharge (expressed as the ratio of the coefficients of variation of concentration and flow, or CVC/CVQ) across a gradient of increasing exported load, as a proxy for an external impact gradient. The CVC/CVQ of multiple solutes declined with increasing exported load. Exceptions included the geogenic solutes, which showed chemostatic responses for all sites, phosphorus, and some nitrogen species. Nitrate showed a suggestive pattern in CVC/CVQ with export, but further data are needed to confirm its generality. A simple model of runoff generation and solute export suggested that the decline in CVC/CVQ arises if the internal mass store is distributed homogeneously in space and there is sufficient time for mass transfer to reach steady state between runoff events. Export from catchments may become more predictable in impacted watersheds, simplifying water quality prediction but inducing strong hysteresis in recovery and making restoration efforts challenging.

  8. Clinical impact of CD200 expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and correlation with other molecular prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Damiani, Daniela; Tiribelli, Mario; Raspadori, Donatella; Sirianni, Santina; Meneghel, Alessia; Cavalllin, Margherita; Michelutti, Angela; Toffoletti, Eleonora; Geromin, Antonella; Simeone, Erica; Bocchia, Monica; Fanin, Renato

    2015-01-01

    CD200, a protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, has been associated with a poor prognosis in lymphoproliferative disorders and in acute leukemia. We studied the expression of CD200 in a series of 244 patients with diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), to evaluate its impact on outcome and its possible association with other known prognostic factors. CD200 was found in 136/244 (56%) patients, in 41 of whom (30%) with high intensity of expression (MFI ≥ 11). CD200 was more frequent in secondary compared to de novo leukemia (p = 0.0006), in CD34 positive cases (p = 0.00001), in Bcl2 overexpressing cases (p = 0.01), in those wild-type Flt3 (p = 0.004) and with favorable or unfavorable compared to intermediate karyotype (p = 0.0003). CD200+ patients have a two-fold lower probability to attain complete remission, both in univariate (p = 0.006) and multivariate (p = 0.04) analysis. The negative impact of CD200 was found also in overall survival (p = 0.02) and was correlated with the intensity of expression of the molecule (p = 0.024). CD200 has an additive negative impact on survival in patients with unfavorable cytogenetic (p = 0.046) and in secondary leukemia (p = 0.05), and is associate with a worsening of outcome in patients with favorable biological markers, such as mutated NPM (p = 0.02), wild-type Flt3 (p = 0.034), negativity of CD34 (p = 0.03) and of CD56 (p = 0.03). In conclusion, CD200 is emerging as both a prognostic factor and a potential target of novel therapeutic approaches for AML, aiming to reverse the “do not eat me” signal of CD200 or to manipulate the suppressive immune microenvironment induced by CD200 binding to its receptor. PMID:26338961

  9. The Impact of Obesity on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Subclinical Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Gregory L.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Shea, Steven; Tracy, Russell; Watson, Karol E.; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Chung, Hyoju; Carnethon, Mercedes R.

    2010-01-01

    Background To assess the importance of the obesity epidemic on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, we determined the prevalence of obesity and the relationship of obesity to CVD risk factors and subclinical vascular disease. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is an observational cohort study involving 6814 persons aged 45 to 84 years who were free of clinical CVD at baseline (2000–2002). The study assessed the association between body size and CVD risk factors, medication use, and subclinical vascular disease (coronary artery calcium, carotid artery intimal medial thickness, and left ventricular mass). Results A large proportion of white, African American, and Hispanic participants were overweight (60% to 85%) and obese (30% to 50%), while fewer Chinese American participants were overweight (33%) or obese (5%). Hypertension and diabetes were more prevalent in obese participants despite a much higher use of antihy-pertensive and/or antidiabetic medications. Obesity was associated with a greater risk of coronary artery calcium (17%), internal carotid artery intimal medial thickness greater than 80th percentile (32%), common carotid artery intimal medial thickness greater than 80th percentile (45%), and left ventricular mass greater than 80th percentile (2.7-fold greater) compared with normal body size. These associations persisted after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors. Conclusions These data confirm the epidemic of obesity in most but not all racial and ethnic groups. The observed low prevalence of obesity in Chinese American participants indicates that high rates of obesity should not be considered inevitable. These findings may be viewed as indicators of potential future increases in vascular disease burden and health care costs associated with the obesity epidemic. PMID:18474756

  10. [Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Lake Taihu Surface Albedo and Its Impact Factors].

    PubMed

    Cao, Chang; Li, Xu-hui; Zhang, Mi; Liu, Shou-dong; Xiao, Wei; Xiao, Qi-tao; Xu, Jia-ping

    2015-10-01

    Lake surface albedo determines energy balance of water-atmospheric interface and water physical environment. Solar elevation angle, cloudiness, wind speed, water quality and other factors can affect lake surface albedo. Using solar radiation, wind speed, and water quality data (turbidity and chlorophyll-a concentration) which were observed in four eddy covariance sites (Meiliangwan, Dapukou, Bifenggang and Xiaoleishan i. e. MLW, DPK, BFG and XLS) in Lake Taihu and clearness index (k(t)), the influence of these factors on Lake Taihu surface albedo and the reasons that led to its spatial difference were investigated. The results showed that solar elevation angle played a leading role in the diurnal and seasonal change of lake surface albedo; lake surface albedo reached two peaks in 0 < k(t) < 0.1 and 0.4 < k(t) < 0.6 respectively, when solar elevation angle was below 35 degrees. The surface albedo increased with the increasing wind speed, turbidity and chlorophyll-a concentration. However, wind could indirectly affect surface albedo through leading to the changes in sediment resuspension and chlorophyll-a distribution. The sequence of albedo in the four sites was XLS > BFG > DPK > MLW. XLS and BFG belonged to the higher albedo group, while DPK and MLW belonged to the lower albedo group. The different biological environments caused by aquatic macrophytes and algae resulting in the spatial variation of Lake Taihu surface albedo. The relationship between albedo and chlorophyll-a concentration was not a very sensitive factor for indicating the outbreak of algae. This study can provide theoretical reference for lake albedo parameterization. PMID:26841592

  11. Impact of human amniotic membrane preparation on release of angiogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Wolbank, S; Hildner, F; Redl, H; van Griensven, M; Gabriel, C; Hennerbichler, S

    2009-12-01

    Preserved amniotic membrane (AM) has been used in the field of ophthalmology and wound care due to its bacteriostatic, antiphlogistic, protease-inhibiting, re-epithelialization, wound-protecting and scar formation-reducing properties. Typically, AM is applied after banking in a glycerol-preserved or freeze-dried state. Cell viabilities in different forms of preparation vary substantially, which in consequence may also be reflected in the amount and type of growth factors released from the preserved material. Therefore, we characterized the angiogenic factor (AF) profile released from different AM preparations. For this, medium was conditioned with non-preserved, glycerol- and cryo-preserved AM for 48 h, which was screened for AFs using a protein array system. In parallel, the preparations were tested for cell viability. Non-preserved as well as cryo-preserved AM maintained viabilities at 106.5 +/- 23.9% and 21.9 +/- 23.3%, respectively, whereas glycerol-preserved AM was found to be non-viable. Of the 20 investigated factors, high levels of angiogenin, GRO, IL-6/8, TIMP-1/2 and MCP-1 and low levels of EGF, IFNgamma, IGF-1, leptin, RANTES, TGFbeta1 and thrombopoietin were identified to be secreted from non-preserved AM. Cryo-preserved AM secreted high levels of IL-8, intermediate levels of GRO and TIMP-1/2 but only low levels of angiogenin, IFNgamma, IL-6 and MCP-1 and no detectable EGF, IGF-1, leptin, RANTES, TGFbeta1 and thrombopoietin. After banking in glycerol, AM releases only minute amounts of TIMP-1/2. Along with viability, the AF profile of amniotic membrane largely depends on the preparation method applied for banking. This should be considered for selection of an AM product for a specific clinical application. PMID:19701933

  12. Impact of lexical and sentiment factors on the popularity of scientific papers

    PubMed Central

    Sienkiewicz, Julian; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how textual properties of scientific papers relate to the number of citations they receive. Our main finding is that correlations are nonlinear and affect differently the most cited and typical papers. For instance, we find that, in most journals, short titles correlate positively with citations only for the most cited papers, whereas for typical papers, the correlation is usually negative. Our analysis of six different factors, calculated both at the title and abstract level of 4.3 million papers in over 1500 journals, reveals the number of authors, and the length and complexity of the abstract, as having the strongest (positive) influence on the number of citations. PMID:27429773

  13. Impact of lexical and sentiment factors on the popularity of scientific papers.

    PubMed

    Sienkiewicz, Julian; Altmann, Eduardo G

    2016-06-01

    We investigate how textual properties of scientific papers relate to the number of citations they receive. Our main finding is that correlations are nonlinear and affect differently the most cited and typical papers. For instance, we find that, in most journals, short titles correlate positively with citations only for the most cited papers, whereas for typical papers, the correlation is usually negative. Our analysis of six different factors, calculated both at the title and abstract level of 4.3 million papers in over 1500 journals, reveals the number of authors, and the length and complexity of the abstract, as having the strongest (positive) influence on the number of citations. PMID:27429773

  14. Factors Impacting Functional Status in Veterans of Recent Conflicts With PTSD.

    PubMed

    Kozel, F Andrew; Didehbani, Nyaz; DeLaRosa, Bambi; Bass, Christina; Schraufnagel, Caitlin D; Morgan, Cassie Rae; Jones, Penelope; Spence, Jeffrey S; Hart, John

    2016-01-01

    Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) underwent a systematic evaluation to determine which factors were associated with the degree of functional status. Demographic information, self-report scales, and symptom ratings performed by trained evaluators were investigated in multiple regression models to determine their contribution to functional status. Ninety-six participants were included in the model assessing degree of functional status. Depressive symptoms, a depressive disorder diagnosis, and to a lesser extent, the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale were selected in the final model that best predicted the degree of functional status. Depressive symptoms significantly affect the function of veterans with PTSD. PMID:26670785

  15. Global analysis of the impact of linezolid onto virulence factor production in S. aureus USA300.

    PubMed

    Bonn, Florian; Pané-Farré, Jan; Schlüter, Rabea; Schaffer, Marc; Fuchs, Stephan; Bernhardt, Jörg; Riedel, Katharina; Otto, Andreas; Völker, Uwe; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Hecker, Michael; Mäder, Ulrike; Becher, Dörte

    2016-05-01

    The translation inhibitor linezolid is an antibiotic of last resort against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin resistant strains of the nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Linezolid is reported to inhibit production of extracellular virulence factors, but the molecular cause is unknown. To elucidate the physiological response of S. aureus to linezolid in general and the inhibition of virulence factor synthesis in particular a holistic study was performed. Linezolid was added to exponentially growing S. aureus cells and the linezolid stress response was analyzed with transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics methods. In addition, scanning and transmission electron microscopy experiments as well as fluorescence microscopy analyses of the cellular DNA and membrane were performed. As previously observed in studies on other translation inhibitors, S. aureus adapts its protein biosynthesis machinery to the reduced translation efficiency. For example the synthesis of ribosomal proteins was induced. Also unexpected results like a decline in the amount of extracellular and membrane proteins were obtained. In addition, cell shape and size changed after linezolid stress and cell division was diminished. Finally, the chromosome was condensed after linezolid stress and lost contact to the membrane. These morphological changes cannot be explained by established theories. A new hypothesis is discussed, which suggests that the reduced amount of membrane and extracellular proteins and observed defects in cell division are due to the disintegration of transertion complexes by linezolid. PMID:26996810

  16. Analysis of impact factors of output characteristics for optically pumped THz lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Renshuai; Meng, Qinglong; Guo, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Bin

    2016-08-01

    Optically pumped terahertz (THz) lasers as a reliable THz radiation sources have been widely used in THz application area. Considering the Doppler-broadened effects and the two-photon light shift effects, the physical model for the THz output power and the THz output frequency drift of optically pumped THz lasers has been established based on the rate equations. The main factors affecting THz laser output have been analyzed quantitatively. The results indicate that the THz output power increases with the increasing of the pump power, while decreases with the increasing of the pump frequency offset from the operating gas absorption centre. The THz output frequency drift is mainly caused by two-photon light shift when the pump offset is small, whereas Doppler-broadened becomes main factor if the pump frequency offset is relatively larger. Furthermore, the THz output frequency drift increases in proportion to the pump power. The stability of the THz output frequency can be enhanced and the THz output power can be improved by choosing pressure in the cavity reasonably, and the optimal working gas pressure range is 15-20 Pa. Stabilizing the pump laser frequency in the range of gas absorption centre, choosing reasonable working gas pressure in the THz cavity and the pump power can efficiently improve the performance of the THz laser output.

  17. DECONTAMINATION FACTORS AND FILTRATION FLUX IMPACT TO ARP AT REDUCED MST CONCENTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2012-06-27

    Tank Farm and Closure Engineering is evaluating changes to the Actinide Removal Process facility operations to decrease the MST concentration from 0.4 g/L to 0.2 g/L and the contact time from 12 hours to between 6 and 8 hours. For this evaluation, SRNL reviewed previous datasets investigating the performance of MST at 0.2 g/L in salt solutions ranging from 4.5 to 7.5 M in sodium concentration. In general, reducing the MST concentration from 0.4 to 0.2 g/L and increasing the ionic strength from 4.5 to 7.5 M in sodium concentration will decrease the measured decontamination factors for plutonium, neptunium, uranium and strontium. The decontamination factors as well as single standard deviation values for each sorbate are reported. These values are applicable within the sorbate and sodium concentrations used in the experimental measurements. Decreasing the MST concentration in the ARP from 0.4 g/L to 0.2 g/L will produce an increase in the filter flux, and could lead to longer operating times between filter cleaning. The increase in flux is a function of a number of operating parameters, and is difficult to quantify. However, it is estimated that the reduction in MST could result in a reduction of filtration time of up to 20%.

  18. Impact of climate change and other factors on emerging arbovirus diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gould, E.A.; Higgs, S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary While some sceptics remain unconvinced that global climate change is a reality, there is no doubt that during the past 50 years or so, patterns of emerging arbovirus diseases have changed significantly. Can this be attributed to climate change? Climate is a major factor in determining: (1) the geographic and temporal distribution of arthropods; (2) characteristics of arthropod life cycles; (3) dispersal patterns of associated arboviruses; (4) the evolution of arboviruses; and (5) the efficiency with which they are transmitted from arthropods to vertebrate hosts. Thus, under the influence of increasing temperatures and rainfall through warming of the oceans, and alteration of the natural cycles that stabilise climate, one is inevitably drawn to the conclusion that arboviruses will continue to emerge in new regions. For example, we cannot ignore the unexpected but successful establishment of chikungunya fever in northern Italy, the sudden appearance of West Nile virus in North America, the increasing frequency of Rift Valley fever epidemics in the Arabian Peninsula, and very recently, the emergence of Bluetongue virus in northern Europe. In this brief review we ask the question, are these diseases emerging because of climate change or do other factors play an equal or even more important role in their emergence? PMID:18799177

  19. Impact of organisation and management factors on infection control in hospitals: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, P; Renz, A; Hughes, J; Rafferty, A M

    2009-09-01

    This scoping review sought evidence about organisational and management factors affecting infection control in general hospital settings. A literature search yielded a wide range of studies, systematic reviews and reports, but high quality direct evidence was scant. The majority of studies were observational and the standard of reporting was generally inadequate. Positive leadership at ward level and above appears to be a prerequisite for effective action to control infection, although the benefits of good clinical leadership are diffused by supervision of large numbers of staff. Senior clinical leaders need a highly visible presence and clear role boundaries and responsibilities. Team stability and morale are linked to improved patient outcomes. Organisational mechanisms for supporting training, appraisal and clinical governance are important determinants of effective practice and successful change. Rates of infection have been linked to workload, in terms of nurse staffing, bed occupancy and patient turnover. The organisational characteristics identified in the review should be considered risk factors for infection. They cannot always be eliminated or avoided completely, but appropriate assessment will enable targeted action to protect patients. PMID:19647338

  20. Impact of various factors on pharmacokinetics of bioactive polyphenols: an overview.

    PubMed

    Rubió, Laura; Macià, Alba; Motilva, Maria-José

    2014-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies throughout the years have suggested that polyphenols from fruits and vegetables promote health and reduce the risk of certain chronic and neurodegenerative diseases. Yet, it has been proved to be extremely difficult to quantitatively establish the benefit afforded by polyphenols, principally due to the limited understanding of the extent of its absorption and metabolic fate. Pharmacokinetics includes the study of the mechanisms of absorption and distribution of an ingested polyphenol, its chemical changes in the body (e.g. by metabolic enzymes), and the effects and routes of excretion of the metabolites. In recent years, there have been major advances in our knowledge of polyphenol absorption and metabolism, and it is apparent that most classes of polyphenols are sufficiently absorbed to have the potential to exert biological effects. The pharmacokinetics of polyphenols includes the same steps as those for orally ingested drugs (LADME) and faces some of the same challenges, including transporters and enzymes. However, unraveling the bioavailability of polyphenols is even more challenging than with drugs, since many other factors, such as the variety in the chemical structure, the food matrix and the gut microbiota, can affect bioavailability of polyphenols during digestion. This review focuses on the most relevant factors that influence polyphenol pharmacokinetics, and also on the most recent technological strategies developed to overcome the poor bioavailability of phenolic compounds and thus increase their potential for greater health benefits. PMID:24328690

  1. Impact of Individual-, Environmental-, and Policy-Level Factors on Health Care Utilization Among US Farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Joni A.; Gabbard, Susan; Kronick, Richard G.; Roesch, Scott C.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Zuniga, Maria L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined individual-, environmental-, and policy-level correlates of US farmworker health care utilization, guided by the behavioral model for vulnerable populations and the ecological model. Methods. The 2006 and 2007 administrations of the National Agricultural Workers Survey (n = 2884) provided the primary data. Geographic information systems, the 2005 Uniform Data System, and rurality and border proximity indices provided environmental variables. To identify factors associated with health care use, we performed logistic regression using weighted hierarchical linear modeling. Results. Approximately half (55.3%) of farmworkers utilized US health care in the previous 2 years. Several factors were independently associated with use at the individual level (gender, immigration and migrant status, English proficiency, transportation access, health status, and non-US health care utilization), the environmental level (proximity to US–Mexico border), and the policy level (insurance status and workplace payment structure). County Federally Qualified Health Center resources were not independently associated. Conclusions. We identified farmworkers at greatest risk for poor access. We made recommendations for change to farmworker health care access at all 3 levels of influence, emphasizing Federally Qualified Health Center service delivery. PMID:21330594

  2. A qualitative investigation of Hispanic construction worker perspectives on factors impacting worksite safety and risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hispanic workers have higher rates of injury and death on construction worksites than workers of other ethnicities. Language barriers and cultural differences have been hypothesized as reasons behind the disparate rates. Methods We conducted two series of focus groups with union and non-union Hispanic construction workers to ask them about their perceptions of the causes for the unequal rates. Spanish transcripts were translated and coded in QSR NVivo software for common themes. Results Workers reported a difficult work environment characterized by supervisor pressure, competition for jobs and intimidation with regard to raising safety concerns. Language barriers or cultural factors were not strongly represented as causative factors behind the rates. Conclusion The results of this study have informed the development of an intervention trial that seeks to prevent falls and silica dust exposure by training contractors employing Hispanic construction workers in the elements of safety leadership, including building respect for their Hispanic workers and facilitating their participation in a safety program. PMID:21962128

  3. Impact of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Risk Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying Y; Redline, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Obstructive sleep apnea is a highly prevalent condition characterized by repetitive upper airway collapse during sleep. A large body of evidence suggests that obstructive sleep apnea is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the current gold standard for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. CPAP devices maintain upper airway patency using a pneumatic splint, thereby ameliorating the repetitive deoxygenation and reoxygenation characteristic of sleep in obstructive sleep apnea patients. Accumulating evidence suggests that CPAP treatment may lead to a reduction in blood pressure. Limited evidence also suggests that CPAP therapy may modulate glucose metabolism, serum cholesterol levels, and inflammatory biomarkers. Thus, CPAP treatment may be associated with cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, who are often obese and at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This review updates the knowledge on the effects of CPAP on cardiovascular risk factors from recently published randomized trials. PMID:26370408

  4. Analyzing the Impact of Residential Building Attributes, Demographic and Behavioral Factors on Natural Gas Usage

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Olga V.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2011-03-03

    This analysis examines the relationship between energy demand and residential building attributes, demographic characteristics, and behavioral variables using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2005 microdata. This study investigates the applicability of the smooth backfitting estimator to statistical analysis of residential energy consumption via nonparametric regression. The methodology utilized in the study extends nonparametric additive regression via local linear smooth backfitting to categorical variables. The conventional methods used for analyzing residential energy consumption are econometric modeling and engineering simulations. This study suggests an econometric approach that can be utilized in combination with simulation results. A common weakness of previously used econometric models is a very high likelihood that any suggested parametric relationships will be misspecified. Nonparametric modeling does not have this drawback. Its flexibility allows for uncovering more complex relationships between energy use and the explanatory variables than can possibly be achieved by parametric models. Traditionally, building simulation models overestimated the effects of energy efficiency measures when compared to actual "as-built" observed savings. While focusing on technical efficiency, they do not account for behavioral or market effects. The magnitude of behavioral or market effects may have a substantial influence on the final energy savings resulting from implementation of various energy conservation measures and programs. Moreover, variability in behavioral aspects and user characteristics appears to have a significant impact on total energy consumption. Inaccurate estimates of energy consumption and potential savings also impact investment decisions. The existing modeling literature, whether it relies on parametric specifications or engineering simulation, does not accommodate inclusion of a behavioral component. This

  5. Assessment of factors impacting cervical cancer screening among low-income women living with HIV-AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ogunwale, Abayomi N; Coleman, Maame Aba; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Valverde, Ivan; Montealegre, Jane; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria; Anderson, Matthew L

    2016-04-01

    Very little is currently known about factors impacting the prevalence of cervical cancer screening among women living with HIV-AIDS (WLHA). To better understand this issue, we surveyed low-income, medically underserved women receiving subsidized gynecologic care through an integrated HIV clinic. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 209 women who self-identified as HIV positive. A total of 179 subjects (85.7%) reported having had a Pap test in the last three years. The majority of WLHA (95%) knew that the Pap test screens for cervical cancer. However, overall knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors, such as multiple sexual partners or sex with a man with multiple partners, was low (43% and 35%, respectively). Unscreened women were younger and more likely to be single with multiple current sexual partners. In multivariable analyses, the only factors associated with Pap testing were a woman's perception that her partner wants her to receive regular screening (aOR 4.64; 95% CI: 1.15-23.76; p = .04), number of clinic visits during the past year (aOR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.05-1.94; p = .04) and knowledge that the need for a Pap test does not depend on whether or not a woman is experiencing vaginal bleeding (aOR 6.52, 95% CI: 1.04-49.71; p = .05). We conclude that support from male partners in addition to effective contact with the health system and knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors influence Pap utilization among low-income WLHA. Future measures to improve the care for this population should increase knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and encourage social support for cervical cancer screening among WLHA. PMID:26493859

  6. Johne’s disease in Canada Part II: Disease impacts, risk factors, and control programs for dairy producers

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Shawn L.B.; Keefe, Greg P.; Tiwari, Ashwani; VanLeeuwen, John; Barkema, Herman W.

    2006-01-01

    Part I of this 2-part review examined the clinical stages, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and epidemiology of Johne’s disease, providing information relevant to Canada, where available. In Part II, a critical review of the economic impacts of the disease, risk factors, and important control measures are presented to enable Canadian bovine practitioners to successfully implement control strategies and participate in control programs. In cattle positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, there is a 2.4 times increase in the risk of their being culled, and their lactational 305-day milk production is decreased by at least 370 kg. Reduced slaughter value and premature culling account for losses of CDN$1330 per year per infected 50-cow herd. Research has failed to show a consistent association between Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis test status and reduced fertility or risk of clinical or subclinical mastitis. Host level factors include age and level of exposure, along with source of exposure, such as manure, colostrum, or milk. Agent factors involve the dose of infectious agent and strains of bacteria. Environmental management factors influence the persistence of the bacteria and the level of contamination in the environment. Emphasizing a risk factor approach, various control strategies are reviewed, including a number of national control programs currently in place throughout the world, specifically Australia, The Netherlands, and the United States. By reviewing the scientific literature about Johne’s disease, control of the disease could be pursued through informed implementation of rational biosecurity efforts and the strategic use of testing and culling. PMID:17147140

  7. Impact of fibroblast growth factor-2 on tumor microvascular architecture. A tridimensional morphometric study.

    PubMed Central

    Konerding, M. A.; Fait, E.; Dimitropoulou, C.; Malkusch, W.; Ferri, C.; Giavazzi, R.; Coltrini, D.; Presta, M.

    1998-01-01

    Three cell clones originated by transfection of human endometrial adenocarcinoma HEC-1-B cells with fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) cDNA and characterized by a different capacity to produce and secrete the growth factor were transplanted subcutaneously in nude mice. Corrosion casting of the tumor microvasculature of xenografts produced by injection of 2 x 10(6) or 10 x 10(6) FGF-2-B9 cells (which produce and secrete significant amounts of FGF-2), 10 x 10(6) FGF-2-A8 cells (which produce comparable amounts of FGF-2 but do not secrete it), or 10 x 10(6) control FGF-2-B8 cells (which produce only trace amounts of FGF-2) was performed after 14 days of growth. Interbranching distances, intervascular distances, branching angles, and vessel diameters were then determined using tridimensional stereo pairs of the casted tumor vascularity. When transplanted at the same concentration, FGF-2-B9 cells grew faster in nude mice compared with FGF-2-A8 and FGF-2-B8 clones. The total amount of new vessel formation was far higher in FGF-2-B9 tumors than in FGF-2-B8 or FGF-2-A8 tumors. Also, vessel courses were more irregular and blind-ending vessels and evasates were more frequent in FGF-2-B9 tumors. Moreover, FGF-2-B9 tumor microvasculature was characterized by a wider average vascular diameter and by an extreme variability of the diameter of each individual vessel along its course between two ramifications. No statistical differences were observed when the distribution curves of the values of intervascular distances, interbranching distances, and branching angles of the microvessel network were compared among the different experimental groups. The distinctive features of the microvasculature of FGF-2-B9 tumors were retained, at least in part, in the smaller lesions produced by injection of a limited number of cells. The data indicate that FGF-2 production and release confer to FGF-2-B9 cells the ability to stimulate the formation of new blood vessels with distinctive

  8. Impact of clinical and procedural factors upon C reactive protein dynamics following transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Ruparelia, Neil; Panoulas, Vasileios F; Frame, Angela; Ariff, Ben; Sutaria, Nilesh; Fertleman, Michael; Cousins, Jonathan; Anderson, Jon; Bicknell, Colin; Chukwuemeka, Andrew; Sen, Sayan; Malik, Iqbal S; Colombo, Antonio; Mikhail, Ghada W

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of procedural and clinical factors upon C reactive protein (CRP) dynamics following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS: Two hundred and eight consecutive patients that underwent transfemoral TAVI at two hospitals (Imperial, College Healthcare NHS Trust, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom and San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy) were included. Daily venous plasma CRP levels were measured for up to 7 d following the procedure (or up to discharge). Procedural factors and 30-d safety outcomes according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 definition were collected. RESULTS: Following TAVI, CRP significantly increased reaching a peak on day 3 of 87.6 ± 5.5 mg/dL, P < 0.001. Patients who developed clinical signs and symptoms of sepsis had significantly increased levels of CRP (P < 0.001). The presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with a significantly higher peak CRP level at day 3 (78.4 ± 3.2 vs 92.2 ± 4.4, P < 0.001). There was no difference in peak CRP release following balloon-expandable or self-expandable TAVI implantation (94.8 ± 9.1 vs 81.9 ± 6.9, P = 0.34) or if post-dilatation was required (86.9 ± 6.3 vs 96.6 ± 5.3, P = 0.42), however, when pre-TAVI balloon aortic valvuloplasty was performed this resulted in a significant increase in the peak CRP (110.1 ± 8.9 vs 51.6 ± 3.7, P < 0.001). The development of a major vascular complication did result in a significantly increased maximal CRP release (153.7 ± 11.9 vs 83.3 ± 7.4, P = 0.02) and there was a trend toward a higher peak CRP following major/life-threatening bleeding (113.2 ± 9.3 vs 82.7 ± 7.5, P = 0.12) although this did not reach statistical significance. CRP was not found to be a predictor of 30-d mortality on univariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Careful attention should be paid to baseline clinical characteristics and procedural factors when interpreting CRP following TAVI to determine their future management. PMID

  9. Factors impacting the formation of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) fatty acid diesters during palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil production.

    PubMed

    Craft, Brian D; Nagy, Kornél; Sandoz, Laurence; Destaillats, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Recently, organic and inorganic chlorinated compounds were detected in crude and commercially refined palm oils. Further, the predominant formation mechanism of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) diesters at high temperatures (>170-180°C) was revealed. The present study involved the development and comparison of solutions to mitigate MCPD diester levels in oils from various stages of palm oil production. Partially refined palm oil samples and oil extracted from fresh palm fruits were submitted to bench-top deodorisation experiments. Application of glycerol and ethanol as refining aids during the deodorisation of refined-bleached palm oil proved to be moderately effective; about 25%-35% reduction of MCPD diester levels was achieved. Washing crude palm oil with ethanol-water (1:1) prior to deodorisation was also an effective strategy yielding an ∼30% reduction of MCPD diester contents. Washing palm fruit pulp before oil extraction, however, was most impactful, resulting in a 95% reduction of MCPD diesters when compared to the deodorised control oil. This suggests that intervention upstream in the process chain is most efficient in reducing levels of these contaminants in refined oils. Following the study, a root-cause analysis was performed in order to map the parameters potentially responsible for the occurrence of MCPD diesters in refined palm oil and related fractions. PMID:22168150

  10. Impact Factors and Risk Analysis of Tropical Cyclones on a Highway Network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Saini; Hu, Fuyu; Jaeger, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Coastal areas typically have high social and economic development and are likely to suffer huge losses due to tropical cyclones. These cyclones have a great impact on the transportation network, but there have been a limited number of studies about tropical-cyclone-induced transportation network functional damages, especially in Asia. This study develops an innovative measurement and analytical tool for highway network functional damage and risk in the context of a tropical cyclone, with which we explored the critical spatial characteristics of tropical cyclones with regard to functional damage to a highway network by developing linear regression models to quantify their relationship. Furthermore, we assessed the network's functional risk and calculated the return periods under different damage levels. In our analyses, we consider the real-world highway network of Hainan province, China. Our results illustrate that the most important spatial characteristics were location (in particular, the midlands), travel distance, landfalling status, and origin coordinates. However, the trajectory direction did not obviously affect the results. Our analyses indicate that the highway network of Hainan province may suffer from a 90% functional damage scenario every 4.28 years. These results have critical policy implications for the transport sector in reference to emergency planning and disaster reduction. PMID:26385797

  11. The scaffolding and signaling functions of a localization factor impact polar development

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Patrick D.; Quardokus, Ellen M.; Lawler, Melanie L.; Guo, Xiaoyun; Klein, David; Chen, Joseph C.; Arnold, Randy J.; Brun, Yves V.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY In the differentiating alphaproteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus, organelle synthesis at cell poles is critical to forming different progeny after cell division. Coordination of polar organelle synthesis, including pili and holdfast, and flagellum ejection, is mediated in part by the scaffolding protein PodJ. At the time of cell division, PodJ undergoes regulated processing to a short form that persists at the flagellar pole of swarmer cells. This study analyzes how PodJ’s role in structural and signaling protein localization impacts organelle synthesis. A PodJ mutant with an internal deletion exhibits reduced sensitivity to pili-tropic phage ΦCbK, resulting from reduced pilA gene expression, which can be linked to altered signaling protein localization. The phage sensitivity defect of a ΔpodJ mutant can be partially suppressed by ectopic pilA expression. Induction of PodJ processing, by manipulation of podJ itself or controlled perP expression, resulted in decreased pilus biogenesis and, when coupled with a podJ mutation that reduced pilA expression, led to complete loss of phage sensitivity. As a whole, the results show that PodJ’s scaffolding role for structural and signaling proteins both contribute to flagellar pole organelle development. PMID:22512778

  12. Unravelling impact factors for changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation in the near future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberländer, Sophie; Langematz, Ulrike; Meul, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Model simulations indicate an acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) with increasing future greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. However, most observational datasets do not show a strengthening in mass transport for the recent past. Moreover, future projections vary concerning the magnitude of and the causes for BDC changes. In this study we show near future changes in the BDC in dependence of different external forcings, namely GHG concentrations and ozone depleting substances (ODS) as well as prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea-ice concentrations (SICs). The separation is based on sensitivity simulations with the chemistry-climate model (CCM) EMAC. BDC changes are assessed by using different diagnostics like the tropical upward mass flux and the age of stratospheric air (AoA). To look for the mechanisms of the future acceleration of the residual mean circulation we will present changes in the propagation and dissipation of atmospheric waves. By applying the 'downward control principle' (after Haynes et al., 1991) to our model data we account for the attribution of different wave types. Changes in the mean AoA and in particular in age spectra allow us an estimation of the impact of mixing processes on the future BDC changes.

  13. Impact of ecological factors on concern and awareness about disability: a statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Gabriela

    2014-11-01

    The barriers that people with disabilities face around the world are not only inherent in the limitations resulting from the disability itself, but, more importantly, these barriers rest with the societal technologies of exclusion. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the statistical relationship between the national level of development, the level of democratization, and the level of education of a country's population on one hand, and expressed concern for people with disabilities on another hand. The results reveal that a greater worry for the well-being of people with disabilities is correlated with a high level of country development, a decreased value of political stability and absence of violence, a decreased level of government effectiveness, and a greater level of law enforcement. There is a direct correlation between concern for people with disabilities and people's awareness about disabilities. Surprisingly, the level of education has no impact on the compassion toward people with disabilities. A comparison case for in depth illustration is discussed. PMID:25086738

  14. Purification of Azadirachta indica seed cake and its impact on nutritional and antinutritional factors.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Mohanji; Ravikanth, Kotagiri; Kumar, Abhishek; Gupta, Ashish; Singh, Brijpal; Sharma, Anirudh

    2010-04-28

    Azadirachta indica Juss. (family Meliaceae) is a vital plant with multiple agricultural and medicinal utilities. The seed cake after oil extraction can be a good source of nutrition in animal feed. The limitation to its use is the presence of azadirachtin, salannin, and other bitter constituents. To make it palatable for use as a source of animal nutrition it was detoxified using 50 and 80% methanol and was analyzed for contents of azadirachtin, salannin, and nutritional contents such as total carbohydrates, protein, crude fiber, in vitro protein digestibility, and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), prior to and after purification. The contents of azadirachtin and salannin were quantified using HPTLC and HPLC. Various validation parameters were also investigated. A highly significant decrease of antinutritional factor (TIA) was recorded after purification of samples, retaining the contents of protein, carbohydrates, crude fiber, and in vitro protein digestibility. The purified seed cake was found to be free of azadirachtin and salannin contents. PMID:20218605

  15. The Impact of Obesity in the Workplace: a Review of Contributing Factors, Consequences and Potential Solutions.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Nipun; Pedisic, Zeljko; Neil-Sztramko, Sarah; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina T; Hermans, Veerle

    2016-09-01

    This narrative review summarized findings from previous reviews and the most recently published studies, regarding the following: (1) the association between two occupational risk factors-shift work and sedentary work-and obesity, (2) the effects of obesity on workplace productivity and (3) the effectiveness of workplace interventions aimed at preventing or reducing obesity. Despite some inconsistencies in findings, there is convincing evidence that shift work increases the risk of obesity, while most studies did not show a significant association between sedentary work and obesity. Overweight and obesity were found to be associated with absenteeism, disability pension and overall work impairment, whilst evidence of their relationship with presenteeism, unemployment and early retirement was not consistent. Due to the vast heterogeneity in the types of workplace-based interventions to prevent or treat obesity, no sound conclusions can as yet be drawn about their overall effectiveness and best practice recommendations for their implementation. PMID:27447869

  16. Violence, teenage pregnancy, and life history : ecological factors and their impact on strategy-driven behavior.

    PubMed

    Copping, Lee T; Campbell, Anne; Muncer, Steven

    2013-06-01

    Guided by principles of life history strategy development, this study tested the hypothesis that sexual precocity and violence are influenced by sensitivities to local environmental conditions. Two models of strategy development were compared: The first is based on indirect perception of ecological cues through family disruption and the second is based on both direct and indirect perception of ecological stressors. Results showed a moderate correlation between rates of violence and sexual precocity (r = 0.59). Although a model incorporating direct and indirect effects provided a better fit than one based on family mediation alone, significant improvements were made by linking some ecological factors directly to behavior independently of strategy development. The models support the contention that violence and teenage pregnancy are part of an ecologically determined pattern of strategy development and suggest that while the family unit is critical in affecting behavior, individuals' direct experiences of the environment are also important. PMID:23653372

  17. [A review on carbon and water interactions of forest ecosystem and its impact factors].

    PubMed

    Song, Chun-lin; Sun, Xiang-yang; Wang, Gen-xu

    2015-09-01

    Interaction between carbon and water in forest ecosystem is a coupling process in terrestrial ecosystem, which is an indispensable aspect for the study of forest carbon pool, ecohydrological processes and the responses to global change. In the context of global change, the interaction and coupling of carbon and water in forest ecosystem has attracted much attention among scientists. In this paper, we reviewed the process mechanism of forest carbon and water relationships based on previous studies, which consisted of advance in forest water use efficiency, carbon and water interactions at different scales, scaling, and model simulation. We summed up the factors affecting for- est water and carbon interaction, including water condition, carbon dioxide enrichment, warming, nitrogen deposition, ozone concentration variation, solar radiation, and altitudinal gradients. Finally, we discussed the problems in the previous studies, and prospected the possible future research fields, among which we thought the inherent dynamics mechanism and scaling of forest carbon and water interactions should be enhanced. PMID:26785576

  18. Ageism among social work faculty: impact of personal factors and other "isms".

    PubMed

    Chonody, Jill M; Wang, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was (a) to determine the extent to which ageist attitudes are evident among social work faculty and how educational factors may contribute to ageism, (b) to determine if terror management theory (in terms of aging anxiety) offers a further explanation for ageist attitudes beyond known correlates, and (c) to understand how intersecting prejudices (attitudes toward women, gay men, and lesbians) may be associated with ageist attitudes. Results indicated a low bias toward older adults, with two variables, psychological anxiety about aging and paid experience with older adults, accounting for 29.7% of the variance. Further, no association was found between ageism and sexism and sexual prejudice in the multivariate analyses. These results indicate promising advances for terror management theory in explaining ageism. Social work faculty's low bias and perceived need for gerontological content in curricula is an encouraging finding for gerontological social work education. PMID:24392648

  19. The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on U.S. buildings energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori-Boadu, Andrea N. Y. A.

    High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption

  20. Impact of abiotic factor changes in blowfly, Achoetandrus rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Irvine, Kim N; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Prangkio, Chira; Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-04-01

    Understanding how medically important flies respond to abiotic factor changes is necessary for predicting their population dynamics. In this study, we investigated the geographical distribution of the medically important blowfly, Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and ascertained the response to climatic and physio-environmental factors in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. Adult fly surveys were carried out every 2 weeks from May 2009 to May 2010 at 18 systematically randomized study sites in three districts of Chiang Mai province (Mueang Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, and Hang Dong), using reconstructable funnel traps with 1-day tainted beef offal as bait. During the study period, 8,861 adult A. rufifacies were captured, with peak densities being observed at the end of winter (i.e., late February) and throughout most of the summer (May to March). Population density had a weak but significant (α = 0.05) positive correlation with temperature (r = 0.329) and light intensity (r = 0.231), and a weak but significant (α = 0.05) negative correlation with relative humidity (r = -0.236). From the six ecological land use types (disturbed mixed deciduous forest, mixed deciduous forest, mixed orchard, lowland village, city town, and paddy field), greater fly densities were observed generally in the disturbed mixed deciduous forest and lowland village, but not in the paddy fields. In conclusion, A. rufifacies are abundant from the end of winter and throughout most of the summer in northern Thailand, with population density being weakly positively correlated with temperature and light intensity, but weakly negatively correlated with relative humidity. The greatest densities of this fly species were collected in disturbed mixed deciduous forest and lowland village land uses. The prediction of annual and season specific distributions of A. rufifacies were provided in each season and all-year patterns using a co-kriging approach (ArcGIS9.2). PMID:24535731

  1. Impact of VEGF-C Gene Polymorphisms and Environmental Factors on Oral Cancer Susceptibility in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Ming-Hsien; Liu, Yu-Fan; Hsin, Chung-Han; Lin, Chien-Huang; Shih, Chun-Han; Yang, Shun-Fa; Cheng, Chao-Wen; Lin, Chiao-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral cancer, which is the fourth most common male cancer, is associated with environmental carcinogens in Taiwan. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, an angiogenic/lymphangiogenic factor with high expression levels in tumor tissues, plays important roles in the development of several malignancies. This study was designed to examine associations of five VEGF-C gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to and clinicopathological characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Methodology/Principal Findings Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of VEGF-C were analyzed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 470 male patients with oral cancer and 426 cancer-free controls. In this study, we found that the VEGF-C rs7664413 and rs2046463 polymorphisms were associated with oral-cancer susceptibility but not with any clinicopathological parameters. The GGACA or GACTG haplotype of five VEGF-C SNPs (rs3775194, rs11947611, rs1485766, rs7664413, and rs2046463) combined was also related to the risk of oral cancer. Among 611 male smokers, VEGF-C polymorphism carriers who also chewed betel quid were found to have a 14.5–24.2-fold risk of having oral cancer compared to the VEGF-C wild-type carrier who did not chew betel quid. Among 461 male betel-quid chewers, VEGF-C polymorphism carriers who also smoked had a 2.7–18.1-fold risk of having oral cancer compared to those who carried the wild type but did not smoke. Conclusions Our results suggest that the two SNPs of VEGF-C (rs7664413 and rs2046463) and either of two haplotypes of five SNPs combined have potential predictive significance in oral carcinogenesis. Gene-environmental interactions among VEGF-C polymorphisms, smoking, and betel-quid chewing might alter one's susceptibility to oral cancer. PMID:23593187

  2. Factors influencing adverse skin responses in rats receiving repeated subcutaneous injections and potential impact on neurobehavior

    PubMed Central

    Levoe, S. Nikki; Flannery, Brenna M.; Brignolo, Laurie; Imai, Denise M.; Koehne, Amanda; Austin, Adam T.; Bruun, Donald A.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is a common route of administration in chronic studies of neuroactive compounds. However, in a pilot study we noted a significant incidence of skin abnormalities in adult male Long-Evans rats receiving daily s.c. injections of peanut oil (1.0 ml/kg) in the subscapular region for 21 d. Histopathological analyses of the lesions were consistent with a foreign body reaction. Subsequent studies were conducted to determine factors that influenced the incidence or severity of skin abnormalities, and whether these adverse skin reactions influenced a specific neurobehavioral outcome. Rats injected daily for 21 d with food grade peanut oil had an earlier onset and greater incidence of skin abnormalities relative to rats receiving an equal volume (1.0 ml/kg/d) of reagent grade peanut oil or triglyceride of coconut oil. Skin abnormalities in animals injected daily with peanut oil were increased in animals housed on corncob versus paper bedding. Comparison of animals obtained from different barrier facilities exposed to the same injection paradigm (reagent grade peanut oil, 1.0 ml/kg/d s.c.) revealed significant differences in the severity of skin abnormalities. However, animals from different barrier facilities did not perform differently in a Pavlovian fear conditioning task. Collectively, these data suggest that environmental factors influence the incidence and severity of skin abnormalities following repeated s.c. injections, but that these adverse skin responses do not significantly influence performance in at least one test of learning and memory. PMID:25705100

  3. Risk factors for small bowel angioectasia: The impact of visceral fat accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Atsuo; Niikura, Ryota; Kobayashi, Yuka; Suzuki, Hirobumi; Yoshida, Shuntaro; Watabe, Hirotsugu; Yamaji, Yutaka; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate visceral fat accumulation in association with the risk of small bowel angioectasia. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 198 consecutive patients who underwent both capsule endoscopy and CT for investigation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) from January 2009 to September 2013. The visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area were measured by CT, and information on comorbidities, body mass index, and medications was obtained from their medical records. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations. RESULTS: Capsule endoscopy revealed small bowel angioectasia in 18/198 (9.1%) patients with OGIB. Compared to patients without small bowel angioectasia, those with small bowel angioectasia had a significantly higher VFA (96 ± 76.0 cm2 vs 63.4 ± 51.5 cm2, P = 0.016) and a higher prevalence of liver cirrhosis (61% vs 22%, P < 0.001). The proportion of patients with chronic renal failure was higher in patients with small bowel angioectasia (22% vs 9%, P = 0.11). There were no significant differences in subcutaneous fat area or waist circumference. The prevalence of small bowel angioectasia progressively increased according to the VFA. Multivariate analysis showed that the VFA [odd ratio (OR) for each 10-cm2 increment = 1.1; [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.19; P = 0.021] and liver cirrhosis (OR = 6.1, 95%CI: 2.2-18.5; P < 0.001) were significant risk factors for small bowel angioectasia. CONCLUSION: VFA is positively associated with the prevalence of small bowel angioectasia, for which VFA and liver cirrhosis are independent risk factors in patients with OGIB. PMID:26109811

  4. Impact of density and environmental factors on population fluctuations in a migratory passerine.

    PubMed

    Pasinelli, Gilberto; Schaub, Michael; Häfliger, Guido; Frey, Monika; Jakober, Hans; Müller, Mathis; Stauber, Wolfgang; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Zollinger, Jean-Luc; Jenni, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    1. Populations of plants and animals typically fluctuate because of the combined effects of density-dependent and density-independent processes. The study of these processes is complicated by the fact that population sizes are typically not known exactly, because population counts are subject to sampling variance. Although the existence of sampling variance is broadly acknowledged, relatively few studies on time-series data have accounted for it, which can result in wrong inferences about population processes. 2. To increase our understanding of population dynamics, we analysed time series from six Central European populations of the migratory red-backed shrike Lanius collurio by simultaneously assessing the strength of density dependence, process and sampling variance. In addition, we evaluated hypotheses predicting effects of factors presumed to operate on the breeding grounds, at stopover sites in eastern Africa during fall and spring migration and in the wintering grounds in southern Africa. We used both simple and state-space formulations of the Gompertz equation to model population size. 3. Across populations and modelling approaches, we found consistent evidence for negative density-dependent population regulation. Further, process variance contributed substantially to variation in population size, while sampling variance did not. Environmental conditions in eastern and southern Africa appear to influence breeding population size, as rainfall in the Sahel during fall migration and in the south African wintering areas were positively related to population size in the following spring in four of six populations. In contrast, environmental conditions in the breeding grounds were not related to population size. 4. Our findings suggest negative density-dependent regulation of red-backed shrike breeding populations and are consistent with the long-standing hypothesis that conditions in the African staging and wintering areas influence population numbers of species

  5. Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Sebastian; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Éric; Sauer, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive performance with substances–especially prescription drugs–is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances. PMID:23940757

  6. Mortality and functional disability after spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage: the predictive impact of overall admission factors.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Behnam; Heidari, Kamran; Asadollahi, Shadi; Nazari, Maryam; Assarzadegan, Farhad; Amini, Afshin

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effects of different prognostic factors, including previous antiplatelet therapy, admission data, and radiographic findings on discharge and 3-month neurological condition using modified Rankin scale (mRS) and mortality at 30 days and 3-month follow-up in patients presenting to the emergency department with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (sICH). Between January and July 2012, 120 consecutive patients (males 62%, females 38%), who were admitted within 48 h of symptoms onset, were included. We recorded the following data on admission: demographics; functional scores of ICH, Glasgow Coma Scale, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; vital signs; smoking status; use of illicit drug; preadmission antiplatelet treatment; results of laboratory tests (platelet count, serum glucose, sodium and creatinine levels, and prothrombin time); and primary neuroimaging findings [intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), midline shift, and hydrocephalus]. In multivariate analysis using adjusted model for demographics and prior antiplatelet therapy; functional scores, laboratory results, and diabetes history correlated with mortality during 30 days after the event. Moreover, the parameters on the initial computed tomography scan significantly increased 30-day fatality rate and was correlated with increase in the discharge mRS score of survivors. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of early mortality associated with IVH presentation was 2.34 (CI 1.76-3.02, p = 0.003). The corresponding ORs in those with midline shift displacement and hydrocephalus were 2.18 (95% CI 2.08-3.80, p = 0.01) and 1.62 (95% CI 1.01-2.63, p = 0.02), respectively. In patients with ICH, prognostic factors, include various clinical parameters and paraclinical findings of admission time. PMID:23543380

  7. Impact of contextual factors and substance characteristics on perspectives toward cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Sebastian; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric; Sauer, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive performance with substances--especially prescription drugs--is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances. PMID:23940757

  8. Factors associated with quality of life in patients with severe asthma: the impact of pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Daiane Silva; Noblat, Lúcia de Araújo Costa Beisl; Santos, Pablo de Moura

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To identify, characterize, and quantify associations of various factors with quality of life (QoL) in patients with asthma, according to the pharmacotherapy employed. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 49 patients (≥ 18 years of age) with severe uncontrolled or refractory asthma treated at a specialized outpatient clinic of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System, regularly using high doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICs) or other medications, and presenting comorbidities. At a single time point, QoL was assessed with the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The overall AQLQ score and those of its domains were correlated with demographic variables (gender and age); Asthma Control Questionnaire score; pharmacotherapy (initial IC dose, inhaler devices, and polytherapy); and comorbidities. RESULTS: Better AQLQ scores were associated with asthma control-overall (OR = 0.38; 95% CI: 0.004-0.341; p < 0.001), "symptoms" domain (OR = 0.086; 95% CI: 0.016-0.476; p = 0.001), and "emotional function" domain (OR = 0.086; 95% CI: 0.016-0.476; p = 0.001)-and with IC dose ≤ 800 µg-"activity limitation" domain (OR = 0.249; 95% CI: 0.070-0.885; p = 0.029). Worse AQLQ scores were associated with polytherapy-"activity limitation" domain (OR = 3.651; 95% CI: 1.061-12.561; p = 0.036)-and number of comorbidities ≤ 5-"environmental stimuli" domain (OR = 5.042; 95% CI: 1.316-19.317; p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Our results, the importance of this issue, and the lack of studies taking pharmacotherapy into consideration warrant longitudinal studies to establish a causal relationship between the identified factors and QoL in asthma patients. PMID:26785957

  9. Factors associated with mumps meningitis and the possible impact of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Rhie, Kyuyol; Park, Heung-Keun; Kim, Young-Soo; Park, Ji Sook; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mumps meningitis is a common complication of mumps infection; however, information on mumps meningitis in the postvaccine era is limited. The purpose of the present study was to determine factors associated with mumps meningitis and to discuss the effect of vaccination on this disease. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients younger than 19 years with mumps, diagnosed at a university hospital in Korea between 2003 and 2013. Patients were divided into groups with and without meningitis, and the clinical features of the 2 groups were compared. Results The study enrolled 119 patients: 19 patients with meningitis and 100 patients without. Univariate analysis showed that older age (median: 15 years vs. 9.5 years, respectively), a longer interval from last vaccination (median: 10.2 years vs. 4.8 years, respectively), and febrile presentation (94.7% vs. 31.0%, respectively) were significantly associated with mumps meningitis. Sex, number of vaccination doses, bilateral parotitis, and the presence of complications other than meningitis did not differ between the 2 groups. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–1.89; P=0.04) and fever (odds ratio, 30.46; 95% confidence interval, 3.27–283.61; P<0.01) remained independent factors for mumps meningitis. Conclusion Clinicians in the postvaccine era should be aware of the possibility of mumps meningitis in febrile cases of mumps in adolescents, regardless of the number of vaccination doses. To establish the role of vaccination in mumps meningitis, further studies will be necessary. PMID:26893600

  10. " . . . There is no war here; it is only the relationship that makes us scared": factors having an impact on domestic violence in Liberian refugee communities in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Zannettino, Lana

    2012-07-01

    This article explores the factors that have an impact on domestic violence in African refugee communities, with specific reference to the Liberian community in South Australia. Seventeen focus group discussions were undertaken with women participants of the Liberian Women's Gathering. The nested ecological model (Dutton, 2001; Heise, 1998) is used to conceptualize the factors having an impact on domestic violence. The findings suggest that disruption to traditional gender roles has an impact on domestic violence at the cultural, socioeconomic, familial, and individual levels and that women's experience of domestic violence must be understood in relation to the acute and prolonged stressors of war, loss, and displacement. PMID:22886374

  11. Air pollution, a rising environmental risk factor for cognition, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration: The clinical impact on children and beyond.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Leray, E; Heydarpour, P; Torres-Jardón, R; Reis, J

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution (indoors and outdoors) is a major issue in public health as epidemiological studies have highlighted its numerous detrimental health consequences (notably, respiratory and cardiovascular pathological conditions). Over the past 15 years, air pollution has also been considered a potent environmental risk factor for neurological diseases and neuropathology. This review examines the impact of air pollution on children's brain development and the clinical, cognitive, brain structural and metabolic consequences. Long-term potential consequences for adults' brains and the effects on multiple sclerosis (MS) are also discussed. One challenge is to assess the effects of lifetime exposures to outdoor and indoor environmental pollutants, including occupational exposures: how much, for how long and what type. Diffuse neuroinflammation, damage to the neurovascular unit, and the production of autoantibodies to neural and tight-junction proteins are worrisome findings in children chronically exposed to concentrations above the current standards for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and may constitute significant risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease later in life. Finally, data supporting the role of air pollution as a risk factor for MS are reviewed, focusing on the effects of PM10 and nitrogen oxides. PMID:26718591

  12. Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in haematology patients: long-term impact and early predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Lagier, D; Platon, L; Chow-Chine, L; Sannini, A; Bisbal, M; Brun, J-P; Blache, J-L; Faucher, M; Mokart, D

    2016-09-01

    Severe forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with haematological diseases expose clinicians to specific medical and ethical considerations. We prospectively followed 143 patients with haematological malignancies, and whose lungs were mechanically ventilated for more than 24 h, over a 5-y period. We sought to identify prognostic factors of long-term outcome, and in particular to evaluate the impact of the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome in these patients. A secondary objective was to identify the early (first 48 h from ICU admission) predictive factors for acute respiratory distress syndrome severity. An evolutive haematological disease (HR 1.71; 95% CI 1.13-2.58), moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR 1.81; 95% CI 1.13-2.69) and need for renal replacement therapy (HR 2.24; 95% CI 1.52-3.31) were associated with long-term mortality. Resolution of neutropaenia during ICU stay (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42-0.94) and early microbiological documentation (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.42-0.91) were associated with survival. The extent of pulmonary infiltration observed on the first chest X-ray and the diagnosis of invasive fungal infection were the most relevant early predictive factors of the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:27418297

  13. Shorter adult stature increases the impact of risk factors for cognitive impairment: a comparison of two Nordic twin cohorts.

    PubMed

    Laitala, Venla S; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Koskenvuo, Markku; Räihä, Ismo; Rinne, Juha O; Christensen, Kaare; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2011-12-01

    We analyzed the association between mean height and old age cognition in two Nordic twin cohorts with different childhood living conditions. The cognitive performance of 4720 twin individuals from Denmark (mean age 81.6 years, SD = 4.59) and Finland (mean age 74.4 years, SD = 5.26) was measured using validated cognitive screens. Taller height was associated with better cognitive performance in Finland (beta-estimates 0.18 SD/10cm, p value < .001, for men and 0.13 SD, p = .008, for women), but this association was not significant in Denmark (beta-estimates 0.0093 SD, p value = .16, for men and 0.0075 SD, p value = .016, for women) when adjusted for age and education/social class. Among Finnish participants higher variability of cognitive performance within shorter height quintiles was observed. Analysis using gene-environment interaction models showed that environmental factors exerted a greater impact on cognitive performance in shorter participants, whereas in taller participants' it was explained mainly by genetic factors. Our results suggest that shorter participants with childhood adversity are more vulnerable to environmental risk factors for cognitive impairment. PMID:22506310

  14. A Meta-analysis of Factors Impacting Detection of Antidepressant Efficacy in Clinical Trials: The Importance of Academic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Boadie W; Thase, Michael E; Wun, Chuan-Chuan; Fayyad, Rana; Guico-Pabia, Christine J; Musgnung, Jeff; Ninan, Philip T

    2012-01-01

    Variability in placebo response greatly complicates the design, conduct, and interpretation of clinical trials of antidepressant medications. To identify factors that impact detection of antidepressant–placebo differences, we conducted a meta-analysis of all relevant phase II–IV clinical trials for major depressive disorder conducted by the manufacturer of venlafaxine and desvenlafaxine completed by March 2011. We examined 15 factors potentially relevant to trial outcomes, using the standardized mean difference on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17) score as the primary outcome. Thirty trials comprising 8933 patients were included. In univariate analyses, antidepressant efficacy (ie, drug vs placebo difference) was predicted most strongly (β=3.74, p=0.0002) by the proportion of patients in the trial enrolled from academic sites. Other factors predicting larger drug–placebo differences included lower participant completion rate, fewer post-baseline study visits, earlier year of study, and study drug (venlafaxine>desvenlafaxine). In multivariate meta-regression modeling, only the proportion of patients from academic sites maintained statistical significance as a predictor of drug–placebo separation for both HAM-D17 continuous score change (β=2.24, p=0.034) and response rate (β=2.26, p=0.035). Including a higher proportion of academic sites may increase the ability to detect differences between active drug and placebo in clinical trials of major depressive disorder. PMID:22910458

  15. The impact of workplace factors on evidence-based speech-language pathology practice for children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Gladys; Trembath, David; Arciuli, Joanne; Togher, Leanne

    2013-08-01

    Although researchers have examined barriers to implementing evidence-based practice (EBP) at the level of the individual, little is known about the effects workplaces have on speech-language pathologists' implementation of EBP. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of workplace factors on the use of EBP amongst speech-language pathologists who work with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This study sought to (a) explore views about EBP amongst speech-language pathologists who work with children with ASD, (b) identify workplace factors which, in the participants' opinions, acted as barriers or enablers to their provision of evidence-based speech-language pathology services, and (c) examine whether or not speech-language pathologists' responses to workplace factors differed based on the type of workplace or their years of experience. A total of 105 speech-language pathologists from across Australia completed an anonymous online questionnaire. The results indicate that, although the majority of speech-language pathologists agreed that EBP is necessary, they experienced barriers to their implementation of EBP including workplace culture and support, lack of time, cost of EBP, and the availability and accessibility of EBP resources. The barriers reported by speech-language pathologists were similar, regardless of their workplace (private practice vs organization) and years of experience. PMID:22967045

  16. The Impact of BIB-Spiralling Induced Missing Data Patterns on Goodness-of-Fit Tests in Factor Analysis. Occasional Paper OP93-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David

    The impact of the use of data arising from balanced incomplete block (BIB) spiralled designs on the chi-square goodness-of-fit test in factor analysis is considered. Data from BIB designs posses a unique pattern of missing data that can be characterized as missing completely at random (MCAR). Standard approaches to factor analyzing such data rest…

  17. Confronting Suffering and Death at the End of Life: The Impact of Religiosity, Psychosocial Factors, and Life Regret among Hospice Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neimeyer, Robert A.; Currier, Joseph M.; Coleman, Rachel; Tomer, Adrian; Samuel, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Although the role of spiritual, psychological, and social factors is receiving increasing attention in the end of life (EOL) context, we know far less than we need to about how these factors shape attitudes toward life and death in the face of looming loss. The present study begins to remedy these limitations by examining the relative impact of…

  18. Cancer-related lymphedema risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and impact: a review.

    PubMed

    Paskett, Electra D; Dean, Julie A; Oliveri, Jill M; Harrop, J Phil

    2012-10-20

    PURPOSE Cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is an incurable condition associated with lymph-involved cancer treatments and is an increasing health, quality of life (QOL), and cost burden on a growing cancer survivor population. This review examines the evidence for causes, risk, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and impact of this largely unexamined survivorship concern. METHODS PubMed and Medline were searched for cancer-related LE literature published since 1990 in English. The resulting references (N = 726) were evaluated for strength of design, methods, sample size, and recent publication and sorted into categories (ie, causes/prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and QOL). Sixty studies were included. Results Exercise and physical activity and sentinel lymph node biopsy reduce risk, and overweight and obesity increase risk. Evidence that physiotherapy reduces risk and that lymph node status and number of malignant nodes increase risk is less strong. Perometry and bioimpedence emerged as attractive diagnostic technologies, replacing the use of water displacement in clinical practice. Swelling can also be assessed by measuring arm circumference and relying on self-report. Symptoms can be managed, not cured, with complex physical therapy, low-level laser therapy, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. Sequelae of LE negatively affect physical and mental QOL and range in severity. However, the majority of reviewed studies involved patients with breast cancer; therefore, results may not be applicable to all cancers. CONCLUSION Research into causes, prevention, and effect on QOL of LE and information on LE in cancers other than breast is needed. Consensus on definitions and measurement, increased patient and provider awareness of signs and symptoms, and proper and prompt treatment/access, including psychosocial support, are needed to better understand, prevent, and treat LE. PMID:23008299

  19. The Impact of Dietary and Metabolic Risk Factors on Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 Diabetes Mortality in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Afshin, Ashkan; Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Fahimi, Saman; Singh, Gitanjali; Danaei, Goodarz; Sichieri, Rosely; Monteiro, Carlos A; Louzada, Maria L. C.; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Background Trends in food availability and metabolic risk factors in Brazil suggest a shift toward unhealthy dietary patterns and increased cardiometabolic disease risk, yet little is known about the impact of dietary and metabolic risk factors on cardiometabolic mortality in Brazil. Methods Based on data from Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, we used comparative risk assessment to estimate the burden of 11 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors on mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in Brazil in 2010. Information on national diets and metabolic risks were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey, the Food and Agriculture Organization database, and large observational studies including Brazilian adults. Relative risks for each risk factor were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials or prospective cohort studies; and disease-specific mortality from the GBD 2010 database. We quantified uncertainty using probabilistic simulation analyses, incorporating uncertainty in dietary and metabolic data and relative risks by age and sex. Robustness of findings was evaluated by sensitivity to varying feasible optimal levels of each risk factor. Results In 2010, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and suboptimal diet were the largest contributors to cardiometabolic deaths in Brazil, responsible for 214,263 deaths (95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 195,073 to 233,936) and 202,949 deaths (95% UI: 194,322 to 211,747), respectively. Among individual dietary factors, low intakes of fruits and whole grains and high intakes of sodium were the largest contributors to cardiometabolic deaths. For premature cardiometabolic deaths (before age 70 years, representing 40% of cardiometabolic deaths), the leading risk factors were suboptimal diet (104,169 deaths; 95% UI: 99,964 to 108,002), high SBP (98,923 deaths; 95%UI: 92,912 to 104,609) and high body-mass index (BMI) (42,643 deaths; 95%UI: 40,161 to 45,111). Conclusion suboptimal diet, high SBP, and high

  20. Factors Impacting Transgender Patients’ Discomfort with Their Family Physicians: A Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Greta R.; Zong, Xuchen; Scheim, Ayden I.; Hammond, Rebecca; Thind, Amardeep

    2015-01-01

    Background Representing approximately 0.5% of the population, transgender (trans) persons in Canada depend on family physicians for both general and transition-related care. However, physicians receive little to no training on this patient population, and trans patients are often profoundly uncomfortable and may avoid health care. This study examined factors associated with patient discomfort discussing trans health issues with a family physician in Ontario, Canada. Methods 433 trans people age 16 and over were surveyed using respondent-driven sampling for the Trans PULSE Project; 356 had a family physician. Weighted logistic regression models were fit to produce prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) via average marginal predictions, for transmasculine (n = 184) and transfeminine (n = 172) trans persons. Results Among the 83.1% (95% CI = 77.4, 88.9) of trans Ontarians who had a family physician, approximately half reported discomfort discussing trans health issues. 37.2% of transmasculine and 38.1% of transfeminine persons reported at least one trans-specific negative experience. In unadjusted analysis, sociodemographics did not predict discomfort, but those who planned to medically transition sex, but had not begun, were more likely to report discomfort (transmasculine: PRR = 2.62 (95% CI = 1.44, 4.77); transfeminine: PRR = 1.85 (95% CI = 1.08, 3.15)). Adjusted for other factors, greater perceived physician knowledge about trans issues was associated with reduced likelihood of discomfort, and previous trans-specific negative experiences with a family physician with increased discomfort. Transfeminine persons who reported three or more types of negative experiences were 2.26 times as likely, and transmasculine persons 1.61 times as likely, to report discomfort. In adjusted analyses, sociodemographic associations differed by gender, with being previously married or having higher education associated with increased risk of discomfort among transfeminine persons, but

  1. The impact of workplace factors on filing of workers’ compensation claims among nursing home workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Injuries reported to workers’ compensation (WC) system are often used to estimate incidence of health outcomes and evaluate interventions in musculoskeletal epidemiology studies. However, WC claims represent a relatively small subset of all musculoskeletal disorders among employed individuals, and perhaps not a representative subset. This study determined the influence of workplace and individual factors on filing of workers’ compensation claims by nursing home employees with back pain. Methods Surveys were conducted in 18 skilled nursing facilities in four U.S. states. Self-administered questionnaires obtained information on demographic characteristics, working environment, and health behaviors/status. Employees who reported low back pain at least once in four questionnaire surveys were included. WC claims from the same facilities were obtained from the employer’s workers compensation insurer and matched by employee name. The dichotomous dependent variable was filing of back-related worker’s compensation claim. Association with predictors of interest, including pain severity, physical job demand, job strain, social support, schedule control, and safety climate, was assessed using multivariate regression modeling. Individual characteristics were tested as potential confounders. Results Pain severity level was significantly associated with filing low-back related claims (odds ratio (OR) = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.18 – 1.87). Higher physical demands at work (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01 – 1.14) also increased the likelihood of claim filing. Higher job strain (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.73 – 0.94), social support at work (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.82 – 0.99), and education (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.71 – 0.89) decreased the likelihood of claim filing. Conclusions The results suggest that the WC system captured the most severe occupational injuries. Workplace factors had additional influence on workers’ decision to file

  2. Impact of environmental factors on marijuana use in 11 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Pejnović Franelić, Iva; Kuzman, Marina; Pavić Šimetin, Ivana; Kern, Josipa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association between environmental factors (perceived availability of marijuana, perceived use among friends and siblings, use of alcohol and tobacco, family structure, parental control, school performance) and lifetime prevalence and frequent and early marijuana use in high school students. Methods We used self-reported data from 15-16 years old participants of the 2003 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) conducted in 11 countries: Denmark, Estonia, Norway, Croatia, Slovenia, Germany, Switzerland, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Multivariate logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results Countries varied according to lifetime prevalence (8.7%-47.8%) and frequent (8.7%-23.9%) and early (3.0%-13.0%) marijuana use. Daily tobacco smoking was most strongly associated with lifetime marijuana use for boys in 7 and for girls in 5 countries, with highest odds ratio (OR, 95% and confidence interval – CI) for boys in Denmark (OR, 13.52; 95% CI, 8.16-22.4), and for girls in the Czech Republic (OR, 21.21; 95% CI, 12.99-34.62). Perceived marijuana availability was most strongly associated with frequent marijuana use for boys in 4 countries (highest in Slovenia: OR, 19.28; 95% CI, 6.52-57.02) and girls in 5 (highest in Slovenia: OR, 19.05; 95% CI, 5.18-70.04). Perceived use of marijuana among friends was most strongly associated with frequent marijuana use in 5 countries, both for boys (highest in Norway: OR, 23.91; 95% CI, 4.16-137.48) and girls (highest in Denmark: OR, 75.42; 95% CI, 13.11-433.90). Perceived use of marijuana among friends was most strongly associated with early marijuana use in 8 countries for boys (highest in Norway: OR, 54.03; 95% CI, 3.34-875.19) and 3 countries for girls (highest in Denmark: OR, 7.29; 95%CI, 1.77-30.12). Conclusion In each country, marijuana use was associated with similar factors, regardless of marijuana use prevalence in that country.The influence

  3. The impact of genetic factors on response to glucocorticoids therapy in IBD.

    PubMed

    Gabryel, Marcin; Skrzypczak-Zielinska, Marzena; Kucharski, Marcin A; Slomski, Ryszard; Dobrowolska, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Glucocorticosteroids (GCs) are used for many years as first-line drugs for the achievement of remission in exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, close to 20% of patients are resistant to GCs, and 40% of patients become dependent on GCs. The challenge of today's personalized medicine is the anticipation of the steroid therapy effects even before the initiation of treatment. As several studies show, individually variable response to GCs in population has a genetic background and may depend on gene variability encoding proteins involved in the function and metabolism of GCs. To those genes belong: NR3C1 - responsible for the synthesis of GC receptor (GR); Hsp90, HSP70, STIP1, FKB5 - genes of GR protein complex; ABCB1 and IPO13 coding glycoprotein p170; and importin 13 - involved in GCs transport; IL1A, IL1B, IL2, IL4, IL8, IL10, TNF, and MIF - genes of the epithelial pro-inflammatory factors synthesis, which excessive activation causes steroid resistance as well as CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 - encoding GCs biotransformation enzymes. This work systematizes and sums up the state of current knowledge in the field of pharmacogenetics as well as expectations for the future in the realm of individualized medicine in IBD patients treated with GC drugs. PMID:26776488

  4. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Black People: Impact of Ethnicity on Survival and Genetic Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Martino, Suella; Jamme, Mathieu; Deligny, Christophe; Busson, Marc; Loiseau, Pascale; Azoulay, Elie; Galicier, Lionel; Pène, Frédéric; Provôt, François; Dossier, Antoine; Saheb, Samir; Veyradier, Agnès; Coppo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Black people are at increased risk of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Whether clinical presentation of TTP in Black patients has specific features is unknown. We assessed here differences in TTP presentation and outcome between Black and White patients. Clinical presentation was comparable between both ethnic groups. However, prognosis differed with a lower death rate in Black patients than in White patients (2.7% versus 11.6%, respectively, P = .04). Ethnicity, increasing age and neurologic involvement were retained as risk factors for death in a multivariable model (P < .05 all). Sixty-day overall survival estimated by the Kaplan-Meier curves and compared with the Log-Rank test confirmed that Black patients had a better survival than White patients (P = .03). Salvage therapies were similarly performed between both groups, suggesting that disease severity was comparable. The comparison of HLA-DRB1*11, -DRB1*04 and -DQB1*03 allele frequencies between Black patients and healthy Black individuals revealed no significant difference. However, the protective allele against TTP, HLA-DRB1*04, was dramatically decreased in Black individuals in comparison with White individuals. Black people with TTP may have a better survival than White patients despite a comparable disease severity. A low natural frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 in Black ethnicity may account for the greater risk of TTP in this population. PMID:27383202

  5. Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Black People: Impact of Ethnicity on Survival and Genetic Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Suella; Jamme, Mathieu; Deligny, Christophe; Busson, Marc; Loiseau, Pascale; Azoulay, Elie; Galicier, Lionel; Pène, Frédéric; Provôt, François; Dossier, Antoine; Saheb, Samir; Veyradier, Agnès; Coppo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Black people are at increased risk of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Whether clinical presentation of TTP in Black patients has specific features is unknown. We assessed here differences in TTP presentation and outcome between Black and White patients. Clinical presentation was comparable between both ethnic groups. However, prognosis differed with a lower death rate in Black patients than in White patients (2.7% versus 11.6%, respectively, P = .04). Ethnicity, increasing age and neurologic involvement were retained as risk factors for death in a multivariable model (P < .05 all). Sixty-day overall survival estimated by the Kaplan-Meier curves and compared with the Log-Rank test confirmed that Black patients had a better survival than White patients (P = .03). Salvage therapies were similarly performed between both groups, suggesting that disease severity was comparable. The comparison of HLA-DRB1*11, -DRB1*04 and -DQB1*03 allele frequencies between Black patients and healthy Black individuals revealed no significant difference. However, the protective allele against TTP, HLA-DRB1*04, was dramatically decreased in Black individuals in comparison with White individuals. Black people with TTP may have a better survival than White patients despite a comparable disease severity. A low natural frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 in Black ethnicity may account for the greater risk of TTP in this population. PMID:27383202

  6. Measuring the impact of 3D data geometric modeling on spatial analysis: Illustration with Skyview factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasebin, M.; Perret, J.; Mustière, S.; Weber, C.

    2012-10-01

    The increased availability of 3D urban data reflects a growing interest in 3D spatial analysis. As 3D spatial analysis often uses complex 3D data, studies of the potential gains of using more detailed 3D urban databases for specific uses is an important issue. First, more complex data implies an increase in time and memory usage for the analysis (and calls for more research on the efficiency of the algorithms used). Second, detailed 3D urban data are complex to produce, expensive and it is important to be well informed in order to decide whether of not to invest in such data. Currently, many studies have been led about the fitness for use of 2D data but they are very scarce concerning 3D data. This article presents a method to determine the influence of 3D modeling on the results of 3D analysis by isolating the potential sources of errors (such as roof modeling and geometric accuracy). This method is applied on two 3D datasets (LOD1 and LOD2) and a 3D indicator (the sky view factor or SVF). The results show that the significant influence of roof modeling is globally compensated by the difference in geometric modeling but that important local variations are noticed. Nevertheless, for 75% of the SVF processed the difference between the results using these two databases is lower than 2%.

  7. Impact of Environmental Factors on Bacteriocin Promoter Activity in Gut-Derived Lactobacillus salivarius

    PubMed Central

    Guinane, Caitriona M.; Piper, Clare; Draper, Lorraine A.; O'Connor, Paula M.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriocin production is regarded as a desirable probiotic trait that aids in colonization and persistence in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Strains of Lactobacillus salivarius, a species associated with the GIT, are regarded as promising probiotic candidates and have a number of associated bacteriocins documented to date. These include multiple class IIb bacteriocins (salivaricin T, salivaricin P, and ABP-118) and the class IId bacteriocin bactofencin A, which show activity against medically important pathogens. However, the production of a bacteriocin in laboratory media does not ensure production under stressful environmental conditions, such as those encountered within the GIT. To allow this issue to be addressed, the promoter regions located upstream of the structural genes encoding the L. salivarius bacteriocins mentioned above were fused to a number of reporter proteins (green fluorescent protein [GFP], red fluorescent protein [RFP], and luciferase [Lux]). Of these, only transcriptional fusions to GFP generated signals of sufficient strength to enable the study of promoter activity in L. salivarius. While analysis of the class IIb bacteriocin promoter regions indicated relatively weak GFP expression, assessment of the promoter of the antistaphylococcal bacteriocin bactofencin A revealed a strong promoter that is most active in the absence of the antimicrobial peptide and is positively induced in the presence of mild environmental stresses, including simulated gastric fluid. Taken together, these data provide information on factors that influence bacteriocin production, which will assist in the development of strategies to optimize in vivo and in vitro production of these antimicrobials. PMID:26341205

  8. Resilience among women with HIV: Impact of silencing the self and socioeconomic factors

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Sannisha K.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Kelso, Gwendolyn A.; Cruise, Ruth C.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Watson, Cheryl; Burke-Miller, Jane K.; Brody, Leslie R.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S., women account for over a quarter of the approximately 50,000 annual new HIV diagnoses and face intersecting and ubiquitous adversities including gender inequities, sexism, poverty, violence, and limited access to quality education and employment. Women are also subjected to prescribed gender roles such as silencing their needs in interpersonal relationships, which may lessen their ability to be resilient and function adaptively following adversity. Previous studies have often highlighted the struggles encountered by women with HIV without focusing on their strengths. The present cross-sectional study investigated the relationships of silencing the self and socioeconomic factors (education, employment, and income) with resilience in a sample of women with HIV. The sample consisted of 85 women with HIV, diverse ethnic/racial groups, aged 24 – 65 enrolled at the Chicago site of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study in the midwestern region of the United States. Measures included the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale -10 item and the Silencing the Self Scale (STSS). Participants showed high levels of resilience. Women with lower scores on the STSS (lower self-silencing) reported significantly higher resilience compared to women with higher STSS scores. Although employment significantly related to higher resilience, silencing the self tended to predict resilience over and above the contributions of employment, income, and education. Results suggest that intervention and prevention efforts aimed at decreasing silencing the self and increasing employment opportunities may improve resilience. PMID:24932061

  9. Impact factor analysis of mixture spectra unmixing based on independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Chen, Shengbo; Guo, Xulin; Zhou, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Based on spectral independence of different materials, independent component analysis (ICA), a blind source separation technique, can be applied to separate mixed hyperspectral signals. For the purpose of detecting objects on the sea and improving the precision of target recognition, an original ICA method is applied by analyzing the influence exerted by spectral features of different materials and mixture materials on spectral unmixing results. Due to the complexity of targets on the sea, several measured spectra of different materials have been mixed with water spectra to simulate mixed spectra for mixture spectra decomposition. Synthetic mixed spectra are generated by linear combinations of different materials and water spectra to obtain separated results. We then compared the separated results with the measured spectra of each endmember by coefficient of determination. We conclude that these factors that will change the original spectral characteristics of Gaussian distribution have significant influence on the separated results and selecting a proper initial matrix, and processing spectral data with lower noise can help improve the ICA method for more accurate separated results from hyperspectral data.

  10. Childhood CT scans and cancer risk: impact of predisposing factors for cancer on the risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Journy, N; Roué, T; Cardis, E; Le Pointe, H Ducou; Brisse, H; Chateil, J-F; Laurier, D; Bernier, M-O

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the role of cancer predisposing factors (PFs) on the associations between paediatric computed tomography (CT) scan exposures and subsequent risk of central nervous system (CNS) tumours and leukaemia. A cohort of children who underwent a CT scan in 2000-2010 in 23 French radiology departments was linked with the national childhood cancers registry and national vital status registry; information on PFs was retrieved through hospital discharge databases. In children without PF, hazard ratios of 1.07 (95% CI 0.99-1.10) for CNS tumours (15 cases) and 1.16 (95% CI 0.77-1.27) for leukaemia (12 cases) were estimated for each 10 mGy increment in CT x-rays organ doses. These estimates were similar to those obtained in the whole cohort. In children with PFs, no positive dose-risk association was observed, possibly related to earlier non-cancer mortality in this group. Our results suggest a modifying effect of PFs on CT-related cancer risks, but need to be confirmed by longer follow-up and other studies. PMID:26878249

  11. Host and donor risk factors before and after liver transplantation that impact HCV recurrence.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, Marina

    2003-11-01

    1. The natural history of hepatitis C after liver transplantation is variable. Several factors, including those related to the virus, the host, the environment and the donor, are probably implicated in the outcome. 2. The immune status per se likely represents the main significant variable in influencing disease severity in hepatitis C virus-infected patients. Findings that support this statement include the higher aggressivity of hepatitis C in immunocompromised liver transplant recipients as compared with that observed in immunocompetent patients, both before and after the development of compensated cirrhosis, and the significant association described between the degree of immunosuppression and disease severity. 3. Similar to that observed in the immunocompetent population, the age at the time of infection (age of the donor) strongly affects posttransplantation hepatitis C virus-related disease progression. 4. Hepatitis C-related disease progression is faster in patients who underwent transplantation in recent years as compared with those who underwent transplantation in earlier cohorts. The increasing age of the donor and the use of stronger immunosuppression may, in part, explain the worse outcomes seen in recent years. 5. Additional host-related variables predictive of outcome include the immunogenetic background, the timing of recurrence, and the early histologic findings. PMID:14586894

  12. Resilience among women with HIV: Impact of silencing the self and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Dale, Sannisha K; Cohen, Mardge H; Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cruise, Ruth C; Weber, Kathleen M; Watson, Cheryl; Burke-Miller, Jane K; Brody, Leslie R

    2014-03-01

    In the U.S., women account for over a quarter of the approximately 50,000 annual new HIV diagnoses and face intersecting and ubiquitous adversities including gender inequities, sexism, poverty, violence, and limited access to quality education and employment. Women are also subjected to prescribed gender roles such as silencing their needs in interpersonal relationships, which may lessen their ability to be resilient and function adaptively following adversity. Previous studies have often highlighted the struggles encountered by women with HIV without focusing on their strengths. The present cross-sectional study investigated the relationships of silencing the self and socioeconomic factors (education, employment, and income) with resilience in a sample of women with HIV. The sample consisted of 85 women with HIV, diverse ethnic/racial groups, aged 24 - 65 enrolled at the Chicago site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study in the midwestern region of the United States. Measures included the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale -10 item and the Silencing the Self Scale (STSS). Participants showed high levels of resilience. Women with lower scores on the STSS (lower self-silencing) reported significantly higher resilience compared to women with higher STSS scores. Although employment significantly related to higher resilience, silencing the self tended to predict resilience over and above the contributions of employment, income, and education. Results suggest that intervention and prevention efforts aimed at decreasing silencing the self and increasing employment opportunities may improve resilience. PMID:24932061

  13. Marbling and Its Nutritional Impact on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the role of fat in beef palatability and healthfulness. Particular emphasis is placed on the content of oleic acid in beef, and how this increases with time when cattle are fed a grain-based diet. Oleic acid decreases the melting point of lipids from beef, increasing the perception of juiciness and improving beef flavor. Clinical trials have demonstrated that ground beef containing elevated oleic acid increases, or at the least has no negative effects on the concentration of HDL cholesterol. The amount of fat in published ground beef intervention trials greatly exceeds the amount of fat in equivalent portions of beef from U.S. domestic or Korean Hanwoo cattle. Thus, we conclude 1) Beef cattle should be raised under production conditions that increase the concentration of oleic acid in their edible tissues (i.e., by grain feeding over extended periods of time); and 2) The amount of fat consumed in a typical portion of beef will not increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:27621682

  14. Marbling and Its Nutritional Impact on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the role of fat in beef palatability and healthfulness. Particular emphasis is placed on the content of oleic acid in beef, and how this increases with time when cattle are fed a grain-based diet. Oleic acid decreases the melting point of lipids from beef, increasing the perception of juiciness and improving beef flavor. Clinical trials have demonstrated that ground beef containing elevated oleic acid increases, or at the least has no negative effects on the concentration of HDL cholesterol. The amount of fat in published ground beef intervention trials greatly exceeds the amount of fat in equivalent portions of beef from U.S. domestic or Korean Hanwoo cattle. Thus, we conclude 1) Beef cattle should be raised under production conditions that increase the concentration of oleic acid in their edible tissues (i.e., by grain feeding over extended periods of time); and 2) The amount of fat consumed in a typical portion of beef will not increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:27621682

  15. Using factor analysis to attribute health impacts to particulate pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Grahame, Thomas; Hidy, George

    2004-01-01

    Laden et al. (2000) recently reported results of applying factor analysis to data taken in six cities from 1979 to 1988, identifying airborne particle sources potentially affecting daily mortality. These authors sought relationships between source groups and risk measures using source tracer elements, Se (coal combustion), Pb (light-duty motor vehicle sources), and Si (crustal--soil dispersion). Combined data analyses of this kind may overlook the complexity of source contributions, which have common tracer elements. In one of the cities, Boston, for example, the authors found coal combustion was an important source of mortality risk. For the city of Boston, the authors attribute coal combustion largely to distant upwind regional sources. The emphasis on coal combustion is confounded by the presence of major local sources of residual oil combustion, which contribute V, Se, and S (sulfur as sulfate) to the source apportionment. Evaluation of the source identification using single-element tracer analysis indicates that the detailed chemical composition or profile of major local sources needs to be taken into account in these investigations to minimize misclassification of airborne particle sources with potential adverse health effects. PMID:15204802

  16. Impact of Environmental Factors on Bacteriocin Promoter Activity in Gut-Derived Lactobacillus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Guinane, Caitriona M; Piper, Clare; Draper, Lorraine A; O'Connor, Paula M; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriocin production is regarded as a desirable probiotic trait that aids in colonization and persistence in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Strains of Lactobacillus salivarius, a species associated with the GIT, are regarded as promising probiotic candidates and have a number of associated bacteriocins documented to date. These include multiple class IIb bacteriocins (salivaricin T, salivaricin P, and ABP-118) and the class IId bacteriocin bactofencin A, which show activity against medically important pathogens. However, the production of a bacteriocin in laboratory media does not ensure production under stressful environmental conditions, such as those encountered within the GIT. To allow this issue to be addressed, the promoter regions located upstream of the structural genes encoding the L. salivarius bacteriocins mentioned above were fused to a number of reporter proteins (green fluorescent protein [GFP], red fluorescent protein [RFP], and luciferase [Lux]). Of these, only transcriptional fusions to GFP generated signals of sufficient strength to enable the study of promoter activity in L. salivarius. While analysis of the class IIb bacteriocin promoter regions indicated relatively weak GFP expression, assessment of the promoter of the antistaphylococcal bacteriocin bactofencin A revealed a strong promoter that is most active in the absence of the antimicrobial peptide and is positively induced in the presence of mild environmental stresses, including simulated gastric fluid. Taken together, these data provide information on factors that influence bacteriocin production, which will assist in the development of strategies to optimize in vivo and in vitro production of these antimicrobials. PMID:26341205

  17. The impact of the oil industry on the indigenous population in the oil-producing areas of Nigeria: As measured by ecological factors

    SciTech Connect

    Ikein, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Exploration and exploitation of the petroleum resource has created some of the largest fortunes and has helped to achieve some of the most impressive economic growth and development, yet little or no attention has been directed to its impact on the producing areas, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure the impact of the oil industry on the inhabitants of the oil-producing areas as measured by certain ecological factors. The factors considered were education, health, housing, power, roads, water, and pollution. The selected socio-economic factors are thought to influence the social well being of the inhabitants.

  18. Assessment of cognitive factors that impact on student knowledge of genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerow, Tracy Nelson

    1999-12-01

    old ones. Science teachers need to apply meaningful assessment methods as students progress through learning new concepts so that errors in thinking can be diagnosed and remedied with appropriate teaching strategies. It is anticipated that assessment methods that engage students in explaining their understanding of concepts will bring about significant changes in how students learn subjects like genetics and also impact instruction in this crucial area of biological science.

  19. Factors impacting manganese transport from soils into rivers using data from Shale Hills CZO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, E.; Brantley, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Many soils are enriched in trace elements due to atmospheric inputs from industrial sources but little is known about how long these contaminants persist in soils or the rates at which they are transferred into rivers. Modeling the movement of contaminants through the environment is complicated by the heterogeneity of soils and the variability of contaminant mobility across spatial scales. In this study, we use soil, water, and vegetation chemistry to compare rates of Mn contaminant mobilization and removal from soils at ridge, hillslope, and catchment-scales in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO). The SSHCZO is a first-order, forested watershed located within the Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) in Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Studies from the SSHCZO are compared to trends in long-term water quality measurements for the Susquehanna River to evaluate terrestrial inputs to the river system. At SSHCZO, we find that Mn is being removed ~7x more quickly from soils in swales than soils on convex-upward hillslopes; thus, swales are a large source of dissolved Mn to the stream. Release rates of Mn from all soils are dwarfed by rates of uptake into vegetation, consistent with the hypothesis that trees temporarily slow the removal of atmospherically-deposited Mn from the soil by accumulating Mn in plant biomass. However, elevated levels of dissolved organic carbon in soil pore waters may enhance Mn release in the swales; therefore, vegetation may first decrease then increase rates of Mn removal from soils over the long-term. Unlike the major rock-derived elements which exhibit chemostatic behavior, Mn concentrations in the stream vary widely over a large range of stream discharge rates. High Mn fluxes in the stream occur in short pulses that only weakly respond to precipitation events, suggesting that dissolved Mn loads in rivers are not solely driven by the hydrology but are rather strongly impacted by processes in the soil and stream sediments. Current

  20. Factors Influencing Ascertainment Bias of Microsatellite Allele Sizes: Impact on Estimates of Mutation Rates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Biao; Kimmel, Marek

    2013-01-01

    of allele length expansion in human being greater than that in chimpanzee. We also demonstrate that population bottlenecks and expansions in the recent human history have little impact on our conclusions. PMID:23946335

  1. An Analysis of Peer-Reviewed Scores and Impact Factors with Different Citation Time Windows: A Case Study of 28 Ophthalmologic Journals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue-Li; Gai, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Shi-Le; Wang, Pu

    2015-01-01

    Background An important attribute of the traditional impact factor was the controversial 2-year citation window. So far, several scholars have proposed using different citation time windows for evaluating journals. However, there is no confirmation whether a longer citation time window would be better. How did the journal evaluation effects of 3IF, 4IF, and 6IF comparing with 2IF and 5IF? In order to understand these questions, we made a comparative study of impact factors with different citation time windows with the peer-reviewed scores of ophthalmologic journals indexed by Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database. Methods The peer-reviewed scores of 28 ophthalmologic journals were obtained through a self-designed survey questionnaire. Impact factors with different citation time windows (including 2IF, 3IF, 4IF, 5IF, and 6IF) of 28 ophthalmologic journals were computed and compared in accordance with each impact factor’s definition and formula, using the citation analysis function of the Web of Science (WoS) database. An analysis of the correlation between impact factors with different citation time windows and peer-reviewed scores was carried out. Results Although impact factor values with different citation time windows were different, there was a high level of correlation between them when it came to evaluating journals. In the current study, for ophthalmologic journals’ impact factors with different time windows in 2013, 3IF and 4IF seemed the ideal ranges for comparison, when assessed in relation to peer-reviewed scores. In addition, the 3-year and 4-year windows were quite consistent with the cited peak age of documents published by ophthalmologic journals. Research Limitations Our study is based on ophthalmology journals and we only analyze the impact factors with different citation time window in 2013, so it has yet to be ascertained whether other disciplines (especially those with a later cited peak) or other years would follow the same or

  2. Impact on postoperative bleeding and cost of recombinant activated factor VII in patients undergoing heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Allison L.; Lowery, Ashleigh V.; Pajoumand, Mehrnaz; Pham, Si M.; Slejko, Julia F.; Tanaka, Kenichi A.; Mazzeffi, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac transplantation can be complicated by refractory hemorrhage particularly in cases where explantation of a ventricular assist device is necessary. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) has been used to treat refractory bleeding in cardiac surgery patients, but little information is available on its efficacy or cost in heart transplant patients. Methods: Patients who had orthotopic heart transplantation between January 2009 and December 2014 at a single center were reviewed. Postoperative bleeding and the total costs of hemostatic therapies were compared between patients who received rFVIIa and those who did not. Propensity scores were created and used to control for the likelihood of receiving rFVIIa in order to reduce bias in our risk estimates. Results: Seventy-six patients underwent heart transplantation during the study period. Twenty-one patients (27.6%) received rFVIIa for refractory intraoperative bleeding. There was no difference in postoperative red blood cell transfusion, chest tube output, or surgical re-exploration between patients who received rFVIIa and those who did not, even after adjusting with the propensity score (P = 0.94, P = 0.60, and P = 0.10, respectively). The total cost for hemostatic therapies was significantly higher in the rFVIIa group (median $10,819 vs. $1,985; P < 0.0001). Subgroup analysis of patients who underwent redo-sternotomy with left ventricular assist device explantation did not show any benefit for rFVIIa either. Conclusions: In this relatively small cohort, rFVIIa use was not associated with decreased postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing heart transplantation; however, it led to significantly higher cost. PMID:27397445

  3. Impact Factors for Microinvasion in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: A Possible System for Defining Clinical Target Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Bi Aihong; Zeng Zhaochong; Ji Yuan; Zeng Haiying; Xu Chen; Tang Zhaoyou; Fan Jia; Zhou Jian; Zeng Mengsu; Tan Yunshan

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To quantify microscopic invasion of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHC) into nontumor tissue and define the gross tumor volume (GTV)-to-clinical target volume (CTV) expansion necessary for radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: One-hundred IHC patients undergoing radical resection from January 2004 to July 2008 were enrolled in this study. Pathologic and clinical data including maximum tumor diameter, tumor boundary type, TNM stage, histologic grade, tumor markers, and liver enzymes were reviewed. The distance of microinvasion from the tumor boundary was measured by microscopy. The contraction coefficient for tumor measurements in radiographs and slide-mounted tissue was calculated. SPSS15.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Sixty-five patients (65%) exhibited tumor microinvasions. Microinvasions ranged from 0.4-8 mm, with 96% of patients having a microinvasion distance {<=}6 mm measured on slide. The radiograph-to-slide contraction coefficient was 82.1%. The degree of microinvasion was correlated with tumor boundary type, TNM stage, histologic grade, and serum levels of carbohydrate antigen 19-9, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, {gamma}-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase. To define CTV accurately, we devised a scoring system based on combination of these factors. According to this system, a score {<=}1.5 is associated with 96.1% sensitivity in detecting patients with a microextension {<=}4.9 mm in radiographs, whereas a score {>=}2 has a 95.1% sensitivity in detecting microextension {<=}7.9 mm measured on radiograph. Conclusions: Patients with a score {<=}1.5 and {>=}2 require a radiographic GTV-to-CTV expansions of 4.9 and 7.9 mm, respectively, to encompass >95% of microinvasions.

  4. Insights antifibrotic mechanism of methyl palmitate: Impact on nuclear factor kappa B and proinflammatory cytokines

    SciTech Connect

    Mantawy, Eman M.; Tadros, Mariane G.; Awad, Azza S.; Hassan, Dina A.A.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal

    2012-01-01

    Fibrosis accompanies most chronic liver disorders and is a major factor contributing to hepatic failure. Therefore, the need for an effective treatment is evident. The present study was designed to assess the potential antifibrotic effect of MP and whether MP can attenuate the severity of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in chronic liver injury. Male albino rats were treated with either CCl{sub 4} (1 ml/kg, twice a week) and/or MP (300 mg/kg, three times a week) for six weeks. CCl{sub 4}-intoxication significantly increased liver weight, serum aminotransferases, total cholesterol and triglycerides while decreased albumin level and these effects were prevented by co-treatment with MP. As indicators of oxidative stress, CCl{sub 4}-intoxication caused significant glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation while MP co-treatment preserved them within normal values. As markers of fibrosis, hydroxyproline content and α-SMA expression increased markedly in the CCl{sub 4} group and MP prevented these alterations. Histopathological examination by both light and electron microscope further confirmed the protective efficacy of MP. To elucidate the antifibrotic mechanisms of MP, the expression of NF-κB, iNOS and COX-2 and the tissue levels of TNF-α and nitric oxide were assessed; CCl{sub 4} increased the expression of NF-κB and all downstream inflammatory cascade while MP co-treatment inhibited them. Collectively these findings indicate that MP possesses a potent antifibrotic effect which may be partly a consequence of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. -- Highlights: ► Methyl palmitate is free fatty acid methyl ester. ► It possesses a strong antifibrotic effect. ► It inhibits NF-κB and the consequent proinflammatory and oxidative stress response.

  5. The RNA chaperone Hfq impacts growth, metabolism and production of virulence factors in Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Kakoschke, Tamara; Kakoschke, Sara; Magistro, Giuseppe; Schubert, Sören; Borath, Marc; Heesemann, Jürgen; Rossier, Ombeline

    2014-01-01

    To adapt to changes in environmental conditions, bacteria regulate their gene expression at the transcriptional but also at the post-transcriptional level, e.g. by small RNAs (sRNAs) which modulate mRNA stability and translation. The conserved RNA chaperone Hfq mediates the interaction of many sRNAs with their target mRNAs, thereby playing a global role in fine-tuning protein production. In this study, we investigated the significance of Hfq for the enteropathogen Yersina enterocolitica serotype O:8. Hfq facilitated optimal growth in complex and minimal media. Our comparative protein analysis of parental and hfq-negative strains suggested that Hfq promotes lipid metabolism and transport, cell redox homeostasis, mRNA translation and ATP synthesis, and negatively affects carbon and nitrogen metabolism, transport of siderophore and peptides and tRNA synthesis. Accordingly, biochemical tests indicated that Hfq represses ornithine decarboxylase activity, indole production and utilization of glucose, mannitol, inositol and 1,2-propanediol. Moreover, Hfq repressed production of the siderophore yersiniabactin and its outer membrane receptor FyuA. In contrast, hfq mutants exhibited reduced urease production. Finally, strains lacking hfq were more susceptible to acidic pH and oxidative stress. Unlike previous reports in other Gram-negative bacteria, Hfq was dispensable for type III secretion encoded by the virulence plasmid. Using a chromosomally encoded FLAG-tagged Hfq, we observed increased production of Hfq-FLAG in late exponential and stationary phases. Overall, Hfq has a profound effect on metabolism, resistance to stress and modulates the production of two virulence factors in Y. enterocolitica, namely urease and yersiniabactin. PMID:24454955

  6. A field study to evaluate the impact of different factors on the nutrient pollutant concentrations in green roof runoff.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaochen; Zhao, Xinhua; Peng, Chenrui; Zhang, Xinbo; Wang, Jianghai

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of different factors on the nutrient pollutant concentrations in green roof runoff and to provide reference data for the engineering design of dual substrate layer green roofs. The data were collected from eight different trays under three kinds of artificial rains. The results showed that except for total phosphorus, dual substrate layer green roofs behaved as a sink for most of the nutrient pollutants (significant at p < 0.05), and the first-flush effect did not occur during the 27 simulated rain events. The results also revealed that the concentration of these nutrient pollutants in the runoff strongly depended on the features of the nutrient substrates used in the green roof and the depth of the adsorption substrates. Compared with the influence of the substrates, the influence of the plant density and drainage systems was small. PMID:24355859

  7. Prevalence, psychological impact, and risk factors of erectile dysfunction in patients with Peyronie's disease: a retrospective analysis of 309 cases.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Gianni; Romano, Gennaro; Paulis, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the tunica albuginea of the penis. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a possible invalidating symptom of PD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, psychological impact, and risk factors of ED in patients with PD. The study was conducted by carrying out a retrospective analysis of the clinical records of 309 patients with PD who visited our andrology clinic. All patients underwent the following tests: body mass index, common blood tests and hormone assays, questionnaire for erectile function assessment, dynamic penile color Doppler ultrasonography, imaging of the penis at maximum erection with photographic poses according to Kelâmi, psychosexual impact evaluation with PD Questionnaire (symptom bother score), evaluation of depression symptoms with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and evaluation of the intensity of penile pain with the pain intensity numeric rating scale. ED was observed in 37.5% of the cases. We divided the cases into two groups: group A (PD + ED), 116 cases, and group B (PD without ED), 193 cases. After multivariate analysis, we concluded that the following comorbidities are independent risk factors for ED: dyslipidemia, obesity, chronic prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and autoimmune diseases. A depressive disorder was observed in 62.4%, and it was more frequent in patients with PD + ED (91.37% versus 45.07% group B). Sexual bother was greater in group A compared with group B (9.7 versus 7.6). Intensities of depressive symptoms and sexual bother were significantly higher compared with cases with no curvature when the bend angle was ≥30°. Our study confirms that an integrated psychological support with medical treatment is needed in patients with PD. PMID:27486570

  8. Medical Hypotheses 2006 impact factor rises to 1.3--a vindication of the 'editorial review' system for revolutionary science.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    The Thomson Scientific Impact Factor (IF) for Medical Hypotheses has risen to 1.299 for 2006. This means that the IF has more than doubled since 2004, when it stood at 0.607. Using Elsevier's Scopus database; in 2004 there were 437 citations to Medical Hypotheses papers published in the previous two years--by 2006 this had trebled to 1216 citations. Monthly internet usage of Medical Hypotheses run at an average of about 26000 papers downloaded per month. An IF of 1.3 means that Medical Hypotheses has now entered the mainstream level of 'respectable' medical journals, in terms of its usage by other scientists. This is particularly pleasing given the aim of the journal is to publish radical and speculative ideas. A healthy IF is important to Medical Hypotheses because the journal deploys a system of editorial review, rather than peer review, for evaluation and selection of papers. Editorial review involves selection of a journal's content primarily by an editor who has broad experience and competence in the field, assisted by a relatively small editorial advisory board. The great advantage of editorial review is that it is able, by policy, to favour the publication of revolutionary science. But since editorial review relies on hard-to-quantify and non-transparent individual judgments, it is important for its outcomes to be open to objective evaluations. Scientometric measures of usage such as citations, impact factors and downloads constitute objective evidence concerning a journal's usefulness. Since Medical Hypotheses is performing adequately by such criteria, this provides a powerful answer to those who fetishize peer review and regard any other system of evaluation as suspect. Journal review procedures are merely a means to the end, and the end is a journal that serves a useful function in the dynamic process of science. Medical Hypotheses can now claim to perform such a role. PMID:17706892

  9. Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Junenette L. Patricia Fabian, M. Levy, Jonathan I.

    2014-07-15

    High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to account for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy. - Highlights: • We evaluated joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on blood pressure. • We built predictive models for lead, cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). • Our approach allows joint evaluation of predictors from population-specific data. • Lead, PCBs and established non-chemical stressors were related to blood pressure.

  10. Impact of experimental haemodilution on platelet function, thrombin generation and clot firmness: effects of different coagulation factor concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Caballo, Carolina; Escolar, Gines; Diaz-Ricart, Maribel; Lopez-Vílchez, Irene; Lozano, Miguel; Cid, Joan; Pino, Marcos; Beltrán, Joan; Basora, Misericordia; Pereira, Arturo; Galan, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Haemodilution during resuscitation after massive haemorrhage may worsen the coagulopathy and perpetuate bleeding. Materials and methods Blood samples from healthy donors were diluted (30 and-60%) using crystalloids (saline, Ringer’s lactate, PlasmalyteTM) or colloids (6% hydroxyethylstarch [HES130/0.4], 5% human albumin, and gelatin). The effects of haemodilution on platelet adhesion (Impact R), thrombin generation (TG), and thromboelastometry (TEM) parameters were analysed as were the effects of fibrinogen, prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC), activated recombinant factor VII (FVIIa), and cryoprecipates on haemodilution. Results Platelet interactions was already significantly reduced at 30% haemodilution. Platelet reactivity was not improved by addition of any of the concentrates tested. A decrease in TG and marked alterations of TEM parameters were noted at 60% haemodilution. HES130/0.4 was the expander with the most deleterious action. TG was significantly enhanced by PCC whereas rFVIIa only caused a mild acceleration of TG initiation. Fibrinogen restored the alterations of TEM parameters caused by haemodilution including those caused by HES 130/0.4. Cryoprecipitates significantly improved the alterations caused by haemodilution on TG and TEM parameters; the effects on TG disappeared after ultracentrifugation of the cryoprecipitates. Discussion The haemostatic alterations caused by haemodilution are multifactorial and affect both blood cells and coagulation. In our in vitro approach, HES 130/0.4 had the most deleterious effect on haemostasis parameters. Coagulation factor concentrates did not improve platelet interactions in the Impact R, but did have favourable effects on coagulation parameters measured by TG and TEM. Fibrinogen notably improved TEM parameters without increasing thrombin generation, suggesting that this concentrate may help to preserve blood clotting abilities during haemodilution without enhancing the prothrombotic risk. PMID

  11. The impact of extreme environmental factors on the mineralization potential of the soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinyakova, Natalia; Semenov, Vyacheslav

    2016-04-01

    Warming, drying, wetting are the prevalent disturbing natural impacts that affect the upper layers of uncultivated and arable soils. The effect of drying-wetting cycles act as a physiological stress for the soil microbial community and cause changes in its structure, the partial death or lysis of the microbial biomass. The mobilization of the SOM and the stabilization of the potentially mineralizable components lead to change of mineralization potential in the soil. To test the effects of different moisture regime on plant growth and soil biological properties, plot experiment with the gray forest soil including trials with plants (corn) and bare fallow was performed. Different regimes of soil moisture (conditionally optimal, relatively deficient soil moisture and repeated cycles of drying-wetting) were created. Control of soil moisture was taken every two or three days. Gas sampling was carried out using closed chambers. Soil samples were collected at the end of the pot experiment. The potentially mineralizable content of soil organic carbon (SOC) was measured by biokinetic method based on (1) aerobic incubation of soil samples under constant temperature and moisture conditions during 158 days, (2) quantitation of C-CO2, and (3) fitting of C-CO2 cumulative curve by a model of first-order kinetic. Total soil organic carbon was measured by Tyrin's wet chemical oxidation method. Permanent deficient moisture in the soil favored the preservation of potentially mineralizable SOC. Two repeated cycles of drying-wetting did not reduce the potentially mineralizable carbon content in comparison with control under optimal soil moisture during 90 days of experiment. The emission loss of C-CO2 from the soil with plants was 1.4-1.7 times higher than the decrease of potentially mineralizable SOC due to the contribution of root respiration. On the contrary, the decrease of potentially mineralized SOC in the soil without plants was 1.1-1.2 times larger than C-CO2 emissions from the

  12. Impact factor of medical education journals and recently developed indices: Can any of them support academic promotion criteria?

    PubMed Central

    Azer, SA; Holen, A; Wilson, I; Skokauskas, N

    2016-01-01

    Journal Impact Factor (JIF) has been used in assessing scientific journals. Other indices, h- and g-indices and Article Influence Score (AIS), have been developed to overcome some limitations of JIF. The aims of this study were, first, to critically assess the use of JIF and other parameters related to medical education research, and second, to discuss the capacity of these indices in assessing research productivity as well as their utility in academic promotion. The JIF of 16 medical education journals from 2000 to 2011 was examined together with the research evidence about JIF in assessing research outcomes of medical educators. The findings were discussed in light of the nonnumerical criteria often used in academic promotion. In conclusion, JIF was not designed for assessing individual or group research performance, and it seems unsuitable for such purposes. Although the g- and h-indices have demonstrated promising outcomes, further developments are needed for their use as academic promotion criteria. For top academic positions, additional criteria could include leadership, evidence of international impact, and contributions to the advancement of knowledge with regard to medical education. PMID:26732194

  13. Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome in Indian population: A prospective study on incidence, risk factors, and impact on operative performance

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Shilpa; Dalela, Deepansh; Goyal, Neeraj Kumar; Chawla, Shobhit; Dhesi, Rajat; Kamboj, Bela; Dalela, Abha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and impact of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) on surgical performance. Materials and Methods: Consecutive cataract surgeries from October 2010 to Feb 2011 (1003 eyes, 980 patients; 568 males, 412 females) were analyzed prospectively. Operating surgeon, masked about medication history, noted the intraoperative details. Cases were identified as IFIS or non-IFIS. Multivariate analysis was performed to find risk factors for IFIS. Results: Prevalence of tamsulosin use among men undergoing cataract surgery was 7.0% (41) with incidence of IFIS 4.78% (48). On multivariate analysis, hypertension (OR: 3.2, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.39-6.57; P = 0.005), use of tamsulosin (OR: 133.32, 95% CI: 50.43-352.48; P < 0.0001), or alfuzosin (OR: 9.36, 95% CI: 2.34-37.50; P = 0.002) were the factors associated with IFIS. Among men taking tamsulosin (n = 41) and alfuzosin (n = 28), 68.3% and 16.6% developed IFIS, respectively. In subgroup analysis of men on tamsulosin, no factor added to the risk posed by tamsulosin. Seventeen of 944 eyes not exposed to any drug had IFIS (0.018%). On subgroup analysis, only risk factor for IFIS was hypertension (OR: 4.67, 95% CI: 1.63-13.35; P = 0.002). Of 48 IFIS eyes, the surgeon observed increased difficulty in 57.1% (21) and additional measures were required in 9 eyes. Mean operative time was increased in IFIS eyes (11.68 ± 3.46 vs. 10.01 ± 0.22 min; P = 0.001). Surgical outcome was good in all cases. Conclusion: The prevalence of tamsulosin intake and IFIS incidence is higher in India. Current tamsulosin/alfuzosin use and hypertension are important risk factors. IFIS makes the surgery more difficult, significantly prolongs the operative time, and predisposes for other intraoperative complications. However, with appropriate management, final operative outcome is not affected. PMID:25230964

  14. European characterization factors for human health damage of PM 10 and ozone in life cycle impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zelm, Rosalie; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; den Hollander, Henri A.; van Jaarsveld, Hans A.; Sauter, Ferd J.; Struijs, Jaap; van Wijnen, Harm J.; van de Meent, Dik

    This paper presents characterization factors (CFs) for human health effects of fine particulate (PM 10) and ozone in Europe for the purpose of life cycle impact assessment. The CFs express the change in disability adjusted life years (DALYs) of European inhabitants due to a change in emissions of PM 10, ammonia (NH 3), nitrogen oxides (NO x), sulfur dioxide (SO 2), and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). The CF consists of an intake factor, an effect factor, and a damage factor. The intake factor was modeled as the change in population exposure to primary and secondary aerosols, and ozone due to a change in emission of a substance. This was done with the models EUTREND (aerosols) and LOTOS-EUROS (ozone). A combined human effect and damage factor, represented by the change in DALY due to a change in population intake was derived from epidemiological-based relative risks of short-term mortality, long-term mortality, and morbidity. Primary PM 10 causes 260 DALYs per kton emission, while secondary aerosol formation results in CFs between 51 and 83 DALYs per kton of precursor emitted. Applying CFs for high and low stack sources separately for PM 10 and SO 2 life cycle emissions can lead to a better estimation of human health damage due to these pollutants. CF related to ozone formation emissions appear to be much lower (0.04 DALY per kton, calculated based on maximum daily 8-h average ozone concentration) compared to the CF for primary and secondary PM 10. When calculating CF based on 24-h average ozone concentration, NMVOC causes 0.04 DALYs per kton, while the CF for NO x causing ozone formation is negative due to reactivity of ozone with NO in areas with high NO x levels (-0.12 DALYs per kton). Total European emissions of the five priority air pollutants in year 2000 are attributed to 4.2 million DALYs for the European population, which corresponds on average to 0.25 DALYs per person over a lifetime (80 years).

  15. Severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes: impact of the renin-angiotensin system and other risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2009-11-01

    Hypoglycaemia is an unavoidable side effect to insulin therapy of diabetes. In daily life some hypoglycaemic episodes are recognised by the patients and corrected by ingestion of glucose, but occasionally unrecognised episodes progress into severe hypoglycaemia with cognitive impairment and the need for assistance from other persons in order to manage the situation. Such episodes represent the most feared side effect to insulin treatment and are regarded as the major limiting factor for achievement of recommended glycaemic targets in type 1 diabetes. The series of studies that constitute this thesis was conducted to assess the significance of severe hypoglycaemia as a clinical problem in the type 1 diabetic population, to evaluate the impact of known risk factors on occurrence of severe hypoglycaemia, and to identify new markers that could contribute to improved prediction of, and inspire to novel preventive measures of, severe hypoglycaemia. Our studies confirm that severe hypoglycaemia is still a major clinical problem in type 1 diabetes. The individual susceptibility to severe hypoglycaemia is highly varying and conventional risk factors - with major contribution from hypoglycaemia unawareness - only account for a limited part of this variation. Results from a case-series suggest that the use of psychoactive substances may be as significant as alcohol for promotion of risk of severe hypoglycaemia - a finding which needs to be confirmed by case-control studies. We identified elevated renin-angiotensin system activity as a novel predictor of risk of severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes with potential clinical significance. Thus, three sequential renin-angiotensin system-related risk factors were associated with severe hypoglycaemia, and by including these factors in a common model both subjects at low and at high risk within a one-year period were identified. Preliminary data suggest that this is explained by impaired capability of subjects with high renin

  16. Breastfeeding Practices During the First Month Postpartum and Associated Factors: Impact on Breastfeeding Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Wambach, Karen Ann; Mortazavi, Saideh Sadat; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The introduction of fluids to infants during the first days postpartum, which may be harmful to infant health, is a common practice in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to find the prevalence of breastfeeding practices using monthly dietary recall and factors associated with introduction of fluids during the first month of life and determine the effects of these supplementations on breastfeeding survival. Patients and Methods: This longitudinal study carried out in Shahroud, Iran from May 2011 to October 2013. Using convenient sampling strategy, 358 mothers in their third trimester of pregnancy were enrolled in the study and completed the questionnaires. Then the data regarding the introduction of fluids during first month postpartum was collected. We followed women monthly up to breastfeeding cessation. Kaplan-Meier and time-to-event methods were used to assess breastfeeding survival. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that determined breastfeeding practices at the first month postpartum. The Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of variables on breastfeeding survival. Results: The prevalence of exclusive, predominant, and partial breastfeeding during the first month postpartum were 33.1%, 58.2%, and 8.6%, respectively. Predominant breastfeeding was associated with the lack of breastfeeding experience (OR = 1.93; 95% CI [1.02 - 3.66]). Partial breastfeeding was associated with the maternal age ≥ 30 y (OR = 5.96; CI [1.66 - 21.37]), family income higher than the mean (OR = 3.39; 95% CI [1.17 - 9.81]), and breastfeeding difficulties score higher than mean (OR = 3.09; 95% CI [1.10 - 8.71]). The Cox regression analysis revealed that breastfeeding practices at the first month was associated with an increased risk for breastfeeding discontinuation. The hazard ratio of breastfeeding discontinuation for predominant and partial breastfeeding groups were 1.11 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.51; P = 0.49) and 2

  17. Investigation of Controlling Factors Impacting Water Quality in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent boom in production of natural gas from unconventional reservoirs has generated a substantial increase in the volume of produced brine that must be properly managed to prevent contamination of fresh water resources. Produced brine, which includes both flowback and formation water, is often highly saline and may contain elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material and other toxic elements. These characteristics present many challenges with regard to designing effective treatment and disposal strategies for shale gas produced brine. We will present results from a series of batch experiments where crushed samples from two shale formations in the Michigan Basin, the Antrim and Utica-Collingwood shales, were brought into contact with synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluids under in situ temperature and pressure conditions. The Antrim has been an active shale gas play for over three decades, while the Utica-Collingwood formation (a grouped reservoir consisting of the Utica shale and Collingwood limestone) is an emerging shale gas play. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of water-rock interactions in controlling produced water quality. We evaluate toxic element leaching from shale samples in contact with model hydraulic fracturing fluids under system conditions corresponding to reservoir depths up to 1.5 km. Experimental results have begun to elucidate the relative importance of shale mineralogy, system conditions, and chemical additives in driving changes in produced water quality. Initial results indicate that hydraulic fracturing chemical additives have a strong influence on the extent of leaching of toxic elements from the shale. In particular, pH was a key factor in the release of uranium (U) and divalent metals, highlighting the importance of the mineral buffering capacity of the shale. Low pH values persisted in the Antrim and Utica shale experiments and resulted in higher U extraction efficiencies than that

  18. Correlation between Self-Citation and Impact Factor in Iranian English Medical Journals in WoS and ISC: A Comparative Approach

    PubMed Central

    GHAZI MIRSAEID, Seyed Javad; MOTAMEDI, Nadia; RAMEZAN GHORBANI, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this study, the impact of self-citation (Journal and Author) on impact factor of Iranian English Medical journals in two international citation databases, Web of Science (WoS) and Islamic world science citation center (ISC), were compared by citation analysis. Methods: Twelve journals in WoS and 26 journals in ISC databases indexed between the years (2006–2009) were selected and compared. For comparison of self-citation rate in two databases, we used Wilcoxon and Mann-whitney tests. We used Pearson test for correlation of self-citation and IF in WoS, and the Spearman’s correlation coefficient for the ISC database. Covariance analysis was used for comparison of two correlation tests. P. value was 0.05 in all of tests. Results: There was no significant difference between self-citation rates in two databases (P>0.05). Findings also showed no significant difference between the correlation of Journal self-citation and impact factor in two databases (P=0.526) however, there was significant difference between the author’s self-citation and impact factor in these databases (P<0.001). Conclusion: The impact of Author’s self-citation in the Impact Factor of WoS was higher than the ISC. PMID:26587498

  19. The role of different factors related to social impact of heavy rain events: considerations about the intensity thresholds in densely populated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbería, L.; Amaro, J.; Aran, M.; Llasat, M. C.

    2014-07-01

    In the assessment of social impact caused by meteorological events, factors of different natures need to be considered. Not only does hazard itself determine the impact that a severe weather event has on society, but also other features related to vulnerability and exposure. The requests of data related to insurance claims received in meteorological services proved to be a good indicator of the social impact that a weather event causes, according to studies carried out by the Social Impact Research Group, created within the framework of the MEDEX project. Taking these requests as proxy data, diverse aspects connected to the impact of heavy rain events have been studied. Understanding TeV-band The rainfall intensity, in conjunction with the population density, has established itself as one of the key factors in social impact studies. One of the conclusions we obtained is that various thresholds of rainfall should be applied for areas of varying populations. In this study, the role of rainfall intensity has been analysed for a highly populated urban area like Barcelona. A period without significant population changes has been selected for the study to minimise the effects linked to vulnerability and exposure modifications. First, correlations between rainfall recorded in different time intervals and requests were carried out. Afterwards, a method to include the intensity factor in the social impact index was suggested based on return periods given by intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves.

  20. The role of different factors related to social impact of heavy rain events: considerations about the intensity thresholds in densely populated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbería, L.; Amaro, J.; Aran, M.; Llasat, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    In the assessment of social impact caused by meteorological events, factors of different nature need to be considered. Not only does hazard itself determine the impact that a severe weather event has on society, but also other features related to vulnerability and exposure. The requests of data related to insurance claims received in Meteorological Services proved to be a good indicator of the social impact that a weather event causes, according to studies carried out by the Social Impact Research Group, created under the frame of the MEDEX project. Taking these requests as proxy data, diverse aspects connected to the impact of heavy rain events have been studied. The rainfall intensity in conjunction with the population density has demonstrated to be one of the key factors in social impact studies. One of the conclusions we obtained is that various thresholds of rainfall should be applied for differently populated areas. In this study, the role of rainfall intensity has been analysed for a highly populated urban area like Barcelona. A period without significant population changes has been selected for the study to minimise the effects linked to vulnerability and exposure. First, correlations between rainfall recorded in different time intervals and requests have been carried out. Afterwards, a method to include the intensity factor in the social impact index has been suggested, based on return periods given by Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves.