Science.gov

Sample records for impact factor eigenfactor

  1. The Eigenfactor Metrics™: A Network Approach to Assessing Scholarly Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Jevin D.; Bergstrom, Theodore C.; Bergstrom, Carl T.

    2010-01-01

    Limited time and budgets have created a legitimate need for quantitative measures of scholarly work. The well-known journal impact factor is the leading measure of this sort; here we describe an alternative approach based on the full structure of the scholarly citation network. The Eigenfactor Metrics--Eigenfactor Score and Article Influence…

  2. Journal quality metrics: options to consider other than impact factors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Journal quality metrics (also referred to as bibliometrics), such as impact factors, are increasingly being used as a measure of researchers' and educators' success and prestige. Occupational therapists who submit articles to peer-reviewed journals may face a professional and research dilemma: Do they submit their articles to journals that largely have a professional audience and potentially do not have an impact factor, or do they opt not to publish their research material in occupational therapy-oriented journals? Occupational therapy authors can consider other journal quality metric alternatives, in addition to the impact factor option, including the Eigenfactor Score, Article Influence Score, h-index, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), Source Normalised Impact per Paper (SNIP), and discipline-specific generated journal quality measures. These other journal quality metrics can be important reference points for occupational therapists who publish and may encourage authors to publish in journals relevant to the discipline. This process, in turn, will build the occupational therapy body of knowledge as well as provide an essential, growing reference source for evidence-based practice. PMID:21675341

  3. Milestones and Impact Factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Environmental Health has just received its first Impact Factor by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "factors" in that impact. PMID:20615249

  4. What does impact factor depend upon?

    PubMed

    Roussakis, A G; Stamatelopoulos, A; Balaka, C

    2007-01-01

    Nobody doubts the importance of the scientific performance's evaluation. The journal impact factor is increasingly employed to evaluate the quality of scientific research. The use of term "impact factor" has gradually evolved, especially in Europe, to include both journal and author impact. This ambiguity often causes problems. It is one thing to use impact factors to compare journals and quite another to use them to compare authors. Journals impact factors generally involve relatively large numbers of articles and citations. Individual authors, on average, produce much smaller numbers of articles. Many scientists consider that impact factor is not the perfect tool to measure the quality of articles but there is nothing better and it has the advantage of already being in existence and is, therefore, a good technique for scientific evaluation. However, the use of journal impact factor is probably the most controversial issue. PMID:17918300

  5. Results from a Web Impact Factor Crawler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelwall, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Web impact factors (WIFs), Web versions of the impact factors for journals, and how they can be calculated by using search engines. Highlights include HTML and document indexing; Web page links; a Web crawler designed for calculating WIFs; and WIFs for United Kingdom universities that measured research profiles or capability. (Author/LRW)

  6. [Impact factor and/or Hirsch index?].

    PubMed

    Gracza, Tünde; Somoskövi, Istvánné

    2007-05-01

    Is the best measure of a scientist's worth the total number of his or her published papers? For many years Institute for Scientific Information has been publishing the lists of impact factors providing quantitative tools for ranking scientists. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. Impact factors are calculated each year by the Institute for Scientific Information for those journals which it indexes, and are published in Journal Citation Reports. These measures apply only to journals, not individual articles or individual scientists. For the impact factor of individual scientists, there exists the h-index or Hirsch number. The Hirsch-index (h-index) has recently been defined by Hirsch as a new method for measuring the scientific activity. If a scientist has published n articles which all have been cited at least n times, then he will have a h-index of n . The h-index seeks to describe the impact of individual researchers, rather than journals. The h-index is the result of the balance between the number of publications and the number of citations per publication. H-index: Impact of Individual Scientists. H-index or/and impact factor - it is the question of the future. PMID:17468068

  7. Photon impact factor in the NLO

    SciTech Connect

    Balitsky, Ian

    2013-04-01

    The photon impact factor for the BFKL pomeron is calculated in the next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation using the operator expansion in Wilson lines. The result is represented as a NLO k{sub T}-factorization formula for the structure functions of small-x deep inelastic scattering.

  8. Author Impact Factor: tracking the dynamics of individual scientific impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Fortunato, Santo

    2014-05-01

    The impact factor (IF) of scientific journals has acquired a major role in the evaluations of the output of scholars, departments and whole institutions. Typically papers appearing in journals with large values of the IF receive a high weight in such evaluations. However, at the end of the day one is interested in assessing the impact of individuals, rather than papers. Here we introduce Author Impact Factor (AIF), which is the extension of the IF to authors. The AIF of an author A in year t is the average number of citations given by papers published in year t to papers published by A in a period of Δt years before year t. Due to its intrinsic dynamic character, AIF is capable to capture trends and variations of the impact of the scientific output of scholars in time, unlike the h-index, which is a growing measure taking into account the whole career path.

  9. Author Impact Factor: tracking the dynamics of individual scientific impact

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Fortunato, Santo

    2014-01-01

    The impact factor (IF) of scientific journals has acquired a major role in the evaluations of the output of scholars, departments and whole institutions. Typically papers appearing in journals with large values of the IF receive a high weight in such evaluations. However, at the end of the day one is interested in assessing the impact of individuals, rather than papers. Here we introduce Author Impact Factor (AIF), which is the extension of the IF to authors. The AIF of an author A in year t is the average number of citations given by papers published in year t to papers published by A in a period of Δt years before year t. Due to its intrinsic dynamic character, AIF is capable to capture trends and variations of the impact of the scientific output of scholars in time, unlike the h-index, which is a growing measure taking into account the whole career path. PMID:24814674

  10. Journal Production and Journal Impact Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald; Van Hooydonk, Guido

    1996-01-01

    Describes a direct linear relation between the number of articles in a journal and the journal's impact factor. Hypotheses are presented; theoretical considerations are discussed; and results are described that show exceptions for review journals and translation journals, as well as for journals in mathematics and chemistry. (Author/LRW)

  11. Median Citation Index vs Journal Impact Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2015-03-01

    The Journal Impact Factor is an arithmetic mean: It is the average number of citations, in a year, to a journal's articles that were published the previous two years. But for the vast majority of scholarly journals, the distribution of these citations is skewed (non-symmetric). We argue that a more representative member of the skewed distribution of citations is its median, not the mean. We thus introduce the Median Citation Index (MCI) and compare it to the journal Impact Factor (JIF) as a potentially more suitable choice of the ``center'' of the distribution, or its typical value. Unlike the JIF, the MCI is far less sensitive to outlier (very highly cited) papers or to gaming, and does not lend itself to the hype of calculating it to three decimal digits.

  12. Childhood incontinence: risk factors and impact.

    PubMed

    Joinson, Carol

    Continence problems in children can persist into later childhood and have a serious effect on quality of life. Research into its causes and impact is scarce, and useful resources are limited. A Medical Research Council grant is funding a project at the University of Bristol, which aims to improve understanding of the risk factors and outcomes of continence problems in children and adolescents. This article outlines the initial findings, which could help in the production of resources for parents, children and young people. PMID:27386707

  13. Causes for the Persistence of Impact Factor Mania

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous essays have addressed the misuse of the journal impact factor for judging the value of science, but the practice continues, primarily as a result of the actions of scientists themselves. This seemingly irrational behavior is referred to as “impact factor mania.” Although the literature on the impact factor is extensive, little has been written on the underlying causes of impact factor mania. In this perspective, we consider the reasons for the persistence of impact factor mania and its pernicious effects on science. We conclude that impact factor mania persists because it confers significant benefits to individual scientists and journals. Impact factor mania is a variation of the economic theory known as the “tragedy of the commons,” in which scientists act rationally in their own self-interests despite the detrimental consequences of their actions on the overall scientific enterprise. Various measures to reduce the influence of the impact factor are considered. PMID:24643863

  14. Factors Impacting the Child with Behavioral Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbuckle, Suzanne R.

    2010-01-01

    Various factors influence the developmental course of the behaviorally inhibited child. These factors include reciprocating, contextual factors, such as the child's own traits, the environment, the maternal characteristics, and the environment. Behaviorally inhibited children show physiological and behavioral signs of fear and anxiety when…

  15. Building a List of Journals with Constructed Impact Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegmann, Johannes

    1999-01-01

    Describes the building of a list of constructed-impact factors (CIF) for biomedical journals not included in the 1996 editions of the "Journal Citation Reports." The online retrieval from the host DIMDI of the data needed for impact-factor calculation is described. The top 100 (of 338 titles, ranked according to their CIFs) are presented. (AEF)

  16. Factors That Impact the Ethical Behavior of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Jacob; Berry, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This study examines factors impacting ethical behavior of 182 college students in the midwestern and northwestern United States. Ethical behavior of peers had the most significant impact on ethical behavior of students. Success (in terms of grade point average) of students, and gender of the respondents, also significantly impacted ethical…

  17. Research on the Relationships between Chinese Journal Impact Factors and External Web Link Counts and Web Impact Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Lu; Qiu, Junping

    2004-01-01

    Journal impact factors (JIFs) as determined by the Institute for Scientific and Technological Information of China (ISTIC) of forty-two Chinese engineering journals were compared with external Web link counts, obtained from Lycos, and Web Impact Factors (WIFs) of corresponding journal Web sites to determine if any significant correlation existed…

  18. Impact of Life Factors upon Attitudes toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Kevin J.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated impact of life factors on college students' (N=47) feelings about death. Most important life factors clustered into three categories: Death of Significant Other, Religious Upbringing, and Near-Death Experiences. Although factors had mixed effects across individuals, they were significant predictors of current feelings about death.…

  19. Factors impacting bladder underactivity and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Van Koeveringe, G A; Rademakers, K L J

    2015-06-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms in the voiding phase can be due to an underactive bladder, but are usually similar to symptoms of infravesical obstruction or dysfunctional voiding. The underactive bladder can be caused by an impaired detrusor contraction but also by a derangement of local and central neuro-cognitive regulatory systems or an impairment of bladder sensation. Potential risk factors of bladder underactivity include: ageing, diabetes, neurogenic disease, cardiovascular disease, obstruction and psychological causes. Comprehensive diagnostic and detection techniques for an underactive detrusor are necessary. To establish the diagnosis and follow up new treatments, useful urodynamic parameters and threshold values have to be determined. As neuro-cognitive regulation plays an important role in the control of voiding, psychological factors have to be taken into account during the assessment in these patients. Ambulatory urodynamic techniques therefore have to be considered. Voiding is determined by the balance of both the detrusor contraction and the resistance of the bladder outlet, a dysfunction in one factor can be compensated by a counter-acting function of the other factor. Therefore, to predict voiding problems in the future, it will be indicated to assess the compensatory capacity of the detrusor contractility, contractile reserve, and the outlet relaxation capacity. If novel treatments and evaluation techniques have become available, it is likely that in the future, many patients that get a TURP now, can be treated by pharmacological agents directed towards increasing the bladder contractility in a balanced combination with medication directed towards lowering the bladder outlet resistance. PMID:25645344

  20. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  1. Inflated impact factors? The true impact of evolutionary papers in non-evolutionary journals.

    PubMed

    Postma, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Amongst the numerous problems associated with the use of impact factors as a measure of quality are the systematic differences in impact factors that exist among scientific fields. While in theory this can be circumvented by limiting comparisons to journals within the same field, for a diverse and multidisciplinary field like evolutionary biology, in which the majority of papers are published in journals that publish both evolutionary and non-evolutionary papers, this is impossible. However, a journal's overall impact factor may well be a poor predictor for the impact of its evolutionary papers. The extremely high impact factors of some multidisciplinary journals, for example, are by many believed to be driven mostly by publications from other fields. Despite plenty of speculation, however, we know as yet very little about the true impact of evolutionary papers in journals not specifically classified as evolutionary. Here I present, for a wide range of journals, an analysis of the number of evolutionary papers they publish and their average impact. I show that there are large differences in impact among evolutionary and non-evolutionary papers within journals; while the impact of evolutionary papers published in multidisciplinary journals is substantially overestimated by their overall impact factor, the impact of evolutionary papers in many of the more specialized, non-evolutionary journals is significantly underestimated. This suggests that, for evolutionary biologists, publishing in high-impact multidisciplinary journals should not receive as much weight as it does now, while evolutionary papers in more narrowly defined journals are currently undervalued. Importantly, however, their ranking remains largely unaffected. While journal impact factors may thus indeed provide a meaningful qualitative measure of impact, a fair quantitative comparison requires a more sophisticated journal classification system, together with multiple field-specific impact statistics per

  2. Norming of Student Evaluations of Instruction: Impact of Noninstructional Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nargundkar, Satish; Shrikhande, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Student Evaluations of Instruction (SEIs) from about 6,000 sections over 4 years representing over 100,000 students at the college of business at a large public university are analyzed, to study the impact of noninstructional factors on student ratings. Administrative factors like semester, time of day, location, and instructor attributes like…

  3. Impacts of environmental factors on urban heating.

    PubMed

    Memon, Rizwan Ahmed; Leung, Dennis Y C

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of important environmental variables (i.e., wind speed, solar radiation and cloud cover) on urban heating. Meteorological parameters for fifteen years (from 1990 to 2005), collected at a well developed and densely populated commercial area (Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong), were analyzed in details. Urban heat island intensity (UHII), a well known indicator of urban heating, has been determined as the spatially averaged air-temperature difference between Tsim Sha Tsui and Ta Kwu Ling (a thinly populated rural area with lush vegetation). Results showed that the UHII and cloud cover have increased by around 9.3% and 4%, respectively, whereas the wind speed and solar radiation have decreased by around 24% and 8.5%, respectively. The month of December experienced the highest UHII (10.2 degrees C) but the lowest wind speed (2.6 m/sec) and cloud cover (3.8 oktas). Conversely, the month of April observed the highest increases in the UHII (over 100%) and the highest decreases in wind speed (over 40%) over fifteen years. Notably, the increases in the UHII and reductions in the wind speed were the highest during the night-time and early morning. Conversely, the intensity of solar radiation reduced while the intensity of urban cool island (UCII) increased during solar noon-time. Results demonstrated strong negative correlation between the UHII and wind speed (coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.8) but no negative correlation between UCII and solar radiation attenuation. A possible negative correlation between UHII and cloud cover was investigated but could not be substantiated. PMID:21462708

  4. Integrated Impacts of environmental factors on the degradation of fumigants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Yates, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Volatilization of fumigants has been concerned as one of air pollution sources. Fumigants are used to control nematodes and soil-born pathogens for a pre-plant treatment to increase the production of high-cash crops. One of technologies to reduce the volatilization of fumigants to atmosphere is to enhance the degradation of fumigants in soil. Fumigant degradation is affected by environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature, initial concentration of injected fumigants, and soil properties. However, effects of each factor on the degradation were limitedly characterized and integrated Impacts from environmental factors has not been described yet. Degradation of 1,3- dichloropropene (1,3-D) was investigated in various condition of temperatures (20-60 °C), moisture contents (0 ¡V 30 %) and initial concentrations (0.6 ¡V 60 mg/kg) with Arlington sandy loam soil. Abiotic and biotic degradation processes were distinguished using two sterilization methods with HgCl2 and autoclave and impacts of environmental factors were separately assessed for abiotic and biotic degradations. Initially, degradation rates (k) of cis and trans 1,3-D isomers were estimated by first-order kinetics and modified depending on impacts from environmental factors. Arrhenius equation and Walker¡¦s equation which were conventionally used to describe temperature and moisture effects on degradation were assessed for integrated impacts from environmental factors and logarithmical correlation was observed between initial concentrations of applied fumigants and degradation rates. Understanding integrated impacts of environmental factors on degradation will help to design more effective emission reduction schemes in various conditions and provide more practical parameters for modeling simulations.

  5. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Kende, D; Rener-Sitar, K; Reissmann, D R

    2014-09-01

    Previous exploratory analyses suggest that the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) consists of four correlated dimensions and that individual differences in OHIP total scores reflect an underlying higher-order factor. The aim of this report is to corroborate these findings in the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Validation Sample (n = 5022), we conducted confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 4993 subjects with sufficiently complete data. In particular, we compared the psychometric performance of three models: a unidimensional model, a four-factor model and a bifactor model that included one general factor and four group factors. Using model-fit criteria and factor interpretability as guides, the four-factor model was deemed best in terms of strong item loadings, model fit (RMSEA = 0·05, CFI = 0·99) and interpretability. These results corroborate our previous findings that four highly correlated factors - which we have named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact - can be reliably extracted from the OHIP item pool. However, the good fit of the unidimensional model and the high interfactor correlations in the four-factor solution suggest that OHRQoL can also be sufficiently described with one score. PMID:24909797

  6. Photon impact factor and k{sub T} factorization in the next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Balitsky

    2012-12-01

    The photon impact factor for the BFKL pomeron is calculated in the next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation using the operator expansion in Wilson lines. The result is represented as a NLO k{sub T}-factorization formula for the structure functions of small-x deep inelastic scattering.

  7. Evaluating Academic Journals Using Impact Factor and Local Citation Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a method for journal collection evaluation using citation analysis. Cost-per-use (CPU) for each title is used to measure cost-effectiveness with higher CPU scores indicating cost-effective titles. Use data are based on the impact factor and locally collected citation score of each title and is compared to the cost of managing…

  8. Factors Influencing Observed Tillage Impacts on Herbicide Transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widespread use and potential human health effects of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate have generated interest in establishing how no-tillage impacts loading of these herbicides to runoff water in comparison to other tillage practices. In this study, potentially confounding factors such as ...

  9. Watson's theory of transpersonal caring: factors impacting nurses professional caring.

    PubMed

    Vandenhouten, Christine; Kubsch, Sylvia; Peterson, Margaret; Murdock, Jennifer; Lehrer, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This study's purpose was to identify factors impacting nurses' perceived professional caring. The sample of 242 nurses completed a researcher-developed survey based on Watson's theory of transpersonal caring. Results showed that experienced, hospital-based nurses and those demonstrating greater familiarity with Watson's theory had higher caring scores. Implications for education, practice, and research are suggested. PMID:23075749

  10. Evaluating Academic Journals without Impact Factors for Collection Management Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilevko, Juris; Atkinson, Esther

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of evaluating academic journals for collection management decisions focuses on a methodological framework for evaluating journals not ranked by impact factors in Journal Citation Reports. Compares nonranked journals with ranked journals and then applies this framework to a case study in the field of medical science. (LRW)

  11. ASM Journals Eliminate Impact Factor Information from Journal Websites.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Bertuzzi, Stefano; Buchmeier, Michael J; Davis, Roger J; Drake, Harold; Fang, Ferric C; Gilbert, Jack; Goldman, Barbara M; Imperiale, Michael J; Matsumura, Philip; McAdam, Alexander J; Pasetti, Marcela F; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M; Silhavy, Thomas; Rice, Louis; Young, Jo-Anne H; Shenk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists attempt to publish their work in a journal with the highest possible journal impact factor (IF). Despite widespread condemnation of the use of journal IFs to assess the significance of published work, these numbers continue to be widely misused in publication, hiring, funding, and promotion decisions (1, 2). PMID:27408939

  12. Characterisation factors for life cycle impact assessment of sound emissions.

    PubMed

    Cucurachi, S; Heijungs, R

    2014-01-15

    Noise is a serious stressor affecting the health of millions of citizens. It has been suggested that disturbance by noise is responsible for a substantial part of the damage to human health. However, no recommended approach to address noise impacts was proposed by the handbook for life cycle assessment (LCA) of the European Commission, nor are characterisation factors (CFs) and appropriate inventory data available in commonly used databases. This contribution provides CFs to allow for the quantification of noise impacts on human health in the LCA framework. Noise propagation standards and international reports on acoustics and noise impacts were used to define the model parameters. Spatial data was used to calculate spatially-defined CFs in the form of 10-by-10-km maps. The results of this analysis were combined with data from the literature to select input data for representative archetypal situations of emission (e.g. urban day with a frequency of 63 Hz, rural night at 8000 Hz, etc.). A total of 32 spatial and 216 archetypal CFs were produced to evaluate noise impacts at a European level (i.e. EU27). The possibility of a user-defined characterisation factor was added to support the possibility of portraying the situation of full availability of information, as well as a highly-localised impact analysis. A Monte Carlo-based quantitative global sensitivity analysis method was applied to evaluate the importance of the input factors in determining the variance of the output. The factors produced are ready to be implemented in the available LCA databases and software. The spatial approach and archetypal approach may be combined and selected according to the amount of information available and the life cycle under study. The framework proposed and used for calculations is flexible enough to be expanded to account for impacts on target subjects other than humans and to continents other than Europe. PMID:24035845

  13. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP. PMID:24909881

  14. Method to characterize collective impact of factors on indoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Maciejewska, Monika; Teuerle, Marek; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka

    2015-02-01

    One of the most important problems in studies of building environment is a description of how it is influenced by various dynamically changing factors. In this paper we characterized the joint impact of a collection of factors on indoor air quality (IAQ). We assumed that the influence is reflected in the temporal variability of IAQ parameters and may be deduced from it. The proposed method utilizes mean square displacement (MSD) analysis which was originally developed for studying the dynamics in various systems. Based on the MSD time-dependence descriptor β, we distinguished three types of the collective impact of factors on IAQ: retarding, stabilizing and promoting. We presented how the aggregated factors influence the temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentration, as these parameters are informative for the condition of indoor air. We discovered, that during a model day there are encountered one, two or even three types of influence. The presented method allows us to study the impacts from the perspective of the dynamics of indoor air.

  15. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Andrea; Malchow, Berend; Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudinal disease course confirm this hypothesis. Apart from the influence of risk genes in severe psychiatric disorders, environmental factors may also impact brain development during the perinatal period. Several environmental factors such as antenatal maternal virus infections, obstetric complications entailing hypoxia as common factor or stress during neurodevelopment have been identified to play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, possibly contributing to smaller hippocampal volumes. In major depression, psychosocial stress during the perinatal period or in adulthood is an important trigger. In animal studies, chronic stress or repeated administration of glucocorticoids have been shown to induce degeneration of glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms altering the chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation may mediate effects of environmental factors to transcriptional regulation of specific genes and be a prominent factor in gene-environmental interaction. In animal models, gene-environmental interaction should be investigated more intensely to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms. These findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies influencing epigenetic targets in severe psychiatric disorders. PMID:24574956

  16. [Concepts, confusions and contradictions on the impact factor in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Leon, Martha E

    2007-01-01

    Latin American scientists are making tremendous efforts to conduct good-quality research worthy of being published internationally. However, Colciencias, an entity created to support this research in Colombia, introduced scienciometric evaluations which had been re-evaluated elsewhere some time ago, based on measurements of aspects such as the ill-termed "impact factor". Even more serious is that the aforementioned government office is unaware that measures are based on debated mathematical principles, placing Colombian science at imminent risk of suffering from an academic yatrogeny of irreparable consequences. Therefore, an urgent restructuring of the way in which Colombia's scientific production is to be evaluated is thus mandatory before these measures have a negative impact thereon. PMID:17639682

  17. Impacts of environmental factors on fine root lifespan

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, M. Luke; Guo, Dali

    2014-01-01

    The lifespan of fast-cycling roots is a critical parameter determining a large flux of plant carbon into soil through root turnover and is a biological feature regulating the capacity of a plant to capture soil water and nutrients via root-age-related physiological processes. While the importance of root lifespan to whole-plant and ecosystem processes is increasingly recognized, robust descriptions of this dynamic process and its response to changes in climatic and edaphic factors are lacking. Here we synthesize available information and propose testable hypotheses using conceptual models to describe how changes in temperature, water, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) availability impact fine root lifespan within a species. Each model is based on intrinsic responses including root physiological activity and alteration of carbohydrate allocation at the whole-plant level as well as extrinsic factors including mycorrhizal fungi and pressure from pathogens, herbivores, and other microbes. Simplifying interactions among these factors, we propose three general principles describing fine root responses to complex environmental gradients. First, increases in a factor that strongly constrains plant growth (temperature, water, N, or P) should result in increased fine root lifespan. Second, increases in a factor that exceeds plant demand or tolerance should result in decreased lifespan. Third, as multiple factors interact fine root responses should be determined by the most dominant factor controlling plant growth. Moving forward, field experiments should determine which types of species (e.g., coarse vs. fine rooted, obligate vs. facultative mycotrophs) will express greater plasticity in response to environmental gradients while ecosystem models may begin to incorporate more detailed descriptions of root lifespan and turnover. Together these efforts will improve quantitative understanding of root dynamics and help to identify areas where future research should be focused

  18. Retraction policies of top scientific journals ranked by impact factor

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Wager, Elizabeth; Kissling, Grace E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study gathered information about the retraction policies of the top 200 scientific journals, ranked by impact factor. Methods Editors of the top 200 science journals for the year 2012 were contacted by email. Results One hundred forty-seven journals (74%) responded to a request for information. Of these, 95 (65%) had a retraction policy. Of journals with a retraction policy, 94% had a policy that allows the editors to retract articles without authors’ consent. Conclusions The majority of journals in this sample had a retraction policy, and almost all of them would retract an article without the authors’ permission. PMID:26213505

  19. Time trends in the impact factor of Public Health journals

    PubMed Central

    López-Abente, Gonzalo; Muñoz-Tinoco, Concha

    2005-01-01

    Background Journal impact factor (IF) is linked to the probability of a paper being cited and is progressively becoming incorporated into researchers' curricula vitae. Furthermore, the decision as to which journal a given study should be submitted, may well be based on the trend in the journal's overall quality. This study sought to assess time trends in journal IF in the field of public, environmental and occupational health. Methods We used the IFs of 80 public health journals that were registered by the Science Citation Index from 1992 through 2003 and had been listed for a minimum period of the previous 3 years. Impact factor time trends were assessed using a linear regression model, in which the dependent variable was IF and the independent variable, the year. The slope of the model and its statistical significance were taken as the indicator of annual change. Results The IF range for the journals covered went from 0.18 to 5.2 in 2003. Although there was no statistical association between annual change and mean IF, most of the fastest growing journals registered mean IFs in excess of 1.5, and some represented emerging areas of public health research. Graphs displaying IF trends are shown. Conclusion In view of the delay between the publication of IFs and that of any given paper, knowing the trend in IF is essential in order to make a correct choice of journal. PMID:15777471

  20. The top-ten in journal impact factor manipulation.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Alexiou, Vangelis G

    2008-01-01

    A considerable part of the scientific community is, at least to some degree, involved in the "impact factor game". Editors strive to increase their journals' impact factor (IF) in order to gain influence in the fields of basic and applied research and scientists seek to profit from the "added value" of publishing in top IF journals. In this article we point out the most common "tricks" of engineering and manipulating the IF undertaken by a portion of professionals of the scientific publishing industry. They attempt to increase the nominator or decrease the denominator of the IF equation by taking advantage of certain design flaws and disadvantages of the IF that permit a degree of artificial and arbitrary inflation. Some of these practices, if not scientifically unethical, are at least questionable and should be abandoned. Editors and publishers should strive for quality through fair and thoughtful selection of papers forwarded for peer review and editorial comments that enhance the quality and scientific accuracy of a manuscript. PMID:18661263

  1. Is impact factor necessary for "Prilozi (Contributions)" and Macedonia?

    PubMed

    Gucev, Zoran; Polenakovic, Momir

    2013-01-01

    58 years after the creation of impact factor (IF) the professional public shows interest in IFs and their significance for academia and individuals. Really, is a medical journal with IF needed for Macedonia? Some other small and developing countries have pursued and accomplished this goal: Serbia, Slovenia, and Croatia. On the other hand the survey of publications in Macedonian medical journals has been found to lack quality. We believe that to strive to obtain an IF would be beneficial for all Macedonian interest groups involved. This would introduce an ambition among the members of Macedonian academia to publish (so far rare), than to publish in Pubmed listed journals (ambition present in very few Macedonian academics) and then to publish in journals with the highest IF possible (so far a very exclusive group of Macedonian medical professionals). In time this will help in creating and enforcing legal obligation for the academia for a promotion based on merit of IF scientific publications. We believe that this is possible only by Parliament legislation. This will be of benefit for Macedonian patients, the medical community and will unable this country to contribute to the universe of science. Lastly it would certainly be helpful in getting a Macedonian university in the prestigious first 500 Shangai list. Key words: impact factor, Macedonia, medical journals. PMID:24280884

  2. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Schwake, David Otto; Alum, Absar; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water. PMID:25996405

  3. Conversion during thoracoscopic lobectomy: related factors and learning curve impact.

    PubMed

    Smith, David E; Dietrich, Agustin; Nicolas, Matias; Da Lozzo, Alejandro; Beveraggi, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy has become a standard procedure for lung cancer treatment. Conversion-related factors and learning curve impacts, were poorly described. The aim of this study was to review the reasons and related factor for conversion in VATS lobectomy and the impact on this of the surgeon's learning curve. From June 2009 to May 2014, 154 patients who underwent a VATS lobectomy were included in our study. Patients' characteristics, pathology background, operative times, overall length of stay, overall morbidity and type of major complications were recorded for all patients and compared between non converted (n = 133) and converted (n = 21) patients. To evaluate surgeon's learning curve, we analyzed rates and causes of conversion in the first period (first 77 patients) and in the last period (78-154 patients). Patients characteristics were similar between converted and non-converted groups. Patients who were converted to open thoracotomy presented more frecuently tumors >3 cms (P = 0.02). The average of operative times and the length of stay were not significantly different between groups. Overall morbidity and major complications were also similar in both groups. There were no impact of surgeon's learning curve in overall rate conversion in both groups. Emergency conversion was always secondary to vascular accidents, all in the first group (p = 0.059). Surgeons should be expecting to perform a conversion to a thoracotomy in patients who present in preoperative studies, tumors greater than 3 cms. Learning curve only affected the emergency conversion, occurred all in the first half of our series. PMID:26561493

  4. Major osteoporotic fragility fractures: Risk factor updates and societal impact

    PubMed Central

    Pisani, Paola; Renna, Maria Daniela; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Ernesto; Di Paola, Marco; Quarta, Eugenio; Muratore, Maurizio; Casciaro, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a silent disease without any evidence of disease until a fracture occurs. Approximately 200 million people in the world are affected by osteoporosis and 8.9 million fractures occur each year worldwide. Fractures of the hip are a major public health burden, by means of both social cost and health condition of the elderly because these fractures are one of the main causes of morbidity, impairment, decreased quality of life and mortality in women and men. The aim of this review is to analyze the most important factors related to the enormous impact of osteoporotic fractures on population. Among the most common risk factors, low body mass index; history of fragility fracture, environmental risk, early menopause, smoking, lack of vitamin D, endocrine disorders (for example insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), use of glucocorticoids, excessive alcohol intake, immobility and others represented the main clinical risk factors associated with augmented risk of fragility fracture. The increasing trend of osteoporosis is accompanied by an underutilization of the available preventive strategies and only a small number of patients at high fracture risk are recognized and successively referred for therapy. This report provides analytic evidences to assess the best practices in osteoporosis management and indications for the adoption of a correct healthcare strategy to significantly reduce the osteoporosis burden. Early diagnosis is the key to resize the impact of osteoporosis on healthcare system. In this context, attention must be focused on the identification of high fracture risk among osteoporotic patients. It is necessary to increase national awareness campaigns across countries in order to reduce the osteoporotic fractures incidence. PMID:27004165

  5. Major osteoporotic fragility fractures: Risk factor updates and societal impact.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Paola; Renna, Maria Daniela; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Ernesto; Di Paola, Marco; Quarta, Eugenio; Muratore, Maurizio; Casciaro, Sergio

    2016-03-18

    Osteoporosis is a silent disease without any evidence of disease until a fracture occurs. Approximately 200 million people in the world are affected by osteoporosis and 8.9 million fractures occur each year worldwide. Fractures of the hip are a major public health burden, by means of both social cost and health condition of the elderly because these fractures are one of the main causes of morbidity, impairment, decreased quality of life and mortality in women and men. The aim of this review is to analyze the most important factors related to the enormous impact of osteoporotic fractures on population. Among the most common risk factors, low body mass index; history of fragility fracture, environmental risk, early menopause, smoking, lack of vitamin D, endocrine disorders (for example insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), use of glucocorticoids, excessive alcohol intake, immobility and others represented the main clinical risk factors associated with augmented risk of fragility fracture. The increasing trend of osteoporosis is accompanied by an underutilization of the available preventive strategies and only a small number of patients at high fracture risk are recognized and successively referred for therapy. This report provides analytic evidences to assess the best practices in osteoporosis management and indications for the adoption of a correct healthcare strategy to significantly reduce the osteoporosis burden. Early diagnosis is the key to resize the impact of osteoporosis on healthcare system. In this context, attention must be focused on the identification of high fracture risk among osteoporotic patients. It is necessary to increase national awareness campaigns across countries in order to reduce the osteoporotic fractures incidence. PMID:27004165

  6. Impact of Multiple Factors on the Degree of Tinnitus Distress

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Petra; Szczepek, Agnieszka J.; Rose, Matthias; McKenna, Laurence; Olze, Heidi; Mazurek, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The primary cause of subjective tinnitus is a dysfunction of the auditory system; however, the degree of distress tinnitus causes depends largely on the psychological status of the patient. Our goal was to attempt to associate the grade of tinnitus-related distress with the psychological distress, physical, or psychological discomfort patients experienced, as well as potentially relevant social parameters, through a simultaneous analysis of these factors. Methods: We determined the level of tinnitus-related distress in 531 tinnitus patients using the German version of the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ). In addition, we used the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ); General Depression Scale Allgemeine Depression Skala (ADS), Berlin Mood Questionnaire (BSF); somatic symptoms inventory (BI), and SF-8 health survey as well as general information collected through a medical history. Results: The TQ score significantly correlated with a score obtained using PSQ, ADS, BSF, BI, and SF-8 alongside psychosocial factors such as age, gender, and marital status. The level of hearing loss and the auditory properties of the specific tinnitus combined with perceived stress and the degree of depressive mood and somatic discomfort of a patient were identified as medium-strong predictors of chronic tinnitus. Social factors such as gender, age, or marital status also had an impact on the degree of tinnitus distress. The results that were obtained were implemented in a specific cortical distress network model. Conclusions: Using a large representative sample of patients with chronic tinnitus permitted a simultaneous statistical measurement of psychometric and audiological parameters in predicting tinnitus distress. We demonstrate that single factors can be distinguished in a manner that explains their causative association and influence on the induction of tinnitus-related distress. PMID:27445776

  7. Research Misconduct Policies of Social Science Journals and Impact Factor

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Patrone, Daniel; Peddada, Shyamal

    2010-01-01

    In this study we gathered data on the misconduct policies of social science journals and combined it with the data from our previous study on journal misconduct policies, which did not include enough social science journals for data analysis. Consistent with our earlier finding, impact factor of the journal was the only variable significantly associated with whether a journal had a formal (written) misconduct policy with an odds-ratio of 1.72 (p < 0.01). We did not find that type of science (physical, biomedical, or social) or publisher had a significant effect on whether a journal had a policy. Another important finding is that less than half of the journals that responded to the survey had a formal misconduct policy. PMID:20306350

  8. Impact Factors Show Increased Use of AGU Journals in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Barbara Meyers

    2009-07-01

    The latest numbers released from Journal Citation Reports (JCR), published annually by Thomson Reuters, show large increases in the impact factor (IF) for several AGU journals. IFs are one way for publishers to know that readers have found their journals useful and of value in research. A journal's IF is calculated by taking the total number of citations to articles published by a given journal in the past 2 years and dividing it by the total number of papers published by the journal in the same time period. More generally, it can be seen as the frequency with which articles in a journal have been cited over the past year. The numbers speak for themselves (see Table 1).

  9. The story of fake impact factor companies and how we detected them

    PubMed Central

    Jalalian, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Beginning about three years ago, the world of academic publishing has become infected by fake impact factors and misleading metrics that are launched by bogus companies. The misleading metrics and fake impact factors have damaged the prestige and reliability of scientific research and scholarly journals. This article presents the in-depth story of some of the main bogus impact factors, how they approached the academic world, and how the author identified them. Some names that they use are Universal Impact Factor (UIF), Global Impact Factor (GIF), and Citefactor, and there even is a fake Thomson Reuters Company. PMID:26120416

  10. Journal Impact Factor: Do the Numerator and Denominator Need Correction?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue-Li; Gai, Shuang-Shuang; Zhou, Jing

    2016-01-01

    To correct the incongruence of document types between the numerator and denominator in the traditional impact factor (IF), we make a corresponding adjustment to its formula and present five corrective IFs: IFTotal/Total, IFTotal/AREL, IFAR/AR, IFAREL/AR, and IFAREL/AREL. Based on a survey of researchers in the fields of ophthalmology and mathematics, we obtained the real impact ranking of sample journals in the minds of peer experts. The correlations between various IFs and questionnaire score were analyzed to verify their journal evaluation effects. The results show that it is scientific and reasonable to use five corrective IFs for journal evaluation for both ophthalmology and mathematics. For ophthalmology, the journal evaluation effects of the five corrective IFs are superior than those of traditional IF: the corrective effect of IFAR/AR is the best, IFAREL/AR is better than IFTotal/Total, followed by IFTotal/AREL, and IFAREL/AREL. For mathematics, the journal evaluation effect of traditional IF is superior than those of the five corrective IFs: the corrective effect of IFTotal/Total is best, IFAREL/AR is better than IFTotal/AREL and IFAREL/AREL, and the corrective effect of IFAR/AR is the worst. In conclusion, not all disciplinary journal IF need correction. The results in the current paper show that to correct the IF of ophthalmologic journals may be valuable, but it seems to be meaningless for mathematic journals. PMID:26977697

  11. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Kang; Hashim, Syed I; Yong, Kimberley L Y; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture. Calcium supplementation was previously regarded as a useful treatment during physical rehabilitation. However, recent data suggests calcium supplementation has a negative impact on atherosclerotic conditions. Vitamin D intake may prevent osteoporosis and fractures in patients with stroke. Although drugs such as teriparatide show some benefits in preventing osteoporosis, additional clinical trials are needed to determine the most effective conditions for post-stroke applications. PMID:26929915

  12. The impact of psychosis on social inclusion and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    White, Sarah; Lalvani, Nabeela; Berg, Rachel; Thachil, Ajoy; Kallumpuram, Sen; Nasiruddin, Omar; Wright, Christine; Mezey, Gill

    2014-01-01

    Background: People with mental health problems are known to be socially excluded but the contribution of pre-morbid characteristics, symptoms and needs, and the impact on quality of life is unknown. Aims: To investigate change in social inclusion after the development of a psychotic Illness and factors associated with this. Methods: A cross-sectional community survey of people with psychosis was carried out in three areas of London. Five domains of social inclusion (social integration, consumption, access to services, productivity, political engagement) were assessed prior to the onset of illness and currently using the Social Inclusion Questionnaire User Experience. Quality of life, symptoms and needs were also assessed using standardized measures. Factors associated with change in social inclusion were investigated using multiple regression. Results: Productivity and social integration among the 67 participants reduced after the onset of psychosis. Older age at onset and longer duration of illness were associated with greater reduction in productivity. Less reduction in social integration was associated with greater quality of life. Participants reported barriers to social inclusion that were directly related to symptoms of their illness, low confidence and poor self-esteem. Conclusions: A greater focus on interventions that can facilitate the occupation and the social networks of people with psychosis is required. Interventions that tackle ‘self-stigma’ may also prove useful in mitigating the social exclusion experienced by people with psychosis. PMID:23399990

  13. Impact and risk factors of post-stroke bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Huo, Kang; Hashim, Syed I; Yong, Kimberley L Y; Su, Hua; Qu, Qiu-Min

    2016-02-20

    Bone fracture occurs in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, prolonging recovery time and increasing medical costs. In this review, we discuss the potential risk factors for post-stroke bone fracture and preventive methods. Most post-stroke bone fractures occur in the lower extremities, indicating fragile bones are a risk factor. Motor changes, including posture, mobility, and balance post-stroke contribute to bone loss and thus increase risk of bone fracture. Bone mineral density is a useful indicator for bone resorption, useful to identify patients at risk of post-stroke bone fracture. Calcium supplementation was previously regarded as a useful treatment during physical rehabilitation. However, recent data suggests calcium supplementation has a negative impact on atherosclerotic conditions. Vitamin D intake may prevent osteoporosis and fractures in patients with stroke. Although drugs such as teriparatide show some benefits in preventing osteoporosis, additional clinical trials are needed to determine the most effective conditions for post-stroke applications. PMID:26929915

  14. Impact of "JOBM": ISI Impact Factor Places the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management" Third in Applied Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    The ISI Impact Factor for "JOBM" is 1.793, placing it third in the JCR rankings for journals in applied psychology with a sharply accelerating linear trend over the past 5 years. This article reviews the Impact Factor and raises questions regarding its reliability and validity and then considers a citation analysis of "JOBM" in light of the…

  15. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Dan

    2013-10-01

    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  16. BM-35CLINICAL FACTORS IMPACTING SURVIVAL IN BRAIN METASTASES

    PubMed Central

    Veilleux, Olivier; Cottin, Sylvine; Michaud, Karine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metastatic brain tumors are a common complication of systemic cancers. Good performance status, absence of extracranial metastases, age < 65 years and control of the primary tumor are the strongest predictors of survival. Controversy exists regarding best adjuvant treatment for patients. Therefore, careful evaluation of patient features and tumor characteristics must be considered when determining treatment modality. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the treatment management and clinical features of metastatic brain neoplasms following a neurosurgical procedure and evaluate factors conditioning survival. METHODS: Between January 1st 2009 and January 1st 2013, medical files of patients who underwent a surgical procedure for metastatic brain tumors at Hôpital de l'Enfant-Jésus in Québec City were reviewed. Data on patient features, primary and metastatic neoplasm characteristics, procedure and survival were recorded. Wilcoxon rank sum test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Cox proportional-hazards regression for survival data were used to assess the impact of treatments and patient characteristics on survival. Efficacy of whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and combined treatment in terms of patient survival were also evaluated. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty six patient files were reviewed and 109 were included for analysis. The mean survival time for patients was 537.9 days. Age below 65 years (p = 0.08) was a protective factor. WBRT combined with SRS (p < 0.0001), the use of WBRT alone (p = 0.002) or SRS alone (p = 0.004) all significantly improved survival. SRS, when compared to WBRT alone or to combined WBRT and SRS treatment, did not show significant difference in survival. CONCLUSION: Survival in our population is influenced by age and the use of adjuvant treatment. The choice of treatment modality after surgery remains somewhat controversial and our results support the need for further studies to compare

  17. Factors affecting benthic impacts at Scottish fish farms.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Daniel J; Zuur, Alain F; Solan, Martin; Paton, Graeme I; Killham, Ken

    2010-03-15

    The factors affecting patterns of benthic [seabed] biology and chemistry around 50 Scottish fish farms were investigated using linear mixed-effects models that account for inherent correlations between observations from the same farm. The abundance of benthic macrofauna and sediment concentrations of organic carbon were both influenced by a significant, albeit weak, interaction between farm size, defined as the maximum weight of fish permitted on site at any one time, and current speed. Above a farm size threshold of between 800 and 1000 t, the magnitude of effects at farms located in areas of elevated current speeds were greater than at equivalent farms located in more quiescent waters. Sediment concentrations of total organic matter were influenced by an interaction between distance and depth, indicating that wind-driven resuspension events may help reduce the accumulation of organic waste at farms located in shallow waters. The analyses presented here demonstrate that the production and subsequent fate of organic waste at fish farms is more complex than is often assumed; in isolation, current speed, water depth, and farr size are not necessarily good predictors of benthic impact. PMID:20178333

  18. Impact Factors and Prediction of Popular Topics in a Journal.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M B; Seitz, K

    2016-08-01

    The impact factor (IF) for 2015 was recently released and this could be the time to once again reflect on its use as a metric of a journal. Problems and concerns regarding the IF have been addressed extensively elsewhere 1 2. The principle of the IF for a given year is that it represents the average number of citations of articles published in the journal in the two previous years.While authors frequently cite the IF as a determining factor for submission, the IF does not predict how many times individual articles will be cited. In a study from a peer-reviewed cardiovascular journal, nearly half of all published articles were poorly cited, i. e., less than five citations in five years 3. A similar percentage seems to apply to our journal. In nearly all journals we estimate that the majority of citations relate to a minority of the articles. Some articles are never cited. 13 % of the articles published in our journal from 2010 to 2013 have never been cited. Even authors of poorly cited articles benefit from the IF since many institutions use the combined impact factors of their published papers to measure research activity and this may be reflected in their research budgets.The competition for the printed pages in the six annual issues of Ultraschall in der Medizin/European Journal of Ultrasound (UiM/EJU) has resulted in high rejection rates (between 80 % and 90 %). One negative review with recommendation of major revision may therefore result in rejection. Peer-review fraud where the submitting author listed recommended reviewers with fake email addresses supplying fabricated peer reviews has recently been described in the New England Journal of Medicine 4. Some of the editors of our journal believe they have experienced this as well. Fabricating reviews in order to get a high IF for an article is to be considered fraud and is inexcusable.One aspect of using impact factors as a measure of the quality of a journal is that the IF only goes back two years

  19. Impact phenomena as factors in the evolution of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieve, R. A. F.; Parmentier, E. M.

    1984-01-01

    It is estimated that 30 to 200 large impact basins could have been formed on the early Earth. These large impacts may have resulted in extensive volcanism and enhanced endogenic geologic activity over large areas. Initial modelling of the thermal and subsidence history of large terrestrial basins indicates that they created geologic and thermal anomalies which lasted for geologically significant times. The role of large-scale impact in the biological evolution of the Earth has been highlighted by the discovery of siderophile anomalies at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and associated with North American microtektites. Although in neither case has an associated crater been identified, the observations are consistent with the deposition of projectile-contaminated high-speed ejecta from major impact events. Consideration of impact processes reveals a number of mechanisms by which large-scale impact may induce extinctions.

  20. Impact of haze-fog days to radon progeny equilibrium factor and discussion of related factors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Changsong; Shang, Bing; Zhang, Qingzhao; Cui, Hongxing; Wu, Yunyun; Deng, Jun

    2015-11-01

    The equilibrium factor F between radon and its short-lived progenies is an important parameter to estimate radon exposure of humans. Therefore, indoor and outdoor concentrations of radon and its short-lived radon progeny were measured in Beijing area using a continuously measuring device, in an effort to obtain information on the F value. The results showed that the mean values of F were 0.58 ± 0.13 (0.25-0.95, n = 305) and 0.52 ± 0.12 (0.31-0.91, n = 64) for indoor and outdoor, respectively. The indoor F value during haze-fog days was higher than the typical value of 0.4 recommended by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and it was also higher than the values of 0.47 and 0.49 reported in the literature. A positive correlation was observed between indoor F values and PM2.5 concentrations (R (2) = 0.71). Since 2013, owing to frequent heavy haze-fog events in Beijing and surrounding areas, the number of the days with severe pollution remains at a high level. Future studies on the impact of the ambient fine particulate matter on indoor radon progeny equilibrium factor F could be important. PMID:26143065

  1. Photon impact factor and k{sub T}-factorization for DIS in the next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Balitsky, Giovanni Chirilli

    2013-01-01

    The photon impact factor for the BFKL pomeron is calculated in the next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation using the operator expansion in Wilson lines. The result is represented as an NLO k{sub T}-factorization formula for structure functions of small-x deep inelastic scattering.

  2. Studying Overseas: Factors Impacting Intention of Female Students in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jie; Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that impact Chinese female students' intention to study overseas. This study also aimed to understand how these factors impact female students' decision making process. Using a survey questionnaire, data were collected from 96 female undergraduates who enrolled in a 4-year public university…

  3. Not So Fast: Inflation in Impact Factors Contributes to Apparent Improvements in Journal Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bryan D.; Olden, Julian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) impact factor has become an important standard for assessing journal quality. Here we propose that impact factors may be subject to inflation analogous to changes in monetary prices in economics. The possibility of inflation came to light as a result of the observation that papers published today tend…

  4. Comparison of Journal Citation Reports and Scopus Impact Factors for Ecology and Environmental Sciences Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Edward; Hodkinson, Sarah Z.

    2008-01-01

    Impact factors for journals listed under the subject categories "ecology" and "environmental sciences" in the Journal Citation Reports database were calculated using citation data from the Scopus database. The journals were then ranked by their Scopus impact factor and compared to the ranked lists of the same journals derived from Journal…

  5. Factors Influencing Pediatric Injury in Side Impact Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Moll, Elisa K.; Morris, Shannon D.; Anderko, Rebecca L.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Winston, Flaura K.

    2000-01-01

    Side impacts collisions pose a great risk to children in crashes but information about the injury mechanisms is limited. The heights and weights of children vary widely and as a result, the injury patterns may vary across the pediatric age range. This study involves a case series of children in side impact collisions who were identified through Partners for Child Passenger Safety, a large child-focused crash surveillance system. The aim of the current study was to use in-depth crash investigations to identify injury mechanisms to children in side impact collisions. 93 children in 55 side impact crashes were studied. 23% (n=22) of the children received an AIS ≥2 (clinically significant) injury. In these 22 children, head (39%), extremity (22%), and abdominal injuries (17%) were the most common significant injuries. The cases revealed that serious injuries occur even in minor crashes. Cases that illustrate body region-specific injury mechanisms are discussed. PMID:11558098

  6. The evaluation of the individual impact factor of researchers and research centers using the RC algorithm.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Villafáfila, Amelia; Ramos-Brieva, Jesus A

    2015-01-01

    The RC algorithm quantitatively evaluates the personal impact factor of the scientific production of isolated researchers. The authors propose an adaptation of RC to evaluate the personal impact factor of research centers, hospitals and other research groups. Thus, these could be classified according to the accredited impact of the results of their scientific work between researchers of the same scientific area. This could be useful for channelling budgets and grants for research. PMID:25023181

  7. HERMES impact for the access of Compton form factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumerički, K.; Müller, D.; Murray, M.

    2014-07-01

    We utilize the DVCS asymmetry measurements of the HERMES collaboration for access to Compton form factors in the deeply virtual regime and to generalized parton distributions. In particular, the (almost) complete measurement of DVCS observables allows us to map various asymmetries into the space of Compton form factors, where we still rely in this analysis on dominance of twist-two associated Compton form factors. We compare this one-to-one map with local Compton form factor fits and a model dependent global fit.

  8. Economic and Demographic Factors Impacting Placement of Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Paschall, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Educational placement of students with autism is often associated with child factors, such as IQ and communication skills. However, variability in placement patterns across states suggests that other factors are at play. This study used hierarchical cluster analysis techniques to identify demographic, economic, and educational covariates…

  9. Factors Influencing Ball-Player Impact Probability in Youth Baseball

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Philip A.; Myers, Joseph B.; Sawicki, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Altering the weight of baseballs for youth play has been studied out of concern for player safety. Research has shown that decreasing the weight of baseballs may limit the severity of both chronic arm and collision injuries. Unfortunately, reducing the weight of the ball also increases its exit velocity, leaving pitchers and nonpitchers with less time to defend themselves. The purpose of this study was to examine impact probability for pitchers and nonpitchers. Hypothesis: Reducing the available time to respond by 10% (expected from reducing ball weight from 142 g to 113 g) would increase impact probability for pitchers and nonpitchers, and players’ mean simple response time would be a primary predictor of impact probability for all participants. Study Design: Nineteen subjects between the ages of 9 and 13 years performed 3 experiments in a controlled laboratory setting: a simple response time test, an avoidance response time test, and a pitching response time test. Methods: Each subject performed these tests in order. The simple reaction time test tested the subjects’ mean simple response time, the avoidance reaction time test tested the subjects’ ability to avoid a simulated batted ball as a fielder, and the pitching reaction time test tested the subjects’ ability to avoid a simulated batted ball as a pitcher. Results: Reducing the weight of a standard baseball from 142 g to 113 g led to a less than 5% increase in impact probability for nonpitchers. However, the results indicate that the impact probability for pitchers could increase by more than 25%. Conclusion: Pitching may greatly increase the amount of time needed to react and defend oneself from a batted ball. Clinical Relevance: Impact injuries to youth baseball players may increase if a 113-g ball is used. PMID:25984261

  10. Impact of Environmental Factors on the Regulation of Cyanotoxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Boopathi, Thangavelu; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are capable of thriving in almost all environments. Recent changes in climatic conditions due to increased human activities favor the occurrence and severity of harmful cyanobacterial bloom all over the world. Knowledge of the regulation of cyanotoxins by the various environmental factors is essential for effective management of toxic cyanobacterial bloom. In recent years, progress in the field of molecular mechanisms involved in cyanotoxin production has paved the way for assessing the role of various factors on the cyanotoxin production. In this review, we present an overview of the influence of various environmental factors on the production of major group of cyanotoxins, including microcystins, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin, anatoxins and saxitoxins. PMID:24967641

  11. Factors Impacting the Advancement of Female Leaders to the Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Sally Utley

    2009-01-01

    The position of the superintendency is a critical and influential one. It sets the strategic goals for teaching and learning for school divisions throughout the United States. It serves as a role model for future school leaders. The educational programs provided to students in public schools have a significant impact on the success of our youth.…

  12. Impact of exercise training on psychological risk factors.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Milani, Richard V; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Although the role of psychological risk factors has been underemphasized, considerable evidence indicates the adverse effects of various psychosocial stressors in the pathogenesis and recovery from cardiovascular diseases. Substantial data, especially from cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training programs, have demonstrated the role of physical activity, exercise training, and cardiorespiratory fitness, to improve psychological risk factors, including depression, anxiety, hostility, and total psychological stress, as well as stress-related mortality. PMID:21545933

  13. Factors associated with the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) for Urology and Nephrology Journals

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Joseph M.; Adejoro, Oluwakayode O.; Fleck, Joseph R.; Wolfson, Julian A.; Konety, Badrinath R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The Journal Impact Factor (JIF) is an index used to compare a journal's quality among academic journals and it is commonly used as a proxy for journal quality. We sought to examine the JIF in order to elucidate the main predictors of the index while generating awareness among scientific community regarding need to modify the index calculation in the attempt to turn it more accurate. Materials and Methods: Under the Urology and Nephrology category in the Journal Citations Report Website, the top 17 Journals by JIF in 2011 were chosen for the study. All manuscripts’ abstracts published from 2009-2010 were reviewed; each article was categorized based on its research design (Retrospective, Review, etc). T and correlation tests were performed for categorical and continuous variables respectively. The JIF was the dependent variable. All variables were then included in a multivariate model. Results: 23,012 articles from seventeen journals were evaluated with a median of 1,048 (range=78-6,342) articles per journal. Journals with a society affiliation were associated with a higher JIF (p=0.05). Self-citations (rho=0.57, p=0.02), citations for citable articles (rho=0.73, p=0.001), citations to non-citable articles (rho=0.65, p=0.0046), and retrospective studies (rho=-0.51, p=0.03) showed a strong correlation. Slight modifications to include the non-citable articles in the denominator yield drastic changes in the JIF and the ranking of the journals. Conclusion: The JIF appears to be closely associated with the number of citable articles published. A change in the formula for calculating JIF to include all types of published articles in the denominator would result in a more accurate representation. PMID:26742962

  14. Bibliometric indexes, databases and impact factors in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Bienert, Igor R C; Oliveira, Rogério Carvalho de; Andrade, Pedro Beraldo de; Caramori, Carlos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometry is a quantitative statistical technique to measure levels of production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as a useful tool to track the development of an scientific area. The valuation of production required for recognition of researchers and magazines is accomplished through tools called bibliometric indexes, divided into quality indicators and scientific impact. Initially developed for monographs of statistical measures especially in libraries, today bibliometrics is mainly used to evaluate productivity of authors and citation repercussion. However, these tools have limitations and sometimes provoke controversies about indiscriminate application, leading to the development of newer indexes. It is important to know the most common search indexes and use it properly even acknowledging its limitations as it has a direct impact in their daily practice, reputation and funds achievement. PMID:26107458

  15. Bibliometric indexes, databases and impact factors in cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Bienert, Igor R C; de Oliveira, Rogério Carvalho; de Andrade, Pedro Beraldo; Caramori, Carlos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Bibliometry is a quantitative statistical technique to measure levels of production and dissemination of knowledge, as well as a useful tool to track the development of an scientific area. The valuation of production required for recognition of researchers and magazines is accomplished through tools called bibliometricindexes, divided into quality indicators and scientific impact. Initially developed for monographs of statistical measures especially in libraries, today bibliometrics is mainly used to evaluate productivity of authors and citation repercussion. However, these tools have limitations and sometimes provoke controversies about indiscriminate application, leading to the development of newer indexes. It is important to know the most common search indexes and use it properly even acknowledging its limitations as it has a direct impact in their daily practice, reputation and funds achievement. PMID:26107458

  16. Cancer family history reporting: impact of method and psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Remy, Amber; DeSimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-06-01

    Family history is one the greatest risk factors for disease and one of the most important informational tools in medical genetics for the purpose of diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention and treatment. However, research is needed on the comparability of different methods of cancer family history assessment and the influence of psychosocial factors in family history reports. The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals had discrepancies between written and interview reports of cancer family history and the role of psychosocial factors in these discrepancies. Oncology patients (n=104) were administered a survey to assess psychosocial factors (i.e., information-seeking, worry, perceived risk, and health literacy) and were asked to provide family history in a written and an interview form. Randomization determined which form individuals received first. No differences in the amount of missing data or the amount of unspecified data were noted between the written and interview method. Psychosocial factors did not differentiate between those who had discrepancies in family history reports and those who did not have discrepancies in family history reports; although there was a trend for those with lower literacy and those who were blunters to be more discrepant on type of cancer diagnosis. In sum, this preliminary study indicates that written and interview methods of family history assessment for first degree relatives may be used interchangeably. The ability to use written methods will facilitate collection of basic family history information in the oncology clinic. PMID:17318453

  17. Impact factors for Reggeon-gluon transition in N=4 SYM with large number of colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. S.; Fiore, R.

    2014-06-01

    We calculate impact factors for Reggeon-gluon transition in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with four supercharges at large number of colours Nc. In the next-to-leading order impact factors are not uniquely defined and must accord with BFKL kernels and energy scales. We obtain the impact factor corresponding to the kernel and the energy evolution parameter, which is invariant under Möbius transformation in momentum space, and show that it is also Möbius invariant up to terms taken into account in the BDS ansatz.

  18. Factors Impacting on the School Counselor Hiring Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert J.; Lesisko, Lee J.

    2011-01-01

    There has been a major paradigm shift in the professional expectations for the role of school counselors. The possibility that this shift is having a role in the hiring process for school counselors was studied. The research question was the identification of latent factors that are part of the decision process used by school administrators in…

  19. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  20. Factors Impacting Superintendent Turnover: Lessons from the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Jimmy K.; Drews, Celia; Johnson, Jeanie

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine contributing factors influencing superintendent tenure among Texas public school superintendents. The results of the Cox Regression analysis revealed that strained relationships with the school board president, not being able to get decisions made at the Board level, and superintendent/school board…

  1. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS ON OIL SPILLS - IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When a dispersant is applied to an oil slick, its effectiveness in dispersing the spilled oil depends on various factors such as oil properties, wave mixing energy, temperature of both oil and water, and salinity of the water. Estuaries represent water with varying salinities. In...

  2. The Impact of Extrinsic Demographic Factors on Cantonese Speech Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    This study modeled the associations between extrinsic demographic factors and children's speech acquisition in Hong Kong Cantonese. The speech of 937 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;4 to 6;7 in Hong Kong was assessed using a standardized speech test. Demographic information regarding household income, paternal education, maternal education,…

  3. Factors Impacting Teachers' Adoption of Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Callum, Kathryn; Jeffrey, Lynn; Kinshuk

    2014-01-01

    As mobile technology has advanced, awareness is growing that these technologies may benefit teaching and learning. However, despite this interest, the factors that will determine the acceptance of mobile technology by lecturers have been limited. This study proposed and tested a new model that extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) with…

  4. Factors Influencing Observed Tillage Impacts on Herbicide Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, E. A.; Huang, C.; Smith, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    The widespread use and potential human health effects of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate have generated interest in establishing how no-tillage impacts loading of these herbicides to runoff water in comparison to other tillage practices. In this study, potentially confounding factos such as time in tillage practice and type and distribution of residue cover, are weighed against inherent tillage impacts to soil structure in terms of relative effects on herbicide transport with runoff water. In this study, two small watersheds (one in no-till (NT) and one rotational till (RT)) were monitored during the first three years since conversion of the RT watershed from NT. In addition, rainfall simulation was applied to plots within each watershed during the first, third, and fifth years since the conversion. Runoff atrazine and glyphosate losses from RT areas were compared to losses from NT areas as a ratio of RT:NT. Results indicate a trend of increasing RT:NT value with time in tillage. Watershed monitoring indicated greater herbicide loading to runoff water from the NT watershed than the RT watershed during the first year since RT conversion, but this relationship reversed by the third year since conversion to RT. In addition, rainfall simulations were performed on small boxes of NT or RT soil having varying types and levels of residue cover in an attempt to isolate residue cover effects from true tillage effects.

  5. Impact of psychological factors in the experience of pain.

    PubMed

    Linton, Steven J; Shaw, William S

    2011-05-01

    This article reviews the role of psychological factors in the development of persistent pain and disability, with a focus on how basic psychological processes have been incorporated into theoretical models that have implications for physical therapy. To this end, the key psychological factors associated with the experience of pain are summarized, and an overview of how they have been integrated into the major models of pain and disability in the scientific literature is presented. Pain has clear emotional and behavioral consequences that influence the development of persistent problems and the outcome of treatment. Yet, these psychological factors are not routinely assessed in physical therapy clinics, nor are they sufficiently utilized to enhance treatment. Based on a review of the scientific evidence, a set of 10 principles that have likely implications for clinical practice is offered. Because psychological processes have an influence on both the experience of pain and the treatment outcome, the integration of psychological principles into physical therapy treatment would seem to have potential to enhance outcomes. PMID:21451097

  6. Impact factor for high-energy two and three jets diffractive production

    SciTech Connect

    Boussarie, R.; Grabovsky, A.V.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2015-04-10

    We present the calculation of the impact factor for the photon to quark, antiquark and gluon transition within Balitsky’s shock-wave formalism. We also rederive the impact factor for photon to quark and antiquark transition. These results provide the necessary building blocks for further phenomenological studies of inclusive diffractive deep inelastic scattering as well as for two and three jets diffractive production which go beyond approximations discussed in the literature.

  7. Factors Impacting upon the Performance of Workplace Assessors: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a research project that elicits the main factors impacting on the performance of workplace assessors in the oil and gas industry. The purpose of the paper is to reveal the significance of the role of workplace assessors and the subsequent impact upon workforce engagement. One model of employee competency…

  8. Factors Impacting Sense of Belonging at a Hispanic-Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestas, Ricardo; Vaquera, Gloria S.; Zehr, Linda Munoz

    2007-01-01

    This study examines factors that impact students' sense of belonging at a Hispanic-serving institution. Findings indicate that various variables measuring academic and social integration as well as experiences with and perceptions of diversity have a positive impact on sense of belonging. Implications support the idea that campus diversity may…

  9. Factors impacting on career progression for nurse executives.

    PubMed

    Moran, Phyllis; Duffield, Christine M; Donoghue, Judith; Stasa, Helen; Blay, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This discursive paper examines recent research on career progression for nurse executives in Australia. In particular, it focuses on the personal, work-related and professional factors which influence progression. The role of gender, location and the provision of mentoring are also considered. It is suggested that family friendly policies (such as the option to job share or to perform an executive role on a part-time basis), the availability of a mentor, and the opportunity to pursue further education/training are vital in assisting nurses to progress in their executive careers. PMID:21854237

  10. Socioeconomic Factors Impact Inpatient Mortality in Pediatric Lymphoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, Yana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Our objective was to determine the risk factors for inpatient mortality of pediatric patients diagnosed with lymphoma through the utilization of a large national pediatric database. Methods: This cross-sectional study uses data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database (HCUP KID) for the year of 2012 to estimate the risk factors for inpatient mortality for pediatric patients diagnosed with lymphoma. All patients diagnosed with lymphoma between the ages of one and 18 years were included. Chi-square test was used to analyze categorical variables. Independent t-test was used to analyze continuous variables. Results: A total of 2,908 study subjects with lymphoma were analyzed. Of those, 56.1% were male and the average age was three years old. Total inpatient mortality was 1.2% or 34 patients. We found that patients with four or more chronic conditions were much more likely to die while hospitalized (p < 0.0001). In addition, we also saw that patients with median household incomes below $47,999 dollars (p = 0.05) having a need for a major procedure (p = 0.008) were associated with inpatient mortality. Congestive heart failure, renal failure, coagulopathy, metastatic disease, and electrolyte abnormalities were all found to be associated with inpatient mortality. Conclusions: Pediatric lymphoma mortality in children is not only influenced by their medical condition but also by their socioeconomic condition as well. PMID:27433403

  11. Impact of surgeon factor on radiocephalic fistula patency rates

    PubMed Central

    Arer, Ilker Murat; Yabanoglu, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hemodialysis with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) has been widely accepted treatment modality for patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Radiocephalic fistulas are considered to be the most desirable for the initial vascular access. The aim of this study is to investigate the surgeon factor on radiocephalic fistula patency rates. Methods A total of 186 patients with diagnosis of CRF underwent Radiocephalic fistula for hemodialysis access were included. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to operating surgeon. Patients were evaluated according to demographic characteristics, secondary patency rates, second AVF creation and complications. Results Mean age was 57.7 ± 14.8 years. The most common etiology of CRF was idiopathic (66.6%). 40 (75.5%) patients in group 1 and 122 (91.7%) patients in group 2 were pre-dialysis patients (p < 0.05). Overall secondary patency rate was 77.4%. Patients in group 1 and group 2 have secondary patency rates of 83% and 75.2%, respectively (p = 0.458). Second AVF creation was done in 2 (3.8%) patients in group 1 and 23 (17.3%) patients in group 2 (p < 0.05). Postoperative complication rate was 9.6%. Conclusion Operating surgeon is not a major factor of secondary patency in radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas. PMID:26900457

  12. Impact factors of forensic science and toxicology journals: what do the numbers really mean?

    PubMed

    Jones, A W

    2003-04-23

    This article presents review and opinion about the use and abuse of journal impact factors for judging the importance and prestige of scientific journals in the field of forensic science and toxicology. The application of impact factors for evaluating the published work of individual scientists is also discussed. The impact factor of a particular journal is calculated by dividing the number of current year citations to a journal's articles that were published in the previous 2 years by the total number of citable items (articles and reviews) published in the same 2-year period. Journal impact factors differ from discipline to discipline and range from 0 for a journal whose articles are not cited in the previous 2 years to 46 for a journal where the average recent article is cited 46 times per year. The impact factor reflects the citation rate of the average article in a journal and not a specific article. Many parameters influence the citation rate of a particular journal's articles and, therefore, its impact factor. These include the visibility and size of the circulation of the journal including availability of electronic formats and options for on-line search and retrieval. Other things to consider are editorial standards especially rapid and effective peer-reviewing and a short time lag between acceptance and appearance in print. The number of self-citations and citation density (the ratio of references to articles) and also the inclusion of many review articles containing hundreds of references to recently published articles will boost the impact factor. Judging the importance of a scientist's work based on the average or median impact factor of the journals used to publish articles is not recommended. Instead an article-by-article citation count should be done, but this involves much more time and effort. Moreover, some weighting factor is necessary to allow for the number of co-authors on each article and the relative positioning of the individual names

  13. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells.

    PubMed

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip J; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Bjerg, Poul L

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquifer, a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate, while in an aquifer with a stream the effect of the pumping rate was insignificant. Pesticide application history and properties have also a great impact on the effect of the pumping rate on the concentration at the well. The findings of the study show that variable pumping rates can generate temporal variability in the concentration at the well, which helps understanding the results of groundwater monitoring programs. The results are used to provide guidance on the design of pumping and regulatory changes for the long-term supply of safe groundwater. The fate of selected pesticides is examined, for example, if the application of bentazone in a region with a layered aquifer stops today, the concentration at the well can continue to increase for 20 years if a low pumping rate is applied. This study concludes that because of the rapid response of the pesticide concentration at the drinking water well due to changes in pumping, wellhead management is important for managing pesticide concentrations. PMID:25243476

  14. Impact of gestational risk factors on maternal cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Luaces, María; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Barakat, Rubén; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Scarce evidence is available on the potential cardiovascular abnormalities associated with some common gestational complications. We aimed to analyze the potential maternal cardiac alterations related to gestational complications, including body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, or developing antenatal depression. Methods The design of this study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiovascular indicators of maternal hemodynamic, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular (LV) function in 59 sedentary pregnant women at 20 and 34 weeks of gestation. Results Starting pregnancy with a BMI >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, and developing antenatal depression had no cardiovascular impact on maternal health (P value >0.002). Depressed women were more likely to exceed weight gain recommendations than non-depressed women (P value <0.002). Conclusions The evaluated gestational complications seem not to induce cardiovascular alterations in hemodynamic, remodeling and LV function indicators. However, developing antenatal depression increases the risk of an excessive weight gain. This finding is potentially important because excessive weight gain during pregnancy associates with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. PMID:27500154

  15. Impact of social factors on labour discrimination of disabled women.

    PubMed

    Mondéjar-Jiménez, José; Vargas-Vargas, Manuel; Meseguer-Santamaría, María-Leticia; Mondéjar-Jiménez, Juan-Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Disabled women suffer from a double labour discrimination due to their gender and their disability. In rural areas, in addition, they also suffer from a lack of specific services, the isolation of the disabled associations, problems with public transport, the dispersion of population centres, and a limited access to information that could improve their chances of entering the labour market. The current work adopts a constructivist perspective on disability and offers a preliminary examination of the influence of social factors, such as the rural or urban nature of the disabled women's place of residence, the assistance they receive from their family or outside the family, the quantity of information they receive about the labour market, and their educational level, on the activity and employment status of this group of people. PMID:19692206

  16. [Smoking among the unemployed: impact of structural factors on lifestyle].

    PubMed

    Kłos, Jan; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    In times of economic crisis, questions arise about its relationship to the state of public health. One of the responses might be to investigate health behaviors of people who suffer most from the crisis, which is the unemployed. This study focuses on the many links between smoking among the jobless and other aspects of their lifestyle as well as selected social factors. In our research, we used statistical methods and a questionnaire. based survey. The research was conducted in 2007 and it covered 1,068 unemployed persons registered with the District Employment Office in Poznan. The prevalence of smoking among the unemployed is higher than the national average and is associated with their socio-economic status, gender and such lifestyle aspects as the amount of alcohol consumed, the amount of free time, body mass index, the number of meals consumed, the number of persons the unemployed can rely on, and the amount of time devoted to exercise. PMID:20301929

  17. IMPACT OF FIVE TREATMENT FACTORS ON MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-12-08

    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify factors that affect mussel kill. Test results reported herein indicate that mussel kill should not be affected by: (1) air bubbles being carried by currents through power plant pipes; (2) pipe orientation (e.g., vertical or horizontal); (3) whether the bacterial cell concentration during a treatment is constant or slightly varying; (4) whether a treatment is between 3 hr and 12 hr in duration, given that the total quantity of bacteria being applied to the pipe is a constant; and (5) whether the water temperature is between 13 C and 23 C.

  18. Factors that Impact Susceptibility to Fiber-Induced Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Below, Jennifer E.; Cox, Nancy J.; Fukagawa, Naomi K.; Hirvonen, Ari; Testa, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    Asbestos and related fibers are associated with a number of adverse health effects, including malignant mesothelioma (MM), an aggressive cancer that generally develops in the surface serosal cells of the pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. Although approximately 80% of individuals with MM are exposed to asbestos, fewer than 5% of asbestos workers develop MM. In addition to asbestos, other mineralogical, environmental, genetic, and possibly viral factors might contribute to MM susceptibility. Given this complex etiology of MM, understanding susceptibility to MM needs to be a priority for investigators in order to reduce exposure of those most at risk to known environmental carcinogens. In this review, the current body of literature related to fiber-associated disease susceptibility including age, sex, nutrition, genetics, asbestos, and other mineral exposure is addressed with a focus on MM, and critical areas for further study are recommended. PMID:21534090

  19. Adult Prostitution Recidivism: Risk Factors and Impact of a Diversion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique E.; Hickle, Kristine E.; Loubert, Martha Perez; Egan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors and the impact of a prostitution diversion program on prostitution recidivism. Risk factors and recidivism were explored using chi-square, t tests, and survival analysis. Participants were 448 individuals who were arrested for prostitution and attended a prostitution-focused diversion…

  20. Quantitative Analyses in a Multivariate Study of Language Attrition: The Impact of Extralinguistic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Monika S.; Dusseldorp, Elise

    2010-01-01

    Most linguistic processes--acquisition, change, deterioration--take place in and are determined by a complex and multifactorial web of language internal and language external influences. This implies that the impact of each individual factor can only be determined on the basis of a careful consideration of its interplay with all other factors. The…

  1. Reintegration Success and Failure: Factors Impacting Reintegration among Incarcerated and Formerly Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobbina, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists have explored the reentry experience of formerly incarcerated adults, documented the pressing challenges of reentry, the correlates of recidivism, and the causes of desistance. Given scholars' focus on reentry to explain what factors impact criminal outcome, this raises the interesting question of whether and how such factors shape…

  2. The Impact of Risk Factors on the Treatment of Adolescent Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Sharon M.; Lewis, Kathy; Sigal, Janet

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact that 5 selected risk factors have on the treatment outcome of adolescent male sex offenders. The results indicated that the greatest risk factor among sex offenders was having a mother who had a substance abuse problem. Study participants were 35 adolescent boys in a New Jersey residential facility for…

  3. How to Identify and Prioritize Psychosocial Factors Impacting Stress Level.

    PubMed

    Hocine, Mounia N; Aït Bouziad, Karim; Légeron, Patrick; Dab, William; Saporta, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    We develop a methodological approach to identify and prioritize psychosocial factors (stressors) requiring priority action to reduce stress levels. Data analysis was carried out on a random sample of 10 000 French employees who completed, during a routine interview with the occupational physician, a 25-item questionnaire about stress levels, as well as a questionnaire about 58 stressors grouped into 5 latent variables: job control, job context, relationships at work, tasks performed and recognition. Our method combines Importance-Performance Analysis, a valuable approach for prioritizing improvements in the quality of services, with Partial Least Squares-Path modeling, a Structural Equation Modeling approach widely applied in psychosocial research. Findings on our data suggest two areas worthy of attention: one with five stressors on which decision makers should concentrate, and another with five stressors that managers should leave alone when acting to reduce stress levels. We show that IPA is robust when answers to questions are dichotomized, as opposed to the initial 6-point Likert scale. We believe that our approach will be a useful tool for experts and decision-makers in the field of stress management and prevention. PMID:27304854

  4. How to Identify and Prioritize Psychosocial Factors Impacting Stress Level

    PubMed Central

    Hocine, Mounia N.; Aït Bouziad, Karim; Légeron, Patrick; Dab, William; Saporta, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    We develop a methodological approach to identify and prioritize psychosocial factors (stressors) requiring priority action to reduce stress levels. Data analysis was carried out on a random sample of 10 000 French employees who completed, during a routine interview with the occupational physician, a 25-item questionnaire about stress levels, as well as a questionnaire about 58 stressors grouped into 5 latent variables: job control, job context, relationships at work, tasks performed and recognition. Our method combines Importance-Performance Analysis, a valuable approach for prioritizing improvements in the quality of services, with Partial Least Squares-Path modeling, a Structural Equation Modeling approach widely applied in psychosocial research. Findings on our data suggest two areas worthy of attention: one with five stressors on which decision makers should concentrate, and another with five stressors that managers should leave alone when acting to reduce stress levels. We show that IPA is robust when answers to questions are dichotomized, as opposed to the initial 6-point Likert scale. We believe that our approach will be a useful tool for experts and decision-makers in the field of stress management and prevention. PMID:27304854

  5. Outcome analysis of factors impacting the plastic surgery match.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jeyhan S; David, Lisa R

    2010-06-01

    Matching into an integrated plastic surgery program has become highly competitive. As a result it has become more difficult for both the applicants and the residency programs to determine which attributes are most important to match in plastic surgery and, more importantly, to make a surgeon who will contribute to the future of our specialty. This study was conducted to analyze potential associations between a successful match into plastic surgery and the number of interviews offered and attended, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) membership, and participation in away rotations. Increased competitiveness of the specialty also has required that the applicant spend significant time and money on the match process to improve his chances. Therefore, we looked at the financial impact of the interview process as well as at compliance with the new communication mandate by the Plastic Surgery Residency Review Committee designed to decrease some of the time and monetary costs associated with the match process. An anonymous 30-item survey was e-mailed to all the applicants to our institution last year. The survey consisted of questions addressing applicant profile with specific questions regarding the interview process. Descriptive statistics, including frequencies and proportions for each of the questions, were calculated. To assess the relationship between categorical outcomes, a Fisher exact test was used. Results with a P value less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Considering matching as the primary outcome measure, a statistically significant relationship was found with the number of plastic surgery interview invitations received and attended (P < 0.0001 for both), as well as with AOA membership (P = 0.018), with 89% (32/36) of the responders in AOA matching into plastic surgery. Although doing an away rotation did not have a significant association with match rate, one-third of responders matched where they did an away rotation. Gender was not found to

  6. A review of major factors influencing plant responses to recreation impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuss, Fred R.

    1986-09-01

    This article reviews some of the more important factors found to influence the susceptibility of plants to trampling impacts associated with recreational use of natural areas. A three-way interaction mediates plant responses to impacts: plant x environment x stress level(s). Plant responses vary in part according to the genetic constitution of the plant, life and growth form, the adaptive flexibility of the plant, and anatomical differences inherent to growth habit and morphology. Other factors that influence plant sensitivities to impacts are the habitat environments in which plants grow, since a number of conditions such as moisture excesses or deficiencies, nitrogen or oxygen starvation, late frosts, etc., cause physiological injury and may increase plant sensitivity to impacts. Among the environmental factors that may increase or lessen plant sensitivities to impacts are soil moisture levels, canopy density, elevation, aspect, microclimate, soil drainage, texture, fertility and productivity. Seasonal influences also bear consideration since environmental changes and phonological and physiological events are mediated by time of year. Stresses are caused by both direct and indirect forms of impact and vary according to season of use, frequency and amount of use, and the type of activity. These interactions are further complicated by evidence that inter- and intraspecific competition, antagonism, and commensalism may influence differences in the sensitivity of plant communities to impacts.

  7. The Impact of Psychological Factors on Device Removal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Golbakhsh, Mohammadreza; Sadaat, Mirmostafa; Noughani, Fatemeh; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Gholizadeh, Amirmohammad; Abedi, Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Background Implant removal is a common procedure in orthopedic surgery which can be associated with many complications such as scar formation, hematoma, nerve injury, infection, and refracture. Indications for orthopedic implant removal have declined in recent years. Most studies have considered orthopedic hardware removal as an unnecessary procedure in the absence of severe complications such as nonunion. Some studies have reported the complications of orthopedic hardware removal to be 24% to 50% dependent on their types and locations as well as on other factors such as patient’s condition and the orthopedist’s experience. Objectives The present study surveyed possible mental and psychological causes among patients who asked for removal procedures in spite of orthopedic surgeons’ advice and being aware of complications. Patients and Methods Patients who had undergone plating for the treatment of radius and ulna fractures from 2011 to 2013, were told that it is not necessary to remove the plate and they were warned of all the risks of removal surgery, such as anesthesia, possible nerve or vascular damage, and the cost of surgery. Then, their tendency to remove the plate was examined based on evaluation criteria scores. Patients were divided into two groups: patients who insisted on surgery despite all the risks and patients who had little tendency or gave up after explanations. Both groups were given visual analog pain scale (VAS), symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90), and pain catastrophizing scale (PCS) questionnaires. The questions were explained for patients by an expert trained in the clinic and in case of ambiguity further explanations were given to the patients. The data were then entered into statistical package for the social science (SPSS) version 20 for analysis. Results A total of 29 patients with plates were enrolled. The first group consisted of 16 male and 13 female patients. In the control group (group II), there were 30 patients with no tendency for

  8. Factors impacting the decision to participate in and satisfaction with public/community psychiatry fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Michael; LeMelle, Stephanie; Ranz, Jules

    2014-10-01

    During yearly meetings of the recently developed network of 15 public/community psychiatry fellowships, it has been noted that programs are having varying degrees of success with regard to recruitment. To understand factors that impact recruitment, a quality improvement survey of fellows and alumni was conducted. Respondents were asked to rate overall satisfaction with their fellowship training as well as perceived benefits and obstacles to participating in a fellowship program, and impact on their careers. A total of 155 (57%) fellows and alumni responded. Factor analysis was used to condense the variables, and a multiple regression explored factors predicting overall fellowship program satisfaction. Factors that represented perceived benefits had higher means than did factors that represent obstacles. Respondents highly valued the extent to which these fellowships enhanced their careers, with regard to job opportunities, academics, networking and leadership. PMID:24477510

  9. Risk Factors for Interstage Mortality Following the Norwood Procedure: Impact of Sociodemographic Factors.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Laura C; Burke, Brendan; Donohue, Janet E; Yu, Sunkyung; Hirsch-Romano, Jennifer C; Ohye, Richard G; Goldberg, Caren S

    2016-01-01

    Interstage mortality remains significant for patients undergoing staged palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and other related single right ventricle malformations (HLV). The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to demographics, socioeconomic position, and perioperative course associated with post-Norwood hospital discharge, pre-stage 2, interstage mortality (ISM). Medical record review was conducted for patients with HLV, born from 1/2000 to 7/2009 and discharged alive following the Norwood procedure. Sociodemographic and perioperative factors were reviewed. Patients were determined to have ISM if they died between Norwood procedure hospital discharge and stage 2 palliation. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to identify risk factors associated with ISM. A total of 273 patients were included in the analysis; ISM occurred in 32 patients (12%). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that independent risk factors for interstage mortality included teen mothers [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 6.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-22.5], single adult caregivers (AOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2-14.4), postoperative dysrhythmia (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.4), and longer ICU stay (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.1). Anatomic and surgical course variables were not associated with ISM in multivariable analysis. Patients with HLV are at increased risk of ISM if born to a teen mother, if they lived in a home with only one adult caregiver, suffered a postoperative dysrhythmia, or experienced a prolonged ICU stay. These risk factors are identifiable, and thus these infants may be targeted for interventions to reduce ISM. PMID:26260093

  10. [Citation characteristics of German authors in "Der Chirurg": hegemony of the impact factor].

    PubMed

    Hasse, W; Fischer, R J

    2010-04-01

    Characteristics of citation and language in publications of German authors from the journal "Der Chirurg" (vol 78, 2007) were analysed. Out of a total of 3,342 citations, 756 (22.62%) were from German authors with 248 (32.8) self-citations. The hegemony of the impact factor in science, research and education is critically discussed. The imbalance between the number of surgeons in the US and United Kingdom (66,032) and surgeons in the German speaking countries in Europe (25,300) is compared with respect to the counting methods used to create the impact factor of a journal. The creation of an independent impact factor in Europe and the development of an EU-based citation data bank which allows unselected access to national language scientific literature are strongly needed. PMID:19760378

  11. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, hazard indicators and vulnerability factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauhut, V.; Stahl, K.; Stagge, J. H.; Tallaksen, L. M.; De Stefano, L.; Vogt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work (1) tests the capability of commonly applied hazard indicators and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and (2) combines information on past drought impacts, drought hazard indicators, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This "hybrid approach" bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact forecast in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro region specific sensitivities of hazard indicators, with the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for a twelve month aggregation period (SPEI-12) as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictor, with information about landuse and water resources as best vulnerability-based predictors. (3) The application of the "hybrid approach" revealed strong regional (NUTS combo level) and sector specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer aggregation periods, and a combination of information on landuse and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information

  12. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin; Stagge, James Howard; Tallaksen, Lena M.; De Stefano, Lucia; Vogt, Jürgen

    2016-07-01

    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, meant as the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work tests the capability of commonly applied drought indices and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and combines information on past drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This hybrid approach bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact prediction in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro-region-specific sensitivities of drought indices, with the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) for a 12-month accumulation period as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictors, with information about land use and water resources being the best vulnerability-based predictors. The application of the hybrid approach revealed strong regional and sector-specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of the best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer accumulation periods, and a combination of information on land use and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information with drought risk prediction

  13. Prioritization of factors impacting on performance of power looms using AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulange, S. R.; Pundir, A. K.; Ganapathy, L.

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical success factors influencing the performance of power loom textiles, to evaluate their impact on the organizational performance and to find out the effect of these factors on the organizational performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Solapur (Maharashtra) industrial sector using AHP. In the methodology adopted, factors are identified through the literature survey and finalization of these factors is done by taking the opinion of experts in the Indian context. By cognitive map, the relation between these factors (direct and indirect effect) is determined and cause and effect diagram is prepared. Then these factors are arranged hierarchically and tree diagram is prepared. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among the experts; data is collected. Using expert choice software data is filled to quantify by pair-wise comparison of these factors and are prioritized. The weights demonstrate several key findings: local and global priority reveals that there is a substantial effect of the human resource, product style, and volume on the organizational performance. The skills and technology upgradation impact on organizational performance. Maintenance plays an important role in improving the organizational performances of the SMEs. Overall, the results showed the central role of the operational factors are important. The research is subject to the normal limitations of AHP. The study is using perceptual data provided by Experts which may not provide clear measures of impact factors. However, this can be overcome using more experts to collect data in future studies. Interestingly, the findings here may be generalisable outside Solapur like Ichalkarnji, Malegaon, and Bhiwadi (Maharashtra). Solapur power loom SMEs should consider AHP as an innovative tool for quantification of factors impacting on performance and improving operational and organizational performance in today's dynamic

  14. Space station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 3: Safety impact of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockoff, L. A.; Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for Initial Operational Capability (IOC) during the early 1990's was considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris. Of particular interest here is volume three (of five volumes) pertaining to the safety impact of human factors.

  15. Impact of some field factors on inhalation exposure levels to bitumen emissions during road paving operations.

    PubMed

    Deygout, François; Auburtin, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Variability in occupational exposure levels to bitumen emissions has been observed during road paving operations. This is due to recurrent field factors impacting the level of exposure experienced by workers during paving. The present study was undertaken in order to quantify the impact of such factors. Pre-identified variables currently encountered in the field were monitored and recorded during paving surveys, and were conducted randomly covering current applications performed by road crews. Multivariate variance analysis and regressions were then used on computerized field data. The statistical investigations were limited due to the relatively small size of the study (36 data). Nevertheless, the particular use of the step-wise regression tool enabled the quantification of the impact of several predictors despite the existing collinearity between variables. The two bitumen organic fractions (particulates and volatiles) are associated with different field factors. The process conditions (machinery used and delivery temperature) have a significant impact on the production of airborne particulates and explain up to 44% of variability. This confirms the outcomes described by previous studies. The influence of the production factors is limited though, and should be complemented by studying factors involving the worker such as work style and the mix of tasks. The residual volatile compounds, being part of the bituminous binder and released during paving operations, control the volatile emissions; 73% of the encountered field variability is explained by the composition of the bitumen batch. PMID:25335938

  16. Web Link Counts Correlate with ISI Impact Factors: Evidence from Two Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Liwen; Thelwall, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study that compared counts of links to the Web home pages of academic journals with the citation based Journal Impact Factor (JIF) for two disciplines: library and information science, and law. Highlights include compiling the lists of journals (which are appended); locating Web pages; and correlations between JIF and link counts.…

  17. The Journal Impact Factor: Does It Devalue Applied Research in Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Elward K.

    2012-01-01

    A troubling trend in research is the reliance on the journal impact factor (IF) to establish a perceived "value" or importance of scholarly publications. Given that the IF of different scholarly journals may vary greatly, this phenomenon not only influences which journals receive submissions, but is beginning to influence the type of research that…

  18. The "Human Factor" in Pure and in Applied Mathematics. Systems Everywhere: Their Impact on Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the impact that the relationship between people and mathematics could have on the development of pure and applied mathematics. Argues for (1) a growing interest in philosophy, history and sociology of science; (2) new models in educational and psychological research; and (3) a growing awareness of the human factor in technology,…

  19. Held Back: The Impact of Curricular and Pedagogical Factors on Tested Achievement in High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agvanian, Zara

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of curricular factors and teaching practices on students' tested achievement in mathematics, explored the best predictors of the tested achievement, and examined differences in the tested achievement among student subgroups. The study utilized qualitative and quantitative methods and triangulated findings from…

  20. The Analysis of the Impact of Individual Weighting Factor on Individual Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Gulsen Bagci; Cakan, Mehtap

    2006-01-01

    In this study, category-based self and peer assessment were applied twice in a semester in an Elementary Science Teaching Methods course in order to assess individual contributions of group members to group projects as well as to analyze the impact of Individual Weighting Factors (IWF) on individual scores and individual grades. IWF were…

  1. The Impact of an Incentive-Based Worksite Health Promotion Program on Modifiable Health Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Kathleen; Kumpfer, Karol; Pett, Marjorie

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of participating in an incentive-based employee health promotion program on modifiable health risk factors over 4 years. Data from physiological and self-report measures indicated that modifiable health risks improved over time (smoking, physical activity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and seat belt use). Cholesterol…

  2. Journal impact factors and the influence of age and number of citations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact factor (IF) of a scientific journal is considered a measure of how important a journal is within its discipline, and it is based on a simple relationship between the number of citations of the journal’s articles divided by the number of articles in the scientific journal (http://en.wikipe...

  3. An Analysis of Factors That Impact Secondary Science Outcomes in Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Suzanne Lawson

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze school and district characteristics for 2005-2006 through 2007-2008 to determine which factors impacted science achievement for the graduating class of 2008-2009 in Tennessee. School size, socioeconomic status, per pupil instructional expenditures and rurality/urbanicity were predictor variables.…

  4. Percentile-Based Journal Impact Factors: A Neglected Collection Development Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Various normalization techniques to transform journal impact factors (JIFs) into a standard scale or range of values have been reported a number of times in the literature, but have seldom been part of collection development librarians' tool kits. In this paper, JIFs as reported in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database are converted to…

  5. A Large-Scale Analysis of Impact Factor Biased Journal Self-Citations

    PubMed Central

    Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Based on three decades of citation data from across scientific fields of science, we study trends in impact factor biased self-citations of scholarly journals, using a purpose-built and easy to use citation based measure. Our measure is given by the ratio between i) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in the last two years, and ii) the relative share of journal self-citations to papers published in preceding years. A ratio higher than one suggests that a journal’s impact factor is disproportionally affected (inflated) by self-citations. Using recently reported survey data, we show that there is a relation between high values of our proposed measure and coercive journal self-citation malpractices. We use our measure to perform a large-scale analysis of impact factor biased journal self-citations. Our main empirical result is, that the share of journals for which our measure has a (very) high value has remained stable between the 1980s and the early 2000s, but has since risen strongly in all fields of science. This time span corresponds well with the growing obsession with the impact factor as a journal evaluation measure over the last decade. Taken together, this suggests a trend of increasingly pervasive journal self-citation malpractices, with all due unwanted consequences such as inflated perceived importance of journals and biased journal rankings. PMID:27560807

  6. [SOME CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE INTRINSIC VALUE OF THE IMPACT FACTOR OF SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS].

    PubMed

    Franco-López, Ángeles; González-Gallego, Javier; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Tuñón, María Jesús; García-De-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Culebras, Jesús M

    2015-01-01

    The reason of higher number of citations of some articles is discussed. Some considerations about the journals' impact factor, its merits and its pitfalls are also made. Scientific journals' impact factor, popularized by the Institute for Scientific Information, has become an objective parameter for authors' evaluation and also for institutions and other related circumstances. There is no reason for the impact factor's gap between some English journals and those written in other languages. English journals probably benefit of the "Mathew's effect", according to which eminent scientists are more rewarded by similar contributions than others less known. It is paradoxical that most of the major achievements of our age do not appear among the 100 most cited articles. There is no homogeneity among all the articles appearing in each scientific journal: half of the articles are cited ten times more than the other half. However, those articles cited 0 times are credited like the better ones. Each article should be evaluated by its own citations, which would be its impact factor; the authors should be evaluated by their H index. PMID:26667681

  7. Judicious Use of Journal Impact Factors and the Preservation of Our Fields of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    This article comments on the judicious use of journal impact factors. It aims to preserve our fields of study within the context of increased scholarly scrutiny and the hierarchical structures inherent in academia. It concludes by recommending actions for "JOPERD," other journals in the field, and the producers and evaluators of…

  8. A Tale of Two Web Spaces: Comparing Sites Using Web Impact Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alastair

    1999-01-01

    Explains the Web impact factor (WIF) for comparing the relative attractiveness or influence of Web spaces, where the WIF is the number of pages linking to a Web space divided by the number of pages in the Web space. Compares WIFs for Australasian universities and for Australasian electronic journals. (Author/LRW)

  9. The Impact of Contextual Factors on the Use of Students' Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Yilmaz; Karaaslan, Emre Harun; Ayas, Alipasa

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of contextual factors on the use of students' conceptions. A total of 106 students received a questionnaire involving open-ended questions on acid-base and equilibrium concepts. Of these students, 16 students who provided complete and accurate responses to the questions participated in an interview. In…

  10. Form or Flesh: Social Factors That Impact Women's Practice of Breast Self-Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Patricia A.

    The social factors that impact Caucasian middle-class women's practice of breast self-examination (BSE) were examined through in-depth interviews with 15 women who were selected to represent a mix of women who practiced BSE monthly, occasionally, or never. The meaning of BSE was analyzed in relation to body image and the social definition of being…

  11. Factors Impacting Adult Learner Achievement in a Technology Certificate Program on Computer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delialioglu, Omer; Cakir, Hasan; Bichelmeyer, Barbara A.; Dennis, Alan R.; Duffy, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the factors impacting the achievement of adult learners in a technology certificate program on computer networks. We studied 2442 participants in 256 institutions. The participants were older than age 18 and were enrolled in the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) technology training program as "non-degree" or…

  12. Factors that Impact Software Project Success in Offshore Information Technology (IT) Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edara, Venkatarao

    2011-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are unsuccessful at a rate of 65% to 75% per year, in spite of employing the latest technologies and training employees. Although many studies have been conducted on project successes in U.S. companies, there is a lack of research studying the impact of various factors on software project success in offshore IT…

  13. Student Performance in Teacher Education in Norway: The Impact of Student, Institutional and Structural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikan, Gerd; Bugge, Liv Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Many education systems face a challenge in recruiting graduates as teachers. This is also the situation in Norway and the newest estimates tell us that we will lack 9000 teachers in 2020. The situation is made even worse by the high number of dropouts and low performance rates in teacher education. There are many factors which have an impact on…

  14. Factors Impacting University-Level Language Teachers' Technology Use and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabulut ilgu, Aliye

    2013-01-01

    Despite the documented affordances of technology to enhance language teaching and learning, technology use does not seem to be normalized just yet. This dissertation investigates the factors that impact university-level language teachers' technology use and integration. Adopting the ecological perspective as a guiding framework, this study…

  15. Evaluating Journal Quality: Is the H-Index a Better Measure than Impact Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Lacasse, Jeffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluates the utility of a new measure--the h-index--that may provide a more valid approach to evaluating journal quality in the social work profession. Method: H-index values are compared with Thomson ISI 5-year impact factors and expert opinion. Results: As hypothesized, the h-index correlates highly with ISI 5-year impact…

  16. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. Age of calf was...

  17. Environmental factors impacting response to bovine viral diarrhea vaccines in Angus calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of environmental factors on the serological response to commercial bovine viral diarrhea type 2 (BVDV2) vaccinations in Angus cattle for inclusion as fixed effects into subsequent genetic evaluations for response to vaccination. This study util...

  18. Using CCSSE Data to Analyze the Impact of Risk Factors on Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a methodology for examining the impact of risk factors on student learning and engagement at a community college using the Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE). The two primary objectives associated with the study were to examine differences between students who took the CCSSE based on…

  19. Impact of Environmental Factors on Community Participation of Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonschot, Manon M. L.; de Witte, L. P.; Reichrath, E.; Buntinx, W. H. E.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design: A systematic review of the literature. Objectives: To describe which environmental factors have an impact on community participation of persons with an intellectual disability. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for the period of 1996-2006 in Pubmed, CINAHL and PSYCINFO. Search terms were derived from the…

  20. Factors impacting the assessment of maternal culpability in cases of alleged fetal abuse.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Monica L

    2003-01-01

    These studies explored attitudes toward maternal culpability in cases of alleged fetal abuse. In experiment one, general culpability for the use of various substances during pregnancy was assessed as well as the impact of other potentially relevant factors. One hundred and twenty students completed the survey. Participants overwhelmingly supported treating drug use by pregnant women as a criminal offense. With regard to the assessment of more specific questions, the lack of consensus regarding what factors effect culpability is striking. Experiment two examined the possible impact of the mothers' race (White or Black) and social class (Poor or Middle class) on the assessment of culpability. One hundred and sixty-four community members responded to a survey sent to randomly selected persons in upstate South Carolina. The results indicate that at least in response to a brief, written, case scenario, neither race nor social class make a large impact on participants' sanction recommendations. PMID:15022861

  1. Multi-Factor Impact Analysis of Agricultural Production in Bangladesh with Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Major, David C.; Yu, Winston H.; Alam, Mozaharul; Hussain, Sk. Ghulam; Khan, Abu Saleh; Hassan, Ahmadul; Al Hossain, Bhuiya Md. Tamim; Goldberg, Richard; Horton, Radley M.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Diverse vulnerabilities of Bangladesh's agricultural sector in 16 sub-regions are assessed using experiments designed to investigate climate impact factors in isolation and in combination. Climate information from a suite of global climate models (GCMs) is used to drive models assessing the agricultural impact of changes in temperature, precipitation, carbon dioxide concentrations, river floods, and sea level rise for the 2040-2069 period in comparison to a historical baseline. Using the multi-factor impacts analysis framework developed in Yu et al. (2010), this study provides new sub-regional vulnerability analyses and quantifies key uncertainties in climate and production. Rice (aman, boro, and aus seasons) and wheat production are simulated in each sub-region using the biophysical Crop Environment REsource Synthesis (CERES) models. These simulations are then combined with the MIKE BASIN hydrologic model for river floods in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Basins, and the MIKE21Two-Dimensional Estuary Model to determine coastal inundation under conditions of higher mean sea level. The impacts of each factor depend on GCM configurations, emissions pathways, sub-regions, and particular seasons and crops. Temperature increases generally reduce production across all scenarios. Precipitation changes can have either a positive or a negative impact, with a high degree of uncertainty across GCMs. Carbon dioxide impacts on crop production are positive and depend on the emissions pathway. Increasing river flood areas reduce production in affected sub-regions. Precipitation uncertainties from different GCMs and emissions scenarios are reduced when integrated across the large GBM Basins' hydrology. Agriculture in Southern Bangladesh is severely affected by sea level rise even when cyclonic surges are not fully considered, with impacts increasing under the higher emissions scenario.

  2. The impact of adipose tissue-derived factors on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis.

    PubMed

    Tsatsanis, Christos; Dermitzaki, Eirini; Avgoustinaki, Pavlina; Malliaraki, Niki; Mytaras, Vasilis; Margioris, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue produces factors, including adipokines, cytokines and chemokines which, when released, systemically exert endocrine effects on multiple tissues thereby affecting their physiology. Adipokines also affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis both centrally, at the hypothalamic-pituitary level, and peripherally acting on the gonads themselves. Among the adipokines, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, chemerin and the peptide kisspeptin have pleiotropic actions on the HPG axis affecting male and female fertility. Furthermore, adipokines and adipose tissue-produced factors readily affect the immune system resulting in inflammation, which in turn impact the HPG axis, thus evidencing a link between metabolic inflammation and fertility. In this review we provide an overview of the existing extensive bibliography on the crosstalk between adipose tissue-derived factors and the HPG axis, with particular focus on the impact of obesity and the metabolic syndrome on gonadal function and fertility. PMID:26859602

  3. Secondary Collisions Following a Traffic Barrier Impact: Frequency, Factors, and Occupant Risk

    PubMed Central

    Gabauer, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    This study has investigated secondary collisions following an initial barrier impact in tow-away level crashes. The analysis included 2026 barrier impact cases that were selected from 12-years of in-depth crash data available through the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) / Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). Secondary collisions were found to occur in approximately one-third of tow-away level crashes where a traffic barrier was the first object struck. Secondary crashes were found to primarily involve an impact to another vehicle, an impact to another barrier, or a rollover; tree and pole impacts were found to represent a much smaller proportion of secondary impacts. Through a detailed analysis of vehicle trajectory, this study supports previous research suggesting secondary collision risk is substantial even for vehicles not ultimately involved in a secondary collision. Compared to a single barrier impact, the occurrence of a secondary collision was found to increase the risk of serious occupant injury by a factor of 3.5, equivalent to the serious injury risk difference found between a belted and unbelted occupant in a traffic barrier crash. PMID:21050605

  4. Degradation Factor Approach for Impacted Composite Structural Assessment: MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Project No. 96-17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, R.; Price, J. M.; Fox, D.

    2000-01-01

    This technical memorandum documents the results of the research to develop a concept for assessing the structural integrity of impacted composite structures using the strength degradation factor in conjunction with available finite element tools. For this purpose, a literature search was conducted, a plan for conducting impact testing on two laminates was developed, and a finite element model of the impact process was created. Specimens for the impact testing were fabricated to support the impact testing plan.

  5. Ten factors that affect the severity of environmental impacts of visitors in protected areas.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2010-02-01

    Protected areas represent the major method for conserving biodiversity. However, visitor use can threaten their conservation value. Based on a review of recent research, I have categorized factors that affect the severity of environmental impacts of visitor use. These factors need to be considered or evaluated when assessing visitor use of sites in protected areas. They are: (i) the conservation value of the site, (ii) its resistance to use, (iii) its recovery from use, (iv) its susceptibility to erosion, (v) the severity of direct impacts associated with specific activities, (vi) the severity of indirect impacts, (vii) the amount of use, (viii) the social and (ix) ecological dimensions to the timing of use, and (x) the total area affected. Although the factors may not be of equal importance or necessarily assessed on an equal scale, they allow people to make more informed assessments of potential impacts, assist in identifying where monitoring may be required, and indicate where additional site- or activity-specific research may be appropriate. PMID:20496654

  6. Accounting for uncertainty factors in biodiversity impact assessment: lessons from a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Geneletti, D.; Beinat, E.; Chung, C.F.; Fabbri, A.G.; Scholten, H.J

    2003-07-01

    For an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to effectively contribute to decision-making, it must include one crucial step: the estimation of the uncertainty factors affecting the impact evaluation and of their effect on the evaluation results. Knowledge of the uncertainties better orients the strategy of the decision-makers and underlines the most critical data or methodological steps of the procedure. Accounting for uncertainty factors is particularly relevant when dealing with ecological impacts, whose forecasts are typically affected by a high degree of simplification. By means of a case study dealing with the evaluation of road alternatives, this paper explores and discusses the main uncertainties that are related to the typical stages of a biodiversity impact assessment: uncertainty in the data that are used, in the methodologies that are applied, and in the value judgments provided by the experts. Subsequently, the effects of such uncertainty factors are tracked back to the result of the evaluation, i.e., to the relative performance of the project alternatives under consideration. This allows to test the sensitivity of the results, and consequently to provide a more informative ranking of the alternatives. The papers concludes by discussing the added-value for decision-making provided by uncertainty analysis within EIA.

  7. Relationships between non-acoustic factors and subjective reactions to floor impact noise in apartment buildings.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hee; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Yang, Kwan Seop; Kim, Kyoung Woo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an understanding of how residents in apartment buildings perceive and react to impact sounds coming from the upstairs neighbours' dwellings. Based on existing theoretical and empirical studies on environmental noise, a conceptual model was developed to explain relationships among noise annoyance and non-acoustic factors. The model was then tested using structural equation modelling with survey data from residents living in apartment buildings (N = 487). The findings showed that the conceptual model was consistent with other models developed for environmental noises. The results indicated that annoyance induced by floor impact noise was associated with perceived disturbance, coping, and self-reported health complaints. Noise sensitivity had a direct impact on perceived disturbance and an indirect impact on annoyance, and moderating variables affected the non-acoustic factors. Exposure to footstep noises increased the impact size of noise sensitivity to disturbance. Predictability, marital status, and house ownership were found to influence the relationship between attitudes towards authorities and coping. In addition, a negative attitude towards neighbours (i.e., the noise source) moderated the positive relationship between annoyance and coping. PMID:27036252

  8. Comparison of acceleration and impact stress as possible loading factors in phonation: a computer modeling study.

    PubMed

    Horácek, Jaromír; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Sidlof, Petr; Murphy, Peter; Svec, Jan G

    2009-01-01

    Impact stress (the impact force divided by the contact area of the vocal folds) has been suspected to be the main traumatizing mechanism in voice production, and the main cause of vocal fold nodules. However, there are also other factors, such as the repetitive acceleration and deceleration, which may traumatize the vocal fold tissues. Using an aeroelastic model of voice production, the present study quantifies the acceleration and impact stress values in relation to lung pressure, fundamental frequency (F0) and prephonatory glottal half-width. Both impact stress and acceleration were found to increase with lung pressure. Compared to impact stress, acceleration was less dependent on prephonatory glottal width and, thus, on voice production type. Maximum acceleration values were about 5-10 times greater for high F0 (approx. 400 Hz) compared to low F0 (approx. 100 Hz), whereas maximum impact stress remained nearly unchanged. This suggests that acceleration, i.e. the inertia forces, may present at high F0 a greater load for the vocal folds, and in addition to the collision forces may contribute to the fact that females develop vocal fold nodules and other vocal fold traumas more frequently than males. PMID:19571548

  9. Impact of detector-element active-area shape and fill factor on super-resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardie, Russell; Droege, Douglas; Dapore, Alexander; Greiner, Mark

    2015-05-01

    In many undersampled imaging systems, spatial integration from the individual detector elements is the dominant component of the system point spread function (PSF). Conventional focal plane arrays (FPAs) utilize square detector elements with a nearly 100% fill factor, where fill factor is defined as the fraction of the detector element area that is active in light detection. A large fill factor is generally considered to be desirable because more photons are collected for a given pitch, and this leads to a higher signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). However, the large active area works against super-resolution (SR) image restoration by acting as an additional low pass filter in the overall PSF when modeled on the SR sampling grid. A high fill factor also tends to increase blurring from pixel cross-talk. In this paper, we study the impact of FPA detector-element shape and fill factor on SR. A detailed modulation transfer function analysis is provided along with a number of experimental results with both simulated data and real data acquired with a midwave infrared (MWIR) imaging system. We demonstrate the potential advantage of low fill factor detector elements when combined with SR image restoration. Our results suggest that low fill factor circular detector elements may be the best choice. New video results are presented using robust adaptive Wiener filter SR processing applied to data from a commercial MWIR imaging system with both high and low detector element fill factors.

  10. Impact of the Fano Factor on Position and Energy Estimation in Scintillation Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Vaibhav; Barrett, Harrison H.; Jha, Abhinav K.; Clarkson, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Fano factor for an integer-valued random variable is defined as the ratio of its variance to its mean. Light from various scintillation crystals have been reported to have Fano factors from sub-Poisson (Fano factor < 1) to super-Poisson (Fano factor > 1). For a given mean, a smaller Fano factor implies a smaller variance and thus less noise. We investigated if lower noise in the scintillation light will result in better spatial and energy resolutions. The impact of Fano factor on the estimation of position of interaction and energy deposited in simple gamma-camera geometries is estimated by two methods - calculating the Cramér-Rao bound and estimating the variance of a maximum likelihood estimator. The methods are consistent with each other and indicate that when estimating the position of interaction and energy deposited by a gamma-ray photon, the Fano factor of a scintillator does not affect the spatial resolution. A smaller Fano factor results in a better energy resolution. PMID:26523069

  11. Impact of the Fano Factor on Position and Energy Estimation in Scintillation Detectors.

    PubMed

    Bora, Vaibhav; Barrett, Harrison H; Jha, Abhinav K; Clarkson, Eric

    2015-02-01

    The Fano factor for an integer-valued random variable is defined as the ratio of its variance to its mean. Light from various scintillation crystals have been reported to have Fano factors from sub-Poisson (Fano factor < 1) to super-Poisson (Fano factor > 1). For a given mean, a smaller Fano factor implies a smaller variance and thus less noise. We investigated if lower noise in the scintillation light will result in better spatial and energy resolutions. The impact of Fano factor on the estimation of position of interaction and energy deposited in simple gamma-camera geometries is estimated by two methods - calculating the Cramér-Rao bound and estimating the variance of a maximum likelihood estimator. The methods are consistent with each other and indicate that when estimating the position of interaction and energy deposited by a gamma-ray photon, the Fano factor of a scintillator does not affect the spatial resolution. A smaller Fano factor results in a better energy resolution. PMID:26523069

  12. Factors affecting the impact toughness of low carbon bainitic weld metal

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, J.M.; Vassilaros, M.; Fox, A.

    1996-12-31

    Welds were produced using the GMA and GTA welding processes with 100% argon and 95% argon-5% CO{sub 2} shielding gases. This resulted in different microstructures and varying levels of strength, chemistry and toughness. The factors affecting CVN impact toughness were determined. The resulting toughness was dependent upon the strength, carbon content, the average size and amount of non-metallic inclusions, and metallurgical structure. Improvement in toughness occurred with decreasing strength, carbon content, inclusion size, volume fraction of inclusions, and amount of as deposited columnar structure. When these factors were minimized, the low carbon bainitic weld metal exhibited toughness behavior similar to that of tempered martensite.

  13. Impact Factors for the "Journal of Teaching in Physical Education"--What Are They and Are They Important?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The notion of an impact factor was first posited by Eugene Garfield (1972) to study the use, prestige, and status of scientific journals. The Institute for Scientific Information created the impact factor as a means to measure the number of times an "average article" published in a journal was cited over a particular time period ("The impact…

  14. Growth conditions and environmental factors impact aerosolization but not virulence of Francisella tularensis infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Faith, Seth A.; Smith, Le'Kneitah P.; Swatland, Angela S.; Reed, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    In refining methodology to develop a mouse model for inhalation of Francisella tularensis, it was noted that both relative humidity and growth media impacted the aerosol concentration of the live vaccine strain (LVS) of F. tularensis. A relative humidity of less than 55% had a negative impact on the spray factor, the ratio between the concentration of LVS in the aerosol and the nebulizer. The spray factor was significantly higher for LVS grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth than LVS grown in Mueller–Hinton broth (MHb) or Chamberlain's chemically defined medium (CCDM). The variability between aerosol exposures was also considerably less with BHI. LVS grown in BHI survived desiccation far longer than MHb-grown or CCDM-grown LVS (~70% at 20 min for BHI compared to <50% for MHb and CCDM). Removal of the capsule by hypertonic treatment impacted the spray factor for CCDM-grown LVS or MHb-grown LVS but not BHI-grown LVS, suggesting the choice of culture media altered the adherence of the capsule to the cell membrane. The choice of growth media did not impact the LD50 of LVS but the LD99 of BHI-grown LVS was 1 log lower than that for MHb-grown LVS or CCDM-grown LVS. Splenomegaly was prominent in mice that succumbed to MHb- and BHI-grown LVS but not CCDM-grown LVS. Environmental factors and growth conditions should be evaluated when developing new animal models for aerosol infection, particularly for vegetative bacterial pathogens. PMID:23087911

  15. Hydrological drought types in cold climates: quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative survey of impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Loon, A. F.; Ploum, S. W.; Parajka, J.; Fleig, A. K.; Garnier, E.; Laaha, G.; Van Lanen, H. A. J.

    2015-04-01

    For drought management and prediction, knowledge of causing factors and socio-economic impacts of hydrological droughts is crucial. Propagation of meteorological conditions in the hydrological cycle results in different hydrological drought types that require separate analysis. In addition to the existing hydrological drought typology, we here define two new drought types related to snow and ice. A snowmelt drought is a deficiency in the snowmelt discharge peak in spring in snow-influenced basins and a glaciermelt drought is a deficiency in the glaciermelt discharge peak in summer in glacierised basins. In 21 catchments in Austria and Norway we studied the meteorological conditions in the seasons preceding and at the time of snowmelt and glaciermelt drought events. Snowmelt droughts in Norway were mainly controlled by below-average winter precipitation, while in Austria both temperature and precipitation played a role. For glaciermelt droughts, the effect of below-average summer air temperature was dominant, both in Austria and Norway. Subsequently, we investigated the impacts of temperature-related drought types (i.e. snowmelt and glaciermelt drought, but also cold and warm snow season drought and rain-to-snow-season drought). In historical archives and drought databases for the US and Europe many impacts were found that can be attributed to these temperature-related hydrological drought types, mainly in the agriculture and electricity production (hydropower) sectors. However, drawing conclusions on the frequency of occurrence of different drought types from reported impacts is difficult, mainly because of reporting biases and the inevitably limited spatial and temporal scales of the information. Finally, this study shows that complete integration of quantitative analysis of causing factors and qualitative analysis of impacts of temperature-related droughts is not yet possible. Analysis of selected events, however, points out that it can be a promising research

  16. Factors Governing the Impact of Emerged Salt Diapirs on Water Resources.

    PubMed

    Zarei, M

    2016-05-01

    Salt diapirs in southern Iran are typically in contact with karstic and alluvial aquifers and consequently they are the most likely sources of groundwater salinization in this arid region. However, there are some salt diapirs that have no significant degradation effect on adjacent aquifers. Assessments of 62 of 122 Iranian-emerged salt diapirs based on geological, geomorphological, hydrogeological, and hydrochemical investigations indicated that 45% of the studied salt diapirs did not have a negative impact on surrounding water resources, whereas 55% of the salt diapirs have degraded water quality of adjacent aquifers. The impacts ranged from low- to high-grade salinization. We characterize here four major factors that control the impact of salt diapirs on surrounding water resources: (1) the evolutionary stage of the diapir, (2) the geological and (3) hydrogeological setting of the diapir, and (4) human activities. Identification of the major factors governing the influence of salt diapirs on the adjacent aquifers is necessary to understand the mechanism of salt diapir impact on adjacent aquifers, and subsequently to decide how to mitigate the deteriorating effect of the diapirs on the surrounding water resources. PMID:26394154

  17. Dental caries and social factors: impact on quality of life in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Martins, Milene Torres; Sardenberg, Fernanda; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of dental caries and social determinants in the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 1,204 children aged 8 to 10 years randomly selected from 19 public and private schools. The children were clinically examined at school by two trained and calibrated examiners (Kappa = 0.78 - 1.00). The Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth Index (DMF-T and dmf-t) was used for the diagnosis of dental caries. The social factors were determined by parents'/caregivers' schooling, household income, number of people in the household, type of school, and by the Social Vulnerability Index. The Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire for ages 8 to 10 years was used to assess the impact on quality of life. A total of 278 (23.1%) out of 1,204 children had at least one cavitated carious lesion and 47.0% presented a negative impact on OHRQoL. In the final multivariate Poisson's regression model, household income and presence of untreated dental caries were statistically associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL (p < 0.001).Children with dental caries and from low-income families had a higher negative impact on OHRQoL. PMID:26892354

  18. Psychosocial impact of mothers with perinatal loss and its contributing factors: an insight*

    PubMed Central

    Sutan, Rosnah; Amin, Rosnah Mohamad; Ariffin, Khatija Banu; Teng, Tang Zoun; Kamal, Mohd Faiz; Rusli, Rusli Zaim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychosocial impact among mothers with perinatal loss and its contributing factors. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) from April 2008 to May 2009 using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and self administered questionnaire. Results: Sixty-two respondents were included and most of them were working mothers (77.4%). The mean age of the respondents was (31.0±5.6) years and a majority of the subjects aged between 20–34 years (77.4%). According to the EPDS score, 53.2% of the respondents had a psychosocial impact with a total score of >9, out of 30. There was a significant relationship between psychosocial impact after perinatal loss and support from friends (P=0.019). However, there were no significant differences between psychosocial impact and history of previous perinatal loss, ethnicity, occupation, educational level, age or total income. Conclusion: Mothers with perinatal loss should be screened for psychosocial impact and offered support when needed. Family and friends should continue to provide emotional support. People who have experienced similar problem before will be able to provide better support than those who have not. PMID:20205307

  19. Environmental impact and risk assessments and key factors contributing to the overall uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Salbu, Brit

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources that have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination of the environment in the future. To protect the environment from radioactive contamination, impact and risk assessments are performed prior to or during a release event, short or long term after deposition or prior and after implementation of countermeasures. When environmental impact and risks are assessed, however, a series of factors will contribute to the overall uncertainties. To provide environmental impact and risk assessments, information on processes, kinetics and a series of input variables is needed. Adding problems such as variability, questionable assumptions, gaps in knowledge, extrapolations and poor conceptual model structures, a series of factors are contributing to large and often unacceptable uncertainties in impact and risk assessments. Information on the source term and the release scenario is an essential starting point in impact and risk models; the source determines activity concentrations and atom ratios of radionuclides released, while the release scenario determine the physico-chemical forms of released radionuclides such as particle size distribution, structure and density. Releases will most often contain other contaminants such as metals, and due to interactions, contaminated sites should be assessed as a multiple stressor scenario. Following deposition, a series of stressors, interactions and processes will influence the ecosystem transfer of radionuclide species and thereby influence biological uptake (toxicokinetics) and responses (toxicodynamics) in exposed organisms. Due to the variety of biological species, extrapolation is frequently needed to fill gaps in knowledge e.g., from effects to no effects, from effects in one organism to others, from one stressor to mixtures. Most toxtests are, however, performed as short term exposure of adult organisms

  20. Large-scale identification of sequence variants impacting human transcription factor occupancy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Maurano, Matthew T.; Haugen, Eric; Sandstrom, Richard; Vierstra, Jeff; Shafer, Anthony; Kaul, Rajinder; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The function of human regulatory regions depends exquisitely on their local genomic environment and cellular context, complicating experimental analysis of the expanding pool of common disease- and trait-associated variants that localize within regulatory DNA. We leverage allelically resolved genomic DNaseI footprinting data encompassing 166 individuals and 114 cell types to identify >60,000 common variants that directly impact transcription factor occupancy and regulatory DNA accessibility in vivo. The unprecedented scale of these data enable systematic analysis of the impact of sequence variation on transcription factor occupancy in vivo. We leverage this analysis to develop accurate models of variation affecting the recognition sites for diverse transcription factors, and apply these models to discriminate nearly 500,000 common regulatory variants likely to affect transcription factor occupancy across the human genome. The approach and results provide a novel foundation for analysis and interpretation of noncoding variation in complete human genomes, and for systems-level investigation of disease-associated variants. PMID:26502339

  1. Coping with and factors impacting upon the experience of lung cancer in patients and primary carers.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J; Lloyd Williams, M; Wagland, R; Bailey, C; Molassiotis, A

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of research exploring patients' and their informal carers' experience of coping with and factors impacting on the lung cancer experience. This study aims to explore how patients and their informal carers cope with a diagnosis of lung cancer and describe the key factors that mediate distress in this population in order that they may be better supported in the future. This was a qualitative study employing semi-structured interviews and framework analysis to elicit the experience of 37 patients with lung cancer and 23 primary carers regarding their coping with and factors influencing patient/carer distress. The findings illustrate that participants used both emotional- and problem-focused coping strategies, including accepting the reality of lung cancer, adopting a positive attitude/fighting spirit, denial, avoidance and distraction and information seeking. Maintaining normality was also important. Key factors that mediate the lung cancer experience were also identified including hope, social network, prior experience of cancer and other chronic illnesses, the competing coping strategies of patients and their primary carers, the unpredictable nature of patients' behaviour, changing symptomatology, the perceived attitudes of health professionals and the impact of perceived delays in diagnosis. This study provides important insights into how patients with lung cancer and their primary carers might be better supported. PMID:22978743

  2. Dynamic Young's Modulus And Loss Factor Of Plastic Foams For Impact Sound Isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritz, T.

    1994-12-01

    The frequency and amplitude dependences of the dynamic Young's modulus and loss factor of polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE) foams usable for impact sound isolation in floating floors, measured at room temperature, in the frequency range of 100-3000 Hz, and in the range of strain amplitude of 10 -5-10 -2 respectively, are given in the paper. It is shown that the frame loss factor of the PS and PE foams is low (˜0·01 and ˜0·1, respectively), and that of the foam sheets including air is also low (˜0·1). The frame dynamic Young's modulus of both foams slightly increases with frequency. The dynamic behaviour of the foams is linear up to the strain amplitude of about 10 -3, above which the dynamic Young's modulus decreases, whereas the loss factor increases with increasing strain.

  3. Burnout among corrections-based drug treatment staff: impact of individual and organizational factors.

    PubMed

    Garner, Bryan R; Knight, Kevin; Simpson, D Dwayne

    2007-10-01

    As a result of limited budgets, many treatment programs are forced to operate for extended periods at or beyond their capacity. The resulting pressure and stress on treatment staff can be taxing and lead to serious problems, including job burnout. Although the concept of burnout within other social service professions has been broadly researched, less attention has been given to burnout among drug abuse treatment staff, especially among corrections-based drug treatment staff. The goal of this article is to extend this area of research by exploring the impact of individual factors and organizational factors on burnout. Findings revealed that although a number of factors were related to staff burnout, younger counselor age, lower adaptability, poorer clarity of agency mission, and higher stress were most significant. Ways in which treatment programs might address these issues affecting staff burnout are discussed. PMID:17615435

  4. Concentration of Elements in Food: How Can It Reflect Impact of Environmental and Other Influencing Factors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Klavins, Maris

    2013-12-01

    Element content of food is variable and can be influenced by different factors. The aim of the present study was to discover the linkage between macro- and microelement concentrations in food produced in Latvia, and possible impacts of environmental factors. More than 300 fresh food samples such as eggs, cottage cheese, honey, root vegetables, apple juice, apple wine were collected in the time period from 2009 to 2011. Samples were mineralised or analysed directly by appropriate method of quantitative analysis: atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Statistical analysis of data revealed that food elemental content can be influenced by sitespecific factors such as geographical origin, seasonality, environmental pollution.

  5. Early pancreatic carcinogenesis - risk factors, early symptoms, and the impact of antidiabetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Frič, Přemysl; Škrha, Jan; Šedo, Aleksi; Bušek, Petr; Kmochová, Klára; Laclav, Martin; Solař, Svatopluk; Bunganič, Bohuš; Zavoral, Miroslav

    2016-07-01

    Risk factors (long-term diabetes, obesity) and early symptoms (new-onset diabetes, loss of weight, or persistent low body mass) are the initial symptoms of pancreatic carcinogenesis. They may be influenced by antidiabetic drugs and their correct evaluation is a prerequisite for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PC). We review the risk factors, early symptoms, and the impact of antidiabetic drugs on early pancreatic carcinogenesis. The main source of data was the database Medline/PubMed and abstracts of international congresses (DDW, UEGW). The risk factors and early symptoms are integral components of the familial PC surveillance and sporadic PC screening. Preventive programs should always be include multistep and multidisciplinary procedures. The correct evaluation of antidiabetic drugs and their interactions with other components of pancreatic carcinogenesis may influence the early diagnosis of PC. PMID:27120389

  6. The Impact of Neighborhood, Family, and Individual Risk Factors on Toddlers’ Disruptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Heberle, Amy E.; Thomas, Yolanda M.; Wagmiller, Robert L.; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for behavior problems in school aged children but their impact in toddlerhood is unknown. Relations between toddlers’ disruptive behavior and neighborhood disadvantage, family disadvantage, violence or conflict exposure, parent depressive symptoms, and parenting behavior were examined using multilevel, multi-group (girl/boy) models. Participants were 1204 families (mean child age = 24.7 months). Unique associations between disruptive behavior and all risk factors were observed, but the effect of neighborhood disadvantage was negligible when all of the more proximal factors were accounted for. The results suggest both that children in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at greater risk of behavior problems than children in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods and that optimal prevention/intervention work with these children will attend to proximal risk factors. PMID:24773306

  7. Factor analysis of two versions of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance scale.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Luciane M; Scalco, Giovana P C; Abegg, Claides; Celeste, Roger K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the factorial structure and agreement of two scoring versions of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP) scale, and to compare the fit of the originally proposed factorial structure, as opposed to an alternative model. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were conducted to explore the dimensional structure of the OIDP on a convenience sample of 200 adults (S1). Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed on a random sample of 720 adults (S2). The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the total and frequency versions of the OIDP scale were, respectively, 0.81 and 0.70 for S1, and 0.82 and 0.79 for S2, with a quadratic Kappa κ = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75-0.89) in S1 and κ = 0.92 (95% CI: 0.89-0.94) in S2. Exploratory factor analyses showed one factor for the total version and three factors (non-interpretable) for the frequency version. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the frequency version for the one-factor model (Model 1) had the best fit [Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) = 0.04; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.98; Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.97, χ(2) P-value < 0.01]. The one-factor model was not significantly different from the original three-factor model. These findings suggest that the scale captures only one overall quality of life dimension, and that the frequency version was the most parsimonious model of the OIDP scale. PMID:26935779

  8. App Usage Factor: A Simple Metric to Compare the Population Impact of Mobile Medical Apps

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2015-01-01

    Background One factor when assessing the quality of mobile apps is quantifying the impact of a given app on a population. There is currently no metric which can be used to compare the population impact of a mobile app across different health care disciplines. Objective The objective of this study is to create a novel metric to characterize the impact of a mobile app on a population. Methods We developed the simple novel metric, app usage factor (AUF), defined as the logarithm of the product of the number of active users of a mobile app with the median number of daily uses of the app. The behavior of this metric was modeled using simulated modeling in Python, a general-purpose programming language. Three simulations were conducted to explore the temporal and numerical stability of our metric and a simulated app ecosystem model using a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps. Results Simulations confirmed the metric was stable between predicted usage limits and remained stable at extremes of these limits. Analysis of a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps calculated an average value for the app usage factor of 4.90 (SD 0.78). A temporal simulation showed that the metric remained stable over time and suitable limits for its use were identified. Conclusions A key component when assessing app risk and potential harm is understanding the potential population impact of each mobile app. Our metric has many potential uses for a wide range of stakeholders in the app ecosystem, including users, regulators, developers, and health care professionals. Furthermore, this metric forms part of the overall estimate of risk and potential for harm or benefit posed by a mobile medical app. We identify the merits and limitations of this metric, as well as potential avenues for future validation and research. PMID:26290093

  9. Impact factors and the optimal parameter of acoustic structure quantification in the assessment of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang; Liu, Guang-Jian; Liao, Bing; Huang, Guang-Liang; Liang, Jin-Yu; Zhou, Lu-Yao; Wang, Fen; Li, Wei; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Wei; Lu, Ming-De

    2015-09-01

    The aims of the present study are to assess the impact factors on acoustic structure quantification (ASQ) ultrasound and find the optimal parameter for the assessment of liver fibrosis. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent ASQ examinations to evaluate impact factors in ASQ image acquisition and analysis. An additional 113 patients with liver diseases underwent standardized ASQ examinations, and the results were compared with histologic staging of liver fibrosis. We found that the right liver displayed lower values of ASQ parameters than the left (p = 0.000-0.021). Receive gain experienced no significant impact except gain 70 (p = 0.193-1.000). With regard to different diameter of involved vessels in regions of interest, the group ≤2.0 mm differed significantly with the group 2.1-5.0 mm (p = 0.000-0.033) and the group >5.0 mm (p = 0.000-0.062). However, the region of interest size (p = 0.438-1.000) and depth (p = 0.072-0.764) had no statistical impact. Good intra- and inter-operator reproducibilities were found in both image acquisitions and offline image analyses. In the liver fibrosis study, the focal disturbance ratio had the highest correlation with histologic fibrosis stage (r = 0.67, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the testing position, receive gain and involved vessels were the main factors in ASQ examinations and focal disturbance ratio was the optimal parameter in the assessment of liver fibrosis. PMID:26055966

  10. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

  11. Assessment of impact factors on shear wave based liver stiffness measurement.

    PubMed

    Ling, Wenwu; Lu, Qiang; Quan, Jierong; Ma, Lin; Luo, Yan

    2013-02-01

    Shear wave based ultrasound elastographies have been implemented as non-invasive methods for quantitative assessment of liver stiffness. Nonetheless, there are only a few studies that have investigated impact factors on liver stiffness measurement (LSM). Moreover, standard examination protocols for LSM are still lacking in clinical practice. Our study aimed to assess the impact factors on LSM to establish its standard examination protocols in clinical practice. We applied shear wave based elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) in 21 healthy individuals to determine the impact of liver location (segments I-VIII), breathing phase (end-inspiration and end-expiration), probe position (sub-costal and inter-costal position) and examiner on LSM. Additional studies in 175 healthy individuals were also performed to determine the influence of gender and age on liver stiffness. We found significant impact of liver location on LSM, while the liver segment V displayed the lowest coefficient of variation (CV 21%). The liver stiffness at the end-expiration was significantly higher than that at the end-inspiration (P=2.1E-05). The liver stiffness was 8% higher in men than in women (3.8 ± 0.7 kPa vs. 3.5 ± 0.4 kPa, P=0.0168). In contrast, the liver stiffness was comparable in the different probe positions, examiners and age groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, this study reveals significant impact from liver location, breathing phase and gender on LSM, while furthermore strengthening the necessity for the development of standard examination protocols on LSM. PMID:23116805

  12. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  13. The Carbon_h-Factor: Predicting Individuals' Research Impact at Early Stages of Their Career

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2011-01-01

    Assessing an individual's research impact on the basis of a transparent algorithm is an important task for evaluation and comparison purposes. Besides simple but also inaccurate indices such as counting the mere number of publications or the accumulation of overall citations, and highly complex but also overwhelming full-range publication lists in their raw format, Hirsch (2005) introduced a single figure cleverly combining different approaches. The so-called h-index has undoubtedly become the standard in scientometrics of individuals' research impact (note: in the present paper I will always use the term “research impact” to describe the research performance as the logic of the paper is based on the h-index, which quantifies the specific “impact” of, e.g., researchers, but also because the genuine meaning of impact refers to quality as well). As the h-index reflects the number h of papers a researcher has published with at least h citations, the index is inherently positively biased towards senior level researchers. This might sometimes be problematic when predictive tools are needed for assessing young scientists' potential, especially when recruiting early career positions or equipping young scientists' labs. To be compatible with the standard h-index, the proposed index integrates the scientist's research age (Carbon_h-factor) into the h-index, thus reporting the average gain of h-index per year. Comprehensive calculations of the Carbon_h-factor were made for a broad variety of four research-disciplines (economics, neuroscience, physics and psychology) and for researchers performing on three high levels of research impact (substantial, outstanding and epochal) with ten researchers per category. For all research areas and output levels we obtained linear developments of the h-index demonstrating the validity of predicting one's later impact in terms of research impact already at an early stage of their career with the Carbon_h-factor being approx. 0.4, 0

  14. [Spanish versus English as a language of publication and impact factor of Neurologia].

    PubMed

    Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Valderrama Zurián, J C; Alonso-Arroyo, A; Miguel-Dasit, A; González de Dios, J; de Granda Orive, Ji

    2007-01-01

    Although the English language is considered nowadays as the international language of medical publications, some important Spanish journals with impact factor in the Journal Citation Reports as Neurologia, they bet for the publication in Spanish. Neurologia is the official publication of the Sociedad Española de Neurología and there is the conviction that you can have a Spanish language journal with a high quality and a strong impact. Its presence in the most important international data bases and the possibility of free access to its contents through Internet guarantees its proper diffusion around the world. From the point of view of citation, the repercussion of the language for Neurologia, is reflected in the fact that the 46,8 % of the citations that receive are from journals that are published in Spanish. The main factor to improve the impact of the journal is the quality of their papers, as well as the fulfillment of the international rules about periodical publications, the punctuality in its edition and distribution, the presence in national and international bibliographical data bases, its free diffusion in Internet, the training of its researchers and their sensitivity to consult and cite articles that have been published in quality Spanish journals, when necessary. PMID:17315099

  15. Reasons for Journal Impact Factor Changes: Influence of Changing Source Items.

    PubMed

    Kiesslich, Tobias; Weineck, Silke B; Koelblinger, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    Both the concept and the application of the impact factor (IF) have been subject to widespread critique, including concerns over its potential manipulation. This study provides a systematic analysis of significant journal Impact Factor changes, based on the relative contribution of either one or both variables of the IF equation (i.e. citations / articles as the numerator / denominator of the quotient). A cohort of JCR-listed journals which faced the most dramatic absolute IF changes between 2013 and 2014 (ΔIF ≥ 3.0, n = 49) was analyzed for the causes resulting in IF changes that theses journals have experienced in the last five years. Along with the variation by number of articles and citations, this analysis includes the relative change of both variables compared to each other and offers a classification of `valid`and `invalid`scenarios of IF variation in terms of the intended goal of the IF to measure journal quality. The sample cohort features a considerable incidence of IF increases (18%) which are qualified as `invalid`according to this classification because the IF increase is merely based on a favorably changing number of articles (denominator). The results of this analysis point out the potentially delusive effect of IF increases gained through effective shrinkage of publication output. Therefore, careful consideration of the details of the IF equation and possible implementation of control mechanisms versus the volatile factor of number of articles may help to improve the expressiveness of this metric. PMID:27105434

  16. Impact of age on epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Toyooka, Shinichi; Suda, Kenichi; Soh, Junichi; Yatabe, Yasushi; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2012-12-01

    Aging is one of the best, but rarely referred, risk factors for various types of cancer including lung cancer, because age could be a surrogate for accumulation of genetic events in cancers. Smoking inversely associates with the presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in lung cancer, but its strong confounding with age and sex makes it difficult to evaluate sole impact of age. To clarify an impact of age on EGFR mutation, we conducted a cross-sectional study based on data of 1262 lung cancer patients. The associations between EGFR mutation and age, considering sex, smoking and histology, were evaluated using logistic regression models. In multivariate analysis, we found a significant increase of EGFR mutation prevalence by increase of age (p-trend=0.0004). Consistent trend was observed among never-smoking females (p-trend=0.011) and never-smoking males also showed similar trend although not significant. These were consistently observed when we limit the subject to those with adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, age independently associates with EGFR mutation among lung cancer. Positive association between EGFR mutation and age among never-smokers regardless of sex might indicate that EGFR mutation occurs cumulatively by unidentified internal/external factors other than smoking. PMID:23036155

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Critical Factors for the Climate Impact of Landfill Mining.

    PubMed

    Laner, David; Cencic, Oliver; Svensson, Niclas; Krook, Joakim

    2016-07-01

    Landfill mining has been proposed as an innovative strategy to mitigate environmental risks associated with landfills, to recover secondary raw materials and energy from the deposited waste, and to enable high-valued land uses at the site. The present study quantitatively assesses the importance of specific factors and conditions for the net contribution of landfill mining to global warming using a novel, set-based modeling approach and provides policy recommendations for facilitating the development of projects contributing to global warming mitigation. Building on life-cycle assessment, scenario modeling and sensitivity analysis methods are used to identify critical factors for the climate impact of landfill mining. The net contributions to global warming of the scenarios range from -1550 (saving) to 640 (burden) kg CO2e per Mg of excavated waste. Nearly 90% of the results' total variation can be explained by changes in four factors, namely the landfill gas management in the reference case (i.e., alternative to mining the landfill), the background energy system, the composition of the excavated waste, and the applied waste-to-energy technology. Based on the analyses, circumstances under which landfill mining should be prioritized or not are identified and sensitive parameters for the climate impact assessment of landfill mining are highlighted. PMID:27282202

  18. Reasons for Journal Impact Factor Changes: Influence of Changing Source Items

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Both the concept and the application of the impact factor (IF) have been subject to widespread critique, including concerns over its potential manipulation. This study provides a systematic analysis of significant journal Impact Factor changes, based on the relative contribution of either one or both variables of the IF equation (i.e. citations / articles as the numerator / denominator of the quotient). A cohort of JCR-listed journals which faced the most dramatic absolute IF changes between 2013 and 2014 (ΔIF ≥ 3.0, n = 49) was analyzed for the causes resulting in IF changes that theses journals have experienced in the last five years. Along with the variation by number of articles and citations, this analysis includes the relative change of both variables compared to each other and offers a classification of `valid`and `invalid`scenarios of IF variation in terms of the intended goal of the IF to measure journal quality. The sample cohort features a considerable incidence of IF increases (18%) which are qualified as `invalid`according to this classification because the IF increase is merely based on a favorably changing number of articles (denominator). The results of this analysis point out the potentially delusive effect of IF increases gained through effective shrinkage of publication output. Therefore, careful consideration of the details of the IF equation and possible implementation of control mechanisms versus the volatile factor of number of articles may help to improve the expressiveness of this metric. PMID:27105434

  19. Most species are not driven to extinction before genetic factors impact them

    PubMed Central

    Spielman, Derek; Brook, Barry W.; Frankham, Richard

    2004-01-01

    There is controversy concerning the role of genetic factors in species extinctions. Many authors have asserted that species are usually driven to extinction before genetic factors have time to impact them, but few studies have seriously addressed this issue. If this assertion is true, there will be little difference in genetic diversity between threatened and taxonomically related nonthreatened species. We compared average heterozygosities in 170 threatened taxa with those in taxonomically related nonthreatened taxa in a comprehensive metaanalysis. Heterozygosity was lower in threatened taxa in 77% of comparisons, a highly significant departure from the predictions of the no genetic impact hypothesis. Heterozygosity was on average 35% lower (median 40%) in threatened taxa than in related nonthreatened ones. These differences in heterozygosity indicate lowered evolutionary potential, compromised reproductive fitness, and elevated extinction risk in the wild. Independent evidence from stochastic computer projections has demonstrated that inbreeding depression elevates extinction risk for threatened species in natural habitats when all other threatening processes are included in the models. Thus, most taxa are not driven to extinction before genetic factors affect them adversely. PMID:15477597

  20. Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Low Back: I. Overview of Large Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibani, Saami J.

    2001-03-01

    Scientific and medical data have been gathered for nearly 500 motor-vehicle occupants, whose dynamic response[1-2] was calculated to determine the forces generated at all potential injury sites. Particular attention was paid to the load within the lumbosacral spine to examine the influence of certain variables relating to the occupant (height, weight, sex), the impact (magnitude, direction), and the low back itself (local vector, anatomical level). Exhaustive efforts were made to match the force with each variable using linear and logarithmic fits, but correlation coefficients were generally not high. These results might be influenced by the emphasis in this research to obtain the best statistics with large groupings of patients. Hence, a separate study with more detail is proposed as a significant continuation of this effort. 1. Proper Treatment of Complex Human Structures, Announcer 27 (4), 100 (1997); 2. Effect of Occupant and Impact Factors on Forces within Neck: I & II, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 45, 1018 (2000).

  1. Factors in pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham: a review.

    PubMed

    Candek-Potokar, M; Skrlep, M

    2012-02-01

    This study reviews the factors of pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham. When processing is standardized, the quality of the final dry-cured product is primarily determined by the quality of the meat before curing (green ham). This has been defined as the aptitude for seasoning and is determined by the green ham weight, adipose tissue quantity and quality, meat physico-chemical properties and the absence of visual defects. Various ante-mortem factors including pig age and weight, genetic type, diet, feeding strategy and slaughter conditions determine green ham properties such as the dynamics of water loss, salt intake and, as a consequence, proteolysis and lipolysis. Muscle conditions (pH, salt concentration, water content and availability, temperature) influence enzymatic activity and development of characteristic texture and flavor. Generally, hams of older and heavier pigs present better seasoning aptitude because of higher adiposity. Adiposity is also positively correlated with fat saturation, which is desired to avoid rancidity and oiliness. The fatty acid profile of tissue lipids can be manipulated by diet composition. Feeding strategy affects tissue accretion and protein turnover, thus directly impacting proteolysis. With respect to the impact of pig genotype on dry-cured ham quality, local breeds are generally considered more suitable for producing quality dry hams; however, the majority of dry-cured hams on the market today are from modern pig breeds raised in conventional systems, providing lean hams. The importance of all these factors of pig production is discussed and synthesized, with an emphasis on the main difficulties encountered in dry-cured ham production. PMID:22436192

  2. Sexual Violence Among Youth in New Mexico: Risk and Resiliency Factors That Impact Behavioral Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reed, Danielle; Reno, Jessica; Green, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between history of forced sex and poor behavioral health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to describe this relationship among high school students and to explore the impact of resiliency factors. Using data from the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey, we found that history of forced sex was associated with negative behavioral health outcomes for males and females, regardless of sexual orientation and disability status. Furthermore, the presence of a caring adult at home appeared to reduce the risk of substance abuse and suicidality among students with and without a history of forced sex. PMID:26882412

  3. Auto-correlation of journal impact factor for consensus research reporting statements: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Journal Citation Reports journal impact factors (JIFs) are widely used to rank and evaluate journals, standing as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. However, numerous criticisms have been made of use of a JIF to evaluate importance. This problem is exacerbated when the use of JIFs is extended to evaluate not only the journals, but the papers therein. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the relationship between the number of citations and journal IF for identical articles published simultaneously in multiple journals. Methods. Eligible articles were consensus research reporting statements listed on the EQUATOR Network website that were published simultaneously in three or more journals. The correlation between the citation count for each article and the median journal JIF over the published period, and between the citation count and number of article accesses was calculated for each reporting statement. Results. Nine research reporting statements were included in this analysis, representing 85 articles published across 58 journals in biomedicine. The number of citations was strongly correlated to the JIF for six of the nine reporting guidelines, with moderate correlation shown for the remaining three guidelines (median r = 0.66, 95% CI [0.45-0.90]). There was also a strong positive correlation between the number of citations and the number of article accesses (median r = 0.71, 95% CI [0.5-0.8]), although the number of data points for this analysis were limited. When adjusted for the individual reporting guidelines, each logarithm unit of JIF predicted a median increase of 0.8 logarithm units of citation counts (95% CI [-0.4-5.2]), and each logarithm unit of article accesses predicted a median increase of 0.1 logarithm units of citation counts (95% CI [-0.9-1.4]). This model explained 26% of the variance in citations (median adjusted r (2) = 0.26, range 0.18-1.0). Conclusion. The impact factor of the

  4. Neuroprotective Activities of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Following Controlled Cortical Impact

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Matthew L.; Elliott, Bret R.; Haverland, Nicole A.; Mosley, R. Lee; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegeneration after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is facilitated by innate and adaptive immunity and can be harnessed to effect brain repair. In mice subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) we show that treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) affects regulatory T cell numbers coincident with decreased lesion volumes and increased cortical tissue sparing. This paralleled increases in neurofilament and diminished reactive microglial staining. Transcriptomic analysis showed that GM-CSF induces robust immune neuroprotective responses seven days following CCI. Together, these results support the therapeutic potential of GM-CSF for TBI. PMID:25468272

  5. Impact factor, H index, peer comparisons, and Retrovirology: is it time to individualize citation metrics?

    PubMed Central

    Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2007-01-01

    There is a natural tendency to judge a gift by the attractiveness of its wrapping. In some respect, this reflects current mores of measuring the gravitas of a scientific paper based on the journal cover in which the work appears. Most journals have an impact factor (IF) which some proudly display on their face page. Although historically journal IF has been a convenient quantitative shorthand, has its (mis)use contributed to inaccurate perceptions of the quality of scientific articles? Is now the time that equally convenient but more individually accurate metrics be adopted? PMID:17577403

  6. Auto-correlation of journal impact factor for consensus research reporting statements: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Journal Citation Reports journal impact factors (JIFs) are widely used to rank and evaluate journals, standing as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. However, numerous criticisms have been made of use of a JIF to evaluate importance. This problem is exacerbated when the use of JIFs is extended to evaluate not only the journals, but the papers therein. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the relationship between the number of citations and journal IF for identical articles published simultaneously in multiple journals. Methods. Eligible articles were consensus research reporting statements listed on the EQUATOR Network website that were published simultaneously in three or more journals. The correlation between the citation count for each article and the median journal JIF over the published period, and between the citation count and number of article accesses was calculated for each reporting statement. Results. Nine research reporting statements were included in this analysis, representing 85 articles published across 58 journals in biomedicine. The number of citations was strongly correlated to the JIF for six of the nine reporting guidelines, with moderate correlation shown for the remaining three guidelines (median r = 0.66, 95% CI [0.45–0.90]). There was also a strong positive correlation between the number of citations and the number of article accesses (median r = 0.71, 95% CI [0.5–0.8]), although the number of data points for this analysis were limited. When adjusted for the individual reporting guidelines, each logarithm unit of JIF predicted a median increase of 0.8 logarithm units of citation counts (95% CI [−0.4–5.2]), and each logarithm unit of article accesses predicted a median increase of 0.1 logarithm units of citation counts (95% CI [−0.9–1.4]). This model explained 26% of the variance in citations (median adjusted r2 = 0.26, range 0.18–1.0). Conclusion. The impact

  7. Calibration of relative sensitivity factors for impact ionization detectors with high-velocity silicate microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiege, Katherina; Trieloff, Mario; Hillier, Jon K.; Guglielmino, Massimo; Postberg, Frank; Srama, Ralf; Kempf, Sascha; Blum, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    Impact ionization mass spectrometers, e.g., the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard the Cassini spacecraft can quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of impacting particles, if the ionization efficiencies of the elements to be quantified are appropriately calibrated. Although silicates are an abundant dust species inside and outside the Solar System, an experimental calibration was not available for elements typically found in silicates. We performed such a calibration by accelerating orthopyroxene dust of known composition with a modified Van de Graaff accelerator to velocities of up to 37.9 km s-1 and subsequent analyses by a high resolution impact ionization mass spectrometer, the Large Area Mass Analyzer (LAMA). The orthopyroxene dust, prepared from a natural rock sample, contains ∼90% orthopyroxene and ∼10% additional mineral species, such as clinopyroxene, spinel, amphibole, olivine and glasses, which are present as impurities within the orthopyroxene, due to inclusion or intergrowth. Hence, the dust material can be regarded as a multi-mineral mixture. After analyses, we find that most particle data cluster at a composition ascribed to pure orthopyroxene. Some data scatter is caused by stochastic effects, other data scatter is caused by the chemically different mineral impurities. Our data indicate that these minor mineral phases can be recognized within a multi-mineral mixture. Here, for the first time, we present experimentally derived relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) for impact ionization mass spectroscopy of silicates, enabling the quantitative determination of the composition of cosmic dust grains. Orthopyroxene data were used to infer RSFs for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe and K, for particles with radii ranging from 0.04 μm to 0.2 μm and velocities between 19 and 37.9 km s-1, impacting on a Rh-target.

  8. Preliminary Results In Quantifying The Climatic Impact Forcing Factors Around 3 Ma Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluteau, F.; Ramstein, G.; Duringer, P.; Schuster, M.; Tiercelin, J. J.

    What is exactly the control of climate changes on the development of the Hominids ? Is it possible to quantify such changes ? and which are the forcing factors that create these changes ? We use here a General Circulation Model to investigate the climate sensitivity of 3 different forcing factors : the uplift of the East African Rift, the ex- tent (more than twenty time PD surfaces) of the Chad Lake and ultimately we shall with a coupled oceanatmospher GCM test the the effect of Indonesian throughflow changes. To achieve these goals, we need a multidisciplinary group to assess the evo- lution of the Rift and the extent of the Lake. We prescribe these different boundary conditions to the GCM and use a biome model to assess the vegetation changes. In this presentation we will only focus on the Rift uplift and the Chad lake impacts on Atmospheric circulation, monsoon and their environmental consequences in term of vegetation changes.

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adults: Impact, Comorbidity, Risk Factors, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    During the last 30 years, there has been a substantial increase in the study of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several high-profile traumatic events, such as the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the terrorist attacks of September 11 on the World Trade Center, have led to a greater public interest in the risk and protective factors for PTSD. In this In Review paper, I discuss some of the important advances in PTSD. The paper provides a concise review of the evolution of PTSD diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, impact of PTSD in the community, an overview of the established risk factors for developing PTSD, and assessment and treatment. Throughout the paper, controversies and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25565692

  10. Functional Impact of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Exposure on Tau Phosphorylation and Axon Transport

    PubMed Central

    Le, Michelle H.; Weissmiller, April M.; Monte, Louise; Lin, Po Han; Hexom, Tia C.; Natera, Orlangie; Wu, Chengbiao; Rissman, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Stress exposure or increased levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) induce hippocampal tau phosphorylation (tau-P) in rodent models, a process that is dependent on the type-1 CRF receptor (CRFR1). Although these preclinical studies on stress-induced tau-P provide mechanistic insight for epidemiological work that identifies stress as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the actual impact of stress-induced tau-P on neuronal function remains unclear. To determine the functional consequences of stress-induced tau-P, we developed a novel mouse neuronal cell culture system to explore the impact of acute (0.5hr) and chronic (2hr) CRF treatment on tau-P and integral cell processes such as axon transport. Consistent with in vivo reports, we found that chronic CRF treatment increased tau-P levels and caused globular accumulations of phosphorylated tau in dendritic and axonal processes. Furthermore, while both acute and chronic CRF treatment led to significant reduction in CREB activation and axon transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), this was not the case with mitochondrial transport. Acute CRF treatment caused increased mitochondrial velocity and distance traveled in neurons, while chronic CRF treatment modestly decreased mitochondrial velocity and greatly increased distance traveled. These results suggest that transport of cellular energetics may take priority over growth factors during stress. Tau-P was required for these changes, as co-treatment of CRF with a GSK kinase inhibitor prevented CRF-induced tau-P and all axon transport changes. Collectively, our results provide mechanistic insight into the consequences of stress peptide-induced tau-P and provide an explanation for how chronic stress via CRF may lead to neuronal vulnerability in AD. PMID:26790099

  11. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    PubMed Central

    Loidl, Verena; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Ballert, Carolina; Coenen, Michaela; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity. PMID:27077872

  12. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    PubMed

    Loidl, Verena; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Ballert, Carolina; Coenen, Michaela; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity. PMID:27077872

  13. Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure for Life Cycle Assessment: Regional Health Impact Factors for Households.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K; Meijer, Arjen; Demou, Evangelia; Hellweg, Stefanie; Jolliet, Olivier; Lam, Nicholas L; Margni, Manuele; McKone, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    Human exposure to indoor pollutant concentrations is receiving increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). We address this issue by incorporating an indoor compartment into the USEtox model, as well as by providing recommended parameter values for households in four different regions of the world differing geographically, economically, and socially. With these parameter values, intake fractions and comparative toxicity potentials for indoor emissions of dwellings for different air tightness levels were calculated. The resulting intake fractions for indoor exposure vary by 2 orders of magnitude, due to the variability of ventilation rate, building occupation, and volume. To compare health impacts as a result of indoor exposure with those from outdoor exposure, the indoor exposure characterization factors determined with the modified USEtox model were applied in a case study on cooking in non-OECD countries. This study demonstrates the appropriateness and significance of integrating indoor environments into LCA, which ensures a more holistic account of all exposure environments and allows for a better accountability of health impacts. The model, intake fractions, and characterization factors are made available for use in standard LCA studies via www.usetox.org and in standard LCA software. PMID:26444519

  14. Where should family medicine papers be published - following the impact factor?

    PubMed

    Peleg, Roni; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2006-01-01

    Academic institutions weigh the research contribution of family physicians and take this factor into account when determining eligibility for the candidates' promotion. Among other parameters, these institutions consider the journals in which family physicians publish. In this respect, the impact factor (IF) has gained a foothold as one of the most accepted means to measure this contribution. The IF may be a measure of the main importance of a scientific journal. IF has a huge, but controversial, influence on the perception and evaluation of published scientific research. It is important for family physicians to understand and be aware of the importance of the IF and the way it is calculated. The IF is one consideration in the decision-making process of a researcher as to where to publish because the IF of most family medicine journals is less than 2.0. Thus publication in these journals might not yield the proper "score" for academic promotion in many institutions. On the other hand, publication in journals with higher IF that are not necessarily widely read by primary care physicians could result in a small impact of their findings on direct patient care. PMID:17090797

  15. Comparative impact of climatic and nonclimatic factors on global terrestrial carbon and water cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christoph; Bondeau, Alberte; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Cramer, Wolfgang; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2006-12-01

    The coupled global carbon and water cycles are influenced by multiple factors of human activity such as fossil-fuel emissions and land use change. We used the LPJmL Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) to quantify the potential influences of human demography, diet, and land allocation, and compare these to the effects of fossil-fuel emissions and corresponding climate change. For this purpose, we generate 12 land use patterns in which these factors are analyzed in a comparative static setting, providing information on their relative importance and the range of potential impacts on the terrestrial carbon and water balance. We show that these aspects of human interference are equally important to climate change and historic fossil-fuel emissions for global carbon stocks but less important for net primary production (NPP). Demand for agricultural area and thus the magnitude of impacts on the carbon and water cycles are mainly determined by constraints on localizing agricultural production and modulated by total demand for agricultural products.

  16. Factors Influencing the Stability of Stems Fixed with Impaction Graft in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Masanori; Ebara, Tsuneyuki; Okamoto, Yusaku; Kou, Hironori

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical stability of the stem is believed to be an important factor in successful impaction grafting in revision THA. We asked whether particle size, femoral bone deficiencies, stem design, graft composition, and impaction technique influenced the initial stability of the stem in vitro using model femora and human bone particles. Bone particles made with a reciprocating blade-type bone mill contained larger particles with a broader size distribution than those made by a rotating drum-type bone mill and had higher stiffness on compression testing. The stiffness on torsional testing decreased as the degree of proximal-medial segmental deficiencies increased. The stiffness and maximum torque in a stem with a rectangular cross section and wide anteroposterior surface were higher in torsional tests. Adding hydroxyapatite granules to the bone particles increased the torsional stability. To facilitate compact bone particles, we developed a spacer between the guidewire and modified femoral packers. This spacer facilitated compacting bone particles from the middle up to the proximal and the technique increased the amount of impacted bone particles at the middle of the stem and also improved the initial stability of the stem. Stem design and degree of deficiencies influenced stiffness in the torsional test and the addition of hydroxyapatite granules enhanced torsional stiffness. PMID:19184265

  17. [Impact of chemical and physical environmental factors on the course and outcome of pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Slama, R; Cordier, S

    2013-09-01

    We review the epidemiological literature on the possible impact of chemical and physical factors on pregnancy outcome. Effects of in-utero exposures on child health are not considered here. The highest levels of evidence concern the effects of passive smoking (on fetal growth), of lead (pregnancy-induced hypertension, fetal growth), of some Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB; on fetal growth) and, to a lesser extent, of atmospheric pollutants (on fetal growth and preterm delivery). For the other compounds, in particular non-persistent chemicals, the literature, which is generally based on poor exposure assessment, is less informative. In conclusion, the last decades have witnessed the development of mother-child cohorts in which exposure biomarkers have been assayed, allowing a large number of publications. For some persistent compounds, for which efficient exposure assessment approaches have been used, the literature indicates a likely impact on pregnancy outcomes. With the exception of air pollutants, the literature on non-persistent compounds is little conclusive; the assay of exposure biomarkers in repeated biological samples collected at relevant time points could help further increase knowledge regarding any health impact. PMID:23764229

  18. An Assessment of the Predictive Validity of Impact Factor Scores: Implications for Academic Employment Decisions in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Rosenberg, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Onghena, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Bibliometrics is a method of examining scholarly communications. Concerns regarding the use of bibliometrics in general, and the impact factor score (IFS) in particular, have been discussed across disciplines including social work. Although there are frequent mentions in the literature of the IFS as an indicator of the impact or quality…

  19. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  20. An Exploration of Factors That Impact the Satisfaction and Success of Low Socioeconomic Status Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Damon A.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explored multiple factors that impact the satisfaction and success of low socioeconomic status students at a California community college. In an effort to illuminate this impact, a quantitative study investigating extant data collected from a campus climate survey was conducted. The researcher was specifically interested in…

  1. Tumor-Intrinsic and Tumor-Extrinsic Factors Impacting Hsp90-Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon, S. V.; Mollapour, M.; Lee, M.-J.; Tsutsumi, S.; Lee, S.; Kim, Y. S.; Prince, T.; Apolo, A.; Giaccone, G.; Xu, W.; Neckers, L. M.; Trepel, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    In 1994 the first heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor was identified and Hsp90 was reported to be a target for anticancer therapeutics. In the past 18 years there have been 17 distinct Hsp90 inhibitors entered into clinical trial, and the small molecule Hsp90 inhibitors have been highly valuable as probes of the role of Hsp90 and its client proteins in cancer. Although no Hsp90 inhibitor has achieved regulatory approval, recently there has been significant progress in Hsp90 inhibitor clinical development, and in the past year RECIST responses have been documented in HER2-positive breast cancer and EML4-ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer. All of the clinical Hsp90 inhibitors studied to date are specific in their target, i.e. they bind exclusively to Hsp90 and two related heat shock proteins. However, Hsp90 inhibitors are markedly pleiotropic, causing degradation of over 200 client proteins and impacting critical multiprotein complexes. Furthermore, it has only recently been appreciated that Hsp90 inhibitors can, paradoxically, cause transient activation of the protein kinase clients they are chaperoning, resulting in initiation of signal transduction and significant physiological events in both tumor and tumor microenvironment. An additional area of recent progress in Hsp90 research is in studies of the posttranslational modifications of Hsp90 itself and Hsp90 co-chaperone proteins. Together, a picture is emerging in which the impact of Hsp90 inhibitors is shaped by the tumor intracellular and extracellular milieu, and in which Hsp90 inhibitors impact tumor and host on a microenvironmental and systems level. Here we review the tumor intrinsic and extrinsic factors that impact the efficacy of small molecules engaging the Hsp90 chaperone machine. PMID:22804236

  2. Extended criteria donors in liver transplantation Part I: reviewing the impact of determining factors.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Balázs; Gámán, György; Polak, Wojciech G; Gelley, Fanni; Hara, Takanobu; Ono, Shinichiro; Baimakhanov, Zhassulan; Piros, Laszlo; Eguchi, Susumu

    2016-07-01

    The definition and factors of extended criteria donors have already been set; however, details of the various opinions still differ in many respects. In this review, we summarize the impact of these factors and their clinical relevance. Elderly livers must not be allocated for hepatitis C virus (HCV) positives, or patients with acute liver failure. In cases of markedly increased serum transaminases, donor hemodynamics is an essential consideration. A prolonged hypotension of the donor does not always lead to an increase in post-transplantation graft loss if post-OLT care is proper. Hypernatremia of less than 160 mEq/L is not an absolute contraindication to accept a liver graft per se. The presence of steatosis is an independent and determinant risk factor for the outcome. The gold standard of the diagnosis is the biopsy. This is recommended in all doubtful cases. The use of HCV+ grafts for HCV+ recipients is comparable in outcome. The leading risk factor for HCV recurrence is the actual RNA positivity of the donor. The presence of a proper anti-HBs level seems to protect from de novo HBV infection. A favourable outcome can be expected if a donation after cardiac death liver is transplanted in a favourable condition, meaning, a warm ischemia time < 30 minutes, cold ischemia time < 8-10 hours, and donor age 50-60 years. The pathway of organ quality assessment is to obtain the most relevant information (e.g. biopsy), consider the co-existing donor risk factors and the reserve capacity of the recipient, and avoid further technical issues. PMID:26838962

  3. Impact of Article Language in Multi-Language Medical Journals - a Bibliometric Analysis of Self-Citations and Impact Factor

    PubMed Central

    Diekhoff, Torsten; Schlattmann, Peter; Dewey, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background In times of globalization there is an increasing use of English in the medical literature. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of English-language articles in multi-language medical journals on their international recognition – as measured by a lower rate of self-citations and higher impact factor (IF). Methods and Findings We analyzed publications in multi-language journals in 2008 and 2009 using the Web of Science (WoS) of Thomson Reuters (former Institute of Scientific Information) and PubMed as sources of information. The proportion of English-language articles during the period was compared with both the share of self-citations in the year 2010 and the IF with and without self-citations. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to analyze these factors as well as the influence of the journals‘ countries of origin and of the other language(s) used in publications besides English. We identified 168 multi-language journals that were listed in WoS as well as in PubMed and met our criteria. We found a significant positive correlation of the share of English articles in 2008 and 2009 with the IF calculated without self-citations (Pearson r=0.56, p = <0.0001), a correlation with the overall IF (Pearson r = 0.47, p = <0.0001) and with the cites to years of IF calculation (Pearson r = 0.34, p = <0.0001), and a weak negative correlation with the share of self-citations (Pearson r = -0.2, p = 0.009). The IF without self-citations also correlated with the journal‘s country of origin – North American journals had a higher IF compared to Middle and South American or European journals. Conclusion Our findings suggest that a larger share of English articles in multi-language medical journals is associated with greater international recognition. Fewer self-citations were found in multi-language journals with a greater share of original articles in English. PMID:24146929

  4. Prevalence of voice complaints, risk factors and impact of voice problems in female student teachers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, George; de Jong, Felix I C R S; Cremers, Cor W R J; Kooijman, Piet G C

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was done among 457 female student teachers and 144 females in the general population. The conclusions are based on the opinions of student teachers and the general population. The results of this study show that 39.6% of the student teachers and 32.6% of the general population reported voice complaints at the moment and/or over the past year (p=0.198). The association between various risk factors (vocal loading factors, physical factors, environmental factors and psycho-emotional factors) and voice complaints were examined. Vocal load was reported in both the student teachers and the general population (p=0.322). Among the subjects with voice complaints, the student teachers were significantly more of the opinion than the general population that environmental irritants in the classroom (p=0.001) and the composition of the group they communicate with (p=0.033) have a negative influence on their voice. In the groups with voice complaints, the student teachers reported significantly less than the general population that stress (p=0.004) and the deterioration of their general physical condition (p=0.003) have a negative influence on their voice. Remarkably, over a third of the student teachers and one fifth of the general population with voice complaints were of the opinion that decrease of hearing has a negative influence on their voices (p=0.113). There was no significant difference in Voice Handicap Index (VHI) scores (p=0.284) and impact of voice complaints among student teachers and the general population. Over 15% of the student teachers and the general population with voice complaints reported being or having been disabled due to the voice problem, probably reflecting the severity of the voice problem (p=0.838). The groups reporting voice complaints and disability in relation to their voice complaints have significantly higher VHI scores than those without voice complaints and disability, which indicates a higher

  5. The effects of human corticotrophin releasing factor on motor and cognitive deficits after impact acceleration injury.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, A; Marmarou, C; Marmarou, A

    2000-10-01

    Corticotrophin releasing factor has been shown in several models of tissue injury to be an effective treatment for edema. In a previous study we demonstrated this ability in two models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to assess whether human corticotrophin releasing factor (hCRF) could additionally improve motor and cognitive deficits. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into five groups and injured with the Impact Acceleration Model of TBI. Groups I and II received sham injury followed by treatment with either drug vehicle or 100 micrograms kg-1 hCRF respectively. Group III was injured with no treatment; Group IV animals were injured and treated with 50 micrograms kg-1 hCRF and Group V were injured and treated with 100 micrograms kg-1 hCRF. Animals were assessed both before and after injury with a battery of standardised neuropsychological tests including the Morris Water Maze, the Beam Walk Test, the Beam Balance Test and the Inclined Plane Test. Both 50 micrograms kg-1 and 100 micrograms kg-1 hCRF caused significant improvements in motor and cognitive functioning, confirming that in addition to edema-reducing properties, human corticotrophin releasing factor is also capable of improving motor and cognitive functioning. Given the beneficial experimental effects of this compound, hCRF may be a useful clinical treatment, which requires formal evaluation. PMID:11091970

  6. Impact of heat waves on nonaccidental deaths in Jinan, China, and associated risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Shouqin; Han, Jing; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Yueling; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    An ecological study and a case-crossover analysis were conducted to evaluate the impact of heat waves on nonaccidental deaths, and to identify contributing factors of population vulnerability to heat-related deaths in Jinan, China. Daily death data and meteorological data were collected for summer months (June to August) of 2012-2013. Excess mortality was calculated and multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the increased risk of heat waves on deaths. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to estimate the odd ratios (ORs) of risk factors and their 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, heat waves were related to 24.88 % excess deaths of total nonaccidental deaths and 31.33 % excess deaths of circulatory diseases, with an OR of 16.07 (95 % CI 8.80-23.33) for total nonaccidental deaths and 12.46 (95 % CI 7.39-17.53) for deaths of circulatory diseases. The case-crossover analysis indicated that older people were more likely to die during heat waves (OR = 1.233, 95 % CI 1.076-1.413) and more deaths occurred outside a hospital during heat waves (OR = 1.142, 95 % CI 1.006-1.296). In conclusion, heat waves have caused excess deaths and significantly increased the risk of circulatory deaths. The risk factors identified in our study have implications for public health interventions to reduce heat-related mortality during extreme heat events.

  7. Impact of known risk factors on endometrial cancer burden in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Yang, Gong; Wen, Wanqing; Cai, Qiu-Yin; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to provide data on the impact of known risk factors on endometrial cancer burden. Using data on 1199 endometrial cancer cases and 1212 frequency matched controls from a population-based case-control study carried out in urban Shanghai, China from 1997 to 2003, multivariable adjusted odds ratios were obtained from unconditional logistic regression analyses. Partial population-attributable risks were calculated and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using a bootstrap method. An estimated 16.94% of endometrial cancer cases were attributed to overweight or obesity; 8.39% to meat intake; 5.45% to nonregular tea drinking; 5.23% to physical inactivity; and 1.77% to family history of endometrial, breast, or colorectal cancers. Overall, these risk factors accounted for 36.01% (95% confidence interval: 28.55-43.11%) of total endometrial cancer cases. Similar results were observed when analysis was restricted to postmenopausal women. Among modifiable lifestyle factors, overweight and obesity accounted for the largest proportion of endometrial cancer in the study population. Lifestyle alterations, such as maintenance of healthy weight, regular exercise, consumption of less meat, and tea drinking, could potentially reduce endometrial cancer by more than one-third. PMID:26075656

  8. Significant impact on effective doses received during commercial flights calculated using the new ICRP radiation weighting factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Mares, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This note discusses the significant impact on effective doses received during commercial flights calculated using the new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) radiation weighting factors. It also provides an update on adult effective doses given in a previous article in Health Physics when the old ICRP radiation weighting factors were used. PMID:19959953

  9. A Multilevel Modelling Approach to Investigating Factors Impacting Science Achievement for Secondary School Students: PISA Hong Kong Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Letao; Bradley, Kelly D.; Akers, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment Hong Kong sample to investigate the factors that impact the science achievement of 15-year-old students. A multilevel model was used to examine the factors from both student and school perspectives. At the student level, the results indicated that male students,…

  10. Impact of cardiovascular risk factors on carotid intima–media thickness: sex differences

    PubMed Central

    Łoboz-Rudnicka, Maria; Jaroch, Joanna; Bociąga, Zbigniew; Rzyczkowska, Barbara; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Polański, Jacek; Dudek, Krzysztof; Szuba, Andrzej; Łoboz-Grudzień, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose There has been growing interest in the sex-related differences in the impact of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT). Therefore, we aimed at examining the influence of CV risk factors on CIMT in men and women and identifying differences between males and females in the risk profiles affecting CIMT. Patients and methods The study group consisted of 256 patients (mean age 54.7 years), including 134 females (52%), with the following CV risk factors: arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, nicotine addiction, overweight, and obesity. Subjects with the history of any overt CV disease were excluded. CIMT was measured through B-mode ultrasound examination of the right common carotid artery. In the analysis of CIMT values at different ages, the patients were divided into three age groups: 1) <45 years, 2) 45–60 years, and 3) >60 years. Regression analysis was used to examine the influence of CV risk factors on CIMT in men and women. Results CIMT increased with age in both men and women. Women had lower values of CIMT than men (0.54 mm vs 0.60 mm, P=0.011). The analysis in three age subgroups revealed that CIMT values were comparable in men and women in group 1 (0.48 mm vs 0.48 mm, P=0.861), but over the age of 45 years, CIMT values became significantly lower in women compared to men (group 2: 0.51 mm vs 0.63 mm, P=0.005; group 3: 0.63 mm vs 0.72 mm, P=0.020). Significant differences were observed between the sexes in terms of risk factor impact on CIMT. In men, only three factors significantly affected CIMT: age (b=+0.009, P<0.0001), hypertension (b=+0.067, P<0.05), and type 2 diabetes (b=+0.073, P<0.05). In women, apart from age (b=+0.008, P<0.0001) and type 2 diabetes (b=+0.111, P<0.01), significant factors were pulse pressure (PP; b=+0.005, P<0.0001), body mass index (b=+0.007, P<0.05), increased waist circumference (b=+0.092, P<0.01), and metabolic syndrome (b=+0.071, P<0.05). In the

  11. The Impact of Environmental and Genetic Factors on Neonatal Late-Onset Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Bizzarro, Matthew J.; Jiang, Yuan; Hussain, Naveed; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Bhandari, Vineet; Zhang, Heping

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the genetic contribution to late-onset sepsis in twins in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU). Study design A retrospective cohort analysis of twins born from 1994 to 2009 was performed on data collected from the NICUs at Yale University and the University of Connecticut. Sepsis concordance rates were compared between monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Mixed effects logistic regression (MELR) analysis was performed to determine the impact of selected non-genetic factors on late-onset sepsis. The influence of additive genetic and common and residual environmental effects were analyzed and quantified. Results 170 monozygotic and 665 dizygotic twin pairs were analyzed and sepsis identified in 8.9%. Mean gestational age and birth weight of the cohort was 31.1 weeks and 1637 grams, respectively. MELR determined birth weight (regression coefficient=−0.001; 95% CI: −0.003–0.000; p=0.028), respiratory distress syndrome (regression coefficient=1.769; 95% CI: 0.943–2.596; p<0.001) and duration of total parenteral nutrition (regression coefficient=0.041; 95% CI: 0.017–0.064; p<0.001) as significant non-genetic factors. Further analysis determined 49.0% (p=0.002) of the variance in liability to late-onset sepsis was due to genetic factors alone, and 51.0% (p=0.001) the result of residual environmental factors. Conclusions Our data support significant genetic susceptibility to late-onset sepsis in the NICU population. PMID:20850766

  12. Impact of insulin like growth factor-1 in development of coronary artery ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Akturk, Ibrahim Faruk; Biyik, Ismail; Yalcin, Ahmet Arif; Isiksacan, Nilgun; Celik, Omer; Ozturk, Derya; Erturk, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is characterized by inappropriate dilatation of the coronary vasculature. The mechanisms of CAE are not well known. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) may make endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells more sensitive to the effects of growth hormone. In the present study, we hypothesized that IGF-1 may have an impact on the formation of ectasia and aneurysm in arterial system, and aimed to investigate the associations between the presence of CAE and serum IGF-1 levels in patients undergoing coronary angiography. The study included 2.980 subjects undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography. We selected 40 patients diagnosed with CAE as CAE group and 44 subjects with absolutely normal coronary arteries were assigned as normal control group. IGF-1 levels were measured in both groups of patients. Groups were similar in terms of age, sex and coronary artery disease risk factors. The serum IGF-1 levels were significantly higher in CAE patients with 109.64±54.64 ng/mL than in controls with 84.76±34.01 ng/mL (p=0.016). HDL levels were lower in ectasia group with 41.5±10.7 mg/dL than controls with 47.7±10.4 mg/dL (p=0.018). By means of logistic regression analysis, high IGF-1 and low HDL levels were found to be independent risk factors for the presence of CAE (p<0.02, p<0.016, respectively). The study revealed that there was a positive correlation between serum IGF-1 levels and presence of CAE, and high IGF-1 levels and low HDL levels were independent risk factors for the presence of CAE. Future studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25428678

  13. Analyzing the impact of social factors on homelessness: a Fuzzy Cognitive Map approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The forces which affect homelessness are complex and often interactive in nature. Social forces such as addictions, family breakdown, and mental illness are compounded by structural forces such as lack of available low-cost housing, poor economic conditions, and insufficient mental health services. Together these factors impact levels of homelessness through their dynamic relations. Historic models, which are static in nature, have only been marginally successful in capturing these relationships. Methods Fuzzy Logic (FL) and fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) are particularly suited to the modeling of complex social problems, such as homelessness, due to their inherent ability to model intricate, interactive systems often described in vague conceptual terms and then organize them into a specific, concrete form (i.e., the FCM) which can be readily understood by social scientists and others. Using FL we converted information, taken from recently published, peer reviewed articles, for a select group of factors related to homelessness and then calculated the strength of influence (weights) for pairs of factors. We then used these weighted relationships in a FCM to test the effects of increasing or decreasing individual or groups of factors. Results of these trials were explainable according to current empirical knowledge related to homelessness. Results Prior graphic maps of homelessness have been of limited use due to the dynamic nature of the concepts related to homelessness. The FCM technique captures greater degrees of dynamism and complexity than static models, allowing relevant concepts to be manipulated and interacted. This, in turn, allows for a much more realistic picture of homelessness. Through network analysis of the FCM we determined that Education exerts the greatest force in the model and hence impacts the dynamism and complexity of a social problem such as homelessness. Conclusions The FCM built to model the complex social system of homelessness

  14. Impact of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase on virulence factor production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Jonathan B; Scoffield, Jessica; Woolnough, Jessica L; Silo-Suh, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa establishes life-long chronic infections in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung by utilizing various adaptation strategies. Some of these strategies include altering metabolic pathways to utilize readily available nutrients present in the host environment. The airway sputum contains various host-derived nutrients that can be utilized by P. aeruginosa, including phosphatidylcholine, a major component of lung surfactant. Pseudomonas aeruginosa can degrade phosphatidylcholine to glycerol and fatty acids to increase the availability of usable carbon sources in the CF lung. In this study, we show that some CF-adapted P. aeruginosa isolates utilize glycerol more efficiently as a carbon source than nonadapted isolates. Furthermore, a mutation in a gene required for glycerol utilization impacts the production of several virulence factors in both acute and chronic isolates of P. aeruginosa. Taken together, the results suggest that interference with this metabolic pathway may have potential therapeutic benefits. PMID:25409940

  15. Journal Impact Factor Shapes Scientists’ Reward Signal in the Prospect of Publication

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Frieder Michel; Rademacher, Lena; Schäfer, Theo Alexander Jose; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören

    2015-01-01

    The incentive structure of a scientist’s life is increasingly mimicking economic principles. While intensely criticized, the journal impact factor (JIF) has taken a role as the new currency for scientists. Successful goal-directed behavior in academia thus requires knowledge about the JIF. Using functional neuroimaging we examined how the JIF, as a powerful incentive in academia, has shaped the behavior of scientists and the reward signal in the striatum. We demonstrate that the reward signal in the nucleus accumbens increases with higher JIF during the anticipation of a publication and found a positive correlation with the personal publication record (pJIF) supporting the notion that scientists have incorporated the predominant reward principle of the scientific community in their reward system. The implications of this behavioral adaptation within the ecological niche of the scientist’s habitat remain unknown, but may also have effects which were not intended by the community. PMID:26555725

  16. The Impact of Preventive Health Behaviors and Risk Factors on Health Status of Ghanaians

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Bashiru I. I.; Abdul-Aziz, A. R.; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Zhao, Xicang

    2013-01-01

    The article here investigated the impact of Preventive Health Behaviors and Risk Factors as measures of Health Status of Ghanaians. We carry out a cross-sectional analysis of 5573 adults who participated and had indicated that they needed to state their health description in the three years prior to the phase 2007 World Health Organization, a study on Global Ageing and Adult health (SAGE) conducted in Ghana. The ordinal logistic regression model was employed for analysis using R. The results suggest that, there is incontrovertible evidence showing a strong relationship between preventive health behaviors and health status of Ghanaians. Again, the lifestyle of Ghanaians clearly manifests in their positive correlation with the good and moderate health state due to the high percentage (38.96% and 39.04%) respectively. The outcome points to a potential link with the Ghanaian social and health policies. PMID:23985114

  17. [Colciencias and disdain for Colombian scientists: from the Stone Age to the impact factor].

    PubMed

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Bayona, Edgardo; Leon, Martha E

    2005-01-01

    Writing has dramatically evolved in the world; however, qualification of scientific production in Colombia has not, including the improper use of decree 1444/93 and 1279/02. The last of these decrees authorized Colciencias, the Colombian government institute created to support scientific research in Colombia, to establish rules for its implementation. Colciencias decided to evaluate scientific papers produced in Colombia based on the non-scientific method of the "impact factor", and considered that citations in MEDLINE/PubMed and PsylNFO were second line publications thus violating Colombian law. This affects not only the progress of scientific research in Colombia but also researchers' income and puts Colombia's scientific journals and publications at great disadvantage. Scientific papers indexed in qualified databases such as MEDLINE/PubMed must be judged according to law in order to prevent further injuries to the developing Colombian scientific production. PMID:16149281

  18. The impact of psychosocial factors on subjective well-being among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Barczyk, Amanda N; Thompson, Sanna J; Rew, Lynn

    2014-08-01

    Homeless young adults are one of this country's most vulnerable populations, and information surrounding issues of subjective well-being among this particularly diverse population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact social support, future expectations, and homeless cultural factors have on subjective well-being among homeless young adults. A purposive sample of 185 homeless young people, ages 18 to 23, and known to use alcohol or drugs, participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who had a higher level of subjective well-being reported significantly higher levels of social support, more optimistic expectations of the future, and a better perception of the flow of time. More fatalistic views of the future significantly predicted lower levels of subjective well-being. Findings suggest that service providers should focus on understanding the strengths of individuals and, specifically, gain a deeper understanding of homeless young adults' support networks and views of the future. PMID:25095630

  19. [Preliminary study on main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies].

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Geng, Dong-Mei; Rong, Xue; Li, Zi; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Xu, Si-Qun; Jie, Xiao-Qian

    2013-05-01

    The brand equity is valuable intangible assets of traditional Chinese medicine companies, who are excellent representatives of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises and the most promising ones to good international medicine brands. However, there is still no systematic study on how to correctly evaluate the brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies at present. To make it clear, the main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, both structured open outline pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for the field survey, and some suggestions for how to protect and enhance the brand equity were also presented on the basis of survey and analysis, in the hope of improving the brand management level of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, and making a beneficial exploration for the development of brand theory of the traditional Chinese medicine industry. PMID:23944085

  20. Older Women's Sexual Desire Problems: Biopsychosocial Factors Impacting Them and Barriers to Their Clinical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Michelle; Laganà, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Sexual desire is a major component of sexuality at any age, and inhibited desire is one of the main sexual dysfunctions reported by older women. Nonetheless, in medical settings, for a variety of reasons discussed herein, its assessment—as well as the assessment of older women's sexual health in general—is typically avoided or conducted by asking a single sex question. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature (most of which is preliminary in nature) regarding the main psychosocial and health factors that could impact older women's sexual desire, as well as potential obstacles to the assessment and treatment of this geriatric sexual issue. It is certainly advisable that medical care providers who are uncomfortable discussing older women's sexual concerns be prepared to make appropriate referrals to clinicians who possess the proper training to accurately assess and treat sexual challenges (and female sexual interest problems in particular) in this neglected patient population. PMID:24995267

  1. A thesis investigating the impact of energy related environmental factors on domestic window design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Michael Edward

    In recent years the extent of glazing in houses has been tightly controlled by the Building Regulations in order to save energy. In addition guidelines derived from passive solar principles prescribe the distribution of domestic windows between elevations according to their orientation. This thesis studies the impact of these energy-related environmental factors on domestic window design. The first of these investigations determined the degree to which limitations on the area and arrangement of windows are significant in terms of daylighting. The experiments measured the effect that passive solar requirements and detailed aspects of window design have on the quality of daylighting in houses. The volume of background ventilation required for domestic accommodation has recently been increased. As a result, in a well-sealed construction, heat loss due to background ventilation becomes a larger part of the total heat loss and larger air movements become a potential cause of draughts. The ventilation experiment sought to establish the impact of these more onerous requirements on comfort within rooms. The third experiment combines these factors and asks the question: Could windows be actively involved in overcoming some of these difficulties by being used to preheat ventilation air in order to diminish the extent of heat loss and to alleviate the problem of cold draughts? Also by designing the window to reclaim heat from the room might it be possible to offset the window's thermal inadequacy? Through analysis of responses to a questionnaire and the use of optimisation techniques, scenarios were suggested for the future modification of windows in relation to energy and health expectations. The conclusions form a commentary on recent and future revisions to the Building Regulations and determine whether or not the Regulations facilitate the environmental engineering of windows as an active component of a building's whole environmental system.

  2. Impacts of anthropogenic factors on land degradation during the anthropocene in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Curebal, Isa; Efe, Recep; Soykan, Abdullah; Sonmez, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the factors that effected the beginning of the Anthropogenic Era (human age) in Turkey and formation of biomes. Destruction of vegetation, soil erosion and land degradation are the most important factors in the formation of anthropogenic biomes in Turkey. For this reason, first of all, a literature review about land degradation, which has been going on for past 300 years in Turkey, and about its causes was made. Changes that have occurred over the last 70 years were studied with the help of aerial photos and satellite images. In addition, studies we have conducted in the last 35 years have contributed substantially to the determination of the extent of the destruction of vegetation and land degradation in Turkey. As a result of research based on literature reviews and fieldwork, the impact of humans on the natural habitat were identified, and the current situation was studied. The findings about the current situation that emerged due to human impact were then transferred to an electronic environment, and a map of anthropogenic biomes was produced with the help of ArcGIS Desktop software. Based on the results obtained, one can say that the natural habitat has considerably changed over the last 200 years; vegetation has been damaged, and land degradation has become faster because of human activities. These results indicate that 97% of natural biomes have become anthropogenic biomes, and this change has become more obvious during 20h century in Turkey. The results also show that the change has been more influential after 1950. PMID:26591882

  3. Factors Impacting Habitable Volume Requirements: Results from the 2011 Habitable Volume Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M.; Whitmire, A.; Otto, C.; Neubek, D. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Habitable Volume Workshop held April 18-21, 2011 in Houston, TX at the Center for Advanced Space Studies-Universities Space Research Association. The workshop was convened by NASA to examine the factors that feed into understanding minimum habitable volume requirements for long duration space missions. While there have been confinement studies and analogs that have provided the basis for the guidance found in current habitability standards, determining the adequacy of the volume for future long duration exploration missions is a more complicated endeavor. It was determined that an improved understanding of the relationship between behavioral and psychosocial stressors, available habitable and net habitable volume, and interior layouts was needed to judge the adequacy of long duration habitat designs. The workshop brought together a multi-disciplinary group of experts from the medical and behavioral sciences, spaceflight, human habitability disciplines and design professionals. These subject matter experts identified the most salient design-related stressors anticipated for a long duration exploration mission. The selected stressors were based on scientific evidence, as well as personal experiences from spaceflight and analogs. They were organized into eight major categories: allocation of space; workspace; general and individual control of environment; sensory deprivation; social monotony; crew composition; physical and medical issues; and contingency readiness. Mitigation strategies for the identified stressors and their subsequent impact to habitat design were identified. Recommendations for future research to address the stressors and mitigating design impacts are presented.

  4. Impact of experience-dependent and -independent factors on gene expression in songbird brain.

    PubMed

    Drnevich, Jenny; Replogle, Kirstin L; Lovell, Peter; Hahn, Thomas P; Johnson, Frank; Mast, Thomas G; Nordeen, Ernest; Nordeen, Kathy; Strand, Christy; London, Sarah E; Mukai, Motoko; Wingfield, John C; Arnold, Arthur P; Ball, Gregory F; Brenowitz, Eliot A; Wade, Juli; Mello, Claudio V; Clayton, David F

    2012-10-16

    Songbirds provide rich natural models for studying the relationships between brain anatomy, behavior, environmental signals, and gene expression. Under the Songbird Neurogenomics Initiative, investigators from 11 laboratories collected brain samples from six species of songbird under a range of experimental conditions, and 488 of these samples were analyzed systematically for gene expression by microarray. ANOVA was used to test 32 planned contrasts in the data, revealing the relative impact of different factors. The brain region from which tissue was taken had the greatest influence on gene expression profile, affecting the majority of signals measured by 18,848 cDNA spots on the microarray. Social and environmental manipulations had a highly variable impact, interpreted here as a manifestation of paradoxical "constitutive plasticity" (fewer inducible genes) during periods of enhanced behavioral responsiveness. Several specific genes were identified that may be important in the evolution of linkages between environmental signals and behavior. The data were also analyzed using weighted gene coexpression network analysis, followed by gene ontology analysis. This revealed modules of coexpressed genes that are also enriched for specific functional annotations, such as "ribosome" (expressed more highly in juvenile brain) and "dopamine metabolic process" (expressed more highly in striatal song control nucleus area X). These results underscore the complexity of influences on neural gene expression and provide a resource for studying how these influences are integrated during natural experience. PMID:23045667

  5. Childhood bruxism: Related factors and impact on oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Castilho, Thuanny; Marinho, Marcello; Fraga, Renato Silva; Antunes, Leonardo Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess childhood bruxism relating associated factors and the bruxism's impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A case-control study was performed with 3- to 6-year-old children obtained from public preschools in Brazil. The case and control groups had 21 and 40 children, respectively. Associations between bruxism and respiratory problems (p = 0.04, OR: 0.33, CI: 0.09 to 1.14), dental wear (p < 0.01, OR: 0.01, CI: 0.00 to 0.05), malocclusion (p < 0.01, OR: 0.06, CI: 0.01 to 0.35), and dental caries (p = 0.02, OR: 0.22, CI: 0.04 to 1.04) were observed. The OHRQoL overall mean score and subscales were relatively low independent of the evaluated group (p > 0.05). The association between presence and absence of impact with bruxism or other variables showed no statistical relationship (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that childhood bruxism is related to respiratory problems, dental wear, dental caries, and malocclusion. Despite being a topic that demands special care in dentistry, bruxism does not significantly affect the OHRQoL. PMID:26388123

  6. Are good ideas enough? The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO commercialisation.

    PubMed

    Vàzquez-Salat, Núria

    2013-01-01

    In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance. PMID:24510133

  7. Fibroblast growth factor deficiencies impact anxiety-like behavior and the serotonergic system

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Leah R.; Enix, Courtney L.; Rich, Samuel C.; Magno, Jinno A.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Tsai, Pei-San

    2014-01-01

    Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) are organized in anatomically distinct subregions that form connections with specific brain structures to modulate diverse behaviors, including anxiety-like behavior. It is unclear if the functional heterogeneity of these neurons is coupled to their developmental heterogeneity, and if abnormal development of specific DR serotonergic subregions can permanently impact anxiety circuits and behavior. The goal of this study was to examine if deficiencies in different components of fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling could preferentially impact the development of specific populations of DR serotonergic neurons to alter anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. Wild-type and heterozygous male mice globally hypomorphic for Fgf8, Fgfr1, or both (Fgfr1/Fgf8) were tested in an anxiety-related behavioral battery. Both Fgf8- and Fgfr1/Fgf8-deficient mice display increased anxiety-like behavior as measured in the elevated plus-maze and the open-field tests. Immunohistochemical staining of a serotonergic marker, tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph), revealed reductions in specific populations of serotonergic neurons in the ventral, interfascicular, and ventrolateral/ventrolateral periaqueductal gray subregions of the DR in all Fgf-deficient mice, suggesting a neuroanatomical basis for increased anxiety-like behavior. Overall, this study suggests Fgf signaling selectively modulates the development of different serotonergic neuron subpopulations. Further, it suggests anxiety-like behavior may stem from developmental disruption of these neurons, and individuals with inactivating mutations in Fgf signaling genes may be predisposed to anxiety disorders. PMID:24512770

  8. Impact of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication on MLO-Y4 Sclerostin and Soluble Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    York, S L; Sethu, P; Saunders, M M

    2016-04-01

    Bone remodeling is a continual process in which old bone is resorbed by osteoclasts and new bone is formed by osteoblasts, providing a mechanism for bones' ability to adapt to changes in its mechanical environment. While the role of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in bone remodeling is well understood, the cellular regulation of bone remodeling is unclear. One theory is that osteocytes, found within bone, play an important role in controlling the bone remodeling response. Osteocytes possess gap junctions, narrow channels that extend between nearby cells and allow communication between cells via the transfer of small molecules and ions. This work investigated the potential role of gap junctional intercellular communication in bone remodeling by exposing osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells to mechanical strains and quantifying the expression of soluble factors, including sclerostin, a protein closely associated with bone remodeling. The soluble factors and sclerostin expression were further examined after inhibiting gap junctional intercellular communication to study the impact of the communication. At supraphysiologic strains, the inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication led to increases in sclerostin expression relative to cells in which communication was present, indicating that the communication may play a significant role in regulating bone remodeling. PMID:26154422

  9. Impact of the Chromatin Remodeling Factor CHD1 on Gut Microbiome Composition of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sebald, Johanna; Willi, Michaela; Schoberleitner, Ines; Krogsdam, Anne; Orth-Höller, Dorothea; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Lusser, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota of Drosophila has been studied in some detail in recent years. Environmental, developmental and host-specific genetic factors influence microbiome composition in the fly. Our previous work has indicated that intestinal bacterial load can be affected by chromatin-targeted regulatory mechanisms. Here we studied a potential role of the conserved chromatin assembly and remodeling factor CHD1 in the shaping of the gut microbiome in Drosophila melanogaster. Using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we found that Chd1 deletion mutant flies exhibit significantly reduced microbial diversity compared to rescued control strains. Specifically, although Acetobacteraceae dominated the microbiota of both Chd1 wild-type and mutant guts, Chd1 mutants were virtually monoassociated with this bacterial family, whereas in control flies other bacterial taxa constituted ~20% of the microbiome. We further show age-linked differences in microbial load and microbiota composition between Chd1 mutant and control flies. Finally, diet supplementation experiments with Lactobacillus plantarum revealed that, in contrast to wild-type flies, Chd1 mutant flies were unable to maintain higher L. plantarum titres over time. Collectively, these data provide evidence that loss of the chromatin remodeler CHD1 has a major impact on the gut microbiome of Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:27093431

  10. SPAD-based leaf nitrogen estimation is impacted by environmental factors and crop leaf characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Dongliang; Chen, Jia; Yu, Tingting; Gao, Wanlin; Ling, Xiaoxia; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll meters are widely used to guide nitrogen (N) management by monitoring leaf N status in agricultural systems, but the effects of environmental factors and leaf characteristics on leaf N estimations are still unclear. In the present study, we estimated the relationships among SPAD readings, chlorophyll content and leaf N content per leaf area for seven species grown in multiple environments. There were similar relationships between SPAD readings and chlorophyll content per leaf area for the species groups, but the relationship between chlorophyll content and leaf N content per leaf area, and the relationship between SPAD readings and leaf N content per leaf area varied widely among the species groups. A significant impact of light-dependent chloroplast movement on SPAD readings was observed under low leaf N supplementation in both rice and soybean but not under high N supplementation. Furthermore, the allocation of leaf N to chlorophyll was strongly influenced by short-term changes in growth light. We demonstrate that the relationship between SPAD readings and leaf N content per leaf area is profoundly affected by environmental factors and leaf features of crop species, which should be accounted for when using a chlorophyll meter to guide N management in agricultural systems. PMID:26303807

  11. Impacts of N-Butylphthalide on expression of growth factors in rats with focal cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Sun, Leyu; Xuan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of n-butylphthalide (NBP) on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in rats with focal cerebral ischemia. The thread embolization method was used to prepare the rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR). The animals were divided into a sham operation group, a model control group and NBP treatment group. The NBP group was orally administered 25 mg/kg NBP twice a day after the surgery. The immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were performed to observe the protein and mRNA expressions of VEGF and TGF-β 16 hours, 1 day and 2 days after inducing CIR. The mRNA and protein expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 in the model control group and the NBP treatment group were all increased after CIR, and those of the NBP treatment group at each post-CIR time point were higher than the model control group (p < 0.01). After CIR, the expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 increased, suggesting that VEGF and TGF-β1 exhibited protective effects towards the ischemic brain injuries, and that NBP could upregulate the expressions of VEGF and TGF-β1 in the peri-infarcted area, thus possibly protecting the ischemic brain tissues through this mechanism. PMID:26773175

  12. The impact of vascular factors on language localization in the superior temporal sulcus

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    The left superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been shown in numerous functional imaging studies to be a critical region for language processing, as it is reliably activated when language comprehension is compared to acoustically matched control conditions. Studies in non-human primates have demonstrated several subdivisions in the STS, yet the precise region(s) within the STS that are important for language remain unclear, in large part because the presence of draining veins in the sulcus makes it difficult to determine whether neural activity is localized to the dorsal or ventral bank of the sulcus. We used functional MRI to localize language regions, and then acquired several additional sequences in order to account for the impact of vascular factors. A breath-holding task was used to induce hypercapnia in order to normalize voxel-wise differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responsivity, and veins were identified on susceptibility-weighted and T2*-weighted BOLD images, and masked out. We found that the precise locations of language areas in individual participants were strongly influenced by vascular factors, but that these vascular effects could be ameliorated by hypercapnic normalization and vein masking. After these corrections were applied, the majority of regions activated by language processing were localized to the dorsal bank of the STS. PMID:24452906

  13. Adsorption of cadmium by biochar derived from municipal sewage sludge: Impact factors and adsorption mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tan; Zhou, Zeyu; Han, Rong; Meng, Ruihong; Wang, Hongtao; Lu, Wenjing

    2015-09-01

    Static equilibrium experiments were carried out to investigate the impact factors and the mechanism of cadmium adsorption on biochar derived from municipal sewage sludge. An appropriate dosage of biochar is sufficient; in the experiment, 0.2% is the optimal dosage for the largest removal capacity, while the removal capacity of biochar reduces with the increasing dosage. pH is another dominant factor of the adsorption process. The removal capacity of biochar is lower than 20 mg·g(-1) when the solution initial pH is lower than 2 pH units, comparatively retaining more than 40 mg·g(-1) at the solution initial pH higher than 3 pH units. Temperature has weak influence on the adsorptive performance. The main mechanism of the adsorption process of biochar for cadmium mainly involves (1) surface precipitation by forming insoluble cadmium compounds in alkaline condition, and (2) ion exchange for cadmium with exchangeable cations in the biochar, such as calcium ions. PMID:25966459

  14. Impact of the Chromatin Remodeling Factor CHD1 on Gut Microbiome Composition of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Krogsdam, Anne; Orth-Höller, Dorothea; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Lusser, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota of Drosophila has been studied in some detail in recent years. Environmental, developmental and host-specific genetic factors influence microbiome composition in the fly. Our previous work has indicated that intestinal bacterial load can be affected by chromatin-targeted regulatory mechanisms. Here we studied a potential role of the conserved chromatin assembly and remodeling factor CHD1 in the shaping of the gut microbiome in Drosophila melanogaster. Using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we found that Chd1 deletion mutant flies exhibit significantly reduced microbial diversity compared to rescued control strains. Specifically, although Acetobacteraceae dominated the microbiota of both Chd1 wild-type and mutant guts, Chd1 mutants were virtually monoassociated with this bacterial family, whereas in control flies other bacterial taxa constituted ~20% of the microbiome. We further show age-linked differences in microbial load and microbiota composition between Chd1 mutant and control flies. Finally, diet supplementation experiments with Lactobacillus plantarum revealed that, in contrast to wild-type flies, Chd1 mutant flies were unable to maintain higher L. plantarum titres over time. Collectively, these data provide evidence that loss of the chromatin remodeler CHD1 has a major impact on the gut microbiome of Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:27093431

  15. Impacts of Lithological and Anthropogenic Factors Affecting Water Chemistry in the Upper Paraguay River Basin.

    PubMed

    Rezende-Filho, Ary T; Valles, Vincent; Furian, Sônia; Oliveira, Célia M S C; Ouardi, Jamila; Barbiero, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Located in the Upper Paraguay River Basin (UPRB), the Pantanal is considered the world's largest wetland, being rather pristine although increasingly threatened by development programs. The main objective of this paper is to provide a baseline of water chemistry for this region, which is largely unknown as a result of poor accessibility. We used two datasets (70 and 122 water samples) collected in the Pantanal floodplain and surrounding uplands during the wet season occurring from November to March. From the major-ion mineral chemistry, dissolved silica, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and the ionic forms of N, principal components analysis (PCA) treatments were used to identify and rank the main factors of variability and decipher the associated processes affecting the water chemistry. The results revealed that the water mineral concentration was a major factor of variability and it must be attributed first to lithology and second to agricultural inputs from extensive crop cultivation areas that mainly affects sulfate (SO) concentration on the eastern edge of the Pantanal. These processes influence the floodplain, where (i) the mixing of waters remains the main process, (ii) the weight of the biological and redox processes increased, and (iii) the chemical signature of the extensive cropping is transferred along the São Lourenço Basin down to its confluence with the Cuiaba River. Optimized parameters based on projections in the main factorial score plots were used for the mapping of lithological and agricultural impacts on water chemistry. PMID:26641335

  16. Phylogenetic and ecological factors impact the gut microbiota of two Neotropical primate species.

    PubMed

    Amato, Katherine R; Martinez-Mota, Rodolfo; Righini, Nicoletta; Raguet-Schofield, Melissa; Corcione, Fabiana Paola; Marini, Elisabetta; Humphrey, Greg; Gogul, Grant; Gaffney, James; Lovelace, Elijah; Williams, LaShanda; Luong, Albert; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Stumpf, Rebecca M; White, Bryan; Nelson, Karen E; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that variation in diet across time and space results in changes in the mammalian gut microbiota. This variation may ultimately impact host ecology by altering nutritional status and health. Wild animal populations provide an excellent opportunity for understanding these interactions. However, compared to clinical studies, microbial research targeting wild animals is currently limited, and many published studies focus only on a single population of a single host species. In this study we utilize fecal samples from two species of howler monkey (Alouatta pigra and A. palliata) collected at four sites to investigate factors influencing the gut microbiota at three scales: taxonomic (host species), ecosystemic (forest type), and local (habitat disturbance/season). The results demonstrate that the effect of host species on the gut microbiota is stronger than the effect of host forest type, which is stronger than the effect of habitat disturbance or seasonality. Nevertheless, within host species, gut microbiota composition differs in response to forest type, habitat disturbance, and season. Variations in the effect size of these factors are associated both with host species and environment. This information may be beneficial for understanding ecological and evolutionary questions associated with Mesoamerican howler monkeys, as well as determining conservation challenges facing each species. These mechanisms may also provide insight into the ecology of other species of howler monkeys, non-human primates, and mammals. PMID:26597549

  17. Extraction of impacted third molars. A longitudinal prospective study on factors that affect postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Capuzzi, P; Montebugnoli, L; Vaccaro, M A

    1994-04-01

    A longitudinal prospective trial was carried out on 146 patients to evaluate which factors can have an effect on postoperative recovery after extraction of impacted third molars or wisdom teeth. The following factors were considered: (1) age, (2) sex, (3) smoking habits, (4) use of the birth control pill, (5) previous history of pericoronitis, (6) degree of difficulty of the extraction, (7) expertise of the surgeon, (8) length of surgery, and (9) antibiotic prophylaxis. The following results were obtained and statistically significant differences were noted with respect to the pain in the context of (1) sex-males noted more pain on the 1st and 3rd days (p < 0.05) compared with females; (2) expertise of the surgeon--patients treated by surgeons with considerable or average expertise reported less pain on the first and third days (p < 0.05) compared with patients treated by surgeons with little expertise; and (3) age--a direct correlation was noted between age and pain (p < 0.05). PMID:8015796

  18. The global impact factors of net primary production in different land cover types from 2005 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bo; Chen, Fang

    2016-01-01

    With the seriously polluted environment due to social development, the sustainability of net primary production (NPP), which is used to feed most lives on the earth, has become one of the biggest concerns that we have to consider for the sake of food shortage. There have been many researches analyzing one or two potential impact factors of NPP based on field observation data, which brings about many uncertainties for further calculation. Moreover, the frequently used process-based models heavily depend on the understandings of researchers about the NPP process. The premises of such models hinder the impact factor analysis from being objective and confident. To overcome such shortages, we collected 27 potential impact factors of global NPP in terms of eight land cover types. The feature variables include atmosphere, biosphere, anthroposphere and lithosphere parameters, which can be obtained from public available remote sensed products. The experiment shows that latitude, irradiance ultraviolet and normalized difference vegetation index are dominant factors impacting global NPP. Anthropogenic activities, precipitation and surface emissivity are influencing NPP calculation largely. However, some commonly used biosphere parameters in process-based models are actually not playing that important roles in NPP estimation. This work provides a new insight in analyzing NPP impact factors, being more objective and comprehensive compared with frequently used process-based models. PMID:27536518

  19. Impact of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Graft Outcome Disparities in Black Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Taber, David J; Hunt, Kelly J; Fominaya, Cory E; Payne, Elizabeth H; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Srinivas, Titte R; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-09-01

    Although outcome inequalities for non-Hispanic black (NHB) kidney transplant recipients are well documented, there is paucity in data assessing the impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on this disparity in kidney transplantation. This was a longitudinal study of a national cohort of veteran kidney recipients transplanted between January 2001 and December 2007. Data included baseline characteristics acquired through the United States Renal Data System linked to detailed clinical follow-up information acquired through the Veterans Affairs electronic health records. Analyses were conducted using sequential multivariable modeling (Cox regression), incorporating blocks of variables into iterative nested models; 3139 patients were included (2095 non-Hispanic whites [66.7%] and 1044 NHBs [33.3%]). NHBs had a higher prevalence of hypertension (100% versus 99%; P<0.01) and post-transplant diabetes mellitus (59% versus 53%; P<0.01) with reduced control of hypertension (blood pressure <140/90 60% versus 69%; P<0.01), diabetes mellitus (A1c <7%, 35% versus 47%; P<0.01), and low-density lipoprotein (<100 mg/dL, 55% versus 61%; P<0.01). Adherence to medications used to manage CVD risk was significantly lower in NHBs. In the fully adjusted models, the independent risk of graft loss in NHBs was substantially reduced (unadjusted hazard ratio, 2.00 versus adjusted hazard ratio, 1.49). CVD risk factors and control reduced the influence of NHB race by 9% to 18%. Similar trends were noted for mortality, and estimates were robust across in sensitivity analyses. These results demonstrate that NHB kidney transplant recipients have significantly higher rates of CVD risk factors and reduced CVD risk control. These issues are likely partly related to medication nonadherence and meaningfully contribute to racial disparities for graft outcomes. PMID:27402921

  20. Risk Factors and Clinical Impact of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase–Producing K. pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Gasink, Leanne B.; Edelstein, Paul H.; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Synnestvedt, Marie; Fishman, Neil O.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing K. pneumoniae is an emerging pathogen with serious clinical and infection control implications. To our knowledge, no study has specifically examined risk factors for KPC-producing K. pneumoniae or its impact on mortality. METHODS To identify risk factors for infection or colonization with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae, a case-control study was performed. Case patients with KPC-producing K. pneumoniae were compared with control subjects with carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae. A cohort study evaluated the association between KPC-producing K. pneumoniae and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS Fifty-six case patients and 863 control subjects were identified. In multivariable analysis, independent risk factors for KPC-producing K. pneumoniae were (1) severe illness (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.25–8.25), (2) prior fluoroquinolone use (AOR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.50, 7.66), and (3) prior extended-spectrum cephalosporin use (AOR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.18, 5.52). Compared with samples from other anatomic locations, K. pneumoniae isolates from blood samples were less likely to harbor KPC (AOR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.12, 0.86). KPC-producing K. pneumoniae was independently associated with in-hospital mortality (AOR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.87–6.91). CONCLUSIONS KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is an emerging pathogen associated with significant mortality. Our findings highlight the urgent need to develop strategies for prevention and infection control. Limiting use of certain antimicrobials, specifically fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins, use may be effective strategies. PMID:19860564

  1. Discriminating impacts of geomorphological and human factors on vineyard soil erosion (Burgundy, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevigny, Emmanuel; Quiquerez, Amélie; Petit, Christophe; Curmi, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The Burgundy vineyards have been recognized for the high diversity of Terroirs, controlled by complex interactions between natural features, historical parameters and soil management practices. Vineyards are known to undergo substantial soil loss in comparison with other types of agricultural land. Hydric erosion on vineyards is controlled by complex interactions of natural and anthropogenic factors leading to intra-plot spatial heterogeneities of topsoil at a scale of a metre. Studying the relationship between soils and their degradation is crucial in this situation where soil sustainability is threatened. This study explores the relative influences of historical and present-day anthropogenic factors and geomorphological processes controlling soil erosion on vineyard hillslopes. The selected area was located in the Monthelie vineyard (Côte de Beaune, France) where intensive erosion occurred during high-intensity rainfall events. Soil erosion quantification was performed at a square-metre scale using dendrogeomorphology. This method is based on the measurement of the unearthing of the stock located on the vine plants, considered as a passive marker of soil-surface vertical displacement since the year of plantation. The obtained maps, together with various complementary datasets, such as geological and geomorphological data, but also historical documents (cadastral plans, cadastral matrices and old aerial photographs) allow landscape evolution to be assessed. The combination of all these data shows that spatial distribution and intensity of erosion are controlled mainly by lithology and slope value. However, our study highlights that the sediment dynamics in this vineyard plot is highly related to historical former plot limits and present-day management practices. Nonetheless, quantification of sediment dynamic for the last decade reveals that the impacts of historical structures are disappearing gradually, in response to present-day management practices and

  2. Functional impacts of the diversity of the meningococcal factor H binding protein.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eva; Giorgini, Dario; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2012-12-17

    Neisseria meningitidis is a human pathogenic bacterium responsible for life threatening and rapidly evolving invasive infections. Several bacterial virulence factors may play primordial roles during host-bacteria interactions. The meningococcal factor H binding protein, fHbp, interacts with the complement negative regulator, factor H (fH), to enhance meningococcal survival. fHbp is a major component in recombinant vaccines against meningococci that are under development. In 2010, we detected variations in fhbp gene during an outbreak provoked by serogroup C isolates belonging to the clonal complex, ST-11. We therefore explored 680 meningococcal isolates (88% of all invasive isolates in 2009 and 2010) by DNA sequencing of fhbp gene. The level of fHbp at the bacterial surface was determined by ELISA and flow cytometry using anti-fHbp antibodies. We also analyzed the interaction of fHbp with human fH as well as the deposition of C3b complement component. We observed important sequence diversity of fHbp in particular within regions known to interact with fH. The distribution of fhbp alleles differed among meningococcal serogroups and clonal complexes. This diversity affected directly binding of fH to fHbp and seemed to influence the deposition of the complement C3b component on the bacterial surface. However, bacterial killing by anti-fHbp antibodies was still achieved and required a minimum level of fHbp at the bacterial surface regardless the binding to fH or sequence diversity. These data have impacts on our understanding of the role of fHbp in meningococcal pathogenesis. They also provide data on the diversity of fhbp before the introduction of vaccines targeting fHbp and stress the need to include characterization of fHbp in typing schemes of meningococcal isolates. PMID:23123023

  3. Overall impact of speed-related initiatives and factors on crash outcomes.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, A; Newstead, S; Cameron, M

    2007-01-01

    From December 2000 until July 2002 a package of speed-related initiatives and factors took place in Victoria, Australia. The broad aim of this study was to evaluate the overall impact of the package on crash outcomes. Monthly crash counts and injury severity proportions were assessed using Poisson and logistic regression models respectively. The model measured the overall effect of the package after adjusting as far as possible for non-speed road safety initiatives and socio-economic factors. The speed-related package was associated with statistically significant estimated reductions in casualty crashes and suggested reductions in injury severity with trends towards increased reductions over time. From December 2000 until July 2002, three new speed enforcement initiatives were implemented in Victoria, Australia. These initiatives were introduced in stages and involved the following key components: More covert operations of mobile speed cameras, including flash-less operations; 50% increase in speed camera operating hours; and lowering of cameras' speed detection threshold. In addition, during the period 2001 to 2002, the 50 km/h General Urban Speed Limit (GUSL) was introduced (January 2001), there was an increase in speed-related advertising including the "Wipe Off 5" campaign, media announcements were made related to the above enforcement initiatives and there was a speeding penalty restructure. The above elements combine to make up a package of speed-related initiatives and factors. The package represents a broad, long term program by Victorian government agencies to reduce speed based on three linked strategies: more intensive Police enforcement of speed limits to deter potential offenders, i.e. the three new speed enforcement initiatives just described - supported by higher penalties; a reduction in the speed limit on local streets throughout Victoria from 60 km/h to 50 km/h; and provision of information using the mass media (television, radio and billboard) to

  4. Risk factors associated with impact severity of cyberbullying victimization: a qualitative study of adolescent online social networking.

    PubMed

    Dredge, Rebecca; Gleeson, John F M; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl

    2014-05-01

    Cyberbullying victimization is associated with a range of emotional and behavioral outcomes for adolescents. However, previous research has shown that this type of victimization does not affect all individuals negatively. The factors that account for individual differences in reactions to the same online experiences are not well understood. Using a qualitative inductive approach, a set of strong themes relating to factors that either increased the severity of impact of cyberbullying victimization or buffered victims against the impact emerged from interviews with 25 adolescents aged 15-24 years. Themes related to publicity, anonymity of perpetrators, features of the medium, presence of bystanders, and individual level factors were identified as potential influences upon impact severity. The implications of these results for further research and for school/university cyberbullying prevention programs for victims, perpetrators, and bystanders are discussed. PMID:24611734

  5. Impact factor for gluon production in multi-Regge kinematics in the next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, M. G. Reznichenko, A. V. Fadin, V. S.

    2012-07-15

    The one-loop correction to the impact factor for gluon production upon the transition of a one-Reggeon state in the t channel to a two-Reggeon state is found. This impact factor is an element of multiparticle amplitudes in multi-Regge kinematics. The correction in question is necessary for developing the theory of Regge and multi-Regge processes. In particular, it is necessary for proving the multi-Regge form of the amplitude in the next-to-leading-logarithm approximation. This correction also makes it possible to complete the verification of the last of the unproven bootstrap conditions for gluon Reggeization and to prove, in this approximation, the validity of the multi-Regge form of the amplitude. All necessary calculations are presented, and an explicit expression for the impact factor in front of all possible color states in the t channel is given.

  6. Identification of Variables and Factors Impacting Consumer Behavior in On-line Shopping in India: An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhikara, Sudesh

    On-line shopping is a recent phenomenon in the field of E-Business and is definitely going to be the future of shopping in the world. Most of the companies are running their on-line portals to sell their products/services. Though online shopping is very common outside India, its growth in Indian Market, which is a large and strategic consumer market, is still not in line with the global market. The potential growth of on-line shopping has triggered the idea of conducting a study on on-line shopping in India. The present research paper has used exploratory study to depict and highlight the various categories of factors and variables impacting the behavior of consumers towards on-line shopping in India. The data was collected through in-depth interviews on a sample of 41 respondents from Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Bangalore. The results of the study show that on-line shopping in India is basically impacted by five categories of factors like demographics factor, Psychographics factor, Online shopping feature and policies, Technological factor, Security factor. The results of the study are used to present a comprehensive model of on-line shopping which could be further used by the researchers and practitioners for conducting future studies in the similar area. A brief operational definition of all the factors and variables impacting on-line shopping in India is also described. And finally practical implications of the study are also elucidated.

  7. Identification of High-Impact cis-Regulatory Mutations Using Transcription Factor Specific Random Forest Models

    PubMed Central

    Svetlichnyy, Dmitry; Imrichova, Hana; Fiers, Mark; Kalender Atak, Zeynep; Aerts, Stein

    2015-01-01

    Cancer genomes contain vast amounts of somatic mutations, many of which are passenger mutations not involved in oncogenesis. Whereas driver mutations in protein-coding genes can be distinguished from passenger mutations based on their recurrence, non-coding mutations are usually not recurrent at the same position. Therefore, it is still unclear how to identify cis-regulatory driver mutations, particularly when chromatin data from the same patient is not available, thus relying only on sequence and expression information. Here we use machine-learning methods to predict functional regulatory regions using sequence information alone, and compare the predicted activity of the mutated region with the reference sequence. This way we define the Predicted Regulatory Impact of a Mutation in an Enhancer (PRIME). We find that the recently identified driver mutation in the TAL1 enhancer has a high PRIME score, representing a “gain-of-target” for MYB, whereas the highly recurrent TERT promoter mutation has a surprisingly low PRIME score. We trained Random Forest models for 45 cancer-related transcription factors, and used these to score variations in the HeLa genome and somatic mutations across more than five hundred cancer genomes. Each model predicts only a small fraction of non-coding mutations with a potential impact on the function of the encompassing regulatory region. Nevertheless, as these few candidate driver mutations are often linked to gains in chromatin activity and gene expression, they may contribute to the oncogenic program by altering the expression levels of specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. PMID:26562774

  8. Identification of High-Impact cis-Regulatory Mutations Using Transcription Factor Specific Random Forest Models.

    PubMed

    Svetlichnyy, Dmitry; Imrichova, Hana; Fiers, Mark; Kalender Atak, Zeynep; Aerts, Stein

    2015-11-01

    Cancer genomes contain vast amounts of somatic mutations, many of which are passenger mutations not involved in oncogenesis. Whereas driver mutations in protein-coding genes can be distinguished from passenger mutations based on their recurrence, non-coding mutations are usually not recurrent at the same position. Therefore, it is still unclear how to identify cis-regulatory driver mutations, particularly when chromatin data from the same patient is not available, thus relying only on sequence and expression information. Here we use machine-learning methods to predict functional regulatory regions using sequence information alone, and compare the predicted activity of the mutated region with the reference sequence. This way we define the Predicted Regulatory Impact of a Mutation in an Enhancer (PRIME). We find that the recently identified driver mutation in the TAL1 enhancer has a high PRIME score, representing a "gain-of-target" for MYB, whereas the highly recurrent TERT promoter mutation has a surprisingly low PRIME score. We trained Random Forest models for 45 cancer-related transcription factors, and used these to score variations in the HeLa genome and somatic mutations across more than five hundred cancer genomes. Each model predicts only a small fraction of non-coding mutations with a potential impact on the function of the encompassing regulatory region. Nevertheless, as these few candidate driver mutations are often linked to gains in chromatin activity and gene expression, they may contribute to the oncogenic program by altering the expression levels of specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. PMID:26562774

  9. Reduced impact of nodal metastases as a prognostic factor for tonsil cancer in the HPV era.

    PubMed

    Vila, Peter M; Stucken, Chaz L; Morris, Luc G T; Posner, Marshall R; Genden, Eric M; Boffetta, Paolo; Sikora, Andrew G

    2014-09-01

    Metastatic lymph nodes (LN) are an adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nodal metastases have reduced impact on survival in tonsil cancer in the HPV-predominant era. Incidence and mortality data of tonsil and oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2007 were obtained from the SEER database. Based on published literature, we considered cases of tonsil cancer from 1988 to 1997 as the pre-HPV cohort (N = 752), and 1998-2007 as the HPV-predominant cohort (N = 2,755). Comparing the two cohorts, Kaplan-Meier 5-year overall survival (OS) for tonsil SCC improved from 54.0 to 74.3 % (p < 0.0001), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) improved from 66.0 to 82.9 % (p < 0.0001). Stratifying by LN involvement showed improved OS in the HPV-predominant cohort with one (63.6 vs. 79.7 %, p < 0.0001), two to three (54.2 vs. 75.9 %, p < 0.0001), four to eight (40.3 vs. 68.9 %, p < 0.0001), and greater than eight positive nodes (25.5 vs. 41.9 %, p < 0.0001). While metastatic LNs still negatively affect prognosis, their impact on OPC survival has diminished in the HPV-predominant era. This finding provides a rationale for additional studies of the prognostic significance of LN metastases in OPC cohorts of defined HPV status, and supports the concept that HPV-related OPC is a disease distinct from "classical" OPC, with unique prognostic features. PMID:24190760

  10. Reduced Impact of Nodal Metastases as a Prognostic Factor for Tonsil Cancer in the HPV Era

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Peter M.; Stucken, Chaz L.; Morris, Luc G.T.; Posner, Marshall R.; Genden, Eric M.; Boffetta, Paolo; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Metastatic lymph nodes (LN) are an adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nodal metastases have reduced impact on survival in tonsil cancer in the HPV-predominant era. Methods Incidence and mortality data of tonsil and oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2007 was obtained from the SEER database. Based on published literature, we considered cases of tonsil cancer from 1988–1997 the pre-HPV cohort (N=752), and 1998–2007 as the HPV-predominant cohort (N=2,755). Results Comparing the two cohorts, Kaplan-Meier five-year overall survival (OS) for tonsil SCC improved from 54.0% to 74.3% (p<0.0001), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) improved from 66.0 to 82.9% (p<0.0001). Stratifying by LN involvement showed improved OS in the HPV-predominant cohort with one (63.6 vs. 79.7%, p<0.0001), two to three (54.2 vs. 75.9%, P<0.0001), four to eight (40.3 vs. 68.9%, p<0.0001), and greater than eight positive nodes (25.5 vs. 41.9%, p<0.0001). Conclusion While metastatic LNs still negatively affect prognosis, their impact on OPC survival has diminished in the HPV-predominant era. This finding provides a rationale for additional studies of the prognostic significance of LN metastases in OPC cohorts of defined HPV status, and supports the concept that HPV-related OPC is a disease distinct from “classical” OPC, with unique prognostic features. PMID:24190760