Science.gov

Sample records for impactor measurement aim

  1. Aerosol sampling: Comparison of two rotating impactors for field droplet sizing and volumetric measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper compares the collection characteristics of a new rotating impactor for ultra fine aerosols (FLB) with the industry standard (Hock). The volume and droplet size distribution collected by the rotating impactors were measured via spectroscopy and microscopy. The rotary impactors were co-lo...

  2. Simultaneous Red - Blue Lidar and Airborne Impactor Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormick, M. P.; Blifford, I. H.; Fuller, W. H.; Grams, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Simultaneous two-color (0.6943 micrometers and 0.3472 micrometers) LIDAR measurements were made in the troposphere and lower stratosphere over Boulder, Colorado during March 1973. In addition, on the evening of March 26, airborne single-stage impactor measurements were made at four altitudes-- 10,500, 25,000, 33,000 and 43,000 feet MSL. These data were integrated at constant altitude for 15,45, 45, and 60 minutes respectively. The LIDAR data were taken with Langley's 48" LIDAR using a dichroic beamsplitter to separate the return at 0.6943 micrometers and 0.3472 micrometers. The analog waveforms for both colors were digitized simultaneously; one on an NCAR data acquisition system and the other on the 48" Langley data acquisition system. A discussion of the preliminary results from these measurements will be presented.

  3. Virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Chen, Bean T.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Newton, George J.

    1988-08-30

    A virtual impactor having improved efficiency and low wall losses in which a core of clean air is inserted into the aerosol flow while aerosol flow is maintained adjacent inner wall surfaces of the focusing portion of the impactor. The flow rate of the core and the length of the throat of the impactor's collection probe, as well as the dimensional relationships of other components of the impactor adjacent the separation region of the impactor, are selected to optimize separation efficiency.

  4. Measurements of size-segregated emission particles by a sampling system based on the cascade impactor

    SciTech Connect

    Janja Tursic; Irena Grgic; Axel Berner; Jaroslav Skantar; Igor Cuhalev

    2008-02-01

    A special sampling system for measurements of size-segregated particles directly at the source of emission was designed and constructed. The central part of this system is a low-pressure cascade impactor with 10 collection stages for the size ranges between 15 nm and 16 {mu}m. Its capability and suitability was proven by sampling particles at the stack (100{sup o}C) of a coal-fired power station in Slovenia. These measurements showed very reasonable results in comparison with a commercial cascade impactor for PM10 and PM2.5 and with a plane device for total suspended particulate matter (TSP). The best agreement with the measurements made by a commercial impactor was found for concentrations of TSP above 10 mg m{sup -3}, i.e., the average PM2.5/PM10 ratios obtained by a commercial impactor and by our impactor were 0.78 and 0.80, respectively. Analysis of selected elements in size-segregated emission particles additionally confirmed the suitability of our system. The measurements showed that the mass size distributions were generally bimodal, with the most pronounced mass peak in the 1-2 {mu}m size range. The first results of elemental mass size distributions showed some distinctive differences in comparison to the most common ambient anthropogenic sources (i.e., traffic emissions). For example, trace elements, like Pb, Cd, As, and V, typically related to traffic emissions, are usually more abundant in particles less than 1 {mu}m in size, whereas in our specific case they were found at about 2 {mu}m. Thus, these mass size distributions can be used as a signature of this source. Simultaneous measurements of size-segregated particles at the source and in the surrounding environment can therefore significantly increase the sensitivity of the contribution of a specific source to the actual ambient concentrations. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Effect of tubing deposition, breathing pattern, and temperature on aerosol mass distribution measured by cascade impactor.

    PubMed

    Gurses, Burak K; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2003-01-01

    Aerosols produced by nebulizers are often characterized on the bench using cascade impactors. We studied the effects of connecting tubing, breathing pattern, and temperature on mass-weighted aerodynamic particle size aerosol distributions (APSD) measured by cascade impaction. Our experimental setup consisted of a piston ventilator, low-flow (1.0 L/min) cascade impactor, two commercially available nebulizers that produced large and small particles, and two "T"-shaped tubes called "Tconnector(cascade)" and "Tconnector(nebulizer)" placed above the impactor and the nebulizer, respectively. Radiolabeled normal saline was nebulized using an airtank at 50 PSIG; APSD, mass balance, and Tconnector(cascade) deposition were measured with a gamma camera and radioisotope calibrator. Flow through the circuit was defined by the air tank (standing cloud, 10 L/min) with or without a piston pump, which superimposed a sinusoidal flow on the flow from the air tank (tidal volume and frequency of breathing). Experiments were performed at room temperature and in a cooled environment. With increasing tidal volume and frequency, smaller particles entered the cascade impactor (decreasing MMAD; e.g., Misty-Neb, 4.2 +/- 0.9 microm at lowest ventilation and 2.7 +/- 0.1 microm at highest, p = 0.042). These effects were reduced in magnitude for the nebulizer that produced smaller particles (AeroTech II, MMAD 1.8 +/- 0.1 to 1.3 +/- 0.1 microm; p = 0.0044). Deposition on Tconnector(cascade) increased with ventilation but was independent of cascade impactor flow. Imaging of the Tconnector(cascade) revealed a pattern of deposition unaffected by cascade impactor flow. These measurements suggest that changes in MMAD with ventilation were not artifacts of tubing deposition in the Tconnector(cascade). At lower temperatures, APSD distributions were more polydisperse. Our data suggest that, during patient inhalation, changes in particle distribution occur that are related to conditions in the tubing and

  6. Virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Chen, B.T.; Cheng, Y.S.; Newton, G.J.

    1988-08-30

    A virtual impactor is described having improved efficiency and low wall losses in which a core of clean air is inserted into the aerosol flow while aerosol flow is maintained adjacent to the inner wall surfaces of the focusing portion of the impactor. The flow rate of the core and the length of the throat of the impactor's collection probe, as well as the dimensional relationships of other components of the impactor adjacent the separation region of the impactor, are selected to optimize separation efficiency. 4 figs.

  7. EVALUATION OF THE CMAQ - AIM MODEL AGAINST SIZE AND CHEMICALLY-RESOLVED IMPACTOR DATA AT A COASTAL URBAN SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    CMAQ-UCD (formerly known as CMAQ-AIM), is a fully dynamic, sectional aerosol model which has been coupled to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) host air quality model. Aerosol sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, sodium, and chloride model outputs are compared against MOUDI data...

  8. Satellite and correlative measurements of the stratospheric aerosol. III - Comparison of measurements by SAM II, SAGE, dustsondes, filters, impactors and lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Swissler, T. J.; Rosen, J. M.; Hofmann, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    The SAM II and SAGE satellite sensors, dustsondes, impactors, a filter collector and an airborne lidar were used in a large satellite validation experiment on July 16-19, 1979, at Poker Flat, Alaska. Independent measurements of extinction profiles by SAM II and SAGE are noted to agree with each other and with those derived from the other instruments (within combined uncertainties). The wire impactor-derived results, while also consistent with the others, are coarse due to the relatively large uncertainties in impactor-derived mass, extinction, and number of particles/unit volume whose radius is greater than x microns.

  9. Adaptation of a Cascade Impactor to Flight Measurement of Droplet Size in Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joseph; Kleinknecht, Kenneth S.

    1951-01-01

    A cascade impactor, an instrument for obtaining: the size distribution of droplets borne in a low-velocity air stream, was adapted for flight cloud droplet-size studies. The air containing the droplets was slowed down from flight speed by a diffuser to the inlet-air velocity of the impactor. The droplets that enter the impactor impinge on four slides coated with magnesium oxide. Each slide catches a different size range. The relation between the size of droplet impressions and the droplet size was evaluated so that the droplet-size distributions may be found from these slides. The magnesium oxide coating provides a permanent record. of the droplet impression that is not affected by droplet evaporation after the. droplets have impinged.

  10. Comparison among filter-based, impactor-based and continuous techniques for measuring atmospheric fine sulfate and nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wei; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiaomei; Pathak, Ravi Kant; Wang, Xinfeng; Gao, Rui; Zhang, Qingzhu; Yang, Lingxiao; Wang, Wenxing

    2010-11-01

    Filter-based methods for sampling aerosols are subject to great uncertainty if the gas-particle interactions on filter substrates are not properly handled. Sampling artifacts depend on both meteorological conditions and the chemical mix of the atmosphere. Despite numerous of studies on the subject, very few have evaluated filter-based methods in the Asian environments. This paper reports the results of a comparison of the performances of two filter-based samplers, including a Thermo Anderson Chemical Speciation Monitor (RAAS) and a honeycomb denuder filter-pack system, a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) and a real-time ambient ion monitor (AIM, URG9000B) in measuring atmospheric concentrations of PM 2.5 sulfate and nitrate. Field studies were conducted at an urban site in Jinan, Shandong province, during the winter of 2007 and at a rural site near Beijing in the summer of 2008. The AIM was first compared with the honeycomb denuder filter-pack system which was considered to have minimal sampling artifacts. After some modifications made to it, the AIM showed good performance for both sulfate and nitrate measurement at the two sites and was then used to evaluate other instruments. For the un-denuded RAAS, the extent of sampling artifacts for nitrate on quartz filters was negligible, while that on Teflon filters was also minimal at high nitrate concentrations (>10 μgm -3); however, loss through evaporation was significant (˜75%) at low nitrate concentrations under hot summer conditions. The MOUDI using aluminum substrates suffered a significant loss of nitrate (50-70%) under summer conditions due to evaporation. Considering that the aluminum substrates are still being widely used to obtain size-resolved aerosol compositions because of their low cost and accurate mass weighed, caution should be taken about the potential significant under determination of semi-volatile components such as ammonium nitrate.

  11. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  12. Measuring Sub-micron Size Fractionated Particulate Matter on Aluminum Impactor Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Zermeno, P; Hwang, H; Young, T M

    2009-07-28

    Sub-micron sized airborne particulate matter is not collected well on regular quartz or glass fiber filter papers. We used a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) to size fractionate particulate matter (PM) into six size fractions and deposit it on specially designed high purity thin aluminum disks. The MOUDI separated PM into fractions 56-100 nm, 100-180 nm, 180-320 nm, 320-560 nm, 560-1000 nm, and 1000-1800 nm. Since MOUDI have low flow rates, it takes several days to collect sufficient carbon on 47 mm foil disks. The small carbon mass (20-200 microgram C) and large aluminum substrate ({approx}25 mg Al) presents several challenges to production of graphite targets for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis. The Al foil consumes large amounts of oxygen as it is heated and tends to melt into quartz combustion tubes, causing gas leaks. We describe sample processing techniques to reliably produce graphitic targets for {sup 14}C-AMS analysis of PM deposited on Al impact foils.

  13. Measuring Submicron-Sized Fractionated Particulate Matter on Aluminum Impactor Disks

    PubMed Central

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Zermeño, Paula; Hwang, Hyun-Min; Young, Thomas M.; Guilderson, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-micron sized airborne particulate matter (PM) is not collected well on regular quartz or glass fiber filter papers. We used a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) to fractionate PM into six size fractions and deposit it on specially designed high purity thin aluminum disks. The MOUDI separated PM into fractions 56–100 nm, 100–180 nm, 180–320 nm, 320–560 nm, 560–1000 nm, and 1000–1800 nm. Since the MOUDI has a low flow rate (30 L/min), it takes several days to collect sufficient carbon on 47 mm foil disks. The small carbon mass (20–200 microgram C) and large aluminum substrate (~25 mg Al) present several challenges to production of graphite targets for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis. The Al foil consumes large amounts of oxygen as it is heated and tends to melt into quartz combustion tubes, causing gas leaks. We describe sample processing techniques to reliably produce graphitic targets for 14C-AMS analysis of PM deposited on Al impact foils. PMID:22228915

  14. Measuring Submicron-Sized Fractionated Particulate Matter on Aluminum Impactor Disks.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Bruce A; Zermeño, Paula; Hwang, Hyun-Min; Young, Thomas M; Guilderson, Thomas P

    2010-08-01

    Sub-micron sized airborne particulate matter (PM) is not collected well on regular quartz or glass fiber filter papers. We used a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) to fractionate PM into six size fractions and deposit it on specially designed high purity thin aluminum disks. The MOUDI separated PM into fractions 56-100 nm, 100-180 nm, 180-320 nm, 320-560 nm, 560-1000 nm, and 1000-1800 nm. Since the MOUDI has a low flow rate (30 L/min), it takes several days to collect sufficient carbon on 47 mm foil disks. The small carbon mass (20-200 microgram C) and large aluminum substrate (~25 mg Al) present several challenges to production of graphite targets for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis. The Al foil consumes large amounts of oxygen as it is heated and tends to melt into quartz combustion tubes, causing gas leaks. We describe sample processing techniques to reliably produce graphitic targets for (14)C-AMS analysis of PM deposited on Al impact foils. PMID:22228915

  15. Characterization and first results of an ice nucleating particle measurement system based on counterflow virtual impactor technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, L. P.; Mertes, S.; Kästner, U.; Frank, F.; Nillius, B.; Bundke, U.; Rose, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schneider, J.; Worringen, A.; Kandler, K.; Bukowiecki, N.; Ebert, M.; Curtius, J.; Stratmann, F.

    2014-10-01

    A specific instrument combination was developed to achieve a better microphysical and chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles that have the potential to act as ice nucleating particles (INP). For this purpose a pumped counterflow virtual impactor system called IN-PCVI was set up and characterized to separate ice particles that had been activated on INP in the Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH) from interstitial, non-activated particles. This coupled setup consisting of FINCH (ice particle activation and counting), IN-PCVI (INP separation and preparation), and further aerosol instrumentation (INP characterization) had been developed for the application in field experiments. The separated INP were characterized on-line with regard to their total number concentration, number size distribution and chemical composition, especially with the Aircraft-based Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometer ALABAMA. Moreover, impactor samples for electron microscopy were taken. Due to the coupling the IN-PCVI had to be operated with different flow settings than known from literature, which required a further characterization of its cut-off-behavior. Taking the changed cut-off-behavior into account, the INP number concentration measured by the IN-PCVI system was in good agreement with the one detected by the FINCH optics for water saturation ratios up to 1.01 (ice saturation ratios between 1.21-1.34 and temperatures between -18 and -26 °C). First field results of INP properties are presented which were gained during the INUIT-JFJ/CLACE 2013 campaign at the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch in the Bernese Alps, Switzerland (3580 m a.s.l.).

  16. A space mission to detect imminent Earth impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsecchi, G. B.; Perozzi, E.; Rossi, A.

    2015-03-01

    One of the goals of NEO surveys is to discover Earth impactors before they hit. How much warning time is desirable depends on the size of the impactors: for the larger ones more time is needed to mount effective mitigation measures. Initially, NEO surveys were aimed at large impactors, that can have significant global effects; however, their typical time scale is orders of magnitude larger than human lifetime. At the other extreme, monthly and annual events, liberating energies of the order of 1 to 10 kilotons, are immaterial as a threat to mankind, not justifying substantial expenditure on them. Intermediate events are of more concern: in the megatons range, timescales are of the order of centuries, and the damage can be substantial. A classical example is the Tunguska event, in which a body with a diameter of about 30 to 50 m liberated about 5 megatons in the atmosphere, devastating 2 000 square kilometers of Siberian forest.

  17. 121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  18. Gas Dynamics, Characterization, and Calibration of Fast Flow Flight Cascade Impactor Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCM) for Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, J.R.; Thorpe, A. N.; James, C.; Michael, A.; Ware, M.; Senftle, F.; Smith, S.

    1997-01-01

    During recent high altitude flights, we have tested the aerosol section of the fast flow flight cascade impactor quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) on loan to Howard University from NASA. The aerosol mass collected during these flights was disappointingly small. Increasing the flow through the QCM did not correct the problem. It was clear that the instrument was not being operated under proper conditions for aerosol collect ion primarily because the gas dynamics is not well understood. A laboratory study was therefore undertaken using two different fast flow QCM's in an attempt to establish the gas flow characteristics of the aerosol sections and its effect on particle collection, Some tests were made at low temperatures but most of the work reported here was carried out at room temperature. The QCM is a cascade type impactor originally designed by May (1945) and later modified by Anderson (1966) and Mercer et al (1970) for chemical gas analysis. The QCM has been used extensively for collecting and sizing stratospheric aerosol particles. In this paper all flow rates are given or corrected and referred to in terms of air at STP. All of the flow meters were kept at STP. Although there have been several calibration and evaluation studies of moderate flow cascade impactors of less than or equal to 1 L/rein., there is little experimental information on the gas flow characteristics for fast flow rates greater than 1 L/rein.

  19. SAMPLING CHARGED PARTICLES WITH CASCADE IMPACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses three sets of experiments which demonstrate that a cascade impactor sampling a charged aerosol may yield a particle size distribution measurement that deviates from the time distribution. The distributions indicated more large particles and fewer small partic...

  20. AZ State Profile. Arizona: Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about the Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). The purpose of the test is to determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum and to meet a state mandate. [For the main report, "State High School Tests: Exit Exams and Other Assessments", see ED514155.

  1. Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission: Kinetic impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, A. F.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Stickle, A.; Barnouin, O.; Ernst, C.; Atchison, J.; Pravec, P.; Richardson, D. C.

    2016-02-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission will be the first space experiment to demonstrate asteroid impact hazard mitigation by using a kinetic impactor to deflect an asteroid. AIDA is an international cooperation, consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the ESA Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) rendezvous mission. The primary goals of AIDA are (i) to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroid and (ii) to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The AIDA target will be the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos, with the deflection experiment to occur in late September, 2022. The DART impact on the secondary member of the binary at ~7 km/s is expected to alter the binary orbit period by about 4 minutes, assuming a simple transfer of momentum to the target, and this period change will be measured by Earth-based observatories. The AIM spacecraft will characterize the asteroid target and monitor results of the impact in situ at Didymos. The DART mission is a full-scale kinetic impact to deflect a 150 m diameter asteroid, with known impactor conditions and with target physical properties characterized by the AIM mission. Predictions for the momentum transfer efficiency of kinetic impacts are given for several possible target types of different porosities, using Housen and Holsapple (2011) crater scaling model for impact ejecta mass and velocity distributions. Results are compared to numerical simulation results using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code of Jutzi and Michel (2014) with good agreement. The model also predicts that the ejecta from the DART impact may make Didymos into an active asteroid, forming an ejecta coma that may be observable from Earth-based telescopes. The measurements from AIDA of the momentum transfer from the DART impact, the crater size and morphology, and the evolution of an ejecta coma will

  2. Characterization of the Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor-droplet freezing technique (MOUDI-DFT) for size-resolved quantitative measurements of ice nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Ryan; Si, Meng; Li, Jixiao; Huffman, J. Alex; McCluskey, Christina; Levin, Ezra; Irish, Victoria; Chou, Cédric; Hill, Thomas; Ladino, Luis; Yakobi, Jacqueline; Schiller, Corinne; Abbatt, Jon; DeMott, Paul; Bertram, Allan

    2014-05-01

    Ice formation within a cloud system can significantly modify its lifetime and radiative forcing. Many current instruments for measuring atmospheric concentrations of ice nuclei (IN) are not capable of providing size-resolved information. Such knowledge is useful in identifying the sources of IN and predicting their transport in the atmosphere. Furthermore, those that use size-discrimination to identify IN typically exclude particles with an aerodynamic diameter greater than 2.5 μm from analysis. Several studies have indicated this may be an important size regime for IN, particularly with those activating at warmer temperatures. The recently developed Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor-droplet freezing technique (MOUDI-DFT) addresses these limitations through combining sample collection by a model of cascade impactor with an established immersion freezing apparatus. Here we present a characterization of the MOUDI-DFT and the development of a modified technique which address experimental uncertainties arising from sample deposit inhomogeneity and the droplet freezing method. An intercomparison with a continuous-flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) was performed. We also show preliminary results from a campaign undertaken in a remote coastal region of western Canada. Correlations between atmospheric IN concentrations and the abundance of suspended submicron and supermicron particles, biological aerosols, carbonaceous aerosols, and prevailing meteorological conditions were investigated.

  3. Real-world operation conditions and on-road emissions of Beijing diesel buses measured by using portable emission measurement system and electric low-pressure impactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Johnson, Kent C; Shah, Asad Naeem; Tan, Jianwei; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao

    2011-03-15

    On-road measurement is an effective method to investigate real-world emissions generated from vehicles and estimate the difference between engine certification cycles and real-world operating conditions. This study presents the results of on-road measurements collected from urban buses which propelled by diesel engine in Beijing city. Two widely used Euro III emission level buses and two Euro IV emission level buses were chosen to perform on-road emission measurements using portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for gaseous pollutant and Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) for particulate matter (PM) number emissions. The results indicate that considerable discrepancies of engine operating conditions between real-world driving cycles and engine certification cycles have been observed. Under real-world operating conditions, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions can easily meet their respective regulations limits, while brake specification nitrogen oxide (bsNO(x)) emissions present a significant deviation from its corresponding limit. Compared with standard limits, the real-world bsNO(x) emission of the two Euro III emission level buses approximately increased by 60% and 120% respectively, and bsNO(x) of two Euro IV buses nearly twice standard limits because Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system not active under low exhaust temperature. Particle mass were estimated via particle size distribution with the assumption that particle density and diameter is liner. The results demonstrate that nanometer size particulate matter make significant contribution to total particle number but play a minor role to total particle mass. It is suggested that specific certified cycle should be developed to regulate bus engines emissions on the test bench or use PEMS to control the bus emissions under real-world operating conditions. PMID:21295821

  4. Measuring Small Changes In Aim Of An Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arenberg, Jonathan W.; Texter, Scott C.

    1993-01-01

    Optoelectronic system measures small changes in direction of line of sight of instrument. Optical point source and lens mounted on x-ray telescope in reverse configuration - as projector. Magnified relative lateral motion of point source and lens imaged on position-sensing photodetector.

  5. Particle chemistry impactor experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Ferry, G. V.; Goodman, J. K.; Verma, S.

    1990-01-01

    Polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles are collected on impactors and studied with regard to physical and chemical properties to help explain the importance of heterogeneous chemical reactions for stratospheric ozone depletion. The nitric, hydrochloric, and sulfuric acid content of stratospheric aerosol particles collected at 18 km altitude was determined. It is suggested that nitric acid is a component of polar stratospheric clouds. This is important for two reasons: (1) it proves that chlorine activation takes place at the surface of PSC particles by converting chemically inert chlorine nitrate to chlorine radicals that can react with ozone; and (2) if the PSC particles are large enough to settle out from the stratosphere, the possibility of nitric acid removal can result in the denitrification of the stratosphere.

  6. High efficiency virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Loo, B.W.

    1980-03-27

    Environmental monitoring of atmospheric air is facilitated by a single stage virtual impactor for separating an inlet flow (Q/sub 0/) having particulate contaminants into a coarse particle flow (Q/sub 1/) and a fine particle flow (Q/sub 2/) to enable collection of such particles on different filters for separate analysis. An inlet particle acceleration nozzle and coarse particle collection probe member having a virtual impaction opening are aligned along a single axis and spaced apart to define a flow separation region at which the fine particle flow (Q/sub 2/) is drawn radially outward into a chamber while the coarse particle flow (Q/sub 1/) enters the virtual impaction opening.

  7. The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): Initial Development of a New Tool for Treatment Outcome Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanne, Stephen M.; Mazurek, Micah O.; Sikora, Darryn; Bellando, Jayne; Branum-Martin, Lee; Handen, Benjamin; Katz, Terry; Freedman, Brian; Powell, Mary Paige; Warren, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure targeting sensitivity to change of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). The AIM uses a 2-week recall period with items rated on two corresponding 5-point scales (frequency and impact). Psychometric properties were…

  8. High efficiency virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.

    1981-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of atmospheric air is facilitated by a single stage virtual impactor (11) for separating an inlet flow (Q.sub.O) having particulate contaminants into a coarse particle flow (Q.sub.1) and a fine particle flow (Q.sub.2) to enable collection of such particles on different filters (19a, 19b) for separate analysis. An inlet particle acceleration nozzle (28) and coarse particle collection probe member (37) having a virtual impaction opening (41) are aligned along a single axis (13) and spaced apart to define a flow separation region (14) at which the fine particle flow (Q.sub.2) is drawn radially outward into a chamber (21) while the coarse particle flow (Q.sub.1) enters the virtual impaction opening (41). Symmetrical outlet means (47) for the chamber (21) provide flow symmetry at the separation region (14) to assure precise separation of particles about a cutpoint size and to minimize losses by wall impaction and gravitational settling. Impulse defocusing means (42) in the probe member (37) provides uniform coarse particle deposition on the filter (19a) to aid analysis. Particle losses of less than 1% for particles in the 0 to 20 micron range may be realized.

  9. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, S.; Voigt, C.; Jurkat, T.; Thornberry, T.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.-S.; Schlage, R.; Schäuble, D.; Zöger, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the H2O role in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present the new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ∼ 4 Hz. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where water molecules react to form hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n= 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 ppmv (mole ratio, 10-6 mol mol-1) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS-H2O was deployed on two DLR research aircraft, the Falcon during CONCERT

  10. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Voigt, Christiane; Jurkat, Tina; Thornberry, Troy; Fahey, David W.; Gao, Ru-Shan; Schlage, Romy; Schäuble, Dominik; Zöger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the role of H2O in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present a new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ˜ 4 Hz, limited by the sampling frequency of the mass spectrometer. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where ion-molecule reactions lead to the production of hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n = 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well-defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 parts per million by volume (ppmv) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS

  11. A novel graded density impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Ron; Cotton, Matthew; Harris, Ernest; Eakins, Daniel; Chapman, David

    2013-06-01

    Ramp loading using graded-density-impactors as flyers in plate impact experiments can yield useful information about the dynamic properties of the loaded material. Selective Laser Melting, an additive manufacture technique, was used to fabricate a graded-density flyer, termed the ``bed of nails'' (BON). A 2 mm thick x 100 mm diameter solid disc of stainless steel formed a base for an array of tapered spikes of length 6 mm and spaced 1 mm apart. Two experiments to test the concept were performed at impact velocities of 900 m/s and 1100 m/s using the 100 mm gas gun at The Institute of Shock Physics, Imperial College, London. In each experiment a BON flyer was impacted onto a copper buffer plate which helped to smooth out perturbations in the wave profile. The ramp delivered to the copper buffer was in turn transmitted to three tantalum targets of thicknesses 3, 5 and 7 mm, mounted in contact with the back face of the copper. Heterodyne velocimetry was used to measure the velocity-time history, at the back faces of the tantalum discs. The wave profiles display a smooth increase in free surface velocity over a period of about 2.5 microseconds. The measured profiles have been analysed to generate a stress vs. volume curve for tantalum.

  12. A novel graded density impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, R. E.; Cotton, M.; Harris, E. J.; Chapman, D. J.; Eakins, D.

    2014-05-01

    Ramp loading using graded-density-impactors as flyers in gas-gun-driven plate impact experiments can yield new and useful information about the equation of state and the strength properties of the loaded material. Selective Laser Melting, an additive manufacture technique, was used to manufacture a graded density flyer, termed the "bed of nails" (BON). A 2 mm thick × 100 mm diameter solid disc of stainless steel formed a base for an array of tapered spikes of length 6 mm and spaced 1 mm apart. The two experiments to test the concept were performed at impact velocities of 900 m/s and 1100 m/s using the 100 mm gas gun at the Institute of Shock Physics at Imperial College, London. In each experiment a BON flyer was impacted onto a copper buffer plate which helped to smooth out perturbations in the wave profile. The ramp delivered to the copper buffer was in turn transmitted to three tantalum targets of thicknesses 3, 5 and 7 mm, which were mounted in contact with the back face of the copper. Heterodyne velocimetry was used to measure the velocity-time history, at the back faces of the tantalum discs. The wave profiles display a smooth increase in velocity over a period of ~2.5 us, with no indication of a shock jump. The measured profiles have been analysed to generate a stress strain curve for tantalum. The results have been compared with the predictions of the Sandia National Laboratories hydrocode, CTH.

  13. Study of Infra Red femtosecond laser induced aerosols using Transmission Electron Microscopy and Low Pressure Impactor: implications for LA-ICP-MS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Abzac, F.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A.; Poitrasson, F.; Freydier, R.; Datas, L.

    2009-12-01

    Processes linked to the creation of laser induced aerosols are not yet fully understood, especially in the Infra Red femtosecond regime. It is of great interest to understand these mechanisms in order to better constrain chemical fractionation observed on LA-ICP-MS signals. A meticulous study of particles produced by IR-fs laser ablation (λ=800nm, τ=60fs, E=0,1-1mJ/pulse, f=5Hz) has been conducted on a wide variety of samples (phosphate, silicates, oxides, glass and metals), using transmission electron microscopy (Bright field TEM and EDS). Afterwards, observations using TEM coupled with focused ion beam (FIB) preparation have been performed on craters, to study the laser induced redeposition structure and chemistry and bring comparison with related aerosols. Finally, quantitative data have been collected using a low pressure impactor (LPI) device. Observed aerosols always consist in amorphous dark beads (30-150nm diameter) and more or less developed clusters (>100nm) of smaller particles (10-15 nm diameter). Their composition differs from each other and from the initial sample. Counting reveals a decreasing density of particle over 10min of ablation, while size distribution appears Gaussian, monomodal and remains centered on 90-100nm. Craters in monazite (phosphate, Moacir, Itembe, Brazil) show two different domains. Strained areas, induced by very high pressure resulting from matter removal, and, on the top, a thin layer (~250nm in the single shot crater for E=0,1mJ/pulse) probably melted then annealed. Qualitative EDS data from the latter shows the same composition as unshocked sample. Data allows an advanced reconstruction of events driving matter from crater digging through plasma and finally into metastable particles. Numerous theoretical[1] and experimental[2,3] reports, focused on each successive stage, help putting forward the hypothesis of a single complex process of condensation/coalescence. Direct qualitative and quantitative measurements on aerosols

  14. A DATA REDUCTION SYSTEM FOR CASCADE IMPACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a computer-based data reduction system for cascade impactors. The system utilizes impactor-specific calibration information, together with operating conditions and other pertinent information (e.g., stage weights, sampling duration), to determine particle siz...

  15. Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS DPA). Student Guide. Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards Dual Purpose Assessment (AIMS DPA) is a combination of two separate tests. One test is AIMS, which measures how well the student knows the reading, writing, and mathematics content that all Arizona students in the student's grade level are expected to know and be able to do. AIMS DPA includes…

  16. Characteristics of a cascade impactor under specific conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, H.; Masuda, H.; Iinoya, K.

    1983-01-01

    If a dust current is blown out of a nozzle and collides with a flat plate, particles larger than a certain dimension will collide with and be captured by the flat plate, and particles smaller than that will entrain an air current and go astray without colliding with the flat plate. It is therefore possible to measure particle size distribution with the use of a set of impactors, each consisting of a nozzle for classifying a smaller particle size and a flat plate. However, this measurement of size distribution of almost monodispersed particles with an impactor differs from true particle size distribution, because particle size classification does not change rapidly from 0 to 1. The magnitude of theoretical errors in the measurement of size distribution of almost monodispersed particles with impactors, experiments relating to maximum suction flow rate, and a variation in the theoretical diameter of a particle which is collected with a 50% accuracy measured with impactors at high altitude (low temperature and pressure) are presented. It is assumed that the impactors are free from rescattering, rebound, and wall losses.

  17. The cometary impactor flux at the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissman, Paul R.

    2007-05-01

    Long- and short-period comets make up a small but important fraction of the potential impactors on the Earth. Because of their higher approach velocities, comets are more energetic impactors than most asteroids. Terrestrial encounters with long-period comets are difficult to predict because these comets enter the planetary region at random times and from all directions. Thus, warning times can be relatively short, only a few months in some cases. Dynamical calculations show that the mean impact probability for Earth-crossing long-period comets is 2.2 x 10-9 per perihelion passage, assuming a uniform perihelion distribution and random inclination distribution for comets interior to 1 AU. The mean impact velocity is 51.8 km s-1, and the most probable impact velocity is 56.4 km s-1. For Jupiter-family comets, whose returns are predictable (once discovered), only 22 Earth-crossers are known (excluding the many fragments of 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3). Of these, 4 are lost, 8 have only been observed on one return, and 1 is no longer Earth-crossing. Their mean impact probability is 7.3 x 10-9 per orbit or 1.3 x 10-9 per year, and their mean encounter velocity with the Earth is 22.9 km s-1, with a most probable encounter velocity of 19.9 km s-1. For Halley-type comets, whose returns are also predictable, another 16 Earth-crossers are known, of which 1 is lost and 6 have not yet made a second observed appearance. Their mean impact probability is 7.0 x 10-9 per orbit but only 0.16 x 10-9 per year because of their longer orbital periods. Their mean encounter velocity is 45.4 km s-1, with a most probable encounter velocity of 52.3 km s-1. Recent efforts at determining the size distribution of Jupiter-family comets has made it possible to estimate the actual impactor flux on the Earth. However, this is not true for Halley-type comets, where only a few nucleus radii have been reliably estimated, or for long-period comets where few if any reliable measurements exist. Additional

  18. Influence of Impactor Mass on the Damage Characteristics and Failure Strength of Laminated Composite Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Kemmerly, Heather L.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the effect of impactor mass on the low-speed impact response of laminated flat composite plates is presented. Dropped weight impact response, damage characteristics, and residual strengths of quasi-isotropic flat plates are presented for a range of energy levels by systematically varying the mass of the impactor. Measured contact forces and damage areas are also presented. The results indicate that the contact force and damage area are nonlinear functions of the impactor mass and vary considerably over the entire range of energy levels considered. The different damage levels induced in a plate specimen when impacted at a given energy level with impactors of different masses significantly influence its compressive residual strength. The results provide clear and consistent trends in contact force, damage area, and compression-after-impact strength when the data are expressed as a function of the impactor momentum.

  19. Organizational technologies for transforming care: measures and strategies for pursuit of IOM quality aims.

    PubMed

    Gamm, Larry; Kash, Bita; Bolin, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Progress on the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) 6 aims to bridge the "quality chasm" requires both measurement and the concerting of multiple organizational technologies. The basic thesis of this article is that rapid progress on the IOM's multiple aims calls for transformative change within and among healthcare organizations. The promise of a number of types of transformative approaches is closely linked to their ability to simultaneously build upon several organizational technologies: clinical, social, information, and administrative technologies. To encourage and advance such efforts, this article identifies illustrative measures of attainment of the IOM's 6 aims or targeted areas for improvement that reflect the contributions of the 4 organizational technologies. It discusses examples of relationships between the IOM aims and the organizational technologies considered. Finally, the article offers illustrations of the interplay of these organizational technologies and IOM aims-across an array of organizational innovations with transformative potential. Included among such innovations are information technology in the form of electronic medical records, computer-based physician order entry, and patient health records; organization-wide patient-centered cultural change such as Studer's Hardwiring Excellence; Six Sigma and Toyota Production Management/LEAN; major clinical technology change, for example, minimally invasive cardiac surgery and broader treatment innovations such as disease management. PMID:17873660

  20. Hypervelocity impact survivability experiments for carbonaceous impactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, Luann; Bada, Jeffrey; Macklin, John; Radicatidibrozolo, Filippo; Fleming, R. H.; Erlichman, Jozef

    1993-01-01

    We performed a series of hypervelocity impact experiments using carbon-bearing impactors (diamond, graphite, fullerenes, phthalic acid crystals, and Murchison meteorite) into Al plate at velocities between 4.2 and 6.1 km/s. These tests were made to do the following: (1) determine the survivability of carbon forms and organize molecules in low hypervelocity impact; (2) characterize carbonaceous impactor residues; and (3) determine whether or not fullerenes could form from carbonaceous impactors, under our experimental conditions, or survive as impactors. An analytical protocol of field emission SEM imagery, SEM-EDX, laser Raman spectroscopy, single and 2-stage laser mass spectrometry, and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) found the following: (1) diamonds did not survive impact at 4.8 km/s, but were transformed into various forms of disordered graphite; (2) intact, well-ordered graphite impactors did survive impact at 5.9 km/sec, but were only found in the crater bottom centers; the degree of impact-induced disorder in the graphite increases outward (walls, rims, ejecta); (3) phthalic acid crystals were destroyed on impact (at 4.2 km/s, although a large proportion of phthalic acid molecules did survive impact); (4) fullerenes did not form as products of carbonaceous impactors (5.9 - 6.1 km/s, fullerene impactor molecules mostly survived impact at 5.9 km/s; and (5) two Murchison meteorite samples (launched at 4.8 and 5.9 km/s) show preservation of some higher mass polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared with the non-impacted sample. Each impactor type shows unique impactor residue morphologies produced at a given impact velocity. An expanded methodology is presented to announce relatively new analytical techniques together with innovative modifications to other methods that can be used to characterize small impact residues in LDEF craters, in addition to other acquired extraterrestrial samples.

  1. The Mass of Large Impactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    1996-01-01

    By means of a simplified dynamical model, we have computed the eccentricity change in the orbit of each giant planet, caused by a single, large impact at the end of the accretion process. In order to set an upper bound on this eccentricity change, we have considered the giant planets' present eccentricities as primordial ones. By means of this procedure, we were able to obtain an implicit relation for the impactor masses and maximum velocities. We have estimated by this method the maximum allowed mass to impact Jupiter to be approx. 1.136 x 10(exp -1), being in the case of Neptune approx. 3.99 x 10(exp -2) (expressed in units of each planet final mass). Due to the similar present eccentricities of Saturn, Uranus and Jupiter, the constraint masses and velocities of the bodies to impact them (in units of each planet final mass and velocity respectively) are almost the same for the three planets. These results are in good agreement with those obtained by Lissauer and Safronov. These bounds might be used to derive the mass distribution of planetesimals in the early solar system.

  2. Brookhaven air infiltration measurement system (BNL/AIMS) description and application

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W.; Cote, E.A.; Wieser, R.F.

    1983-08-01

    A unique capability to measure part-per-quadrillion concentrations of a family of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) is presented. Together with our unique PFT source and passive sampler, measurement of average air exchange and infiltration rate can be determined for periods as short as 12 hours. A more expensive programmable sampler can provide information on a frequency of as little as once per minute for each of its 23 sampling tubes. The principal of AIMS is based on the applicable steady-state assumption that the average concentration (e.g., in pL/L) of a tracer vapor in a chamber (i.e., a building or room) is equal to the emission rate of the tracer source (e.g., in pL/min) divided by the air leakage or infiltration rate (e.g., in L/min). Knowing the source rate and measuring the average concentration then provides a means to calculate the air leakage rate. Extending this technique to a multichamber concept, in which a different type of PFT source is deployed in each chamber of a building, allows the calculation of not only the infiltration rates in each chamber but also the air exchange rates between chambers as well. Since both the PFT source and the passive sampler, a miniature Capillary Adsorption Tube Sampler (CATS), are about the size of a cigarette, inexpensive, and reusable, the BNL/AIMS is a very cost-effective means (if not the only means) for determining these air exchange rates.

  3. Sampling at controlled relative humidity with a cascade impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliou, Joseph G.; Sorensen, Diana; McMurry, Peter H.

    The design and function of a device that regulates the relative humidity of an ambient aerosol sample is described. We use this RH controller upstream of MOUDI impactors to permit sampling at relative humidities in the 70-80% range. Humidity control is achieved by allowing the aerosol to approach equilibrium with a saturated salt solution. Benefits to sampling with impactors in this relative humidity range include greatly reduced bounce of fine, hygroscopic particles, minimal flow-induced sizing errors, and minimization of uncertainties in measured size distributions due to diurnal variations in relative humidity during sampling. Data from field measurements in a humid environment (Look Rock, TN) and arid environments (Las Vegas, NV and Meadview, AZ) are discussed.

  4. Application of computer modelling and lead field theory in developing multiple aimed impedance cardiography measurements.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, P; Kööbi, T; Kaukinen, S; Hyttinen, J; Malmivuo, J

    1999-01-01

    Conventional impedance cardiography (ICG) methods estimate parameters related to the function of the heart from a single waveform that reflects an integrated combination of complex sources. We have previously developed methods and tools for calculating measurement sensitivity distributions of ICG electrode configurations. In this study, the methods were applied to investigate the prospects of recording multiple aimed ICG waveforms utilizing the 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) electrode locations. Three anatomically realistic volume conductor models were used: one based on Visible Human Man cryosection data and two on magnetic resonance (MR) images representing end diastolic and end systolic phases of the cardiac cycle. Based on the sensitivity distributions obtained, 236 electrode configurations were selected for preliminary clinical examination on 12 healthy volunteers and 9 valvular patients. The model study suggested that a variety of configurations had clearly enhanced sensitivity to the cardiovascular structures as compared to conventional ICGs. Simulation data and clinical experiments showed logical correspondence supporting the theoretically predicted differences between the configurations. Recorded 12-lead ICG signals had characteristic waveforms and landmarks not coinciding with those of conventional ICG. Furthermore, configurations showing resemblance to invasive data and morphological variations in disease are of interest. The results indicate the applicability of the modelling approach in developing ICG measurement configurations. However, the level of clinical relevance and potential of the 12-lead method remains to be explored in studies employing dynamic modelling and acquisition of invasive reference data. PMID:10627950

  5. AEROSOL MEASUREMENTS IN THE SUBMICRON SIZE RANGE, STUDIES WITH AN AEROSOL CENTRIFUGE, A NEW DIFFUSION BATTERY, A LOW PRESSURE IMPACTOR AND AN ADVANCED CONDENSATION NUCLEI COUNTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the investigations of four aerosol classifiers which cover finite, but overlapping ranges of the aerosol particle size spectrum. The first part is concerned with a cylindrical aerosol centrifuge, which measures aerodynamic equivalent diameters precisely. Thi...

  6. Comparison of particle sizes determined with impactor, AFM and SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwaze, Patience; Annegarn, Harold J.; Huth, Joachim; Helas, Günter

    2007-11-01

    Particles size comparisons were made between conventional aerodynamic and mobility sizing techniques and physical geometric sizes measured by high resolution microscopes. Atmospheric particles were collected during the wet and dry seasons in the Amazonian ecosystems. Individual particles deposited on four stages of the MOUDI (Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposition Impactor) were characterised for particle volumes, projected surface diameters and morphologies with an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). AFM and SEM size distributions were verified against distributions derived from response functions of individual MOUDI stages as specified by Winklmayr et al. [Winklmayr, W., Wang, H.-C., John, W., 1990. Adaptation of the Twomey algorithm to the inversion of cascade impactor data. Aerosol Science and Technology 13, 322-331.]. Particles indicated inherent discrepancies in sizing techniques. Particle volumes were systematically lower than expected by factors of up to 3.6. Differences were attributed to loss of mass, presumably water adsorbed on particles. Losses were high and could not be accounted for by measured humidity growth factors suggesting significant losses of other volatile compounds as well, particularly on particles that were collected during the wet season. Microscopy results showed that for hygroscopic particles, microscopy sizes depend on the relative humidity history of particles before and after sampling. Changes in relative humidity significantly altered particle morphologies. Depending on when changes occur, such losses will bias not only microscopy particle sizes but also impactor mass distributions and number concentrations derived from collected particles.

  7. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database Aimed at Reducing Risk for Residential Retrofit Industry

    SciTech Connect

    David Roberts

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop a publicly available database of energy retrofit measures containing performance characteristics and cost estimates for nearly 3,000 measures.

  8. A COMPUTER-BASED CASCADE IMPACTOR DATA REDUCTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a cascade impactor data reduction system written in the Fortran IV language. The overall system incorporates six programs: MPPROG, SPLIN1, GRAPH, STATIS, PENTRA, and PENLOG. Impactor design, particulate catch information, and sampling conditions from single i...

  9. The micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor-droplet freezing technique (MOUDI-DFT) for measuring concentrations of ice nucleating particles as a function of size: improvements and initial validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. H.; Chou, C.; McCluskey, C. S.; Levin, E. J. T.; Schiller, C. L.; Hill, T. C. J.; Huffman, J. A.; DeMott, P. J.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-02-01

    The micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor-droplet freezing technique (MOUDI-DFT) combines particle collection by inertial impaction (via the MOUDI) and a microscope-based immersion freezing apparatus (the DFT) to measure atmospheric concentrations of ice nucleating particles (INPs) as a function of size and temperature. In the first part of this study we improved upon this recently introduced technique. Using optical microscopy, we investigated the non-uniformity of MOUDI aerosol deposits at spatial resolutions of 1, 0.25 mm, and for some stages when necessary 0.10 mm. The results from these measurements show that at a spatial resolution of 1 mm and less, the concentration of particles along the MOUDI aerosol deposit can vary by an order of magnitude or more. Since the total area of a MOUDI aerosol deposit ranges from 425 to 605 mm2 and the area analyzed by the DFT is approximately 1.2 mm2, this non-uniformity needs to be taken into account when using the MOUDI-DFT to determine atmospheric concentrations of INPs. Measurements of the non-uniformity of the MOUDI aerosol deposits were used to select positions on the deposits that had relatively small variations in particle concentration and to build substrate holders for the different MOUDI stages. These substrate holders improve reproducibility by holding the substrate in the same location for each measurement and ensure that DFT analysis is only performed on substrate regions with relatively small variations in particle concentration. In addition, the deposit non-uniformity was used to determine correction factors that take the non-uniformity into account when determining atmospheric concentrations of INPs. In the second part of this study, the MOUDI-DFT utilizing the new substrate holders was compared to the continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) technique of Colorado State University. The intercomparison was done using INP concentrations found by the two instruments during ambient measurements of continental

  10. The micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor-droplet freezing technique (MOUDI-DFT) for measuring concentrations of ice nucleating particles as a function of size: improvements and initial validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. H.; Chou, C.; McCluskey, C. S.; Levin, E. J. T.; Schiller, C. L.; Hill, T. C. J.; Huffman, J. A.; DeMott, P. J.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    The micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor-droplet freezing technique (MOUDI-DFT) combines particle collection by inertial impaction (via the MOUDI) and a microscope-based immersion freezing apparatus (the DFT) to measure atmospheric concentrations of ice nucleating particles (INPs) as a function of size and temperature. In the first part of this study we improved upon this recently introduced technique. Using optical microscopy, we investigated the non-uniformity of MOUDI aerosol deposits at spatial resolutions of 1, 0.25 mm, and for some stages when necessary 0.10 mm. The results from these measurements show that at a spatial resolution of 1 mm and less, the concentration of particles along the MOUDI aerosol deposits can vary by an order of magnitude or more. Since the total area of a MOUDI aerosol deposit ranges from 425 to 605 mm2 and the area analyzed by the DFT is approximately 1.2 mm2, this non-uniformity needs to be taken into account when using the MOUDI-DFT to determine atmospheric concentrations of INPs. Measurements of the non-uniformity of the MOUDI aerosol deposits were used to select positions on the deposits that had relatively small variations in particle concentration and to build substrate holders for the different MOUDI stages. These substrate holders improve reproducibility by holding the substrate in the same location for each measurement and ensure that DFT analysis is only performed on substrate regions with relatively small variations in particle concentration. In addition, the deposit non-uniformity was used to determine correction factors that take the non-uniformity into account when determining atmospheric concentrations of INPs. In the second part of this study, the MOUDI-DFT utilizing the new substrate holders was compared to the continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) technique of Colorado State University. The intercomparison was done using INP concentrations found by the two instruments during ambient measurements of continental

  11. Atmospheric behavior of the Chelyabinsk impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovička, J.; Spurný, P.; Brown, P.; Kalenda, P.; Shrbený, L.

    2014-07-01

    The impact of a 19-m diameter asteroid near Chelyabinsk, Russia on February 15, 2013 has already been studied extensively [e.g., 1--3]. The main sources of information were casually recorded videos, which provided the images of the superbolide as well as acoustic records of the sonic booms. From these data, the bolide trajectory, velocity, deceleration, and lightcurve have been derived after careful calibration and analysis. Such detailed data are not available for any other impactor larger than about 5 meters. The Chelyabinsk event represents therefore a unique opportunity to study the interaction of asteroids in the decameter size range through the terrestrial atmosphere. In comparison with our previous study [1], we used more calibrated videos in this work. We will present the refined trajectory, velocity, and orbit but will mainly concentrate on the atmospheric fragmentation analysis. The extent of the dust trail up to the heights of 70 km demonstrates that significant mass loss occurred from the early parts of the luminous trajectory. Nevertheless, no flare was seen on the early portion of the lightcurve, suggesting that no sudden disruption occurred here and the mass was probably being lost from the asteroid surface. The first break-up occurred at the height of about 47 km. The large scale disruption, documented both by the lightcurve and sonic booms, occurred between the heights of 39--30 km. The fragmentation then ceased temporarily, but a number of surviving meter-sized boulders fragmented extensively again below 26 km. We will present a fragmentation model fitting both the observed lightcurve and deceleration. At lower heights, the deceleration of several individual fragments could be measured. The transverse speed of the major fragment was 400 m/s, much larger than expected, but of the same order of magnitude as observed in other cases including a sample of tiny meteoroids [4]. The unique aspect of Chelyabinsk was the formation of an extended dust trail

  12. Applying Athletic Identify Measurement Scale on Physical Educators: Turkish Version of AIMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunçkol, H. Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    In sports research, defining athletic identity of individuals is an important study subject. The subject owes its significance to the fact that an individual's athletic identity affects his other identities throughout his life span. The aim of this study is to test the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Athletic Identity…

  13. Measuring Motivation Multidimensionally: Development of the Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire (AIM-Q)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Larry C.; Mills, Michael; Swenson, Leland; Walsh, R. Patricia

    2008-01-01

    We report the development of the Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire (AIM-Q), a new instrument based on an evolutionary psychology theory of human motivation. It provides multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) assessment of individual differences on 15 motive scales. A total heterogeneous sample of N = 1,251 participated in eight studies that…

  14. National Residential Efficiency Measures Database Aimed at Reducing Risk for Residential Retrofit Industry (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop a publicly available database of energy retrofit measures containing performance characteristics and cost estimates for nearly 3,000 measures. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have developed the National Residential Efficiency Measures Database, a public database that characterizes the performance and costs of common residential energy efficiency measures. The data are available for use in software programs that evaluate cost-effective retrofit measures to improve the energy efficiency of residential buildings. The database provides a single, consistent source of current data for DOE and private-sector energy audit and simulation software tools and the retrofit industry. The database will reduce risk for residential retrofit industry stakeholders by providing a central, publicly vetted source of up-to-date information.

  15. Evaluation of an abbreviated impactor for fine particle fraction (FPF) determination of metered dose inhalers (MDI).

    PubMed

    Guo, Changning; Ngo, Diem; Ahadi, Shafiq; Doub, William H

    2013-09-01

    Abbreviated impactors have been developed recently to allow more rapid evaluation of inhalation products as alternates to the eight-stage Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) which has been widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for assessing aerodynamic particle size distribution. In this paper, a two-stage abbreviated impactor, Westech Fine Particle Dose Impactor (WFPD), was used to characterize the aerodynamic particle size of metered dose inhaler (MDI) products, and the results were compared with those obtained using the standard eight-stage ACI. Seven commercial MDI products, with different propellants (chlorofluorocarbon/hydrofluoroalkane) and formulation types (suspension/solution, dry/normal/wet), were tested in this study by both WFPD and ACI. Substantially equivalent measures of fine particle fraction were obtained for most of the tested MDI products, but larger coarse particle fraction and extra-fine particle fraction values were measured from WFPD relative to those measured using the ACI. Use of the WFPD also produced more wall loss than the ACI. Therefore, it is recommended that the system suitability be evaluated on a product-by-product basis to establish substantial equivalency before implementing an abbreviated impactor measurement methodology for routine use in inhaler product characterization. PMID:23780781

  16. Impactor Populations on the Galilean Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Merline, W. J.; Bierhaus, B.; Keller, J.; Brooks, S.

    1997-07-01

    Galilean satellite images from Galileo, considered in the context of Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts and other evidence, raise crucial questions about the nature of impactor populations in the Jovian system. Several observations suggest that the current impactor population (generally believed to be extinct Jupiter-family comets) is relatively deficient in comets smaller than S-L 9, compared with usually adopted power-laws. These include: (a) lack of saturated surfaces at diameters <100 m; (b) predominance of secondary craters in some regions far from sources; and (c) apparent dearth of small crater chains (catenae). None of these indications is yet conclusive (for example, catenae would be predicted to mimic the cometary size distribution only for certain idealized models of S-L 9-like comet break-up). It is also plausible (certain, in the case of Europa) that there are currently active erosional and resurfacing processes on Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto that contribute to erasing small craters. The often adopted assumption that the heavily cratered terrains on Ganymede and Callisto reflect the same Late Heavy Bombardment recorded on the Moon, while conceivably true, is only one of a number of plausible possibilities. We discuss the qualitative roles of different impactor populations. We thank the Galileo Imaging Team and associates for discussions, and the Galileo Project, NASA, and NSF for support.

  17. Assessment of the contribution of electron microscopy to nanoparticle characterization sampled with two cascade impactors.

    PubMed

    Noël, Alexandra; L'Espérance, Gilles; Cloutier, Yves; Plamondon, Philippe; Boucher, Julie; Philippe, Suzanne; Dion, Chantal; Truchon, Ginette; Zayed, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the contribution of electron microscopy to the characterization of nanoparticles and compared the degree of variability in sizes observed within each stage when sampled by two cascade impactors: an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) and a Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI). A TiO(2) nanoparticle (5 nm) suspension was aerosolized in an inhalation chamber. Nanoparticles sampled by the impactors were collected on aluminum substrates or TEM carbon-coated copper grids using templates, specifically designed in our laboratories, for scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) analysis, respectively. Nanoparticles were characterized using both SEM and TEM. Three different types of diameters (inner, outer, and circular) were measured by image analysis based on count and volume, for each impactor stage. Electron microscopy, especially TEM, is well suited for the characterization of nanoparticles. The MOUDI, probably because of the rotation of its collection stages, which can minimize the resuspension of particles, gave more stable results and smaller geometric standard deviations per stage. Our data suggest that the best approach to estimate particle size by electron microscopy would rely on geometric means of measured circular diameters. Overall, the most reliable data were provided by the MOUDI and the TEM sampling technique on carbon-coated copper grids for this specific experiment. This study indicates interesting findings related to the assessment of impactors combined with electron microscopy for nanoparticle characterization. For future research, since cascade impactors are extensively used to characterize nano-aerosol exposure scenarios, high-performance field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) should also be considered. PMID:23356435

  18. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  19. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  20. Aspects on feed related prophylactic measures aiming to prevent post weaning diarrhoea in pigs.

    PubMed

    Melin, L; Wallgren, P

    2002-01-01

    The ability of feed related measures to prevent or reduce post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) was examined in a split litter study including 30 pigs from 6 litters allotted into 5 groups. Four groups were exposed to 3 pathogenic strains of E. coli via the environment at weaning. Three of them were given zinc oxide, lactose+fibres or non-pathogenic strains of E. coil as probiotics. The challenged and the unchallenged control groups were given a standard creep feed. Diarrhoea was observed in all challenged groups but not among uninfected animals, and the incidence of diarrhoea was lower in the group given nonpathogenic E. coli compared to all other challenged groups. The severity of PWD also differed between litters. When corrected for mortality due to PWD, a decreased incidence of diarrhoea was also seen in the groups given zinc oxide or lactose+fibres. The dominating serotype of E. coil within faecal samples varied from day to day, also among diarrhoeic pigs, indicating that diarrhoea was not induced by one single serotype alone. The diversity of the faecal coliform populations decreased in all piglets during the first week post weaning, coinciding with an increased similarity between these populations among pigs in the challenged groups. This indicated an influence of the challenge strains, which ceased during the second week. The group given lactose+fibres was least affected with respect to these parameters. In conclusion feed related measures may alleviate symptoms of PWD. PMID:12831176

  1. Aspects on Feed Related Prophylactic Measures Aiming to Prevent Post Weaning Diarrhoea in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Melin, L; Wallgren, P

    2002-01-01

    The ability of feed related measures to prevent or reduce post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) was examined in a split litter study including 30 pigs from 6 litters allotted into 5 groups. Four groups were exposed to 3 pathogenic strains of E. coli via the environment at weaning. Three of them were given zinc oxide, lactose+fibres or non-pathogenic strains of E. coli as probiotics. The challenged and the unchallenged control groups were given a standard creep feed. Diarrhoea was observed in all challenged groups but not among uninfected animals, and the incidence of diarrhoea was lower in the group given non-pathogenic E. coli compared to all other challenged groups. The severity of PWD also differed between litters. When corrected for mortality due to PWD, a decreased incidence of diarrhoea was also seen in the groups given zinc oxide or lactose+fibres. The dominating serotype of E. coli within faecal samples varied from day to day, also among diarrhoeic pigs, indicating that diarrhoea was not induced by one single serotype alone. The diversity of the faecal coliform populations decreased in all piglets during the first week post weaning, coinciding with an increased similarity between these populations among pigs in the challenged groups. This indicated an influence of the challenge strains, which ceased during the second week. The group given lactose+fibres was least affected with respect to these parameters. In conclusion feed related measures may alleviate symptoms of PWD. PMID:12831176

  2. The Relationship among Measures of Written Expression Using Curriculum-Based Measurement and the Arizona Instrument to Measure Skills (AIMS) at the Middle School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Francesca A.; Thompson, Sandra S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the predictor-criterion relationship between measures of written expression using spring curriculum-based measures (W-CBM) and the spring administration of the state-mandated high-stakes test the Arizona Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) in writing. Students (N = 83) in Grades 6, 7, and 8 wrote expressive narratives for 3…

  3. Analysis of cascade impactor mass distributions.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Craig; Mitchell, Jolyon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the approaches for analyzing cascade impactor (CI) mass distributions produced by pulmonary drug products and the considerations necessary for selecting the appropriate analysis procedure. There are several methods available for analyzing CI data, yielding a hierarchy of information in terms of nominal, ordinal and continuous variables. Mass distributions analyzed as a nominal function of the stages and auxiliary components is the simplest approach for examining the whole mass emitted by the inhaler. However, the relationship between the mass distribution and aerodynamic diameter is not described by such data. This relationship is a critical attribute of pulmonary drug products due to the association between aerodynamic diameter and the mass of particulates deposited to the respiratory tract. Therefore, the nominal mass distribution can only be utilized to make decisions on the discrete masses collected in the CI. Mass distributions analyzed as an ordinal function of aerodynamic diameter can be obtained by introducing the stage size range, which generally vary in magnitude from one stage to another for a given type of CI, and differ between CIs of different designs. Furthermore, the mass collected by specific size ranges within the CI are often incorrectly used to estimate in vivo deposition at various regions of the respiratory tract. A CI-generated mass distribution can be directly related to aerodynamic diameter by expressing the mass collected by each size-fractionating stage in terms of either mass frequency or cumulative mass fraction less than the aerodynamic size appropriate to each stage. Analysis of the aerodynamic diameter as a continuous variable allows comparison of mass distributions obtained from different products, obtained by different CI designs, as well as providing input to in vivo particle deposition models. The lack of information about the mass fraction emitted by the inhaler that is not size-analyzed by

  4. Are changes in weather masking the efficacy of measures aimed at mitigating diffuse pollution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Jordan, Phil; Shore, Mairead; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger

    2016-04-01

    Interpretations of the efficacy of mitigation measures for reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural sources to water bodies are challenged by the temporal variability of air temperature and rainfall. Influences are different depending on flow controls, associated time lags and nutrient transformations that may occur along the pathways. In Europe weather patterns and trends are influenced by large-scale weather systems over the North Atlantic. One of the most prominent teleconnection patterns that affect the weather across all seasons is the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). In northwestern Europe a positive phase in the NAO index over the winter period is often associated with elevated air temperatures in summer and more frequent large rain events in winter than normal. The objective of this study was to investigate the catchment-scale influences and relationships of naturally altered hydro-meteorological processes on the diffuse N and P losses to waters, in order to distinguish natural climate effects from those caused by adaptive management (increased agricultural intensity, decreased nutrient use etc.). Here we present six years of monthly nitrate-N and total reactive P concentrations in stream water (aggregated from sub-hourly monitoring) in six, ca. 10 km2, Irish agricultural catchments with different hydrological flow controls and land use. The locations of the catchments make them susceptible to sudden and/or seasonal shifts in weather. Changes in long term air temperatures and rainfall were investigated and annual N and P concentrations were compared to the NAO. During the monitored period (2009-2015) there was a steady increase in wintertime NAO index, reaching positive values in recent years, resulting in higher air temperatures and more frequent large rain events in winter. In some settings annual N and/or P concentrations were positively correlated to the three-year moving average NAO index (R2 > 0.90). Catchments with free

  5. Cascade impactor and jet plate for same

    DOEpatents

    Dahlin, Robert S.; Farthing, William E.; Landham Jr., Edward C.

    2004-02-03

    A sampling system and method for sampling particulate matter from a high-temperature, high-pressure gas stream. A cyclone sampler for use at high temperatures and pressures, and having threadless sacrificial connectors is disclosed. Also disclosed is an improved cascade impactor including jet plates with integral spacers, and alignment features provided for aligning the jet plates with their associated collection substrates. An activated bauxite alkali collector is disclosed, and includes an alumina liner. The sampling system can be operated remotely or locally, and can be permanently installed or configured as a portable system.

  6. Direct-trauma model of posttraumatic syringomyelia with a computer-controlled motorized spinal cord impactor.

    PubMed

    Wong, Johnny H Y; Song, Xin; Hemley, Sarah J; Bilston, Lynne E; Cheng, Shaokoon; Stoodley, Marcus A

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The pathogenesis of posttraumatic syringomyelia remains enigmatic and is not adequately explained by current theories. Experimental investigations require a reproducible animal model that replicates the human condition. Current animal models are imperfect because of their low reliability, severe neurological deficits, or dissimilar mechanism of injury. The objective of this study was to develop a reproducible rodent model of posttraumatic syringomyelia using a spinal cord impactor that produces an injury that more closely mimics the human condition and does not produce severe neurological deficits. METHODS The study consisted of 2 parts. Seventy animals were studied overall: 20 in Experiment 1 and 48 in Experiment 2 after two rats with severe deficits were killed early. Experiment 1 aimed to determine the optimal force setting for inducing a cystic cavity without neurological deficits using a computer-controlled motorized spinal cord impactor. Twenty animals received an impact that ranged from 50 to 150 kDyn. Using the optimal force for producing an initial cyst determined from Experiment 1, Experiment 2 aimed to compare the progression of cavities in animals with and those without arachnoiditis induced by kaolin. Forty-eight animals were killed at 1, 3, 6, or 12 weeks after syrinx induction. Measurements of cavity size and maximum anteroposterior and lateral diameters were evaluated using light microscopy. RESULTS In Experiment 1, cavities were present in 95% of the animals. The duration of limb weakness and spinal cord cavity size correlated with the delivered force. The optimal force chosen for Experiment 2 was 75 kDyn. In Experiment 2, cavities occurred in 92% of the animals. Animals in the kaolin groups developed larger cavities and more vacuolations and enlarged perivascular spaces than those in the nonkaolin groups. CONCLUSIONS This impact model reliably produces cavities that resemble human posttraumatic syringomyelia and is suitable for further

  7. Calibration and evaluation of a real-time cascade impactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, C.I.; Wheat, L.D.

    1984-04-01

    A 10-stage cascade impactor made by California Measurement Inc., can determine aerodynamic size distributions of dilute aerosols in a few minutes. Collection of impacted particles on greased, vibrating piezoelectric crystals produces changes in vibrational frequency proportional to the collected mass. Based on frequency changes and sampling time, a data reduction module calculates the mass collected on each stage. Calibration of the assembled impactor was performed with monodisperse polystyrene latex (PSL) and Eosin-Y (E-Y) aerosols for the lower stages (4-10), and PSL and pollen particles (ragweed and mulberry) for the upper stages (1-3). The stage experimental effective cutoff aerodynamic diameters (ECAD) were up to 22 percent different from theoretical ECADs with the exception of Stages 1 and 2 which were respectively 30 and 35 percent different from theoretical ECADs. The overall loss of particles > 3- and < 0.3-..mu..m was severe. Also, considerable scatter of particles was observed on the collection crystals of Stages 1 and 2. Although a majority of particles were in the impaction area, a large fraction was scattered over the outer portions of these crystals.

  8. Grooved impactor and inertial trap for sampling inhalable particulate matter

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial trap and grooved impactor for providing a sharp cutoff for particles over 15 microns from entering an inhalable particulate sampler. The impactor head has a tapered surface and is provided with V-shaped grooves. The tapered surface functions for reducing particle blow-off or reentrainment while the grooves prevent particle bounce. Water droplets and any resuspended material over the 15 micron size are collected by the inertial trap and deposited in a reservoir associated with the impactor.

  9. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 2: Measurements of trace gases with stratospheric or tropospheric origin in the UTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Voigt, Christiane; Schäuble, Dominik; Jeßberger, Philipp; Ziereis, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the role of climate-sensitive trace gas variabilities in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region (UTLS) and their impact on its radiative budget requires accurate measurements. The composition of the UTLS is governed by transport and chemistry of stratospheric and tropospheric constituents, such as chlorine, nitrogen oxide and sulfur compounds. The Atmospheric chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer AIMS has been developed to accurately measure a set of these constituents on aircraft by means of chemical ionization. Here we present a setup using SF5- reagent ions for the simultaneous measurement of trace gas concentrations of HCl, HNO3 and SO2 in the pptv to ppmv (10-12 to 10-6 mol mol-1) range with in-flight and online calibration called AIMS-TG (Atmospheric chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer for measurements of trace gases). Part 1 of this paper (Kaufmann et al., 2016) reports on the UTLS water vapor measurements with the AIMS-H2O configuration. The instrument can be flexibly switched between two configurations depending on the scientific objective of the mission. For AIMS-TG, a custom-made gas discharge ion source has been developed for generation of reagent ions that selectively react with HCl, HNO3, SO2 and HONO. HNO3 and HCl are routinely calibrated in-flight using permeation devices; SO2 is continuously calibrated during flight adding an isotopically labeled 34SO2 standard. In addition, we report on trace gas measurements of HONO, which is sensitive to the reaction with SF5-. The detection limit for the various trace gases is in the low 10 pptv range at a 1 s time resolution with an overall uncertainty of the measurement of the order of 20 %. AIMS has been integrated and successfully operated on the DLR research aircraft Falcon and HALO (High Altitude LOng range research aircraft). As an example, measurements conducted during the TACTS/ESMVal (Transport and Composition of the LMS/UT and Earth System Model Validation) mission with

  10. The ISIS Mission Concept: An Impactor for Surface and Interior Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Elliot, John O.; Abell, Paul A.; Asphaug, Erik; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Lam, Try; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2013-01-01

    The Impactor for Surface and Interior Science (ISIS) mission concept is a kinetic asteroid impactor mission to the target of NASA's OSIRIS-REx (Origins-Spectral Interpretation-Resource Identification-Security-Regolith Explorer) asteroid sample return mission. The ISIS mission concept calls for the ISIS spacecraft, an independent and autonomous smart impactor, to guide itself to a hyper-velocity impact with 1999 RQ36 while the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft observes the collision. Later the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft descends to reconnoiter the impact site and measure the momentum imparted to the asteroid through the impact before departing on its journey back to Earth. In this paper we discuss the planetary science, human exploration and impact mitigation drivers for mission, and we describe the current mission concept and flight system design.

  11. Analytical electron microscopy of LDEF impactor residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Barrett, Ruth A.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    The LDEF contained 57 individual experiment trays or tray portions specifically designed to characterize critical aspects of meteoroid and debris environment in low-Earth orbit (LEO). However, it was realized from the beginning that the most efficient use of the satellite would be to characterize impact features from the entire surface of the LDEF. With this in mind particular interest has focused on common materials facing in all 26 LDEF facing directions; among the most important of these materials has been the tray clamps. Therefore, in an effort to better understand the nature and flux of particulates in LEO, and their effects on spacecraft hardware, we are analyzing residues found in impact features on LDEF tray clamp surfaces. This paper summarizes all data from 79 clamps located on Bay A & B of the LDEF. We also describe current efforts to characterize impactor residues recovered from the impact craters, and we have found that a low, but significant, fraction of these residues have survived in a largely unmelted state. These residues can be characterized sufficiently to permit resolution of the impactor origin. We have concentrated on the residue from chondritic interplanetary dust particles (micrometeoroids), as these represent the harshest test of our analytical capabilities.

  12. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 2: Measurements of trace gases with stratospheric or tropospheric origin in the UTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkat, T.; Kaufmann, S.; Voigt, C.; Schäuble, D.; Jeßberger, P.; Ziereis, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the role of climate-sensitive trace gas variabilities in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region (UTLS) and their impact on its radiative budget requires accurate measurements. The composition of the UTLS is governed by transport and chemistry of stratospheric and tropospheric constituents, such as chlorine, nitrogen oxide and sulphur components. The Airborne chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer AIMS has been developed to accurately measure a set of these constituents on aircraft by means of chemical ionization. Here we present a setup using chemical ionization with SF5- reagent ions for the simultaneous measurement of trace gas concentrations in the pptv to ppmv (10-12 to 10-6 mol mol-1) range of HCl, HNO3 and SO2 with in-flight and online calibration called AIMS-TG. Part 1 of this paper (Kaufmann et al., 2015) reports on the UTLS water vapour measurements with the AIMS-H2O configuration. The instrument can be flexibly switched between two configurations depending on the scientific objective of the mission. For AIMS-TG, a custom-made gas discharge ion source has been developed generating a characteristic ionization scheme. HNO3 and HCl are routinely calibrated in-flight using permeation devices, SO2 is permanently calibrated during flight adding an isotopically labelled 34SO2 standard. In addition, we report on trace gas measurements of HONO which is sensitive to the reaction with SF5-. The detection limit for the various trace gases is in the low ten pptv range at a 1 s time resolution with an overall uncertainty of the measurement in the order of 20 %. AIMS has been integrated and successfully operated on the DLR research aircraft Falcon and HALO. Exemplarily, measurements conducted during the TACTS/ESMVal mission with HALO in 2012 are presented, focusing on a classification of tropospheric and stratospheric influences in the UTLS region. Comparison of AIMS measurements with other measurement techniques allow to draw a comprehensive

  13. ALTERNATIVE APPROACH FOR THE CORRECTION OF BIOAEROSOL DATA COLLECTED WITH MULTIPLE JET IMPACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple jet impactors are routinely used to measure airborne microbial concentrations in a variety of work and residential environments. nalyses of data collected with these units, however, should account for the possibility of multiple impactions at single sites. ata are usuall...

  14. DEVELOPMENT STUDY OF A NOVEL CONTINUOUS-FLOW IMPACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a development study involving feasibility verification of a novel particle impactor in which the impaction surface is the interface between two opposing jets. Particles (which would impact a solid surface in a standard impactor) cross the interface bet...

  15. An ordinary chondrite impactor for the Popigai crater, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagle, Roald; Claeys, Philippe

    2005-06-01

    With a diameter of ˜100 km, Popigai in Northern Siberia is the largest crater known in the Cenozoic. The concentrations in platinum group elements (PGE) were analyzed in twenty samples of homogeneous impact melt collected in the northwestern flank of the crater to identify the composition of the projectile. The method selected was preconcentration by NiS fire assay followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This technique measures all the PGE (except Os) and by using aliquots >10g, the results are highly reproducible. The major and trace element composition of the impact melt resembles that of gneissic lithologies of the Anabar shield, which are representative of the target rock. The PGE are enriched in the melt by factors of 3 to 14 compared to the main target lithology, but the meteoritic contamination is only around 0.2 wt.%. Using plots of elemental ratios such as Ru/Rh vs. Pt/Pd or Ru/Rh vs. Pd/Ir, the Popigai impactor is clearly identified as an ordinary chondrite and most likely L-chondrite. This study indicates that PGE elemental ratios allow discrimination of the type of impactor, even in the case of low meteoritic contamination. This study confirms that a significant fraction of the crater-forming projectiles presently documented could have an ordinary chondrite composition. Their probable source, the S-type asteroids, appears to form the majority of the bodies in the main asteroid belt and among Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The ordinary chondrite origin of the Popigai projectile supports an asteroidal origin for the late Eocene impacts as a plausible alternative to the comet shower scenario proposed by Farley et al. (1998).

  16. Water vapor measurements in- and outside cirrus with the novel water vapor mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Schlage, Romy; Voigt, Christiane; Jurkat, Tina; Krämer, Martina; Rolf, Christian; Zöger, Martin; Schäfler, Andreas; Dörnbrack, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Water vapor plays a crucial role for the earth's climate both directly via its radiative properties and indirectly due to its ability to form clouds. However, accurate measurements of especially low water vapor concentrations prevalent in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are difficult and exhibit large discrepancies between different instruments and methods. In order to address this issue and to provide a comprehensive water vapor data set necessary to gather a complete picture of cloud formation processes, four state-of-the-art hygrometers including the novel water vapor mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O were deployed on the DLR research aircraft HALO during the ML-Cirrus campaign in March/April 2014 over Europe. Here, we present first water vapor measurements of AIMS-H2O on HALO. The instrument performance is validated by intercomparison with the fluorescence hygrometer FISH and the laser hygrometer SHARC, both also mounted in the aircraft. This intercomparison shows good agreement between the instruments from low stratospheric mixing ratios up to higher H2O concentrations at upper tropospheric conditions. Gathering data from over 24 flight hours, no significant offsets between the instruments were found (mean of relative deviation

  17. USE AND LIMITATIONS OF IN-STACK IMPACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A systematic evaluation of the operating parameters for four commercially available in-stack cascade impactors was carried out with polydisperse test aerosols. Test aerosols used were polystyrene latex spheres, uranine, sodium chloride, dioctyl-phthalate, or dinonyl phthalate. Th...

  18. Effect of impactor area on collision rate estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-08-01

    Analytic and numercial estimates provide an assessment of the effect of impactor area on space debris collision rates, which is sufficiently small and insensitive to parameters of inerest that it could be neglected or corrected.

  19. Influence of giant impactors on the terrestrial core formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moll, G.-P.; Golabek, G. J.; Gerya, T. V.

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge about the mechanism of terrestrial core formation is still poorly understood. Current thinking indicates the importance of giant impacts [e.g. Tonks and Melosh, 1993; Rubie et al., 2003] on this process. However it is not clear whether the impactors will be emulsified [Rubie et al., 2003] or will penetrate on a short timescale to the center of the planet [Dahl, 2005; Stevenson, 2008]. In our model we explore the implications of the second mechanism as until now most numerical models of core formation neglected giant impactors. We perform 2D cylindrical simulations using the code I2ELVIS applying the newly developed "spherical-Cartesian" methodology [Gerya and Yuen, 2007]. The code combines finite differences on a fully staggered rectangular Eulerian grid and Lagrangian marker-in-cell technique for solving momentum, continuity and temperature equations as well as the Poisson equation for gravity potential in a self-gravitating planetary body. In the model the planet is surrounded by a low viscosity, massless fluid ("sticky air") to simulate a free surface [Schmeling et al., 2008]. We apply a temperature- and stress-dependent viscoplastic rheology inside planets ranging from Mars- to Earth-size and include heat release due to radioactive decay, shear and adiabatic heating. As initial condition we use randomly distributed iron diapirs with random sizes in the range 50 to 100 km radius inside the accreting planet, which represent the iron delivered by predifferentiated impactors. Additionally we add a giant impactor into the model. For simplicity we neglect the heating of the planet by the impact itself. Additionally we assume the impactor to be at rest at the beginning of the simulation. A systematic investigation of the influence of giant impactors with varying radius on different-sized planets is being performed. Results indicate that for Mars-sized bodies a giant impactor can induce due to shear heating effects a runaway differentiation process limited to

  20. Asteroid deflection using a kinetic impactor: Insights from hypervelocity impact experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerth, Tobias; Schäfer, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the planned AIDA mission [1], an impactor spacecraft (DART) hits the second component of the asteroid Didymos at hypervelocity. The impact crater will be observed from the AIM spacecraft and an observation of the ejecta plume is possible [1]. This allows conclusions to be drawn about the physical properties of the target material, and the momentum transfer will be studied [1]. In preparation for this mission, hypervelocity impact experiments can provide valuable information about the outcome of an impact event as a function of impactor and target material properties and, thus, support the interpretation of the data from the DART impact. In addition, these impact experiments provide an important means to validate numerical impact simulations required to simulate large-scale impacts that cannot be studied in laboratory experiments. Impact experiments have shown that crater morphology and size, crater growth and ejecta dynamics strongly depend on the physical properties of the target material [2]. For example, porous materials like sandstone lead to a shallower and slower ejection than low-porous materials like quartzite, and the cratering efficiency is reduced in porous targets leading to a smaller amount of ejected mass [3]. These phenomena result in a reduced momentum multiplication factor (often called "beta-value"), i.e. the ratio of the change in target momentum after the impact and the momentum of the projectile is smaller for porous materials. Hypervelocity impact experiments into target materials with different porosities and densities such as quartzite (2.9 %, 2.6 g/cm3), sandstone (25.3 %, 2 g/cm3), limestone (31 %, 1.8 g/cm3), and highly porous aerated concrete (87.5 %, 0.4 g/cm3) were conducted. Projectile velocities were varied between about 3 km/s and almost 7 km/s. A ballistic pendulum was used to measure the momentum transfer. The material strength required for scaling laws was determined for all target materials. The highest

  1. Properties of original impactors estimated from three-dimensional analysis of whole Stardust tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Michael; Ebel, Denton S.

    2012-07-25

    The Stardust mission captured comet Wild 2 particles in aerogel at 6.1 km s{sup -1}. We performed high-resolution three-dimensional imaging and X-ray fluorescence mapping of whole cometary tracks in aerogel. We present the results of a survey of track structures using laser scanning confocal microscopy, including measurements of track volumes, entry hole size, and cross-sectional profiles. We compare various methods for measuring track parameters. We demonstrate a methodology for discerning hypervelocity particle ablation rates using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence, combined with mass and volume estimates of original impactors derived from measured track properties. Finally, we present a rough framework for reconstruction of original impactor size, and volume of volatilized material, using our measured parameters. The bulk of this work is in direct support of nondestructive analysis and identification of cometary grains in whole tracks, and its eventual application to the reconstruction of the size, shape, porosity, and chemical composition of whole Stardust impactors.

  2. Constraining the Flux of Impactors Postdating Heavy Bombardment Using U-Pb Ages of Impact Glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemchin, A. A.; Norman, M. L.; Ziegler, R. A.; Grange, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Spherules of glass varying in size from a few micrometres to a few millimetres are common in the lunar regolith. While some of these glass beads are products of pyroclastic fire fountains others originate as impact melt ejected from the target that breaks into small droplets and solidifies as spherical particles while raining back to the lunar surface. These glasses preserve information about the chemical composition of the target and often contain sufficient amount of radioactive nuclides such as 40K to enable Ar-40-Ar-39 dating of individual beads. Studies measuring the age of glass beads have been used in attempts to establish variations in the flux of impactors hitting the Moon, particularly during the period that postdates the formation of major impact basins [1,2]. These studies proposed a possibility of spike in the impact flux about 800 Ma [2] and over the last 400 Ma [1]. More recently U-Th-Pb isotopic systems have been also utilized to determine the age of impact glasses from the Apollo 17 regolith [3]. Our aim is to extend the application of the U-Pb system in impact glasses to spherules isolated from Apollo 14 soil 14163 in an attempt to further investigate the applicability of this isotopic system to the chronology of impact glass beads and gain additional information on the impact flux in the inner Solar system.

  3. Survival of the impactor during hypervelocity collisions - I. An analogue for low porosity targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdellidou, C.; Price, M. C.; Delbo, M.; Ioannidis, P.; Cole, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Recent observations of asteroidal surfaces indicate the presence of materials that do not match the bulk lithology of the body. A possible explanation for the presence of these exogenous materials is that they are products of interasteroid impacts in the Main Belt, and thus interest has increased in understanding the fate of the projectile during hypervelocity impacts. In order to gain insight into the fate of impactor, we have carried out a laboratory programme, covering the velocity range of 0.38-3.50 km s-1, devoted to measuring the survivability, fragmentation and final state of the impactor. Forsterite olivine and synthetic basalt projectiles were fired on to low porosity (<10 per cent) pure water-ice targets using the University of Kent's Light Gas Gun (LGG). We developed a novel method to identify impactor fragments which were found in ejecta and implanted into the target. We applied astronomical photometry techniques, using the SOURCE EXTRACTOR software, to automatically measure the dimensions of thousands of fragments. This procedure enabled us to estimate the implanted mass on the target body, which was found to be a few per cent of the initial mass of the impactor. We calculated an order of magnitude difference in the energy density of catastrophic disruption, Q*, between peridot and basalt projectiles. However, we found very similar behaviour of the size frequency distributions for the hypervelocity shots (>1 km s-1). After each shot, we examined the largest peridot fragments with Raman spectroscopy and no melt or alteration in the final state of the projectile was observed.

  4. Differential impact cratering of Saturn's satellites by heliocentric impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Naoyuki

    2016-02-01

    Saturnian satellites are thought to have been struck by two different types of impactors: those with heliocentric origins and those with planetocentric origins. Many of the impacts are suggested to come from planetocentric debris, while many crater count studies assume an ecliptic comet origin when determining the ages of the surfaces. To assess the contribution of planetocentric impactors, this study examines the global distribution and apex-antapex asymmetry of impact craters on Rhea and Iapetus. The results demonstrate that the craters of Rhea (more than 20 km in diameter) and Iapetus (more than 30 km in diameter) show an apex-antapex asymmetry. This suggests that most of the large craters are formed from heliocentric impacts. In contrast, the craters less than 20 km in diameter seem to show no asymmetry. Possible explanations for this are either planetocentric impactor origins or saturation with impact craters.

  5. The impactor flux in the Pluto-Charon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, Paul R.; Stern, S. Alan

    1994-01-01

    Current impact rates of comets on Pluto and Charon are estimated. It is shown that the dominant sources of impactors are comets from the Kuiper belt and the inner Oort cloud, each of whose perihelion distribution extends across Pluto's orbit. In contrast, long-period comets from the outer Oort cloud are a negligible source of impactors. The total predicted number of craters is not sufficient to saturate the surface areas of either Pluto of Charon over the age of the Solar System. However, heavy cratering may have occurred early in the Solar System's history during clearing of planetesimals from the outer planets' zone.

  6. ESA NEOCC effort to eliminate high Palermo Scale virtual impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, M.; Koschny, D.; Hainaut, O.; Bernardi, F.

    2014-07-01

    recovery observations of a few very faint high-PS objects, and the follow-up observations of recently discovered objects during the outgoing phase of their apparition, down to magnitude 25 or so. Most of these observations were obtained within an accepted DDT proposal of an ESA/ESO team, which gives us access on short notice to the observational capabilities of the 8.2 meter Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal, Chile. The instrument has been used to successfully detect targets fainter than V=25, and provide high-accuracy astrometry which in most cases has been sufficient to remove the impact solutions from the allowed future dynamics of the object. As a main focus of our activities at the ESA NEOCC we are also actively soliciting observations of NEOs by other worldwide observers which are known to have access to the most appropriate facilities for each target (in terms of telescope aperture, camera FoV and/or geographic location). We will also quickly summarize the results of some of these activities. In the second part of this contribution, we will present the result of a focused precovery effort by our team, which led to the identification, measurement and submission of previously unrecognized archival detections of possible impactors, most of which scored particularly high in the PS ranking, but would nevertheless have been unobservable for the imminent future. We will discuss a couple of interesting cases which could be entirely excluded as a risk thanks to the addition of faint detections we located in data from the Canada- France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), and an interesting case of a ''chain of precoveries'' where a first short-arc precovery allowed for the identification of additional observations obtained more than a decade earlier, which in turn lead to the elimination of the impact risk from that object. We will also discuss how a real time access to the data of current surveys like Pan-STARRS can allow almost immediate precovery observations of recently

  7. Taking Triple Aim at the Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Stirling; Donaldson, Cam

    2016-01-01

    Since its introduction to the USA, the Triple Aim is now being adopted in the healthcare systems of other advanced economies. Verma and Bhatia (2016) (V&B) argue that provincial governments in Canada now need to step up to the plate and lead on the implementation of a Triple Aim reform program here. Their proposals are wide ranging and ambitious, looking for governments to act as the "integrators" within the healthcare system, and lead the reforms. Our view is that, as a vision and set of goals for the healthcare system, the Triple Aim is all well and good, but as a pathway for system reform, as articulated by V&B, it misses the mark in at least three important respects. First, the emphasis on improvement driven by performance measurement and pay-for-performance is troubling and flies in the face of emerging evidence. Second, we know that scarcity can be recognized and managed, even in politically complex systems, and so we urge the Triple Aim proponents to embrace more fully notions of resource stewardship. Third, if we want to take seriously "population health" goals, we need to think very differently and consider broader health determinants; Triple Aim innovation targeted at healthcare systems will not deliver the goals. PMID:27009583

  8. INTERCOMP2000: ionic constitution and comparison of filter and impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieprecht, Wolfgang; Acker, Karin; Müller, Konrad; Spindler, Gerald; Brüggemann, Erika; Maenhaut, Willy; Chi, Xuguang; Hitzenberger, Regina; Bauer, Heidi; Brink, Harry ten

    The field campaign INTERCOMP2000 was organised within the EUROTRAC-2 subproject AEROSOL for characterisation of aerosol at a rural site. The groups involved used a wide range of measurement methods for aerosol particles. Although the focus was on critical aerosol properties like mass, nitrate and carbon, in this paper particular attention is given to the role of inorganic soluble material being main part of the cloud condensation nuclei. Here, we compare methods used in Europe also for inorganic ion mass concentrations: three high-volume samplers (2 Digitel and 1 Sierra Andersen, equipped with quartz fibre filters), four low-volume samplers (1 Rupprecht Patashnik with Teflon filter; 3 stacked filter units with Teflon, cellulose ester or Whatman 41 filter), and 2 low-pressure impactors (Berner type with Tedlar foils). Ten parallel 24 h samples were compared. The data for the main ions nitrate, sulphate and ammonium agree well for the PM10 as well for PM2.5 aerosol fraction; relative standard deviation of about 20-40% were found. The single values for calcium, sodium and chloride which contribute only minor to the soluble inorganic mass scatter very strongly around the calculated averages: about 50% in PM10 mode, and even 100% in PM2.5 mode. While laboratory calibrations typically indicate performance close to design specifications, methods during field operation are subject to a number of sampling and handling artefacts. We know that the different sampling principles used in this study, and the analytical procedures done by each group with their own methodology will cause a main part of the observed uncertainties. In reality, due to different reasons (availability, costs, manpower, different analysis from the same sample, size and time resolution, etc) in many networks and field studies a high variability of methods for aerosol characterisation is used and often those experimental figures will be used for statistical interpretations. Thus, our paper will emphasise

  9. AIM Spacecraft Instruments

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  15. Experimental Characterization of Microfabricated VirtualImpactor Efficiency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air-Microfluidics Group is developing a microelectromechanical systems-based direct reading particulate matter (PM) mass sensor. The sensor consists of two main components: a microfabricated virtual impactor (VI) and a PM mass sensor. The VI leverages particle inertia to sepa...

  16. EFFECTS OF CHARGED PARTICLES ON CASCADE IMPACTOR CALIBRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a determination of collection characteristics for charged and uncharged particles in cascade impactors. Impaction collection efficiency was shown to be as much as 20 percent greater for charged particles than for uncharged particles with certain substr...

  17. HIGH VOLUME VIRTUAL IMPACTOR FOR SAMPLING FINE AND COARSE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Final design, calibration, and field testing have been completed for a new 1.3 m3/min (40 cfm) High-Volume Virtual Impactor (HVVI). ield tests have demonstrated that the new classifier/collector works well as an accessory to the existing PM10 Size Selective Inlet high-volume samp...

  18. Particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    DOEpatents

    Langer, Gerhard

    1988-08-16

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented impactor slots of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind the relatively larger particles according to the human thoracic separation system and passes through two elongate exhaust apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. The elongate exhaust apertures defining the impaction collection surface are spaced apart by a distance greater than the lengths of elongate impactor slots in the inlet element and are oriented to be normal thereto. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of impactor slots air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the impactor slots, in order to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks.

  19. INERTIAL CASCADE IMPACTOR SUBSTRATE MEDIA FOR FLUE GAS SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes Southern Research Institute's experience with greases and glass fiber filter material used as collection substrates in inertial cascade impactors. Available greases and glass fiber filter media have been tested to determine which are most suitable for flue g...

  20. INVERTING CASCADE IMPACTOR DATA FOR SIZE-RESOLVED CHARACTERIZATION OF FINE PARTICULATE SOURCE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cascade impactors are particularly useful in determining the mass size distributions of particulate and individual chemical species. The impactor raw data must be inverted to reconstruct a continuous particle size distribution. An inversion method using a lognormal function for p...

  1. Measurement and Analysis of Olfactory Responses with the Aim of Establishing an Objective Diagnostic Method for Central Olfactory Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Tominori; Wang, Li-Qun; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo

    In order to establish a new diagnostic method for central olfactory disorders and to identify objective indicators, we measured and analyzed brain activities in the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus, region of responsibility for central olfactory disorders. The relationship between olfactory stimulation and brain response at region of responsibility can be examined in terms of fitted responses (FR). FR in these regions may be individual indicators of changes in brain olfactory responses. In the present study, in order to non-invasively and objectively measure olfactory responses, an odor oddball task was conducted on four healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a odorant stimulator with blast-method. The results showed favorable FR and activation in the parahippocampal gyrus or uncus in all subjects. In some subjects, both the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus were activated. Furthermore, activation was also confirmed in the cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and insula. The hippocampus and uncus are known to be involved in the olfactory disorders associated with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and other olfactory disorders. In the future, it will be necessary to further develop the present measurement and analysis method to clarify the relationship between central olfactory disorders and brain activities and establish objective indicators that are useful for diagnosis.

  2. LEO-to-ground polarization measurements aiming for space QKD using Small Optical TrAnsponder (SOTA).

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Kunimori, Hiroo; Takenaka, Hideki; Kubo-Oka, Toshihiro; Akioka, Maki; Fuse, Tetsuharu; Koyama, Yoshisada; Kolev, Dimitar; Munemasa, Yasushi; Toyoshima, Morio

    2016-05-30

    Quantum communication, and more specifically Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), enables the transmission of information in a theoretically secure way, guaranteed by the laws of quantum physics. Although fiber-based QKD has been readily available since several years ago, a global quantum communication network will require the development of space links, which remains to be demonstrated. NICT launched a LEO satellite in 2014 carrying a lasercom terminal (SOTA), designed for in-orbit technological demonstrations. In this paper, we present the results of the campaign to measure the polarization characteristics of the SOTA laser sources after propagating from LEO to ground. The most-widely used property for encoding information in free-space QKD is the polarization, and especially the linear polarization. Therefore, studying its behavior in a realistic link is a fundamental step for proving the feasibility of space quantum communications. The results of the polarization preservation of two highly-polarized lasers are presented here, including the first-time measurement of a linearly-polarized source at λ = 976 nm and a circularly-polarized source at λ = 1549 nm from space using a realistic QKD-like receiver, installed in the Optical Ground Station at the NICT Headquarters, in Tokyo, Japan. PMID:27410141

  3. Re-accretion Efficiencies in Small Impactor - Large Target Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, Tim; Wurm, G.; Jens, T.

    2013-10-01

    During the formation process of planets, small dust particles grow to km-sized planetesimals via collisions. While the collision partners are equally sized in early phases, fragmentation, catastrophic destruction and other recycling processes can lead to collisions between partners with various size ranges. The gas in protoplanetary disks exerts size- and mass-dependent drag forces on the dust particles and bodies present which is why the relative velocities between the small particles and larger bodies increase. A field of investigation are the small-impactor large-target collisions where (partial) erosion can occur and small ejected dust particles can be produced. These ejecta can couple to the gas quite rapidly and can then be recaptured by the target and stick to it in secondary collisions. We use a Monte-Carlo code to calculate re-accretion efficiencies under certain conditions i.e. in free molecular flow regime (stream lines end on target body; impactors are completely coupled to the gas). Using experimental data we developed a model for the amount, masses, directions, and velocities of the ejecta depending on the impactor mass and velocity and the position of impact. The amount of re-accreted ejecta as well as the total re-accreted mass can be determined by using the solution of the equation of motion for particles in gaseous environments. Both - the amount dependent efficiency as well as the mass dependent efficiency - are highly dependent on the seven free parameters (impact velocity, impactor size and density, target size and density, gas pressure and temperature) but generally benefit from high gas velocities and a large size difference between target and impactor. Our final intention is to provide an analytical expression for the re-accretion efficiencies in respect to the free parameters and to use this in different disk models for sweeping the free parameters dependent on the distance to the central star. One major advantage of our code is the

  4. Asteroid Impact Mission (aim) & Deflection Assessment: AN Opportunity to Understand Impact Dynamics and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvez, A.; Carnelli, I.; Fontaine, M.; Corral Van Damme, C.

    2012-09-01

    ESA's Future Preparation and Strategic Studies Office has carried out the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) study with the objective of defining an affordable and fully independent mission element that ESA could contribute to an Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment campaign (AIDA), a joint effort of ESA, JHU/APL, NASA, OCA and DLR. The mission design foresees two independent spacecraft, one impactor (DART) and one rendezvous probe (AIM). The target of this mission is the binary asteroid system (65803) Didymos (1996 GT): one spacecraft, DART, would impact the secondary of the Didymos binary system while AIM would observe and measure any the change in the relative orbit. For this joint project, the timing of the experiment is set (maximum proximity of the target to Earth allowing for ground-based characterisation of the experiment) but the spacecraft are still able to pursue their missions fully independently. This paper describes in particular the AIM rendezvous mission concept.

  5. Analysis of portable impactor performance for enumeration of viable bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Yao, Maosheng; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2007-07-01

    Portable impactors are increasingly being used to estimate concentration of bioaerosols in residential and occupational environments; however, little data are available about their performance. This study investigated the overall performances of the SMA MicroPortable, BioCulture, Microflow, Microbiological Air Sampler (MAS-100), Millipore Air Tester, SAS Super 180, and RCS High Flow portable microbial samplers when collecting bacteria and fungi both indoors and outdoors. The performance of these samplers was compared with that of the BioStage impactor. The Button Aerosol Sampler equipped with gelatin filter was also included in the study. Results showed that the sampling environment can have a statistically significant effect on sampler performance, most likely due to the differences in airborne microorganism composition and/or their size distribution. Data analysis using analysis of variance showed that the relative performance of all samplers (except the RCS High Flow and MAS-100) was statistically different (lower) compared with the BioStage. The MAS-100 also had statistically higher performance compared with other portable samplers except the RCS High Flow. The Millipore Air Tester and the SMA had the lowest performances. The relative performance of the impactors was described using a multiple linear regression model (R(2) = 0.83); the effects of the samplers' cutoff sizes and jet-to-plate distances as predictor variables were statistically significant. The data presented in this study will help field professionals in selecting bioaerosol samplers. The developed empirical formula describing the overall performance of bioaerosol impactors can assist in sampler design. PMID:17538812

  6. Impact Crater Size-Frequency Distributions (SFD) on Saturnian Satellites in Comparison with Possible Impactor Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedemann, Nico; Neukum, Gerhard; Denk, Tilmann; Wagner, Roland; Hartmann, Oliver

    2010-05-01

    One of the major goals of the Cassini imaging experiment (ISS) is the examination of the geologic history of the saturnian satellites [1]. The understanding of the impact crater SFD of the saturnian satellites allows insights of the bombardment history of the early outer solar system. Thus it provides not only information of the geologic development of the target bodies but is also key for the determination of the impactor sources as well. The impact-crater SFD of the mid-sized saturnian satellites has been measured as described by [2]. There are high similarities in the shapes of the asteroid-body SFD around the 3:1 mean motion resonance (MMR) gap with Jupiter and the measured impact crater SFD on the saturnian satellites. This allows for an estimation of the impact-crater scaling. The observationally derived scale factor between the impactor diameter and the respective impact-crater diameter is about three to four in case of Iapetus's larger craters and doesn't change much on other mid-sized saturnian satellites like Rhea or Dione. Hence, by shifting the impact-crater SFD curve of Iapetus to smaller sizes by the amount of the scaling factor of three to four, we get the impactor-body SFD for Iapetus. Thus we can compare the impactor-body SFD of Iapetus with body SFD of possible populations of impacting bodies like Kuiper- Belt objects (KBO), asteroids or the irregular satellites of Saturn. As stated by [3], intensive analyses of the impact crater diameter SFDs of the surfaces of the inner solar system bodies have revealed a characteristic W-shaped curve in the R-plot. The measurements of the crater-diameter SFD on the saturnian satellites Mimas, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, and Iapetus also show high similarities to those W-shaped curves of the inner solar system bodies. The derived body SFD of the asteroid belt (method of abs. magnitude to size conversion by [4]) around the 3:1 MMR with Jupiter gives a very good match to the lunar SFD and thus to the jovian and saturnian

  7. Multi-shock assembly for protecting a spacecraft surface from hypervelocity impactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvorak, Bruce D. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A hypervelocity impact shield assembly for protecting a spacecraft surface from hypervelocity impactors. The shield assembly includes at least one sacrificial impactor disrupting/shocking layer of hypervelocity impactor disrupting/shocking material. A primary spacing element, including space-rated open cell foam material, is positioned between the at least one sacrificial impactor disrupting/shocking layer and a spacecraft surface. A cover member is arranged and disposed relative to the sacrificial impactor disrupting/shocking layer and the primary spacing element to maintain the integrity of the hypervelocity impact shield assembly. In the event of exposure to a hypervelocity impactor, the sacrificial impactor disrupting/shocking layer is perforated while shocking the impactor breaking it into fragments, and/or melting it, and/or vaporizing it, thus providing a dispersion in the form of an expanding debris cloud/plume which spreads the impact energy of the impactor over a volume formed by the primary spacing element between the sacrificial impactor disrupting/shocking layer and the spacecraft surface. This significantly reduces impact lethality at the spacecraft surface. The space-rated open cell foam material provides an extremely lightweight, low-cost, efficient means of spacing and supporting the at least one sacrificial impactor disrupting/shocking layer before, during, and after launch. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is in the form of a multi-shock assembly including a plurality of sacrificial impactor disrupting/shocking layers. In such instance, the hypervelocity impact shield assembly includes a plurality of secondary spacing elements. Each secondary spacing element is positioned adjacent an associated sacrificial impactor disrupting/shocking layer to form a multi-shock subassembly. Thus, a plurality of multi-shock subassemblies are provided which include alternating layers of sacrificial impactor disrupting/shocking layers and secondary spacing

  8. Collection efficiency and interstage loss of nanoparticles in micro-orifice-based cascade impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Nan; Awasthi, Amit; Hung, Yi-Hung; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn

    2013-04-01

    In this study, two micro-orifice-based cascade impactors, including the micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI, MSP Model 110) and the NCTU micro-orifice cascade impactor (NMCI), were tested for the collection efficiency and interstage loss of nanoparticles. In the NMCI, new nozzle plates with smooth nozzle shape made by the LIGA (Lithography, Electroplating, and Molding) process were used to replace the 7th-10th stages in one of the MOUDI. Test results show that after adjusting proper S/W ratios (S: jet to plate distance, W: nozzle diameter) to 2.52, 3.01, 13.44, and 24.75 for the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th stage of the NMCI, respectively, and 5.56, 11.18, 9.3, and 10.9 for the 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th stage of the MOUDI, respectively, the cutoff aerodynamic diameters (dpa50) are close to the nominal values given in Marple et al. (1991). Different S/W ratios are needed due to differences in the nozzle shape and nozzle diameter between two cascade impactors. Total interstage loss of nanoparticles from the inlet to the 6th-10th stage of the MOUDI exists due to the convection-diffusion mechanism, which increases with decreasing dpa. For the MOUDI, total loss is 2.9-15.3 % (dpa: 105.8 to 15.4 nm) for the inlet to the 6th stage and it increases to 20.1-26.1 % (dpa: 23 to 15.4 nm) for the inlet to the 10th stage, respectively. Similar but slightly lower loss also exists in the NMCI. Field comparison tests in the ambient air show that mass size distributions measured by the MOUDI agree well with those of the NMCI. Finally, nozzle clogging tests using high concentration incense smokes indicate that the NMCI has a much less tendency for particles to clog in the nozzles than the MODUI.

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Graded Impedance Gas Gun Impactors from Tape Cast Metal Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L P; Nguyen, J H

    2005-11-21

    Fabrication of compositionally graded structures for use as light-gas gun impactors has been demonstrated using a tape casting technique. Mixtures of metal powders in the Mg-Cu system were cast into a series of tapes with uniform compositions ranging from 100% Mg to 100% Cu. The individual compositions were fabricated into monolithic pellets for characterization by laminating multiple layers together, thermally removing the organics, and hot-pressing to near-full density. The pellets were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and measurement of density and sound wave velocity. The density and acoustic impedance were observed to vary monotonically (and nearly linearly) with composition. Graded structures were fabricated by stacking layers of different compositions in a sequence calculated to yield a desired acoustic impedance profile. The measured physical properties of the graded structures compare favorably with those predicted from the monolithic-pellet characteristics. Fabrication of graded impactors by this technique is of significant interest for providing improved control of the pressure profile in gas gun experiments.

  10. Orbital and Physical Characteristics of Meter-sized Earth Impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter G.; Wiegert, Paul; Clark, David; Tagliaferri, Edward

    2015-11-01

    We have analysed the orbits and ablation characteristics in the atmosphere of more than 60 earth-impacting meteoroids of one meter in diameter or larger. Using heights at peak luminosity as a proxy for strength, we find that there is roughly an order of magnitude spread in the apparent strength of the population of meter-sized impactors at the Earth. The orbits and physical strength of these objects are consistent with the majority being asteroidal bodies originating from the inner main asteroid belt. We find ~10-15% of our objects have a probable cometary (Jupiter-Family comet and/or Halley-type comet) origin based on orbital characteristics alone. Only half this number, however, show evidence for the expected weaker than average structure compared to asteroidal bodies. Almost all impactors show peak brightness between 20-40 km altitude. Several events have exceptionally high (relative to the remainder of the population) heights of peak brightness. These are physically most consistent with high microporosity objects, though all were on asteroidal-type orbits. We also find three events, including the Oct 8, 2009 airburst near Sulawesi, Indonesia, which display comparatively low heights of peak brightness, consistent with strong monolithic stones or iron meteoroids. Based on orbital similarity, we find a probable connection among several NEOs in our population with the Taurid meteoroid complex. No other major meteoroid streams show linkages with the pre-atmospheric orbits of our meter-class impactors. Our events cover almost four orders of magnitude in mass, but no trend in height of peak brightness is evident, suggesting no strong trend in strength with size for small NEOs, a finding consistent with the results of Popova et al (2011).

  11. Craters on Pluto and Charon: Characteristics and Impactor Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Kelsi N.; Schenk, Paul M.; Robbins, Stuart J.; Bray, Veronica J.; McKinnon, William B.; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Spencer, John R.; Stern, S. A.; Grundy, W. M.; Howett, Carly J. A.; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Beyer, Ross; Parker, Alex H.; Porter, Simon B.; Zangari, Amanda M.; Young, Leslie A.; Olkin, Cathy B.; Ennico, Kimberly

    2015-11-01

    Although both Pluto and Charon have a surprising number of young-looking surfaces, there are still plenty of craters for impact-phenomenon enthusiasts. We will present size, morphology, ejecta, and albedo pattern statistics, in addition to correlations with color/composition where possible. We use images and topography from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI; Cheng et al., 2008, SSR 140, 189-215) and data from the Ralph (Reuter et al., 2008, SSR 140, 129-154) color/composition instruments.Impactor sizes will be estimated from relevant scaling laws for cold water ice (see details in Singer and Stern, 2015, ApJL 808, L50). For Pluto, an image strip at 125 m px-1 includes some cratered terrains, and much of the encounter hemisphere (the anti-Charon hemisphere) will be covered at ~400 m px-1. The ~smallest craters observable at these pixel scales (using a 5 pixel limit) would be ~0.63 km, and ~2 km in diameter, respectively, with impactor diameters estimated at ~50 m, and ~200 m. However, it is likely that degradation processes may obscure small craters, thus this lower observation limit will depend on terrain type. Additionally, lighting and observation geometries vary across the disk, which may make crater detection difficult in some areas. All of the illuminated portions of Pluto (during its 6.4 day rotation period) were imaged at ~20 km px-1 or better during the encounter. The highest resolution images of Pluto (at ~80 m px-1) occur in a narrow strip and are not scheduled for downlink before the DPS.The highest resolution Charon coverage (a strip at ~160 m px-1), a broader swath at 400 m px-1, and the entire encounter hemisphere (the sub-Pluto hemisphere) at ~890 m px-1 may yield craters as small as 0.8, 2, and 4.5 km in diameter, respectively. The inferred impactor sizes for these craters would be ~50 m, 160 m, and 440 m.Although the dataset is limited, we will discuss what constraints can be put on the impactor population. This work was supported by the

  12. Earth impactors: threat analysis and multistage intervention mission architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy; Fevig, Ronald A.

    2012-06-01

    Earth impactors (EIs) pose a significant threat. Upon EI detection, a response mission is required. The proposed architecture is suitable for responding to 75% of EIs. For rapid response, the reconnaissance and the tactical nuclear intervener craft are launched in close succession. The extended response timeframe allows collected data analysis before launching an intervener craft to slowly shift the EI's orbit. A small spacecraft equipped with a radio science package, visual camera, multi-spectral imager, LIDAR and, optionally, a radar tomography sensor will be used for reconnaissance. Sensor tasking and control will be autonomous based on controller-supplied objectives.

  13. The origin of planetary impactors in the inner solar system.

    PubMed

    Strom, Robert G; Malhotra, Renu; Ito, Takashi; Yoshida, Fumi; Kring, David A

    2005-09-16

    Insights into the history of the inner solar system can be derived from the impact cratering record of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury and from the size distributions of asteroid populations. Old craters from a unique period of heavy bombardment that ended approximately 3.8 billion years ago were made by asteroids that were dynamically ejected from the main asteroid belt, possibly due to the orbital migration of the giant planets. The impactors of the past approximately 3.8 billion years have a size distribution quite different from that of the main belt asteroids but very similar to that of near-Earth asteroids. PMID:16166515

  14. Particle-bound PAHs quantification using a 3-stages cascade impactor in French indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Liaud, Céline; Dintzer, Thierry; Tschamber, Valérie; Trouve, Gwénaëlle; Le Calvé, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    Cascade Impactor is a powerful sampling method to collect airborne particles as a function of their size. The 3-stages Cascade Impactor used in this study allowed to sample simultaneously particles with aerodynamic diameter Dae>10 μm, 2.5 μmmeasured elsewhere in European indoor environments. PMID:25194273

  15. Nonideal collection characteristics of a cascade impactor with various collection substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, E.B.; Newton, G.J.; Yeh, H.C.

    1982-09-01

    A series of collection substrates was used to evaluate the dependence of collection efficiency on substrate type on one stage of a seven-stage cascade impactor. Data obtained were used to determine which substrates yielded the best collection characteristics for cascade impactors. Stainless steel, silver membrane filters, and cellulose acetate membrane filters as cascade impactor collection substrates showed stage collection characteristics that closely fit theoretical predictions. Fiber-type substrates showed the most deviation from the theoretical efficiency curve.

  16. The FBI Takes Aim at AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Elliot

    1977-01-01

    The events and revelations before and since the arrest of Paul Skyhorse and Richard Mohawk (two American Indian Movement organizers charged with the 1974 murder of a taxi driver at AIM Camp 13) lead to the inevitable conclusion that these men are victims of a frame-up. (Author/JC)

  17. The dynamics of impactors on a synchronous planetary satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsecchi, Giovanni B.; Alessi, Elisa Maria; Rossi, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    We have applied the extension of Opik's theory of close encounters by Valsecchi et al. (2003) to the case of a satellite in a circular orbit about a planet that, in turn, is in a circular orbit about the Sun, with the further assumption that the plane of the planetocentric orbit of the satellite is the same as that of the heliocentric orbit of the planet.The goal is to understand the effects on the satellite surface of the cratering caused by impacts due to a population of small bodies on planet-crossing, inclined orbits.With this setup, we have computed analytically the velocity and the elongation from the apex of the bodies impacting the satellite, as simple functions of the heliocentric orbital elements of the impactor and of the longitude of the satellite at impact (Valsecchi et al. 2014).In the present work, we delve deeper into the dynamics of the impactors, taking into account the gravitational deflection induced by the gravity of the planet; in this way, we are able to treat also trajectories leading to impacts on the satellite just after a close encounter with the planet.

  18. The dynamics of impactors on a synchronous planetary satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsecchi, G.; Alessi, E.; Rossi, A.

    2014-07-01

    We have applied the extension of Opik's theory of close encounters by Valsecchi et al. (2003) to the case of a satellite in a circular orbit about a planet that, in turn, is in a circular orbit about the Sun, with the further assumption that the plane of the planetocentric orbit of the satellite is the same as that of the heliocentric orbit of the planet. The goal is to understand the effects on the satellite surface of the cratering caused by impacts due to a population of small bodies on planet-crossing, inclined orbits. With this setup, we have already computed analytically the velocity and the elongation from the apex of the bodies impacting the satellite, as simple functions of the heliocentric orbital elements of the impactor and of the longitude of the satellite at impact. In the present work, we delve deeper into the dynamics of the impactors, taking into account also trajectories leading to impacts on the satellite just after a close encounter with the Earth.

  19. Characterization of a Regenerable Impactor Filter for Spacecraft Cabin Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2015-01-01

    Regenerable filters will play an important role in human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. Life Support Systems aboard crewed spacecrafts will have to operate reliably and with little maintenance over periods of more than a year, even multiple years. Air filters are a key component of spacecraft life support systems, but they often require frequent routine maintenance. Bacterial filters aboard the International Space Station require almost weekly cleaning of the pre-filter screen to remove large lint debris captured in the microgravity environment. The source of the airborne matter which is collected on the filter screen is typically from clothing fibers, biological matter (hair, skin, nails, etc.) and material wear. Clearly a need for low maintenance filters requiring little to no crew intervention will be vital to the success of the mission. An impactor filter is being developed and tested to address this need. This filter captures large particle matter through inertial separation and impaction methods on collection surfaces, which can be automatically cleaned after they become heavily loaded. The impactor filter can serve as a pre-filter to augment the life of higher efficiency filters that capture fine and ultrafine particles. A prototype of the filter is being tested at the Particulate Filtration Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center to determine performance characteristics, including particle cut size and overall efficiency. Model results are presented for the flow characteristics near the orifice plate through which the particle-laden flow is accelerated as well as around the collection bands.

  20. Closed loop terminal guidance navigation for a kinetic impactor spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam; Kennedy, Brian

    2014-10-01

    A kinetic impactor spacecraft is a viable method to deflect an asteroid which poses a threat to the Earth. The technology to perform such a deflection has been demonstrated by the Deep Impact (DI) mission, which successfully collided with comet Tempel 1 in July 2005 using an onboard autonomous navigation system, called AutoNav, for the terminal phase of the mission. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of AutoNav to impact a wider range of scenarios that a deflection mission could encounter, varying parameters such as the approach velocity, phase angle, size of the asteroid, and the attitude determination accuracy. In particular, we evaluated the capability of AutoNav to impact 100-300 m size asteroids at speeds between 7.5 and 20 km/s at various phase angles. Using realistic Monte Carlo simulations, we tabulated the probability of success of the deflection as a function of these parameters and find the highest sensitivity to be due to the spacecraft attitude determination error. In addition, we also specifically analyzed the impact probability for a proposed mission (called ISIS) which would send an impactor to the asteroid 1999RQ36. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  1. An automated system for the prediction of imminent impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoto, Federica; Milani Comparetti, Andrea; Tommei, Giacomo; Bernardi, Fabrizio; Del Vigna, Alessio

    2015-08-01

    The lack of an automated system for the prediction of short-term impacts became evident for the first time after the impact of the asteroid 2014 AA on the Earth. In such cases it is very important to know whether or not there is the possibility of an immediate impact with the Earth. The impact probability computation is a difficult tasks because these objects usually have very few observations, and it strongly depends upon the astrometric errors of the observations, the assumed population model and the minimum size of impactors.We present a new automatic tool for the computation of the risk assessment within few minutes from the posting of new observations of a recently detected object on the MPC-NEOCP list. This activity is by far different from the classical impact monitoring of CLOMON-NEODyS2. When such asteroids are discovered, the confidence region resulting from preliminary orbit determination is not elongated in one direction, thus the Line of Variations (LOV) is not representative of the entire region. Therefore we need to introduce the Manifold of Variations (MOV) to predict imminent impactors. We also assign a Probability Density Function to the MOV, taking into account the observations, but also some constraints deriving from the population models.

  2. Closed Loop Terminal Guidance Navigation for a Kinetic Impactor Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam; Kennedy, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A kinetic impactor spacecraft is a viable method to deflect an asteroid which poses a threat to the Earth. The technology to perform such a deflection has been demonstrated by the Deep Impact (DI) mission, which successfully collided with comet Tempel 1 in July 2005 using an onboard autonomous navigation system, called AutoNav, for the terminal phase of the mission. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of AutoNav to impact a wide range of scenarios that an deflection mission could encounter, varying parameters such as the approach velocity, phase angle, size of the asteroid, and the determination of spacecraft attitude. Using realistic Monte Carlo simulations, we tabulated the probability of success of the deflection as a function of these parameters, and the highest sensitivity to be due the spacecraft attitude determination mode. In addition, we also specifically analyzed the impact probability for a proposed mission which would send an impactor to the asteroid 1999RQ36. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  3. Good Cascade Impactor Practice (GCIP) and considerations for "in-use" specifications.

    PubMed

    Nichols, S C; Mitchell, J P; Shelton, C M; Roberts, D L

    2013-03-01

    The multi-stage cascade impactor (CI) is widely used to determine aerodynamic particle size distributions (APSDs) of orally inhaled products. Its size-fractionating capability depends primarily on the size of nozzles of each stage. Good Cascade Impactor Practice (GCIP) requires that these critical dimensions are linked to the accuracy of the APSD measurement based on the aerodynamic diameter size scale. Effective diameter (Deff) is the critical dimension describing any nozzle array, as it is directly related to stage cut-point size (d50). d50 can in turn be determined by calibration using particles of known aerodynamic diameter, providing traceability to the international length standard. Movements in Deff within manufacturer tolerances for compendial CIs result in the worst case in shifts in d50 of <±10%. Stage mensuration therefore provides satisfactory control of measurement accuracy. The accurate relationship of Deff to d50 requires the CI system to be leak-free, which can be checked by sealing the apparatus at the entry to the induction port and isolating it from the vacuum source and measuring the rate of pressure rise before each use. Mensuration takes place on an infrequent basis compared with the typical interval between individual APSD determinations. Measurement of stage flow resistance (pressure drop; ΔPstage) could enable the user to know that the CI stages are fit for use before every APSD measurement, by yielding an accurate measure of Deff. However, more data are needed to assess the effects of wear and blockage before this approach can be advocated as part of GCIP. PMID:23344853

  4. Precision disablement aiming system

    DOEpatents

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  5. Terrestrial impactors at geological boundary events - Comets or asteroids?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    In the present evaluation of evidence presented to date for a 26-28 million year periodicity in the extinction record and the age of large, well dated terrestrial impact craters, it is noted that no simple, one-to-one relationship emerges between major asteroid and/or comet impacts, siderophile anomalies, and biological extinction events. While impacts may indeed be the major extinction-triggering event in some or even most cases, either other major events, or secondary effects of the impacts, may be the actual extinction-causing mechanism. Long term obscuration of insolation, planetary cooling, or lethal atmospheric pollution may vary among extinctions, depending on the actual state of the planet and its biota during the geological period in question. The source of 28 million year-period asteroidal impactors, moreover, remains unknown and thereby casts doubt on the entire periodicity scenario.

  6. Flight Operations for the LCROSS Lunar Impactor Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Paul D.; Hunt, Rusty; D'Ortenzio, Matt D.; Strong, James; Galal, Ken; Bresina, John L.; Foreman, Darin; Barber, Robert; Shirley, Mark; Munger, James; Drucker, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The LCROSS (Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite) mission was conceived as a low-cost means of determining the nature of hydrogen concentrated at the polar regions of the moon. Co-manifested for launch with LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter), LCROSS guided its spent Centaur upper stage into the Cabeus crater as a kinetic impactor, and observed the impact flash and resulting debris plume for signs of water and other compounds from a Shepherding Spacecraft. Led by NASA Ames Research Center, LCROSS flight operations spanned 112 days, from June 18 through October 9, 2009. This paper summarizes the experiences from the LCROSS flight, highlights the challenges faced during the mission, and examines the reasons for its ultimate success.

  7. The current impactor flux on Mars and its seasonal variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JeongAhn, Youngmin; Malhotra, Renu

    2014-11-01

    We calculate the current impactor flux on Mars and its variation over the Martian year, using the available data on the orbital distribution of known Mars-crossing minor planets. To mitigate the problem of observational incompleteness, we adopt the orbital distribution of the nearly complete set of bright (absolute magnitude H<16) Mars-crossers as the intrinsic orbital distribution of the impactor population, and we use this distribution to generate a large number of clones to simulate the impact flux. We use the Öpik-Wetherill formulation for calculating collision probabilities. Our study pays careful attention to the effects of the non-uniform distribution of the perihelion longitudes (owed to planetary secular perturbations) and the non-uniform distribution of impact velocities. We find that these previously neglected non-uniformities have a significant effect on the mean annual impact flux as well as its seasonal variation. The impact flux peaks when Mars is at aphelion. The near-alignment of Mars' eccentricity vector with the mean direction of the eccentricity vector distribution of Mars-crossers causes the mean annual impact flux as well as the amplitude of the seasonal variation to be significantly lower than the estimate based on a uniform random distribution of perihelion longitudes of Mars-crossers. Extrapolation of our results to a de-biased population model of fainter (smaller) Mars-crossers provides theoretical predictions that can be tested with observational data of impacts that is becoming available from spacecraft currently in orbit about Mars.This research was supported by NSF grant #AST-1312498.

  8. Hypervelocity impact survivability experiments for carbonaceous impactors, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Paque, Julie M.; Becker, Luann; Vedder, James F.; Erlichman, Jozef

    1995-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact experiments were performed to further test the survivability of carbonaceous impactors and to determine potential products that may have been synthesized during impact. Diamonds were launched by the Ames two-stage light gas gun into Al plate at velocities of 2.75 and 3.1 km sec(exp -1). FESEM imagery confirms that diamond fragments survived in both experiments. Earlier experiments found that diamonds were destroyed on impact above 4.3 km sec(exp -1). Thus, the upper stability limit for diamond on impact into Al, as determined from our experimental conditions, is between 3.1 and 4.3 km sec(exp -1). Particles of the carbonaceous chondrite Nogoya were also launched into Al at a velocity of 6.2 km sec (exp -1). Laser desorption (L (exp 2) MS) analyses of the impactor residues indicate that the lowest and highest mass polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) were largely destroyed on impact; those of intermediate mass (202-220 amu) remained at the same level or increased in abundance. In addition, alkyl-substituted homologs of the most abundant pre-impacted PAH's were synthesized during impact. These results suggest that an unknown fraction of some organic compounds can survive low to moderate impact velocities and that synthesized products can be expected to form up to velocities of, at least, 6.5 km sec(exp -1). We also present examples of craters formed by a unique microparticle accelerator that could launch micron-sized particles of almost any coherent material at velocities up to approximately 15 km sec(exp -1). Many of the experiments have a direct bearing on the interpretation of LDEF craters.

  9. PIXE analysis of cascade impactor samples collected over the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raemdonck, H.; Maenhaut, W.; Ferek, R. J.; Andreae, M. O.

    1984-04-01

    Aerosol samples were collected on a cruise of the R/V Conrad in the Pacific Ocean. The cruise track was divided into two legs, the first one on the Peru/Ecuador shelf, the second through the equatorial and tropical Pacific to Hawaii. Sampling took place by means of two 1 l/min, ten-stage Battelle-type cascade impactors positioned on the foremast of the ship at about 20 m above the sea surface. Strict precautions were taken to avoid contamination of the samples by the ship itself. The impactor slides and back-up filters were analyzed for 25 elements by PIXE using a 2.4 MeV proton beam, produced by a compact cyclotron. In the samples, collected on leg 1, a significant anthropogenic component could be detected. Excess fine sulfur, excess fine potassium, and V, Ni, Cu and Zn in < 2 μ m particles were as high as 600, 10, 0.8, 0.2, 3 and 4 ng/m 3, respectively. On the other hand, most of the samples, collected on leg 2, were representative of clean marine air which was little influenced by continentally derived aerosols. The sulfur size distribution showed a very pronounced submicrometer mode of about 100 ng/m 3, suggesting a nearby sulfur source of marine origin. After crossing the intertropical convergence zone from south to north, concentrations of Fe and other crustal elements increased significantly. The size distributions and interelement ratios indicated that the elevated concentrations of these elements were due to long-range transport of mineral dust.

  10. Hypervelocity impact survivability experiments for carbonaceous impactors, part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bunch, T.E.; Paque, J.M.; Becker, L.; Vedder, J.F.; Erlichman, J. ||

    1995-02-01

    Hypervelocity impact experiments were performed to further test the survivability of carbonaceous impactors and to determine potential products that may have been synthesized during impact. Diamonds were launched by the Ames two-stage light gas gun into Al plate at velocities of 2.75 and 3.1 km sec(exp -1). FESEM imagery confirms that diamond fragments survived in both experiments. Earlier experiments found that diamonds were destroyed on impact above 4.3 km sec(exp -1). Thus, the upper stability limit for diamond on impact into Al, as determined from our experimental conditions, is between 3.1 and 4.3 km sec(exp -1). Particles of the carbonaceous chondrite Nogoya were also launched into Al at a velocity of 6.2 km sec (exp -1). Laser desorption (L (exp 2) MS) analyses of the impactor residues indicate that the lowest and highest mass polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH`s) were largely destroyed on impact; those of intermediate mass (202-220 amu) remained at the same level or increased in abundance. In addition, alkyl-substituted homologs of the most abundant pre-impacted PAH`s were synthesized during impact. These results suggest that an unknown fraction of some organic compounds can survive low to moderate impact velocities and that synthesized products can be expected to form up to velocities of, at least, 6.5 km sec(exp -1). The authors also present examples of craters formed by a unique microparticle accelerator that could launch micron-sized particles of almost any coherent material at velocities up to approximately 15 km sec(exp -1). Many of the experiments have a direct bearing on the interpretation of LDEF craters.

  11. Uncovering the Impactor Population for the Outer Solar System from Saturnian Satellite Cratering Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. E.; Minton, D. A.; Thomas, P. C.; Kirchoff, M.

    2012-03-01

    We use crater counts for seven saturnian satellites to constrain the outer solar system impactor population, showing the Kuiper Belt as the most likely source, and that impactor flux levels 2-3 decades higher than current are needed to model the records.

  12. [Health-related quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: assessment by a Italian version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales, Version 2 (AIMS2)].

    PubMed

    Salaffi, F; Vaccaro, C M; Manacorda, T; Pardini, L; Coletta, V; Montecucco, C

    2010-01-01

    The research carried out by Censis Foundation, in collaboration with SIR (Italian Society of Rheumatology) and ANMAR (National association of rheumatic patients) involved 646 patients, diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by a rheumatologist according to ACR criteria. The patients were recruited through a representative sample of 300 general practitioners (GP). A cross-sectional survey was conducted to study the current status of health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients using a revised Italian version of a revised version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2 (AIMS2). The AIMS2 was administered to the 646 patients with (RA) attending arthritis clinics at various hospitals across the country. Self-report functional disability scores were calculated for all 12 specific scales, summary components, and overall impact measures. The AIMS2 has been validated for the Italian language. Ranging from 0 (perfect health) to 10 (poor health), the mean scores of the AIMS2 showed an important impact of the disease on the 4 components of the health status of these patients: walking and bending, mean score = 5.1; nervous tension = 5.0, arthritis pain = 5.0, and social activity = 4.6. Among other dimensions, the impact of RA was moderate for mood, work, hand and finger function and mobility (mean score: 3.7, 3.7, 3.5 and 3.4, respectively) and low for household tasks, arm function, self-care tasks and family support (3.0, 2.9, 2.5 and 2.1, respectively). There was a tendency for the scores of younger patients to be better than those of olders patients. In conclusion, RA have a clearly detrimental effect on the HRQL in both physical and mental components. Prevention and management of physical disability should be seriously planned in consideration of the changes in these conditions in RA patients. Use of the AIMS2 makes it easier and less costly to collect data and reduces the burden on RA patients. PMID:20390115

  13. Aerodynamic characteristics of nebulized terbutaline sulphate using the Andersen Cascade Impactor compared to the Next Generation Impactor.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, Mohamed E

    2011-04-01

    Characterization of the aerosol emitted from nebulizers is determined using the Next Generation Impactor (NGI). The Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) was previously used but the limitation of high flow rate used decreased its uses. We have investigated the use of ACI with different operational conditions compared to the NGI methodology. NGI was operated at a flow rate of 15 L min⁻¹ after cooling at 5°C for 90 min. ACI was operated using flow rates 15 and 28.3 L min⁻¹ at room (ROOM) temperature and after cooling at 5 °C for 60 min (COLD). ACI was also operated using a flow rate 15 L min⁻¹ through the nebulizer T-piece with a flow rate 28.3 L min⁻¹ through ACI (15 Mix) using the mixing valve at ROOM and COLD. Two nebulizer systems, the Sidestream (SIDE) and the Aeroneb Pro (AERO) were used to nebulize terbutaline sulphate respiratory solution. Overall there was a highly significant difference (P < 0.001) between different ACI operating conditions for FPF and MMAD of both nebulizer systems. The ACI at higher flow rate increased the evaporation effect whilst cooling minimized evaporation of both nebulizer systems. Hence cooling and using slow flow rate minimizes evaporation effects with ACI. The ACI 15COLD results were similar to that of NGI. That supports the use of ACI at inhalation flow rate 15 L min⁻¹ without fear of domination of gravity on ACI stages. PMID:20100034

  14. Precision laser aiming system

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  15. Surfacers change their dive tactics depending on the aim of the dive: evidence from simultaneous measurements of breaths and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Junichi; Tabata, Runa; Nakajima, Kana; Arai, Nobuaki; Kobayashi, Masato; Kagawa, Shiro

    2014-11-22

    Air-breathing divers are assumed to have evolved to apportion their time between surface and underwater periods to maximize the benefit gained from diving activities. However, whether they change their time allocation depending on the aim of the dive is still unknown. This may be particularly crucial for 'surfacers' because they dive for various purposes in addition to foraging. In this study, we counted breath events at the surface and estimated oxygen consumption during resting, foraging and other dives in 11 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the wild. Breath events were counted by a head-mounted acceleration logger or direct observation based on an animal-borne video logger, and oxygen consumption was estimated by measuring overall dynamic body acceleration. Our results indicate that green turtles maximized their submerged time, following this with five to seven breaths to replenish oxygen for resting dives. However, they changed their dive tactic during foraging and other dives; they surfaced without depleting their estimated stores of oxygen, followed by only a few breaths for effective foraging and locomotion. These dichotomous surfacing tactics would be the result of behavioural modifications by turtles depending on the aim of each dive. PMID:25297856

  16. Surfacers change their dive tactics depending on the aim of the dive: evidence from simultaneous measurements of breaths and energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Junichi; Tabata, Runa; Nakajima, Kana; Arai, Nobuaki; Kobayashi, Masato; Kagawa, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    Air-breathing divers are assumed to have evolved to apportion their time between surface and underwater periods to maximize the benefit gained from diving activities. However, whether they change their time allocation depending on the aim of the dive is still unknown. This may be particularly crucial for ‘surfacers’ because they dive for various purposes in addition to foraging. In this study, we counted breath events at the surface and estimated oxygen consumption during resting, foraging and other dives in 11 green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the wild. Breath events were counted by a head-mounted acceleration logger or direct observation based on an animal-borne video logger, and oxygen consumption was estimated by measuring overall dynamic body acceleration. Our results indicate that green turtles maximized their submerged time, following this with five to seven breaths to replenish oxygen for resting dives. However, they changed their dive tactic during foraging and other dives; they surfaced without depleting their estimated stores of oxygen, followed by only a few breaths for effective foraging and locomotion. These dichotomous surfacing tactics would be the result of behavioural modifications by turtles depending on the aim of each dive. PMID:25297856

  17. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  18. Animation of the AIM Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  19. Thinking Big, Aiming High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2010-01-01

    What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

  20. Developing Supersonic Impactor and Aerodynamic Lens for Separation and Handling of Nano-Sized Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2008-06-30

    A computational model for supersonic flows of compressible gases in an aerodynamic lens with several lenses and in a supersonic/hypersonic impactor was developed. Airflow conditions in the aerodynamic lens were analyzed and contour plots for variation of Mach number, velocity magnitude and pressure field in the lens were evaluated. The nano and micro-particle trajectories in the lens and their focusing and transmission efficiencies were evaluated. The computational model was then applied to design of a aerodynamic lens that could generate focus particle beams while operating under atmospheric conditions. The computational model was also applied to airflow condition in the supersonic/hypersonic impactor. Variations of airflow condition and particle trajectories in the impactor were evaluated. The simulation results could provide understanding of the performance of the supersonic and hypersonic impactors that would be helpful for the design of such systems.

  1. Magnetic Properties of Tektites and Related Glasses: Discriminating Among Different Fields and Impactor Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, P.; Moustard, F.; Gattacceca, J.; Devouard, B.

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of tektites and related glass is a good proxy for total amount of iron, as well as impactor contamination. We present new data from bediasites, ivoirites, atacamaites, Darwin, LDG and Wabar glasses.

  2. Possible Impactor Remnants on Shatter Cone Surfaces from the Steinheim Basin, SW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, E.; Schmieder, M.

    2015-07-01

    Surfaces of Steinheim shatter cones are covered by mineral coatings that consist of Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Pt, and Au mineral assemblages. A plausible explanation is that they represent impactor matter remobilized in an impact-induced hydrothermal system.

  3. Fabrication of Machined and Shrink Fitted Impactor; Composite Liners for the Los Alamos HEDP Program

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, B.

    1999-10-19

    Composite liners have been fabricated for the Los Alamos liner driven HEDP experiments using impactors formed by physical vapor deposition (PVD), electroplating, machining and shrink fitting. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been proposed for some ATLAS liner applications. This paper describes the processes used to fabricate machined and shrink fitted impactors which have been used for copper impactors in 1100 aluminum liners and 6061 T-6 aluminum impactors in 1100 aluminum liners. The most successful processes have been largely empirically developed and rely upon a combination of shrink fitted and light press fitting. The processes used to date will be described along with some considerations for future composite liners requirements in the HEDP Program.

  4. Stop Hitting Yourself: Did most Terrestrial Impactors Originate from the Terrestrial Planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, A. P.; Asphaug, E.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Minton, D. A.

    2015-02-01

    In addition to building planets giant impacts also release large quantities of debris. The ultimate fate of this is largely re-accretion, and this debris population could be the dominant source of impactors in the early solar system.

  5. Debris from Borealis Basin Formation as the Primary Impactor Population of Late Heavy Bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minton, D. A.; Jackson, A. P.; Asphaug, E.; Fassett, C. I.; Richardson, J. E.

    2015-02-01

    Here we investigate a novel Giant Impact Debris (GID) hypothesis to explain a number of observations regarding the LHB. In the GID hypothesis, the formation of the crustal dichotomy on Mars (Borealis Basin) generates LHB impactors.

  6. Small carry-on impactor of Hayabusa2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiki, Takanao; Sawada, Hirotaka; Okamoto, Chisato; Yano, Hajime; Takagi, Yasuhiko; Akahoshi, Yasuhiro; Yoshikawa, Makoto

    2013-03-01

    A Japanese spacecraft, Hayabusa2, the successor of Hayabusa, which came back from the Asteroid Itokawa with sample materials after its 7-year-interplanetary journeys, is a current mission of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and scheduled to be launched in 2014. Although its design basically follows Hayabusa, some new components are planned to be equipped in Hayabusa2 mission. A Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI), a small explosive device, is one of the challenges that were not seen with Hayabusa. An important scientific objective of Hayabusa2 is to investigate chemical and physical properties of the internal materials and structures. SCI creates an artificial crater on the surface of the asteroid and the mother spacecraft observes the crater and tries to get sample materials. High kinetic energy is required to creating a meaningful crater. The SCI would become complicated and heavy if the traditional acceleration devices like thrusters and rocket motors are used to hit the asteroid because the acceleration distance is quite large and guidance system is necessary. In order to make the system simpler, a technology of special type of shaped charge is used for the acceleration of the impact head. By using this technology, it becomes possible to accelerate the impact head very quickly and to hit the asteroid without guidance system. However, the impact operation should be complicated because SCI uses powerful explosive and it scatters high speed debris at the detonation. This paper presents the overview of our new small carry-on impact system and the impact operation of Hayabusa2 mission.

  7. The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küppers, M.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Mellab, K.; Michel, P.; AIM Team

    2015-10-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is ESA's contribution to an international cooperation targeting the demonstration of deflection of a hazardous nearearth asteroid as well as the first in-depth investigation of a binary asteroid. After launch in 2020, AIM will rendezvous the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos in 2022 and observe the system before, during, and after the impact of NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. The AIM mission will test new technologies like optical telecommunications by laser and Cubesats with nano-payloads and will perform scientific measurements at the asteroid system.

  8. Science case for the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM): A component of the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; Cheng, A.; Küppers, M.; Pravec, P.; Blum, J.; Delbo, M.; Green, S. F.; Rosenblatt, P.; Tsiganis, K.; Vincent, J. B.; Biele, J.; Ciarletti, V.; Hérique, A.; Ulamec, S.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Benner, L.; Naidu, S. P.; Barnouin, O. S.; Richardson, D. C.; Rivkin, A.; Scheirich, P.; Moskovitz, N.; Thirouin, A.; Schwartz, S. R.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Yu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to test the kinetic impactor technique to deflect an asteroid. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is set to rendezvous with the asteroid system to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near-Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Having direct information on the surface and internal properties of small asteroids will allow us to understand how the various processes they undergo work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. Making these measurements from up close and comparing them with ground-based data from telescopes will also allow us to calibrate remote observations and improve our data interpretation of other systems. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the target by AIM, the mission will be the first fully documented impact experiment at asteroid scale, which will include the characterization of the target's properties and the outcome of the impact. AIDA will thus offer a great opportunity to test and refine our understanding and models at the actual scale of an asteroid, and to check whether the current extrapolations of material strength from laboratory-scale targets to the scale of AIDA's target are valid. Moreover, it will offer a first check of the

  9. Separation and sampling of ice nucleation chamber generated ice particles by means of the counterflow virtual impactor technique for the characterization of ambient ice nuclei.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Ludwig; Mertes, Stephan; Kästner, Udo; Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Frank, Fabian; Nillius, Björn; Worringen, Annette; Kandler, Konrad; Ebert, Martin; Stratmann, Frank

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, the German research foundation (DFG) research group called Ice Nuclei Research Unit (INUIT (FOR 1525, project STR 453/7-1) was established with the objective to achieve a better understanding concerning heterogeneous ice formation. The presented work is part of INUIT and aims for a better microphysical and chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles that have the potential to act as ice nuclei (IN). For this purpose a counterflow virtual impactor (Kulkarni et al., 2011) system (IN-PCVI) was developed and characterized in order to separate and collect ice particles generated in the Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH; Bundke et al., 2008) and to release their IN for further analysis. Here the IN-PCVI was used for the inertial separation of the IN counter produced ice particles from smaller drops and interstitial particles. This is realized by a counterflow that matches the FINCH output flow inside the IN-PCVI. The choice of these flows determines the aerodynamic cut-off diameter. The collected ice particles are transferred into the IN-PCVI sample flow where they are completely evaporated in a particle-free and dry carrier air. In this way, the aerosol particles detected as IN by the IN counter can be extracted and distributed to several particle sensors. This coupled setup FINCH, IN-PCVI and aerosol instrumentation was deployed during the INUIT-JFJ joint measurement field campaign at the research station Jungfraujoch (3580m asl). Downstream of the IN-PCVI, the Aircraft-based Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ALABAMA; Brands et al., 2011) was attached for the chemical analysis of the atmospheric IN. Also, number concentration and size distribution of IN were measured online (TROPOS) and IN impactor samples for electron microscopy (TU Darmstadt) were taken. Therefore the IN-PCVI was operated with different flow settings than known from literature (Kulkarni et al., 2011), which required a further characterisation of its cut

  10. Ejecta Behavior and Dynamics within the Proposed ISIS Kinetic Impactor Demonstration Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahnestock, Eugene G.; Chesley, S. R.

    2013-10-01

    Impactor for Surface and Interior Science (ISIS) is a proposed mission of opportunity which would demonstrate and test kinetic impact (KI) as a method of imparting a small ΔV to a hypothetical Near Earth Object (NEO) found in the future to be hazardous, i.e. have a non-negligible probability of Earth impact. In contrast to Deep Impact, 'test' here means having another spacecraft in rendezvous with the KI target, and accumulating sufficient tracking of that spacecraft, and target observations from it, both before and after the KI event, to measure the ΔV imparted to the target. A bounty of scientific information about cratering mechanics, geomorphology, and even internal structure of small asteroids would also result from in-situ observations of the event and its aftermath. For ISIS, the non-hazardous target and observing spacecraft would be respectively 1999 RQ36 (Bennu) and the OSIRIX-REx sample return mission. Motivated by a need to understand any hazard to OSIRIS-REx and any necessary changes to its plan of proximity operations, we embarked on a detailed study of the ejecta/debris that would be liberated by the KI event. For an event energy matching a 440 kg impactor at 13.43 km/s closing velocity, we modeled ejecta generation from the cratering itself, considering the on-surface net acceleration environment. We propagated the ejecta particles under all relevant dynamical effects, e.g. shape-model-derived full body gravity, differential solar tide acceleration, and solar radiation pressure accounting for particle size, optical properties, and shadowing. We present the proportion of particles reaching the dynamical fates of return impact or escape, and the time history of their doing so. We find clearing times from the system are nonlinearly dependent on particle size as expected. We present the size-frequency distribution of the population remaining at 1, 5, 10, etc. days post-impact, and where the re-accreted ejecta deposits on the surface. We also further

  11. Dynamical Behavior of Ejecta Produced by the Proposed ISIS Kinetic Impactor Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahnestock, Eugene G.; Chesley, Steven R.; Farnocchia, Davide

    2014-05-01

    Impactor for Surface and Interior Science (ISIS) is a proposed mission of opportunity that would demonstrate and test kinetic impact (KI) for orbit modification of a hypothetical NEO to reduce its Earth impact probability. Unlike Deep Impact, this test entails measuring ΔV imparted to a far smaller asteroidal target body (Bennu) using another spacecraft in rendezvous with that body both before and after the KI event (OSIRIX-REx). To quantify any hazard to OSIRIS-REx from collision with liberated ejecta, we perform detailed study of the ejecta's dynamical behavior. For KI event energy matching a 440 kg impactor at 13.43 km/s closing velocity, we model crater formation and ejecta generation consistent with the small net surface acceleration in the targeted equatorial region of the sunlit hemisphere at the February 2021 impact epoch, and reasonable material strength for such a low-density rubble-pile. A crater ≈25 m in diameter is excavated over several minutes, liberating several thousand metric tons of material, with maximum velocity ≈34 m/s. We propagate ejecta under all relevant dynamical effects, including shape-model-derived full body gravity, differential solar tide acceleration, and solar radiation pressure (SRP) accounting for realistic particle size-frequency distribution, optical properties, and shadowing. We present the proportion of particles reaching the dynamical fates of return impact or exit from the region of importance to OSIRIS-REx operations, vs. time. We show where the re-accreted ejecta deposits on the surface, and the size-frequency distribution of the population remaining at 1, 5, 10, etc. days post-impact. We find clearing times from the system are nonlinearly dependent on particle size as expected, especially for low-velocity ejecta which stream away anti-sunward under the action of SRP within a paraboloid zone. Higher-velocity ejecta persist for longer durations within a sunward extension of the original ejecta cone. We visualize

  12. Design and Use of a Guided Weight Impactor to Impart Barely Visible Impact Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Przekop, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft structure is required to demonstrate satisfaction of the FAR requirements for Category 1, such as barely visible impact damage (BVID). Typical aircraft structure is impacted using a dropped weight impactor, which can impart BVID to the top surface of the structure. A recent test of a multi-bay box (MBB) composite test article, that represents an 80% scale center section of a hybrid wing body aircraft, required impact to be in a direction other than vertical from above, but still in an direction that is normal to the surface. This requirement eliminated the use of the conventional dropped weight impactor. Therefore, a design study was undertaken to determine the most effective way to efficiently and reliably impact the MBB. The chosen design was a guided weight impactor that is gravity driven. This paper describes the design of the guided weight impactor, and presents the results of its use for imparting BVID to the MBB. The guided weight impactor was seen to be a very reliable method to impart BVID, while at the same time having the capability to be highly configurable for use on other aircraft structure that is impacted at a variety of impact energies and from a variety of directions.

  13. Response of laminated composite plates to low-speed impact by different impactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Chunchu; Ambur, Damodar R.; Starnes, James H.

    1994-01-01

    An analytic procedure has been developed to determine the transient response of simply supported, retangular laminated composite plates subjected to impact loads from airgun-propelled or drop-weight impactors. A first-order shear deformation theory has been included in the analysis to represent properly any local short-wavelength transient bending response. The impact force has been modeled as a locally distributed load with cosine-cosine distribution. A double Fourier series expansion and the Timoshenko small increment method have been used to determine the contact force, out-of-plane deflections, and in-plane strains and stresses at any plate location due to an impact force at any plate location. The results of experimental and analytical studies are compared for quasi-isotropic laminates. The results indicate the importance of including transverse shear deformation effects in the analysis for predicting the response of laminated plates subjected to both airgun-propelled and dropped-weight impactors. The results also indicate that plate boundary conditions influence the axial strains more significantly than the contact force for a dropped-weight impactor. The results of parametric studies identify a scaling approach based on impactor momentum that may account for the differences in the responses of plates impacted by airgun-propelled or dropped-weight impactors.

  14. Application of USP inlet extensions to the TSI impactor system 3306/3320 using HFA 227 based solution metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Mogalian, Erik; Myrdal, Paul Brian

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this study was to further evaluate the need for a vertical inlet extension when testing solution metered dose inhalers using the TSI Model 3306 Impactor Inlet in conjunction with the TSI Model 3320 Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The configurations tested using the TSI system were compared to baseline measurements that were performed using the Andersen Mark II 8-stage cascade impactor (ACI). Seven pressurized solution metered dose inhalers were tested using varied concentrations of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), ethanol, and HFA 227 propellant. The inhalers were tested with the cascade impactor, and with the TSI system. The TSI system had three different configurations as the manufacturer provided (0 cm) or with inlet extensions of 20 and 40 cm. The extensions were located between the USP inlet and the Model 3306 Impactor Inlet. There were no practical differences between each system for the stem, actuator, or USP inlet. The fine particle mass (aerodynamic mass < 4.7 microm) was affected by extension length and correlated well with the ACI when an extension was present. APS particle size measurements were unaffected by the extension lengths and correlated well to particle size determined from the ACI analysis. It has been confirmed that an inlet extension may be necessary for the TSI system in order to give mass results that correlate to the ACI, especially for formulations having significant concentrations of low volatility excipients. Additionally, the results generated from this study were used to evaluate the product performance of HFA 227 based solution formulations that contain varying concentrations of ethanol as a cosolvent. PMID:16316853

  15. Summary of clinical and laboratory data of study subjects with and without DCE-MRI plaque measurements in the AIM-HIGH clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kevin D.; Hippe, Daniel S.; Chen, Huijun; Neradilek, Moni B.; Probstfield, Jeffrey L.; Peck, Suzanne; Isquith, Daniel A.; Canton, Gador; Yuan, Chun; Polissar, Nayak L.; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Kerwin, William S.

    2016-01-01

    This brief data article summarizes the clinical risk factors and laboratory data of a group of subjects recruited for the AIM-HIGH trial (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) and an associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substudy. The sample is restricted to those on statin therapy at the time of enrollment and data are presented stratified by whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) markers of carotid plaque vascularity and inflammation were available or not. The data provided herein are directly related to the article “Longer Duration of Statin Therapy is Associated with Decreased Carotid Plaque Vascularity by Magnetic Resonance Imaging” [2]. PMID:26977429

  16. Evaluation of aerosol sizing characteristic of an impactor using imaging plate technique.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Naureen Mahbub; Iida, Takao; Saito, Fumihiro; Koarashi, Jun; Yamasaki, Keizou; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Moriizumi, Jun

    2007-01-01

    The activity-size distribution of radon decay products are normally determined using two approaches: direct and indirect. The present study utilises the direct approach to evaluate sizing information of a low pressure cascade impactor using imaging plate (IP) technique for radon decay products. The experiment verified the use of the collection media as suggested by the manufacturer of impactor and proposed a few improvements toward sizing characteristics of impactor. The obtained relative activity-size distribution of radon decay products presents a sharp unimodal log-normal distribution of the particle characterised by activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 268 nm and geometric standard deviation (sigma(g)) of 1.66. The obtained data with all the suggested improvements were evaluated by the data obtained from a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, Model 3934, TSI Inc), as reference data. The verification lead to a derivative area ratio of 0.803 between the reference and experimental data. PMID:16936289

  17. Three-Dimensional Shapes and Impactor Size Estimation of Stardust Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iida, Y.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Kadono, T.; Nakamura, T.; Sakamoto, K.; Nakano, T.; Uesugi, K.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    Impact tracks formed by cometary dust capture in silica aerogel collectors in the Stardust mission [1] have a variety of shapes, showing diversity of the cometary dust [2]. We have investigated 3-D structures and elemental distributions of three impact tracks using synchrotron radiation x-ray analyses (microtomography and XRF) as one of the preliminary examination [3]. In this study, additional five tracks were investigated by the same analytical method. Impactor sizes of the tracks were estimated from the track entrance sizes and Fe abundances. Size parameters, such as length, of the tracks were normalized by the impactor size to compare track shape

  18. A cluster randomized implementation trial to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to increase the utilization of skilled birth attendants by women for childbirth: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nepal is on track to achieve MDG 5 but there is a huge sub-national disparity with existing high maternal mortality in western and hilly regions. The national priority is to reduce this disparity to achieve the goal at sub-national level. Evidences from developing countries show that increasing utilization of skilled attendant at birth is an important indicator for reducing maternal death. Further, there is a very low utilization during childbirth in western and hilly regions of Nepal which clearly depicts the barriers in utilization of skilled birth attendants. So, there is a need to overcome the identified barriers to increase the utilization thereby decreasing the maternal mortality. The hypothesis of this study is that through a package of interventions the utilization of skilled birth attendants will be increased and hence improve maternal health in Nepal. Method/Design This study involves a cluster randomized controlled trial involving approximately 5000 pregnant women in 36 clusters. The 18 intervention clusters will receive the following interventions: i) mobilization of family support for pregnant women to reach the health facility, ii) availability of emergency funds for institutional childbirth, iii) availability of transport options to reach a health facility for childbirth, iv) training to health workers on communication skills, v) security provisions for SBAs to reach services 24/24 through community mobilization; 18 control clusters will not receive the intervention package. The final evaluation of the intervention is planned to be completed by October 2014. Primary study output of this study is utilization of SBA services. Secondary study outputs measure the uptake of antenatal care, post natal checkup for mother and baby, availability of transportation for childbirth, operation of emergency fund, improved reception of women at health services, and improved physical security of SBAs. Discussion The intervention package is designed to

  19. Microscopic impactor debris in the soil around Kamil crater (Egypt): Inventory, distribution, total mass, and implications for the impact scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folco, Luigi; D'Orazio, Massimo; Fazio, Agnese; Cordier, Carole; Zeoli, Antonio; Ginneken, Matthias; El-Barkooky, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    We report on the microscopic impactor debris around Kamil crater (45 m in diameter, Egypt) collected during our 2010 geophysical expedition. The hypervelocity impact of Gebel Kamil (Ni-rich ataxite) on a sandstone target produced a downrange ejecta curtain of microscopic impactor debris due SE-SW of the crater (extending ~300,000 m2, up to ~400 m from the crater), in agreement with previous determination of the impactor trajectory. The microscopic impactor debris include vesicular masses, spherules, and coatings of dark impact melt glass which is a mixture of impactor and target materials (Si-, Fe-, and Al-rich glass), plus Fe-Ni oxide spherules and mini shrapnel, documenting that these products can be found in craters as small as few tens of meters in diameter. The estimated mass of the microscopic impactor debris (<290 kg) derived from Ni concentrations in the soil is a small fraction of the total impactor mass (~10 t) in the form of macroscopic shrapnel. That Kamil crater was generated by a relatively small impactor is consistent with literature estimates of its pre-atmospheric mass (>20 t, likely 50-60 t).

  20. DESIGN AND CALIBRATION OF THE EPA PM 2.5 WELL IMPACTOR NINETY-SIX (WINS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA well-type impactor ninety-six (WINS) was designed and calibrated to serve as a particle size separation device for the EPA reference method sampler for particulate matter under 2.5 um aerodynamic diameter. The WINS was designed to operate downstream of a PM10 inlet at a...

  1. DESIGN AND CALIBRATION OF THE EPA PM2.5 WELL IMPACTOR NINETY-SIX (WINS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA well-type impactor ninety-six (WINS) was designed and calibrated to serve as a particle size separation device for the EPA reference method sampler for particulate matter under 2.5 um aerodynamic diameter. The WINS was designed to operate downstream of a PM10 inlet at a v...

  2. A versatile sensor performance evaluation platform with an impactor-inspired sample chamber and virtual pin grid array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Christopher R.; Tamanaha, Cy R.; Woytowitz, Morgan; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.

    2014-06-01

    We present the details necessary for building a scalable, flexible, and universal sensor performance evaluation platform with an impactor-inspired sample chamber and a virtual pin grid array for maintaining electrical connections. The system is designed to accommodate a wide range of sensors varying in physical dimensions, electrical connections, and transduction mechanisms. By integrating a switch matrix system with a commercial chip carrier, we have built a platform for rapidly screening sensors for promise in military, homeland security, and commercial applications without requiring custom circuits or packages for each sensor technology. Intuitive, graphical software is written and provided to control and monitor temperature, flow rate, and electrical connections. The system is capable of operating and interfacing with a variety of vapor delivery systems for chemical vapor detection measurements of emerging sensor technologies.

  3. On the Nature of the Impactor That Formed the Shackleton Crater on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, Svetlana G.; Feoktistova, Ekaterina A.; Shevchenko, Vladislav V.

    2016-06-01

    The present paper attempts to assess the characteristics of the impactor that formed the Shackleton crater, located at the south pole of the Moon. The crater's morphometric parameters were analyzed based on the data of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Conclusions were drawn regarding the possible range of the impact angle and the parameters of the transient crater, such as depth and volume. The thickness of ejecta deposits on the transient crater rim and the volume of these deposits at a certain distance from the crater rim were assessed. These assessments enabled determining the type and characteristics of impactors (velocity, density, size, and impact angle) that could have formed the Shackleton crater. It was shown that the Shackleton crater could have been formed by an impact of a low-velocity (3 km/s) comets with diameter 4-4.5 km, chondrite or achondrite with a diameter of 2 km at a 45°-50° angle, whose velocity did not exceed 6 km/s, as well as stony-iron or iron-nickel impactors with a 1-2 km diameter for stony-iron asteroids and 1-1.5 km for iron-nickel asteroids. The impact velocity of stony-iron impactors, according to the authors' calculations, can reach 12 km/s. The impact velocities of iron-nickel asteroids range from 6 to 9 km/s. The impactor's substance mass that could have remained in the crater after it was formed was assessed.

  4. Lunar Impactor: Investigating lunar magnetism and swirls with a cubesat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick-Bethell, I.; Dougherty, M.; Brown, P.; Hemingway, D.; Halekas, J.; Bester, M.; Cosgrove, D.; Whitlock, C.; Lozano, P.; Martel, F.; Sanchez, H.; Jaroux, B. A.

    2013-09-01

    Magnetized 100-km-scale patches of the lunar crust were first observed by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites. Despite several decades of study, the origin of these magnetic "anomalies" remains unknown. Part of the difficulty in determining the origin of these features has been the relatively high altitude of orbiting lunar spacecraft. Ideally, one would send a rover to measure the surface magnetic field, but the costs are prohibitive. Instead, small spacecraft can be sent on low-angle impact-trajectories into the hearts of these features. The spacecraft transmit measurements to the Earth in real-time, until the last milliseconds, enabling measurements at < 100 m altitude. To perform this mission, we have designed a fully-independent 3U cubesat capable of reaching the Moon from geosynchronous orbit. We will describe the mission science, the cubesat design, and a magnetometer for making high-frequency magnetic field measurements.

  5. Classification of Low Velocity Impactors Using Spiral Sensing of Acousto-Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbasi, Chijioke Raphael

    The non-linear elastodynamics of a flat plate subjected to low velocity foreign body impacts is studied, resembling the space debris impacts on the space structure. The work is based on a central hypothesis that in addition to identifying the impact locations, the material properties of the foreign objects can also be classified using acousto-ultrasonic signals (AUS). Simultaneous localization of impact point and classification of impact object is quite challenging using existing state-of-the-art structural health monitoring (SHM) approaches. Available techniques seek to report the exact location of impact on the structure, however, the reported information is likely to have errors from nonlinearity and variability in the AUS signals due to materials, geometry, boundary conditions, wave dispersion, environmental conditions, sensor and hardware calibration etc. It is found that the frequency and speed of the guided wave generated in the plate can be quantized based on the impactor's relationship with the plate (i.e. the wave speed and the impactor's mechanical properties are coupled). In this work, in order to characterize the impact location and mechanical properties of imapctors, nonlinear transient phenomenon is empirically studied to decouple the understanding using the dominant frequency band (DFB) and Lag Index (LI) of the acousto-ultrasonic signals. Next the understanding was correlated with the elastic modulus of the impactor to predict transmitted force histories. The proposed method presented in this thesis is especially applicable for SHM where sensors cannot be widely or randomly distributed. Thus a strategic organization and localization of the sensors is achieved by implementing the geometric configuration of Theodorous Spiral Sensor Cluster (TSSC). The performance of TSSC in characterizing the impactor types are compared with other conventional sensor clusters (e.g. square, circular, random etc.) and it is shown that the TSSC is advantageous over

  6. Volumetric Collection Efficiency and Droplet Sizing Accuracy of Rotary Impactors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of spray volume and droplet size are critical to evaluating the movement and transport of applied sprays associated with both crop production and protection practices and vector control applications for public health. Any sampling device used for this purpose will have an efficiency of...

  7. Mission opportunities for the flight validation of the kinetic impactor concept for asteroid deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Sonia; Barbee, Brent W.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Getzandanner, Kenneth

    2014-10-01

    The kinetic impactor technique for deflecting near-Earth objects (NEOs), whereby a spacecraft is directed to collide with a NEO to alter its orbit via momentum transfer, is one of several proposed methods for defending Earth against hazardous NEOs (asteroids and comets). In this paper we present detailed mission design concepts for a feasible and affordable kinetic impactor flight validation mission deployed to a currently known near-Earth asteroid (NEA). Several filter steps are devised that utilize relevant criteria to optimally balance key parameters, such as approach phase angle, estimated NEA diameter, relative velocity at intercept, and current NEA orbit knowledge, and produce refined lists of the most promising candidate target NEAs.

  8. Contaminant Interferences with SIMS Analyses of Microparticle Impactor Residues on LDEF Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, C. G.; Batchelor, D.; Griffis, D. P.; Hunter, J. L.; Misra, V.; Ricks, D. A.; Wortman, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Elemental analyses of impactor residues on high purity surface exposed to the low earth orbit (LEO) environment for 5.8 years on Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has revealed several probable sources for microparticles at this altitude, including natural micrometeorites and manmade debris ranging from paint pigments to bits of stainless steel. A myriad of contamination interferences were identified and their effects on impactor debris identification mitigated during the course of this study. These interferences included pre-, post-, and in-flight deposited particulate surface contaminants, as well as indigenous heterogeneous material contaminants. Non-flight contaminants traced to human origins, including spittle and skin oils, contributed significant levels of alkali-rich carbonaceous interferences. A ubiquitous layer of in-flight deposited silicaceous contamination varied in thickness with location on LDEF and proximity to active electrical fields. In-flight deposited (low velocity) contaminants included urine droplets and bits of metal film from eroded thermal blankets.

  9. Mission Opportunities for the Flight Validation of the Kinetic Impactor Concept for Asteroid Deflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Sonia; Barbee, Brent W.; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Getzandanner, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The kinetic impactor technique for deflecting near-Earth objects (NEOs), whereby a spacecraft is directed to collide with a NEO to alter its orbit via momentum transfer, is one of several proposed methods for defendingEarth against hazardous NEOs (asteroids and comets). In this paper we present detailed mission design concepts for a notionally feasible and aff ordable kinetic impactor flight validation mission deployed to a currently known near-Earth asteroid (NEA). Several filter steps are devised that utilize relevant criteria to optimally balance keyparameters, such as approach phase angle, estimated NEA diameter, relative velocity at intercept, and current NEA orbit knowledge, and produce refined lists of the most promising candidate target NEAs.

  10. Influence of impactor operating flow rate on particle size distribution of four jet nebulizers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Brasel, Trevor L; Kracko, Dean; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Ahuja, Amitkumar; Norenberg, Jeffrey P; Kelly, H William

    2007-01-01

    When a nebulizer is evaluated by the Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI), the flow rate is generally maintained at 28.3 L/min, as recommended by the manufacturer. However, the nebulizer flow rate that a patient inhales is only around 18 L/min. Because the drive flow of a nebulizer is approximately 6-8 L/min, the nebulized drug is mixed with outside air when delivered. Evaluating impactor performance at the 28.3 L/min flow rate is less than ideal because an additional 10 L/min of outside air is mixed with the drug, thereby affecting the drug size distribution and dose before inhalation and deposition in the human lung. In this study we operated the ACI at an 18.0 L/min flow rate to test whether the effect of the changing ambient humidity was being exaggerated by the 28.3 L/min flow rate. The study was carried out at three different relative humidity levels and two different impactor flow rates with four commercially available nebulizers. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and the geometric standard deviation (GSD) of the droplets were found to increase when the impactor was operated at a flow rate of 18 L/min compared to that of 28.3 L/min. The higher MMAD and GSD could cause the patient to inhale less of the drug than expected if the nebulizer was evaluated by the ACI at the operating flow rate of 28.3 L/min. PMID:17763140

  11. Spherule layers, crater scaling laws, and the population of ancient terrestrial impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Brandon C.; Collins, Gareth S.; Minton, David A.; Bowling, Timothy J.; Simonson, Bruce M.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2016-06-01

    Ancient layers of impact spherules provide a record of Earth's early bombardment history. Here, we compare different bombardment histories to the spherule layer record and show that 3.2-3.5 Ga the flux of large impactors (10-100 km in diameter) was likely 20-40 times higher than today. The E-belt model of early Solar System dynamics suggests that an increased impactor flux during the Archean is the result of the destabilization of an inward extension of the main asteroid belt (Bottke et al., 2012). Here, we find that the nominal flux predicted by the E-belt model is 7-19 times too low to explain the spherule layer record. Moreover, rather than making most lunar basins younger than 4.1 Gyr old, the nominal E-belt model, coupled with a corrected crater diameter scaling law, only produces two lunar basins larger than 300 km in diameter. We also show that the spherule layer record when coupled with the lunar cratering record and careful consideration of crater scaling laws can constrain the size distribution of ancient terrestrial impactors. The preferred population is main-belt-like up to ∼50 km in diameter transitioning to a steep distribution going to larger sizes.

  12. Crustal Rock: Recorder of Oblique Impactor Meteoroid Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.

    2005-07-01

    Oblique impact experiments in which 2g lead bullets strike samples of San Marcos granite and Bedford limestone at 1.2 km/s induce zones of increased crack density (termed shocked damage) which result in local decreases in bulk and shear moduli that results in maximum decreases of 30-40% in compressional and shear wave velocity (Budianski and O'Connell). Initial computer simulation of oblique impacts of meteorites (Pierazzo and Melosh) demonstrate the congruence of peak shock stress trajectory with the pre-impact meteoroid trajectory. We measure (Ai and Ahrens) via multi-beam (˜ 300) tomographic inversion, the sub-impact surface distribution of damage from the decreases in compressional wave velocity in the 20 x 20 x 15 cm rock target. The damage profiles for oblique impacts are markedly asymmetric (in plane of pre-impact meteoroid pre-impact trajectory) beneath the nearly round excavated craters. Thus, meteorite trajectory information can be recorded in planetary surfaces. Asymmetric sub-surface seismic velocity profiles beneath the Manson (Iowa) and Ries (Germany) impact craters demonstrate that pre-impact meteoroid trajectories records remain accessible for at least ˜ 10 ^ 8 years.

  13. Combining Saturnian Craters and Kuiper Belt Observations to Build an Outer Solar System Impactor Size-Frequency Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minton, D. A.; Richardson, J. E.; Thomas, P.; Kirchoff, M.; Schwamb, M. E.

    2012-05-01

    Using Cassini mission imagery of the icy satellites of Saturn, numerical simulations, and telescopic observation data we produce a model size frequency distribution for outer solar system impactors spanning tens of meters to thousands of kilometers.

  14. Combining Saturnian Craters and Kuiper Belt Observations to Build an Outer Solar System Impactor Size-Frequency Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minton, D. A.; Richardson, J. E.; Thomas, P.; Kirchoff, M.; Schwamb, M. E.

    2012-03-01

    Using Cassini mission imagery of the icy satellites of Saturn, numerical simulations, and telescopic observation data we produce a model size frequency distribution for outer solar system impactors spanning tens of meters to thousands of kilometers.

  15. Characterization of the Lunar Plume Excavated by the LCROSS Impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C.; Chanover, N.; Suggs, R.; McMillan, R. J.; Hamilton, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    The impact of the 2000 kg LCROSS Centaur Earth Departure Upper Stage (EDUS) at the lunar south pole provides a unique opportunity to study plume dynamics following the impact of a body of known mass, composition, impact velocity, and entry angle. In February 2009, Universities Space Research Association (USRA) selected the Apache Point Observatory (APO) in Sunspot, NM as one of four NASA-funded ground-based LCROSS observation sites. The goal of the APO observation team is to image the LCROSS plume to measure the radius and velocity of the expanding plume boundary and determine the mass of the ejecta that is thrown up into sunlight by the EDUS impact. These mass measurements will in turn be used to calculate the expected water vapor optical depth as a function of time for a given estimate of water vapor content in the regolith. They will also allow a calibration of models used to estimate mass ejection by random meteorite impacts on the Moon, which have been observed and monitored by the Meteoroid Environment Office at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center. We will observe the impact on 09 October 2009 with three cameras simultaneously covering visible and near infrared wavelengths (from 0.6 to 1.7 microns). At APO, we will use the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5-meter telescope coupled with the Agile visible light frame transfer CCD camera, which is capable taking a continuous series of 0.3 second images with zero latency between exposures. Also at APO, we will use New Mexico State University’s 1 meter telescope with a StellaCam visible light video camera, which is capable of exposure times as short as 1/12,000 second sampled at a video rate of 1/30 second. Finally, we will image the plume in near infrared wavelengths (0.9 to 1.7 micron) with the 0.6-meter f/40 telescope at Tortugas Mountain in Las Cruces, NM using a Goodrich Sensors Unlimited InGaAs IR video camera. This camera is a similar design to that of the two near infrared cameras (NIR1 and NIR2) on

  16. Characterization of the dominant impactor signature for Apollo 17 impact melt rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Miriam; Gerasimenko, Iva; Loudin, Lorne C.; Liu, Jingao; James, Odette B.; Puchtel, Igor S.; Walker, Richard J.

    2014-04-01

    Concentrations of the highly siderophile elements (HSE) Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, and Pd and 187Os/188Os isotopic compositions are reported for seven Apollo 17 impact melt rocks. These data are used to examine the dominant chemical signature of the impactor that formed the melts. Six of the samples (72355, 72435, 72535, 76035, 76055, and 76135) have poikilitic textures; one sample (73235) has an aphanitic texture. Data for the samples define linear correlations when Ir is plotted versus other HSE concentrations, with y-intercepts indistinguishable from zero for most HSE in most rocks. Scatter about some of the trends, and occasional trends with positive y-intercepts, indicate either mixing of additional components that are heterogeneously distributed within several rocks, or modest fractionation of some HSE by volatilization, crystal fractionation, or other processes, during formation and evolution of the melt sheet. There is no statistical difference between the aphanitic and poikilitic samples in terms of HSE ratios after visible granulitic clasts were removed from aphanite 73235. Hence, earlier speculations that the two types of impact melt rocks at this site may have been generated by different impactors are not supported by our data. Most Apollo 17 samples examined here and in prior studies are characterized by very similar HSE signatures, consistent with a common impactor. These samples are characterized by elevated Ru/Ir, Pd/Ir, and Re/Os, relative to most chondrites. Collectively, the data indicate that the impactor was characterized by the following HSE ratios (2σ): Re/Ir 0.093 ± 0.020, Os/Ir 1.03 ± 0.28, Ru/Ir 1.87 ± 0.30, Pt/Ir 2.36 ± 0.31, Pd/Ir 1.85 ± 0.41, and present-day 187Os/188Os of 0.1322 ± 0.0013. The results most likely mean that the impactor was a body with a bulk composition that was just outside the range of meteoritic compositions currently sampled on Earth.

  17. Analysis of cascade impactor and EPA method 29 data from the americium/curium pilot melter system

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    The offgas system of the Am/Cm pilot melter at TNX was characterized by measuring the particulate evolution using a cascade impactor and EPA Method 29. This sampling work was performed by John Harden of the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory, under SCUREF Task SC0056. Elemental analyses were performed by the SRTC Mobile Laboratory.Operation of the Am/Cm melter with B2000 frit has resulted in deposition of PbO and boron compounds in the offgas system that has contributed to pluggage of the High Efficiency Mist Eliminator (HEME). Sampling of the offgas system was performed to quantify the amount of particulate in the offgas system under several sets of conditions. Particulate concentration and particle size distribution were measured just downstream of the melter pressure control air addition port and at the HEME inlet. At both locations, the particulate was measured with and without steam to the film cooler while the melter was idled at about 1450 degrees Celsius. Additional determinations were made at the melter location during feeding and during idling at 1150 degrees Celsius rather than 1450 degrees Celsius (both with no steam to the film cooler). Deposition of particulates upstream of the melter sample point may have, and most likely did occur in each run, so the particulate concentrations measured do no necessarily reflect the total particulate emission at the melt surface. However, the data may be used in a relative sense to judge the system performance.

  18. Development of infrared photothermal deflection spectroscopy (mirage effect) for analysis of condensed-phase aerosols collected in a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor.

    PubMed

    Dada, Oluwatosin O; Bialkowski, Stephen E

    2008-12-01

    The potential of mid-infrared photothermal deflection spectrometry for aerosol analysis is demonstrated. Ammonium nitrate aerosols are deposited on a flat substrate using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). Photothermal spectroscopy with optical beam deflection (mirage effect) is used to detect deposited aerosols. Photothermal deflection from aerosols is measured by using pulsed infrared laser light to heat up aerosols collected on the substrate. The deflection signal is obtained by measuring the position of a spot from a beam of light as it passes near the heated surface. The results indicate non-rotating impaction as the preferred MOUDI impaction method. Energy-dependent photothermal measurement shows a linear relationship between signal and laser intensity, and no loss of signal with time is observed. The detection limit from the signal-mass curve is 7.31 ng. For 30 minutes collection time and 30 L/min flow rate of the impactor, the limit of detection in terms of aerosol mass concentration is 0.65 microg m(-3). PMID:19094392

  19. Analysis of ejecta fate from proposed man-made impactors into near-Earth objects --- a NEOShield study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, S.; Michel, P.; Jutzi, M.

    2014-07-01

    Asteroids measuring 100 meters across tend to impact the Earth once every 5,000 years on average [1]. Smaller bodies enter into the Earth's atmosphere more frequently, but may detonate before reaching the surface. Conversely, impacts from larger bodies are more rare [2], but can come with devastating global consequences to living species. In 2005, a United States Congressional mandate called for NASA to detect, by 2020, 90 percent of near-Earth objects (NEOs) having diameters of 140 meters or greater [3]. One year prior, ESA's Near-Earth Object Mission Advisory Panel (NEOMAP) recommended the study of a kinetic impactor mission as a priority in the framework of NEO risk assessment [4]. A ''Phase-A'' study of such a mission, Don Quixote, took place at ESA until 2007. In accordance with NEOMAP and with the Target NEO Global Community's recommendations in 2011 [5], the NEOShield Project is being funded for 3.5 years by the European Commission in its FP7 program. NEOShield began in 2012 and is primarily, but not exclusively, a European consortium of research institutions and engineering industries that aims to analyze promising mitigation options and provide solutions to the critical scientific and technical obstacles involved in confronting threats posed by the small bodies in the neighborhood of the Earth's orbit [6]. To further explore the NEO threat mitigation via the strategy of kinetic impact, building upon the Don Quixote study, the idea is to target a specific NEO for impact and attempt to quantify the response. How long do ejecta remain aloft and where do they end up? Fragments that are ejected at high speeds escape, but what about material moving at or near the escape speed of the NEO or that suffer energy-dissipating collisions after being ejected? Where would be a ''safe'' location for an observing spacecraft during and subsequent to the impact? Here, we outline the early phases of an ongoing numerical investigation of the fate of the material ejected from a

  20. Ice Nuclei in Mid-Latitude Cirrus: Preliminary Results from a New Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI) Aircraft Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froyd, K. D.; Cziczo, D. J.; Murphy, D. M.; Kulkarni, G.; Lawson, P.

    2011-12-01

    Cirrus cloud properties are strongly governed by the mechanism of ice particle formation and by the number and effectiveness of ambient ice nuclei. Airborne measurements of ice nuclei reveal new nucleation mechanisms, provide constraints on microphysical models, and guide laboratory investigations. For over two decades the Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI) inlet has remained the prevailing approach for sampling cloud particles to measure ice nuclei from an aircraft platform. However, traditional CVI inlets have fundamental limitations when operating on high speed aircraft, where only a small fraction of ambient cloud particles are typically sampled. A novel 'folded' CVI was constructed and deployed during the NASA MACPEX 2011 campaign. The flow design of this inlet effectively doubles the CVI length and thereby increases the size range of captured cirrus particles. Additional design elements such as an internal vortex flow, a neon carrier gas, and an infrared laser further improve the capture and evaporation of ice crystals. Preliminary results of ice nuclei composition measured by the PALMS single-particle mass spectrometer are presented from the MACPEX campaign. Examples of ice nuclei from mid-latitude cirrus are shown, including mineral dust, organic-rich aerosol with amine and diacid components, and lead-containing aerosol.

  1. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Particles in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Microanalysis of Aerosol Impactor Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Herein is reported activities to support the characterization of the aerosol in the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) collected during the Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment/Measurements for Assessing the Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (ASHOE/MAESA) missions in 1994. Through a companion proposal, another group was to measure the size distribution of aerosols in the 0.008 to 2 micrometer diameter range and to collect for us impactor samples of particles larger than about 0.02 gm. In the first year, we conducted laboratory studies related to particulate deposition patterns on our collection substrates, and have performed the analysis of many ASHOE/MAESA aerosol samples from 1994 using analytical electron microscopy (AEM). We have been building an "aerosol climatology" with these data that documents the types and relative abundances of particles observed at different latitudes and altitudes. The second year (and non-funded extension periods) saw continued analyses of impactor aerosol samples, including more ASHOE/MAESA samples, some northern hemisphere samples from the NASA Stratospheric Photochemistry Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE) program for comparison, and a few aerosol samples from the NASA Stratospheric TRacers of Atmospheric Transport (STRAT) program. A high-resolution field emission microscope was used for the analysis and re-analysis of a number of samples to determine if this instrument was superior in performance to our conventional electron microscope. In addition, some basic laboratory studies were conducted to determine the minimum detectable and analyzable particle size for different types of aerosols. In all, 61 aerosol samples were analyzed, with a total of over 30,000 individual particle analyses. In all analyzed samples, sulfate particles comprised the major aerosol number fraction. It must be stressed that particles composed of more than one species, for example sulfate and organic carbon, were classified

  2. Diverse impactors in Apollo 15 and 16 impact melt rocks: Evidence from osmium isotopes and highly siderophile elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingao; Sharp, Miriam; Ash, Richard D.; Kring, David A.; Walker, Richard J.

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of highly siderophile elements (HSE) and 187Os/188Os isotopic compositions for eleven impact related rocks from the Apollo 15 and 16 landing sites are reported and combined with existing geochronological data to investigate the chemical nature and temporal changes in the large impactors implicated in the formation of the lunar basins. Data for the samples all define linear trends on plots of HSE versus Ir concentrations, whose slopes likely reflect the relative HSE compositions of the dominant impactors that formed the rocks. The inferred Imbrium basin impactor that generated Apollo 15 impact melt rocks 15445 and 15455 was characterized by modestly suprachondritic 187Os/188Os, Ru/Ir, Pt/Ir and Pd/Ir ratios. Diverse impactor components are revealed in the Apollo 16 impact melt rocks. The 187Os/188Os and HSE/Ir ratios of the impactor components in melt rocks 60635, 63595 and 68416, with reported ages <3.84 Ga, are within the range of chondritic meteorites, but slightly higher than ratios characterizing previously studied granulitic impactites with reported ages >4.0 Ga. By contrast, the impactor components in melt rocks 60235, 62295 and 67095, with reported ages of ∼3.9 Ga, are characterized by suprachondritic 187Os/188Os and HSE/Ir ratios similar to the Apollo 15 impact melt rocks, and may also sample the Imbrium impactor. Three lithic clasts from regolith breccias 60016 and 65095, also with ∼3.9 Ga ages, contain multiple impactor components, of which the dominant composition is considerably more suprachondritic than those implicated for Imbrium and Serenitatis (Apollo 17) impactors. The dominant composition recorded in these rocks was most likely inherited from a pre-Imbrium impactor. Consideration of composition versus age relations among lunar impact melt rocks reveals no discernable trend. Virtually all lunar impact melt rocks sampled by the Apollo missions, as well as meteorites, are characterized by 187Os/188Os and HSE/Ir ratios that, when

  3. A 500-kiloton airburst over Chelyabinsk and an enhanced hazard from small impactors.

    PubMed

    Brown, P G; Assink, J D; Astiz, L; Blaauw, R; Boslough, M B; Borovička, J; Brachet, N; Brown, D; Campbell-Brown, M; Ceranna, L; Cooke, W; de Groot-Hedlin, C; Drob, D P; Edwards, W; Evers, L G; Garces, M; Gill, J; Hedlin, M; Kingery, A; Laske, G; Le Pichon, A; Mialle, P; Moser, D E; Saffer, A; Silber, E; Smets, P; Spalding, R E; Spurný, P; Tagliaferri, E; Uren, D; Weryk, R J; Whitaker, R; Krzeminski, Z

    2013-11-14

    Most large (over a kilometre in diameter) near-Earth asteroids are now known, but recognition that airbursts (or fireballs resulting from nuclear-weapon-sized detonations of meteoroids in the atmosphere) have the potential to do greater damage than previously thought has shifted an increasing portion of the residual impact risk (the risk of impact from an unknown object) to smaller objects. Above the threshold size of impactor at which the atmosphere absorbs sufficient energy to prevent a ground impact, most of the damage is thought to be caused by the airburst shock wave, but owing to lack of observations this is uncertain. Here we report an analysis of the damage from the airburst of an asteroid about 19 metres (17 to 20 metres) in diameter southeast of Chelyabinsk, Russia, on 15 February 2013, estimated to have an energy equivalent of approximately 500 (±100) kilotons of trinitrotoluene (TNT, where 1 kiloton of TNT = 4.185×10(12) joules). We show that a widely referenced technique of estimating airburst damage does not reproduce the observations, and that the mathematical relations based on the effects of nuclear weapons--almost always used with this technique--overestimate blast damage. This suggests that earlier damage estimates near the threshold impactor size are too high. We performed a global survey of airbursts of a kiloton or more (including Chelyabinsk), and find that the number of impactors with diameters of tens of metres may be an order of magnitude higher than estimates based on other techniques. This suggests a non-equilibrium (if the population were in a long-term collisional steady state the size-frequency distribution would either follow a single power law or there must be a size-dependent bias in other surveys) in the near-Earth asteroid population for objects 10 to 50 metres in diameter, and shifts more of the residual impact risk to these sizes. PMID:24196713

  4. A 500-kiloton airburst over Chelyabinsk and an enhanced hazard from small impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P. G.; Assink, J. D.; Astiz, L.; Blaauw, R.; Boslough, M. B.; Borovička, J.; Brachet, N.; Brown, D.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Ceranna, L.; Cooke, W.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Drob, D. P.; Edwards, W.; Evers, L. G.; Garces, M.; Gill, J.; Hedlin, M.; Kingery, A.; Laske, G.; Le Pichon, A.; Mialle, P.; Moser, D. E.; Saffer, A.; Silber, E.; Smets, P.; Spalding, R. E.; Spurný, P.; Tagliaferri, E.; Uren, D.; Weryk, R. J.; Whitaker, R.; Krzeminski, Z.

    2013-11-01

    Most large (over a kilometre in diameter) near-Earth asteroids are now known, but recognition that airbursts (or fireballs resulting from nuclear-weapon-sized detonations of meteoroids in the atmosphere) have the potential to do greater damage than previously thought has shifted an increasing portion of the residual impact risk (the risk of impact from an unknown object) to smaller objects. Above the threshold size of impactor at which the atmosphere absorbs sufficient energy to prevent a ground impact, most of the damage is thought to be caused by the airburst shock wave, but owing to lack of observations this is uncertain. Here we report an analysis of the damage from the airburst of an asteroid about 19 metres (17 to 20 metres) in diameter southeast of Chelyabinsk, Russia, on 15 February 2013, estimated to have an energy equivalent of approximately 500 (+/-100) kilotons of trinitrotoluene (TNT, where 1 kiloton of TNT = 4.185×1012 joules). We show that a widely referenced technique of estimating airburst damage does not reproduce the observations, and that the mathematical relations based on the effects of nuclear weapons--almost always used with this technique--overestimate blast damage. This suggests that earlier damage estimates near the threshold impactor size are too high. We performed a global survey of airbursts of a kiloton or more (including Chelyabinsk), and find that the number of impactors with diameters of tens of metres may be an order of magnitude higher than estimates based on other techniques. This suggests a non-equilibrium (if the population were in a long-term collisional steady state the size-frequency distribution would either follow a single power law or there must be a size-dependent bias in other surveys) in the near-Earth asteroid population for objects 10 to 50 metres in diameter, and shifts more of the residual impact risk to these sizes.

  5. Laser safety evaluation and output measurements for the VITAL -2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light (laser) used with the Proforce M-4 system in force-on-force exercises.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2004-02-01

    A laser safety hazard evaluation and pertinent output measurements were performed (June 2003 through August 2003) on several VITAL-2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light--infrared laser, associated with the Proforce M-4 system used in force-on-force exercises. The VITAL-2 contains two diode lasers presenting 'Extended Source' viewing out to a range on the order of 1.3 meters before reverting to a 'Small Source' viewing hazard. Laser hazard evaluation was performed in concert with the ANSI Std. Z136.1-2000 for the safe use of lasers and the ANSI Std. Z136.6-2000 for the safe use of lasers outdoors. The results of the laser hazard analysis for the VITAL-2, indicates that this Tactical Aiming IR laser presents a Class 1 laser hazard to personnel in the area of use. Field measurements performed on 71 units confirmed that the radiant outputs were at all times below the Allowable Emission Limit and that the irradiance of the laser spot was at all locations below the Maximum Exposure Limit. This system is eye-safe and it may be used under current SNL policy in force-on-force exercises. The VITAL-2 Variable Intensity Tactical Aiming Light does not present a laser hazard greater than Class 1, to aided viewing with binoculars.

  6. Surveying the South Pole-Aitken basin magnetic anomaly for remnant impactor metallic iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Joshua T. S.; Hagerty, Justin J.; Lawrence, David J.; Klima, Rachel L.; Blewett, David T.

    2014-11-01

    The Moon has areas of magnetized crust ("magnetic anomalies"), the origins of which are poorly constrained. A magnetic anomaly near the northern rim of South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin was recently postulated to originate from remnant metallic iron emplaced by the SPA basin-forming impactor. Here, we remotely examine the regolith of this SPA magnetic anomaly with a combination of Clementine and Lunar Prospector derived iron maps for any evidence of enhanced metallic iron content. We find that these data sets do not definitively detect the hypothesized remnant metallic iron within the upper tens of centimeters of the lunar regolith.

  7. Surveying the South Pole-Aitken basin magnetic anomaly for remnant impactor metallic iron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahill, Joshua T.S.; Hagerty, Justin J.; Lawrence, David M.; Klima, Rachel L.; Blewett, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon has areas of magnetized crust ("magnetic anomalies"), the origins of which are poorly constrained. A magnetic anomaly near the northern rim of South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin was recently postulated to originate from remnant metallic iron emplaced by the SPA basin-forming impactor. Here, we remotely examine the regolith of this SPA magnetic anomaly with a combination of Clementine and Lunar Prospector derived iron maps for any evidence of enhanced metallic iron content. We find that these data sets do not definitively detect the hypothesized remnant metallic iron within the upper tens of centimeters of the lunar regolith.

  8. The Aims of College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eble, Kenneth E.

    The aims of college teaching are discussed, and a comparison of higher education in 1960 and two decades later is provided. After considering the development of a teaching style and the importance of the teacher's character, the joyful and spontaneous side of teaching are considered. The nature of teaching (i.e., art, science, or craft) is also…

  9. AIME Copyright Information Packet. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Information Media and Equipment, Elkader, IA.

    Designed to assist educators in developing or revising school/library copyright policy, this packet provides the following materials: (1) a viewer's guide for the film "Copyright Law: What Every School, College, and Public Library Should Know"; (2) a statement of the primary missions of the Association for Information Media and Equipment (AIME);…

  10. Differentiation and Standardization of Aims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Robert

    For many people, school reform means taking the responsibility for goal setting away from teachers and assessing common student accomplishments, but the costs and benefits of this accountability strategy have not been determined. The difference between the aims of education represented by test scores, and those represented by the activities of the…

  11. Response of laminated composite plates to low-speed impact by airgun-propelled and dropped-weight impactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Chunchu B.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed to determine the transient response of simply supported, rectangular laminated composite plates subjected to impact loads from airgun-propelled or dropped-weight impactors. A first-order shear-deformation theory has been included in the analysis to represent properly any local short-wavelength transient bending response. The impact force has been modeled as a locally distributed load with a cosine-cosine distribution. A double Fourier series expansion and the Timoshenko small increment method have been used to determine the contact force, out-of-plane deflections, and inplane strains and stresses at any plate location due to an impact force at any plate location. The results of experimental and analytical studies are compared for quasi-isotropic laminates. The results indicate the importance of including transverse shear deformation effects in the analysis for predicting the response of laminated plates subjected to both airgun-propelled and dropped-weight impactors. The results also indicate that plate boundary conditions influence the axial strains more significantly than the contact force for a dropped-weight impactor. The results of parametric studies identify a scaling approach based on impactor momentum that suggests an explanation for the differences in the responses of plates impacted by airgun-propelled or dropped-weight impactors.

  12. Comparison of experimental and numerical studies of the performance characteristics of a pumped counterflow virtual impactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Afchine, Armin; Murphy, Daniel M.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2011-01-03

    Experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations were performed to evaluate the performance characteristics of a Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor (PCVI). Tests were conducted for various flow configurations for which the diameter at which 50% of the particles were transmitted was determined. Experimentally determined 50% cutpoints varied from 2.2 to 4.8 micrometers and CFD predicted diameters agreed within ± 0.4 microns. Both experimental and CFD results showed similar transmission efficiency (TE) curves. CFD TE was always greater than experimental results, most likely due to impaction losses in fittings not included in the simulations. Ideal transmission, corresponding to 100% TE, was never realized in either case due to impaction losses and small scale flow features such as eddies. Areas where CFD simulations showed such flow recirculation zones were also found to be the locations where particulate residue was deposited during experiments. CFD parametric tests showed that PCVI performance can be affected by the nozzle geometry and misalignment between the nozzle and collector orifice. We conclude that CFD can be used with confidence for counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) design. Modifications to improve the performance characteristics of the PCVI are suggested.

  13. LDEF impact craters formed by carbon-rich impactors: A preliminary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Dibrozolo, F. Radicati; Fleming, Ronald H.; Harris, David W.; Brownlee, Don; Reilly, Terrence W.

    1992-01-01

    Two impact craters found in Al from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment tray have residues concentrated in the bottoms, along the walls, and on top of overturned rims. Analyses indicate a 'chondritic' compositional signature (Si, S, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ni) for the bulk residue. In one crater (number 74), round to irregular silicate grains are overlain by carbon. In addition, carbon also partially covers the crater walls, the top of the raised overturned rim, and extends outward from the crater. The second crater (number 31) also contains carbon with similar distribution in and about the crater, although the silicate residue appears to be glassy. Silver, I, K, and F (possibly some of the Ca, S, and Cl) appear to be contaminants as well as analyzed aromatic carbonaceous species associated with the raised rim and the area surrounding the crater. The origin of the impactors is assumed to be extraterrestrial. The existence of impactor residue in two craters implies impact velocities less than or equal to 6 km, based on experimental hypervelocity studies.

  14. Size Effect and Material Property Effect of the Impactor on the Damage Modes of the Single-Layer Kiewitt-8 Reticulated Dome

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li; Fan, Feng; Zhi, XuDong; Yin, HongFeng

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic response of large space structures under accidental impact has been the subject of intense research since the occurrence of the 9/11 incident. In the present paper, using the 3D ANSYS/LS-DYNA, size effect and material property effect of the impactor on the damage modes of the single-layer Kiewitt-8 reticulated dome were investigated, respectively, where the impactor was the cylinder and the impact direction was vertical. Firstly, analytical results with the rigid impactor indicated that the impactor size can change the damage mode of the reticulated dome. It was found that the probability happening to the global collapse has an obvious rise with the size increase of the impactor. Furthermore, the deformable impactor was considered to figure out the difference with the rigid impactor; the comparisons indicated that the deformable impactor, which has the same mass and the same striking velocity with the rigid impactor, can contribute to the occurrence of the global collapse at a certain initial striking condition. PMID:24027451

  15. Size-dependent earth impactor warning times and corresponding campaign mission recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzych, Todd A.

    2012-05-01

    NASA seeks to reliably detect potential Earth Impactors (EI) in time to defend the planet by deflecting them. Congress has given an unfunded mandate to NASA to lead Spaceguard, a coalition of worldwide observatories and scientists who find, track, and determine impact probabilities for potential EIs (Udall, 2007). This effort fits within the first stages of a typical military targeting cycle, which begins by detecting and characterizing targets. In the first half of this analysis, military targeting is applied to the EI challenge through the development of a methodology to characterize early warning times for different size objects. In the second half, recommendations for acting on different warning time scenarios are presented, to include augmentation of observation technology and use of a precursor transponder implantation mission. An interdisciplinary approach is taken to measure the success of the Spaceguard efforts in increasing the warning times for approaches of variously sized bodies. A multi-step method is developed, beginning with determining past and present warning times for asteroids entering the 0.05 AU Astronomical Unit (AU) Minimum Orbit Intersection Distance (MOID) of Earth. Using source data from NASA's NEO Program database of close approaches, JPL's Small Body Database, and the IAU Minor Planet Center, the differences between the dates of first discovery of these Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHA) and the dates of 7300 penetrations of the MOID to graph warning times for known PHAs' penetration of the MOID were aggregated. The method also includes the estimate of PHA discovery, rates of objects with high orbital uncertainties, and missed approach rates. A discussion of potential sources for error and directions to take for further development of the model is included. Finally, recommendations for campaigns against EIs are provided, given different warning time and size scenarios. The most significant of the conclusions is that, given current

  16. Dark-ray and dark-floor craters on Ganymede, and the provenance of large impactors in the Jovian system

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M.; Mckinnon, W.B. Washington Univ., Saint Louis, MO )

    1991-02-01

    The dark-floor and dark-ray craters on the icy Jovian satellite, Ganymede, may derive their visual characteristics from impactor contamination. It is presently hypothesized that the rays darken as a result of the near-surface concentration of impactor material; this could occur, first, due to magnetic sputtering while the rays are bright, and subsequently, once a critical albedo is reached, due to thermal sublimation into discrete icy and nonicy patches. Voyager visible spectra of dark rays indicate that most large-ray systems are redder than grooved or cratered terrains, and are among the reddest units on Ganymede. More than half of the recent impactors on Ganymede may have been reddish D-type asteroids or comets, accounting for the albedos and colors of dark terrains on both Ganymede and Callisto. 108 refs.

  17. Response measurement of single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond radiation detector for intense X-rays aiming at neutron bang-time and neutron burn-history measurement on an inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Shimaoka, T. Kaneko, J. H.; Tsubota, M.; Arikawa, Y.; Nagai, T.; Kojima, S.; Abe, Y.; Sakata, S.; Fujioka, S.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H.; Isobe, M.; Sato, Y.; Chayahara, A.; Umezawa, H.; Shikata, S.

    2015-05-15

    A neutron bang time and burn history monitor in inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition are necessary for plasma diagnostics. In the FIREX project, however, no detector attained those capabilities because high-intensity X-rays accompanied fast electrons used for plasma heating. To solve this problem, single-crystal CVD diamond was grown and fabricated into a radiation detector. The detector, which had excellent charge transportation property, was tested to obtain a response function for intense X-rays. The applicability for neutron bang time and burn history monitor was verified experimentally. Charge collection efficiency of 99.5% ± 0.8% and 97.1% ± 1.4% for holes and electrons were obtained using 5.486 MeV alpha particles. The drift velocity at electric field which saturates charge collection efficiency was 1.1 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 7} cm/s and 1.0 ± 0.3 × 10{sup 7} cm/s for holes and electrons. Fast response of several ns pulse width for intense X-ray was obtained at the GEKKO XII experiment, which is sufficiently fast for ToF measurements to obtain a neutron signal separately from X-rays. Based on these results, we confirmed that the single-crystal CVD diamond detector obtained neutron signal with good S/N under ion temperature 0.5–1 keV and neutron yield of more than 10{sup 9} neutrons/shot.

  18. Response measurement of single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond radiation detector for intense X-rays aiming at neutron bang-time and neutron burn-history measurement on an inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimaoka, T.; Kaneko, J. H.; Arikawa, Y.; Isobe, M.; Sato, Y.; Tsubota, M.; Nagai, T.; Kojima, S.; Abe, Y.; Sakata, S.; Fujioka, S.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H.; Chayahara, A.; Umezawa, H.; Shikata, S.

    2015-05-01

    A neutron bang time and burn history monitor in inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition are necessary for plasma diagnostics. In the FIREX project, however, no detector attained those capabilities because high-intensity X-rays accompanied fast electrons used for plasma heating. To solve this problem, single-crystal CVD diamond was grown and fabricated into a radiation detector. The detector, which had excellent charge transportation property, was tested to obtain a response function for intense X-rays. The applicability for neutron bang time and burn history monitor was verified experimentally. Charge collection efficiency of 99.5% ± 0.8% and 97.1% ± 1.4% for holes and electrons were obtained using 5.486 MeV alpha particles. The drift velocity at electric field which saturates charge collection efficiency was 1.1 ± 0.4 × 107 cm/s and 1.0 ± 0.3 × 107 cm/s for holes and electrons. Fast response of several ns pulse width for intense X-ray was obtained at the GEKKO XII experiment, which is sufficiently fast for ToF measurements to obtain a neutron signal separately from X-rays. Based on these results, we confirmed that the single-crystal CVD diamond detector obtained neutron signal with good S/N under ion temperature 0.5-1 keV and neutron yield of more than 109 neutrons/shot.

  19. Response measurement of single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond radiation detector for intense X-rays aiming at neutron bang-time and neutron burn-history measurement on an inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition.

    PubMed

    Shimaoka, T; Kaneko, J H; Arikawa, Y; Isobe, M; Sato, Y; Tsubota, M; Nagai, T; Kojima, S; Abe, Y; Sakata, S; Fujioka, S; Nakai, M; Shiraga, H; Azechi, H; Chayahara, A; Umezawa, H; Shikata, S

    2015-05-01

    A neutron bang time and burn history monitor in inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition are necessary for plasma diagnostics. In the FIREX project, however, no detector attained those capabilities because high-intensity X-rays accompanied fast electrons used for plasma heating. To solve this problem, single-crystal CVD diamond was grown and fabricated into a radiation detector. The detector, which had excellent charge transportation property, was tested to obtain a response function for intense X-rays. The applicability for neutron bang time and burn history monitor was verified experimentally. Charge collection efficiency of 99.5% ± 0.8% and 97.1% ± 1.4% for holes and electrons were obtained using 5.486 MeV alpha particles. The drift velocity at electric field which saturates charge collection efficiency was 1.1 ± 0.4 × 10(7) cm/s and 1.0 ± 0.3 × 10(7) cm/s for holes and electrons. Fast response of several ns pulse width for intense X-ray was obtained at the GEKKO XII experiment, which is sufficiently fast for ToF measurements to obtain a neutron signal separately from X-rays. Based on these results, we confirmed that the single-crystal CVD diamond detector obtained neutron signal with good S/N under ion temperature 0.5-1 keV and neutron yield of more than 10(9) neutrons/shot. PMID:26026521

  20. China's educational aim and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang-Wei, Zou

    1985-12-01

    The aim and theory of Chinese socialist education is to provide scientific and technological knowledge so as to develop the productive forces and to meet the demands of the socialist cause. Since education is the main vehicle towards modernizing science and technology, any investment in education is viewed as being productive as it feeds directly into economics. Faced with the demands of industrial and agricultural production, training a technical as well as a labour force becomes crucial. This is made possible by the provision of two labour systems for workers both from rural as well as urban areas and by two kinds of educational systems for both urban and rural students. Chinese educational theory is seen as a fusion of principles from its own educational legacy with those of Marxist-Leninist principles.

  1. Orbital and physical characteristics of meter-scale impactors from airburst observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P.; Wiegert, P.; Clark, D.; Tagliaferri, E.

    2016-03-01

    We have analyzed the orbits and ablation characteristics in the atmosphere of 59 Earth-impacting fireballs, produced by meteoroids 1 m in diameter or larger, described here as meter-scale. Using heights at peak luminosity as a proxy for strength, we determine that there is roughly an order of magnitude spread in strengths of the population of meter-scale impactors at the Earth. We use fireballs producing recovered meteorites and well documented fireballs from ground-based camera networks to calibrate our ablation model interpretation of the observed peak height of luminosity as a function of speed. The orbits and physical strength of these objects are consistent with the majority being asteroidal bodies originating from the inner main asteroid belt. This is in contrast to earlier suggestions by Ceplecha (Ceplecha, Z. [1994]. Astron. Astrophys. 286, 967-970) that the majority of meter-tens of meter sized meteoroids are "… cometary bodies of the weakest known structure". We find a lower limit of ∼10-15% of our objects have a possible cometary (Jupiter-Family comet and/or Halley-type comet) origin based on orbital characteristics alone. Only half this number, however, also show evidence for weaker than average structure. Two events, Sumava and USG 20131121, have exceptionally high (relative to the remainder of the population) heights of peak brightness. These are physically most consistent with high microporosity objects, though both were on asteroidal-type orbits. We also find three events, including the Oct 8, 2009 airburst near Sulawesi, Indonesia, which display comparatively low heights of peak brightness, consistent with strong monolithic stones or iron meteoroids. Based on orbital similarity, we find a probable connection among several events in our population with the Taurid meteoroid complex; no other major meteoroid streams show probable linkages to the orbits of our meter-scale population. Our impactors cover almost four orders of magnitude in mass, but

  2. PADRE (PARTICLE DATA REDUCTION): A COMPUTERIZED DATA REDUCTION SYSTEM FOR CASCADE IMPACTOR MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the Particle Data Reduction (PADRE) system, developed to attract high-quality size-mass distribution data for the Fine Particle Emissions Information System (FPEIS), a component of EPA's Environmental Assessment Data Systems (EADS). FPEIS is the heart of a com...

  3. Jiangsu aims at quality services.

    PubMed

    1996-04-01

    This news brief discusses population growth and achievements in family planning in one of China's most economically developed provinces, Jiangsu. During the Five-Year Plan of 1991-95, population growth was controlled sufficiently to result in 300,000 births averted due to improvement in family planning. Provincial leaders and family planning workers agree that modernization may be achieved by the year 2000 by shifting the emphasis of family planning to economic development. The provincial government plans to offer a comprehensive package of contraceptive and reproductive health services to women of childbearing age. An information management system is planned for Taicang City. The aim is to show underdeveloped areas of the province the successful family planning experiences in Yancheng City. The Jiangsu government has a standardized management system that allows for the delivery of information and technical services and an improved supply of contraceptives. Over 95% of towns and service rooms had family planning service stations and population schools in 1995. Over 60% of villages had branch schools that provided family planning information and services. A public media campaign is planned that would spread information on childbirth, contraception, and reproductive health. This system would link IEC between the province, counties, and townships and facilitate delivery of services. Each county must establish an information management system for population and family planning. PMID:12347496

  4. An asteroid breakup 160 Myr ago as the probable source of the K/T impactor.

    PubMed

    Bottke, William F; Vokrouhlický, David; Nesvorný, David

    2007-09-01

    The terrestrial and lunar cratering rate is often assumed to have been nearly constant over the past 3 Gyr. Different lines of evidence, however, suggest that the impact flux from kilometre-sized bodies increased by at least a factor of two over the long-term average during the past approximately 100 Myr. Here we argue that this apparent surge was triggered by the catastrophic disruption of the parent body of the asteroid Baptistina, which we infer was a approximately 170-km-diameter body (carbonaceous-chondrite-like) that broke up 160(-20)+30Myr ago in the inner main asteroid belt. Fragments produced by the collision were slowly delivered by dynamical processes to orbits where they could strike the terrestrial planets. We find that this asteroid shower is the most likely source (>90 per cent probability) of the Chicxulub impactor that produced the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) mass extinction event 65 Myr ago. PMID:17805288

  5. Geochemical arguments for an Earth-like Moon-forming impactor.

    PubMed

    Dauphas, Nicolas; Burkhardt, Christoph; Warren, Paul H; Fang-Zhen, Teng

    2014-09-13

    Geochemical evidence suggests that the material accreted by the Earth did not change in nature during Earth's accretion, presumably because the inner protoplanetary disc had uniform isotopic composition similar to enstatite chondrites, aubrites and ungrouped achondrite NWA 5363/5400. Enstatite meteorites and the Earth were derived from the same nebular reservoir but diverged in their chemical evolutions, so no chondrite sample in meteorite collections is representative of the Earth's building blocks. The similarity in isotopic composition (Δ(17)O, ε(50)Ti and ε(54)Cr) between lunar and terrestrial rocks is explained by the fact that the Moon-forming impactor came from the same region of the disc as other Earth-forming embryos, and therefore was similar in isotopic composition to the Earth. The heavy δ(30)Si values of the silicate Earth and the Moon relative to known chondrites may be due to fractionation in the solar nebula/protoplanetary disc rather than partitioning of silicon in Earth's core. An inversion method is presented to calculate the Hf/W ratios and ε(182)W values of the proto-Earth and impactor mantles for a given Moon-forming impact scenario. The similarity in tungsten isotopic composition between lunar and terrestrial rocks is a coincidence that can be explained in a canonical giant impact scenario if an early formed embryo (two-stage model age of 10-20 Myr) collided with the proto-Earth formed over a more protracted accretion history (two-stage model age of 30-40 Myr). PMID:25114316

  6. Geochemical arguments for an Earth-like Moon-forming impactor

    PubMed Central

    Dauphas, Nicolas; Burkhardt, Christoph; Warren, Paul H.; Fang-Zhen, Teng

    2014-01-01

    Geochemical evidence suggests that the material accreted by the Earth did not change in nature during Earth's accretion, presumably because the inner protoplanetary disc had uniform isotopic composition similar to enstatite chondrites, aubrites and ungrouped achondrite NWA 5363/5400. Enstatite meteorites and the Earth were derived from the same nebular reservoir but diverged in their chemical evolutions, so no chondrite sample in meteorite collections is representative of the Earth's building blocks. The similarity in isotopic composition (Δ17O, ε50Ti and ε54Cr) between lunar and terrestrial rocks is explained by the fact that the Moon-forming impactor came from the same region of the disc as other Earth-forming embryos, and therefore was similar in isotopic composition to the Earth. The heavy δ30Si values of the silicate Earth and the Moon relative to known chondrites may be due to fractionation in the solar nebula/protoplanetary disc rather than partitioning of silicon in Earth's core. An inversion method is presented to calculate the Hf/W ratios and ε182W values of the proto-Earth and impactor mantles for a given Moon-forming impact scenario. The similarity in tungsten isotopic composition between lunar and terrestrial rocks is a coincidence that can be explained in a canonical giant impact scenario if an early formed embryo (two-stage model age of 10–20 Myr) collided with the proto-Earth formed over a more protracted accretion history (two-stage model age of 30–40 Myr). PMID:25114316

  7. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR HARVARD PM IMPACTOR CALIBRATION AND LEAK TESTING (UA-L-7.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for the periodic calibration and leak testing of Harvard particulate matter (PM) impactor units. This procedure applies directly to the calibration and leak testing of Harvard PM impactor units used during the Arizona NHEXAS ...

  8. Development of a New Calibration Method for an Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, M.; Vandenboer, T.; Murphy, J. G.

    2009-05-01

    Fine atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere as they alter the radiative balance of the Earth through direct and indirect climate effects, reduce visibility, participate in acid rain formation and affect human health. The motivation for chemically and temporally resolved measurements of fine aerosol composition has lead to the development of the Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC) system by Dionex/URG. This instrument is capable of simultaneously monitoring fine aerosols (<2.5μm) and associated precursor gases on a nearly continuous basis with a time resolution of 1 hour. The instrument utilizes a parallel-plate wet denuder with a constantly regenerated surface for collection of gases and a particle condensation chamber for the collection of aerosols. AIM-IC is capable of monitoring HCl(g), HONO(g), HNO3(g), SO2(g), NH3(g), Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ , and some water soluble organic acids and amines. Standard calibration of the AIM-IC is carried out by injecting a series of mixed standards directly onto the ion chromatographs, bypassing the sampling component of the instrument. This results in calculated detection limits on the order of 10-200 pptv for gases and 10-500 of ng/m3 for individual particle constituents when collecting at 3 L/min for 55 minutes. In this work, we present a new method for the calibration of the AIM-IC for both gas and particle collection that enables us to evaluate the entire system from size-selection to detection. This external calibration method is assessed for the gases HNO3(g), SO2(g), and NH3(g), and for particles containing (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and Na2SO4. Quantitative collection of SO2 is found to require careful optimization of the H2O2 concentration of the denuder liquid, while the replacement of a cyclone with an impactor improves the sampling efficiency of NH3 and HNO3.

  9. Size distributions of mutagenic compounds and mutagenicity in atmospheric particulate matter collected with a low-pressure cascade impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanaka, Youhei; Matsumoto, Emiko; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Wang, Ning; Yun, Sun-Ja

    Size distributions of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NF) and mutagenicity in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were measured by using a low-pressure cascade impactor in Saitama, Japan. PM was separated into 12 fractions of different sizes as follows: <0.11, 0.11-0.19, 0.19-0.29, 0.29-0.48, 0.48-0.68, 0.68-1.2, 1.2-2.1, 2.1-3.5, 3.5-5.1, 5.1-7.6, 7.6-11 and >11 μm. PAHs and 2-NF in PM were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with electron impact ionization (GC/EI-MS) and with negative ion chemical ionization (GC/NCI-MS), respectively. Mutagenicity of PM was determined by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and YG1024 under the conditions of both with and without S9 mix. The size distribution of PM was bimodal with peaks at 0.48-0.68 μm and 3.5-5.1 μm, while size distributions of total PAHs, individual PAHs, 2-NF and mutagenicity were unimodal with a peak at 0.48-0.68 μm. Nearly 87-95% of these compounds and 88-100% of mutagenicity were found in fine particles, and 2.9-5.8% of these compounds and 5.1-5.9% of mutagenicity were found in ultrafine particles. On the other hand, PAHs, 2-NF and mutagenicity per unit mass of PM increased as the particle size became smaller. The highest contents of PAHs, 2-NF and mutagenicity per unit mass of PM were observed in the fraction of <0.11 μm (ultrafine particle) or 0.11-0.19 μm.

  10. Influence of rheology and giant impactors on the terrestrial core formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golabek, G. J.; Gerya, T.; Kaus, B. J.; Ziethe, R.; Moll, G.; Tackley, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge about the terrestrial core formation mechanism is still very limited. Several core formation modes have been proposed: The fracturing mode suggests that a central unmelted region is displaced by a degree one mode from the center of the accreting body and is fragmented due to the large stresses created by an overlying asymmetric iron layer (Stevenson, 1981). In contrast, core formation via iron diapirs (e.g. Ziethe and Spohn, 2007), which can be formed by giant impacts (e.g. Ricard et al, 2009), has been proposed. We investigate which core formation mode is active under certain conditions. Therefore we perform 2D simulations using the code I2ELVIS applying the newly developed “spherical-Cartesian” methodology (Gerya and Yuen, 2007). It combines finite differences on a fully staggered rectangular Eulerian grid and Lagrangian marker-in-cell technique for solving momentum, continuity and temperature equations as well as the Poisson equation for gravity potential in a self-gravitating planetary body. In the model, the planetary body is surrounded by a low viscosity massless fluid (“sticky air”) to simulate a free surface. We apply a temperature- and stress-dependent viscoplastic rheology inside Mars- to Earth-sized bodies and include heat release due to radioactive decay, shear and adiabatic heating. As initial condition we use stochastically distributed iron diapirs with random sizes in the range of 50 to 100 km radius inside the accreting planet, representing the iron delivered by pre-differentiated impactors. Additionally, we add a giant impactor core into several models. For simplicity, we neglect the heating of the planetary body by the impact itself. We assume the impactor core to be at rest at the beginning of the simulation. A systematic investigation of the influence of silicate rheology, temperature and diapir radii on different-sized protoplanets is being performed. We show that depending on the silicate rheology, which is strongly dependent

  11. The effect of giant impactors on the magnetic field energy of an early Martian dynamo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, McGregor; Thieulot, Cedric; Monteux, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Through the cratering record embedded on its surface, Mars is one of the key planets required for investigating the formation and impact frequency in the early history of our Solar System. This record also holds clues to the events that may have caused the observed hemispheric dichotomy and cessation of the magnetic field that was present within the first 500 Myr of the planets' formation. We investigate the influence of giant impacts on the early Martian dynamo using the numerical dynamo modelling code PARODY-JA [1]. We hypothesize that the input heat from a giant impact will decrease the total heat flux at the CMB through mantle heating which leads to a decrease in the Rayleigh number of the core. As boundary conditions for the heat flux anomaly size, we use numerical results of a 750 km diameter impactor from the Monteux and Arkani-Hamed, 2014 [2] study which investigated impact heating and core merging of giant impacts in early Mars. We also determine the decrease in Rayleigh number from the change in total heat flux at the CMB using these results, where the decrease after impact is due to shock heating at the CMB. We calculate the time-averaged total magnetic field energy for an initial homogeneous heat flux model using a range of Rayleigh numbers (5 x 103 - 1 x 10^5). The Rayleigh number is then decreased for three new models - homogeneous, north pole impact and equatorial impact - and the time-averaged energy again determined. We find that the energy decreases more in our impact models, compared with the homogeneous, along with a variation in energy between the north pole and equatorial impact models. We conclude that giant impacts in Mars' early history would have decreased the total magnetic energy of the field and the decrease in energy is also dependent on the location of the impact. The magnetic field could have been disrupted beyond recovery from a planetesimal-sized collision; such as the suggested Borealis basin forming impact, or through the

  12. Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) experiment is to resolve why Polar Mesospheric Clouds form and why they vary. By measuring PMCs and the thermal, chemical and dynamical environment in which they form, we will quanti@ the connection between these clouds and the meteorology of the polar mesosphere. In the end, this will provide the basis for study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global change. The results of AIM will be a rigorous validation of predictive models that can reliably use past PMC changes and present trends as indicators of global change. The AIM goal will be achieved by measuring PMC extinction, brightness, spatial distribution, particle size distributions, gravity wave activity, dust influx to the atmosphere and precise, vertical profile measurements of temperature, H20, C&, 0 3 , C02, NO. and aerosols. These data can only be obtained by a complement of instruments on an orbiting spacecraft (S/C).

  13. Use of a New Portable Instrumented Impactor on the NASA Composite Crew Module Damage Tolerance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Wade C.; Polis, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Damage tolerance performance is critical to composite structures because surface impacts at relatively low energies may result in a significant strength loss. For certification, damage tolerance criteria require aerospace vehicles to meet design loads while containing damage at critical locations. Data from standard small coupon testing are difficult to apply to larger more complex structures. Due to the complexity of predicting both the impact damage and the residual properties, damage tolerance is demonstrated primarily by testing. A portable, spring-propelled, impact device was developed which allows the impact damage response to be investigated on large specimens, full-scale components, or entire vehicles. During impact, both the force history and projectile velocity are captured. The device was successfully used to demonstrate the damage tolerance performance of the NASA Composite Crew Module. The impactor was used to impact 18 different design features at impact energies up to 35 J. Detailed examples of these results are presented, showing impact force histories, damage inspection results, and response to loading.

  14. Environmental continuous air monitor inlet with combined preseparator and virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2007-06-19

    An inlet for an environmental air monitor is described wherein a pre-separator interfaces with ambient environment air and removes debris and insects commonly associated with high wind outdoors and a deflector plate in communication with incoming air from the pre-separator stage, that directs the air radially and downward uniformly into a plurality of accelerator jets located in a manifold of a virtual impactor, the manifold being cylindrical and having a top, a base, and a wall, with the plurality of accelerator jets being located in the top of the manifold and receiving the directed air and accelerating directed air, thereby creating jets of air penetrating into the manifold, where a major flow is deflected to the walls of the manifold and extracted through ports in the walls. A plurality of receiver nozzles are located in the base of the manifold coaxial with the accelerator jets, and a plurality of matching flow restrictor elements are located in the plurality of receiver nozzles for balancing and equalizing the total minor flow among all the plurality of receiver nozzles, through which a lower, fractional flow extracts large particle constituents of the air for collection on a sample filter after passing through the plurality of receiver nozzles and the plurality of matching flow restrictor elements.

  15. Peak acceleration during impact with helmet materials: effects of impactor mass and speed.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Timothy Paul

    2014-01-01

    The impact properties of six foam materials used for energy absorption as the liner of children's helmets, reported by Gimbel and Hoshizaki are considered further. In high-energy impacts, almost complete compression of the energy-absorbing material (bottoming out) may occur, and the severity of the impact increases greatly. Too soft a material means bottoming out occurs at low speeds, but if it is too stiff, the material itself is injurious. The fitting of equations to results in 'no bottoming out' and 'bottoming out' conditions may help assessment of what compromise is appropriate. The equations in this article correspond to peak acceleration being proportional to power functions of impactor speed and mass. 1. When there was no bottoming out, peak acceleration was found to be proportional to m (∧)(c-1).v (∧)(2c), with c being approximately 0.25. 2. For bottoming out, peak acceleration was found to be proportional to m (∧)(p).v (∧)(q), with p and q being approximately 2 and approximately 3. 3. The constants of proportionality were related to material density in a regular way. PMID:24444232

  16. Stop hitting yourself: did most terrestrial impactors originate from the terrestrial planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Alan; Asphaug, Erik; Elkins-Tanton, Linda

    2014-11-01

    Although the asteroid belt is the main source of impactors in the inner solar system today, it contains only 0.0006 Earth mass, or 0.05 Lunar mass. While the asteroid belt would have been more massive when it formed, it is unlikely to have had greater than 0.5 Lunar mass since the formation of Jupiter and the dissipation of the solar nebula. By comparison, giant impacts onto the terrestrial planets typically release debris equal to several per cent of the planets mass. The Moon-forming impact on Earth and the dichotomy forming impact on Mars, to consider but two of these major events, released 1.3 and 0.3 Lunar mass in debris respectively, many times the mass of the present day asteroid belt. This escaping impact debris is less long lived than the main asteroid belt, as it is injected on unstable, planet-crossing orbits, but this same factor also increases the impact probability with the terrestrial planets and asteroids. We show that as a result terrestrial ejecta played a major role in the impact history of the early inner solar system, and we expect the same is also likely to be true in other planetary systems.

  17. A statistical dynamical study of meteorite impactors: A case study based on parameters derived from the Bosumtwi impact event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiazzo, M. A.; Bazsó, Á.; Huber, M. S.; Losiak, A.; Dvorak, R.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-11-01

    The study of meteorite craters on Earth provides information about the dynamic evolution of bodies within the Solar System. the Bosumtwi crater is a well studied, 10.5 km in diameter, ca. 1.07 Myr old impact structure located in Ghana. (Koeberl et al., 1997a). The impactor was ˜ 1 km in diameter, an ordinary chondrite and struck the Earth with an angle between 30o and 45o (Artemieva et al., 2004) from the horizontal. We have used a two phase backward integration to constrain the most probable parent region of the impactor. We find that the most likely source region is a high inclination object from the Middle Main Belt.

  18. Preliminary Analysis of Delta-V Requirements for a Lunar CubeSat Impactor with Deployment Altitude Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Joo; Ho, Jin; Kim, Bang-Yeop

    2015-09-01

    Characteristics of delta-V requirements for deploying an impactor from a mother-ship at different orbital altitudes are analyzed in order to prepare for a future lunar CubeSat impactor mission. A mother-ship is assumed to be orbiting the moon with a circular orbit at a 90 deg inclination and having 50, 100, 150, 200 km altitudes. Critical design parameters that are directly related to the success of the impactor mission are also analyzed including deploy directions, CubeSat flight time, impact velocity, and associated impact angles. Based on derived delta-V requirements, required thruster burn time and fuel mass are analyzed by adapting four different miniaturized commercial onboard thrusters currently developed for CubeSat applications. As a result, CubeSat impact trajectories as well as thruster burn characteristics deployed at different orbital altitudes are found to satisfy the mission objectives. It is concluded that thrust burn time should considered as the more critical design parameter than the required fuel mass when deducing the onboard propulsion system requirements. Results provided through this work will be helpful in further detailed system definition and design activities for future lunar missions with a CubeSat-based payload.

  19. Exploring pulse shaping for Z using graded-density impactors on gas guns (final report for LDRD project 79879).

    SciTech Connect

    Furnish, Michael David; Reinhart, William Dodd; Anderson, William W. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Hixson, Rob (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Kipp, Marlin E.

    2005-10-01

    While isentropic compression experiment (ICE) techniques have proved useful in deducing the high-pressure compressibility of a wide range of materials, they have encountered difficulties where large-volume phase transitions exist. The present study sought to apply graded-density impactor methods for producing isentropic loading to planar impact experiments to selected such problems. Cerium was chosen due to its 20% compression between 0.7 and 1.0 GPa. A model was constructed based on limited earlier dynamic data, and applied to the design of a suite of experiments. A capability for handling this material was installed. Two experiments were executed using shock/reload techniques with available samples, loading initially to near the gamma-alpha transition, then reloading. As well, two graded-density impactor experiments were conducted with alumina. A method for interpreting ICE data was developed and validated; this uses a wavelet construction for the ramp wave and includes corrections for the ''diffraction'' of wavelets by releases or reloads reflected from the sample/window interface. Alternate methods for constructing graded-density impactors are discussed.

  20. Size-separated sampling and analysis of isocyanates in workplace aerosols. Part I. Denuder--cascade impactor sampler.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Jakob; Spanne, Mårten; Karlsson, Daniel; Dalene, Marianne; Skarping, Gunnar

    2008-07-01

    Isocyanates in the workplace atmosphere are typically present both in gas and particle phase. The health effects of exposure to isocyanates in gas phase and different particle size fractions are likely to be different due to their ability to reach different parts in the respiratory system. To reveal more details regarding the exposure to isocyanate aerosols, a denuder-impactor (DI) sampler for airborne isocyanates was designed. The sampler consists of a channel-plate denuder for collection of gaseous isocyanates, in series with three-cascade impactor stages with cut-off diameters (d(50)) of 2.5, 1.0 and 0.5 mum. An end filter was connected in series after the impactor for collection of particles smaller than 0.5 mum. The denuder, impactor plates and the end filter were impregnated with a mixture of di-n-butylamine (DBA) and acetic acid for derivatization of the isocyanates. During sampling, the reagent on the impactor plates and the end filter is continuously refreshed, due to the DBA release from the impregnated denuder plates. This secures efficient derivatization of all isocyanate particles. The airflow through the sampler was 5 l min(-1). After sampling, the samples containing the different size fractions were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS. The DBA impregnation was stable in the sampler for at least 1 week. After sampling, the DBA derivatives were stable for at least 3 weeks. Air sampling was performed in a test chamber (300 l). Isocyanate aerosols studied were thermal degradation products of different polyurethane polymers, spraying of isocyanate coating compounds and pure gas-phase isocyanates. Sampling with impinger flasks, containing DBA in toluene, with a glass fiber filter in series was used as a reference method. The DI sampler showed good compliance with the reference method, regarding total air levels. For the different aerosols studied, vast differences were revealed in the distribution of isocyanate in gas and

  1. Measured and Modeled Morphometry of Simple Impact Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watters, W. A.; Collins, G. S.

    2015-09-01

    We discuss the measured diameter dependence of well-preserved simple crater morphometry on Mars and compare with iSALE simulations. We also describe future work to fully characterize the dependence on impactor velocity and mass, and target properties.

  2. Aerodynamic characteristics of nebulized terbutaline sulphate using the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) and CEN method.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, Mohamed E; Chrystyn, Henry

    2009-03-01

    Characterization of the aerosolized dose emitted from a nebulized system can be determined using CEN (prEN13544-1) methodology and more recently with a Next Generation Impactor (NGI), but evaporative effects can influence the results. We have investigated these characteristics using different flows and cooling with the NGI and compared the results to the standard CEN method using two different nebulizer systems. The NGI was operated using flows of 15 and 30 L min(-1) at room (ROOM) temperature and immediately after cooling at 5 degrees C for 90 min (COLD). Two nebulizer systems, the Sidestream jet nebulizer (SIDE) and the Aeroneb Pro (AERO), were used to nebulize terbutaline sulphate respiratory solution. The CEN method was also used to provide the aerodynamic characteristics of the aerosolized dose from these two nebulizer systems. The mean (SD) mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) using 15COLD, 15ROOM, 30COLD, 30ROOM, and CEN for AERO was 5.0(0.1), 4.1(0.3), 4.4(0.2), 2.0(0.3), and 3.0(1.1) microm, respectively, and 4.2(0.4), 2.6(0.4), 3.5(0.1), 1.7(0.1), and 3.2(0.3) microm for SIDE. The fine particle fraction (FPF), using the NGI, followed the expected trend associated with the corresponding MMAD values, ranging from 48.1 to 70.5% from AERO and 57.3 to 87.8% for SIDE. The mean FPF for AERO and SIDE using the CEN methodology was 72.5 and 63.6%. Overall there was a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) between the different operating conditions for the FPF and MMAD of both nebulizer systems. All methods revealed a significant difference between AERO and SIDE except CEN. Both nebulizer systems were prone to evaporation effects during in vitro testing. Cooling and using a slow flow minimizes evaporation effects with the NGI and should be adopted as the recommended compendial method. The CEN method provides different values to those of the NGI operating conditions and could not differentiate between the two nebulizers. PMID:19392586

  3. Dynamical sequestration of the Moon-forming impactor in co-orbital resonance with Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortenkamp, Stephen J.; Hartmann, William K.

    2016-09-01

    Recent concerns about the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the Moon, and an associated "isotope crisis" may be assuaged if the impactor was a local object that formed near Earth. We investigated a scenario that may meet this criterion, with protoplanets assumed to originate in 1:1 co-orbital resonance with Earth. Using N-body numerical simulations we explored the dynamical consequences of placing Mars-mass companions in various co-orbital configurations with a proto-Earth of 0.9 Earth-masses (M⊕). We modeled 162 different configurations, some with just the four terrestrial planets and others that included the four giant planets. In both the 4- and 8-planet models we found that a single Mars-mass companion typically remained a stable co-orbital of Earth for the entire 250 million year (Myr) duration of our simulations (59 of 68 unique simulations). In an effort to destabilize such a system we carried out an additional 94 simulations that included a second Mars-mass co-orbital companion. Even with two Mars-mass companions sharing Earth's orbit about two-thirds of these models (66) also remained stable for the entire 250 Myr duration of the simulations. Of the 28 2-companion models that eventually became unstable 24 impacts were observed between Earth and an escaping co-orbital companion. The average delay we observed for an impact of a Mars-mass companion with Earth was 102 Myr, and the longest delay was 221 Myr. In 40% of the 8-planet models that became unstable (10 out of 25) Earth collided with the nearly equal mass Venus to form a super-Earth (loosely defined here as mass ≥1.7 M⊕). These impacts were typically the final giant impact in the system and often occurred after Earth and/or Venus has accreted one or more of the other large objects. Several of the stable configurations involved unusual 3-planet hierarchical co-orbital systems.

  4. Calibration of the modified Electrical Low-Pressure Impactor (ELPI) for use with pressurized pharmaceutical aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kotian, Reshma; Peart, Joanne; Bryner, Joan; Byron, Peter R

    2009-03-01

    The modified Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) is currently being used in several laboratories to determine inherent electrostatic charge of pharmaceutical aerosols as a function of their particle size. However, the ELPI appears to underestimate the aerodynamic particle size distributions (aPSDs) of pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs), casting doubt upon the manufacturer's calibration. In the present study, four commercially available pMDIs with a range of aPSDs were used to recalibrate cutoff diameters (d50s) of the ELPI stages using a reference ACI. Particle size analyses were performed in a mensurated ACI and a calibrated modified ELPI (n = 5); stage coating was employed in both instruments. The ACI data were fitted to a lognormal cumulative distribution function by nonlinear regression analysis. Best estimates for mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) for each pMDI were obtained and used in combination with impaction results from the modified ELPI to determine new d50s for each of the ELPI stages by numerical methods. Ventolin HFA was employed to validate the new ELPI d50 values. The curve-fitting procedure produced excellent fits of the ACI data for all the calibration pMDIs, which were well modeled as mono-modal and lognormally distributed. The mean d50s obtained following recalibration of the modified ELPI were found to deviate increasingly from the manufacturer-supplied values as aerodynamic diameter decreased. Ventolin HFA's MMAD determined using the modified ELPI with the manufacturer-supplied d50s was 2.06 +/- 0.08 microm. The MMAD calculated using the recalibrated d50s was 2.63 +/- 0.09 microm, which was statistically indistinguishable (p = 0.0852) from that determined for Ventolin HFA using the ACI (2.73 +/- 0.09 microm). In the absence of a comprehensive recalibration of the ELPI using monodisperse aerosols, the mean d50s for stages 4-12 of ELPI reported offer a practical way of analyzing the a

  5. Micro-abrasion package capture cell experiment on the trailing edge of LDEF: Impactor chemistry and whipple bumper shield efficiencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, Howard J.; Yano, Hajime

    1995-01-01

    Four of the eight available double layer microparticle capture cells, flown as the experiment A0023 on the trailing (West) face of LDEF, have been extensively studied. An investigation of the chemistry of impactors has been made using SEM/EDX techniques and the effectiveness of the capture cells as bumper shields has also been examined. Studies of these capture cells gave positive EDX results, with 53 percent of impact sites indicating the presence of some chemical residues, the predominant residue identified as being silicon in varying quantities.

  6. A matched pair cluster randomized implementation trail to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to decrease perinatal mortality and increase institution-based obstetric care among indigenous women in Guatemala: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal and perinatal mortality continue to be a high priority problem on the health agendas of less developed countries. Despite the progress made in the last decade to quantify the magnitude of maternal mortality, few interventions have been implemented with the intent to measure impact directly on maternal or perinatal deaths. The success of interventions implemented in less developed countries to reduce mortality has been questioned, in terms of the tendency to maintain a clinical perspective with a focus on purely medical care separate from community-based approaches that take cultural and social aspects of maternal and perinatal deaths into account. Our innovative approach utilizes both the clinical and community perspectives; moreover, our study will report the weight that each of these components may have had on reducing perinatal mortality and increasing institution-based deliveries. Methods/Design A matched pair cluster-randomized trial will be conducted in clinics in four rural indigenous districts with the highest maternal mortality ratios in Guatemala. The individual clinic will serve as the unit of randomization, with 15 matched pairs of control and intervention clinics composing the final sample. Three interventions will be implemented in indigenous, rural and poor populations: a simulation training program for emergency obstetric and perinatal care, increased participation of the professional midwife in strengthening the link between traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the formal health care system, and a social marketing campaign to promote institution-based deliveries. No external intervention is planned for control clinics, although enhanced monitoring, surveillance and data collection will occur throughout the study in all clinics throughout the four districts. All obstetric events occurring in any of the participating health facilities and districts during the 18 months implementation period will be included in the analysis

  7. ASPECT spectral imaging satellite proposal to AIDA/AIM CubeSat payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, Tomas; Näsilä, Antti; Tikka, Tuomas; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri; Kestilä, Antti; Granvik, Mikael; Kallio, Esa

    2016-04-01

    ASPECT (Asteroid Spectral Imaging Mission) is a part of AIDA/AIM project and aims to study the composition of the Didymos binary asteroid and the effects of space weathering and shock metamorphism in order to gain understanding of the formation and evolution of the Solar System. The joint ESA/NASA AIDA (Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment) mission to binary asteroid Didymos consists of AIM (Asteroid Impact Mission, ESA) and DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test, NASA). DART is targeted to impact Didymos secondary component (Didymoon) and serve as a kinetic impactor to demonstrate deflection of potentially hazardous asteroids. AIM will serve as an observational spacecraft to evaluate the effects of the impact and resulting changes in the Didymos dynamic parameters. The AIM mission will also carry two CubeSat miniaturized satellites, released in Didymoon proximity. This arrangement opens up a possibility for secondary scientific experiments. ASPECT is one of the proposed CubeSat payloads. Whereas Didymos is a space-weathered binary asteroid, the DART impactor is expected to produce a crater and excavate fresh material from the secondary component (Didymoon). Spectral comparison of the mature surface to the freshly exposed material will allow to directly deter-mine space weathering effects. It will be also possible to study spectral shock effects within the impact crater. ASPECT will also demonstrate for the first time the joint spacecraft - CubeSat operations in asteroid proximity and miniature spectral imager operation in deep-space environment. Science objectives: 1. Study of the surface composition of the Didymos system. 2. Photometric observations (and modeling) under varying phase angle and distance. 3. Study of space weathering effects on asteroids (comparison of mature / freshly exposed material). 4. Study of shock effects (spectral properties of crater interior). 5. Observations during the DART impact. Engineering objectives: 1. Demonstration of Cube

  8. Osmium, tungsten, and chromium isotopes in sediments and in Ni-rich spinel at the K-T boundary: Signature of a chondritic impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quitté, Ghylaine; Robin, Eric; Levasseur, Sylvain; Capmas, Françoise; Rocchia, Robert; Birck, Jean-Louis; Allègre, Claude Jean

    It is now established that a large extraterrestrial object hit the Earth at the end of the Cretaceous period, about 65 Ma ago. We have investigated Re-Os, Hf-W, and Mn-Cr isotope systems in sediments from the Cretaceous and the Paleogene in order to characterize the type of impactor. Within the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary layer, extraterrestrial material is mixed with terrestrial material, causing a dilution of the extraterrestrial isotope signature that is difficult to quantify. A phase essentially composed of Ni-rich spinel, formed in the atmosphere mainly from melted projectile material, is likely to contain the extraterrestrial isotopic signature of the impactor. We show that the analysis of spinel is indeed the best approach to determine the initial isotope composition of the impactor, and that W and Cr isotopes confirm that the projectile was a carbonaceous chondrite.

  9. Take AIM and Keep Your Students Engaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the benefits to distance education teachers of formatting a weekly online newsletter in accordance with motivational learning theory. It reflects on the delivery of weekly AIM newsletters to undergraduate economics students at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand via Moodle. The acronym, AIM, stands for Academic content,…

  10. Aims of education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  11. PROCEEDINGS: ADVANCES IN PARTICLE SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT (ASHEVILLE, NC, MAY 1978)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings consist of 17 papers on improved instruments and techniques for sampling and measuring particulate emissions and aerosols; e.g., cascade impactors, cyclone collectors, and diffusion-battery/nuclei-counter combinations. Transmissometers and instruments for measurin...

  12. Animated View of the AIM Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission will provide the first detailed exploration of Earth's unique and elusive noctilucent or night shining clouds that are found literally on the "ed...

  13. Laser Transmitter Aims At Laser Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Transmitter part of developmental optical communication system. Compact, lightweight, partially-self-aiming laser transmitter built to verify some capabilities of developmental free-space optical communication system. Design capable of providing 0.5 Mbps data return over range equal to Moon-Earth distance. Breadboard of transmitting terminal constructed and tested in laboratory. Prototype transmitter includes receiving circuitry that keeps it aimed at beacon, once brought into initial alignment within about 1.7 degrees of line of sight to beacon.

  14. Micrometeoroid Impacts on the Hubble Sace Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Ion Beam Analysis of Subtle Impactor Traces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V. V.; Colaux, J. L.; Kearsley, A. T.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; Griffin, T.; Gerlach, L.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of origin for particles responsible for impact damage on spacecraft such as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) relies upon postflight analysis of returned materials. A unique opportunity arose in 2009 with collection of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) from HST by shuttle mission STS-125. A preliminary optical survey confirmed that there were hundreds of impact features on the radiator surface. Following extensive discussion between NASA, ESA, NHM and IBC, a collaborative research program was initiated, employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ion beam analysis (IBA) to determine the nature of the impacting grains. Even though some WFPC2 impact features are large, and easily seen without the use of a microscope, impactor remnants may be hard to find.

  15. Research on Impact Stress and Fatigue Simulation of a New Down-to-the-Hole Impactor Based on ANSYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Wang, Wei; Yao, Aiguo; Li, Yongbo; He, Wangyong; Fei, Dongdong

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, a down-to-the-hole electric hammer driven by linear motor is reported for drilling engineering. It differs from the common hydraulic or pneumatic hammers in that it can be applied to some special occasions without circulating medium due to its independence of the drilling fluid. The impact stress caused by the reciprocating motion between stator and rotor and the fatigue damage in key components of linear motor are analyzed by the ANSYS Workbench software and 3D model. Based on simulation results, the hammer's structure is optimized by using special sliding bearing, increasing the wall thickness of key and multilayer buffer gasket. Fatigue life and coefficient issues of the new structure are dramatically improved. However buffer gasket reduces the impactor's energy, different bumper structure effect on life improving and energy loss have also been elaborated.

  16. Particle Size Distributions of Particulate Emissions from the Ferroalloy Industry Evaluated by Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI)

    PubMed Central

    Kero, Ida; Naess, Mari K.; Tranell, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    The present article presents a comprehensive evaluation of the potential use of an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) in the ferroalloy industry with respect to indoor air quality and fugitive emission control. The ELPI was used to assess particulate emission properties, particularly of the fine particles (Dp ≤ 1 μm), which in turn may enable more satisfactory risk assessments for the indoor working conditions in the ferroalloy industry. An ELPI has been applied to characterize the fume in two different ferroalloy plants, one producing silicomanganese (SiMn) alloys and one producing ferrosilicon (FeSi) alloys. The impactor classifies the particles according to their aerodynamic diameter and gives real-time particle size distributions (PSD). The PSD based on both number and mass concentrations are shown and compared. Collected particles have also been analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. From the ELPI classification, particle size distributions in the range 7 nm – 10 μm have been established for industrial SiMn and FeSi fumes. Due to the extremely low masses of the ultrafine particles, the number and mass concentration PSD are significantly different. The average aerodynamic diameters for the FeSi and the SiMn fume particles were 0.17 and 0.10 μm, respectively. Based on this work, the ELPI is identified as a valuable tool for the evaluation of airborne particulate matter in the indoor air of metallurgical production sites. The method is well suited for real-time assessment of morphology (particle shape), particle size, and particle size distribution of aerosols. PMID:25380385

  17. Particle size distributions of particulate emissions from the ferroalloy industry evaluated by electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI).

    PubMed

    Kero, Ida; Naess, Mari K; Tranell, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    The present article presents a comprehensive evaluation of the potential use of an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) in the ferroalloy industry with respect to indoor air quality and fugitive emission control. The ELPI was used to assess particulate emission properties, particularly of the fine particles (Dp ≤ 1 μm), which in turn may enable more satisfactory risk assessments for the indoor working conditions in the ferroalloy industry. An ELPI has been applied to characterize the fume in two different ferroalloy plants, one producing silicomanganese (SiMn) alloys and one producing ferrosilicon (FeSi) alloys. The impactor classifies the particles according to their aerodynamic diameter and gives real-time particle size distributions (PSD). The PSD based on both number and mass concentrations are shown and compared. Collected particles have also been analyzed by transmission and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. From the ELPI classification, particle size distributions in the range 7 nm - 10 μm have been established for industrial SiMn and FeSi fumes. Due to the extremely low masses of the ultrafine particles, the number and mass concentration PSD are significantly different. The average aerodynamic diameters for the FeSi and the SiMn fume particles were 0.17 and 0.10 μm, respectively. Based on this work, the ELPI is identified as a valuable tool for the evaluation of airborne particulate matter in the indoor air of metallurgical production sites. The method is well suited for real-time assessment of morphology (particle shape), particle size, and particle size distribution of aerosols. PMID:25380385

  18. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION OF PM AND URG IMPACTORS AND IMPACTION PLATES (UA-L-8.1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the stages of preparation required for Harvard particulate matter (PM) sampler impactor: (1) prior to in-field use of the particulate sampling system, (2) in-field sampling, and (3) disassembly after field use. This procedure applies direct...

  19. AIM: Adventures in Movement for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adventures In Movement for the Handicapped, Inc., Dayton, OH.

    The handbook on Adventures in Movement for the Handicapped (AIM) gives information about general organizational goals and suggests activities for use by volunteer teachers with blind, deaf, crippled, cerebral palsied, mentally retarded, and autistic children at five ability/age levels. General Information given about each handicap usually includes…

  20. AIM: Ames Imaging Module Spacecraft Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The AIM camera is a small, lightweight, low power, low cost imaging system developed at NASA Ames. Though it has imaging capabilities similar to those of $1M plus spacecraft cameras, it does so on a fraction of the mass, power and cost budget.

  1. Contact aiming system of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Ye, Xiaoyou; Zou, Lingding; Gao, Hongtang; Gan, Xiaochuan; Shen, Xueping

    2013-01-01

    Composition and principle of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator were introduced. A novel contact aiming system based on high precision inductance sensor was designed. The zero-cross trigger signal of inductance sensor output voltage was treated as the aiming signal. A rotating mechanism was designed and a segmental shifting motion control model was established. Two key problems, avoiding probe crash and aiming repeatability, were solved. The one dimension end standards such as gauge block, step gauge could be measured directly by this means. The data of test revealed that aiming repeatability was less than 0.2μm.

  2. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  3. Aiming Schedule For Orbiting Astrometric Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascy, Alfred C.; Sobeck, Charlie

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses schedule of observation times and aiming directions of proposed astrometric telescope facility mounted on Space Station in orbit around Earth. Primarily makes repeated observations of apparent positions of each of 127 selected stars with respect to distant reference stars in same field of view known to have unperturbed proper motions. Purpose of observations to detect motions of selected stars about centers of mass and to analyze harmonic content of motions to infer existence, number, masses, and orbital radii of planets.

  4. Aiming Instruments On The Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estus, Jay M.; Laskin, Robert; Lin, Yu-Hwan

    1989-01-01

    Report discusses capabilities and requirements for aiming scientific instruments carried aboard proposed Space Station. Addresses two issues: whether system envisioned for pointing instruments at celestial targets offers sufficiently low jitter, high accuracy, and high stability to meet scientific requirements; whether it can do so even in presence of many vibrations and other disturbances on Space Station. Salient conclusion of study, recommendation to develop pointing-actuator system including mechanical/fluid base isolator underneath reactionaless gimbal subsystem. This kind of system offers greatest promise of high performance, cost-effectiveness, and modularity for job at hand.

  5. The aim and philosophy of patient monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J. S. S.

    1970-01-01

    The history of monitoring is traced from ancient times until the invention of transducers and computers. The relevance of progress in resuscitation is emphasized. The more recent evolution of electromedical apparatus is considered from single signal detection, display and alarm to multiple signal processing, trend analysis and diagnosis. The aim of patient monitoring is to give warning of early or dangerous deterioration and to achieve this by obtaining an optimal compromise involving many design factors, clinical, engineering and economic. A new philosophy is illustrated by the specification and development of the Lifeline patient monitor. The translation of clinical diagnoses into electronic switching logic is of particular importance. PMID:4920275

  6. Preventing Aim At An Undesired Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodzeit, Neil E.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic system controls changes in orientation of optical instrument. Slew-control system includes avoidance-control logic, which overrides slew-control error generator when line of sight of instrument comes within cone of avoidance around line of sight to Sun. Normal slewing trajectory interrupted by avoidance-control logic, which computes actuator torques taking line of sight around cone of avoidance. Used to protect delicate photodetectors in servocontrolled infrared spectrometer or imaging instrument against damage occurring if instrument aimed at Sun or another excessively bright object.

  7. Work, the Aims of Life and the Aims of Education: A Reply to Clarke and Mearman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The main points made by Clarke and Mearman about Winch's article, 'The Economic Aims of Education,' are taken up and discussed. My argument is that work is not necessarily a disutility, although paid employment can be when it is undertaken in conditions that are not fulfilling. Life aims are not the same as educational aims, although educational…

  8. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  9. Taking Aim at AYP Called Timely, Risky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2010-01-01

    The Obama administration's proposal to revamp the signature yardstick used to measure schools' progress under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is being seen as a bold step toward revising a key feature of the law, even as questions loom about how a new system would work. Under the plan, adequate yearly progress (AYP)--the…

  10. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  11. Night vision adapter for an aiming telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granciu, Dana; Mitricica, Doina-Narcisa; Serban, Greta

    2015-02-01

    Actual requirements impose more and more to convert rapidly a daytime aiming telescope, (called also telescopic sight or riflescope) into a night vision device. Recent progress achieved in the development of various image sensors over a wide spectral range, from visible to Long-wave infrared (LWIR), made possible to develop new solutions for performant night vision adapters. These attachments can increase the visibility at night but can be designed to cover also some low visibility conditions during the day such as fog, smoke and dust, especially if we refer to the Short-wave infrared spectral band (SWIR). The paper analyzes possible constructive solutions for digital riflescope attachments, destined to work at night and/or in low visibility during the day.

  12. SWIR detectors for night vision at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figgemeier, H.; Benecke, M.; Hofmann, K.; Oelmaier, R.; Sieck, A.; Wendler, J.; Ziegler, J.

    2014-06-01

    Detectors for the short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral range are particularly suitable for observation under hazy weather conditions as well as under twilight or moon light conditions. In addition, SWIR detectors allow using the airglow for observation under moonless sky. SWIR detectors are commonly based on InGaAs or HgCdTe (MCT) and demand extremely low dark currents to ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio under low background light conditions. AIM has developed a read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) with 640×512 pixels and a 15 μm pixel pitch for low light level applications. The ROIC supports analog or digital correlated double sampling (CDS) for the reduction of reset-noise (also known as kTC-noise). Along with CDS, a rolling shutter (RS) mode has been implemented. The input stage of the ROIC is based on a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) with two selectable gain settings. The dark current of our SWIR MCT detectors has recently been significantly reduced to allow for high operating temperatures. In contrast to InGaAs, the MCT material offers the unique possibility to adjust the cut-off wavelength according to the application while maintaining the matching of the lattice constant to the one of the CdZnTe substrate. The key electro-optical performance parameters of lately developed MCT based SWIR Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) with a 1.75 μm cut-off wavelength will be presented. In addition, AIMs SWIR detectors covering the spectral range from 0.9 μm to 2.5 μm and available in formats of 384×288 pixels - 24 μm pitch and 1024×256 pixels - 24×32 μm2, will be introduced.

  13. Characterization and Application of an Ambient Ion Monitor - Ion Chromatography (AIM-IC) System for the Detection of HONO and Nitrite in Polluted Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenboer, T. C.; Markovic, M. Z.; Czar, M.; Murphy, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    The photolysis of the atmospheric trace gas nitrous acid (HONO) has been implicated as a major source of the OH radical, especially in early morning hours. While this rapid photolysis is expected to drive HONO concentrations to nearly zero during the day, significant concentrations have been observed in a variety of environments, indicating unknown or underestimated daytime sources. However, chemical interferences and lack of instrumental sensitivity make quantification of ambient HONO a true analytical challenge. During the Border Air Quality Study (BAQS) in 2007 near Harrow, ON observations frequently indicated low but non-zero mixing ratios of HONO and the presence of comparable amounts of particulate nitrite. Online, automated analysis of trace gases and PM2.5 constituents, was accomplished using Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatography (AIM-IC) with collection by means of a parallel plate denuder and super saturated steam particle condensation chamber. The system was operated with one hour time resolution and was capable of characterizing 16 analyte ions. Subsequent method characterization yielded detection limits of 0.012 μg/m3 for particulate NO2- and 10 ppt for HONO by the isocratic elution methodology used in the Harrow field study. Laboratory experiments following this field campaign show that the collection efficiency of these species presented a source of uncertainty in observations of these trace gases. Interferences due to the presence of high NOX have also been explored. The method has since been used to characterize the effectiveness of particulate and gaseous collection between impactor and cyclone inlet assemblies. Finally, the optimized analytical system has been used to make measurements of HONO and nitrite in an urban setting in Toronto, ON.

  14. AIMS mask qualification for 32nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Rigo; Thaler, Thomas; Seitz, Holger; Stroessner, Ulrich; Scheruebl, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Moving forward to 32nm node and below optical lithography using 193nm is faced with complex requirements to be solved. Mask makers are forced to address both Double Patterning Techniques and Computational Lithography approaches such as Source Mask Optimizations and Inverse Lithography. Additionally, lithography at low k1 values increases the challenges for mask repair as well as for repair verification and review by AIMSTM. Higher CD repeatability, more flexibility in the illumination settings as well as significantly improved image performance must be added when developing the next generation mask qualification equipment. This paper reports latest measurement results verifying the appropriateness of the latest member of AIMSTM measurement tools - the AIMSTM 32-193i. We analyze CD repeatability measurements on lines and spaces pattern. The influence of the improved optical performance and newly introduced interferometer stage will be verified. This paper highlights both the new Double Patterning functionality emulating double patterning processes and the influence of its critical parameters such as overlay errors and resist impact. Beneficial advanced illumination schemes emulating scanner illumination document the AIMSTM 32-193i to meet mask maker community's requirements for the 32nm node.

  15. Physics Based Reaction Burn Model Prediction of Reaction Initiation and Growth in RDX for Thin and Thick Impactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Sunil; Horie, Yasuyuki

    2011-06-01

    PBRB model for reactive composites simulates the reaction initiation and growth leading to detonation with built-in models for multiple individual as well as coupled phenomena: pre-existing statistical pore distribution, energy dissipation during shock loading and hot spot formations, surface temperature increase of the planar pore surfaces, surface reaction by sublimation, gas phase reaction, gas phase temperature rise and reverse heat flow to the pore surface aiding the surface reaction, solid phase heat conduction, etc. 1D idealized hot spot cell (1DHSC) version of the 3D PBRB model has been converted to a vectorized EOS form for the first time. Results validating the model with the pop plot of RDX in agreement with data through simulation of an assumed plate impact experiment will be presented. In addition, the effect of the surface sublimation model parameters on the rate of reaction, detonation shock pressure, and von-Neumann's peak for thin and thick inert impactor will be presented. We acknowledge Dr. Betsy Rice (ARL), Dr. Suhithi Peiris (DTRA) and Dr. John Brennan (ARL) for their support and discussion. This work is supported by Eglin AFB contract FA8651-08-0108/027 and in part by DTRA contract HDTRA-1-10-1-0035.

  16. Tension strength of a thick graphite/epoxy laminate after impact by a 1/2-in. radius impactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.; Illg, W.; Garber, D. P.

    1986-01-01

    NASA is developing graphite/epoxy filament-wound cases for solid rocket motors of the space shuttle. They are wet-wound with AS4W graphite fiber and HBRF-55A epoxy. The membrane region is about 1.4 inches thick. Two 30-inch-diameter by 12-inch-long cylinders were impacted every two inches of circumference with 1/2-inch radius impactors that were dropped from various heights. One cylinder was empty and the other was filled with inert propellant. Two-inch-wide test specimens were cut from the cylinders. Each was centered on an impact site. The specimens were x-rayed and loaded to failure in uniaxial tension. Rigid body mechanics and the Hertz law were used to predict impact force, local deformations, contact diameters, and contact pressures. The depth of impact damage was predicted using Love's solution for pressure applied on part of the boundary of a semi-infinite body. The predictions were reasonably good. The strengths of the impacted specimens were reduced by as much as 37 percent without visible surface damage. Even the radiographs did not reveal the nonvisible damage.

  17. Taking aim at novel vaccines market.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita

    2009-10-01

    The World Vaccine Congress Washington 2009 was held in Chantilly, VA USA April 2O -23rd. The Vaccine congress attracted over 400 participants from across the world, including leading vaccine manufacturers, biotechs, governmental agencies, NGOs, research and academic institutes, venture capital and legal firms, contract service and equipment manufacturers. The speakers covered a wide range of topics, including the role of government and regulatory agencies, funding availability, research and development, manufacturing, packaging and post vaccine evaluations. Past vaccine development efforts have historically focused on infectious diseases. With advancements in the field of immunology, molecular biology and vaccinology, the vaccine field has begun moving in new directions. "Taking aim at novel vaccines market" session chaired by Dr. Una Ryan, Chief Executive Officer of Waltham Technologies, was focused on traditional approaches to novel targets (nosocomial infections), novel approaches to traditional targets (flu and rabies), novel approaches to novel targets (Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and smoking) and vaccines for developing markets (TB, malaria, rabies). The importance of collaborations among academic institutions, industries, and philanthropic foundations for developing markets was also emphasized. PMID:19855156

  18. Electric Solar Wind Sail Kinetic Energy Impactor for Asteroid Deflection Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Kouhei; Yamakawa, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    An electric solar wind sail uses the natural solar wind stream to produce low but continuous thrust by interacting with a number of long thin charged tethers. It allows a spacecraft to generate a thrust without consuming any reaction mass. The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of a spacecraft with such a propulsion system to deflect an asteroid with a high relative velocity away from an Earth collision trajectory. To this end, we formulate a simulation model for the electric solar wind sail. By summing thrust vectors exerted on each tether, a dynamic model which gives the relation between the thrust and sail attitude is proposed. Orbital maneuvering by fixing the sail's attitude and changing tether voltage is considered. A detailed study of the deflection of fictional asteroids, which are assumed to be identified 15 years before Earth impact, is also presented. Assuming a spacecraft characteristic acceleration of 0.5 mm/s 2, and a projectile mass of 1,000 kg, we show that the trajectory of asteroids with one million tons can be changed enough to avoid a collision with the Earth. Finally, the effectiveness of using this method of propulsion in an asteroid deflection mission is evaluated in comparison with using flat photonic solar sails.

  19. Fabrication of graded density impactor via underwater shock wave and quasi-isentropic compression testing at two-stage gas gun facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Xiaojie; Hokamoto, Kazuyuki

    2014-12-01

    We show direct evidence that underwater shock wave enables us to bond multithin plates with flat, parallel, and high-strength interfaces, which are key requirements for functionally graded material (also called graded density impactor). This phenomenon is ascribed to the super short duration of the high-speed underwater shock wave, reducing the surface tension, diffusion, evaporation, deposition, and viscous flow of matter. Thin magnesium, aluminum, titanium, copper, and molybdenum foils were welded together and designed with the increase in density. Experimental evidence and numerical simulation show that well bonding between the multilayer structures. Microstructure examinations reveal that the dominant interfacial form shifts from waviness to linearity. Graded density impactor with multilayer structure is proved that can produce quasi-isentropic compression in two-stage gas gun experiment with a designed pressure loading profile, which suggests a feasible method to simulate the conditions we want to study that were previously inaccessible in a precisely controlled laboratory environment.

  20. Semi-continuous sampling of health relevant atmospheric particle subfractions for chemical speciation using a rotating drum impactor in series with sequential filter sampler.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengxia; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Karg, Erwin; Cyrys, Josef; Gu, Jianwei; Orasche, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Peters, Annette; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    To achieve unattended continuous long-term (eg., 1 week) sampling of size-segregated 24-h ambient particulate matter (PM), a sampling strategy of a modified 3-stage rotating drum impactor (RDI) in series with a sequential filter sampler was introduced and verified in a field campaign. Before the field sampling, lab experiment was conducted to test the collection efficiency of the third stage of the RDI using the quartz-fiber filter (QFF) as the substrate. The measured value is 0.36 μm, which is larger than the nominal value 0.1 μm. A fast direct analysis of organic species in all size fractions (<0.36, 0.36-1, 1-2.4, and 2.4-10 μm) of 24-h ambient samples was done using in situ derivatization thermal desorption gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IDTD-GC-TOFMS). A few secondary originated polar markers (dicarboxylic acids, cis-pinonic acid, etc.) were introduced and evaluated using this method for the first time and quantified simultaneously with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the filter samples (<0.36 μm). For the other RDI strip samples (0.36-1, 1-2.4, and 2.4-10 μm), PAH and levoglucosan were quantified. The comparability of two such sampler sets was verified with respect to the PM collection profile of the two RDIs as well as measured concentration of chemical compounds in each sampled size fraction, so that a future epidemiological study on the relationship between the finest PM/its chemical composition and health outcome could be carried out through parallel sampling at two sites. The internal correlations between the size-segregated organic compounds are discussed. Besides, the correlations between the size-segregated organic species and size-segregated particulate number concentration (PNC) as well as meteorological parameter are discussed as well. PMID:26676546

  1. Precision of the all-glass impinger and the andersen microbial impactor for air sampling in solid-waste handling facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Lembke, L L; Kniseley, R N; van Nostrand, R C; Hale, M D

    1981-01-01

    A method was devised to determine the precision of the all-glass impinger and the Andersen six-stage microbial impactor over a wide range of aerosol concentrations like those found in facilities which process solid waste. Simultaneous samples were collected inside a municipal solid-waste recovery system, and the data were treated statistically to estimate the precision of each air-sampling device. All-glass impingers yielded colony counts which indicated a linear relationship between samplers over an observed aerosol concentration of 1.1 X 10(3) to 2.8 X 10(7) colony-forming units per m3 of air. Impactors also yielded colony counts which indicated a linear relationship over an observed aerosol concentration range of 3.9 X 10(3) to 1.9 X 10(5) colony-forming units per m3 of air. The coefficients of variation for the all-glass impinger and the six-stage impactor in an environment with a high and variable dust level were determined to be 0.38 and 0.23, respectively. PMID:7025757

  2. Movement strategies in vertical aiming of older adults.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Simon J; Elliott, Digby; Rodacki, Andre

    2012-02-01

    The current study examined the movement kinematics of older adults when aiming to vertically oriented targets. Late middle-age and early old-age participants completed 20 trials to a small target located downward or upward by 0.16 m from a home position at shoulder height. Aiming direction had a significant effect, resulting in more submovements, which were mostly reflective of undershooting when aiming to the downward compared to upward target. In trials containing a submovement, both groups exhibited shorter total movement time, concomitant with a decrease in duration of the primary movement and an increase in submovement amplitude, when aiming to the downward target. Measures of dispersion also differed in accord with the amplitude of submovements, such that there was greater spatial and temporal variability in the primary movement when aiming in the downward direction. While there was limited evidence of a difference between the groups, there were significant correlations between age and several dependent measures when aiming to the downward target. Of note, in trials containing submovements, older participants exhibited larger amplitude and longer duration submovements, as well as shorter amplitude primary movement. Spatial variability at peak velocity also increased as a function of age when aiming downward, but not in trials without submovements. An explanation related to physical limits on movement production is discounted given the lack of consistent findings between trial types. Instead, we suggest older participants' exhibit strategic differences in movement kinematics when aiming to vertically located targets, and that these change progressively with age in order to maintain speed-accuracy relations. PMID:22116400

  3. Asteroid Retrieval Mission Concept - Trailblazing Our Future in Space and Helping to Protect Us from Earth Impactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Brohpy, John R.; Merrill, Raymond G.

    2013-01-01

    The Asteroid Retrieval Mission (ARM) is a robotic mission concept with the goal of returning a small (7 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), or part of a large NEA, to a safe, stable orbit in cislunar space using a 50 kW-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) robotic spacecraft (40 kW available to the electric propulsion system) and currently available technologies. The mass of the asteroidal material returned from this mission is anticipated to be up to 1,000 metric tons, depending on the orbit of the target NEA and the thrust-to-weight and control authority of the SEP spacecraft. Even larger masses could be returned in the future as technological capability and operational experience improve. The use of high-power solar electric propulsion is the key enabling technology for this mission concept, and is beneficial or enabling for a variety of space missions and architectures where high-efficiency, low-thrust transfers are applicable. Many of the ARM operations and technologies could also be applicable to, or help inform, planetary defense efforts. These include the operational approaches and systems associated with the NEA approach, rendezvous, and station-keeping mission phases utilizing a low-thrust, high-power SEP spacecraft, along with interacting with, capturing, maneuvering, and processing the massive amounts of material associated with this mission. Additionally, the processed materials themselves (e.g., high-specific impulse chemical propellants) could potentially be used for planetary defense efforts. Finally, a ubiquitous asteroid retrieval and resource extraction infrastructure could provide the foundation of an on call planetary defense system, where a SEP fleet capable of propelling large masses could deliver payloads to deflect or disrupt a confirmed impactor in an efficient and timely manner.

  4. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  5. Head-aimed vision system improves tele-operated mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Kent

    2004-12-01

    A head-aimed vision system greatly improves the situational awareness and decision speed for tele-operations of mobile robots. With head-aimed vision, the tele-operator wears a head-mounted display and a small three axis head-position measuring device. Wherever the operator looks, the remote sensing system "looks". When the system is properly designed, the operator's occipital lobes are "fooled" into believing that the operator is actually on the remote robot. The result is at least a doubling of: situational awareness, threat identification speed, and target tracking ability. Proper system design must take into account: precisely matching fields of view; optical gain; and latency below 100 milliseconds. When properly designed, a head-aimed system does not cause nausea, even with prolonged use.

  6. An analytical method coupling accelerated solvent extraction and HPLC-fluorescence for the quantification of particle-bound PAHs in indoor air sampled with a 3-stages cascade impactor.

    PubMed

    Liaud, Céline; Millet, Maurice; Le Calvé, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Most of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated to airborne particles and their health impact depends on the particle size where they are bound. This work aims to develop a high sensitive analytical technique to quantify particulate PAHs sampled with a 3-stages cascade impactor in order to derive simultaneously their individual concentration in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. Three key steps of the method were evaluated separately in order to avoid any PAHs loss during the global sample preparation procedure: (1) the accelerated solvent extraction of PAHs from the filter; (2) the primary concentration of the extract until 1 mL by means of a rotary evaporator at 45°C and 220 mbar and (3) the final concentration of the pre-concentrated extract to about 100-150 µL under a gentle nitrogen stream. Each recovery experiment was realized in triplicates. All these steps evaluated independently show that the overall PAHs loss, even for those with a low molecular weight, should not exceed more than a few percent. Extracts were then analyzed by using a HPLC coupled to fluorescence and Diode Array Detectors with the external standard method. The resulting calibration curves containing between 9 and 12 points were plotted in the concentration range of 0.05-45 µg L(-1) for most of the 16 US-EPA priority PAHs and were fully linear (R(2)>0.999). Limits Of Quantification were in the range 0.05-0.47 µg L(-1) corresponding to 0.75-7.05 pg m(-3) for 20 m(3) of pumped air. Finally, taking into account the average PAHs concentrations previously reported in typical European indoor environments, and considering the use of a 3-stages cascade impactor to collect simultaneously PM>10 µm, 2.5 µm

  7. ANNULAR IMPACTOR SAMPLING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Tait, G.W.C.

    1959-03-31

    A high-rate air sampler capable of sampling alphaemitting particles as small as 0.5 microns is described. The device is a cylindrical shaped cup that fits in front of a suction tube and which has sticky grease coating along its base. Suction forces contaminated air against the periodically monitored particle absorbing grease.

  8. Regular and Random Components in Aiming-Point Trajectory During Rifle Aiming and Shooting

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Simon; Haufler, Amy; Shim, Jae Kun; Hatfield, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the kinematic qualities of the aiming trajectory as related to expertise. In all, 2 phases of the trajectory were discriminated. The first phase was regular approximation to the target accompanied by substantial fluctuations obeying the Weber–Fechner law. During the first phase, shooters did not initiate the triggering despite any random closeness of the aiming point (AP) to the target. In the second phase, beginning at 0.6–0.8 s before the trigger pull, shooters applied a different control strategy: They waited until the following random fluctuation brought the AP closer to the target and then initiated triggering. This strategy is tenable when sensitivity of perception is greater than precision of the motor action, and could be considered a case of stochastic resonance. The strategies that novices and experts used distinguished only in the values of parameters. The authors present an analytical model explaining the main properties of shooting. PMID:19508963

  9. Evidence from Polymict Ureilite Meteorites for a Single "Rubble-Pile" Ureilite Parent Asteroid Gardened by Several Distinct Impactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downes, Hilary; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Kita, Noriko T.; Valley, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Ureilites are ultramafic achondrite meteorites that have experienced igneous processing whilst retaining heterogeneity in mg# and oxygen isotope ratios. Polymict ureilites represent material derived from the surface of the ureilite parent asteroid(s). Electron microprobe analysis of more than 500 olivine and pyroxene clasts in six polymict ureilites reveals that they cover a statistically identical range of compositions to that shown by all known monomict ureilites. This is considered to be convincing evidence for derivation from a single parent asteroid. Many of the polymict ureilites also contain clasts that have identical compositions to the anomalously high Mn/Mg olivines and pyroxenes from the Hughes 009 monomict ureilite (here termed the Hughes cluster ). Four of the six samples also contain distinctive ferroan lithic clasts that have been derived from oxidized impactors. The presence of several common distinctive lithologies within the polymict ureilites is additional evidence that the ureilites were derived from a single parent asteroid. Olivine in a large lithic clast of augite-bearing ureilitic has an mg# of 97, extending the compositional range of known ureilite material. Our study confirms that ureilitic olivine clasts with mg#s < 85 are much more common than those with mg# > 85, which also show more variable Mn contents, including the melt-inclusion bearing "Hughes cluster" ureilites. We interpret this to indicate that the parent ureilite asteroid was disrupted by a major impact at a time when melt was still present in regions with a bulk mg# > 85, giving rise to the two types of ureilites: common ferroan ones that were already residual after melting and less common magnesian ones that were still partially molten when disruption occurred, some of which are the result of interaction of melts with residual mantle during disruption. A single daughter asteroid re-accreted from the disrupted remnants of the mantle of the proto-ureilite asteroid, giving rise

  10. An Ordinary Chondrite Impactor Composition for the Bosumtwi Impact Structure, Ghana, West Africa: Discussion of Siderophile Element Contents and Os and Cr Isotope Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Shukolyukov, Alex; Lugmair, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    Osmium isotope data had shown that Ivory Coast tektites contain an extraterrestrial component, but do not allow distinction between chondritic and iron meteorite contamination. PGE abundances of Ivory Coast tektites and impactites and target rocks from the Bosumtwi crater, the source crater of the Ivory Coast tektites, were all relatively high and did not allow to resolve the presence, or identify the nature, of the meteoritic component. However, Cr isotope analyses of an Ivory Coast tektite yielded a distinct 53Cr excess of 0.30+/-0.06, which indicates that the Bosumtwi impactor was an ordinary chondrite.

  11. Strategic Clinical Networks: Alberta's Response to Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, Tom; Wasylak, Tracy; O'Neill, Blair J

    2016-01-01

    Verma and Bhatia make a compelling case for the Triple Aim to promote health system innovation and sustainability. We concur. Moreover, the authors offer a useful categorization of policies and actions to advance the Triple Aim under the "classic functions" of financing, stewardship and resource generation (Verma and Bhatia 2016). The argument is tendered that provincial governments should embrace the Triple Aim in the absence of federal government leadership, noting that, by international standards, we are at best mediocre and, more realistically, fighting for the bottom in comparative, annual cross-country surveys. Ignoring federal government participation in Medicare and resorting solely to provincial leadership seems to make sense for the purposes of this discourse; but, it makes no sense at all if we are attempting to achieve high performance in Canada's non-system (Canada Health Action: Building on the Legacy 1997; Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada 2002; Lewis 2015). As for enlisting provincial governments, we heartily agree. A great deal can be accomplished by the Council of the Federation of Canadian Premiers. But, the entire basis for this philosophy and the reference paper itself assumes a top-down approach to policy and practice. That is what we are trying to change in Alberta and we next discuss. Bottom-up clinically led change, driven by measurement and evidence, has to meet with the top-down approach being presented and widely practiced. While true for each category of financing, stewardship and resource generation, in no place is this truer than what is described and included in "health system stewardship." This commentary draws from Verma and Bhatia (2016) and demonstrates how Alberta, through the use of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs), is responding to the Triple Aim. We offer three examples of provincially scaled innovations, each representing one or more arms of the Triple Aim. PMID:27009587

  12. Working memory capacity, controlled attention and aiming performance under pressure.

    PubMed

    Wood, Greg; Vine, Samuel J; Wilson, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the possibility that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) could predict those individuals who would experience attentional disruptions and performance decrements under pressure. Two WMC groups performed a Stroop handgun task under counterbalanced conditions of threat whilst wearing eye-tracking equipment that measured visual search activity and quiet eye (QE) aiming duration. Performance was measured in terms of shooting accuracy. Low-WMC individuals experienced impaired visual search time to locate the target and reduced QE durations when shooting at incongruent target words. Furthermore, the low-WMC group experienced significant reductions in shooting accuracy when anxious. Conversely, high-WMC individuals experienced no significant differences in attentional control or performance across congruency or threat conditions. Results support the suggestion that WMC is not only a good predictor of an individual's ability to control their attention but can also predict those likely to fail under pressure. PMID:26021749

  13. First results from AIMS beta tool for 157-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuber, Silvio; Higashikawa, Iwao; Urbach, Jan-Peter; Schilz, Christof M.; Koehle, Roderick; Zibold, Axel M.

    2004-05-01

    In modern mask manufacturing, a successful defect mitigation strategy has been become crucial to achieve defect free masks for high-end lithography. The basic steps of such a strategy include inspection, repair, and subsequent post-repair qualification of repair sites. For the latter task, actinic aerial image measurements have been proven to be the technique of choice to assess the printability of a repaired site. In the last three years, International SEMATECH in cooperation with Infineon/AMTC-Dresden and SELETE, funded a joint development project at Carl Zeiss to develop an AIMS tool operating at the 157nm wavelength. The three beta tools were shipped in 2003 to the three beta customer sites. In this paper are presented the first results obtained with these beta tools, including measurements on binary as well as alternating phase shift masks. The technical properties of the tool were discussed with regards to the capability of the tool for defect qualification on photomasks. Additionally, preliminary results of the evaluation of alternating phase shift masks will be discussed, including measurements performed on dense lines-and-spaces structures with various pitch sizes.

  14. Nutrition education aimed at toddlers: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Weight problems in children are increasing at an alarming rate, especially among low-income populations. This concern requires effective strategies to promote healthy eating. A quasi-experiment was used to assess the effectiveness of an intervention, Nutrition Education Aimed at Toddlers (NEAT), aimed at enhancing parent-toddler feeding practices. The NEAT intervention comprises four nutrition lessons and structured reinforcements over 6 months. A convenience sample of 135 low-income families participated in the study up to the first data collection wave. Complete data were available for 43 parent-toddler dyads in the intervention and 53 dyads in the control group. The results show that, compared to the controls, caregivers exposed to the intervention had significantly higher knowledge scores concerning toddler feedings. No statistically significant differences were found for measures of child and parent mealtime behaviors. Because it is generally easier to change knowledge than actual behaviors, our study results demonstrate the need to focus on other avenues to enhance parents' ability to feed toddlers appropriately. PMID:16295151

  15. Breaks in Play: Do They Achieve Intended Aims?

    PubMed

    Blaszczynski, Alexander; Cowley, Elizabeth; Anthony, Christina; Hinsley, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Breaks in play represent a responsible gambling strategy designed to disrupt states of dissociation and enhance the likelihood of drawing attention to a player's session behaviour and expenditure with respect to time and money. The aim of the break in play is to motivate the player to modify or cease gambling so the activity remains within affordable levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether imposed breaks in play in the absence of accompanying warning messages were effective in reducing cravings. Participants (141 university students) were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: 15 min computer simulated Black Jack play followed by no break, a 3 or 8 min break in play. Participants were administered a battery of measures to assess problem gambling card play, cravings, and dissociation to assess the effects of length of break on cravings. Results indicated that cravings increased rather than decreased with imposed breaks in play, and that the strength of cravings were higher following the eight- compared to 3-min break. It was concluded that breaks in play in isolation might produce counterproductive, unintended, and even perverse effects. The policy implications for responsible gambling strategies is that breaks in play ought to be accompanied with warning and/or personal appraisal messages if optimal effects in reducing within session gambling expenditure are to be achieved. PMID:26275785

  16. Accuracy of aimed arm movements in changed gravity.

    PubMed

    Bock, O; Howard, I P; Money, K E; Arnold, K E

    1992-11-01

    We studied the accuracy of aimed arm movements in normal gravity, and during the hypergravity (hyper-G) and microgravity (micro-G) episodes of KC-135 parabolic flights. Subjects pointed at mirror-viewed targets without sight of their arm, and final pointing position was measured by a digitizing pad. Compared with the normal gravity (normal-G) baseline, subjects pointed consistently higher in hyper-G, and still higher in micro-G. Results were not different if subjects viewed targets only during normal-G and pointed at their memorized position under changed gravity (changed-G); this suggests that the "elevator illusion" played a minor role in our study. The observed impairments were attributed to degraded proprioceptive feedback and/or inappropriate motor programs in changed-G. Pointing accuracy improved movement-to-movement but not parabola-to-parabola, indicating that prolonged exposure is needed for sustained adaptation. PMID:1445164

  17. The Florida State Twin Registry: research aims and design.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jeanette E; James, Lisa M; Reeves, Mark D; Bobadilla, Leonardo

    2006-12-01

    Relatively little is known about the relationship of most personality disorders to executive cognitive functioning despite their associations with frontal cortex activity. Research on genetic influence is lacking for most personality disorders, and research on genetic influences associated with executive cognitive functioning is sparse and mixed. The Florida State Twin Registry was created to conduct a pilot twin study aimed at examining genetic influence on personality disorders and executive cognitive functioning. Measures included structured clinical interviews for symptoms and diagnoses of personality disorders (borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, and dependent), depression, substance abuse/dependence, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Stroop Color-Word Test were administered to assess executive cognitive functioning. Self-report questionnaires were included to assess maladaptive personality traits. Data sharing and future directions for growing the Florida State Twin Registry are discussed. PMID:17254436

  18. Ultimate Educational Aims, Overridingness, and Personal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2011-01-01

    Discussion regarding education's aims, especially its ultimate aims, is a key topic in the philosophy of education. These aims or values play a pivotal role in regulating and structuring moral and other types of normative education. We outline two plausible strategies to identify and justify education's ultimate aims. The first associates these…

  19. Analysis of secondary organic aerosol using a Micro-Orifice Volatilization Impactor (MOVI) coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI-IT/MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueggemann, M.; Vogel, A.; Hoffmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    We describe the development and characterization of a Micro-Orifice Volatilization Impactor (MOVI) which is coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI-IT/MS), and its application in laboratory and field measurements. The MOVI-APCI-IT/MS allows the quantification of organic acids and other oxidation products of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in secondary organic aerosols (SOA) on a semi-continuous basis. Furthermore, the vapor pressure and saturation concentration of the particle components can be estimated. The MOVI was first described in 2010 by Yatavelli and Thornton (Yatavelli and Thornton, 2010). It is a single stage, multi-nozzle impactor with 100 nozzles, each having a diameter of 150 μm. At a flow-rate of 10 L·min-1 air is drawn through the MOVI and particles are collected on a deposition plate. The cut-point diameter (d50, diameter of 50% collection efficiency) is at 130 nm. A low pressure-drop of only 5.3% of atmospheric pressure behind the nozzles allows collecting not only low-volatile but even semi-volatile compounds, which are an important part of SOA. After collecting particles hydrocarbon-free synthetic air is led over the collection surface into the APCI-IT/MS and the collection surface is heated up to 120 ° C in less than 200 s, volatilizing the sampled SOA. The vaporized compounds are transferred into the ion source and subsequently analyzed by mass spectrometry. Due to the soft ionization at atmospheric pressure the obtained mass spectra show only low fragmentations and can easily be interpreted. In laboratory experiments the MOVI-APCI-IT/MS was used for the chemical analysis of SOA generated from α-pinene-ozonolysis in a smog chamber. The limit of detection was found at 7.3 ng for pinic acid. The vapor pressure log p0 and the saturation concentration C25* for pinic acid were calculated from the desorption temperature using the method presented by Faulhaber et al. (Faulhaber et al., 2009

  20. Evolved mare basalt magmatism, high Mg/Fe feldspathic crust, chondritic impactors, and the petrogenesis of Antarctic lunar breccia meteorites Meteorite Hills 01210 and Pecora Escarpment 02007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Floss, Christine; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Anand, Mahesh; Patchen, Allan D.

    2006-12-01

    ferroan anorthosites. A 'chondrule-like' fragment found in PCA 02007 and unlike any previously described lunar material is described and tentatively identified as the remnants of a chondritic lunar impactor. This clast is porphyritic with equant olivines that have forsterite-rich cores (Fo >98), extreme normal zonation to more fayalitic rims (Fo >44), and a mineral assemblage with rare earth element abundances distinct from described lunar material and more similar to chondrules found in ordinary or carbonaceous chondrites. Its discovery and description is significant for understanding the composition of lunar impactors. Previously, the main evidence for chondritic lunar impactors was from chondritic relative abundances and near chondritic ratios of highly siderophile elements in lunar impact melt breccias. However, the presence of this clast, along with two other chondritic clasts from Apollo soils 12037 and 15602, provides clues to the identity of ancient meteorite impactors on the Moon.

  1. INTERMAP: background, aims, design, methods, and descriptive statistics (nondietary).

    PubMed

    Stamler, J; Elliott, P; Dennis, B; Dyer, A R; Kesteloot, H; Liu, K; Ueshima, H; Zhou, B F

    2003-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) above optimal (< or =120/< or =80 mmHg) is established as a major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Prevalence of adverse BP is high in most adult populations; until recently research has been sparse on reasons for this. Since the 1980s, epidemiologic studies confirmed that salt, alcohol intake, and body mass relate directly to BP; dietary potassium, inversely. Several other nutrients also probably influence BP. The DASH feeding trials demonstrated that with the multiple modifications in the DASH combination diet, SBP/DBP (SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure) was sizably reduced, independent of calorie balance, alcohol intake, and BP reduction with decreased dietary salt. A key challenge for research is to elucidate specific nutrients accounting for this effect. The general aim of the study was to clarify influences of multiple nutrients on SBP/DBP of individuals over and above effects of Na, K, alcohol, and body mass. Specific aims were, in a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 4680 men and women aged 40-59 years from 17 diverse population samples in China, Japan, UK, and USA, test 10 prior hypotheses on relations of macronutrients to SBP/DBP and on role of dietary factors in inverse associations of education with BP; test four related subgroup hypotheses; explore associations with SBP/DBP of multiple other nutrients, urinary metabolites, and foods. For these purposes, for all 4680 participants, with standardized high-quality methods, assess individual intake of 76 nutrients from four 24-h dietary recalls/person; measure in two timed 24-h urine collections/person 24-h excretion of Na, K, Ca, Mg, creatinine, amino acids; microalbuminuria; multiple nutrients and metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Based on eight SBP/DBP measurements/person, and data on multiple possible confounders, utilize mainly multiple linear regression and quantile analyses to test prior

  2. Gaussian benchmark for optical communication aiming towards ultimate capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehak; Ji, Se-Wan; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-05-01

    We establish the fundamental limit of communication capacity within Gaussian schemes under phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, which employ multimode Gaussian states for encoding and collective Gaussian operations and measurements for decoding. We prove that this Gaussian capacity is additive, i.e., its upper bound occurs with separable encoding and separable receivers so that a single-mode communication suffices to achieve the largest capacity under Gaussian schemes. This rigorously characterizes the gap between the ultimate Holevo capacity and the capacity within Gaussian communication, showing that Gaussian regime is not sufficient to achieve the Holevo bound particularly in the low-photon regime. Furthermore, the Gaussian benchmark established here can be used to critically assess the performance of non-Gaussian protocols for optical communication. We move on to identify non-Gaussian schemes to beat the Gaussian capacity and show that a non-Gaussian receiver recently implemented by Becerra et al. [F. E. Becerra et al., Nat. Photon. 7, 147 (2013), 10.1038/nphoton.2012.316] can achieve this aim with an appropriately chosen encoding strategy.

  3. Improvements of AIMS D2DB matching for product patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiguchi, Masaharu; Kanno, Koichi; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Ohara, Kana; Son, Donghwan; Tolani, Vikram; Satake, Masaki

    2015-07-01

    AIMSTM is mainly used in photomask industry for verifying the print impact of mask defects on wafer CD in DUV lithography process. AIMS verification is typically used in D2D configuration, wherein two AIMS images, reference and defect, are captured and compared. Criticality of defects is then analyzed off these images using a number of criteria. As photomasks with aggressive OPC, sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs), and single-die are being routinely manufactured in production environment, it is required to improve cycle time through the AIMS step by saving time in searching for and capturing an adequate reference AIMS image. One solution is to use AIMS D2DB methodology which compares AIMS defect image with a reference image simulated from the corresponding mask design data. In general, such simulation needs calibration with the native images captured on the AIMS tool. In our previous paper we evaluated a calibration procedure directly using the defect AIMS image and compared the analysis results with a D2D capture using AIA (Aerial Image Analyzer) software product from Luminescent Technologies (now part of KLA-Tencor Corporation). The results showed that calibration using defect AIMS image does not influence AIMS judgment as long as the defect size is less than 100nm in case of typical basic patterns. When applying this methodology to product patterns, it was found that there were differences between reference AIMS image and simulation image. These differences influenced AIMS verification. Then new method to compensate would be needed. Our approach to compensate the difference between AIMS image and simulated image is examination with some factors likely to cause the difference.

  4. Automated Diagnosis Of Faults In Antenna-Aiming Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, Patrick J.; Mellstrom, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Report discusses research directed toward automated diagnosis of faults in complicated electromechanical and hydraulic systems aiming 70-m and 34-m antennas of Deep Space Network communication system.

  5. Critters: K-6 Life Science Activities. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Maureen Murphy; And Others

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this integration produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  6. Soap Films and Bubbles, Grades 4-9. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Ann

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9 on the premise that such integration enriches and makes learning meaningful and holistic. In fact, extensive field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS has confirmed that integration produces the…

  7. Finding Your Bearings, Grades 4-9. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Ann

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9 on the premise that such integration enriches and makes learning meaningful and holistic. In fact, extensive field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS has confirmed that integration produces the…

  8. Schooling for Happiness: Rethinking the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The release of "The New Zealand Curriculum" causes us to rethink the aims of education. Dr Cavanagh offers an alternative set of aims to the vision outlined in the Ministry of Education document, which is based, at least in part, on socialisation into the corporate industrial world. Dr Cavanagh's position is focused on putting relationships at the…

  9. Student Teachers' Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marín, Victoria I.; Tur, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain) in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers' perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims.…

  10. Teaching Design Education for Cultural, Pedagogical, and Economic Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Zande, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The aims of educating for economic, cultural, and pedagogical purposes have existed since the early inception of art education. Looking at how and why these aims evolved in the early era of art and design education has potential for better understanding how and why design should be incorporated into the art education curricula today. This article…

  11. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  12. Found in Translation: Interdisciplinary Arts Integration in Project AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Lara; Ingram, Debra; Weiss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This paper will share the arts-integration methodology used in Project AIM and address the question; "How is translation evident in interdisciplinary arts instruction, and how does it affect students?" Methods: The staff and researchers from Project AIM, (an arts-integration program of the Center for Community Arts Partnerships at…

  13. An Analysis of Aims and the Educational "Event"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Heyer, Kent

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author explores key distinctions relevant to aims talk in education. He argues that present formulations of aims fail to adequately capture or speak to several overlapping domains involved in schooling: qualification, socialization, and the educational in the form of subjectification (Biesta, 2010). Drawing off Egan and Biesta…

  14. Patriotism, History and the Legitimate Aims of American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that while an attachment to one's country is both natural and even partially justifiable, cultivating loyal patriotism in schools is untenable insofar as it conflicts with the legitimate aims of education. These aims include the epistemological competence necessary for ascertaining important truths germane to the various…

  15. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, James R.; Ritter, Melody J.

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care–related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges. PMID:21734847

  16. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    PubMed Central

    Callender, J S

    1998-01-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy. PMID:9752632

  17. Real-Time Estimation Of Aiming Error Of Spinning Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinsky, Shlomo

    1992-01-01

    Spinning-spacecraft dynamics and amplitude variations in communications links studied from received-signal fluctuations. Mathematical model and associated analysis procedure provide real-time estimates of aiming error of remote rotating transmitting antenna radiating constant power in narrow, pencillike beam from spinning platform, and current amplitude of received signal. Estimates useful in analyzing and enhancing calibration of communication system, and in analyzing complicated dynamic effects in spinning platform and antenna-aiming mechanism.

  18. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  19. Provider Burnout and Patient Engagement: The Quadruple and Quintuple Aims.

    PubMed

    Epperson, William Jackson; Childs, Susan Fink; Wilhoit, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The Triple Aim has become the guiding light and benchmark by which healthcare organizations plan their future efforts. It has been adopted into healthcare policies with little regard for including the skill sets of compassion and emotional intelligence. The multiple increasing demands on providers of healthcare are unsustainable and will cripple the system, resulting in outcomes that are counter to the Triple Aim goals. Patient engagement with shared decision-making should become the primary focus of care delivery. New delivery models and care plans are unaffordable to far too many patients and payers, despite the efforts of futurists who seek to advance quality and lower costs. Clinical care delivery and patient engagement efforts must be drastically redirected to innovative and sustainable value-based delivery models that support the goals of the Triple Aim. PMID:27443059

  20. The Aims of Sex Education: Demoting Autonomy and Promoting Mutuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that "choice should be accorded…

  1. MayDay Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2012, Professor John Kratus welcomed the MayDay Group to Michigan State University for "Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education". On behalf of all members of the Mayday Group, the author wishes to extend his deepest gratitude to Professor Kratus and his colleagues at Michigan State for their extremely gracious and…

  2. The General Aims of Educational Development -- A Comparative Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahawy, Bayoumi Mohamed

    The inconsistency between norms prescribed by international agencies and the educational strategies suggested to put these norms into practice has created problems as is evident in the case studies of India and Egypt and the general aims of educational development in these two countries. In Egypt a policy of basic education had the support of…

  3. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  4. R. S. Peters' Normative Conception of Education and Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to highlight why R. S. Peters' conceptual analysis of "education" was such an important contribution to the normative field of philosophy of education. In the article, I do the following: 1) explicate Peters' conception of philosophy of education as a field of philosophy and explain his approach to the philosophical analysis of…

  5. Why the Aims of Education Cannot Be Settled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2012-01-01

    The dominant model of curriculum design in the last century assumed that school education could be organized around aims, defined primarily in terms of students' behaviour. The credentials of this model were questioned by, among others, Lawrence Stenhouse, who pointed out that education serves purposes that cannot be stated in terms of behavioural…

  6. An "Aims of Discourse" Program for Freshman English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCleary, William J.

    Genesee Community College in Batavia, New York, adopted James Kinneavy's aims of discourse theory as the basis of its composition program. The program is a two-semester course for students who intend to transfer to four-year colleges. In a comparable nontransfer sequence, the first semester doubles as a remedial course for ill-prepared transfer…

  7. Initiative Aims to Refashion Training Path for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    A new nationwide leadership initiative launched last week is aimed at changing the way America's principals are recruited and prepared--and how they run schools. The Alliance to Reform Education Leadership, or AREL, marks the first major effort of the nonpartisan George W. Bush Institute, located at Southern Methodist University in Dallas. It will…

  8. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  9. An Examination of OMB Forms Clearance Aims, Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coan, Donald L.; Bertram, Charles L.

    The purposes of this paper are four-fold: (1) to delineate the principal aims and policy objectives of Office of Management and Budget Forms Clearance (OMB FC), as embodied in Federal legislation and executive directives since 1942; (2) to identify the major current thrusts of OMB FC; (3) to suggest possible future policy directions of OMB FC,…

  10. Aims College Operation Bridge Project. Phase 1, Preliminary Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Spanish Speaking Management Association, Washington, DC.

    Recognizing the adverse effects of poverty on Mexican Americans, and determined to help narrow the barriers caused by a low socioeconomic status, Aims college, a locally funded institution in Weld County, Colorado, conceptualized and implemented a special needs program designed to provide vocational and occupational training for disadvantaged…

  11. Comment on "Schooling for Happiness: Rethinking the Aims of Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Ted

    2008-01-01

    This commentary presents the author's response to an article published in the last version of "Kairaranga" entitled "Schooling for Happiness: Rethinking the aims of education," written by Dr. Tom Cavanagh. He found it refreshing to read Cavanagh's article that focuses educators' energies onto re-visiting the wider socio-cultural goals of…

  12. Alienation, Art and Affirmation in the Work of Aime Cesaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzash, Michael D.

    Aime Cesaire is one of the foremost French-speaking blacks in twentieth century literature. The concept of negritude--referring to the culture of French-speaking blacks--is often associated with his name. This paper discusses his life and work, and explores his life from his birth in Martinique, his early years, the years spent in Paris, and his…

  13. Autonomy as the Guiding Aim of Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has three purposes: first, to present a vision of entrepreneurship education that has the student's capacity for autonomous action as its ultimate aim; second, to convince the reader of the timeliness and relevance of such an approach; third, to outline how this can be implemented. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  14. An automated model-based aim point distribution system for solar towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzbözl, Peter; Rong, Amadeus; Macke, Ansgar; Säck, Jan-Peter; Ulmer, Steffen

    2016-05-01

    Distribution of heliostat aim points is a major task during central receiver operation, as the flux distribution produced by the heliostats varies continuously with time. Known methods for aim point distribution are mostly based on simple aim point patterns and focus on control strategies to meet local temperature and flux limits of the receiver. Lowering the peak flux on the receiver to avoid hot spots and maximizing thermal output are obviously competing targets that call for a comprehensive optimization process. This paper presents a model-based method for online aim point optimization that includes the current heliostat field mirror quality derived through an automated deflectometric measurement process.

  15. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a networks of Sparcstations, including: (1) NAS Parallel Benchmarks CG and MG; (2) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP; and (3) an overset grid flowsolver. These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains: (1) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (2) Monitor, a library of runtime trace-collection routines; (3) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (4) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran 77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses XIIR5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (1) the impact of long message latencies; (2) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (3) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4) significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (1) ConfigView, showing the physical topology

  16. Automated Instrumentation, Monitoring and Visualization of PVM Programs Using AIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Pankaj; VanVoorst, Brian; Yan, Jerry; Tucker, Deanne (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We present views and analysis of the execution of several PVM codes for Computational Fluid Dynamics on a network of Sparcstations, including (a) NAS Parallel benchmarks CG and MG (White, Alund and Sunderam 1993); (b) a multi-partitioning algorithm for NAS Parallel Benchmark SP (Wijngaart 1993); and (c) an overset grid flowsolver (Smith 1993). These views and analysis were obtained using our Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) version 3.0, a toolkit for debugging the performance of PVM programs. We will describe the architecture, operation and application of AIMS. The AIMS toolkit contains (a) Xinstrument, which can automatically instrument various computational and communication constructs in message-passing parallel programs; (b) Monitor, a library of run-time trace-collection routines; (c) VK (Visual Kernel), an execution-animation tool with source-code clickback; and (d) Tally, a tool for statistical analysis of execution profiles. Currently, Xinstrument can handle C and Fortran77 programs using PVM 3.2.x; Monitor has been implemented and tested on Sun 4 systems running SunOS 4.1.2; and VK uses X11R5 and Motif 1.2. Data and views obtained using AIMS clearly illustrate several characteristic features of executing parallel programs on networked workstations: (a) the impact of long message latencies; (b) the impact of multiprogramming overheads and associated load imbalance; (c) cache and virtual-memory effects; and (4significant skews between workstation clocks. Interestingly, AIMS can compensate for constant skew (zero drift) by calibrating the skew between a parent and its spawned children. In addition, AIMS' skew-compensation algorithm can adjust timestamps in a way that eliminates physically impossible communications (e.g., messages going backwards in time). Our current efforts are directed toward creating new views to explain the observed performance of PVM programs. Some of the features planned for the near future include: (a) Config

  17. Airborne Atmospheric Aerosol Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).

  18. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubühl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms. PMID:22039696

  19. A methodology aimed to guarantee technology continuity in health structures.

    PubMed

    Miniati, R; Dori, F; Iadanza, E; Scatizzi, L; Niccolini, F; Sarti, A

    2011-01-01

    In healthcare the importance of clinical continuity is essential for both patients life and health organization activity. Since technology continuity is having more and more importance for the service continuity, a correct management of medical devices must be guided by criteria that ensure its safe, appropriate and economical use through a well planned purchase, appropriate preventive and corrective maintenance Indeed, the aim of health technology managers is to optimize the integration of external interventions assistance and internal technical service to guarantee an efficient and cost-effective maintenance system. This paper proposes an innovative carefully thought methodology which is aimed to provide technological and procedural actions which offer support to decision makers in technology management regarding the implementation of continuity in medical services and response to technology failures and emergency events. PMID:22254534

  20. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  1. Triple AIM evaluation and application in advanced node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gary C.; Lio, En Chuan; Hung, Yuting; Chen, Charlie; Wang, Sybil; Weng, Tang Chun; Lin, Bill; Yu, Chun Chi

    2016-03-01

    A novel method on advanced node for IBO (Image Based Overlay) data extraction accuracy is demonstrated in this work, and here some special design in triple-AIM (Advanced Imaging Metrology) is able to realize the approach. Since triple AIM design has 3 locations left for patterning layers insertion, a new design with 2 layers locations, location-A (inner) and location-B (middle), are generated by 1st pattering, i.e. once lithography exposure, and the 2 marks grouping are formed on dielectric through lithography and etching process with a predetermined overlay "zero offset" through original mask layout design, as illustrated in Fig. (1). And then, as following top photo resist layer, assumed location-C (outer), lithography patterning process, PR coating, exposure and development complete, full triple-AIM patterns is generated, and 3 sets of overlay data could be obtained, A to B, C to B, C to A. Through re-calculating the overlay raw data of current (2nd patterning layer) to previous (1st patterning layer) layer by averaging [C to B] and [C to A], then theoretically the data extraction of sites would be more accuracy, since the variation of local marks signal, induced by inline process instability, could be minimized through the raw data averaging procedure. Moreover, from raw data [A to B], an extra monitor function for detections of the inline process variation, marks selection and recipe setting optimization could be obtained, since marks in [A] and [BB] locations are both generated in 1st patterning, and with the target "zero". So if the raw data [A to BB] is bigger or smaller than "zero" in some degree, there should be some process issue or marks condition setting error in triple-AIM design.

  2. Refractive aiming corrections for satellite observation of stars

    SciTech Connect

    Vittitoe, C.N.; Schmidt, R.L.

    1997-03-01

    Standard references describe how apparent zenith angles differ from true zenith angles for observers on the Earth. In fact, correction formulae are available for aiming Earth-based sensors at stars; some corrections give variations as a function of observer altitude. Such corrections have not been available for observers in space. This report develops formulae appropriate for proper aiming from space-based sensors toward the relatively few stars that are near the Earth`s limb at any given time. These formulae correct for refractive effects and may be critical for steerable space-borne sensors with fields of view less than one degree, tasked to observe starlight passing near the Earth`s surface. Ray tracing in the U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 1976 including H{sub 2}O effects, is used to determine relations between the refracted tangent height, the apparent tangent height resulting from observation at the sensor, and the angle through which the detected rays have deviated. Analytic fits of the ray deviation as a function of apparent tangent height allows quick determination of corrections needed for a space-borne sensor. Using those results that apply in the plane of incidence and using the necessary coordinate rotations, alterations in the star`s apparent right ascension and declination are evaluated to improve the aim. Examples illustrate that alterations can be larger than one degree, with effects lasting up to a few minutes.

  3. Explanation in Biology: Reduction, Pluralism, and Explanatory Aims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigandt, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    This essay analyzes and develops recent views about explanation in biology. Philosophers of biology have parted with the received deductive-nomological model of scientific explanation primarily by attempting to capture actual biological theorizing and practice. This includes an endorsement of different kinds of explanation (e.g., mathematical and causal-mechanistic), a joint study of discovery and explanation, and an abandonment of models of theory reduction in favor of accounts of explanatory reduction. Of particular current interest are philosophical accounts of complex explanations that appeal to different levels of organismal organization and use contributions from different biological disciplines. The essay lays out one model that views explanatory integration across different disciplines as being structured by scientific problems. I emphasize the philosophical need to take the explanatory aims pursued by different groups of scientists into account, as explanatory aims determine whether different explanations are competing or complementary and govern the dynamics of scientific practice, including interdisciplinary research. I distinguish different kinds of pluralism that philosophers have endorsed in the context of explanation in biology, and draw several implications for science education, especially the need to teach science as an interdisciplinary and dynamic practice guided by scientific problems and explanatory aims.

  4. An aiming device for an extraoral radiographic technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hui; Lin, Shui-Hui; Chiu, Hui-Lin; Lin, Yu-Ju; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Lin, Li-Min

    2007-06-01

    To assist certain patient populations who are unable to tolerate intraoral films and/or sensors during endodontic therapy, an alternative technique (extraoral film placement) has been innovated by Newman and Friedman (2003). In this study, we devise and test a film/sensor-beam alignment aiming device for taking a periapical radiograph using this extraoral radiographic technique. An instrument is assembled from the following components: (1) two locator rings for bite-wing radiography, (2) two metal supporting indicator rods for bite-wing radiography, (3) a bite block for horizontal bite-wing radiography, and (4) a rubber tube of about 2 cm in length. Using our newly-devised aiming device to take periapical radiographs using the extraoral technique, appropriate images of the left upper and right lower molar areas for a series of 12 adult volunteers were successfully obtained. Angulation of the x-ray cone, with reference to the horizontal plane, was -20 degrees to -30 degrees and -10 degrees to -15 degrees for the upper and lower teeth, respectively. This study therefore shows that appropriate images can be easily obtained using this aiming device. PMID:17509422

  5. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, P. Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2015-04-08

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ∼ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic ”steerer” to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  6. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system against size-resolved measurements of inorganic particle composition across sites in North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work evaluates particle size-composition distributions simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) measurements at 18 sites across North America. Size-resolved measurements of particulate SO4<...

  7. AIMS D2DB simulation for DUV and EUV mask inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Danping; Li, Ying; Satake, Masaki; Hu, Peter; Chen, Jerry; Hsu, S. C.; Lai, Rick; Lin, C. S.; Tuo, Laurent C. C.

    2012-02-01

    AIMS™ Die-to-Die (D2D) is widely used in checking the wafer printability of mask defects for DUV lithography. Two AIMS images, a reference and a defect image, are captured and compared with differences larger than certain tolerances identified as real defects. Since two AIMS images are needed, and since AIMS system time is precious, it is desirable to save image search and capture time by simulating reference images from the OPC mask pattern and AIMS optics. This approach is called Die-to-Database (D2DB). Another reason that D2DB is desirable is in single die mask, where the reference image from another die does not exist. This paper presents our approach to simulate AIMS optics and mask 3D effects. Unlike OPC model, whose major concern is predicting printed CD, AIMS D2DB model must produce simulated images that match measured images across the image field. This requires a careful modeling of all effects that impact the final image quality. We present a vector-diffraction theory that is based on solid theoretical foundations and a general formulation of mask model that are applicable to both rigorous Maxwell solver and empirical model that can capture the mask 3D-effects. We demonstrated the validity of our approach by comparing our simulated image with AIMS machine measured images. We also briefly discuss the necessary changes needed to model EUV optics. Simulation is particularly useful while the industry waits for an actinic EUV-AIMS tool.

  8. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry; Hontalas, Philip; Listgarten, Sherry

    1993-01-01

    Whether a researcher is designing the 'next parallel programming paradigm,' another 'scalable multiprocessor' or investigating resource allocation algorithms for multiprocessors, a facility that enables parallel program execution to be captured and displayed is invaluable. Careful analysis of execution traces can help computer designers and software architects to uncover system behavior and to take advantage of specific application characteristics and hardware features. A software tool kit that facilitates performance evaluation of parallel applications on multiprocessors is described. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) has four major software components: a source code instrumentor which automatically inserts active event recorders into the program's source code before compilation; a run time performance-monitoring library, which collects performance data; a trace file animation and analysis tool kit which reconstructs program execution from the trace file; and a trace post-processor which compensate for data collection overhead. Besides being used as prototype for developing new techniques for instrumenting, monitoring, and visualizing parallel program execution, AIMS is also being incorporated into the run-time environments of various hardware test beds to evaluate their impact on user productivity. Currently, AIMS instrumentors accept FORTRAN and C parallel programs written for Intel's NX operating system on the iPSC family of multi computers. A run-time performance-monitoring library for the iPSC/860 is included in this release. We plan to release monitors for other platforms (such as PVM and TMC's CM-5) in the near future. Performance data collected can be graphically displayed on workstations (e.g. Sun Sparc and SGI) supporting X-Windows (in particular, Xl IR5, Motif 1.1.3).

  9. Use of the argon aiming beam in visual function testing.

    PubMed

    Kelley, J S

    1978-12-01

    The aiming beam of the argon laser photocoagulator can be a useful tool in visual function testing. Applied with the slit lamp delivery system and fundus contact lens, it clearly documents the size of the blind spot surrounding the optic nerve head and the normal area of nonfunctional retina in the periphery. The size of pathologic field defects can be recorded on fundus photographs or retinal drawings by an observer. Safety precautions must be taken to protect all patients from excessive laser energy. PMID:736394

  10. Telescope aiming point tracking method for bioptic driving surveillance.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianping; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2010-12-01

    A bioptic telescope is a visual aid used by people with impaired vision when driving in many U.S. states, though bioptic driving remains controversial. Objective data on how and when bioptic drivers use the telescope and what they look at with it are crucial to understanding the bioptic telescope's effects on driving. A video-based technique to track the telescope's aiming point is presented in this paper. With three infrared retro-reflective markers pasted on the bioptic spectacles frame, its movement is recorded using an infrared camera unit with infrared LED illuminators. The angles formed by the three markers are used to calculate the telescope's aiming points, which are registered with road scene images recorded by another camera. The calculation is based on a novel one-time calibration method, in which the light spot from a head-mounted laser pointer projected on a wall while the scanning is recorded by the scene camera, in synchronization with the infrared camera. Interpolation is performed within small local regions where no samples were taken. Thus, nonlinear interpolation error can be minimized, even for wide-range tracking. Experiments demonstrated that the average error over a 70(°)×48(°) field was only 0.86 (°) , with lateral head movement allowed. PMID:20529756

  11. Benchmark integration test for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, H.; Labuda, L.

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) studies and solves systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This systems integration approach to addressing human capability barriers will yield validation of advanced concepts and technologies, establish baselines for further development, and help identify opportunities for system-level breakthroughs. Early ground-based testing of mission capability will identify successful system implementations and operations, hidden risks and hazards, unexpected system and operations interactions, mission mass and operational savings, and can evaluate solutions to requirements-driving questions; all of which will enable NASA to develop more effective, lower risk systems and more reliable cost estimates for future missions. This paper describes the first in the series of integration tests proposed for AIM (the Benchmark Test) which will bring in partners and technology, evaluate the study processes of the project, and develop metrics for success.

  12. Aiming routines and their electrocortical concomitants among competitive rifle shooters.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, N; Landers, D M; Lyytinen, H

    2000-06-01

    The present study focused on an examination of competitive shooters' aiming process during a rifle shooting task. The barrel movements of the rifle, as detected by a laser system during the last 1000-ms time period preceding the triggering, were recorded from six elite and six pre-elite shooters. Electrocortical slow potentials (SPs) from frontal (Fz), centro-lateral (C3, C4), and occipital (Oz) brain areas were recorded to get an additional insight into the underlying covert processing. The results suggested that the elite shooters did not pull the trigger until they reached a sustained rifle position. In the pre-elite shooters the rifle appeared to be in a less stable position, and their strategy was to take advantage of the first appropriate moment of steadiness without a sustained rifle position so they could pull the trigger. The observed pre-trigger readiness potential (RP) shifts at Fz and Oz were more positive among the elite shooters relative to the pre-elite shooters, reflecting their more pronounced covert effort, rather than increasing preparedness for the trigger pull. The present study lends support for the view that a successful aiming strategy is mainly based on sustained rifle balancing. With regards to the brain slow potentials, it can be concluded that the RP shift does not specifically reflect the preparation for the trigger pull. PMID:10843511

  13. IR technology for enhanced force protection by AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Rode, W.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Haiml, M.; Ziegler, J.

    2008-04-01

    In all recent missions our forces are faced with various types of asymmetric threads like snipers, IEDs, RPGs or MANPADS. 2 nd and 3 rd Gen IR technology is a backbone of modern force protection by providing situational awareness and accurate target engagement at day/night. 3 rd Gen sensors are developed for thread warning capabilities by use of spectral or spatial information. The progress on a dual-color IR module is discussed in a separate paper [1]. A 1024x256 SWIR array with flexure bearing compressor and pulse tube cold finger provides > 50,000h lifetime for space or airborne hyperspectral imaging in pushbroom geometry with 256 spectral channels for improved change detection and remote sensing of IEDs or chemical agents. Similar concepts are pursued in the LWIR with either spectroscopic imaging or a system of LWIR FPA combined with a cooled tunable Laser to do spectroscopy with stimulated absorption of specific wavelengths. AIM introduced the RangIR sight to match the requirements of sniper teams, AGLs and weapon stations, extending the outstanding optronic performance of the fielded HuntIR with position data of a target by a laser range finder (LRF), a 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a ballistic computer for accurate engagement of remote targets. A version with flexure bearing cooler with >30,000h life time is being developed for continuous operation in e.g. gunfire detection systems. This paper gives an overview of AIM's technologies for enhanced force protection.

  14. Telescope Aiming Point Tracking Method for Bioptic Driving Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Fu, XianPing; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2010-01-01

    A bioptic telescope is a visual aid used by people with impaired vision when driving in many US states, though bioptic driving remains controversial. Objective data on how and when bioptic drivers use the telescope and what they look at with it are crucial to understanding the bioptic telescope's effect on driving. A video-based technique to track the telescope's aiming point is presented in this paper. With three infrared retro-reflective markers pasted on the bioptic spectacles' frame, its movement is recorded using an infrared camera unit with infrared LED illuminators. The angles formed by the three markers are used to calculate the telescope's aiming points, which are registered with road scene images recorded by another camera. The calculation is based on a novel one-time calibration method, in which the light spot from a head-mounted laser pointer projected on a wall while the head is scanning is recorded by the scene camera, in synchronization with the infrared camera. Interpolation is performed within small local regions where no samples were taken. Thus, non-linear interpolation error can be minimized, even for wide-range tracking. Experiments demonstrated that the average error over a 70°×48° field was only 0.86°, with lateral head movement allowed. PMID:20529756

  15. Design of orienting and aiming instrument based on fiber optic gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Limin; Sun, Jiyu

    2007-12-01

    In order to improve the ground viability of missile weapon system, a quick orienting and aiming instrument is cried for the missile launching in modern war. The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) based on Sagnac effect is a new type of all solid state rotation rate sensor that detects angular changes or angular rates relative to inertial space, which has many fine characteristics compared with traditional mechanical electronic gyro, such as low cost, light weight, long life, high reliability, wide dynamic range, etc. For the need of missile photoelectric aiming facility, It is necessary to design and manufacture a set of orienting and aiming instrument based on single axis FOG, to solve the close quarters aiming of missile launching, to measure the azimuth reference. Based on practical project, the principle of FOG orienting system and laser collimation theodolite aiming system is discussed and studied in this paper. Orienting and aiming system are constructed in the same basement. The influence of platform tilt on the precision of orientation is analyzed. An accelerator is used to compensate deviation caused by base tilt. The aiming precision affected by eccentricity of the encoders for laser collimation theodolite and the FOG orientation system are analyzed. The test results show that the aiming accuracy is 6' in three minutes. It is suitable for missile aiming in short range.

  16. Shock Hugoniot measurements on Ta to 0. 78 TPa

    SciTech Connect

    Froeschner, K.E.; Lee, R.S.; Chau, H.H.; Weingart, R.C.

    1983-08-18

    Symmetric impact shock Hugoniot measurements have been made on Ta with an electrically exploded foil gun system. The results obtained to date for the Hugoniot of Ta cover the range 0.19 to 0.78 TPa (impact velocities from 4.0 to 9.7 km/s) and agree with data obtained by other researchers to within 2.7% rms. Recent improvements in the system include electromagnetic shielding of impactor and target, continuous measurement of impactor velocity with a Fabry-Perot interferometer and computer-aided analysis of shot film. Conservative extrapolation from current operating conditions indicate that pressures of 1.1 to 1.5 TPa could be achieved with little difficulty.

  17. Space Insect-Food Aiming at Mars Emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Takase, Yoshimi; Kawai, Mika; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We study space insect-food during 10 years. We are aiming at Mars emigration. In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss. It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food. We reported that silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail, fly and termite (white ant) are insects necessary for astroponics in particular last time. We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food. In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture, too. We calculated the nourishment ingredient of those insects and thought about ideal space foods which ara necessary for Mars emigration. We will introduce good balance space foods.

  18. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students. PMID:25578380

  19. Infrared focal plane detector modules for space applications at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Dominique; Hanna, Stefan; Thöt, Richard; Gassmann, Kai-Uwe; Haiml, Markus; Weber, Andreas; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Ziegler, Johann; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Fick, W.

    2012-09-01

    In the framework of this paper, AIM presents the actual status of some of its currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments for space applications covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) to the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very-long-wavelength infrared (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP will be elaborated. Additionally dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC will be addressed.

  20. Research aims at development of laser-guided electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozicharow, E.

    1985-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense is conducting a technology development program that may result in the stationing of a laser-guided electron beam weapon, at ionospheric altitudes of 80-600 km, for the interception and destruction of Soviet ICBMs at ranges of more than 1000 miles. This research program is pursuing the principle of ion-focused propagation, which resolves the problem of atmospheric beam scattering by ionizing a channel in the atmospheric medium with a laser. Also discussed is the development status of space-based particle beams and lasers, ground-based laser systems employing orbiting mirror platforms for beam aiming, and nuclear device-powered directed energy weapons.

  1. Pulse Response Measurement Aiming for Locating Water Tree Degradation in XLPE Cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiei, Susumu; Hozumi, Naohiro; Kurihara, Takashi; Okamoto, Tatsuki; Uchida, Katsumi; Tsuji, Taizo

    Water treeing is a degradation mode of power cable with polymeric insulation. A water tree is composed of small droplets filled with water. As the conductivity in water tree is very high, it leads to dielectric breakdown when it grows up. As inside of the water tree is filled with trap sites, it is polarized with a certain distribution of relaxation time when a DC poling voltage is applied. Although its depolarization process after removing the poling voltage is determined by ambient temperature, applying a “depolarizing voltage” with the opposite polarity can accelerate the process. If a short pulse propagating through the cable is employed as a depolarization voltage, we may locate the water tree through looking at the time-resolved pulse response. This would lead to a diagnosing method with spatial resolution. In order to retain 100 m of spatial resolution, the response should be as sharp as 1 μs. As a preliminary study, a coaxial communication cable was aged to form water trees. A DC poling voltage was applied followed by a pulse voltage with opposite polarity. The rising time of the pulse was several hundreds of microseconds. A sharp pulse current response with 50 μs in width was observed, suggesting that a rapid depolarization took place. No such response was seen when the cable specimen was not aged. We concluded that the technique is quite feasible. As the response was found to be as quick as several microseconds, an experiment using 405 m-long cable, with 5 m of degraded length in the middle, was performed. It was shown that the degraded point was successfully located.

  2. Medicaid Cost Control Measures Aimed at Second Generation Antipsychotics Led to Less Use of All Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, William B.; Joyce, Geoffrey; Xia, Jing; Dirani, Riad; Wan, George; Goldman, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics and other psychotherapeutics are increasingly subject to prior authorization and other restrictions in state Medicaid programs, begging the question of how these formulary restrictions affect the drug treatments being delivered. To find an answer we collected drug-level information on utilization management for 30 state Medicaid programs over the past 10 years and drug-level utilization data for state Medicaid programs. We find that prior authorization requirements on atypical antipsychotics and other psychotherapeutics greatly reduced the utilization of these drugs and this reduction is not offset by substitution to other drugs in the same drug classes—with the adverse consequence that fewer patients are receiving pharmacotherapy. PMID:22147863

  3. "The Perfect Pupil": Changing Aims and Changing Measures of Success in School RE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Mairi; Muir, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    In England and Wales, religious education (RE) in non-faith schools has gradually changed from Christian education to the study of many religions and philosophies. However, the core values of RE have continued to be related to concerns about social cohesion and the building of shared values. The article briefly discusses changes in RE since 1944…

  4. Geochemistry of impact glasses and target rocks from the Zhamanshin impact structure, Kazakhstan: Implications for mixing of target and impactor matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonášová, Šárka; Ackerman, Lukáš; Žák, Karel; Skála, Roman; Ďurišová, Jana; Deutsch, Alexander; Magna, Tomáš

    2016-10-01

    Internal structure and element chemistry including contents of highly siderophile elements (HSE) and Os isotope ratios have been studied in target rocks and several groups of impact glasses of the Zhamanshin impact structure, Kazakhstan. These include larger irregularly-shaped fragments and blocks of impact glass (zhamanshinites), and three types of tektite-like splash-form glasses, part of fallback ejecta. These glassy objects typically are up to 30 mm large and are shaped as teardrops, irregularly bent and curved glass rods and fibers. They can be subdivided into acidic types (irghizites; typically 69-76 wt.% SiO2), basic splash-forms (typically 53-56 wt.% SiO2), and rarely occurring highly inhomogeneous composites with abundant mineral inclusions. A comparison with the target rocks shows that zhamanshinites and basic splash-forms usually have no detectable admixture of the projectile matter, indicated by major and trace elements as well as highly siderophile element contents, with the exception of one sample containing Fe-, Cr-, Ni- and Ti-enriched particles and elevated HSE contents. In contrast, irghizites exhibit clear admixture of the projectile matter, which was incorporated by complex processes accompanied by strong element fractionations. Microscopic investigations confirm that irghizites were formed mainly by coalescence of smaller molten glass droplets sized typically below 1 mm. Irghizites exhibit significant enrichments in Ni, Co and Cr, whose concentrations are locally elevated in the rims of the original small droplets. A portion of these elements and also part of Fe and Mn and other elements were derived from the impactor, most likely a Ni-rich carbonaceous chondrite. The contents of HSE are low and strongly fractionated, with moderate depletions of Pt and Pd and strong depletions of other HSE with respect to chondritic element ratios. Osmium shows the strongest depletion, likely related to the presence of oxygen in the post-impact atmosphere

  5. SAGE II aerosol data validation based on retrieved aerosol model size distribution from SAGE II aerosol measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pi-Huan; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L. R.; Chu, W. P.; Swissler, T. J.; Osborn, M. T.; Russell, P. B.; Oberbeck, V. R.; Livingston, J.; Rosen, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to aerosol correlative measurements experiments for the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, conducted between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative measurements were taken with an impactor/laser probe, a dustsonde, and an airborne 36-cm lidar system. The primary aerosol quantities measured by the ground-based instruments are compared with those calculated from the aerosol size distributions from SAGE II aerosol extinction measurements. Good agreement is found between the two sets of measurements.

  6. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  7. A portable optical particle counter system for measuring dust aerosols.

    PubMed

    Marple, V A; Rubow, K L

    1978-03-01

    A portable battery-operated optical particle counter/multichannel analyzer system has been developed for the numbers size distribution and number concentration measurement of light-absorbing irregular-shaped dust particles. An inertial impactor technique has been used to obtain calibration curves by relating the magnitude of the optical counter's signal to the particle's aerodynamic or Stokes' diameter. These calibrations have been made for aerosols of coal, potash, silica, rock (copper ore), and Arizona road dust particles. PMID:645547

  8. Paleographic Atlas of northern Eurasia: Aims and current progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmin, V.G. )

    1993-09-01

    A project aimed at paleographic reconstruction of northern Eurasia (the former USSR and adjacent territories) commenced in 1993 in Russia under the auspices of two nongovernmental scientific organizations: Scientific Council on Plate Tectonics and Institute of Tectonics of Lithospheric Plates. The project is sponsored by the State Committee on Geology and Exxon and Shell companies. Twenty-six data-base maps and corresponding paleogeographic maps on a set of new paleotectonic reconstructions are to be compiled within two years, covering a period from Devonian to present. The next two-year phase is expected to follow, with a compilation of similar maps for Early Paleozoic and late Riphean. the best experts on regional geology, paleoenvironment, paleomagnetics, and paleotectonic reconstructions participate in the program. A special group, Geocentre Company, is assigned to the computerization of maps. The 1993 compilation of 15 database maps is to be completed and the first reconstructions produced. The database maps (starting from Tithonian upward) contain information on lithology, facies and thickness of sedimentary formations, and magnetic and structural indicators of plate tectonic data; oil and gas deposits are indicated. Emphasis is placed on the paleogeographic evolution of sedimentary basins, potential reservoirs of hydrocarbons. Narrow time intervals between maps (about 10 m.y.) permit detailed reconstructions of the basins' evolution. Examples of database and paleogeographic maps are presented in the poster.

  9. Concurrent visual feedback and spatial accuracy in continuous aiming movements.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, David E; Rothman, Kelly K

    2011-12-01

    The effect of concurrent visual feedback (CVF) on continuous aiming movements was investigated in the preferred hand of participants of college age (ns = 12 men, 8 women). Participants made continuous rapid reversal movements with a lightweight lever in the sagittal plane. Participants attempted to reach a short target (20 degrees) and a long target (60 degrees) in separate constant practice conditions, but alternated between the two targets in a variable practice condition. Four blocks of practice trials were provided in each condition, with 40 movements made in each. CVF of the position-time trace was provided for the first 20 movements of each block, but was removed for the remaining 20 movements in each block. Movements were more accurate and consistent during constant practice compared to variable practice where the short target was overshot and the long target was undershot. CVF reduced errors in all conditions, compared to movements without CVF, particularly for the short target during variable practice. The results suggest that the interference generated by alternating targets can be modulated by providing visual feedback, but once the visual feedback was removed, errors increased markedly. PMID:22403928

  10. Avoiding Obstructions in Aiming a High-Gain Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2006-01-01

    The High Gain Antenna Pointing and Obstruction Avoidance software performs computations for pointing a Mars Rover high-gain antenna for communication with Earth while (1) avoiding line-of-sight obstructions (the Martian terrain and other parts of the Rover) that would block communication and (2) taking account of limits in ranges of motion of antenna gimbals and of kinematic singularities in gimbal mechanisms. The software uses simplified geometric models of obstructions and of the trajectory of the Earth in the Martian sky(see figure). It treats all obstructions according to a generalized approach, computing and continually updating the time remaining before interception of each obstruction. In cases in which the gimbal-mechanism design allows two aiming solutions, the algorithm chooses the solution that provides the longest obstruction-free Earth-tracking time. If the communication session continues until an obstruction is encountered in the current pointing solution and the other solution is now unobstructed, then the algorithm automatically switches to the other position. This software also notifies communication- managing software to cease transmission during the switch to the unobstructed position, resuming it when the switch is complete.

  11. The EvA study: aims and strategy.

    PubMed

    Ziegler-Heitbrock, Loems; Frankenberger, Marion; Heimbeck, Irene; Burggraf, Dorothe; Wjst, Matthias; Häussinger, Karl; Brightling, Chris; Gupta, Sumit; Parr, David; Subramanian, Deepak; Singh, Dave; Kolsum, Umme; Boschetto, Piera; Potena, Alfredo; Gorecka, Dorota; Nowinski, Adam; Barta, Imre; Döme, Balazs; Strausz, Janos; Greulich, Timm; Vogelmeier, Claus; Bals, Robert; Hohlfeld, Jens M; Welte, Tobias; Venge, Per; Gut, Ivo; Boland, Anne; Olaso, Robert; Hager, Jörg; Hiemstra, Pieter; Rabe, Klaus F; Unmüssig, Martina; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Prasse, Antje

    2012-10-01

    The EvA study is a European Union-funded project under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), which aims at defining new markers for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its subtypes. The acronym is derived from emphysema versus airway disease, indicating that the project targets these two main phenotypes of the disease. The EvA study is based on the concept that emphysema and airway disease are governed by different pathophysiological processes, are driven by different genes and have differential gene expression in the lung. To define these genes, patients and non-COPD controls are recruited for clinical examination, lung function analysis and computed tomography (CT) of the lung. CT scans are used to define the phenotypes based on lung density and airway wall thickness. This is followed by bronchoscopy in order to obtain samples from the airways and the alveoli. These tissue samples, along with blood samples, are then subjected to genome-wide expression and association analysis and markers linked to the phenotypes are identified. The population of the EvA study is different from other COPD study populations, since patients with current oral glucocorticoids, antibiotics and exacerbations or current smokers are excluded, such that the signals detected in the molecular analysis are due to the distinct inflammatory process of emphysema and airway disease in COPD. PMID:22441733

  12. AIM thermal imagers for reconnaissance and targeting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang; Ihle, Tobias; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner

    2006-05-01

    AIM has developed a thermal weapon sight HuntIR based on a cooled MCT 384x288 MWIR detection module combining long range battlefield surveillance and target engagement purposes. Since December 2004 the device is in service for the Germany Future Infantryman (IdZ) basic system. To satisfy the demands of the follow-up program German Future Infantryman extended system (IdZ ES) additional components like a laser range finder, digital magnetic compass and a wireless data link will be included to provide e.g. an improved hit rate by accurate range data. To reduce power consumption and increase operation time of the actual device on the one hand and give the possibility to include new components and functions a new optimized command and control electronics and image processing unit was designed using latest digital signal processors resulting in lower power consumption and higher computing power. This allows also an implementation of additional image enhancement functions. The design concept of the upgraded HuntIR is introduced together which the features of the new electronics. Additionally some new implementations will be presented concerning the existing HuntIR device like fire control for the 40mm Grenade Machine Gun made by Heckler&Koch which where possible due to the reprogrammable architecture of the design. Also an uncooled IR Imaging Module designed for use in small UAVs and short range thermal weapon sights was successfully tested in the German Army small UAV ALADIN made by EMT. After the first flight trials the design was revised to incorporate lessons learned including e.g. an athermal lens design to avoid any need of focussing. The features of the revised design will be presented.

  13. Status of research aimed at predicting structural integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, W.G.

    1997-12-31

    Considerable research has been performed throughout the world on measuring the fracture toughness of metals. The existing capability fills the need encountered when selecting materials, thermal-mechanical treatments, welding procedures, etc., but cannot predict the fracture process of structural components containing cracks. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have been collaborating for a number of years on developing capabilities for using fracture toughness results to predict structural integrity. Because of the high cost of fabricating and testing structural components, these studies have been limited to predicting the fracture process in specimens containing surface cracks. This paper summarizes the present status of the experimental studies of using fracture toughness data to predict crack growth initiation in specimens (structural components) containing surface cracks. These results are limited to homogeneous base materials.

  14. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  15. Straight sinus: ultrastructural analysis aimed at surgical tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Amato, Marcelo Campos Moraes; Tirapelli, Luis Fernando; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Colli, Benedicto Oscar

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Accurate knowledge of the anatomy of the straight sinus (SS) is relevant for surgical purposes. During one surgical procedure involving the removal of part of the SS wall, the authors observed that the venous blood flow was maintained in the SS, possibly through a vein-like structure within the dural sinus or dural multiple layers. This observation and its divergence from descriptions of the histological features of the SS walls motivated the present study. The authors aimed to investigate whether it is possible to dissect the SS walls while keeping the lumen intact, and to describe the histological and ultrastructural composition of the SS wall. METHODS A total of 22 cadaveric specimens were used. The SS was divided into three portions: anterior, middle, and posterior. The characteristics of the SS walls were analyzed, and the feasibility of dissecting them while keeping the SS lumen intact was assessed. The thickness and the number of collagen fibers and other tissues in the SS walls were compared with the same variables in other venous sinuses. Masson's trichrome and Verhoeff's stains were used to assess collagen and elastic fibers, respectively. The data were analyzed using Zeiss image analysis software (KS400). RESULTS A vein-like structure independent of the SS walls was found in at least one of the portions of the SS in 8 of 22 samples (36.36%). The inferior wall could be delaminated in at least one portion in 21 of 22 samples (95.45%), whereas the lateral walls could seldom be delaminated. The inferior wall of the SS was thicker (p < 0.05) and exhibited less collagen and greater amounts of other tissues-including elastic fibers, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve fibers (p < 0.05)-compared with the lateral walls. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of muscle fibers at a level deeper than that of the subendothelial connective tissue in the inferior wall of the SS, extending from its junction with the great cerebral vein

  16. Aiming at Targets: The Autobiography of Robert C. Seamans, Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seamans, Robert C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Bob Seamans originally was inspired to write this book for his family and friends. That is a large audience. By his own count his immediate family numbers twenty-four, not counting brothers and cousins and their families. His friends are uncounted but surely run to hundreds. As one of them and as a colleague at NASA, I am pleased and honored that he asked me to write this foreword. While written in Bob's unique and informal style, this autobiography has significance for many readers beyond his large circles of family and friends. Leaders and students of large, complex technological endeavors should be able to learn much from reading how Bob faced the daunting technical and management challenges in his career. As the title of this book implies, Bob has always set high goals for himself and then kept his eyes focused on both the necessary details and the broader picture. His ability to shift smoothly among jobs that required seemingly disparate abilities and skills speaks volumes about his insight, dedication, and enthusiasm for achievement. The book spans a truly remarkable life story. Bob first takes us through his growing up, education, and early professional and family life. Next he focuses on the crucial years when he was the general manager of NASA. Then he moves on to his career in the top jobs at the Air Force, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Energy Research and Development Administration. Finally, he touches on his later leadership activities in the academic and business worlds. Aiming at Targets is a series of fascinating topical vignettes covering his professional life. Taken together, like broad brushstrokes in an impressionist painting, they give a better picture of Bob Seamans and his work than a detailed recitation of facts and dates could hope to do. This is a cheerful account of an interesting and successful career. The book is full of good stories, with many memorable characters. Like the proverbial sundial, it counts the sunny hours

  17. Wireless data and power transmission aiming intracranial epilepsy monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Gurkan; Atasoy, Oguz; Dehollain, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    This study presents a wireless power and data transmission system to overcome the problems in intracranial epilepsy monitoring associated with transcutaneous wires. Firstly, a wireless power transfer link based on inductive coupling is implemented and a power management unit for the implant is designed. 4-coil resonant inductive link scheme is exploited since it exhibits a high efficiency and optimal load flexibility. Power management unit consists of an active rectifier, a low drop-out voltage regulator which is biased internally with a supply independent current source; all implemented as integrated circuit. Wireless power link provides 10 mW under 1.8 V dc to the load, more specifically the electrodes and read-out electronics. Wireless data communication is realized using the same frequency, 8.4 MHz, as the power link. Load shift keying is performed for uplink (from implant to external) communication by switching an integrated modulator which, in fact, detunes the resonance. Modulated signal is recovered on the external device by means of an integrated self-referenced ASK demodulator. Data rate is adapted for a fast ripple ( < 500 Hz) detection system which requires 300 kbps communication. The measurements show that the system works at 36% power transfer efficiency without communication link and the efficiency drops to 33% with 300 kbps uplink data transfer. Finally, in-vitro tests that emulate the real operation scenario are performed thanks to the two-polymer packaging and almost the same power transfer efficiency is achieved under same operation conditions.

  18. China aims to improve health of newborn by law.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, R

    1994-11-19

    Effective June 1, 1995, China will have a new law covering aspects of maternal and infant health care. The controversial law provides for improvements in perinatal health care, but it also mandates a premarital physical examination for couples to determine if either person has a genetic or infectious disease or a mental disorder which would have an adverse effect on marriage and childbearing. Marriage must be postponed if any of the defined infectious diseases (including AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis, and leprosy) or a mental disorder is detected. In cases of genetic diseases, the couple must agree to adopt longterm contraceptive measures or to become sterilized. When a serious genetic defect is uncovered during a pregnancy, physicians are to advise abortion. Whereas the law stipulates that consent must be obtained before an abortion or sterilization is performed, there is concern that the law will lead to forced sterilization. Also, medical experts are still trying to devise a list of "serious genetic disorders" in a social climate which has little tolerance for any type of disability. The new law forbids the use of prenatal testing to determine the sex of a fetus unless there are medical indications for such a determination. In some areas of China, selective abortion of female fetuses has resulted in a birth ratio of 131 boys to 100 girls. PMID:7661929

  19. Aiming at the target: improved adjuvant medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Bedard, Philippe L; Dinh, Phuong; Sotiriou, Christos; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J

    2009-10-01

    The 2007 St. Gallen Expert Panel recognized the existence of molecular tools for risk stratification, but recommended the use of high-quality standard pathological testing alone for risk allocation and treatment selection. Over the last two years, much has been learned about these novel molecular tools: they demonstrate similar prognostic power; their performance appears to be driven by improved quantification of cellular proliferation; tumour burden remains an important determinant of long-term outcome; and their prediction of responsiveness to systemic therapy is suboptimal. In the meantime, great effort has continued to be invested in evaluating individual predictive markers to guide treatment selection. A number of putative targets that showed early promise--such as HER-2 and TOP2A gene amplification for anthracyclines, Myc amplification for trastuzumab, and Tau expression for taxanes--have yielded disappointing results when subjected to subsequent validation. These failings underscore the difficulty of accurate, reproducible target measurement and the inherent complexity of early breast cancer which is unlikely to be captured by a single gene or protein alteration. Future progress in adjuvant treatment tailoring will require a fundamental shift towards multi-dimensional thinking--with the development of multi-parameter assays that integrate tumour biology, disease burden, and host-related factors. The traditional model of post hoc predictive marker validation appears unlikely to produce tangible gains in the era of targeted systemic therapy. It is hoped that coupling prospective biomarker discovery with new drug development in earlier stages of disease will yield additional targets that can be used to guide clinical decision-making in the future. PMID:19914538

  20. Causal Link Between Flood Basalts and Large Impacts: Were The K-t and P-tr Impactors `verneshots' Fired From Terrestrial Plume-fed Co2-guns?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps Morgan, J.; Reston, T.; Ranero, C.

    activity leads to massive C- and S-volatile build-up at 80-100km depths within cold cratonic lithosphere, consis- tent with recent E-M soundings (Jones et al., 2001) beneath the Slave Craton (Canada). If this gas-rich phase can build up to a 1% fraction, than its catastrophic release may be large enough to be the environmental shock that leads to a mass extinction event. 1 Furthermore, its release would supply large amounts of plume mantle rare-gases (and possibly core-entrained iridium?) to the surface environment. Such super-kimberlite- precurser gas-release events appear capable of providing a terrestrial source for the recently found geochemical signals of `extraterrestrial' P-Tr bolide impacts, while also better explaining the massive mantle-linked geochemical anomalies (in particular S-isotope excursions) that take place at this time. Furthermore, the energy release from sudden cratonic CO2 escape is large enough, that if released at one time, it could eject a suborbital mass-jet that causes a secondary impact event itself. Was even the Chix- culub impactor such a `Verneshot', fired from a Deccan-Reunion plume CO2-gun? 2

  1. Design and application of an inertial impactor in combination with an ATP bioluminescence detector for in situ rapid estimation of the efficacies of air controlling devices on removal of bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ki Young; Park, Chul Woo; Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Hwang, Jungho

    2010-03-01

    We proposed a rapid method to estimate the efficacies of air controlling devices in situ using ATP bioluminescence in combination with an inertial impactor. The inertial impactor was designed to have 1 mum of cutoff diameter, and its performance was estimated analytically, numerically, and experimentally. The proposed method was characterized using Staphylococcus epidermidis, which was aerosolized with a nebulizer. The bioaerosol concentrations were estimated within 25 min using the proposed method without a culturing process, which requires several days for colony formation. A linear relationship was obtained between the results of the proposed ATP method (RLU/m(3)) and the conventional culture-based method (CFU/m(3)), with R(2) 0.9283. The proposed method was applied to estimate the concentration of indoor bioaerosols, which were identified as a mixture of various microbial species including bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes, in an occupational indoor environment, controlled by mechanical ventilation and an air cleaner. Consequently, the proposed method showed a linearity with the culture-based method for indoor bioaerosols with R(2) 0.8189, even though various kinds of microorganisms existed in the indoor air. The proposed method may be effective in monitoring the changes of relative concentration of indoor bioaerosols and estimating the effectiveness of air control devices in indoor environments. PMID:20143821

  2. Field Experiments Aimed To The Analysis of Flood Generation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriero, D.; Iacobellis, V.; Oliveto, G.; Romano, N.; Telesca, V.; Fiorentino, M.

    F. Terribile. 1999. Interpretation of the spa- tial variability of soil hydraulic properties using a land system analysis. In Modelling of Transport Processes in Soils, J. Feyen and K. Wiyo, eds., p. 491-500, Wageningen Pers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.]. A soil-landscape map was set-up and undis- turbed soil cores, spaced 50 m apart, were regularly collected from the uppermost soil horizons along transects located at the two sides of the river. All cores were subjected to laboratory measurements to determine bulk density, particle-size distribution, or- ganic carbon content, and unsaturated soil hydraulic characteristics. Other field exper- iment have been performed through a non-invasive method of monitoring the spatial 1 and temporal variations of soil water content by using soil resistivity data from elec- trical resistivity tomography and relating the soil resistivity to soil water content. The presence of two pluviometers and a hydrometer permits the evaluation of watershed inflows and outflows at different timescale. 2

  3. CoAIMs: A Cost-Effective Panel of Ancestry Informative Markers for Determining Continental Origins

    PubMed Central

    Londin, Eric R.; Keller, Margaret A.; Maista, Cathleen; Smith, Gretchen; Mamounas, Laura A.; Zhang, Ran; Madore, Steven J.; Gwinn, Katrina; Corriveau, Roderick A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic ancestry is known to impact outcomes of genotype-phenotype studies that are designed to identify risk for common diseases in human populations. Failure to control for population stratification due to genetic ancestry can significantly confound results of disease association studies. Moreover, ancestry is a critical factor in assessing lifetime risk of disease, and can play an important role in optimizing treatment. As modern medicine moves towards using personal genetic information for clinical applications, it is important to determine genetic ancestry in an accurate, cost-effective and efficient manner. Self-identified race is a common method used to track and control for population stratification; however, social constructs of race are not necessarily informative for genetic applications. The use of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) is a more accurate method for determining genetic ancestry for the purposes of population stratification. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we introduce a novel panel of 36 microsatellite (MSAT) AIMs that determines continental admixture proportions. This panel, which we have named Continental Ancestry Informative Markers or CoAIMs, consists of MSAT AIMs that were chosen based upon their measure of genetic variance (Fst), allele frequencies and their suitability for efficient genotyping. Genotype analysis using CoAIMs along with a Bayesian clustering method (STRUCTURE) is able to discern continental origins including Europe/Middle East (Caucasians), East Asia, Africa, Native America, and Oceania. In addition to determining continental ancestry for individuals without significant admixture, we applied CoAIMs to ascertain admixture proportions of individuals of self declared race. Conclusion/Significance CoAIMs can be used to efficiently and effectively determine continental admixture proportions in a sample set. The CoAIMs panel is a valuable resource for genetic researchers performing case-control genetic

  4. Measuring $\

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  5. Aiming accuracy in preferred and non-preferred limbs: implications for programing models of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Most models of motor programing contend that one can perform learned actions with different muscle groups or limbs demonstrating the concept of motor equivalence. The goal of this review is to determine the generality of this concept within the context of aiming movements performed by both preferred and non-preferred limbs. Theoretical approaches to motor programing are described, followed by a comparison of a variety of kinematic measures taken from preferred and non-preferred limbs from simple and more complex aiming tasks. In general, the support for motor equivalency is strong for one- and two-dimensional aiming tasks and for simultaneous bimanual movements, but mixed for unconstrained throwing tasks and tasks that require feedback-based corrections. PMID:25408677

  6. Interventions aimed at improving the nursing work environment: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nursing work environments (NWEs) in Canada and other Western countries have increasingly received attention following years of restructuring and reported high workloads, high absenteeism, and shortages of nursing staff. Despite numerous efforts to improve NWEs, little is known about the effectiveness of interventions to improve NWEs. The aim of this study was to review systematically the scientific literature on implemented interventions aimed at improving the NWE and their effectiveness. Methods An online search of the databases CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, ABI, Academic Search Complete, HEALTHstar, ERIC, Psychinfo, and Embase, and a manual search of Emerald and Longwoods was conducted. (Quasi-) experimental studies with pre/post measures of interventions aimed at improving the NWE, study populations of nurses, and quantitative outcome measures of the nursing work environment were required for inclusion. Each study was assessed for methodological strength using a quality assessment and validity tool for intervention studies. A taxonomy of NWE characteristics was developed that would allow us to identify on which part of the NWE an intervention targeted for improvement, after which the effects of the interventions were examined. Results Over 9,000 titles and abstracts were screened. Eleven controlled intervention studies met the inclusion criteria, of which eight used a quasi-experimental design and three an experimental design. In total, nine different interventions were reported in the included studies. The most effective interventions at improving the NWE were: primary nursing (two studies), the educational toolbox (one study), the individualized care and clinical supervision (one study), and the violence prevention intervention (one study). Conclusions Little is known about the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving the NWE, and published studies on this topic show weaknesses in their design. To advance the field, we recommend that

  7. SAGE II aerosol validation - Selected altitude measurements, including particle micromeasurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Russell, Philip B.; Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Snetsinger, Kenneth G.; Ferry, Guy V.; Livingston, John M.; Rosen, James N.; Osborn, Mary T.; Kritz, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The validity of particulate extinction coefficients derived from limb path solar radiance measurements obtained during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II is tested. The SAGE II measurements are compared with correlative aerosol measurements taken during January 1985, August 1985, and July 1986 with impactors, laser spectrometers, and filter samplers on a U-2 aircraft, an upward pointing lidar on a P-3 aircraft, and balloon-borne optical particle counters. The data for July 29, 1986 are discussed in detail. The aerosol measurements taken on this day at an altitude of 20.5 km produce particulate extinction values which validate the SAGE II values for similar wavelengths.

  8. International intercalibration and intercomparison measurements of radon progeny particle size distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, Keng-Wu

    1997-07-01

    Because there is no standard method for {sup 222}Rn progeny size measurements, verifying the performance of various measurement techniques is important. This report describes results of an international intercomparison and calibration of {sup 222}Rn progeny size measurements involving low pressure impactors (MOUDI and Berner) and diffusion battery systems, as well as both alpha- and gamma- counting methods. The intercomparison was at EML on June 12-15, 1995. 5 different particle sizes (80, 90, 165, 395, 1200 nm) of near monodisperse condensation Carbauba wax aerosol and 2 bimodal size spectra (160 and 365 nm, and 70 and 400 nm) were used. 20 tests were completed, covering both low and high concentrations of {sup 222}Rn and test aerosols. For the single-mode test aerosol, the measurements agreed within the size range. Best agreement was found between the two low pressure impactors. Some differences between the impactor and diffusion battery methods were observed in the specific peak locations and the resultant geometric mean diameters. For the two bimodal size distribution aerosols, the MOUDI measurements showed two modes, while the other 3 devices showed a single mode size distribution.

  9. A Miniature System for Separating Aerosol Particles and Measuring Mass Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Dao; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chen, Chuin-Shan; Dai, Chi-An

    2010-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a new sensing system which consists of two virtual impactors and two quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors for measuring particle mass concentration and size distribution. The virtual impactors utilized different inertial forces of particles in air flow to classify different particle sizes. They were designed to classify particle diameter, d, into three different ranges: d < 2.28 μm, 2.28 μm ≤ d ≤ 3.20 μm, d > 3.20 μm. The QCM sensors were coated with a hydrogel, which was found to be a reliable adhesive for capturing aerosol particles. The QCM sensor coated with hydrogel was used to measure the mass loading of particles by utilizing its characteristic of resonant frequency shift. An integrated system has been demonstrated. PMID:22319317

  10. Organic and elemental carbon size distributions of Los Angeles aerosols measured during SCAQS. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMurry, P.H.

    1989-12-01

    The report summarizes measurements of size-resolved residual organic carbon (ROC) and elemental carbon (EC) made by U. of Minnesota during the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS). Measurements were made with MOUDI impactors. Impactors were located at Claremont and Rubidoux during summer SCAQS sampling, and at Long Beach and Los Angeles during the fall. It was found that the average mass mean diameter of ROC ranged from 0.43 micrometer at Los Angeles to 0.62 micrometer at Rubidoux. Mass mean diameters of EC were systematically smaller than for ROC. The ROC/EC ratio varied with site, season and particle size. Average ROC/EC ratios were 2.66 (Claremont), 2.12 (Rubidoux), 1.51 (Long Beach) and 1.26 (Los Angeles).

  11. Space station integrated wall damage and penetration damage control. Task 5: Space debris measurement, mapping and characterization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lempriere, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    The procedures and results of a study of a conceptual system for measuring the debris environment on the space station is discussed. The study was conducted in two phases: the first consisted of experiments aimed at evaluating location of impact through panel response data collected from acoustic emission sensors; the second analyzed the available statistical description of the environment to determine the probability of the measurement system producing useful data, and analyzed the results of the previous tests to evaluate the accuracy of location and the feasibility of extracting impactor characteristics from the panel response. The conclusions were that for one panel the system would not be exposed to any event, but that the entire Logistics Module would provide a modest amount of data. The use of sensors with higher sensitivity than those used in the tests could be advantageous. The impact location could be found with sufficient accuracy from panel response data. The waveforms of the response were shown to contain information on the impact characteristics, but the data set did not span a sufficient range of the variables necessary to evaluate the feasibility of extracting the information.

  12. A Policy Framework for Health Systems to Promote Triple Aim Innovation.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amol; Bhatia, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    With the expiry of the Health Accords, provincial governments must face the challenge of improving performance in the context of ageing demographics, increasing multi-morbidity, and real concerns about financial stability. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement Triple Aim articulates fundamental goals that can guide health system transformation: improved population health, enhanced patient experience and reduced or stable per capita costs. Advancing fragmented and costly health systems in pursuit of these goals requires transformative, as opposed to iterative, change. Provincial governments are ideally suited to lead this change by acting as "integrators" who link healthcare organizations and align incentives across the spectrum of delivery. Although there is very limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of system-level reforms, we draw on initiatives from around the world to suggest policies that can promote system-level Triple Aim innovation. We categorize these policies within the classic functions ascribed to health systems: financing, stewardship and resource generation. As healthcare financers, governments should orient procurement policy towards the Triple Aim innovation and reform payment to reward value not volume. As health system stewards, governments should define a Triple Aim vision; measure and report outcomes, patient experience, and costs; integrate across sectors; and facilitate learning from failure and spread of successful innovation. As resource generators, governments should invest in health information technology to exploit "big data" and ensure that professional education equips front-line clinicians with skills necessary to improve systems. There are a number of barriers to system-level Triple Aim innovation. There is a lack of evidence for macro-level policy changes, innovation is costly and complicated, and system reform may not be politically appealing. Triple Aim innovation may also be conflated with organization-level quality

  13. Interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, David S; Estabrooks, Carole A; Scott-Findlay, Shannon; Moore, Katherine; Wallin, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background There has been considerable interest recently in developing and evaluating interventions to increase research use by clinicians. However, most work has focused on medical practices; and nursing is not well represented in existing systematic reviews. The purpose of this article is to report findings from a systematic review of interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. Objective To assess the evidence on interventions aimed at increasing research use in nursing. Methods A systematic review of research use in nursing was conducted using databases (Medline, CINAHL, Healthstar, ERIC, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Psychinfo), grey literature, ancestry searching (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), key informants, and manual searching of journals. Randomized controlled trials and controlled before- and after-studies were included if they included nurses, if the intervention was explicitly aimed at increasing research use or evidence-based practice, and if there was an explicit outcome to research use. Methodological quality was assessed using pre-existing tools. Data on interventions and outcomes were extracted and categorized using a pre-established taxonomy. Results Over 8,000 titles were screened. Three randomized controlled trials and one controlled before- and after-study met the inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of included studies was generally low. Three investigators evaluated single interventions. The most common intervention was education. Investigators measured research use using a combination of surveys (three studies) and compliance with guidelines (one study). Researcher-led educational meetings were ineffective in two studies. Educational meetings led by a local opinion leader (one study) and the formation of multidisciplinary committees (one study) were both effective at increasing research use. Conclusion Little is known about how to increase research use in nursing, and the evidence to

  14. Geriatrics and the triple aim: defining preventable hospitalizations in the long-term care population.

    PubMed

    Ouslander, Joseph G; Maslow, Katie

    2012-12-01

    Reducing preventable hospitalizations is fundamental to the "triple aim" of improving care, improving health, and reducing costs. New federal government initiatives that create strong pressure to reduce such hospitalizations are being or will soon be implemented. These initiatives use quality measures to define which hospitalizations are preventable. Reducing hospitalizations could greatly benefit frail and chronically ill adults and older people who receive long-term care (LTC) because they often experience negative effects of hospitalization, including hospital-acquired conditions, morbidity, and loss of functional abilities. Conversely, reducing hospitalizations could mean that some people will not receive hospital care they need, especially if the selected measures do not adequately define hospitalizations that can be prevented without jeopardizing the person's health and safety. An extensive literature search identified 250 measures of preventable hospitalizations, but the measures have not been validated in the LTC population and generally do not account for comorbidity or the capacity of various LTC settings to provide the required care without hospitalization. Additional efforts are needed to develop measures that accurately differentiate preventable from necessary hospitalizations for the LTC population, are transparent and fair to providers, and minimize the potential for gaming and unintended consequences. As the new initiatives take effect, it is critical to monitor their effect and to develop and disseminate training and resources to support the many community- and institution-based healthcare professionals and emergency department staff involved in decisions about hospitalization for this population. PMID:23194066

  15. Viticulture microzoning: a functional approach aiming to grape and wine qualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, A.; Agrillo, A.; Albrizio, R.; Basile, A.; Buonomo, R.; De Mascellis, R.; Gambuti, A.; Giorio, P.; Guida, G.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Minieri, L.; Moio, L.; Siani, T.; Terribile, F.

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to test a new physically oriented approach to viticulture zoning at the farm scale, strongly rooted on hydropedology and aiming to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirement and wine production. The physics of our approach is defined by the use of soil-plant-atmosphere simulation models which applies physically-based equations to describe the soil hydrological processes and solves soil-plant water status. This study (ZOVISA project) was conducted in a farm devoted to high quality wines production (Aglianico DOC), located in South Italy (Campania region, Mirabella Eclano-AV). The soil spatial distribution was obtained after standard soil survey informed by geophysical survey. Two Homogenous Zones (HZs) were identified; in each one of those a physically based model was applied to solve the soil water balance and estimate the soil functional behaviour (crop water stress index, CWSI) defining the functional Homogeneous Zones (fHzs). In these last, experimental plots were established and monitored for investigating soil-plant water status, crop development (biometric and physiological parameters) and daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind). The effects of crop water status on crop response over must and wine quality were then evaluated in the fHZs. This was performed by comparing crop water stress with (i) crop physiological measurement (leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, LAI measurement), (ii) grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and (iii) wine quality (aromatic response). Eventually this experiment has proved the usefulness of the physical based approach also in the case of mapping viticulture microzoning.

  16. The AIMS65 Score Is a Useful Predictor of Mortality in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Urgent Endoscopy in Patients with High AIMS65 Scores

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun Wook; Song, Young Wook; Tak, Dae Hyun; Ahn, Byung Moo; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Sung, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: To validate the AIMS65 score for predicting mortality of patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding and to evaluate the effectiveness of urgent (<8 hours) endoscopic procedures in patients with high AIMS65 scores. Methods: This was a 5-year single-center, retrospective study. Nonvariceal, upper gastrointestinal bleeding was assessed by using the AIM65 and Rockall scores. Scores for mortality were assessed by calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Patients with high AIMS65 scores (≥2) were allocated to either the urgent or non-urgent endoscopic procedure group. In-hospital mortality, success of endoscopic procedure, recurrence of bleeding, admission period, and dose of transfusion were compared between groups. Results: A total of 634 patients were analyzed. The AIMS65 score successfully predicted mortality (AUROC=0.943; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.876 to 0.99) and was superior to the Rockall score (AUROC=0.856; 95% CI, 0.743 to 0.969) in predicting mortality. The group with high AIMS65 score included 200 patients. The urgent endoscopic procedure group had reduced hospitalization periods (p<0.05) Conclusions: AIMS65 score may be useful in predicting mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Urgent endoscopic procedures in patients with high scores may be related to reduced hospitalization periods. PMID:26668799

  17. NARRATIVE AND META-ANALYTIC REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS AIMING TO IMPROVE MATERNAL-CHILD ATTACHMENT SECURITY.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Nicole; Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota; Giesbrecht, Gerald; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Bhogal, Sanjit; Watson, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Early secure maternal-child attachment relationships lay the foundation for children's healthy social and mental development. Interventions targeting maternal sensitivity and maternal reflective function during the first year of infant life may be the key to promoting secure attachment. We conducted a narrative systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting maternal sensitivity and reflective function on maternal-child attachment security, as measured by the gold standard Strange Situation (M. Ainsworth, M. Blehar, B. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978) and Q-set (E. Waters & K. Deane, 1985). Studies were identified from electronic database searches and included randomized or quasi-randomized controlled parallel-group designs. Participants were mothers and their infants who were followed up to 36 months' postpartum. Ten trials, involving 1,628 mother-infant pairs, were included. Examination of the trials that provided sufficient data for combination in meta-analysis revealed that interventions of both types increased the odds of secure maternal-child attachment, as compared with no intervention or standard intervention (n = 7 trials; odds ratio: 2.77; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 4.53, n = 965). Of the three trials not included in the meta-analyses, two improved the likelihood of secure attachment. We conclude that interventions aimed at improving maternal sensitivity alone or in combination with maternal reflection, implemented in the first year of infants' lives, are effective in promoting secure maternal-child attachments. Intervention aimed at the highest risk families produced the most beneficial effects. PMID:26112776

  18. Mask CD control (CDC) using AIMS as the CD metrology data source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zvi, Guy; Zait, Eitan; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Labovitz, Steven; Graitzer, Erez; Böhm, Klaus; Birkner, Robert; Scheruebl, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that wafer CD uniformity can be improved via an ultrafast laser system. The system provides local CD Control (CDC) by writing inside the bulk of photomasks. Intra-field CD variation correction has been implemented effectively in mask-shops and fabs based on CD-SEM and Scatterometry (Optical CD or OCD) as the CD data source. Using wafer CD data allows correction of all wafer field CD contributors at once, but does not allow correcting for mask CD signature alone. For mask shops attempting to improve CDU of the mask regardless of the exposure tool, it is a better practice to use only mask CD data as the CD data source. In this study, we investigate the use of an aerial imaging system AIMSTM45-193i (AIMS45) as the mask CD data source for the CDC process. In order to determine the predictive value of the AIMS45 as input to the CDC process, we have created a programmed CD mask with both 45nm and 65nm node L/S and hole patterns. The programmed CD mask has CD errors of up to 20nm in 2.5nm steps (4X). The programmed CD mask was measured by AIMS45, defining the CDU map of the programmed CD mask. The CDU data was then used by Pixer CDC200TM to correct the CDU and bring it back to a flat, almost ideal CDU. In order to confirm that real CDU improvement on wafer had been achieved, the mask was printed before and after CDC on an immersion scanner at IMEC and results of pre and post CD data were compared.

  19. Advances with the new AIMS fab 193 2nd generation: a system for the 65 nm node including immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibold, Axel M.; Poortinga, E.; Doornmalen, H. v.; Schmid, R.; Scherubl, T.; Harnisch, W.

    2005-06-01

    The Aerial Image Measurement System, AIMS, for 193nm lithography emulation is established as a standard for the rapid prediction of wafer printability for critical structures including dense patterns and defects or repairs on masks. The main benefit of AIMS is to save expensive image qualification consisting of test wafer exposures followed by wafer CD-SEM resist or wafer analysis. By adjustment of numerical aperture (NA), illumination type and partial coherence (σ) to match any given stepper/ scanner, AIMS predicts the printability of 193nm reticles such as binary with, or without OPC and phase shifting. A new AIMS fab 193 second generation system with a maximum NA of 0.93 is now available. Improvements in field uniformity, stability over time, measurement automation and higher throughput meet the challenging requirements of the 65nm node. A new function, "Global CD Map" can be applied to automatically measure and analyse the global CD uniformity of repeating structures across a reticle. With the options of extended depth-of-focus (EDOF) software and the upcoming linear polarisation capability in the illumination the new AIMS fab 193 second generation system is able to cover both dry and immersion requirements for NA < 1. Rigorous simulations have been performed to study the effects of polarisation for imaging by comparing the aerial image of the AIMS to the resist image of the scanner.

  20. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r=0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  1. Quantifying warfighter performance in a target acquisition and aiming task using wireless inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Steven P; Cain, Stephen M; McGinnis, Ryan S; Vitali, Rachel R; Perkins, Noel C; McLean, Scott G

    2016-09-01

    An array of inertial measurement units (IMUS) was experimentally employed to analyze warfighter performance on a target acquisition task pre/post fatigue. Eleven participants (5M/6F) repeated an exercise circuit carrying 20 kg of equipment until fatigued. IMUs secured to the sacrum, sternum, and a rifle quantified peak angular velocity magnitude (PAVM) and turn time (TT) on a target acquisition task (three aiming events with two 180° turns) within the exercise circuit. Turning performance of two turns was evaluated pre/post fatigue. Turning performance decreased with fatigue. PAVMs decreased during both turns for the sternum (p < 0.001), sacrum (p = 0.007) and rifle (p = 0.002). TT increased for the sternum (p = 0.001), sacrum (p = 0.003), and rifle (p = 0.02) during turn 1, and for the rifle (p = 0.04) during turn 2. IMUs detected and quantified changes in warfighter aiming performance after fatigue. Similar methodologies can be applied to many movement tasks, including quantifying movement performance for load, fatigue, and equipment conditions. PMID:27184308

  2. Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: the RE-AIM framework.

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, R E; Vogt, T M; Boles, S M

    1999-01-01

    Progress in public health and community-based interventions has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive evaluation framework appropriate to such programs. Multilevel interventions that incorporate policy, environmental, and individual components should be evaluated with measurements suited to their settings, goals, and purpose. In this commentary, the authors propose a model (termed the RE-AIM model) for evaluating public health interventions that assesses 5 dimensions: reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. These dimensions occur at multiple levels (e.g., individual, clinic or organization, community) and interact to determine the public health or population-based impact of a program or policy. The authors discuss issues in evaluating each of these dimensions and combining them to determine overall public health impact. Failure to adequately evaluate programs on all 5 dimensions can lead to a waste of resources, discontinuities between stages of research, and failure to improve public health to the limits of our capacity. The authors summarize strengths and limitations of the RE-AIM model and recommend areas for future research and application. PMID:10474547

  3. The StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts program in Pennsylvania: RE-AIM analysis.

    PubMed

    Folta, Sara C; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Seguin, Rebecca A; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Corbin, Marilyn A; Wiker, Nancy; Gauker, Jodi; Chui, Kenneth; Nelson, Miriam E

    2015-03-01

    Dissemination of evidence-based programs is needed to reduce CVD risk among midlife and older women. The aim of this study is to examine the public health impact of StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts in Pennsylvania using the RE-AIM framework. Reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance were assessed using qualitative and quantitative measures; effectiveness was assessed using a pretest-posttest within-participants design. Reach into the target population was 5 in 100,000. Compared to the target population, a greater percentage of participants were white, married, middle-class, and had a graduate degree. Effectiveness was demonstrated (weight loss -2.0 kg, p < 0.001). Adoption among trained leaders was high (83.3 %), as was fidelity in implementation (average score 9.3 of 10). No leaders maintained the program. To increase impact of the StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts Program, it will be important to lower the costs and modify the recruitment and training strategies to better reach low-income and minority women. Such strategies may also improve program maintenance. PMID:25729458

  4. Effects of aircraft windscreens and canopies on HMT/D aiming accuracy: III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, H. Lee; Goodyear, Chuck

    1999-07-01

    Modern fighter aircraft windscreens and canopies are typically made of curved, transparent plastic for improved aero-dynamics and bird-strike protection. Since they are curved these transparencies often refract light in such a way that a pilot looking through the transparency will see a target in a location other than where it really is. This effect has been known for many years and methods to correct the aircraft head- up display (HUD) for these angular deviations have been developed and employed. The same problem occurs for helmet- mounted display/trackers (HMD/Ts) used for target acquisition. However, in this case, the pilot can look through any part of the transparency instead of being constrained to just the forward section as in the case of the HUD and his/her head position can be anywhere in a rather large motion box. To explore the magnitude of these aiming errors several F-15, F- 16, F-18, and F-22 transparency systems were measured from a total of 12 different eye positions centered around the HMD Eye (the HMD Eye was defined to be a point 1.25 inches to the right of the aircraft Design Eye). The collection of eye points for assessing HMT/D aiming accuracy were: HMD Eye, 3 inches left and right of HMD Eye, 2 inches above HMD Eye, and 2 inches forward of HMD Eye plus all combinations of these. Results from these measurements along with recommendations regarding means of assessing 'goodness' of correction algorithms are presented.

  5. Communicating Aims and Learning Goals in Physical Education: Part of a Subject for Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redelius, Karin; Quennerstedt, Mikael; Öhman, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Based on a socio-cultural perspective on learning, the aim of this article is to examine how aims and learning goals are communicated in physical education (PE) practice. A special focus is on scrutinising how teaching practices are framed in terms of whether and how the aims and learning goals are made explicit or not to students. The aim is also…

  6. Characterizing the dependence of thick-mask edge effects on illumination angle using AIMS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, Aamod; Sczyrba, Martin; Lange, Falk; Connolly, Brid; Neureuther, Andy; Waller, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Mask topography contributes diffraction-induced phase near edges, affecting the through-focus intensity variation and hence the process window at the wafer. We analyze the impact of edge diffraction on projection printing directly with experiments on an aerial image measurement system (AIMS). We show here that topographic effects change with illumination angle and can be quantified using through-focus intensity measurements. Off- axis incidence influences not just defocus image behavior (as for normal incidence), but also the at-focus intensity at wafer. Moreover, with oblique illumination, mask diffraction varies for left-facing and right-facing sidewalls, the nature of the asymmetry being polarization dependent. The image degradation due the polarization parallel to the sidewall (TE) is seen to be stronger, owing to the interplay of mask topography and pupil filtering in the imaging system. This translates to a CD variation of 2% between the two polarizations, even at focus. A simple thin-mask boundary layer model that treats each sidewall independently is shown to be able to approximate mask topography induced diffraction for both polarizations with 5-10nm wide boundary layers.

  7. Examining an Australian physical activity and nutrition intervention using RE-AIM.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Duncan, Mitch; Kolt, Gregory S; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Maeder, Anthony; Noakes, Manny; Karunanithi, Mohan; Mummery, W Kerry

    2016-06-01

    Translating evidence-based interventions into community practice is vital to health promotion. This study used the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the larger dissemination of the ManUp intervention, an intervention which utilized interactive web-based technologies to improve the physical activity and nutrition behaviors of residents in Central Queensland, Australia. Data were collected for each RE-AIM measure (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) using (i) computer-assisted telephone interview survey (N = 312) with adults (18 years and over) from Central Queensland, (ii) interviews with key stakeholders from local organizations (n = 12) and (iii) examination of project-related statistics and findings. In terms of Reach, 47% of participants were aware of the intervention; Effectiveness, there were no significant differences between physical activity and healthy nutrition levels in those aware and unaware; Adoption, 73 participants registered for the intervention and 25% of organizations adopted some part of the intervention; Implementation, 26% of participants initially logged onto the website, 29 and 17% started the web-based physical activity and nutrition challenges, 33% of organizations implemented the intervention, 42% considered implementation and 25% reported difficulties; Maintenance, an average of 0.57 logins and 1.35 entries per week during the 12 week dissemination and 0.27 logins and 0.63 entries per week during the 9-month follow-up were achieved, 22 and 0% of participants completed the web-based physical activity and nutrition challenges and 33.3% of organizations intended to continue utilizing components of the intervention. While this intervention demonstrated good reach, effectiveness, adoption and implementation warrant further investigation. PMID:25715801

  8. Mass spectrometric airborne measurements of submicron aerosol and cloud residual composition in tropic deep convection during ACRIDICON-CHUVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Christiane; Schneider, Johannes; Mertes, Stephan; Kästner, Udo; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Sauer, Daniel; Fütterer, Daniel; Walser, Adrian; Borrmann, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Airborne measurements of submicron aerosol and cloud particles were conducted in the region of Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil) during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign in September 2014. ACRIDICON-CHUVA aimed at the investigation of convective cloud systems in order to get a better understanding and quantification of aerosol-cloud-interactions and radiative effects of convective clouds. For that, data from airborne measurements within convective cloud systems are combined with satellite and ground-based data. We used a C-ToF-AMS (Compact-Time-of-Flight-Aerosol-Mass-Spectrometer) to obtain information on aerosol composition and vertical profiles of different aerosol species, like organics, sulphate, nitrate, ammonium and chloride. The instrument was operated behind two different inlets: The HASI (HALO Aerosol Submicrometer Inlet) samples aerosol particles, whereas the CVI (Counterflow Virtual Impactor) samples cloud droplets and ice particles during in-cloud measurements, such that cloud residual particles can be analyzed. Differences in aerosol composition inside and outside of clouds and cloud properties over forested or deforested region were investigated. Additionally, the in- and outflow of convective clouds was sampled on dedicated cloud missions in order to study the evolution of the clouds and the processing of aerosol particles. First results show high organic aerosol mass concentrations (typically 15 μg/m3 and during one flight up to 25 μg/m3). Although high amounts of organic aerosol in tropic air over rainforest regions were expected, such high mass concentrations were not anticipated. Next to that, high sulphate aerosol mass concentrations (about 4 μg/m3) were measured at low altitudes (up to 5 km). During some flights organic and nitrate aerosol was observed with higher mass concentrations at high altitudes (10-12 km) than at lower altitudes, indicating redistribution of boundary layer particles by convection. The cloud residuals measured during in

  9. [Postoperative pain management. Aims and organization of a strategy for postoperative acute pain therapy].

    PubMed

    Nolli, M; Nicosia, F

    2000-09-01

    The Health Services, not only the Italian one, is under pressure because of request for improving treatment quality and the financial need for reorganization and cost-saving. It's required a rationalization of intervention, together with a careful choice of the best and cheapest techniques and the demonstration of their efficacy. The anaesthesia service activity, in a period of cost rationalization and funds restriction should be aimed to appropriate outcome measures corrected by both patient's risk factors and surgical-anaesthesiological case-mix. The development of a complete strategy for surgical pain management might run into two phases. The first phase, internal and mono-specialistic, should develop like the creation of an Acute Pain Team. The main processes are: focusing the problem (charge of the care), training, information, teaching methodology (timing, methods, drugs, techniques, etc.) and the audit (before and after changes). The main aims are the evaluation of the level of analgesia and pain relief or patient's satisfaction which are partial endpoints useful to demonstrate the improvement and the efficacy of the new pain management strategies. The second phase, multidisciplinary, is directed toward the creation of a Postoperative Evaluation Team. The main objective is to set up a collaborative clinical group able to identify the criteria for quality, efficacy and safety. The major purpose is the evaluation of major outcome measures: surgical outcome, morbidity, mortality and length of hospitalization. The improvement in the quality of postoperative pain treatment goes through a better organization and a progressive increase of the already available therapy. The achievement of the result and the quality projects depend on the interaction among staff members with different behaviours and settings. Internal teaching and training, continuous education for doctors and nurses, and external information, marketing and improvement of attractive capability of

  10. What Place Does Science Have in an Aims-Based Curriculum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that school curriculum development should start with aims rather than with subjects and that the fundamental aims of school education should be to enable each learner to lead a personally flourishing life and to help others to do so too. These overarching aims give rise to more specific ones by considering how human flourishing…

  11. 78 FR 69885 - AIM Growth Series (Invesco Growth Series), et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... COMMISSION AIM Growth Series (Invesco Growth Series), et al.; Notice of Application November 15, 2013. AGENCY... approval and would grant relief from certain disclosure requirements. APPLICANTS: AIM Growth Series (Invesco Growth Series) and AIM Investment Funds (Invesco Investment Funds) (each, a ``Trust''),...

  12. Subsidence monitoring network: an Italian example aimed at a sustainable hydrocarbon E&P activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacome, M. C.; Miandro, R.; Vettorel, M.; Roncari, G.

    2015-11-01

    According to the Italian law in order to start-up any new hydrocarbon exploitation activity, an Environmental Impact Assessment study has to be presented, including a monitoring plan, addressed to foresee, measure and analyze in real time any possible impact of the project on the coastal areas and on those ones in the close inland located. The occurrence of subsidence, that could partly be related to hydrocarbon production, both on-shore and off-shore, can generate great concern in those areas where its occurrence may have impacts on the local environment. ENI, following the international scientific community recommendations on the matter, since the beginning of 90's years, implemented a cutting-edge monitoring network, with the aim to prevent, mitigate and control geodynamics phenomena generated in the activity areas, with a particular attention to conservation and protection of environmental and territorial equilibrium, taking care of what is known as "sustainable development". The current ENI implemented monitoring surveys can be divided as: - Shallow monitoring: spirit levelling surveys, continuous GPS surveys in permanent stations, SAR surveys, assestimeter subsurface compaction monitoring, ground water level monitoring, LiDAR surveys, bathymetrical surveys. - Deep monitoring: reservoir deep compaction trough radioactive markers, reservoir static (bottom hole) pressure monitoring. All the information, gathered through the monitoring network, allow: 1. to verify if the produced subsidence is evolving accordingly with the simulated forecast. 2. to provide data to revise and adjust the prediction compaction models 3. to put in place the remedial actions if the impact exceeds the threshold magnitude originally agreed among the involved parties. ENI monitoring plan to measure and monitor the subsidence process, during field production and also after the field closure, is therefore intended to support a sustainable field development and an acceptable exploitation

  13. Systematic Review of the Methodological Quality of Studies Aimed at Creating Gestational Weight Gain Charts.

    PubMed

    Ohadike, Corah O; Cheikh-Ismail, Leila; Ohuma, Eric O; Giuliani, Francesca; Bishop, Deborah; Kac, Gilberto; Puglia, Fabien; Maia-Schlüssel, Michael; Kennedy, Stephen H; Villar, José; Hirst, Jane E

    2016-03-01

    A range of adverse outcomes is associated with insufficient and excessive maternal weight gain in pregnancy, but there is no consensus regarding what constitutes optimal gestational weight gain (GWG). Differences in the methodological quality of GWG studies may explain the varying chart recommendations. The goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the methodological quality of studies that aimed to create GWG charts by scoring them against a set of predefined, independently agreed-upon criteria. These criteria were divided into 3 domains: study design (12 criteria), statistical methods (7 criteria), and reporting methods (4 criteria). The criteria were broken down further into items, and studies were assigned a quality score (QS) based on these criteria. For each item, studies were scored as either high (score = 0) or low (score = 1) risk of bias; a high QS correlated with a low risk of bias. The maximum possible QS was 34. The systematic search identified 12 eligible studies involving 2,268,556 women from 9 countries; their QSs ranged from 9 (26%) to 29 (85%) (median, 18; 53%). The most common sources for bias were found in study designs (i.e., not prospective); assessments of prepregnancy weight and gestational age; descriptions of weighing protocols; sample size calculations; and the multiple measurements taken at each visit. There is wide variation in the methodological quality of GWG studies constructing charts. High-quality studies are needed to guide future clinical recommendations. We recommend the following main requirements for future studies: prospective design, reliable evaluation of prepregnancy weight and gestational age, detailed description of measurement procedures and protocols, description of sample-size calculation, and the creation of smooth centile charts or z scores. PMID:26980814

  14. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    2015-01-01

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707

  15. Three-dimensional manual responses to unexpected target perturbations during rapid aiming.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steve; Elliott, Digby

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the execution of rapid aiming movements to targets that changed size and position. Participants viewed a medium-size target during movement preparation. The target became smaller or larger at movement initiation on size perturbation trials. The target moved closer or farther away from the home position on amplitude perturbation trials. The authors examined-in addition to several performance measures-the volume of 3-dimensional ellipsoids to quantify between-trials variability. In the size protocol, men executed movements in a similar manner irrespective of condition. In contrast, women exhibited less variability when target size increased. In the amplitude protocol, men moved inconsistently in the latter portion of the trajectory when targets became proximal. Men also failed to adjust for the perturbation on several trials. In comparison, women were more variable in the initial portions of the trajectory when the target became distal. Although men and women performed their movements in a similar duration, the trajectory and error analyses indicated different behaviors. Specifically, women made more rapid and efficient adjustments to their trajectories on the basis of concurrent visual information. In contrast, men executed movements on the basis of the visual information initially presented and then made adjustments, rather than gathering visual information and executing adjustments throughout the trajectory. PMID:19073468

  16. Aerosol Measurements From Recent Alaskan Volcanic Eruptions: Implications for Volcanic Ash Transport Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, C. F.; Rinkleff, P. G.; Dehn, J.; Webley, P.; Cahill, T. A.; Barnes, D. E.

    2007-12-01

    Size and time-resolved aerosol compositional measurements conducted during the 2006 Augustine Volcano and 2007 Pavlof Volcano eruptions provide ground-truth information for use in the validation of volcanic ash transport models. These measurements provide quantitative information on the size and concentration of the aerosol, which can be used to test the volcanic aerosol source profiles and transport characteristics used in volcanic ash transport models. Augustine Volcano is on an island in Cook Inlet in southern Alaska. For the 2006 Augustine Volcano eruption, the size and time-resolved aerosol measurements were made using an eight stage (35-5.0, 5.0-2.5, 2.5-1.15, 1.15- 0.75, 0.75-0.56, 0.56-0.34, 0.34-0.26 and 0.26-0.09 microns in aerodynamic diameter) DRUM aerosol impactor deployed in Homer, approximately 120 km northeast of the volcano. Aerosols from the volcano reached the sampler and showed that the size distribution of the volcanic emissions changed during the course of the eruption. For example, crustal elements were present in high concentrations in the largest size fraction (35-5.0 microns) but low concentrations in a smaller size fraction (0.75-0.56 microns) during the phreatomagmatic explosive events. However, during the magmatic emissions period, the concentrations of these elements in the large size fraction decreased, but greatly increased in the smaller size fraction. Pavlof Volcano is a volcano on the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. During the 2007 Pavlof Volcano eruption, a network of four DRUM aerosol impactors was deployed downwind of the volcano in an attempt to characterize the change in aerosol size distribution and composition during transport away from the volcano. The samplers were located at Nelson Lagoon, approximately 80 km northeast of the volcano (eight stage DRUM impactor with a top cut point of approximately 12 microns), Sand Point approximately 90 km east of the volcano (three stage DRUM impactor with aerodynamic diameter

  17. Conformation switching of AIM2 PYD domain revealed by NMR relaxation and MD simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haobo; Yang, Lijiang; Niu, Xiaogang

    2016-04-29

    Protein absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a double-strand DNA (ds DNA) sensor mainly located in cytoplasm of cell. It includes one N terminal PYD domain and one C terminal HIN domain. When the ds DNA such as DNA viruses and bacteria entered cytoplasm, the HIN domain of AIM2 will recognize and bind to DNA, and the PYD domain will bind to ASC protein which will result in the formation of AIM2 inflammasome. Three AIM2 PYD domain structures have been solved, but every structure yields a unique conformation around the α3 helix region. To understand why different AIM2 PYD structures show different conformations in this region, we use NMR relaxation techniques to study the backbone dynamics of mouse AIM2 PYD domain and perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on both mouse and human AIM2 PYD structures. Our results indicate that this region is highly flexible in both mouse and human AIM2 PYD domains, and the PYD domain may exist as a conformation ensemble in solution. Different environment makes the population vary among pre-existing conformational substrates of the ensemble, which may be the reason why different AIM2 PYD structures were observed under different conditions. Further docking analysis reveals that the conformation switching may be important for the autoinhibition of the AIM2 protein. PMID:27037024

  18. Revitalising the Metropolit 1953 Danish male birth cohort: background, aims and design.

    PubMed

    Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Lund, Rikke; Batty, G David; Hougaard, Charlotte Ørsted; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Due, Pernille; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2004-09-01

    Recent research indicates that factors operating during childhood are related to adult health. Thus, longitudinal studies with information on subsequent phases may be key to understanding later health outcomes. The main objective of this paper is to describe the history and design of a Danish birth cohort, and its revitalisation. In 1965, information from birth certificates for 11 591 of a total of 12 270 males born in 1953 in the Metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark were traced. These boys were the study population of a sociological investigation conducted with the aim of describing social mobility. At age 12 years, 9537 of these cohort members completed a questionnaire in school, which included cognitive measures and information on social aspirations and leisure time activities. In 1966 educational performance tests were administered for these boys and, in 1968, mothers of 2890 cohort members were interviewed regarding family social backgrounds. With the establishment of the Civil Registration System (CRS) in 1968, it was possible to identify 11 532 cohort members. In 2002 we began the process of revitalising this study with the aim of investigating the influence of early life factors on later health. We succeeded in ascertaining the vital status of all subjects in the CRS. This showed that 863 subjects had died between 1968 and 2002. Linkages to the Register of Causes of Death, the National Hospital Register, Psychiatric Central Register and Danish Cancer Registry have been completed. In total, 7969 cohort members had been hospitalised for any somatic illness and, according to the Psychiatric Central Register, 1382 men had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital or ward. In the Cancer Registry we found 363 of our study participants. Analyses exploring the influence of social conditions in early life, birth dimensions, and childhood cognition on adult health experience are at various stages of completion. A questionnaire-based postal follow-up survey is

  19. Hypersonic research engine project. Phase 2: Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM) test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, W. L.; Kado, L.

    1975-01-01

    The Hypersonic Research Engine-Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (HRE-AIM) was designed, fabricated, and tested in the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility. The HRE-AIM is described along with its installation in the wind tunnel facility. Test conditions to which the HRE-AIM was subjected and observations made during the tests are discussed. The overall engine performance, component interaction, and ignition limits for the design are evaluated.

  20. A role for the apoptosis inhibitory factor AIM/Spalpha/Api6 in atherosclerosis development.

    PubMed

    Arai, Satoko; Shelton, John M; Chen, Mingyi; Bradley, Michelle N; Castrillo, Antonio; Bookout, Angie L; Mak, Puiying A; Edwards, Peter A; Mangelsdorf, David J; Tontonoz, Peter; Miyazaki, Toru

    2005-03-01

    Macrophages play a central role in the development of atherosclerosis through the accumulation of oxidized LDL (oxLDL). AIM (Spalpha/Api6) has previously been shown to promote macrophage survival; however, its function in atherogenesis is unknown. Here we identify AIM as a critical factor that protects macrophages from the apoptotic effects of oxidized lipids. AIM protein is induced in response to oxLDL loading and is highly expressed in foam cells within atherosclerotic lesions. Interestingly, both expression of AIM in lesions and its induction by oxidized lipids require the action of LXR/RXR heterodimers. AIM-/- macrophages are highly susceptible to oxLDL-induced apoptosis in vitro and undergo accelerated apoptosis in atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Moreover, early atherosclerotic lesions in AIM-/-LDLR-/- double knockout mice are dramatically reduced when compared to AIM+/+LDLR-/- controls. We conclude that AIM production facilitates macrophage survival within atherosclerotic lesions and that loss of AIM decreases early lesion development by increasing macrophage apoptosis. PMID:16054063

  1. Prognostic Value of AIMS65 Score in Cirrhotic Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Gaduputi, Vinaya; Abdulsamad, Molham; Tariq, Hassan; Rafeeq, Ahmed; Abbas, Naeem; Kumbum, Kavitha; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Unlike Rockall scoring system, AIMS65 is based only on clinical and laboratory features. In this study we investigated the correlation between the AIMS65 score and Endoscopic Rockall score, in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients. Methods. This is a retrospective study of patients admitted with overt UGIB and undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). AIMS65 and Rockall scores were calculated at the time of admission. We investigated the correlation between both scores along with stigmata of bleed seen on endoscopy. Results. A total of 1255 patients were studied. 152 patients were cirrhotic while 1103 patients were noncirrhotic. There was significant correlation between AIMS65 and Total Rockall scores in patients of both groups. There was significant correlation between AIMS65 score and Endoscopic Rockall score in noncirrhotics but not cirrhotics. AIMS65 scores in both cirrhotic and noncirrhotic groups were significantly higher in patients who died from UGIB than in patients who did not. Conclusion. We observed statistically significant correlation between AIMS65 score and length of hospitalization and mortality in noncirrhotic patients. We found that AIMS65 score paralleled the endoscopic grading of lesion causing UGIB in noncirrhotics. AIMS65 score correlated only with mortality but not the length of hospitalization or endoscopic stigmata of bleed in cirrhotics. PMID:25587269

  2. Mesopause Horizontal wind estimates based on AIM CIPS polar mesospheric cloud pattern matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, P.; Yue, J.; Russell, J. M.; Gong, J.; Wu, D. L.; Randall, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    A cloud pattern matching approach is used to estimate horizontal winds in the mesopause region using Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) albedo data measured by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size instrument on the AIM satellite. Measurements for all 15 orbits per day throughout July 2007 are used to achieve statistical significance. For each orbit, eighteen out of the twenty-seven scenes are used for the pattern matching operation. Some scenes at the lower latitudes are not included because there is barely any cloud coverage for these scenes. The frame-size chosen is about 12 degrees in longitude and 3 degrees in latitude. There is no strict criterion in choosing the frame size since PMCs are widespread in the polar region and most local patterns do not have a clearly defined boundary. The frame moves at a step of 1/6th of the frame size in both the longitudinal and latitudinal directions to achieve as many 'snap-shots' as possible. A 70% correlation is used as a criterion to define an acceptable match between two patterns at two time frames; in this case the time difference is about 3.6 minutes that spans every 5 'bowtie' scenes. A 70% criterion appears weak if the chosen pattern is expected to act like a tracer. It is known that PMC brightness varies rapidly with a changing temperature and water vapor environment or changing nucleation conditions, especially on smaller spatial scales; therefore PMC patterns are not ideal tracers. Nevertheless, within a short time span such as 3.6 minutes a 70% correlation is sufficient to identify two cloud patterns that come from the same source region, although the two patterns may exhibit a significant difference in the actual brightness. Analysis of a large number of matched cloud patterns indicates that over the 3.6-minute time span about 70% of the patterns remain in the same locations. Given the 25-km2 horizontal resolution of CIPS data, this suggests that the overall magnitude of horizontal wind at PMC altitudes (~80-87 km) in

  3. Monitoring NEO discoveries for imminent impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solin, Otto; Granvik, Mikael; Muinonen, Karri

    2015-11-01

    We are setting up an automated service that will regularly compute asteroid-Earth collision probabilities for objects on the Minor Planet Center's Near-Earth-Object Confirmation Page (NEOCP). Our goal is to identify objects similar to 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA and provide enough warning time to allow for, e.g., detailed follow-up observations prior to a collision. Our system downloads all the new data on the NEOCP every 30 minutes and, for each object with new data, solves the orbital inverse problem which results in a sample of orbits that describes the typically highly-nonlinear orbital-element probability-density function (PDF). We then propagate the orbital-element PDF forward in time for 7 days and compute the collision probability as the weighted fraction of the sample orbits that impact the Earth. Our tests have shown that the system correctly predicts the collisions of 2008 TC3 and 2014 AA based on the very first astrometry batches available (collision probabilities greater than 70%). Using the same configuration we find that the collision probabilities for objects typically on the NEOCP, based on 4 weeks of continuous operations, are always less than 1 in 10 million.

  4. A diagnostic stratospheric aerosol size distribution inferred from SAGE II measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomason, Larry W.

    1991-01-01

    An aerosol size distribution model for the stratosphere is inferred based on 5 years of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II measurements of multispectral aerosol and water vapor extinction. The SAGE II aerosol and water vapor extinction data strongly suggest that there is a critical particle radius below which there is a relatively weak dependence of particle number density with size and above which there are few, if any, particles. A segmented power law model, as a simple representation of this dependence, is used in theoretical calculations and intercomparisons with a variety of aerosol measurements including dustsondes, longwave lidar, and wire impactors and shows a consistently good agreement.

  5. Aim-less translation: loss of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial translation initiation factor mIF3/Aim23 leads to unbalanced protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmenko, Anton; Derbikova, Ksenia; Salvatori, Roger; Tankov, Stoyan; Atkinson, Gemma C.; Tenson, Tanel; Ott, Martin; Kamenski, Piotr; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome almost exclusively encodes a handful of transmembrane constituents of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Coordinated expression of these genes ensures the correct stoichiometry of the system’s components. Translation initiation in mitochondria is assisted by two general initiation factors mIF2 and mIF3, orthologues of which in bacteria are indispensible for protein synthesis and viability. mIF3 was thought to be absent in Saccharomyces cerevisiae until we recently identified mitochondrial protein Aim23 as the missing orthologue. Here we show that, surprisingly, loss of mIF3/Aim23 in S. cerevisiae does not indiscriminately abrogate mitochondrial translation but rather causes an imbalance in protein production: the rate of synthesis of the Atp9 subunit of F1F0 ATP synthase (complex V) is increased, while expression of Cox1, Cox2 and Cox3 subunits of cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) is repressed. Our results provide one more example of deviation of mitochondrial translation from its bacterial origins. PMID:26728900

  6. Assessing the quality of rainfall data when aiming to achieve flood resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, C. T.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-04-01

    A new EU Floods Directive entered into force five years ago. This Directive requires Member States to coordinate adequate measures to reduce flood risk. European flood management systems require reliable rainfall statistics, e.g. the Intensity-duration-Frequency curves for shorter and shorter durations and for a larger and larger range of return periods. Preliminary studies showed that the number of floods was lower when using low time resolution data of high intensity rainfall events, compared to estimates obtained with the help of higher time resolution data. These facts suggest that a particular attention should be paid to the rainfall data quality in order to adequately investigate flood risk aiming to achieve flood resilience. The potential consequences of changes in measuring and recording techniques have been somewhat discussed in the literature with respect to a possible introduction of artificial inhomogeneities in time series. In this paper, we discuss how to detect another artificiality: most of the rainfall time series have a lower recording frequency than that is assumed, furthermore the effective high-frequency limit often depends on the recording year due to algorithm changes. This question is particularly important for operational hydrology, because an error on the effective recording high frequency introduces biases in the corresponding statistics. In this direction, we developed a first version of a SERQUAL procedure to automatically detect the effective time resolution of highly mixed data. Being applied to the 166 rainfall time series in France, the SERQUAL procedure has detected that most of them have an effective hourly resolution, rather than a 5 minutes resolution. Furthermore, series having an overall 5 minute resolution do not have it for all years. These results raise serious concerns on how to benchmark stochastic rainfall models at a sub-hourly resolution, which are particularly desirable for operational hydrology. Therefore, database

  7. Mesospheric Zonal Mean Winds Derived from Consecutive Orbits of AIM Cips Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, P. P.; Yue, J.; Russell, J. M., III; Lumpe, J. D., Jr.; Gong, J.; Wu, D. L.; Randall, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    In order to infer mesospheric wind velocities, polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) pattern variations are investigated using images from consecutive orbits taken by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size instrument (CIPS) aboard the AIM satellite. CIPS measurements are analyzed to detect patterns that repeat from one orbit to the next, but are displaced in location; the displacement provides a measure of the wind velocity. Pattern matching is achieved by re-sampling the CIPS data to a standard geographic grid with a horizontal resolution of 0.2° longitude × 0.05° latitude (~25 km2), and correlating patterns within geographic frames of size 24° longitude × 3.6° latitude. Such a frame size is arbitrarily chosen, but it covers a hierarchy of cloud structures including scales as large as several hundred kilometers. A relatively larger frame is required because after ~90 minutes, the time of one orbit, the smaller scale features are no longer conserved. Several thousand pairs, taken from 10-14 July 2007, are matched to derive the statistics. These pairs are mostly evenly distributed at longitudes and latitudes north of 70⁰N for each given day. The results suggest that the zonal velocity probability distribution during this 5-day period was peaked at around -40m/s with a 1-σ scatter of ~35m/s. The meridional velocity distribution peaked at 0 m/s with a 1-σ scatter of ~25m/s. These prevailing velocities can be determined with high precision because the corresponding patterns are shifted by at least half of the frame size from one orbit to the next. The CIPS cloud albedo on consecutive orbits is also examined for variations at fixed locations. The statistical results suggest that the mean cloud albedo within a given frame will most likely be weakened or strengthened by < 30% on consecutive orbits, although larger variations can occur with lower probability. Such a conclusion applies to both bright and dim clouds. This indicates that within 90 minutes the cloud brightness

  8. Small is beautiful but smaller is the aim: review of a life of research.

    PubMed

    Curtis, A S G

    2004-01-01

    Background and origins of research of Adam Curtis. One persisting theme has been the pursuit of different landscapes at different scales to discover the routes to explain how the body is built. His research life fell in a fortunate period during which techniques and concepts for investigating structure have improved year by year. His most fortunate encounter was with Michael Abercrombie and his views on the social behaviour of cells, aims for quantitation, and statistical testing. Adam worked in various environments--in turn Geology as an undergraduate, Biophysics Ph.D. in a Genetics department and various departments in turn from anatomy via zoology to Cell Biology. Adam started his Ph.D. work in cell adhesion, studying cell movement, trapping and reaggregation phenomena, having an early start from the physico-chemical viewpoint. He made quantitative measurements of cell adhesion by kinetic methods. Interference reflection microscopy (IRM) and related optical interference techniques were brought into the field of biology by him. In turn this led with Chris Wilkinson, a long term colleague, to the use of micro- and nanofabrication for biological research. Polscope and photoelastic measurements were introduced to biology recently in his laboratory. One long term theme has been to map the adhesion of cells to substrates to discover contact areas. Early data came from IRM and then TIRF (Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy) and then from Forster Resonance Energy Microscopy (FRET). Another important theme was the time scale that needed to be measured--very short indeed in suspension. This was very difficult and has only become possible very recently but hydrodynamic calculation shows it must be very short. The attractions of the Derjagin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory (DLVO theory) are that they explain many features of biological adhesion. The main test of this theory depends upon the energy of the adhesion at various different separation distances between

  9. An Aims-Based Curriculum Illustrated by the Teaching of Science in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.; White, John

    2014-01-01

    We begin by arguing that curriculum development should start with aims rather than, as is typically the case, with subjects. We, therefore, ask what might be the fundamental aims of school education. We conclude that they are twofold, namely, to enable each learner to lead a life that is personally flourishing and to help others to do so too.…

  10. Interaction of AIM with insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-4.

    PubMed

    You, Qiang; Wu, Yan; Yao, Nannan; Shen, Guannan; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Liangguo; Li, Guiying; Ju, Cynthia

    2015-09-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM/cluster of differentiation 5 antigen-like/soluble protein α) has been shown to inhibit cellular apoptosis; however, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. Using yeast two‑hybrid screening, the present study uncovered that AIM binds to insulin‑like growth factor binding protein‑4 (IGFBP‑4). AIM interaction with IGFBP‑4, as well as IGFBP‑2 and ‑3, but not with IGFBP‑1, ‑5 and ‑6, was further confirmed by co‑immunoprecipitation (co‑IP) using 293 cells. The binding activity and affinity between AIM and IGFBP‑4 in vitro were analyzed by co‑IP and biolayer interferometry. Serum depletion‑induced cellular apoptosis was attenuated by insulin‑like growth factor‑I (IGF‑I), and this effect was abrogated by IGFBP‑4. Of note, in the presence of AIM, the inhibitory effect of IGFBP‑4 on the anti‑apoptosis function of IGF‑I was attenuated, possibly through binding of AIM with IGFBP‑4. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, the present study provides the first evidence that AIM binds to IGFBP‑2, ‑3 and ‑4. The data suggest that this interaction may contribute to the mechanism of AIM-mediated anti-apoptosis function. PMID:26135353

  11. Internet Use with Learning Aim: Views of German Language Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yucel, Mukadder Seyhan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to indicate the views of teacher candidates of German Language Department at Education Faculty, Trakya University about the use of internet with the aim of learning. This study was designed as phenomenology which is one of the qualitative research methods. The study data were obtained via semi-constructed interview…

  12. AHSME, AIME, USAMO: The Examinations of the Committee on High School Contests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Stephen B.; Mientka, Walter E.

    1982-01-01

    Details are provided about the American High School Mathematics Examination (AHSME), the American Invitational Mathematics Examination (AIME), and the USA Mathematical Olympiad (USAMO). The AIME will first be offered in 1983 as an intermediate examination between the AHSME and the USAMO. An appendix provides several sample problems. (MP)

  13. Parents' Views Regarding the Values Aimed to be Taught in Social Studies Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Bayram; Yildirim, Kasim

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at learning parents' ideas about the values aimed to be taught in Social Studies lessons in the 4th and 5th grades of the primary education and about values education. Study data were collected by administering "the Values Education I" and "Values Education II" questionnaire forms developed by the researchers. The views of 378 and…

  14. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  15. Primarily Physics, Investigations in Sound, Light and Heat for K-3. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Evalyn; Mercier, Sheryl

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this interpretation produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  16. Expression of AIM2 is high and correlated with inflammation in hepatitis B virus associated glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background & aims Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invasive microbial infection, and AIM2 plays an important role in this process by sensing double-stranded DNA viruses. However, the role of AIM2 in regulating the immune response to viruses in vivo, especially in sensing hepatitis B virus (HBV), has not been examined. We hypothesized that the expression of AIM2 increases corresponding to HBV-mediated inflammation in patients with hepatitis B virus associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN), a condition which activates inflammatory mechanisms and causes renal damage. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression of AIM2 in HBV-GN patients in relation to the inflammatory response to HBV infection. Methods A total of 79 patients diagnosed with chronic nephritis (CN) were enrolled in this study, including 54 HBV-GN patients as the experimental group and 24 chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) patients as the negative control group. Six patients diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) were also enrolled as positive controls. Each CN patient received renal biopsy, and immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of AIM2 and inflammatory factors caspase-1 and IL-1β in the biopsy specimens. CHB patients received liver puncture biopsy, and immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of AIM2 in these specimens. Expression of AIM 2 among different groups and in relation to inflammatory factors caspase-1 and IL-1β was analyzed. Results The expression of AIM2 in HBV-GN patients (81.4%) was significantly higher than in CGN patients (4.0%). Among the HBV-GN patients, expression of AIM2 was significantly higher in the high HBV replication group than in the low HBV replication group. AIM2 expression was not correlated with age, gender, HBeAg status in serum, HBV-antigen type deposited in renal tissue or pathological type of HBV-GN. However, AIM2 levels were positively correlated with the expression of caspase-1 and IL-1β in HBV-GN patients

  17. Perceptions about community applications of RE-AIM in the promotion of evidence-based programs for older adults.

    PubMed

    Ory, Marcia G; Altpeter, Mary; Belza, Basia; Helduser, Janet; Zhang, Chen; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2015-03-01

    Despite the growing literature about the RE-AIM framework as a planning, implementation, and evaluation tool, little is known about practitioners' adoption of the framework, confidence to utilize framework elements, or perceptions of its usefulness. To assess how RE-AIM was implemented by state aging service providers and public health partners, data were collected using an Internet-delivered, cross-sectional survey from 40 stakeholders in 27 funded states in an evidence-based disease prevention initiative for older adults. Most participants agreed the framework was useful for planning, implementation, and evaluation and relevant for evaluators, providers, community leaders, and policy makers. Yet nearly half felt monitoring RE-AIM requirements requires special expertise, and one third felt the different RE-AIM elements were difficult to measure. Findings indicate the RE-AIM's appropriateness and utility for planning and evaluating the dissemination of evidence-based programs to older adults; however, additional trainings, resources, and technical assistance are warranted to enhance uptake in community-wide intervention efforts. PMID:25015082

  18. Human scavenger protein AIM increases foam cell formation and CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake.

    PubMed

    Amézaga, Núria; Sanjurjo, Lucía; Julve, Josep; Aran, Gemma; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Bastos-Amador, Patricia; Armengol, Carolina; Vilella, Ramon; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Borràs, Francesc E; Valledor, Annabel F; Sarrias, Maria-Rosa

    2014-03-01

    AIM is expressed by macrophages in response to agonists of the nuclear receptors LXR/RXR. In mice, it acts as an atherogenic factor by protecting macrophages from the apoptotic effects of oxidized lipids. In humans, it is detected in atherosclerotic lesions, but no role related to atherosclerosis has been reported. This study aimed to investigate whether the role of hAIM extends beyond inhibiting oxidized lipid-induced apoptosis. To accomplish this goal, functional analysis with human monocytic THP1 cells and macrophages differentiated from peripheral blood monocytes were performed. It was found that hAIM reduced oxLDL-induced macrophage apoptosis and increased macrophage adhesion to endothelial ICAM-1 by enhancing LFA-1 expression. Furthermore, hAIM increased foam cell formation, as shown by Oil Red O and Nile Red staining, as well as quantification of cholesterol content. This was not a result of decreased reverse cholesterol transport, as hAIM did not affect the efflux significantly from [(3)H] Cholesterol-laden macrophages driven by plasma, apoA-I, or HDL2 acceptors. Rather, flow cytometry studies indicated that hAIM increased macrophage endocytosis of fluorescent oxLDL, which correlated with an increase in the expression of the oxLDLR CD36. Moreover, hAIM bound to oxLDL in ELISA and enhanced the capacity of HEK-293 cells expressing CD36 to endocytose oxLDL, as studied using immunofluorescence microscopy, suggesting that hAIM serves to facilitate CD36-mediated uptake of oxLDL. Our data represent the first evidence that hAIM is involved in macrophage survival, adhesion, and foam cell formation and suggest a significant contribution to atherosclerosis-related mechanisms in the macrophage. PMID:24295828

  19. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation model.

    PubMed

    Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Talbot, Skip; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge contained within in vivo imaging annotated by human experts or computer programs is typically stored as unstructured text and separated from other associated information. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation information model is an evolution of the National Institute of Health's (NIH) National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Cancer Bioinformatics Grid (caBIG®) AIM model. The model applies to various image types created by various techniques and disciplines. It has evolved in response to the feedback and changing demands from the imaging community at NCI. The foundation model serves as a base for other imaging disciplines that want to extend the type of information the model collects. The model captures physical entities and their characteristics, imaging observation entities and their characteristics, markups (two- and three-dimensional), AIM statements, calculations, image source, inferences, annotation role, task context or workflow, audit trail, AIM creator details, equipment used to create AIM instances, subject demographics, and adjudication observations. An AIM instance can be stored as a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structured reporting (SR) object or Extensible Markup Language (XML) document for further processing and analysis. An AIM instance consists of one or more annotations and associated markups of a single finding along with other ancillary information in the AIM model. An annotation describes information about the meaning of pixel data in an image. A markup is a graphical drawing placed on the image that depicts a region of interest. This paper describes fundamental AIM concepts and how to use and extend AIM for various imaging disciplines. PMID:24934452

  20. Flow processes in overexpanded chemical rocket nozzles. Part 3: Methods for the aimed flow separation and side load reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmucker, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Methods aimed at reduction of overexpansion and side load resulting from asymmetric flow separation for rocket nozzles with a high opening ratio are described. The methods employ additional measures for nozzles with a fixed opening ratio. The flow separation can be controlled by several types of nozzle inserts, the properties of which are discussed. Side loads and overexpansion can be reduced by adapting the shape of the nozzle and taking other additional measures for controlled separation of the boundary layer, such as trip wires.

  1. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of Human Space Missions for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.

  2. Online decision support based on modeling with the aim of increased irrigation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dövényi-Nagy, Tamás; Bakó, Károly; Molnár, Krisztina; Rácz, Csaba; Vasvári, Gyula; Nagy, János; Dobos, Attila

    2015-04-01

    The significant changes in the structure of ownership and control of irrigation infrastructure in the past decades resultted in the decrease of total irrigable and irrigated area (Szilárd, 1999). In this paper, the development of a model-based online service is described whose aim is to aid reasonable irrigation practice and increase water use efficiency. In order to establish a scientific background for irrigation, an agrometeorological station network has been built up by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre. A website has been launched in order to provide direct access for local agricultural producers to both the measured weather parameters and results of model based calculations. The public site provides information for general use, registered partners get a handy model based toolkit for decision support at the plot level concerning irrigation, plant protection or frost forecast. The agrometeorological reference station network was established in the recent years by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre and is distributed to cover most of the irrigated cropland areas of Hungary. From the spatial aspect, the stations have been deployed mainly in Eastern Hungary with concentrated irrigation infrastructure. The meteorological stations' locations have been carefully chosen to represent their environment in terms of soil, climatic and topographic factors, thereby assuring relevant and up-to-date input data for the models. The measured parameters range from classic meteorological data (air temperature, relative humidity, solar irradiation, wind speed etc.) to specific data which are not available from other services in the region, such as soil temperature, soil water content in multiple depths and leaf wetness. In addition to the basic grid of reference stations, specific stations under irrigated conditions have been deployed to calibrate and validate the models. A specific modeling framework (MetAgro) has been developed

  3. From Triple to Quadruple Aim: Care of the Patient Requires Care of the Provider

    PubMed Central

    Bodenheimer, Thomas; Sinsky, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The Triple Aim—enhancing patient experience, improving population health, and reducing costs—is widely accepted as a compass to optimize health system performance. Yet physicians and other members of the health care workforce report widespread burnout and dissatisfaction. Burnout is associated with lower patient satisfaction, reduced health outcomes, and it may increase costs. Burnout thus imperils the Triple Aim. This article recommends that the Triple Aim be expanded to a Quadruple Aim, adding the goal of improving the work life of health care providers, including clinicians and staff. PMID:25384822

  4. Effects of anxiety on running with and without an aiming task.

    PubMed

    Nibbeling, Nicky; Daanen, Hein A M; Gerritsma, Rens M; Hofland, Rianne M; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2012-01-01

    State anxiety is known to affect far aiming tasks, but less is known about the effects of state anxiety on running and aiming while running. Therefore, in the current study participants ran on a treadmill at their preferred speed in a low- and high-anxiety condition. In both conditions, running was combined with dart throwing in the last minutes. Results showed that attention shifted away from task execution with elevated levels of anxiety. Furthermore, gait patterns were more conservative and oxygen uptake was higher with anxiety. In addition, performance and efficiency on the dart throwing task also decreased with anxiety. These findings are in line with attentional control theory and provide an indication that state anxiety not only affects aiming tasks but also tasks that rely heavily on the aerobic system. Moreover, findings indicate that when combined, running, aiming, and anxiety all compete for attention leading to suboptimal attentional control and possibly a decrease in performance. PMID:22106940

  5. Aims and Results of the 23rd International Conference on Vacuum Technique and Technology (VTT2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenkov, A. A.; Kostrin, D. K.; Pavlova, V. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this preface the main features, aims and results of the 23rd International Conference on Vacuum Technique and Technology (VTT2016) that was held on 7-9 June 2016 in Saint Petersburg, Russia are discussed.

  6. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) diminishes lipid droplet-coating proteins leading to lipolysis in adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamura, Yoshihiro; Mori, Mayumi; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Mikami, Toshiyuki; Murayama, Katsuhisa; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM induces lipolysis in a distinct manner from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM ablates activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM reduces mRNA levels of lipid-droplet coating proteins leading to lipolysis. -- Abstract: Under fasting conditions, triacylglycerol in adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to supply fatty acids as energy substrates. Such lipolysis is regulated by hormones, which activate lipases via stimulation of specific signalling cascades. We previously showed that macrophage-derived soluble protein, AIM induces obesity-associated lipolysis, triggering chronic inflammation in fat tissue which causes insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of how AIM mediates lipolysis remains unknown. Here we show that AIM induces lipolysis in a manner distinct from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis, without activation or augmentation of lipases. In vivo and in vitro, AIM did not enhance phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipocytes, a hallmark of hormone-dependent lipolysis activation. Similarly, adipose tissue from obese AIM-deficient and wild-type mice showed comparable HSL phosphorylation. Consistent with the suppressive effect of AIM on fatty acid synthase activity, the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was reduced in adipocytes treated with AIM. This response ablated transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR{gamma}), leading to diminished gene expression of lipid-droplet coating proteins including fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) and Perilipin, which are indispensable for triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes. Accordingly, the lipolytic effect of AIM was overcome by a PPAR{gamma}-agonist or forced expression of FSP27, while it was synergized by a PPAR{gamma}-antagonist. Overall, distinct modes of lipolysis appear to take place in different physiological

  7. Operationalizing the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the impact of multi-sector partnerships

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework is a reliable tool for the translation of research to practice. This framework has been widely applied to assess the impact of individual interventions. However, RE-AIM has rarely been used to evaluate implementation interventions, especially from multi-sector partnerships. The primary purpose of this paper is to operationalize the RE-AIM approach to evaluate large, multi-sector partnerships. SCI Action Canada, a community-university partnership aimed to promote physical activity among adults with spinal cord injury, is used as an example. A secondary purpose is to provide initial data from SCI Action Canada by using this conceptualization of RE-AIM. Methods Each RE-AIM element is operationalized for multi-sector partnerships. Specific to SCI Action Canada, seven reach calculations, four adoption rates, four effectiveness outcomes, one implementation, one organizational maintenance, and two individual maintenance outcomes are defined. The specific numerators based on SCI Action Canada activities are also listed for each of these calculations. Results The results are derived from SCI Action Canada activities. SCI Action Canada’s reach ranged from 3% (end-user direct national reach) to 37% (total regional reach). Adoption rates were 15% (provincial level adoption) to 76% (regional level adoption). Implementation and organizational maintenance rates were 92% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions We have operationalized the RE-AIM framework for larger multi-sectoral partnerships and demonstrated its applicability to such partnerships with SCI Action Canada. Future partnerships could use RE-AIM to assess their public health impact. PMID:24923331

  8. Presence of Motor-Intentional Aiming Deficit Predicts Functional Improvement of Spatial Neglect with Prism Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Goedert, Kelly M.; Chen, Peii; Boston, Raymond C.; Foundas, Anne L.; Barrett, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a debilitating disorder for which there is no agreed upon course of rehabilitation. The lack of consensus on treatment may result from systematic differences in the syndromes’ characteristics, with spatial cognitive deficits potentially affecting perceptual-attentional Where or motor-intentional Aiming spatial processing. Heterogeneity of response to treatment might be explained by different treatment impact on these dissociated deficits: prism adaptation, for example, might reduce Aiming deficits without affecting Where spatial deficits. Here, we tested the hypothesis that classifying patients by their profile of Where-vs-Aiming spatial deficit would predict response to prism adaptation, and specifically that patients with Aiming bias would have better recovery than those with isolated Where bias. We classified the spatial errors of 24 sub-acute right-stroke survivors with left spatial neglect as: 1) isolated Where bias, 2) isolated Aiming bias or 3) both. Participants then completed two weeks of prism adaptation treatment. They also completed the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT) and Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) tests of neglect recovery weekly for six weeks. As hypothesized, participants with only Aiming deficits improved on the CBS, whereas, those with only Where deficits did not improve. Participants with both deficits demonstrated intermediate improvement. These results support behavioral classification of spatial neglect patients as a potential valuable tool for assigning targeted, effective early rehabilitation. PMID:24376064

  9. AIM 2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence anxiety and memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Jung; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Huang, Tzyy-Nan; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are the protein assemblies that consist of inflammasome sensors, adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like proteins containing a CARD (ASC) and inflammasome caspase. Inflammasomes sense multiple danger signals via various inflammasome sensors and consequently use caspase to trigger proteolytic processing and secretion of IL-1β cytokines. Recent studies have suggested that neurons use their own innate immune system to detect danger signals and regulate neuronal morphology. Here, we investigate whether inflammasomes, the critical components of innate immunity, participate in regulation of neuronal morphology and function. Among various sensors, Absent in melanoma 2 (Aim2) expression in neurons is most prominent. Adding synthetic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to cultured neurons induces IL-1β secretion in an AIM2-dependent manner and consequently downregulates dendritic growth but enhances axon extension. The results of Aim2 knockout and knockdown show that AIM2 acts cell-autonomously to regulate neuronal morphology. Behavioral analyses further reveal that Aim2-/- mice exhibit lower locomotor activity, increased anxious behaviors and reduced auditory fear memory. In conclusion, our study suggests that AIM2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence mouse behaviors. PMID:27561456

  10. AIM 2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence anxiety and memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Jung; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Huang, Tzyy-Nan; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are the protein assemblies that consist of inflammasome sensors, adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like proteins containing a CARD (ASC) and inflammasome caspase. Inflammasomes sense multiple danger signals via various inflammasome sensors and consequently use caspase to trigger proteolytic processing and secretion of IL-1β cytokines. Recent studies have suggested that neurons use their own innate immune system to detect danger signals and regulate neuronal morphology. Here, we investigate whether inflammasomes, the critical components of innate immunity, participate in regulation of neuronal morphology and function. Among various sensors, Absent in melanoma 2 (Aim2) expression in neurons is most prominent. Adding synthetic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to cultured neurons induces IL-1β secretion in an AIM2-dependent manner and consequently downregulates dendritic growth but enhances axon extension. The results of Aim2 knockout and knockdown show that AIM2 acts cell-autonomously to regulate neuronal morphology. Behavioral analyses further reveal that Aim2−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity, increased anxious behaviors and reduced auditory fear memory. In conclusion, our study suggests that AIM2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence mouse behaviors. PMID:27561456

  11. The National United States Center Data Repository: Core essential interprofessional practice & education data enabling triple aim analytics.

    PubMed

    Pechacek, Judith; Shanedling, Janet; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Brandt, Barbara F; Cerra, Frank B; Delaney, Connie White

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impact that interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP) might have on triple aim patient outcomes is of high interest to health care providers, educators, administrators, and policy makers. Before the work undertaken by the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education at the University of Minnesota, no standard mechanism to acquire and report outcome data related to interprofessional education and collaborative practice and its effect on triple aim outcomes existed. This article describes the development and adoption of the National Center Data Repository (NCDR) designed to capture data related to IPECP processes and outcomes to support analyses of the relationship of IPECP on the Triple Aim. The data collection methods, web-based survey design and implementation process are discussed. The implications of this informatics work to the field of IPECP and health care quality and safety include creating standardized capacity to describe interprofessional practice and measure outcomes connecting interprofessional education and collaborative practice to the triple aim within and across sites/settings, leveraging an accessible data collection process using user friendly web-based survey design to support large data scholarship and instrument testing, and establishing standardized data elements and variables that can potentially lead to enhancements to national/international information system and academic accreditation standards to further team-based, interprofessional, collaborative research in the field. PMID:26652631

  12. Mask CD control (CDC) with ultrafast laser for improving mask CDU using AIMS as the CD metrology data source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zvi, Guy; Zait, Eitan; Dmitriev, Vladimir; Graitzer, Erez; Gottlieb, Gidi; Leibovich, Lior; Birkner, Robert; Boehm, Klaus; Scheruebl, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    CD uniformity control by ultrafast laser system writing inside the bulk of photomasks has previously been shown to be an effective method for local CD Control (CDC) [1]. Intra-field CD variations correction has been implemented effectively in mask-shops and fabs based on CDC SEM [2, 3] and OCD as the CD data source. Using wafer CD data allows correction of all wafer field CD contributors at once, but does not allow correcting for mask CD signature alone. In case of a mask shop attempting to improve CDU of the mask regardless of a particular exposure tool, it is a better practice to use mask CD data by itself as the CD data source. We propose using an aerial imaging system AIMS TM45-193i as the mask CD data source for the CDC process. In this study we created a programmed CD mask (65nm dense L/S) with relatively large CD errors. The programmed CD mask was then measured by AIMS TM45-193i (AIMS45) which defined the CDU map of the programmed CD mask. The CDU data from AIMS TM45-193i was then used by Pixer CDC101 to correct the CDU and bring it back to a flat almost ideal CDU.

  13. The National United States Center Data Repository: Core essential interprofessional practice & education data enabling triple aim analytics

    PubMed Central

    Pechacek, Judith; Shanedling, Janet; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Brandt, Barbara F.; Cerra, Frank B.; Delaney, Connie White

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the impact that interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP) might have on triple aim patient outcomes is of high interest to health care providers, educators, administrators, and policy makers. Before the work undertaken by the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education at the University of Minnesota, no standard mechanism to acquire and report outcome data related to interprofessional education and collaborative practice and its effect on triple aim outcomes existed. This article describes the development and adoption of the National Center Data Repository (NCDR) designed to capture data related to IPECP processes and outcomes to support analyses of the relationship of IPECP on the Triple Aim. The data collection methods, web-based survey design and implementation process are discussed. The implications of this informatics work to the field of IPECP and health care quality and safety include creating standardized capacity to describe interprofessional practice and measure outcomes connecting interprofessional education and collaborative practice to the triple aim within and across sites/settings, leveraging an accessible data collection process using user friendly web-based survey design to support large data scholarship and instrument testing, and establishing standardized data elements and variables that can potentially lead to enhancements to national/international information system and academic accreditation standards to further team-based, interprofessional, collaborative research in the field. PMID:26652631

  14. Ground-based air-sampling measurements near the Nevada Test Site after atmospheric nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Cederwall, R T; Ricker, Y E; Cederwall, P L; Homan, D N; Anspaugh, L R

    1990-11-01

    Historical air-sampling data measured within 320 km (200 mi) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been reviewed for periods following atmospheric nuclear tests, primarily in the 1950s. These data come mostly from high-volume air samplers, with some from cascade-impactor samplers. Measurements considered here are for beta radiation from gross fission products. The resulting air-quality data base is comprised of almost 13,000 samples from 42 sampling locations downwind of the NTS. In order to compile an accurate air-quality data base for use in estimating exposure via inhalation, raw data values were sought where possible, and the required calculations were performed on a computer with state-of-the-art algorithms. The data-processing procedures consisted of (1) entry and error checking of historical data; (2) determination of appropriate background values, air-sampling volumes, and net air concentrations; and (3) calculation of integrated air concentration (C) for each sample (considering fallout arrival times). Comparing C values for collocated high-volume and cascade-impactor samplers during the Upshot-Knothole series showed similar lognormal distributions, but with a geometric mean C for cascade impactors about half that for the high-volume air samplers. Overall, the uncertainty in C values is about a factor of three. In the past, it has been assumed that C could be related to ground deposition by a constant having units of velocity. In our data bases, simultaneous measurements of air concentration and ground deposition at the same locations were not related by a constant; indeed, there was a great amount of scatter. This suggests that the relationship between C and ground deposition in this situation is too complex to be treated adequately by simple approaches. PMID:2211113

  15. Ground-based air-sampling measurements near the Nevada Test Site after atmospheric nuclear tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cederwall, R.T.; Ricker, Y.E.; Cederwall, P.L.; Homan, D.N.; Anspaugh, L.R. )

    1990-11-01

    Historical air-sampling data measured within 320 km (200 mi) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been reviewed for periods following atmospheric nuclear tests, primarily in the 1950s. These data come mostly from high-volume air samplers, with some from cascade-impactor samplers. Measurements considered here are for beta radiation from gross fission products. The resulting air-quality data base is comprised of almost 13,000 samples from 42 sampling locations downwind of the NTS. In order to compile an accurate air-quality data base for use in estimating exposure via inhalation, raw data values were sought where possible, and the required calculations were performed on a computer with state-of-the-art algorithms. The data-processing procedures consisted of (1) entry and error checking of historical data; (2) determination of appropriate background values, air-sampling volumes, and net air concentrations; and (3) calculation of integrated air concentration (C) for each sample (considering fallout arrival times). Comparing C values for collocated high-volume and cascade-impactor samplers during the Upshot-Knothole series showed similar lognormal distributions, but with a geometric mean C for cascade impactors about half that for the high-volume air samplers. Overall, the uncertainty in C values is about a factor of three. In the past, it has been assumed that C could be related to ground deposition by a constant having units of velocity. In our data bases, simultaneous measurements of air concentration and ground deposition at the same locations were not related by a constant; indeed, there was a great amount of scatter. This suggests that the relationship between C and ground deposition in this situation is too complex to be treated adequately by simple approaches.

  16. Telehealth and Occupational Therapy: Integral to the Triple Aim of Health Care Reform.

    PubMed

    Cason, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Programs and concepts included in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 are expected to transform health care in the United States from a volume-based health system to a value-based health system with increased emphasis on prevention and health promotion. The Triple Aim, a framework set forth by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, focuses on improving the health care experience, the health of populations, and the affordability of care. This article describes telehealth as an integral component in achieving the Triple Aim of health care and discusses implications for occupational therapy practitioners. PMID:26122676

  17. Triple aim program: assessing its effectiveness as a hospital management tool.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Joseph S; Hilsenrath, Peter E; Arbuckle, Barry S; Kureshy, Fareed; Vaughan, David; Grayson, David; Saygin, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    According to a recent national survey of Hospital chief executive officers, financial challenges are their top concern, especially government reimbursement. Moreover, the patient faces greater deductibles forcing hospitals to prioritize price transparency. The Triple Aim program is a tool available to hospital management to help address these challenges. This study indicates that the Triple Aim is valuable to healthcare providers and patients by reducing medical errors, improving healthcare quality, and reducing costs on a per capita basis. Managerial implications are discussed for hospitals and health systems considering this approach to addressing financial challenges. PMID:25529789

  18. Installing and Running AIM 2.3.1 in a Clustered Server Production Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.H.

    2003-09-11

    High availability and redundancy were required for a 24/7 technical baseline at a nuclear production facility. Process engineering, operations, and maintenance all had to connect to the AIM workflow and data management system at the plant. 24-hour availability and 100 percent data integrity were requirements. AIM 2.3.1 satisfied these needs by running in a clustered environment, using shared RAID 5 data storage installed with Oracle Fail Safe on clustered WinNT 4.0 Servers. Order of installation was critical for successful operation. The system has been running in production for 12 months with minimal downtime, and zero loss of data.

  19. Measurements of the stratospheric plume from the Mount St. Helens eruption: radioactivity and chemical composition

    SciTech Connect

    Leifer, R.; Hinchliffe, L.; Fisenne, I.; Franklin, H.; Knutson, E.; Olden, M.; Sedlacek, W.; Mroz, E.; Cahill, T.

    1981-11-20

    Gas measurements made in the stratospheric plume from the eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 were not consistent with a reported large injection of radon-222 into the atmosphere. No enrichment in the volatile element polonium was found in filter samples, and the ratio of polonium-210 to lead-210 was not different from background values. Data obtained with an experimental impactor, flown shortly after the eruption, showed an increase of 10/sup 3/ in the stratospheric number concentration of submicrometer sulfate particles compared to concentrations before the eruption.

  20. Measurements of the stratospheric plume from the mount st. Helens eruption: radioactivity and chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Leifer, R; Hinchliffe, L; Fisenne, I; Franklin, H; Knutson, E; Olden, M; Sedlacek, W; Mroz, E; Cahill, T

    1981-11-20

    Gas measurements made in the stratospheric plume from the eruption of Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 were not consistent with a reported large injection of radon-222 into the atmosphere. No enrichment in the volatile element polonium was found in filter samples, and the ratio of polonium-210 to lead-210 was not different from background values. Data obtained with an experimental impactor, flown shortly after the eruption, showed an increase of 10(3) in the stratospheric number concentration of submicrometer sulfate particles compared to concentrations before the eruption. PMID:17782443

  1. Upgraded PMI diagnostic capabilities using Accelerator-based In-situ Materials Surveillance (AIMS) on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, Leigh; Barnard, Harold; Hartwig, Zachary; Sorbom, Brandon; Lanza, Richard; Terry, David; Vieira, Rui; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The AIMS diagnostic was developed to rapidly and non-invasively characterize in-situ plasma material interactions (PMI) in a tokamak. Recent improvements are described which significantly expand this measurement capability on Alcator C-Mod. The detection time at each wall location is reduced from about 10 min to 30 s, via improved hardware and detection geometry. Detectors are in an augmented re-entrant tube to maximize the solid angle between detectors and diagnostic locations. Spatial range is expanded by using beam dynamics simulation to design upgraded B-field power supplies to provide maximal poloidal access, including a ~20° toroidal range in the divertor. Measurement accuracy is improved with angular and energy resolved cross section measurements obtained using a separate 0.9 MeV deuteron ion accelerator. Future improvements include the installation of recessed scintillator tiles as beam targets for calibration of the diagnostic. Additionally, implanted depth marker tiles will enable AIMS to observe the in-situ erosion and deposition of high-Z plasma-facing materials. This work is supported by U.S. DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-94ER54235 and Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  2. Globalization and the Asia Pacific: An Exploration of Efficiency and Equality Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.; Rutkowski, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the relationship between globalization and education through an investigation of educational policy development in the specific context of the Asia Pacific. The paper's primary focus is on data collected from the World Bank, OECD, IMF and UNESCO to look primarily at three interrelated trends in education: increasing…

  3. Meat Training Council Aims to Make Willing Workers into Professional Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, David

    2002-01-01

    Details the UK Meat Training Council's management development programme, aimed at increasing the levels of professionalism in the meat and poultry industry and making it more attractive to young people as a long-term career. Describes the course contents and assessment methods, and contains interviews with course participants.

  4. A Diminished Self: Entrepreneurial and Therapeutic Ethos Operating with a Common Aim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunila, Kristiina

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the aim of creating a flexible and self-centred self by means of entrepreneurial and therapeutic education. It is an analysis that uses documents from project-based educational programmes as well as interviews with young adults and the people who work with them in these programmes. The data are examined using a Foucauldian…

  5. A Systematic Review of Interventions Aimed at Reducing Binge Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Ledetra S.; Sharma, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to systematically review the interventions aimed at reducing binge drinking in college students. A total of 18 interventions published between 2010 and 2015 were evaluated in this review. Two main study designs were used by these interventions: randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental designs, with…

  6. Aiming for Positive Washback: A Case Study of International Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saif, Shahrzad

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the possibility of creating positive washback by focusing on factors in the background of the test development process and anticipating the conditions most likely to lead to positive wash-back. The article reports on a multiphase empirical study investigating the washback effects of a needs-based test of spoken…

  7. Deficits in Executed and Imagined Aiming Performance in Brain-Injured Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caeyenberghs, K.; van Roon, D.; Swinnen, S. P.; Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Motor disorders are a frequent consequence of acquired brain injury (ABI) in children and much effort is currently invested in alleviating these deficits. The aim of the present study was to test motor imagery (MI) capabilities in children with ABI (n=25) and an age- and gender-matched control group (n=25). A computerized Virtual Radial Fitts Task…

  8. Activation of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes in Kupffer cells in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Yeon; Kim, Seok-Joo; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2015-01-01

    Inflammasome activation by danger signals in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is responsible for the sterile inflammatory response. Signals triggering formation and activation of the inflammasome involve the generation of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to examine the molecular mechanisms of inflammasome activation and the involvement of reactive oxygen species in hepatic I/R. I/R induced the formation of nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) and absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasomes and the subsequent serum release of interleukin 1β. Pannexin-1 inhibitor and anti-cathepsin B antibody attenuated I/R-induced inflammasome activation and hepatic injury. The expression of the thioredoxin-interacting protein gene and the interaction between NLRP3 and the thioredoxin-interacting protein increased after I/R. Treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine significantly attenuated protein conversion of interleukin 1β after hepatic I/R. Moreover, pannexin-1 protein expression and cathepsin B release were strongly attenuated by N-acetylcysteine. The depletion of Kupffer cells with gadolinium chloride markedly decreased NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome expression and activation of their signaling pathways, and also reduced the level of caspase-1 protein in F4/80-positive cells. Our findings suggest that reactive-oxygen-species-mediated activation of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes leads to I/R-induced inflammatory responses in which Kupffer cells play a crucial role. PMID:25327779

  9. AIM: A comprehensive Arabidopsis Interactome Module database and related interologs in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systems biology analysis of protein modules is important for understanding the functional relationships between proteins in the interactome. Here, we present a comprehensive database named AIM for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) interactome modules. The database contains almost 250,000 modules th...

  10. Developing Young Thinkers: An Intervention Aimed to Enhance Children's Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2008-01-01

    It is increasingly popular to "teach" thinking skills in schools. A diverse variety of programmes exist to support practitioners in this task, and some research has been gathered on the effectiveness of individual approaches. However, the difficulties when assessing the development of thinking skills are widely documented. This study aimed to…

  11. A Contest to Create Media Messages Aimed at Recruiting Adolescents for Stop Smoking Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croghan, Ivana T.; Campbell, Heather M.; Patten, Christi A.; Croghan, Gary A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Novotny, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). 0f 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop…

  12. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This report contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Subject areas covered are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  13. Interpretive Research Aiming at Theory Building: Adopting and Adapting the Case Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Andrade, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Although the advantages of case study design are widely recognised, its original positivist underlying assumptions may mislead interpretive researchers aiming at theory building. The paper discusses the limitations of the case study design for theory building and explains how grounded theory systemic process adds to the case study design. The…

  14. The Role of Field Education in a University-Community Partnership Aimed at Curriculum Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Laura A.; Kusmaul, Nancy; Elze, Diane; Butler, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    University-community partnerships can play an important role in curriculum development, but little has been written about the role of community agencies in designing curricula. This article describes the role of field education in an innovative university-community partnership aimed at transforming an MSW curriculum to integrate a trauma-informed…

  15. Theory of Knowledge Aims, Objectives and Assessment Criteria: An Analysis of Critical Thinking Descriptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the construct validity of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme's Theory of Knowledge course in the light of claims that it is a course in critical thinking. After discussion around critical thinking--what it is and why it is valuable educationally--the article analyses the extent to which the course aims,…

  16. Concerted activation of the AIM2 and NLRP3 inflammasomes orchestrates host protection against Aspergillus infection

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Rajendra; Man, Si Ming; Malireddi, R.K. Subbarao; Gurung, Prajwal; Vogel, Peter; Lamkanfi, Mohamed; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a leading cause of infection-associated mortality in immunocompromised individuals. Aspergillus fumigatus infection produces ligands that could activate inflammasomes but the contribution of these host defenses remains unclear. We show that two inflammasome receptors, AIM2 and NLRP3, recognize intracellular A. fumigatus and collectively induce protective immune responses. Mice lacking both AIM2 and NLRP3 fail to confine Aspergillus hyphae to inflammatory foci, leading to widespread hyphal dissemination to lung blood vessels. These mice succumb to infection more rapidly than WT mice or mice lacking a single inflammasome receptor. AIM2 and NLRP3 activation initiates assembly of a single cytoplasmic inflammasome platform, composed of the adaptor protein ASC along with caspase-1 and caspase-8. Combined actions of caspase-1 and caspase-8 lead to processing of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 that critically control the infection. Thus, AIM2 and NLRP3 form a dual cytoplasmic surveillance system that orchestrates responses against A. fumigatus infection. PMID:25704009

  17. Critical role for the AIM2 inflammasome during acute central nervous system bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Hanamsagar, Richa; Aldrich, Amy; Kielian, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is essential for eliciting protective immunity during the acute phase of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection in the central nervous system (CNS). We previously demonstrated that microglial IL-1β production in response to live S. aureus is mediated through the Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, including the adapter protein ASC (apoptosis-associated, speck-like, caspase-1 recruiting domain-containing protein), and pro-caspase-1. Here we utilized NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1/11 knockout (KO) mice to demonstrate the functional significance of inflammasome activity during CNS S. aureus infection. ASC and caspase-1/11 KO animals were exquisitely sensitive, with approximately 50% of mice succumbing to infection within 24 h. Unexpectedly, the survival of NLRP3 KO mice was similar to WT animals, suggesting the involvement of an alternative upstream sensor, which was later identified as absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) based on the similar disease patterns between AIM2 and ASC KO mice. Besides IL-1β, other key inflammatory mediators, including IL-6, CXCL1, CXCL10, and CCL2 were significantly reduced in the CNS of AIM2 and ASC KO mice, implicating autocrine/paracrine actions of IL-1β, since these mediators do not require inflammasome processing for secretion. These studies demonstrate a novel role for the AIM2 inflammasome as a critical molecular platform for regulating IL-1β release and survival during acute CNS S. aureus infection. PMID:24484406

  18. The display of molecular models with the Ames Interactive Modeling System (AIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, J. T.; Hart, J.; Burt, S. K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A visualization of molecular models can lead to a clearer understanding of the models. Sophisticated graphics devices supported by minicomputers make it possible for the chemist to interact with the display of a very large model, altering its structure. In addition to user interaction, the need arises also for other ways of displaying information. These include the production of viewgraphs, film presentation, as well as publication quality prints of various models. To satisfy these needs, the display capability of the Ames Interactive Modeling System (AIMS) has been enhanced to provide a wide range of graphics and plotting capabilities. Attention is given to an overview of the AIMS system, graphics hardware used by the AIMS display subsystem, a comparison of graphics hardware, the representation of molecular models, graphics software used by the AIMS display subsystem, the display of a model obtained from data stored in molecule data base, a graphics feature for obtaining single frame permanent copy displays, and a feature for producing multiple frame displays.

  19. AIMS Library - A community resource for sorghum genomic studies and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sorghum genome sequence is completed. A systematically mutagenized population linking gene function to sequence is becoming increasingly urgent. A project was initiated to develop an Annotated Individually-pedigreed Mutagenized Sorghum (AIMS) library using (EMS) ethyl methane sulfonate for sel...

  20. Students' Performance in Investigative Activity and Their Understanding of Activity Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Alessandro Damasio Trani; Borges, A. Tarciso; Justi, Rosaria

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the students' understanding of the aims of an investigative activity and their performance when conducting it. One hundred and eighty-one year nine students from a public middle school in Brazil took part in the study. Students working in pairs were asked to investigate two problems using a…

  1. A Formative Evaluation Plan for the Automated Instructional Management System (AIMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Melissa; And Others

    The plan described was developed to evaluate the training and cost-effectiveness of the Automated Instructional Management System (AIMS), a computer-based training and resource development system being developed by the Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) for possible installation in its schools and training centers. The Functional Description…

  2. Early Parenting Intervention Aimed at Maternal Sensitivity and Discipline: A Process Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolk, Mirjam N.; Mesman, Judi; van Zeijl, Jantien; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the intervention process on the effectiveness of a program aimed at promoting positive parenting. The study involved a homogeneous intervention sample (N = 120) of mothers and their 1-, 2-, or 3-year-old children screened for high levels of externalizing problems. The alliance between mother and intervener,…

  3. AIM [Apperception Interception Method]: An Exemplary Program from International Experience. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Education, Inc., New York, NY.

    Having used the apperception-interception method (AIM) of adult basic education (ABE) successfully abroad, World Education, with Office of Education funding and working at several American sites, developed a model of innovative ABE methods and materials for the United States, based on addressing learners' motivational problems. By using…

  4. Sustainability with an Ethical Aim: Lessons from an American Nun in Amazonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaree, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Research Topic: An exploration into human imagination, ethical aim and action are the progenitors for reconciliation between humans and their environment. This study of two successful projects in Brazil provides an example of working toward a balance between human endeavors and sustainable environments. This inquiry is an exploration that…

  5. Scientific Literacy, PISA, and Socioscientific Discourse: Assessment for Progressive Aims of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we explore the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) with a lens informed by the socioscientific issues (SSI) movement. We consider the PISA definition of scientific literacy and how it is situated with respect to broader discussions of the aims of science education. We also present an overview of the SSI framework…

  6. RE-AIM Checklist for Integrating and Sustaining Tier 2 Social-Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Douglas A.; Yong, Minglee

    2014-01-01

    Even though evidence-based Tier 2 programs are now more commonly available, integrating and sustaining these interventions in schools remain challenging. RE-AIM, which stands for Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance, is a public health framework used to maximize the effectiveness of health promotion programs in…

  7. Evaluation of a School-Based Program Aimed at Preventing Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the…

  8. Circle of Strength: Tribal Colleges Aim to Recruit and Retain Native Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2011-01-01

    As tribal colleges aim to retain Native male students, they're finding that talking, drumming, construction, and spirituality may keep men in school. Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwe Community College (LCOOCC, Hayward, Wisconsin) is just one of the tribal colleges across the country looking for innovative ways to attract and retain more men.…

  9. Chemistry Journal Articles: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Move Analysis with Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, Fredricka L.; Robinson, Marin S.

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights aspects of an interdisciplinary (chemistry-applied linguistics) English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course- and materials-development project. The project was aimed at raising genre awareness among chemistry students and faculty, in addition to improving students' disciplinary reading and writing. As part of the project,…

  10. AIM-Monitoring: a component of the BLM assessment, inventory, and monitoring strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “BLM Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring Strategy for Integrated Renewable Resources Management” (AIM Strategy) was completed in 2011 in response to a request from the Office of Management and Budget. The strategy describes an approach for integrated, cross-program assessment, inventory, and m...

  11. Evaluation of On-Line Searching in MEDLARS (AIM-TWX) by Biomedical Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, F. Wilfrid

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine how effectively biomedical practitioners, with a minimum of introduction to the system, can conduct on-line searches to satisfy their own information needs. The searches were conducted on the Abridged Index Medicus data base as implemented on the on-line ELHILL system (AIM-TWX). ELHILL is the ORBIT…

  12. Cross-cultural exchange: How students can frustrate the aims of study abroad programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Leslie R.

    1982-09-01

    Readily accepting that study abroad programmes may have as many differing forms and aims as there are participating institutions, and that by no means all programmes include academic content in their goals, I would nevertheless maintain: 1. that a sociological perspective is as necessary as the hitherto predominantly psychological approach in obtaining a balanced assessment of study abroad programmes;

  13. Using the RE-AIM framework to evaluate physical activity public health programs in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) public health programming has been widely used in Mexico; however, few studies have documented individual and organizational factors that might be used to evaluate their public health impact. The RE-AIM framework is an evaluation tool that examines individual and organizationa...

  14. Summer Program Aims to Improve Literacy Skills of Black Male Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a summer program at the African American Adolescent Male Summer Literacy Institute which aims to improve literacy skills of black male teens. The African American Adolescent Male Summer Literacy Institute is now in its fourth year at the University of Illinois-Chicago (UIC). Alfred Tatum, director of the…

  15. Surgeons' aims and pain assessment strategies when managing paediatric post-operative pain: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Twycross, Alison M; Williams, Anna M; Finley, G Allen

    2015-12-01

    Children experience moderate to severe pain post-operatively. Nurses have been found to have a variety of aims in this context. Surgeons' aims when managing post-operative pain have not been explored. This qualitative study set out to explore paediatric surgeons' aims when managing post-operative pain in one paediatric hospital in Canada. Consultant surgeons (n = 8) across various specialities took part in semi-structured interviews. Surgeons' overarching aim was to keep the child comfortable. Various definitions of comfortable were given, relating to the child's experience of pain itself and their ability to undertake activities of daily living. Children's behavioural pain cues seem to be a primary consideration when making treatment decisions. Parents' views regarding their child's pain were also seen as important, suggesting children may not be seen as competent to make decisions on their own behalf. The need to maintain a realistic approach was emphasised and pain management described as a balancing act. Surgeons may draw on both tacit and explicit knowledge when assessing children's pain. There appears to be an expectation among surgeons that some pain is to be expected post-operatively and that the diagnostic value of pain may, in some cases, supersede concerns for the child's pain experience. PMID:24728398

  16. REDUCTION IN ASTHMA MORBIDITY IN CHILDREN AS A RESULT OF HOME REMEDIATION AIMED AT MOISTURE SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: Home dampness, presence of mold and allergens have been associated with asthma morbidity. We examined changes in asthma morbidity in children as a result of home remediation aimed at moisture sources.

    Design: Prospective, randomized controlled trial.

    Part...

  17. R. S. Peters and J. H. Newman on the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Janis T.

    2013-01-01

    R. S. Peters never explicitly talks about wisdom as being an aim of education. He does, however, in numerous places, emphasize that education is of the whole person and that, whatever else it might be about, it involves the development of knowledge and understanding. Being educated, he claims, is incompatible with being narrowly specialized.…

  18. Aiming for Better Employment: A Holistic Analysis from Admission to Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Sheng-Ju; Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    To address the changing needs of the labour market better, higher education institutions have increasingly aimed to enhance their teaching quality and the learning experiences of their students. Therefore, a key concept of the missions of contemporary educational institutions is to improve students' employability after graduation. Although…

  19. The Moral and Ethical Aims of the School Viewed through a Cosmopolitan Prism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David T.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the author proposes to imagine the aims of the school in light of a cosmopolitan philosophy of education. The first section that follows provides a summary account of what the author takes cosmopolitanism to mean. The second section frames a philosophy of education that stems from this account. The third and penultimate section…

  20. A New Coupled Earth's Critical Zone Model: AgroIBIS - MODFLOW (AIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evren Soylu, M.; Zipper, Samuel C.; Loheide, Steven P., II; Kucharik, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Shallow groundwater may influence land surface energy, water, carbon balances and terrestrial ecosystems by altering the root zone soil moisture dynamics in 22 - 32% of the Earth's land area. However, our current understanding of the impacts of shallow groundwater on ecosystem dynamics and land surface processes is hampered by both a lack of observations and current capabilities of the state-of-the-art ecosystem models to simulate shallow groundwater as a working part of the groundwater-soil-vegetation-atmosphere (critical zone) transfer scheme. Existing models are able to simulate water and energy fluxes with highly accurate process-based approaches in a single compartment (e.g., vadose zone - HYDRUS, or groundwater - MODFLOW) or multiple compartments (e.g., groundwater & vadose zone MODFLOW-VSF, vadose zone & vegetation- Agro-IBIS) of the critical zone by oversimplifying or ignoring the other compartments. In this study, we present a newly developed critical zone model, AgroIBIS-MODFLOW (AIM). AIM is capable of simulating ecohydrological processes across the complete critical zone. AIM is a fully coupled agroecosystem/dynamic vegetation model (AgroIBIS), variably saturated flow model (HYDRUS-1D), and groundwater flow model (MODFLOW). We analyze the performance of AIM by comparing the model with saturated and unsaturated flow experiments as well as results from other models. Moreover, to demonstrate AIM's potential for simulating ecohydrological processes and feedbacks, we present a hypothetical watershed scale case where the indirect impacts of land use change on agricultural productivity due to altered groundwater recharge and water table depth.

  1. Two radars for AIM mission: A direct observation of the asteroid's structure from deep interior to regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herique, A.; Ciarletti, V.

    2015-10-01

    Our knowledge of the internal structure of asteroids is, so far, indirect - relying entirely on inferences from remote sensing observations of the surface, and theoretical modeling. What are the bulk properties of the regolith and deep interior? And what are the physical processes that shape their internal structures? Direct measurements are needed to provide answers that will directly improve our ability to understand and model the mechanisms driving Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) for the benefit of science as well as for planetary defense or exploration. Radar tomography is the only technique to characterize internal structure from decimetric scale to global scale. This paper reviews the benefits of direct measurement of the asteroid interior. Then the radar concepts for both deep interior and shallow subsurface are presented and the radar payload proposed for the AIDA/AIM mission is outlined.

  2. Evaluation of a School-Based Program Aimed at Preventing Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the intervention. Sixty-two students (aged 14) and seven tutors participated. A majority of the students and all of the tutors were satisfied with the intervention. The students, both females and males, rated their depressed symptoms as significantly lower after the course; and for the females, this was maintained 1-year postintervention. The implementation costs for the initial 2 years were about US$300 per student. Positive effects of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral intervention aiming at preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents were found, especially among females. PMID:24526572

  3. AIM2 inflammasome is activated by pharmacological disruption of nuclear envelope integrity.

    PubMed

    Di Micco, Antonia; Frera, Gianluca; Lugrin, Jérôme; Jamilloux, Yvan; Hsu, Erh-Ting; Tardivel, Aubry; De Gassart, Aude; Zaffalon, Léa; Bujisic, Bojan; Siegert, Stefanie; Quadroni, Manfredo; Broz, Petr; Henry, Thomas; Hrycyna, Christine A; Martinon, Fabio

    2016-08-01

    Inflammasomes are critical sensors that convey cellular stress and pathogen presence to the immune system by activating inflammatory caspases and cytokines such as IL-1β. The nature of endogenous stress signals that activate inflammasomes remains unclear. Here we show that an inhibitor of the HIV aspartyl protease, Nelfinavir, triggers inflammasome formation and elicits an IL-1R-dependent inflammation in mice. We found that Nelfinavir impaired the maturation of lamin A, a structural component of the nuclear envelope, thereby promoting the release of DNA in the cytosol. Moreover, deficiency of the cytosolic DNA-sensor AIM2 impaired Nelfinavir-mediated inflammasome activation. These findings identify a pharmacologic activator of inflammasome and demonstrate the role of AIM2 in detecting endogenous DNA release upon perturbation of nuclear envelope integrity. PMID:27462105

  4. AIM2 inflammasome is activated by pharmacological disruption of nuclear envelope integrity

    PubMed Central

    Di Micco, Antonia; Frera, Gianluca; Lugrin, Jérôme; Jamilloux, Yvan; Hsu, Erh-Ting; Tardivel, Aubry; De Gassart, Aude; Zaffalon, Léa; Bujisic, Bojan; Siegert, Stefanie; Quadroni, Manfredo; Broz, Petr; Henry, Thomas; Hrycyna, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are critical sensors that convey cellular stress and pathogen presence to the immune system by activating inflammatory caspases and cytokines such as IL-1β. The nature of endogenous stress signals that activate inflammasomes remains unclear. Here we show that an inhibitor of the HIV aspartyl protease, Nelfinavir, triggers inflammasome formation and elicits an IL-1R–dependent inflammation in mice. We found that Nelfinavir impaired the maturation of lamin A, a structural component of the nuclear envelope, thereby promoting the release of DNA in the cytosol. Moreover, deficiency of the cytosolic DNA-sensor AIM2 impaired Nelfinavir-mediated inflammasome activation. These findings identify a pharmacologic activator of inflammasome and demonstrate the role of AIM2 in detecting endogenous DNA release upon perturbation of nuclear envelope integrity. PMID:27462105

  5. Midline Body Actions and Leftward Spatial "Aiming" in Patients with Spatial Neglect.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Amit; Pigott, Kara; Barrett, A M

    2015-01-01

    Spatial motor-intentional "Aiming" bias is a dysfunction in initiation/execution of motor-intentional behavior, resulting in hypokinetic and hypometric leftward movements. Aiming bias may contribute to posture, balance, and movement problems and uniquely account for disability in post-stroke spatial neglect. Body movement may modify and even worsen Aiming errors, but therapy techniques, such as visual scanning training, do not take this into account. Here, we evaluated (1) whether instructing neglect patients to move midline body parts improves their ability to explore left space and (2) whether this has a different impact on different patients. A 68-year-old woman with spatial neglect after a right basal ganglia infarct had difficulty orienting to and identifying left-sided objects. She was prompted with four instructions: "look to the left," "point with your nose to the left," "point with your [right] hand to the left," and "stick out your tongue and point it to the left." She oriented leftward dramatically better when pointing with the tongue/nose, than she did when pointing with the hand. We then tested nine more consecutive patients with spatial neglect using the same instructions. Only four of them made any orienting errors. Only one patient made >50% errors when pointing with the hand, and she did not benefit from pointing with the tongue/nose. We observed that pointing with the tongue could facilitate left-sided orientation in a stroke survivor with spatial neglect. If midline structures are represented more bilaterally, they may be less affected by Aiming bias. Alternatively, moving the body midline may be more permissive for leftward orienting than moving right body parts. We were not able to replicate this effect in another patient; we suspect that the magnitude of this effect may depend upon the degree to which patients have directional akinesia, spatial Where deficits, or cerebellar/frontal cortical lesions. Future research could examine these

  6. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. A fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrates on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support. Assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are an on-going effort within the program. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting, followed by support of work to satisfy those needs. All the industries have identified materials as critical, particularly for high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. Also important from the energy efficiency viewpoint are membranes, catalytic membranes, and reactors for separations, both for processing and waste reduction. AIM focuses, therefore, on high-temperature materials, corrosion resistant materials, wear resistant materials, strong polymers, coatings, and membrane materials for industrial applications.

  7. [A workplace intervention aimed at increasing awareness in nursing personnel performing manual handling activities].

    PubMed

    Scorpiniti, A; Lorusso, A; L'Abbate, N

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe a workplace intervention aimed at reducing the risk of low back pain in nursing personnel. The intervention we carried out included a specific ergonomic training and an exercise program according to the Feldenkrais Method. After the intervention, we evaluated its effect on the execution of manual handling activities in nurses. We found an increased rate of correct manual handling in the post-intervention period. PMID:18410001

  8. Campaign Seeks Buy-In for High School Reforms: "Stand Up" Aims to Rouse Public Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2006-01-01

    Kicked off the week of April 10, 2006 with a big plug on "The Oprah Winfrey Show," a new campaign spearheaded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is aiming to drum up public action to address what its organizers see as a crisis in America's public high schools. The Stand Up campaign comes as high schools have emerged as a focus of public-policy…

  9. On Board Sensor Network: A Proof of Concept Aiming at Telecom I/O Optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunes-Lasnet, S.; Furano, G.; Melicher, M.; Gleeson, D.; O'Connor, W.; Vidaud, O.; Notebaert, O.

    2009-05-01

    On-board sensor networks proof of concept is part of a long haul strategy shared between ESA and the European industry. Because point to point interfaces are numerous in a spacecraft, initiatives to standardise them or replace them by bus solutions have been seeked commonly between ESA and the industry. The sensor networks project presented in this paper aims at defining and prototyping a solution for spacecraft on board sensor networks, and to perform a proof of concept with the resulting demonstrator.

  10. Ready, aim, shoot: stem cell regulation of the shoot apical meristem.

    PubMed

    Soyars, Cara L; James, Sean R; Nimchuk, Zachary L

    2016-02-01

    Plant shoot meristems contain stem cells that are continuously renewed to replenish cells that exit and differentiate during lateral organ formation. Complex cell-to-cell signaling systems balance division and differentiation. These center on ligand-receptor networks, hormone pathways, and transcriptional regulators that function in an integrated manner. In this review, we aim to highlight new findings in shoot stem cell regulation across species. PMID:26803586

  11. COPD Multidisciplinary Team Meetings in the United Kingdom: Health Care Professionals' Perceptions of Aims and Structure.

    PubMed

    Kruis, Annemarije L; Soljak, Michael; Chavannes, Niels H; Elkin, Sarah L

    2016-10-01

    Over the last 10 years, community and hospital-based multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) have been set up for the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the UK. Meetings of the MDTs have become a regular occurrence, mostly on healthcare professionals' own initiatives. There are no standardized methods to conduct an MDT meeting, and although cancer MDT meetings are widely implemented, the value and purpose of COPD MDT meetings are less clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional descriptive online survey to explore COPD MDT members' perceptions of the purpose and usefulness of MDT meetings, and to identify suggestions or requirements to improve the meetings. In total, we received 68 responses from 10 MDTs; six teams (n = 36 members) were located in London and four (n = 32 members) outside. Analysis of the replies by two independent researchers found that MDT meetings aim to optimise management and improve pathways for respiratory patients by improving communication between providers across settings and disciplines. Education of the MDT members also occurs with the aim of safer practice. Discussed patients are characterised by (multiple) co-morbidities, frequent exacerbations and admissions, social and mental health problems, unclear diagnosis and suboptimal responses to interventions. Members reported participating in a COPD MDT as very useful (74%) or useful (20%). Meetings could be improved by ensuring attendance through requirement in job plans, by clear documentation and sharing of derived plans with a wider audience including general practitioners and patients. PMID:26263193

  12. The influence of visual feedback and prior knowledge about feedback on vertical aiming strategies.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Dutoy, Chris; Andrew, Matthew; Burkitt, James J; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Lyons, James L; Hayes, Spencer J; Bennett, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine time and energy optimization strategies for movements made with and against gravity. In Experiment 1, the authors manipulated concurrent visual feedback, and knowledge about feedback. When vision was eliminated upon movement initiation, participants exhibited greater undershooting, both with their primary submovement and their final endpoint, than when vision was available. When aiming downward, participants were more likely to terminate their aiming following the primary submovement or complete a lower amplitude corrective submovement. This strategy reduced the frequency of energy-consuming corrections against gravity. In Experiment 2, the authors eliminated vision of the hand and the target at the end of the movement. This procedure was expected to have its greatest impact under no-vision conditions where no visual feedback was available for subsequent planning. As anticipated, direction and concurrent visual feedback had a profound impact on endpoint bias. Participants exhibited pronounced undershooting when aiming downward and without vision. Differences in undershooting between vision and no vision were greater under blocked feedback conditions. When performers were uncertain about the impending feedback, they planned their movements for the worst-case scenario. Thus movement planning considers the variability in execution, and avoids outcomes that require time and energy to correct. PMID:25204201

  13. High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs)

    PubMed Central

    García, Angelina; Dermarchi, Darío A.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pauro, Maia; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2015-01-01

    The population of Argentina has already been studied with regard to several genetic markers, but much more data are needed for the appropriate definition of its genetic profile. This study aimed at investigating the admixture patterns and genetic structure in Central Argentina, using biparental markers and comparing the results with those previously obtained by us with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the same samples. A total of 521 healthy unrelated individuals living in 13 villages of the Córdoba and San Luis provinces were tested. The individuals were genotyped for ten autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Allele frequencies were compared with those of African, European and Native American populations, chosen to represent parental contributions. The AIM estimates indicated a greater influence of the Native American ancestry as compared to previous studies in the same or other Argentinean regions, but smaller than that observed with the mtDNA tests. These differences can be explained, respectively, by different genetic contributions between rural and urban areas, and asymmetric gene flow occurred in the past. But a most unexpected finding was the marked interpopulation genetic homogeneity found in villages located in diverse geographic environments across a wide territory, suggesting considerable gene flow. PMID:26500436

  14. Third-generation focal plane array IR detection modules at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Breiter, Rainer; Koch, R.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann; Schneider, Harald; Walther, Martin; Oelmaier, Reinhard

    2001-10-01

    According to the common understanding, the 3rd generation of infrared (IR) detection modules is expected to provide advanced functionalities like more pixels, multicolor or multiband capability, higher frame rates and better thermal resolution. This paper is intended to present the present status at AIM on such technologies. A high speed device with 256 X 256 pixels in a 40 micrometer pitch is designed to provide up to 800 Hz full frame rate with pixel rates as high as 80 Mpixels/s. The read out circuit is designed to stare while scan in a flash integration mode to allow nearly full frame integration for even 800 Hz frame rate. A miniaturized command and control electronics with 14 Bit deep digital output and a non uniformity correction board capable to take into account non linear self learning scene based correction models are developed together with the integrated detector cooler assembly (IDCA). As working horse for dual color/band capabilities, AIM has developed a sequential multi color module to provide customers with a flexible tool to analyze the pros and cons of spectral selective detection. The module is based on a 384 X 288 mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector available in the mid wave (MWIR) or long wave spectral band (LWIR). A rotating wheel with 4 facets for filters or microscanner plates provides spectral selectivity. AIM's programmable MVIP image processing is used for controlling the detector and for non uniformity correction. The MVIP allows set the integration time and NUC coefficients individually for each filter position for comparable performance to accurately evaluate the pay off of spectral selectivity in the IR. In parallel, a dual color detector FPA is under development. The FPA is realized as a MCT MWIR device, LWIR, however, is also doable. Dual color macro cells are realized with 192 X 192 pixels in a pitch of effectively 56 micrometer. The cell design provides, that both colors detect radiation from target points identical within

  15. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS): Design and Architecture. 3.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Schmidt, Melisa; Schulbach, Cathy; Bailey, David (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Whether a researcher is designing the 'next parallel programming paradigm', another 'scalable multiprocessor' or investigating resource allocation algorithms for multiprocessors, a facility that enables parallel program execution to be captured and displayed is invaluable. Careful analysis of such information can help computer and software architects to capture, and therefore, exploit behavioral variations among/within various parallel programs to take advantage of specific hardware characteristics. A software tool-set that facilitates performance evaluation of parallel applications on multiprocessors has been put together at NASA Ames Research Center under the sponsorship of NASA's High Performance Computing and Communications Program over the past five years. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring Systematic has three major software components: a source code instrumentor which automatically inserts active event recorders into program source code before compilation; a run-time performance monitoring library which collects performance data; and a visualization tool-set which reconstructs program execution based on the data collected. Besides being used as a prototype for developing new techniques for instrumenting, monitoring and presenting parallel program execution, AIMS is also being incorporated into the run-time environments of various hardware testbeds to evaluate their impact on user productivity. Currently, the execution of FORTRAN and C programs on the Intel Paragon and PALM workstations can be automatically instrumented and monitored. Performance data thus collected can be displayed graphically on various workstations. The process of performance tuning with AIMS will be illustrated using various NAB Parallel Benchmarks. This report includes a description of the internal architecture of AIMS and a listing of the source code.

  16. Hydrogen Economy: The Role of Nano-scaled Support Material for Electrocatalysts Aimed for Water Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunović, Perica; Popovski, Orce; Dimitrov, Aleksandar T.

    The role and importance of support materials for electrocatalysts aimed for water electrolysis is given. Besides their superior support characteristics such as electroconductivity, a high developed surface area and chemical stability, support materials should be an active participant in the catalytic activity through strong metal-support interactions (SMSI) with the metallic catalytic phase. Subject of this paper are several support materials: (i) Vulcan XC-72, (ii) Vulcan XC-72 with TiO2, (iii) multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and (iv) Magneli phases, i.e. nonstoichiometric titanium oxides. A comparison of catalytic activity of Co-based electrocatalysts deposited on all support materials mentioned is given.

  17. Construction of a digital and physical mouse model aimed at the study of electrical shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thu T. A.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2014-03-01

    Optical methods have been used to investigate electrical injury on animal models such as live mice, rats, and rabbits. Here we introduce a completely digital phantom of a mouse, with the aim of investigating electrical injury through spectroscopic imaging techniques. The basis of our phantom is a three-dimensional digital mouse reconstructed from co-registered computed tomographic images and cryosection by a different group. Image processing algorithms were applied to make the model suitable to Finite Element Analysis of thermal and electrical transport. Our digital model is capable of simulating temperature, voltage, current changes along the animal body during and after electrical shocks.

  18. The History and Aim of LADY CATS —Simple and Beautiful Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanemura, Masako; Okiharu, Fumiko; Yokoe, Mika; Taniguchi, Masa-aki; Maeda, Hiroaki; Kutome, Yuusuke; Kawakatsu, Hiroshi

    LADY CATS (LADY Creators of Activities for Teaching Science) is an organization of science teachers. Our group includes a lot of female teachers. We have demonstrated "Simple and beautiful experiments" since ICPE 2005. We aim to encourage both students and teachers who are not interested in physics. Our concepts of experiments are as follows: the "simple" experiments which the teachers in the world can utilize in their classes easily, the "beautiful" experiments in which children get interested, and the "essential" experiments which can demonstrate the principles of physics. We demonstrate several educational experiments of our group.

  19. A contest to create media messages aimed at recruiting adolescents for stop smoking programs.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Campbell, Heather M; Patten, Christi A; Croghan, Gary A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Novotny, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). Of 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop smoking messages. The quality of their work confirmed that teens can design media messages to encourage their smoking adolescent peers to enroll in a program to stop smoking. PMID:15554118

  20. [The dental professional action and aim to the struggle for large earthquake].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang

    2008-06-01

    On May 12, 2008, a magnitude 8 earthquake struck the eastern Sichuan Province in China. The quake could be felt as far away as Bangkok, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, Shanghai, and Beijing. Officials say that at least 69170 may have been killed and local reports indicate over 374159 injured till June 16, 2008. A study of the dental professional action to the struggle for the Sichuan large earthquake is reported. The dental professional action and aim to the struggle for large earthquake are discussed. It is believed that dental professional personals must make more specific contribution in quake-hit areas in the future via supplies of well organized services. PMID:18661058