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Sample records for impaired bone mineral

  1. Multi-Generational Drinking of Bottled Low Mineral Water Impairs Bone Quality in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hui; Wang, Lingqiao; Wang, Dahua; Luo, Jiaohua; Zhang, Liang; Huang, Yujing; Chen, Ji-an; Shu, Weiqun

    2015-01-01

    Background Because of reproductions and hormone changes, females are more sensitive to bone mineral loss during their lifetime. Bottled water has become more popular in recent years, and a large number of products are low mineral water. However, research on the effects of drinking bottled low mineral water on bone health is sparse. Objective To elucidate the skeletal effects of multi-generational bottled water drinking in female rats. Methods Rats continuously drank tap water (TW), bottled natural water (bNW), bottled mineralized water (bMW), or bottled purified water (bPW) for three generations. Results The maximum deflection, elastic deflection, and ultimate strain of the femoral diaphysis in the bNW, bMW, and bPW groups and the fracture strain in the bNW and bMW groups were significantly decreased. The tibiae calcium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than that in the TW group. The tibiae and teeth magnesium levels in both the bNW and bPW groups were significantly lower than those in the TW group. The collagen turnover markers PICP (in both bNW and bPW groups) were significantly lower than that in the TW group. In all three low mineral water groups, the 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D levels were significantly lower than those in the TW group. Conclusion Long-term drinking of low mineral water may disturb bone metabolism and biochemical properties and therefore weaken biomechanical bone properties in females. Drinking tap water, which contains adequate minerals, was found to be better for bone health. To our knowledge, this is the first report on drinking bottled low mineral water and female bone quality on three generation model. PMID:25803851

  2. Mathematical model for bone mineralization

    PubMed Central

    Komarova, Svetlana V.; Safranek, Lee; Gopalakrishnan, Jay; Ou, Miao-jung Yvonne; McKee, Marc D.; Murshed, Monzur; Rauch, Frank; Zuhr, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Defective bone mineralization has serious clinical manifestations, including deformities and fractures, but the regulation of this extracellular process is not fully understood. We have developed a mathematical model consisting of ordinary differential equations that describe collagen maturation, production and degradation of inhibitors, and mineral nucleation and growth. We examined the roles of individual processes in generating normal and abnormal mineralization patterns characterized using two outcome measures: mineralization lag time and degree of mineralization. Model parameters describing the formation of hydroxyapatite mineral on the nucleating centers most potently affected the degree of mineralization, while the parameters describing inhibitor homeostasis most effectively changed the mineralization lag time. Of interest, a parameter describing the rate of matrix maturation emerged as being capable of counter-intuitively increasing both the mineralization lag time and the degree of mineralization. We validated the accuracy of model predictions using known diseases of bone mineralization such as osteogenesis imperfecta and X-linked hypophosphatemia. The model successfully describes the highly nonlinear mineralization dynamics, which includes an initial lag phase when osteoid is present but no mineralization is evident, then fast primary mineralization, followed by secondary mineralization characterized by a continuous slow increase in bone mineral content. The developed model can potentially predict the function for a mutated protein based on the histology of pathologic bone samples from mineralization disorders of unknown etiology. PMID:26347868

  3. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures. Peripheral DEXA ( ...

  4. Bone mineral density test

    MedlinePlus

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis-BMD ... Bone density testing can be done several ways. The most common and accurate way uses a dual-energy x- ...

  5. Age and disease-related changes in the mineral of bone.

    PubMed

    Grynpas, M

    1993-01-01

    Bone mineralization changes with age and disease. The distribution of mineral particles in a given bone (mineralization profile) has been studied using density fractionation as well as microradiography and electron backscattering imaging. The biological determinant of mineralization is the rate of turnover. During rapid growth and periods of high remodeling, mineralization is shifted towards lower mineral density (hypomineralization). During aging and periods of low remodeling, mineralization is shifted towards higher mineral densities (hypermineralization). Chemicals can also influence the mineralization profile of bone. Fluoride induces hypermineralization by stabilizing the apatite lattice and reducing bone mineral solubility, whereas strontium induces hypomineralization by loosening the apatite lattice and increasing bone mineral solubility. Drugs such as bisphosphonates induce hypermineralization by inhibiting resorption and acting as crystal poison. Finally, mineralization can be impaired by defects as in rickets and osteomalacia or made excessive by continuous accretion of mineral without resorption as in osteopetrosis. PMID:8275381

  6. Bone Mineralization in Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Larussa, Tiziana; Suraci, Evelina; Nazionale, Immacolata; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Imeneo, Maria; Luzza, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Evidence indicates a well-established relationship between low bone mineral density (BMD) and celiac disease (CD), but data on the pathogenesis of bone derangement in this setting are still inconclusive. In patients with symptomatic CD, low BMD appears to be directly related to the intestinal malabsorption. Adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD) will reverse the histological changes in the intestine and also the biochemical evidence of calcium malabsorption, resulting in rapid increase of BMD. Nevertheless, GFD improves BMD but does not normalize it in all patients, even after the recovery of intestinal mucosa. Other mechanisms of bone injury than calcium and vitamin D malabsorption are thought to be involved, such as proinflammatory cytokines, parathyroid function abnormalities, and misbalanced bone remodeling factors, most of all represented by the receptor activator of nuclear factor B/receptor activator of nuclear factor B-ligand/osteoprotegerin system. By means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), it is now rapid and easy to obtain semiquantitative values of BMD. However, the question is still open about who and when submit to DXA evaluation in CD, in order to estimate risk of fractures. Furthermore, additional information on the role of nutritional supplements and alternative therapies is needed. PMID:22737164

  7. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  8. Bone mineral measurement from Apollo experiment M-078. [derangement of bone mineral metabolism in spacecrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, J. M.; Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Loss of mineral from bone during periods of immobilization, recumbency, or weightlessness is examined. This report describes the instrumentation, technique, and bone mineral changes observed preflight and postflight for the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 missions. The bone mineral changes documented during the Apollo Program are reviewed, and their relevance to future missions is discussed.

  9. Mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.

  10. Mineralized Three-Dimensional Bone Constructs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.

  11. Citrate bridges between mineral platelets in bone.

    PubMed

    Davies, Erika; Müller, Karin H; Wong, Wai Ching; Pickard, Chris J; Reid, David G; Skepper, Jeremy N; Duer, Melinda J

    2014-04-01

    We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of calcium phosphate mineral a double salt octacalcium phosphate citrate (OCP-citrate). We use a combination of multinuclear solid-state NMR spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and first principles electronic structure calculations to propose a quantitative structure for this material, in which citrate anions reside in a hydrated layer, bridging between apatitic layers. To assess the relevance of such a structure in native bone mineral, we present for the first time, to our knowledge, (17)O NMR data on bone and compare them with (17)O NMR data for OCP-citrate and other calcium phosphate minerals relevant to bone. The proposed structural model that we deduce from this work for bone mineral is a layered structure with thin apatitic platelets sandwiched between OCP-citrate-like hydrated layers. Such a structure can explain a number of known structural features of bone mineral: the thin, plate-like morphology of mature bone mineral crystals, the presence of significant quantities of strongly bound water molecules, and the relatively high concentration of hydrogen phosphate as well as the maintenance of a disordered region between mineral platelets. PMID:24706850

  12. Bone impairment in oxalosis: An ultrastructural bone analysis.

    PubMed

    Bacchetta, Justine; Farlay, Delphine; Abelin-Genevois, Kariman; Lebourg, Ludivine; Cochat, Pierre; Boivin, Georges

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidney and bone is a hallmark of systemic oxalosis. Since the bone compartment can store massive amounts of oxalate, patients present with recurrent low-trauma fractures, bone deformations, severe bone pains and specific oxalate osteopathy on plain X-ray. Bone biopsy from the iliac crest displays specific features such as oxalate crystals surrounded by a granulomatous reaction due to an invasion of bone surface by macrophages. We present data obtained in 10 samples from 8 patients with oxalosis (16-68 years) who underwent iliac crest bone biopsy and bone quality analysis using modern methods (microradiography, microindentation, Fourier Transform InfraRed Microspectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy) in addition to histomorphometry. Disseminated calcium oxalate deposits (whewellite) were found in the bone marrow space (with a granulomatous reaction) but not in the bone matrix. Calcium oxalate deposits were totally surrounded by macrophages and multinucleated giant cells, and a phagocytosis activity was sometimes observed. Very few calcium oxalate crystals were directly in close contact with the mineral substance of the bone. Bone mineralization was not modified by the presence of calcium oxalate even in close vicinity. Bone quality analysis also revealed a harder bone than normal, perhaps in relationship with decreased carbonate content in the mineral. This increase in bone hardness could explain a more "brittle" bone. In patients with oxalosis, the formation and growth of calcium oxalate crystals in the bone appeared independent of apatite. The mechanisms leading to nucleation and growth of oxalate deposits are still unclear and deserve further studies. PMID:26164477

  13. [Inflammatory bowel disease and bone decreased bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Wada, Yasuyo; Kanai, Takanori

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic bone diseases such as osteopenia and osteoporosis increase the risk of bone fracture that negatively affects quality of life of individuals. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease(IBD), including ulcerative colitis(UC)and Crohn's disease(CD), have been shown to be at increased risk of decreased bone mineral density, however frequency of metabolic bone disease in IBD and identified risk factors are varied among reports. PMID:26503868

  14. Bone mineral measurement: Experiment M078

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Whittle, M. W.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma ray absorptiometric measurements on bone mineral content, in addition to calcium balance studies, were performed on male volunteers during bed rest periods of 24 to 36 weeks duration and compared to Skylab mission data. Results show that mineral losses occur from the bones of the lower extremities during missions of up to 84 days and that in general they follow the loss patterns of the bed rest situation. The level of loss observed in Spacelab crews are not of clinical concern.

  15. Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Research 2012 May 2012 (historical) Baseline Bone Mineral Density Measurements Key to Future Testing Intervals How often a woman should have bone mineral density (BMD) tests to track bone mass is ...

  16. High-strength mineralized collagen artificial bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhi-Ye; Tao, Chun-Sheng; Cui, Helen; Wang, Chang-Ming; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2014-03-01

    Mineralized collagen (MC) is a biomimetic material that mimics natural bone matrix in terms of both chemical composition and microstructure. The biomimetic MC possesses good biocompatibility and osteogenic activity, and is capable of guiding bone regeneration as being used for bone defect repair. However, mechanical strength of existing MC artificial bone is too low to provide effective support at human load-bearing sites, so it can only be used for the repair at non-load-bearing sites, such as bone defect filling, bone graft augmentation, and so on. In the present study, a high strength MC artificial bone material was developed by using collagen as the template for the biomimetic mineralization of the calcium phosphate, and then followed by a cold compression molding process with a certain pressure. The appearance and density of the dense MC were similar to those of natural cortical bone, and the phase composition was in conformity with that of animal's cortical bone demonstrated by XRD. Mechanical properties were tested and results showed that the compressive strength was comparable to human cortical bone, while the compressive modulus was as low as human cancellous bone. Such high strength was able to provide effective mechanical support for bone defect repair at human load-bearing sites, and the low compressive modulus can help avoid stress shielding in the application of bone regeneration. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo implantation assay demonstrated good biocompatibility of the material, and in vivo stability evaluation indicated that this high-strength MC artificial bone could provide long-term effective mechanical support at human load-bearing sites.

  17. Brief Report: HIV Infection Is Associated With Worse Bone Material Properties, Independently of Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Güerri-Fernández, Robert; Molina, Daniel; Villar-García, Judit; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Nogués, Xavier; González-Mena, Alicia; Guelar, Ana; Trenchs-Rodríguez, Marta; Herrera-Fernández, Sabina; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Knobel, Hernando

    2016-07-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-infected individuals has been documented in an increasing number of studies. However, it is not clear whether it is the infection itself or the treatment that causes bone impairment. Microindentation measures bone material strength (Bone Material Strength index) directly. We recruited 85 patients, 50 infected with HIV and 35 controls. Median Bone Material Strength index was 84.5 (interquartile range 83-87) in HIV-infected patients and 90 (88.5-93) in controls (P < 0.001). No significant differences in BMD between cases and controls at any of the sites examined (total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine). HIV infection is associated with bone damage, independently of BMD. PMID:26910501

  18. Bone Mineral Status in Children and Adolescents with Klinefelter Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Stagi, Stefano; Di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Manoni, Cristina; Scalini, Perla; Chiarelli, Francesco; Verrotti, Alberto; Lapi, Elisabetta; Giglio, Sabrina; Dosa, Laura; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Klinefelter syndrome (KS) has long-term consequences on bone health. However, studies regarding bone status and metabolism during childhood and adolescence are very rare. Patients. This cross-sectional study involved 40 (mean age: 13.7 ± 3.8 years) KS children and adolescents and 80 age-matched healthy subjects. For both patient and control groups, we evaluated serum levels of ionised and total calcium, phosphate, total testosterone, luteinising hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations. We also calculated the z-scores of the phalangeal amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SoS) and the bone transmission time (BTT). Results. KS children and adolescents showed significantly reduced AD-SoS (p < 0.005) and BTT (p < 0.0005) z-scores compared to the controls. However, KS patients presented significantly higher PTH (p < 0.0001) and significantly lower 25(OH)D (p < 0.0001), osteocalcin (p < 0.05), and bone alkaline phosphatase levels (p < 0.005). Interestingly, these metabolic bone disorders were already present in the prepubertal subjects. Conclusions. KS children and adolescents exhibited impaired bone mineral status and metabolism with higher PTH levels and a significant reduction of 25-OH-D and bone formation markers. Interestingly, this impairment was already evident in prepubertal KS patients. Follow-ups should be scheduled with KS patients to investigate and ameliorate bone mineral status and metabolism until the prepubertal ages. PMID:27413371

  19. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. ne model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  20. Mathematical Model for the Mineralization of Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Bruce

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the transport and precipitation of mineral in refilling osteons. One goal of this model was to explain calcification 'halos,' in which the bone near the haversian canal is more highly mineralized than the more peripheral lamellae, which have been mineralizing longer. It was assumed that the precipitation rate of mineral is proportional to the difference between the local concentration of calcium ions and an equilibrium concentration and that the transport of ions is by either diffusion or some other concentration gradient-dependent process. Transport of ions was assumed to be slowed by the accumulation of mineral in the matrix along the transport path. The model also mimics bone apposition, slowing of apposition during refilling, and mineralization lag time. It was found that simple diffusion cannot account for the transport of calcium ions into mineralizing bone, because the diffusion coefficient is two orders of magnitude too low. If a more rapid concentration gradient-driven means of transport exists, the model demonstrates that osteonal geometry and variable rate of refilling work together to produce calcification halos, as well as the primary and secondary calcification effect reported in the literature.

  1. Bone mineral changes in the Apollo astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Loss of mineral from bone during periods of immobilization, recumbency or weightlessness have been observed. These losses are more apparent in the lower extremity than the upper and have been observed to exceed 30% in the case of the central os calcis during 36 weeks of bedrest. In early Gemini studies using X-ray densitometry, large losses of bone mineral were observed in the radius and ulna. This observation was not validated in the Apollo 14, 15 and 16 crewmen when a more precise technique, gamma ray absorptiometry, was used. The large losses reported for the early Gemini missions were not seen when this new measuring technique was employed.

  2. [Hyperprolactinaemia and bone mineral density].

    PubMed

    Kostrzak, Anna; Męczekalski, Błażej

    2015-08-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is one of the most common endocrinological disorder at women at the reproductive age. Prolactin is produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary.The main role of prolactin is associated with mamotrophic action and lactogenesis. Hyperprolactinaemia causes several symptoms such as menstrual disorders, infertility, decrease of sexual function, galactorrhea in women and gynecomasty, impotence and decrease of semen quality in men. Recent studies have presented prolactin as a homone involved in many metabolic processes. Long-term consequences of high prolactin serum concentration are related to higher risk of cardiovascular system disease, disturbances in lipid profile and immunological system. Hyperprolactiaemia causes decrease of bone mass density (BMD). High serum prolactin levels lead to increase of the risk of osteopenia or/and osteoporosis. Decrease of BMD results from hypoestrogenism induced by hyperprolactinaemia and also by the direct negative influence of prolactin on bone. Hyperprolactinaemia related to prolactinoma significantly (more than functional hyperprolactiaemia) increases the risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis and bone fractures. Important group of patients threatened by osteoporosis and bone fracture is constituted by women which use antipsychotic drugs (which induce hyperprolactinaemia). Hyperprolactinaemia diagnosed in patients should be treated as soon as possible. Hyperprolactinaemic patients should be diagnosed in the direction of osteopenia and osteoporosis. When diagnosis is confirmed proper treatment is indicated. PMID:26319389

  3. Mineral and bone disorder after kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Taweesedt, Pahnwat T; Disthabanchong, Sinee

    2015-01-01

    After successful kidney transplantation, accumulated waste products and electrolytes are excreted and regulatory hormones return to normal levels. Despite the improvement in mineral metabolites and mineral regulating hormones after kidney transplantation, abnormal bone and mineral metabolism continues to present in most patients. During the first 3 mo, fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and parathyroid hormone levels decrease rapidly in association with an increase in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production. Renal phosphate excretion resumes and serum calcium, if elevated before, returns toward normal levels. FGF-23 excess during the first 3-12 mo results in exaggerated renal phosphate loss and hypophosphatemia occurs in some patients. After 1 year, FGF-23 and serum phosphate return to normal levels but persistent hyperparathyroidism remains in some patients. The progression of vascular calcification also attenuates. High dose corticosteroid and persistent hyperparathyroidism are the most important factors influencing abnormal bone and mineral metabolism in long-term kidney transplant (KT) recipients. Bone loss occurs at a highest rate during the first 6-12 mo after transplantation. Measurement of bone mineral density is recommended in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate > 30 mL/min. The use of active vitamin D with or without bisphosphonate is effective in preventing early post-transplant bone loss. Steroid withdrawal regimen is also beneficial in preservation of bone mass in long-term. Calcimimetic is an alternative therapy to parathyroidectomy in KT recipients with persistent hyperparathyroidism. If parathyroidectomy is required, subtotal to near total parathyroidectomy is recommended. Performing parathyroidectomy during the waiting period prior to transplantation is also preferred in patients with severe hyperparathyroidism associated with hypercalcemia. PMID:26722650

  4. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  5. Bone mineral content in normal US whites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazess, R. B.; Cameron, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Photon absorptiometry with I-125 was used to measure the bone mineral content and the bone width on 763 children between the ages of 5 and 19 years, on 538 adults between the ages of 20 and 49 years, and on 550 adults over the age of 50 years. Measurements were made on the midshaft and the distal end of the radius and the ulna, and on the humerus midshaft. This has permitted analysis of annual bone growth in children, and the rate of change in elderly adults per decade. Male and female children grew at about the same rate until adolescence. After adolescence females grew at a slow rate until the mid-twenties, while males reached adult mineralization by age 20. Males remained relatively constant until the fifties, and females began their decline in the forties.

  6. Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women Heterozygous for the C282Y HFE Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Frances; Fulcher, Greg R.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the HFE gene may be associated with increased tissue iron stores reflected in an elevated serum ferritin. With homozygous mutation C282Y, the increase in serum ferritin may be associated with tissue damage in the liver, pancreas, and pituitary and with a reduced bone mineral density. With heterozygous mutation C282Y, the degree of iron retention is less but information relating to how a heterozygous C282Y mutation might impact bone mineral density is uncertain. The present study was undertaken to study the relationships between bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and the serum ferritin and serum iron in postmenopausal women heterozygous for the C282Y mutation. The spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, was significantly less than age matched community controls (P = 0.016). There was no significant change in the femoral neck bone mineral density compared to age matched community controls. The correlation between the spinal bone mineral density, L2–4, the femoral neck bone mineral density, and the serum ferritin was not significant. The serum iron correlated significantly inversely with the femoral neck bone mineral density (P = 0.048). The heterozygous C282Y mutation may be associated with impairment of bone cell function in postmenopausal women when only small increases in the serum iron or serum ferritin have occurred. PMID:27123357

  7. Kinetic aspects of bone mineral metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Two techniques were studied for measuring changes in bone mass in rats. One technique measures the Ar-37 produced from calcium during neutron irradiation and the other measures the changes in the Na-22 content which has been incorporated within the rat bone. Both methods are performed in VIVO and cause no significant physiological damage. The Ar-37 leaves the body of a rat within an hour after being produced, and it can be quantitatively collected and measured with a precision of - or + 2% on the same rat. With appropriate irradiation conditions it appears that the absolute quantity of calcuim in any rat can be determined within - or + 3% regardless of animal size. The Na-22 when uniformly distributed in bone, can be used to monitor bone mineral turnover and this has been demonstrated in conditions of calcium deficiency during growth and also pregnancy coupled with calcium deficiency.

  8. High resolution bone mineral densitometry with a gamma camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Evans, H.; Jhingran, S.; Johnson, P.

    1983-01-01

    A technique by which the regional distribution of bone mineral can be determined in bone samples from small animals is described. The technique employs an Anger camera interfaced to a medical computer. High resolution imaging is possible by producing magnified images of the bone samples. Regional densitometry of femurs from oophorectomised and bone mineral loss.

  9. Bone mineral content and bone mineral density are lower in older than in younger females with Rett syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although bone mineral deficits have been identified in Rett syndrome (RTT), the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and its association with skeletal fractures and scoliosis has not been characterized fully in girls and women with RTT. Accordingly, we measured total body bone mineral conten...

  10. [Sarcopenia and bone mineral property with age].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Sumito

    2016-08-01

    In order to maintain functional activities in the elderly, promotion of musculoskeletal care is important toward successful aging and healthy longevity. In practice, reduction of falls and fall-related injuries together with treatment of osteoporosis is important to keep activities of daily living. Recent findings suggest the possibility that there is a relationship between skeletal muscle and bone mineral property, represented by pathophysiological linkage between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. PMID:27461501

  11. DXA parameters: beyond bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Briot, Karine

    2013-05-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the reference standard for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) to diagnose osteoporosis. However, BMD measurement alone does not reliably predict the fracture risk. DXA can be used to assess other parameters (e.g. presence of vertebral fractures, bone microarchitecture, bone geometry, and body composition) simultaneously with BMD measurements, to help identify individuals at high fracture risk. Among these parameters, some are suitable for use in clinical practice, whereas others are reserved for research. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) is a very low radiation-dose method for detecting thoracic and lumbar vertebral fractures. Compared to standard radiography, VFA can be used in a broader population to detect asymptomatic vertebral fractures. The very good negative predictive value of VFA leads, in one-third of cases, to changes in patient management (drug treatment and prescription of radiographs). The trabecular bone score (TBS) is a noninvasively measured texture parameter that correlates with 3D bone microarchitecture parameters independently from BMD and that can be determined from lumbar-spine DXA images. Several cross-sectional studies and a prospective study established that the TBS was effective in identifying individuals with fractures. Additional studies will have to be performed to determine whether TBS determination can be recommended for everyday practice when treatment decisions are difficult. PMID:23622733

  12. Bone mineral density, Bone mineral contents, MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels in Human Mandible and alveolar bone: Simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Catalina, Maria

    Exposure to microgravity has been associated with several physiological changes in astronauts and cosmonauts, including an osteoporosis-like loss of bone mass. It has been reported that head-down tilt bed-rest studies mimic many of the observations seen in flights. There is no study on the correlation on effects of mandibular bone and alveolar bone loss in both sex in simulating microgravity. This study was designed to determine the Bone mineral density and GCF MMP-8 MMP-9 in normal healthy subject of both sexes in simulated microgravity condition of -6 head-down-tilt (HDT) bed rest. The subjects of this investigation were 10 male and 10 female volunteers participated in three weeks 6 HDT bed-rest exposure. The Bone density and bone mineral contents were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and in simulated microgravity. The GCF MMP-8 MMP-8 were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Human Quantikine MMP-8,-9 ELISA kit). The bone mineral density and bone mineral contents levels were significantly decreased in simulated microgravity condition in both genders, although insignificantly loss was higher in females as compared to males. MMP-8 MMP-9 levels were significantly increased in simulated microgravity as compared to normal condition although insignificantly higher in females as compared to males. Further study is required on large samples size including all factors effecting in simulated microgravity and microgravity. Keys words-Simulated microgravity condition, head-down-tilt, Bone loss, MMP-8, MMP-9, Bone density, Bone mineral contents.

  13. Effects of Exercise on Bone Mineral Content in Postmenopausal Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikli, Roberta E.; McManis, Beth G.

    1990-01-01

    Study tested the effect of exercise programs on bone mineral content (BMC) and BMC/bone width in 31 postmenopausal women. Subjects were placed in groups with aerobic exercise, aerobics plus upper-body weight training, or no exercise. Results indicate that regular exercise programs positively affect bone mineral maintenance in postmenopausal women.…

  14. Novel anatomic adaptation of cortical bone to meet increased mineral demands of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Macica, Carolyn M; King, Helen E; Wang, Meina; McEachon, Courtney L; Skinner, Catherine W; Tommasini, Steven M

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of reproductive adaptations to mineral homeostasis on the skeleton in a mouse model of compromised mineral homeostasis compared to adaptations in control, unaffected mice. During pregnancy, maternal adaptations to high mineral demand include more than doubling intestinal calcium absorption by increasing calcitriol production. However, calcitriol biosynthesis is impaired in HYP mice, a murine model of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). In addition, there is a paucity of mineralized trabecular bone, a primary target of bone resorption during pregnancy and lactation. Because the highest density of mineral is in mature cortical bone, we hypothesized that mineral demand is met by utilizing intracortical mineral reserves. Indeed, analysis of HYP mice revealed dramatic increases in intracortical porosity characterized by elevated serum PTH and type-I collagen matrix-degrading enzyme MMP-13. We discovered an increase in carbonate ion substitution in the bone mineral matrix during pregnancy and lactation of HYP mice, suggesting an alternative mechanism of bone remodeling that maintains maternal bone mass during periods of high mineral demand. This phenomenon is not restricted to XLH, as increased carbonate in the mineral matrix also occurred in wild-type mice during lactation. Taken together, these data suggest that increased intracortical perilacunar mineral turnover also contributes to maintaining phosphate levels during periods of high mineral demand. Understanding the mechanisms of skeletal contribution to mineral homeostasis is important to improving the treatment and prevention of fracture risk and bone fragility for female patients with XLH, but also provides important insight into the role and unique adaptations of the maternal skeleton to the demands of fetal development and the needs of postnatal nutrition. PMID:26825813

  15. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Bone mineralization by ultrastructural imaging].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tomoka

    2015-10-01

    Bone mineralization can be divided into two phases ; one is primary mineralization associated with osteoblastic bone formation, and the other is secondary mineralization which gradually increases mineral density of bone matrix after the primary mineralization. Primary mineralization is initiated by matrix vesicles synthesized by mature osteoblasts. Crystalline calcium phosphates are nucleated inside these matrix vesicles, and then, get out of them forming spherical mineralized nodule, which can grow more by being supplied with Ca2+ and PO4(3-) (matrix vesicle mineralization). Thereafter, the mineralized nodules make contacts with surrounding collagen fibrils, extending mineralization along with their longitudinal axis from the contact points (collagen mineralization). In this review, the ultrastructural findings on bone mineralization, specially, primary mineralization will be provided. PMID:26412723

  16. Bone mineral density: testing for osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primary osteoporosis is related to bone loss from ageing. Secondary osteoporosis results from specific conditions that may be reversible. A thoracolumbar X-ray is useful in identifying vertebral fractures, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is the preferred method of calculating bone mineral density. The density of the total hip is the best predictor for a hip fracture, while the lumbar spine is the best site for monitoring the effect of treatment. The T-score is a comparison of the patient’s bone density with healthy, young individuals of the same sex. A negative T-score of –2.5 or less at the femoral neck defines osteoporosis. The Z-score is a comparison with the bone density of people of the same age and sex as the patient. A negative Z-score of –2.5 or less should raise suspicion of a secondary cause of osteoporosis. Clinical risk calculators can be used to predict the 10-year probability of a hip or major osteoporotic fracture. A probability of more than 5% for the hip or more than 20% for any fracture is abnormal and treatment may be warranted. PMID:27340320

  17. [Bone turnover and mineralization in patients with kidney failure].

    PubMed

    James, Junichiro

    2016-09-01

    Bone remodeling is a device to accomplish "the buffering of the extracellular fluid mineral", which is one of the two major physiological functions of bone. Bone turnover is a term to express the frequency of bone remodeling, and its last step is calcification. When remodeling is induced, at first a large amount of mineral is released from bone to extracellular fluid transiently, and thereafter mineral is slowly and steadily drawn into bone. The extracellular minerals, especially calcium, are maintained by this repetition. When kidney is injured, bone turnover takes a wide spectrum from remarkably high cases to low cases. Primary calcification also shows marked individual differences. The classic renal bone diseases 5 classification clearly categorizes these disease condition, which is synonymous with renal osteodystrophy today. PMID:27561340

  18. Hypermineralized whale rostrum as the exemplar for bone mineral

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Pasteris, Jill D.; Novack, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Although bone is a nanocomposite of mineral and collagen, mineral has been the more elusive component to study. A standard for bone mineral clearly is needed. We hypothesized that the most natural, least-processed bone mineral could be retrieved from the most highly mineralized bone. We therefore studied the rostrum of the toothed whale Mesoplodon densirostris, which has the densest recognized bone. Essential to establishment of a standard for bone mineral is documentation that the proposed tissue is bone-like in all properties except for its remarkably high concentration of mineral. Transmitted-light microscopy of unstained sections of rostral material shows normal bone morphology in osteon geometry, lacunae concentration, and vasculature development. Stained sections reveal extremely low density of thin collagen fibers throughout most of the bone, but enrichment in and thicker collagen fibers around vascular holes and in a minority of osteons. FE-SEM shows the rostrum to consist mostly of dense mineral prisms. Most rostral areas have the same chemical-structural features, Raman spectroscopically dominated by strong bands at ~962 Δcm−1 and weak bands at ~2940 Δcm−1. Spectral features indicate that the rostrum is composed mainly of the calcium phosphate mineral apatite and has only about 4 wt.% organic content. The degree of carbonate substitution (~8.5 wt.% carbonate) in the apatite is in the upper range found in most types of bone. We conclude that, despite its enamel-like extraordinarily high degree of mineralization, the rostrum is in all other features bone-like. Its mineral component is the long-sought uncontaminated, unaltered exemplar of bone mineral. PMID:23586370

  19. Hypermineralized whale rostrum as the exemplar for bone mineral.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Pasteris, Jill D; Novack, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Although bone is a nanocomposite of mineral and collagen, mineral has been the more elusive component of study. A standard for bone mineral is clearly needed. We hypothesized that the most natural, least-processed bone mineral could be retrieved from the most highly mineralized bone. We therefore studied the rostrum of the toothed whale Mesoplodon densirostris, which has the densest recognized bone. Essential to establishment of a standard for bone mineral is the documentation that the proposed tissue is bone-like in all properties except for its remarkably high concentration of mineral. Transmitted-light microscopy of unstained sections of rostral material shows normal bone morphology in osteon geometry, lacunae concentration, and vasculature development. Stained sections reveal extremely low density of thin collagen fibers in most of the bone, but enrichment of thicker collagen fibers around vascular holes and in a minority of osteons. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy shows the rostrum mostly consists of dense mineral prisms. Most rostral areas have the same chemical-structural features, i.e., Raman spectroscopically dominated by strong bands at ∼962 Δcm(-1) and weak bands at ∼2940 Δcm(-1). Spectral features indicate that the rostrum is composed mainly of the calcium phosphate mineral apatite and has only about 4 wt.% organic content. The degree of carbonate substitution (∼8.5 wt.% carbonate) in the apatite is in the upper range found in most types of bone. We conclude that, despite its enamel-like extraordinarily high degree of mineralization, the rostrum is in all other features bone-like. Its mineral component is the long-sought uncontaminated, unaltered exemplar of bone mineral. PMID:23586370

  20. Hypermineralized whale rostrum as the exemplar for bone mineral.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Pasteris, Jill D; Novack, Deborah

    2013-01-25

    Although bone is a nanocomposite of mineral and collagen, mineral has been the more elusive component to study. A standard for bone mineral clearly is needed. We hypothesized that the most natural, least-processed bone mineral could be retrieved from the most highly mineralized bone. We therefore studied the rostrum of the toothed whale Mesoplodon densirostris, which has the densest recognized bone. Essential to establishment of a standard for bone mineral is documentation that the proposed tissue is bone-like in all properties except for its remarkably high concentration of mineral. Transmitted-light microscopy of unstained sections of rostral material shows normal bone morphology in osteon geometry, lacunae concentration, and vasculature development. Stained sections reveal extremely low density of thin collagen fibers throughout most of the bone, but enrichment in and thicker collagen fibers around vascular holes and in a minority of osteons. FE-SEM shows the rostrum to consist mostly of dense mineral prisms. Most rostral areas have the same chemical-structural features, Raman spectroscopically dominated by strong bands at ∼962 Δcm(-1) and weak bands at ∼2940 Δcm(-1). Spectral features indicate that the rostrum is composed mainly of the calcium phosphate mineral apatite and has only about 4 wt.% organic content. The degree of carbonate substitution (∼8.5 wt.% carbonate) in the apatite is in the upper range found in most types of bone. We conclude that, despite its enamel-like extraordinarily high degree of mineralization, the rostrum is in all other features bone-like. Its mineral component is the long-sought uncontaminated, unaltered exemplar of bone mineral. PMID:23350666

  1. Isotopic bone mineralization rates in maintenance dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, M.; Stephens, E.

    1983-09-01

    The expanding pool model of radiocalcium kinetics has been used in 13 maintenance dialysis patients to measure bone mineralization rate. No difficulties were met in applying the data to the model, and values for the bone mineralization rate ranged from 0.0 to 2.0 mmol/kg Ca++ per day. The bone histology obtained at the time of the study showed a correlation between the degree of secondary hyperparathyroidism and the bone mineralization rate, with low values of the latter occurring in atypical osteomalacia (two patients) or inactive-looking bone (one patient) and raised values in seven patients. The plasma alkaline phosphatase and immunoassayable parathyroid hormone levels each correlated significantly with the bone mineralization rate. These findings suggest that the technique is valid when applied to hemodialysis patients and provides quantitative information about skeletal calcium metabolism in different types of renal bone disease.

  2. Minerals

    MedlinePlus

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including building bones, making ... regulating your heartbeat. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and trace minerals. Macrominerals are minerals your ...

  3. Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics affect mineral absorption, bone mineral content, and bone structure.

    PubMed

    Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E; Ade, Peter; Marten, Berit; Weber, Petra; Timm, Wolfram; Açil, Yahya; Glüer, Claus-C; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2007-03-01

    Several studies in animals and humans have shown positive effects of nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO) on mineral absorption and metabolism and bone composition and architecture. These include inulin, oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, soybean oligosaccharide, and also resistant starches, sugar alcohols, and difructose anhydride. A positive outcome of dietary prebiotics is promoted by a high dietary calcium content up to a threshold level and an optimum amount and composition of supplemented prebiotics. There might be an optimum composition of fructooligosaccharides with different chain lengths (synergy products). The efficacy of dietary prebiotics depends on chronological age, physiological age, menopausal status, and calcium absorption capacity. There is evidence for an independent probiotic effect on facilitating mineral absorption. Synbiotics, i.e., a combination of probiotics and prebiotics, can induce additional effects. Whether a low content of habitual NDO would augment the effect of dietary prebiotics or synbiotics remains to be studied. The underlying mechanisms are manifold: increased solubility of minerals because of increased bacterial production of short-chain fatty acids, which is promoted by the greater supply of substrate; an enlargement of the absorption surface by promoting proliferation of enterocytes mediated by bacterial fermentation products, predominantly lactate and butyrate; increased expression of calcium-binding proteins; improvement of gut health; degradation of mineral complexing phytic acid; release of bone-modulating factors such as phytoestrogens from foods; stabilization of the intestinal flora and ecology, also in the presence of antibiotics; stabilization of the intestinal mucus; and impact of modulating growth factors such as polyamines. In conclusion, prebiotics are the most promising but also best investigated substances with respect to a bone-health-promoting potential, compared with probiotics

  4. Bone mineral measurement using dual energy x ray densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Bone mineral measurements before and after space missions have shown that weightlessness greatly accelerates bone demineralization. Bone mineral losses as high as 1 to 3 percent per month were reported. Highly precise instrumentation is required to monitor this loss and thereby test the efficacy of treatment. During the last year, a significant improvement was made in Dual-Photon Absorptiometry by replacing the radioactive source with an x ray tube. Advantages of this system include: better precision, lower patient dose, better spacial resolution, and shorter scan times. The high precision and low radiation dose of this technique will allow detection of bone mineral changes of less than 1 percent with measurements conducted directly at the sites of interest. This will allow the required bone mineral studies to be completed in a shorter time with greater confidence.

  5. Short-Term Effects of TNF Inhibitors on Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Mineral Density in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Orsolini, Giovanni; Adami, Giovanni; Adami, Silvano; Viapiana, Ombretta; Idolazzi, Luca; Gatti, Davide; Rossini, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    TNFα inhibitors (TNFαI) exert positive effects on disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Bone involvement is a major determinant of functional impairment in this disease. Here we investigated the short-term effects of TNFαI therapy on bone metabolism and density. We studied 54 patients with RA starting a TNFαI biologic drug, in whom any factor known to interfere with bone metabolism was excluded or rigorously accounted for. We measured at baseline and after 6-month therapy bone turnover markers: N-propeptide of type I collagen (P1NP), and bone alkaline phosphates for bone formation and serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) for bone resorption. We also evaluated bone mineral density (BMD) at hip and lumbar by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All bone markers rose significantly and these changes were not dependent on steroid dosage. A significant decrease in femoral neck BMD was also observed. These results indicate that TNFαI therapy in RA over 6 months is associated with an early increase in bone turnover and a decline in hip BMD. PMID:26887973

  6. Molecular packing in bone collagen fibrils prior to mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Benjamin; Zhou, Hong-Wen; Burger, Christian; Chu, Benjamin; Glimcher, Melvin J.

    2012-02-01

    The three-dimensional packing of collagen molecules in bone collagen fibrils has been largely unknown because even in moderately mineralized bone tissues, the organic matrix structure is severely perturbed by the deposition of mineral crystals. During the past decades, the structure of tendon collagen (e.g. rat tail) --- a tissue that cannot mineralize in vivo, has been assumed to be representative for bone collagen fibrils. Small-angle X-ray diffraction analysis of the native, uncalcified intramuscular fish bone has revealed a new molecular packing scheme, significantly different from the quasi-hexagonal arrangement often found in tendons. The deduced structure in bone collagen fibrils indicates the presence of spatially discrete microfibrils, and an arrangement of intrafibrillar space to form ``channels'', which could accommodate crystals with dimensions typically found in bone apatite.

  7. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Bates, Kristyn A.; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S.; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R.; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Bird, Sabine M.; Brown, Belinda M.; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Foster, Jonathan K.; Martins, Ian J.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M.; Martins, Ralph N.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34–87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  8. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Hamid R; Bates, Kristyn A; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Rodrigues, Mark A; Bird, Sabine M; Brown, Belinda M; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M; Martins, Ralph N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34-87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  9. Stanozolol Decreases Bone Turnover Markers, Increases Mineralization, and Alters Femoral Geometry in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Nebot, E; Aparicio, V A; Camiletti-Moirón, D; Martinez, R; Erben, R G; Kapravelou, G; Sánchez-González, C; De Teresa, C; Porres, J M; López-Jurado, M; Aranda, P; Pietschmann, P

    2016-06-01

    Stanozonol (ST) is a synthetic derivative of testosterone; it has anabolic/androgenic activity, increasing both the turnover of trabecular bone and the endocortical apposition of bone. The present study aimed to examine the effects of ST on bone status in rats by bone mineral content, markers of formation and resorption, bone density, and structural and microarchitectural parameters. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two experimental groups corresponding to placebo or ST administration, which consisted of weekly intramuscular injections of 10 mg/kg body weight of ST. Plasma parameters were analyzed by immunoassay. Bone mineral content was determined by spectrophotometry. Bone mineral density (BMD) and structural parameters were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and trabecular and cortical microarchitecture by micro-computed tomography. Plasma Ca, Mg, and alkaline phosphatase were higher, and urinary Ca excretion, corticosterone, and testosterone concentrations lower in the ST group. Femur Ca content was higher and P content was lower in the ST, whereas osteocalcin, aminoterminal propeptides of type I procollagen, and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen were lower. Total cross-sectional, trabecular, and cortical/subcortical areas were lower in the ST. No differences were observed on BMD and area parameters of the diaphysis as well as on trabecular and cortical microarchitecture. The use of ST increases bone mineralization, ash percentage, and Ca and Mg content in femur. In spite of an absence of changes in BMD, geometric metaphyseal changes were observed. We conclude that ST alters bone geometry, leads to low bone turnover, and thus may impair bone quality. PMID:26801156

  10. Method for improved prediction of bone fracture risk using bone mineral density in structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cann, Christopher E. (Inventor); Faulkner, Kenneth G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A non-invasive in-vivo method of analyzing a bone for fracture risk includes obtaining data from the bone such as by computed tomography or projection imaging which data represents a measure of bone material characteristics such as bone mineral density. The distribution of the bone material characteristics is used to generate a finite element method (FEM) mesh from which load capability of the bone can be determined. In determining load capability, the bone is mathematically compressed, and stress, strain force, force/area versus bone material characteristics are determined.

  11. Dependence of Long Bone Flexural Properties on Bone Mineral Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, BethAnn; Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.; Connolly, James P. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess whether a non-invasive determination of long bone cross-sectional areal properties using bone densitometry accurately estimates true long bone flexural properties. In this study, section properties of two pairs of human female embalmed tibiae were compared using two methods: special analysis of bone densitometry data, and experimental determination of flexural regidities from bone surface strain measurements during controlled loading.

  12. Increased calcium content and inhomogeneity of mineralization render bone toughness in osteoporosis: mineralization, morphology and biomechanics of human single trabeculae.

    PubMed

    Busse, Björn; Hahn, Michael; Soltau, Markus; Zustin, Jozef; Püschel, Klaus; Duda, Georg N; Amling, Michael

    2009-12-01

    showed biomechanically beneficial properties due to a homogeneous mineralization configuration, whereas osteoporotic trabeculae predominantly demonstrated various mineralized bone packets, eroded surfaces, highly mineralized cement lines and microcracks. The Young's moduli of single trabeculae exhibited significantly negative linear correlations with trabecular thickness. Because of increased, but inhomogeneously distributed, calcium content, osteoporotic trabeculae may be subject to shear stresses that render bone fragile beyond structure impairment due to cracks and lacunae. PMID:19679206

  13. Effects of simulated weightlessness on bone mineral metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Bikle, D. D.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that prolonged space flight, bedrest, and immobilization are three factors which can produce a negative calcium balance, osteopenia, and an inhibition of bone formation. It is not known whether the effects of gravity on bone mineral metabolism are mediated by systemic endocrine factors which affect all bones simultaneously, or by local factors which affect each bone individually. The present investigation has the objective to test the relative importance of local vs. systemic factors in regulating the bone mineral response to conditions simulating weightlessness. Experiments were conducted with male Sprague-Dawley rats. The test conditions made it possible to compare the data from weighted and unweighted bones in the same animal. The obtained findings indicate that a decrease in bone mass relative to control value occurs rapidly under conditions which simulate certain aspects of weightlessness. However, this decrease reaches a plateau after 10 days.

  14. Autophagy in osteoblasts is involved in mineralization and bone homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nollet, Marie; Santucci-Darmanin, Sabine; Breuil, Véronique; Al-Sahlanee, Rasha; Cros, Chantal; Topi, Majlinda; Momier, David; Samson, Michel; Pagnotta, Sophie; Cailleteau, Laurence; Battaglia, Séverine; Farlay, Delphine; Dacquin, Romain; Barois, Nicolas; Jurdic, Pierre; Boivin, Georges; Heymann, Dominique; Lafont, Frank; Lu, Shi Shou; Dempster, David W; Carle, Georges F; Pierrefite-Carle, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Bone remodeling is a tightly controlled mechanism in which osteoblasts (OB), the cells responsible for bone formation, osteoclasts (OC), the cells specialized for bone resorption, and osteocytes, the multifunctional mechanosensing cells embedded in the bone matrix, are the main actors. Increased oxidative stress in OB, the cells producing and mineralizing bone matrix, has been associated with osteoporosis development but the role of autophagy in OB has not yet been addressed. This is the goal of the present study. We first show that the autophagic process is induced in OB during mineralization. Then, using knockdown of autophagy-essential genes and OB-specific autophagy-deficient mice, we demonstrate that autophagy deficiency reduces mineralization capacity. Moreover, our data suggest that autophagic vacuoles could be used as vehicles in OB to secrete apatite crystals. In addition, autophagy-deficient OB exhibit increased oxidative stress and secretion of the receptor activator of NFKB1 (TNFSF11/RANKL), favoring generation of OC, the cells specialized in bone resorption. In vivo, we observed a 50% reduction in trabecular bone mass in OB-specific autophagy-deficient mice. Taken together, our results show for the first time that autophagy in OB is involved both in the mineralization process and in bone homeostasis. These findings are of importance for mineralized tissues which extend from corals to vertebrates and uncover new therapeutic targets for calcified tissue-related metabolic pathologies. PMID:25484092

  15. Bone mineral density testing after fragility fracture

    PubMed Central

    Posen, Joshua; Beaton, Dorcas E.; Sale, Joanna; Bogoch, Earl R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the proportion of patients with fragility fractures who can be expected to have low bone mineral density (BMD) at the time of fracture and to assist FPs in deciding whether to refer patients for BMD testing. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched from the earliest available dates through September 2009. Study selection English-language articles reporting BMD test results of patients with fragility fractures who were managed in an orthopedic environment (eg, fracture clinic, emergency management by orthopedic surgeons, inpatients) were eligible for review. While the orthopedic environment has been identified as an ideal point for case finding, FPs are often responsible for investigation and treatment. Factors that potentially influenced BMD test results (eg, selection of fracture types, exclusion criteria) were identified. Studies with 2 or more selection factors of potential influence were flagged, and rates of low BMD were calculated including and excluding these studies. Synthesis The distribution of the proportion of persons with low BMD was summarized across studies using descriptive statistics. We calculated lower boundaries on this distribution, using standard statistical thresholds, to determine a lower threshold of the expected rate of low BMD. Conclusion Family physicians evaluating patients with fragility fractures can expect that at least two-thirds of patients with fragility fractures who are older than 50 years of age will have low BMD (T score ≤ −1.0). With this a priori expectation, FPs might more readily conduct a fracture risk assessment and pursue warranted fracture risk reduction strategies following fragility fracture. PMID:24336562

  16. Management of Minerals and Bone Disorders after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Molnar, Miklos Z; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mucsi, Istvan; Bunnapradist, Suphamai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Mineral and bone disorders (MBD), inherent complications of moderate and advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), occur frequently in kidney transplant recipients. However, much confusion exists about clinical application of diagnostic tools and preventive or treatment strategies to correct bone loss or mineral disarrays in transplanted patients. We have reviewed the recent evidence about prevalence and consequences of MBD in kidney transplant recipients and examined diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic options to this end. Recent findings Low turnover bone disease occurs more frequently after kidney transplantation according to bone biopsy studies. The risk of fracture is high, especially in the first several months after kidney transplantation. Alterations in minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) and biomarkers of bone metabolism (PTH, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D and FGF-23) are observed with varying impact on post-transplant outcomes. Calcineurin inhibitors are linked to osteoporosis, whereas steroid therapy may lead to both osteoporosis and varying degrees of osteonecrosis. Sirolimus and everolimus might have a bearing on osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation or decreasing osteoclast mediated bone resorption. Selected pharmacologic interventions for treatment of MBD in transplant patients include steroid withdrawal, the use of bisphosphonates, vitamin D derivatives, calcimimetics, teriparatide, calcitonin and denosumab. Summary MBD following kidney transplantation is common and characterized by loss of bone volume and mineralization abnormalities often leading to low turnover bone disease. Although there are no well-established therapeutic approaches for management of MBD in renal transplant recipients, clinicians should continue individualizing therapy as needed. PMID:22614626

  17. Bone mineralization pathways during the rapid growth of embryonic chicken long bones.

    PubMed

    Kerschnitzki, Michael; Akiva, Anat; Ben Shoham, Adi; Asscher, Yotam; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Fratzl, Peter; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve

    2016-07-01

    The uptake and transport of ions from the environment to the site of bone formation is only partially understood and, for the most part, based on disparate observations in different animals. Here we study different aspects of the biomineralization pathways in one system, the rapidly forming long bones of the chicken embryo. We mainly used cryo-fixation and cryo-electron imaging to preserve the often unstable mineral phases in the tissues. We show the presence of surprisingly large amounts of mineral particles located inside membrane-delineated vesicles in the bone forming tissue between the blood vessels and the forming bone surface. Some of these particles are also located inside mitochondrial networks. The surfaces of the forming bones in the extracellular space contain abundant aggregates of amorphous calcium phosphate particles, but these are not enveloped by vesicle membranes. In the bone resorbing region, osteoclasts also contain many particles in both mitochondrial networks and within vesicles. Some of these particles are present also between cells. These observations, together with the previously reported observation that CaP mineral particles inside membranes are present in blood vessels, leads us to the conclusion that important components of the bone mineralization pathways in rapidly forming chicken bone are dense phase mineral particles bound within membranes. It remains to be determined whether these mineral particles are transported to the site of bone formation in the solid state, fluid state or dissolve and re-precipitate. PMID:27108185

  18. Impairment of Bone Health in Pediatric Patients with Hemolytic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Schündeln, Michael M.; Goretzki, Sarah C.; Hauffa, Pia K.; Wieland, Regina; Bauer, Jens; Baeder, Lena; Eggert, Angelika; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Grasemann, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sickle cell anemia and thalassemia result in impaired bone health in both adults and youths. Children with other types of chronic hemolytic anemia may also display impaired bone health. Study Design To assess bone health in pediatric patients with chronic hemolytic anemia, a cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 patients with different forms of hemolytic anemia (i.e., 17 homozygous sickle cell disease and 14 hereditary spherocytosis patients). Biochemical, radiographic and anamnestic parameters of bone health were assessed. Results Vitamin D deficiency with 25 OH-vitamin D serum levels below 20 ng/ml was a common finding (80.5%) in this cohort. Bone pain was present in 31% of patients. Analysis of RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteocalcin levels indicated an alteration in bone modeling with significantly elevated RANKL/OPG ratios (control: 0.08+0.07; patients: 0.26+0.2, P = 0.0007). Osteocalcin levels were found to be lower in patients compared with healthy controls (68.5+39.0 ng/ml vs. 118.0+36.6 ng/ml, P = 0.0001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed a significant (P<0.025) influence of LDH (partial r2 = 0.29), diagnosis of hemolytic anemia (partial r2 = 0.05) and age (partial r2 = 0.03) on osteocalcin levels. Patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were more frequently and more severely affected by impaired bone health than patients with hereditary spherocytosis. Conclusion Bone health is impaired in pediatric patients with hemolytic anemia. In addition to endocrine alterations, an imbalance in the RANKL/OPG system and low levels of osteocalcin may contribute to this impairment. PMID:25299063

  19. Bone loss without the loss of bone mineral material? A new perspective on anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Bolotin, H H

    2009-06-01

    Since the advent on non-invasive in vivo clinical bone densitometry, investigators have reported that regional bone mineral material loss accompanies the onset and continuance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Initial single-energy photon absorptiometric (SPA) studies were followed by a succession of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric (DXA) investigations, and a few single-energy quantitative computer assisted tomographic (SEQCT) bone densitometry vertebral measurements. Although most all DXA studies found a relatively small diminution (approximately 3%) of bone mineral material at lumbar vertebral and proximal femoral bone-sites of AN-afflicted adolescent girls and young women, these findings have been consensually interpreted and near-universally accepted as losses of actual bone mineral material accompanying AN. It has also been claimed by some that about 50% of those beset by AN while still young adolescents were osteoporotic. Nonetheless, over the last intervening 2 decades of these studies, no specific underlying direct bone-biological causal link between AN and trabecular bone material loss has yet been uncovered. The present exposition shows that in vivo SPA, DXA, and SEQCT measurements of bone mineral material losses do not constitute evidence of actual loss of bone material, and that the attribution of osteopenia and osteoporosis to AN-afflicted younger adolescent girls is not sustainable. Rather, the full gamut of these reported bone material "losses" can be accounted for by the already well-documented AN-induced changes in the anthropometrics and compositional mixes of extra-osseous soft tissues (primarily in a very noticeable reduction of extra-skeletal fat) and intra-osseous bone marrow yellowing (marrow hypoplasia and marrow cell necrosis). These changes in soft tissue compositions and anthropometrics alone have been shown to be sufficient to cause in vivo SPA, DXA, and SEQCT to systematically mis-estimate true bone material density and erroneously register

  20. Mechanical properties of nacre and highly mineralized bone.

    PubMed Central

    Currey, J D; Zioupos, P; Davies, P; Casino, A

    2001-01-01

    We compared the mechanical properties of 'ordinary' bovine bone, the highly mineralized bone of the rostrum of the whale Mesoplodon densirostris, and mother of pearl (nacre) of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera. The rostrum and the nacre are similar in having very little organic material. However, the rostral bone is much weaker and more brittle than nacre, which in these properties is close to ordinary bone. The ability of nacre to outperform rostral bone is the result of its extremely well-ordered microstructure, with organic material forming a nearly continuous jacket round all the tiny aragonite plates, a design well adapted to produce toughness. In contrast, in the rostrum the organic material, mainly collagen, is poorly organized and discontinuous, allowing the mineral to join up to form, in effect, a brittle stony material. PMID:12123292

  1. Adynamic Bone Decreases Bone Toughness During Aging by Affecting Mineral and Matrix.

    PubMed

    Ng, Adeline H; Omelon, Sidney; Variola, Fabio; Allo, Bedilu; Willett, Thomas L; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2016-02-01

    Adynamic bone is the most frequent type of bone lesion in patients with chronic kidney disease; long-term use of antiresorptive therapy may also lead to the adynamic bone condition. The hallmark of adynamic bone is a loss of bone turnover, and a major clinical concern of adynamic bone is diminished bone quality and an increase in fracture risk. Our current study aims to investigate how bone quality changes with age in our previously established mouse model of adynamic bone. Young and old mice (4 months old and 16 months old, respectively) were used in this study. Col2.3Δtk (DTK) mice were treated with ganciclovir and pamidronate to create the adynamic bone condition. Bone quality was evaluated using established techniques including bone histomorphometry, microcomputed tomography, quantitative backscattered electron imaging, and biomechanical testing. Changes in mineral and matrix properties were examined by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Aging controls had a natural decline in bone formation and resorption with a corresponding deterioration in trabecular bone structure. Bone turnover was severely blunted at all ages in adynamic animals, which preserved trabecular bone loss normally associated with aging. However, the preservation of trabecular bone mass and structure in old adynamic mice did not rescue deterioration of bone mechanical properties. There was also a decrease in cortical bone toughness in old adynamic mice that was accompanied by a more mature collagen matrix and longer bone crystals. Little is known about the effects of metabolic bone disease on bone fracture resistance. We observed an age-related decrease in bone toughness that was worsened by the adynamic condition, and this decrease may be due to material level changes at the tissue level. Our mouse model may be useful in the investigation of the mechanisms involved in fractures occurring in elderly patients on antiresorptive therapy who have very low bone turnover. PMID:26332924

  2. Total body bone mineral density in young children: influence of head bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A; Konrad, P T; Norman, M E; Harcke, H T

    1997-04-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with its short scan time, low radiation dose, and high precision and accuracy have made this technique particularly suitable for measuring total body bone mineral density (TBMD) in children. Other published reports have related TBMD to age in children 2-18 years of age. However, in young normal children aged 2-9 years (51 girls, 43 boys), we found that regression equations for TBMD with age as the predictor did not explain enough of the variance to warrant their use for predicting TBMD (adjusted R2 0.47, females; 0.41, males). Subtotal BMD (TBMD-head BMD) is predicted better by age because of a possibly invalid adult algorithm for head BMD (adjusted R2 0.73, females; 0.71, males). PMID:9101377

  3. Bone mineral measurement, experiment M078. [space flight effects on human bone composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Vogel, J. M.; Ullmann, J.; Brown, S.; Kolb, F., III

    1973-01-01

    Measurement tests revealed few deviations from baseline bone mineral measurements after 56 days in a Skylab-type environment. No mineral change was observed in the right radius. One individual, however, showed a possible mineral loss in the left os calcis and another gained mineral in the right ulna. The cause of the gain is unclear but may be attributable to the heavy exercise routines engaged in by the crewmember in question. Equipment problems were identified during the experiment and rectified.

  4. Effects of delaying puberty on bone mineralization in female rats.

    PubMed

    Rakover, Y; Lu, P; Briody, J N; Tao, C; Weiner, E; Ederveen, A G; Cowell, C T; Ben-Shlomo, I

    2000-07-01

    The effect of delaying puberty on bone mineralization was studied using female rats as a model. Repeated injections of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRHa) were used to suppress the onset of puberty from the age of 6-10 weeks. A group of control female rats was given aqueous solution injections at the same age and for the same duration. The effect of delaying puberty on bone mineralization was examined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (QCT), both methods being adapted for small animals. Bone mineral parameters were measured at baseline and at the ages of 10, 17 and 24 weeks in total body, femur and spine. Compared to controls, bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by DXA, were significantly decreased in GnRHa-treated rats in total body and femur at 10 and 24 weeks of age (P < 0.05). The results were even more significant after adjusting for weight. After this adjustment, spine BMC and BMD at 10, 17 and 24 weeks were significantly lower in the treatment group (P < 0.05). Trabecular BMD at the distal femur in the GnRHa treated group as measured by peripheral QCT was significantly lower (P < 0.05). However, cortical bone in the mid-femur had higher BMD, concurrent with lower cortical thickness in the treatment group. In conclusion, a delay in the onset of sexual maturation may cause prolonged, possibly irreversible defect in bone mineralization. PMID:10875850

  5. Chronic Kidney Disease Impairs Bone Defect Healing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiqing; Kang, Ning; Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee; Dong, Yuliang; Zhou, Liyan; Lin, Yunfeng; Ye, Ling; Liang, Xing; Yuan, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been regarded as a risk for bone health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CKD on bone defect repair in rats. Uremia was induced by subtotal renal ablation, and serum levels of BUN and PTH were significantly elevated four weeks after the second renal surgery. Calvarial defects of 5-mm diameter were created and implanted with or without deproteinized bovine bone mineral (DBBM). Micro-CT and histological analyses consistently revealed a decreased newly regenerated bone volume for CKD rats after 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, 1.4-mm-diameter cortical bone defects were established in the distal end of femora and filled with gelatin sponge. CKD rats exhibited significantly lower values of regenerated bone and bone mineral density (BMD) within the cortical gap after 2 and 4 weeks. Moreover, histomorphometric analysis showed an increase in both osteoblast number (N.Ob/B.Pm) and osteoclast number (N.Oc/B.Pm) in CKD groups due to hyperparathyroidism. Notably, collagen maturation was delayed in CKD rats as verified by Masson’s Trichrome staining. These data indicate that declined renal function negatively affects bone regeneration in both calvarial and femoral defects. PMID:26955758

  6. Skeletal overexpression of gremlin impairs bone formation and causes osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Pereira, Renata C; Jorgetti, Vanda; Olson, Sarah; Economides, Aris N; Canalis, Ernesto

    2005-02-01

    Skeletal cells synthesize bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and BMP antagonists. Gremlin, a BMP antagonist, is expressed in osteoblasts and opposes BMP effects on osteoblastic differentiation and function in vitro. However, its effects in vivo are not known. To investigate the actions of gremlin on bone remodeling in vivo, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing gremlin under the control of the osteocalcin promoter. Gremlin transgenics exhibited bone fractures and reduced bone mineral density by 20-30%, compared with controls. Static and dynamic histomorphometry of femurs revealed that gremlin overexpression caused reduced trabecular bone volume and the appearance of woven bone. Polarized light microscopy revealed disorganized collagen bundles at the endosteal cortical surface. Gremlin transgenic mice displayed a 70% decrease in the number of osteoblasts/trabecular area and reduced mineral apposition and bone formation rates. In vivo bromodeoxyuridine labeling and marrow stromal cell cultures demonstrated an inhibitory effect of gremlin on osteoblastic cell replication, but no change on apoptosis was detected. Marrow stromal cells from gremlin transgenics displayed a reduced response to BMP on phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic 1/5/8 phosphorylation and reduced free cytosolic beta-catenin levels. In conclusion, transgenic mice overexpressing gremlin in the bone microenvironment have decreased osteoblast number and function leading to osteopenia and spontaneous fractures. PMID:15539560

  7. Targeted delivery to bone and mineral deposits using bisphosphonate ligands.

    PubMed

    Cole, Lisa E; Vargo-Gogola, Tracy; Roeder, Ryan K

    2016-04-01

    The high concentration of mineral present in bone and pathological calcifications is unique compared with all other tissues and thus provides opportunity for targeted delivery of pharmaceutical drugs, including radiosensitizers and imaging probes. Targeted delivery enables accumulation of a high local dose of a therapeutic or imaging contrast agent to diseased bone or pathological calcifications. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most widely utilized bone-targeting ligand due to exhibiting high binding affinity to hydroxyapatite mineral. BPs can be conjugated to an agent that would otherwise have little or no affinity for the sites of interest. This article summarizes the current state of knowledge and practice for the use of BPs as ligands for targeted delivery to bone and mineral deposits. The clinical history of BPs is briefly summarized to emphasize the success of these molecules as therapeutics for metabolic bone diseases. Mechanisms of binding and the relative binding affinity of various BPs to bone mineral are introduced, including common methods for measuring binding affinity in vitro and in vivo. Current research is highlighted for the use of BP ligands for targeted delivery of BP conjugates in various applications, including (1) therapeutic drug delivery for metabolic bone diseases, bone cancer, other bone diseases, and engineered drug delivery platforms; (2) imaging probes for scintigraphy, fluorescence, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and computed tomography; and (3) radiotherapy. Last, and perhaps most importantly, key structure-function relationships are considered for the design of drugs with BP ligands, including the tether length between the BP and drug, the size of the drug, the number of BP ligands per drug, cleavable tethers between the BP and drug, and conjugation schemes. PMID:26482186

  8. Molecular nanomechanics of nascent bone: fibrillar toughening by mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, Markus J.

    2007-07-01

    Mineralized collagen fibrils are highly conserved nanostructural building blocks of bone. By a combination of molecular dynamics simulation and theoretical analysis it is shown that the characteristic nanostructure of mineralized collagen fibrils is vital for its high strength and its ability to sustain large deformation, as is relevant to the physiological role of bone, creating a strong and tough material. An analysis of the molecular mechanisms of protein and mineral phases under large deformation of mineralized collagen fibrils reveals a fibrillar toughening mechanism that leads to a manifold increase of energy dissipation compared to fibrils without mineral phase. This fibrillar toughening mechanism increases the resistance to fracture by forming large local yield regions around crack-like defects, a mechanism that protects the integrity of the entire structure by allowing for localized failure. As a consequence, mineralized collagen fibrils are able to tolerate microcracks of the order of several hundred micrometres in size without causing any macroscopic failure of the tissue, which may be essential to enable bone remodelling. The analysis proves that adding nanoscopic small platelets to collagen fibrils increases their Young's modulus and yield strength as well as their fracture strength. We find that mineralized collagen fibrils have a Young's modulus of 6.23 GPa (versus 4.59 GPa for the collagen fibril), yield at a tensile strain of 6.7% (versus 5% for the collagen fibril) and feature a fracture stress of 0.6 GPa (versus 0.3 GPa for the collagen fibril).

  9. In vivo ectopic bone formation by devitalized mineralized stem cell carriers produced under mineralizing culture condition.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Bolander, Johanna; Pyka, Grzegorz; Van Bael, Simon; Luyten, Frank P; Schrooten, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Functionalization of tissue engineering scaffolds with in vitro-generated bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) represents an effective biomimetic approach to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro. However, the bone-forming capacity of these constructs (seeded with or without cells) is so far not apparent. In this study, we aimed at developing a mineralizing culture condition to biofunctionalize three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with highly mineralized ECM in order to produce devitalized, osteoinductive mineralized carriers for human periosteal-derived progenitors (hPDCs). For this, three medium formulations [i.e., growth medium only (BM1), with ascorbic acid (BM2), and with ascorbic acid and dexamethasone (BM3)] supplemented with calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphate (PO4 (3-)) ions simultaneously as mineralizing source were investigated. The results showed that, besides the significant impacts on enhancing cell proliferation (the highest in BM3 condition), the formulated mineralizing media differentially regulated the osteochondro-related gene markers in a medium-dependent manner (e.g., significant upregulation of BMP2, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and Wnt5a in BM2 condition). This has resulted in distinguished cell populations that were identifiable by specific gene signatures as demonstrated by the principle component analysis. Through devitalization, mineralized carriers with apatite crystal structures unique to each medium condition (by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis) were obtained. Quantitatively, BM3 condition produced carriers with the highest mineral and collagen contents as well as human-specific VEGF proteins, followed by BM2 and BM1 conditions. Encouragingly, all mineralized carriers (after reseeded with hPDCs) induced bone formation after 8 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in nude mice models, with BM2-carriers inducing the highest bone volume, and the lowest in the BM3 condition (as quantitated by nano-computed tomography

  10. In Vivo Ectopic Bone Formation by Devitalized Mineralized Stem Cell Carriers Produced Under Mineralizing Culture Condition

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yoke Chin; Geris, Liesbet; Bolander, Johanna; Pyka, Grzegorz; Van Bael, Simon; Luyten, Frank P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Functionalization of tissue engineering scaffolds with in vitro–generated bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) represents an effective biomimetic approach to promote osteogenic differentiation of stem cells in vitro. However, the bone-forming capacity of these constructs (seeded with or without cells) is so far not apparent. In this study, we aimed at developing a mineralizing culture condition to biofunctionalize three-dimensional (3D) porous scaffolds with highly mineralized ECM in order to produce devitalized, osteoinductive mineralized carriers for human periosteal-derived progenitors (hPDCs). For this, three medium formulations [i.e., growth medium only (BM1), with ascorbic acid (BM2), and with ascorbic acid and dexamethasone (BM3)] supplemented with calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (PO43−) ions simultaneously as mineralizing source were investigated. The results showed that, besides the significant impacts on enhancing cell proliferation (the highest in BM3 condition), the formulated mineralizing media differentially regulated the osteochondro-related gene markers in a medium-dependent manner (e.g., significant upregulation of BMP2, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and Wnt5a in BM2 condition). This has resulted in distinguished cell populations that were identifiable by specific gene signatures as demonstrated by the principle component analysis. Through devitalization, mineralized carriers with apatite crystal structures unique to each medium condition (by X-ray diffraction and SEM analysis) were obtained. Quantitatively, BM3 condition produced carriers with the highest mineral and collagen contents as well as human-specific VEGF proteins, followed by BM2 and BM1 conditions. Encouragingly, all mineralized carriers (after reseeded with hPDCs) induced bone formation after 8 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in nude mice models, with BM2-carriers inducing the highest bone volume, and the lowest in the BM3 condition (as quantitated by nano

  11. Mineral metabolism in isolated mouse long bones: Opposite effects of microgravity on mineralization and resorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veldhuijzen, Jean Paul; Vanloon, Jack J. W. A.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment using isolated skeletal tissues under microgravity, is reported. Fetal mouse long bones (metatarsals) were cultured for 4 days in the Biorack facility of Spacelab during the IML-1 (International Microgravity Laboratory) mission of the Space Shuttle. Overall growth was not affected, however glucose consumption was significantly reduced under microgravity. Mineralization of the diaphysis was also strongly reduced under microgravity as compared to the on-board 1 g group. In contrast, mineral resorption by osteoclasts was signficantly increased. These results indicate that these fetal mouse long bones are a sensitive and useful model to further study the cellular mechanisms involved in the changed mineral metabolism of skeletal tissues under microgravity.

  12. Bone and mineral metabolism in adult celiac disease

    SciTech Connect

    Caraceni, M.P.; Molteni, N.; Bardella, M.T.; Ortolani, S.; Nogara, A.; Bianchi, P.A.

    1988-03-01

    Bone mineral density (/sup 125/I photon absorptiometry) was lower in 20 untreated adult celiac patients than in sex- and age-matched controls (p less than 0.001), and plasma alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were higher than normal (p less than 0.05, less than 0.001, less than 0.05, respectively). Gluten-free diet was started, and the patients were divided randomly into two treatment groups, one which received oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D 50 micrograms/day and one which did not. After 12 months' treatment, bone turnover markers showed a decrease, which did not reach statistical significance, and bone mineral density did not show significant modifications compared with base line in either group. It was found that a gluten-free diet followed for 1 yr can prevent further bone loss, but no significant differences were detected between the two groups.

  13. Low bone mineral status in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-Feng; Li, Hai

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a pathological entity of unknown etiology. The causes of osteoporosis or osteopenia in AIS remain undetermined. Whether poor bone quality is an etiologic factor remains controversial. To determine the correlation between low bone mineral status and AIS, a review of literature was performed. After a literature search from 1966 to June 2007 (using Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, CCTR, CINAHL and hand searches of references) for studies regarding low bone mineral status and AIS, 20 studies meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed in terms of the appropriateness of valuation technique, the validity of descriptive system, the number and type of respondents, and overall quality of the studies. Nearly all investigations demonstrated that low bone mineral density (BMD) was a generalized phenomenon and a systematic disorder in AIS. The prevalence of AIS with osteoporosis is approximately 20–38%. The follow-up studies indicated that osteopenia in patients with AIS may be a persistent phenomenon. BMD could be affected by the mechanical loading and lower bone mineral mass is always associated with lower bone strength. The spinal architecture associated with the osteopenia may aggravate the spinal deformity. However, with regard to the concave and convex femoral neck BMD values, and the correlation of BMD to scoliosis parameters, the results remain inconsistent. Bracing may not result in permanent loss of bone mineral mass. The effect of the eccentric tension–compression environments on BMD, the correlation of BMD with scoliosis parameters and the effect of bracing on BMD should be investigated further in prospective, randomized and longitudinal follow-up studies. PMID:18751741

  14. Assessment of Bone Mineral Status in Children With Marfan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Monica; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Belmont, John; Phan, Kelly; Tran, Alyssa; Shypailo, Roman J; Ellis, Kenneth J; Lee, Brendan H

    2012-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder with skeletal involvement. It is caused by mutations in fibrillin1 (FBN1) gene resulting in activation of TGF-β, which developmentally regulates bone mass and matrix properties. There is no consensus regarding bone mineralization in children with MFS. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), we evaluated bone mineralization in 20 children with MFS unselected for bone problems. z-Scores were calculated based on age, gender, height, and ethnicity matched controls. Mean whole body bone mineral content (BMC) z-score was 0.26 ± 1.42 (P = 0.41). Mean bone mineral density (BMD) z-score for whole body was −0.34 ± 1.4 (P = 0.29) and lumbar spine was reduced at −0.55 ± 1.34 (P = 0.017). On further adjusting for stature, which is usually higher in MFS, mean BMC z-score was reduced at −0.677 ± 1.37 (P = 0.04), mean BMD z-score for whole body was −0.82 ± 1.55 (P = 0.002) and for lumbar spine was −0.83 ± 1.32 (P = 0.001). An increased risk of osteoporosis in MFS is controversial. DXA has limitations in large skeletons because it tends to overestimate BMD and BMC. By adjusting results for height, age, gender, and ethnicity, we found that MFS patients have significantly lower BMC and BMD in whole body and lumbar spine. Evaluation of diet, exercise, vitamin D status, and bone turnover markers will help gain insight into pathogenesis of the reduced bone mass. Further, larger longitudinal studies are required to evaluate the natural history, incidence of fractures, and effects of pharmacological therapy. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22887731

  15. Can Dental Cone Beam Computed Tomography Assess Bone Mineral Density?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mineral density distribution of bone tissue is altered by active bone modeling and remodeling due to bone complications including bone disease and implantation surgery. Clinical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been examined whether it can assess oral bone mineral density (BMD) in patient. It has been indicated that CBCT has disadvantages of higher noise and lower contrast than conventional medical computed tomography (CT) systems. On the other hand, it has advantages of a relatively lower cost and radiation dose but higher spatial resolution. However, the reliability of CBCT based mineral density measurement has not yet been fully validated. Thus, the objectives of this review are to discuss 1) why assessment of BMD distribution is important and 2) whether the clinical CBCT can be used as a potential tool to measure the BMD. Brief descriptions of image artefacts associated with assessment of gray value, which has been used to account for mineral density, in CBCT images are provided. Techniques to correct local and conversion errors in obtaining the gray values in CBCT images are also introduced. This review can be used as a quick reference for users who may encounter these errors during analysis of CBCT images. PMID:25006568

  16. Computerized tomographic determination of spinal bone mineral content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cann, C. E.; Genant, H. K.

    1980-01-01

    The aims of the study were three-fold: to determine the magnitude of vertebral cancellous mineral loss in normal subjects during bedrest, to compare this loss with calcium balance and mineral loss in peripheral bones, and to use the vertebral measurements as an evaluative criterion for the C12MDP treatment and compare it with other methods. The methods used are described and the results from 14 subjects are presented.

  17. Nonenzymatic Glycation and Degree of Mineralization Are Higher in Bone From Fractured Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Farlay, Delphine; Armas, Laura A G; Gineyts, Evelyne; Akhter, Mohammed P; Recker, Robert R; Boivin, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy fractures are frequent complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients (T1DM). Modifications of bone intrinsic composition might be a potential cause of fragility observed in diabetic subjects. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were found in numerous connective tissues from T1DM patients. However, whether AGEs are present at high levels in bone matrix from diabetic subjects is unknown. Moreover, whether elevated AGEs in the bone matrix impair mineralization has not been addressed in humans. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether bone matrix from fracturing and nonfracturing T1DM contained more AGEs than bone from healthy patients (CTL), and 2) to compare the degree of mineralization of bone and hardness between fracturing and nonfracturing T1DM versus CTL. We analyzed iliac crest bone biopsies from 5 fracturing T1DM patients, 5 nonfracturing T1DM patients, and 5 healthy subjects, all age- and sex-matched. AGEs (pentosidine) in bone matrix was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography separately in trabecular and cortical bone. The degree of mineralization of bone (DMB) was assessed by digitized microradiography, and mechanical properties by micro- and nanohardness tests. Trabecular bone from fracturing T1DM exhibited significantly higher levels of pentosidine than CTL (p = 0.04) and was more mineralized than nonfracturing T1DM (p = 0.04) and CTL (p = 0.04). Trabecular bone was not significantly different in pentosidine between nonfracturing T1DM and CTL. Cortical bone from nonfracturing T1DM was not significantly different from CTL. Positive correlations were found between HbA1c and pentosidine (r' = 0.79, p < 0.003) and between HbA1c and DMB (r' = 0.64, p < 0.02). Both modifications could lead to less flexible bone (reduced modulus of elasticity) and a tendency toward low-energy fractures in T1DM patients. PMID:26234180

  18. Altered thermogenesis and impaired bone remodeling in Misty mice.

    PubMed

    Motyl, Katherine J; Bishop, Kathleen A; DeMambro, Victoria E; Bornstein, Sheila A; Le, Phuong; Kawai, Masanobu; Lotinun, Sutada; Horowitz, Mark C; Baron, Roland; Bouxsein, Mary L; Rosen, Clifford J

    2013-09-01

    Fat mass may be modulated by the number of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) in humans and rodents. Bone remodeling is dependent on systemic energy metabolism and, with age, bone remodeling becomes uncoupled and brown adipose tissue (BAT) function declines. To test the interaction between BAT and bone, we employed Misty (m/m) mice, which were reported be deficient in BAT. We found that Misty mice have accelerated age-related trabecular bone loss and impaired brown fat function (including reduced temperature, lower expression of Pgc1a, and less sympathetic innervation compared to wild-type (+/ +)). Despite reduced BAT function, Misty mice had normal core body temperature, suggesting heat is produced from other sources. Indeed, upon acute cold exposure (4°C for 6 hours), inguinal WAT from Misty mice compensated for BAT dysfunction by increasing expression of Acadl, Pgc1a, Dio2, and other thermogenic genes. Interestingly, acute cold exposure also decreased Runx2 and increased Rankl expression in Misty bone, but only Runx2 was decreased in wild-type. Browning of WAT is under the control of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and, if present at room temperature, could impact bone metabolism. To test whether SNS activity could be responsible for accelerated trabecular bone loss, we treated wild-type and Misty mice with the β-blocker, propranolol. As predicted, propranolol slowed trabecular bone volume/total volume (BV/TV) loss in the distal femur of Misty mice without affecting wild-type. Finally, the Misty mutation (a truncation of DOCK7) also has a significant cell-autonomous role. We found DOCK7 expression in whole bone and osteoblasts. Primary osteoblast differentiation from Misty calvaria was impaired, demonstrating a novel role for DOCK7 in bone remodeling. Despite the multifaceted effects of the Misty mutation, we have shown that impaired brown fat function leads to altered SNS activity and bone loss, and for the first time that cold

  19. Bone scaffold architecture modulates the development of mineralized bone matrix by human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Marcos-Campos, Ivan; Marolt, Darja; Petridis, Petros; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Schmidt, Daniel; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    Decellularized bone has been widely used as a scaffold for bone formation, due to its similarity to the native bone matrix and excellent osteoinductive and biomechanical properties. We have previously shown that human mesenchymal and embryonic stem cells form functional bone matrix on such scaffolds, without the use of growth factors. In this study, we focused on differences in bone matrix that exist even among identical harvesting sites, and the effects of the matrix architecture and mineral content on bone formation by human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Mesenchymal progenitors derived from hESCs were cultured for 5 weeks in decellularized bone scaffolds with three different densities: low (0.281 ± 0.018 mg/mm3), medium (0.434 ± 0.015 mg/mm3) and high (0.618 ± 0.027 mg/mm3). The medium-density group yielded highest densities of cells and newly assembled bone matrix, presumably due to the best balance between the transport of nutrients and metabolites to and from the cells, space for cell infiltration, surface for cell attachment and the mechanical strength of the scaffolds, all of which depend on the scaffold density. Bone mineral was beneficial for the higher expression of bone markers in cultured cells and more robust accumulation of the new bone matrix. PMID:22901965

  20. PRECISION OF SINGLE VERSUS BILATERAL HIP BONE MINERAL DENSITY SCANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the hip and lumbar spine are currently the "gold standard" for measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). DXA allows swift, noninvasive measurements with minimal radiation for both clinical practice and research. Traditional testing has used results ...

  1. Race/ethnic differences in bone mineral density in men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemiology of osteoporosis in male and minority populations is understudied. To address this concern, we conducted a study of skeletal health in a diverse population of adult males, comparing Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in 367 Black, 401 Hispanic, and 451 White men aged 30-79 years who were ran...

  2. Relationship of bone mineral density to progression of knee osteoarthritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective. To evaluate the longitudinal relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and BMD changes and the progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA), as measured by cartilage outcomes. Methods. We used observational cohort data from the Vitamin D for Knee Osteoarthritis trial. Bilateral femoral ...

  3. Difference in Bone Mineral Density between Young versus Midlife Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Sonya; Anderson, Pamela S.; Benton, Melissa J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Older age is a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD). Older women have been found to have lower BMD than younger women. Recent trends for decreased calcium consumption and physical activity may place younger women at greater risk than previously anticipated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of age…

  4. Probable phase composition of the mineral in bone.

    PubMed

    Driessens, F C

    1980-01-01

    Formulas proposed for the mineral of bone were reviewed. Literature data were collected where Ca, P, Na, Mg and CO3 are determined in the same samples. These data were analyzed for their conformity to the above mentioned formulas. According to this analysis Mg is contained in a phase having the Ca/P of magnesium whitlockite within the limites of error. Na is contained in a carbonated calcium phosphate phase which is analogy with synthetic systems must have the apatite structure. The Ca/P ratio of the remaining "rest phase" is 2. This is based on the composition of 101 bone mineral samples taken from fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. The CO3 content of the bone samples agrees with the formula Ca8 (PO4)4 (CO3) (OH)2 . X H2O for the "rest phase" within the limits of experimental error. Such a compound has, however, not been found in synthetic systems. Human bone contains about 15% magnesium whitlockite, 25% of the Na and CO3 containing apatite and the rest is the carbonated calcium phosphate with Ca/P = 2. It is presumed that this compound has a structure similar to that of octo calcium phosphate and that most of the citrate ions which always occur in bone mineral samples are incorporated in that phase. PMID:6773257

  5. Treatment of Premenopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Adi; Shane, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of bone mineral density (BMD) results in premenopausal women is particularly challenging, because the relationship between BMD and fracture risk is not the same as for postmenopausal women. Z scores rather than T scores should be used to define “low BMD” in premenopausal women. The finding of low BMD in a premenopausal woman should prompt an evaluation for secondary causes of bone loss. If a secondary cause is found, management should focus on treatment of this condition. In some cases in which the secondary cause cannot be addressed, such as glucocorticoid therapy or cancer chemotherapy, treatment with a bone-active agent to prevent bone loss should be considered. In women with no fractures and no known secondary cause, low BMD may not signify compromised bone strength. BMD is likely to remain stable in these women, and pharmacologic therapy is rarely justified. Assessment of markers of bone turnover and follow-up bone density measurements can help to identify those with an ongoing process of bone loss that may indicate a higher risk for fracture, and possible need for pharmacologic intervention. PMID:18430399

  6. Deficiency of the bone mineralization inhibitor NPP1 protects mice against obesity and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huesa, Carmen; Zhu, Dongxing; Glover, James D.; Ferron, Mathieu; Karsenty, Gerard; Milne, Elspeth M.; Millan, José Luis; Ahmed, S. Faisal; Farquharson, Colin; Morton, Nicholas M.; MacRae, Vicky E.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of bone as an endocrine regulator has prompted a re-evaluation of the role of bone mineralization factors in the development of metabolic disease. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (NPP1) controls bone mineralization through the generation of pyrophosphate, and levels of NPP1 are elevated both in dermal fibroblast cultures and muscle of individuals with insulin resistance. We investigated the metabolic phenotype associated with impaired bone metabolism in mice lacking the gene that encodes NPP1 (Enpp1−/− mice). Enpp1−/− mice exhibited mildly improved glucose homeostasis on a normal diet but showed a pronounced resistance to obesity and insulin resistance in response to chronic high-fat feeding. Enpp1−/− mice had increased levels of the insulin-sensitizing bone-derived hormone osteocalcin but unchanged insulin signalling within osteoblasts. A fuller understanding of the pathways of NPP1 could inform the development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating insulin resistance. PMID:25368121

  7. Effects of aluminum exposure on bone mineral density, mineral, and trace elements in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinwei; Hu, Chongwei; Zhu, Yanzhu; Sun, Hao; Li, Yanfei; Zhang, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of aluminum (Al) exposure on bone mineral elements, trace elements, and bone mineral density (BMD) in rats. One hundred Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups. Experimental rats were given drinking water containing aluminum chloride (AlCl(3), 430 mg Al(3+)/L), whereas control rats were given distilled water for up to 150 days. Ten rats were sacrificed in each group every 30 days. The levels of Al, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), boron (B), and strontium (Sr) in bone and the BMD of femur were measured. Al-treated rats showed lower deposition of Ca, P, and Mg compared with control rats. Levels of trace elements (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Se, B, and Sr) were significantly lower in the Al-treated group than in the control group from day 60, and the BMD of the femur metaphysis in the Al-treated group was significantly lower than in the control group on days 120 and 150. These findings indicate that long-term Al exposure reduces the levels of mineral and trace elements in bone. As a result, bone loss was induced (particularly in cancellous bone). PMID:20886309

  8. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    PubMed Central

    Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Karimi, Golgis; Erfani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1) increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2) producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3) reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4) hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density. PMID:24587733

  9. Effect of probiotics supplementation on bone mineral content and bone mass density.

    PubMed

    Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Karimi, Golgis; Erfani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1) increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2) producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3) reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4) hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density. PMID:24587733

  10. Kinetic measurements of bone mineral metabolism: The use of Na-22 as a tracer for long-term bone mineral turnover studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium-22 was studied as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism in rats and dogs. When incorporated into bone during growth from birth to adulthood, the bone becomes uniformly tagged with (22)Na which is released through the metabolic turnover of the bone. The (22)Na which is not incorporated in the bone matrix is rapidly excreted within a few days when animals are fed high but nontoxic levels of NaCl. The (22)Na tracer can be used to measure bone mineral loss in animals during space flight and in research on bone disease.

  11. Milk extracellular vesicles accelerate osteoblastogenesis but impair bone matrix formation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marina C; Arntz, Onno J; Blaney Davidson, Esmeralda N; van Lent, Peter L E M; Koenders, Marije I; van der Kraan, Peter M; van den Berg, Wim B; Ferreira, Adaliene V M; van de Loo, Fons A J

    2016-04-01

    The claimed beneficial effect of milk on bone is still a matter for debate. Recently extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain proteins and RNA were discovered in milk, but their effect on bone formation has not yet been determined. We demonstrated previously that bovine milk-derived EVs (BMEVs) have immunoregulatory properties. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of BMEVs on osteogenesis by mice and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Oral delivery of two concentrations of BMEVs to female DBA/1J mice during 7weeks did not alter the tibia trabecular bone area; however, the osteocytes number increased. In addition, the highest dose of BMEVs markedly increased the woven bone tissue, which is more brittle. The exposure of hMSCs to BMEVs during 21days resulted in less mineralization but higher cell proliferation. Interestingly BMEVs reduced the collagen production, but enhanced the expression of genes characteristic for immature osteoblasts. A kinetic study showed that BMEVs up-regulated many osteogenic genes within the first 4days. However, the production of type I collagen and expression of its genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2) were markedly reduced at days 21 and 28. At day 28, BMEVs again lead to higher proliferation, but mineralization was significantly increased. This was associated with increased expression of sclerostin, a marker for osteocytes, and reduced osteonectin, which is associated to bone matrix formation. Our study adds BMEVs to the list of milk components that can affect bone formation and may shed new light on the contradictory claims of milk on bone formation. PMID:27012623

  12. International longitudinal pediatric reference standards for bone mineral content.

    PubMed

    Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Burrows, Melonie; Bachrach, Laura K; Lloyd, Tom; Petit, Moira; Macdonald, Heather; Mirwald, Robert L; Bailey, Don; McKay, Heather

    2010-01-01

    To render a diagnosis pediatricians rely upon reference standards for bone mineral density or bone mineral content, which are based on cross-sectional data from a relatively small sample of children. These standards are unable to adequately represent growth in a diverse pediatric population. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop sex and site-specific standards for BMC using longitudinal data collected from four international sites in Canada and the United States. Data from four studies were combined; Saskatchewan Paediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (n=251), UBC Healthy Bones Study (n=382); Penn State Young Women's Health Study (n=112) and Stanford's Bone Mineral Accretion study (n=423). Males and females (8 to 25 years) were measured for whole body (WB), total proximal femur (PF), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMC (g). Data were analyzed using random effects models. Bland-Altman was used to investigate agreement between predicted and actual data. Age, height, weight and ethnicity independently predicted BMC accrual across sites (P<0.05). Compared to White males, Asian males had 31.8 (6.8) g less WB BMC accrual; Hispanic 75.4 (28.2) g less BMC accrual; Blacks 82.8 (26.3) g more BMC accrual with confounders of age, height and weight controlled. We report similar findings for the PF and FN. Models for females for all sites were similar with age, height and weight as independent significant predictors of BMC accrual (P<0.05). We provide a tool to calculate a child's BMC Z-score, accounting for age, size, sex and ethnicity. In conclusion, when interpreting BMC in pediatrics we recommend standards that are sex, age, size and ethnic specific. PMID:19854308

  13. Unique biochemical and mineral composition of whale ear bones.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sora L; Thewissen, J G M; Churchill, Morgan M; Suydam, Robert S; Ketten, Darlene R; Clementz, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cetaceans are obligate aquatic mammals derived from terrestrial artiodactyls. The defining characteristic of cetaceans is a thick and dense lip (pachyosteosclerotic involucrum) of an ear bone (the tympanic). This unique feature is absent in modern terrestrial artiodactyls and is suggested to be important in underwater hearing. Here, we investigate the mineralogical and biochemical properties of the involucrum, as these may hold clues to the aquatic adaptations of cetaceans. We compared bioapatites (enamel, dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone) of cetaceans with those of terrestrial artiodactyls and pachyosteosclerotic ribs of manatees (Sirenia). We investigated organic, carbonate, and mineral composition as well as crystal size and crystallinity index. In all studied variables, bioapatites of the cetacean involucrum were intermediate in composition and structure between those of tooth enamel on the one hand and those of dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone on the other. We also studied the amino acid composition of the cetacean involucrum relative to that of other skeletal bone. The central involucrum had low glycine and hydroxyproline concentrations but high concentrations of nonessential amino acids, unlike most bone samples but similar to the tympanic of hippos and the (pachyosteosclerotic) ribs of manatees. These amino acid results are evidence of rapid bone development. We hypothesize that the mineralogical and amino acid composition of cetacean bullae differs from that of other bone because of (1) functional modifications for underwater sound reception and (2) structural adaptations related to rapid ossification. PMID:24940922

  14. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Reumann, Marie K.; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Steven B.; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1−/− mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1−/− mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1−/− callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. PMID:21726677

  15. Modification of os calcis bone mineral profiles during bedrest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The mineral content of the left central os calcis was determined using the photon absorptiometric technique modified for the space missions to permit area scanning, and was compared with total body calcium balance changes. The instrument consists of a rectilinear scanner that is programmed by a specially designed control module to move a low energy X-ray emitting radionuclide placed in opposition to a detector to scan the foot which is places between them. The foot is placed in a plexiglas box filled with water to provide tissue equivalence and to compensate for irregularities in thickness of tissue cover that surrounds the bone. The mineral content is obtained from basic attenuation equation.

  16. Rictor/mTORC2 loss in osteoblasts impairs bone mass and strength.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-Mei; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Ting-Ting; Jiao, Pei-Lin; Zhao, Dian-Dian; Shih, Mei-Shu; Tao, Bei; Sun, Li-Hao; Zhao, Hong-Yan; Liu, Jian-Min

    2016-09-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a Ser/Thr kinase conserved through evolution that coordinates extra cellular signals associated with cell growth. Main functions of mTOR present in the form of two complexes, namely mTORC1 and mTORC2, which are distinct in their unique components, raptor and rictor. In the current study, using a Cre/loxp system, we found an anabolic effect of mTORC2 signaling on skeleton. Osteoblast differentiation was reduced, with down-regulation of mTORC2 signaling activity in primary cultures of osteoblasts that did not contain rictor. Mice with a specific deletion of rictor in mature osteoblasts showed a significant reduction in lean mass and bone mineral density by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry analysis. Micro-computed tomography, histomorphometric, and molecular biological analyses revealed a marked impairment of the cortical bone mass and microarchitecture, as well as minor changes in trabecular bone, of the Rictorob(-/-) mice. Cortical bone mass and thickness of the femoral mid-shaft were dramatically reduced, with unusual increases in porosity and marrow area in Rictorob(-/-) mice. Thinner trabeculae were found in the L4 vertebrae with relatively normal structural indices of trabecular numbers and separation. A lower rate of bone turnover was observed, as the consequence of the decreased individual osteoblast activity and bone resorption. Furthermore, these changes were associated with significantly decreased bone biomechanical properties. In conclusion, expression of rictor in osteoblasts is essential for the maintenance of normal bone remodeling and microarchitecture, especially for the maintenance of the cortical bone. PMID:27262777

  17. Abnormal bone mineral density and bone turnover marker expression profiles in patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lixin; Hou, Shengcai; Hu, Bin; Zhao, Liqiang; Miao, Jinbai; Wang, Yang; Li, Tong; Zhang, Zhenkui; You, Bin; Pang, Baosen; Liang, Yufang; Zhao, Yi; Hao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background To examine the bone mineral density (BMD) and the role of bone biomarkers, including bone formation marker procollagen type I aminoterminal propeptide (PINP) and N-terminal midmolecule fragment osteocalcin (N-MID), bone resorption marker b-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (b-CTX) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b) in the pathogenesis of PSP. Methods Eighty-three consecutive primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) patients (PSP group) and 87 healthy individuals (control group) were enrolled in this study. General data, including gender, age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), were recorded. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), and ELISA were used to evaluate bone mineral density and expression levels of bone metabolism markers, including PINP, b-CTX, TRACP5b, N-MID, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH VD). Results Mean height was significantly greater in the PSP group compared with the control group, whereas weight and BMI were lower. Patients in the PSP group had significantly lower average bone mineral density, which mainly manifested as osteopenia (11/12, 91.7%); however, only one patient (8.3%) developed osteoporosis. Serum overexpression of PINP, b-CTX, TRACP5b, and N-MID were found in PSP patients. Expression of 25-OH VD was low in PSP patients. Bone resorption markers showed positive linear relationships with bone formation markers in all participants; whereas only TRACP5b expression negatively correlated with 25-OH VD. Expression levels of all bone turnover markers negatively correlated with BMI. Regression analysis identified risk factors of PSP as age, height, weight, and TRACP5b and 25-OH VD expression levels; whereas gender and PINP, b-CTX, and N-MID expression levels were not significantly associated with the onset of PSP. Conclusions It had lower bone mineral density in PSP patients. Bone formation marker PINP, N-MID and bone resorption marker b-CTX, TRACP5b were upregulated in

  18. CALCOSPHERULITES* ISOLATED FROM THE MINERALIZATION FRONT OF BONE INDUCE THE MINERALIZATION OF TYPE I COLLAGEN

    PubMed Central

    Midura, Ronald J.; Vasanji, Amit; Su, Xiaowei; Wang, Aimin; Midura, Sharon B.; Gorski, Jeff P.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that “calcospherulites” actively participate in the mineralization of developing and healing bone. This study sought to directly test this hypothesis by developing a method to isolate calcospherulites and analyzing their capacity to seed mineralization of fibrillar collagen. The periosteal surface of juvenile rat tibial diaphysis was enriched in spherulites of ~0.5-micron diameter exhibiting a Ca/P ratio of 1.3. Their identity as calcospherulites was confirmed by their uptake of calcein at the tibial mineralization front 24 h following in vivo injection. Periosteum was dissected and unmineralized osteoid removed by collagenase in order to expose calcospherulites. Calcein-labeled calcospherulites were then released from the mineralization front by dispase digestion and isolated via fluorescence flow sorting. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed they contained apatite crystals (c-axis length of 17.5 ± 0.2 nm), though their Ca/P ratio of 1.3 is lower than that of hydroxyapatite. Much of their non-mineral phosphorous content was removed by ice-cold ethanol, elevating their Ca/P ratio to 1.6, suggesting the presence of phospholipids. Western blot analyses showed the presence of bone matrix proteins and type I collagen in these preparations. Incubating isolated calcospherulites in collagen hydrogels demonstrated that they could seed a mineralization reaction on type I collagen fibers in vitro. Ultrastructural analyses revealed crystals on the collagen fibers that were distributed rather uniformly along the fiber lengths. Furthermore, crystals were observed at distances well away from the observed calcospherulites. Our results directly support an active role for calcospherulites in inducing the mineralization of type I collagen fibers at the mineralization front of bone. PMID:17936099

  19. The pleiotropic effects of paricalcitol: Beyond bone-mineral metabolism.

    PubMed

    Egido, Jesús; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Bover, Jordi; Praga, Manuel; Torregrosa, José Vicente; Fernández-Giráldez, Elvira; Solozábal, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) that is characterised by elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and a series of bone-mineral metabolism anomalies. In patients with SHPT, treatment with paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, has been shown to reduce PTH levels with minimal serum calcium and phosphorus variations. The classic effect of paricalcitol is that of a mediator in mineral and bone homeostasis. However, recent studies have suggested that the benefits of treatment with paricalcitol go beyond PTH reduction and, for instance, it has a positive effect on cardiovascular disease and survival. The objective of this study is to review the most significant studies on the so-called pleiotropic effects of paricalcitol treatment in patients with CKD. PMID:26705959

  20. Bone Mineral Density in Elite DanceSport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kruusamäe, Helena; Maasalu, Katre; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2016-03-01

    This study compared bone mineral density (BMD) variables of female and male elite dancesport athletes with untrained control subjects of the same gender. Sixty-six elite dancesport athletes (M 33, F 33) and 64 untrained controls (M 34, F 31) participated in this study. Elite dancesport athletes were dancing couples competing at the international level. Whole-body bone mineral content and whole-body, forearm, lumbar-spine, and femoral-neck BMD, as well as whole-body fat mass and fat free mass, were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. There were no differences (p>0.05) in height and body mass between dancers and controls of the same gender, but percent body fat was lower (p<0.05) in dancers of both genders than in untrained controls. Elite dancesport athletes had significantly higher femoral-neck BMD, and male dancers also higher whole-body BMD values when compared with controls of the same gender. All other measured bone mineral values did not differ between the groups of the same gender. In addition, training experience was positively correlated with whole-body BMD (r=0.27; p<0.05) in dancesport athletes. Based on this study, it can be concluded that elite dancesport athletes have higher BMD values at the weight-bearing site (femoral-neck BMD), while other measured areas and whole-body bone mineral values do not differ from the corresponding values of healthy sedentary controls of the same gender. According to our results, low BMD is not an issue for elite female dancesport athletes, despite their lower percent body fat values. PMID:26966961

  1. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Edil de Albuquerque; dos Santos, Marcos André Moura; da Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara e Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  2. Relation between body composition and bone mineral density in young undregraduate students with different nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Filho, Edil de Albuquerque; Santos, Marcos André Moura Dos; Silva, Amanda Tabosa Pereira da; Farah, Breno Quintella; Costa, Manoel da Cunha; Campos, Florisbela de Arruda Camara E Siqueira; Falcão, Ana Patrícia Siqueira Tavares

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between total and segmental body fat, bone mineral density and bone mineral content in undergraduate students stratified according to nutritional status. Methods The study included 45 male undergraduate students aged between 20 and 30 years. Total and segmental body composition, bone mineral density and bone mineral content assessments were performed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects were allocated into three groups (eutrophic, overweight and obese). Results With the exception of upper limb bone mineral content, significantly higher (p<0.05) mean bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and relative body fat values were documented in the obese group. Total body and segmental relative body fat (lower limbs and trunk) were positively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral density in the overweight group. Upper limb fat was negatively correlated (p<0.05) with bone mineral content in the normal and eutrophic groups. Conclusion Total body and segmental body fat were correlated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in male undergraduate students, particularly in overweight individuals. PMID:27074228

  3. Mineralized polymer composites as biogenic bone substitute material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Rushita; Saha, Nabanita; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Petr

    2015-05-01

    Mineralized polymer composites (MPC) are recognized as potential fillers of bone defects. Though bioceramics exhibits quite a good bone-bonding and vascularization, it is considered to be too stiff and brittle for using alone. Thus, the use of polymer scaffold instead of bioceramics has several advantages including combining the osteoconductivity and bone-bonding potential of the inorganic phase with the porosity and interconnectivity of the three-dimensional construction. Aiming the advantages of ceramic-polymer composite scaffolds, the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) based biomineralized scaffold was prepared, where the PVP-CMC hydrogel was used as an extracellular matrix. This paper is reported about the morphology, swelling trend (in physiological solution) and viscoelastic behavior of (90 min mineralized) MPC. The dry MPC are off-white, coarse in texture, comparatively less flexible than the original PVP-CMC based hydrogel film, and the deposition of granular structures on the surface of the hydrogel film confirms about the development of biomineralized scaffold/polymer composites. Irrespective of thickness, the dry MPC shows higher values of swelling ratio within 30 min, which varies between 200-250 approximately. The dynamic viscoelastic nature of freshly prepared MPC was investigated applying 1% and 10% strain. At higher strain the viscoelastic moduli (G' and G") show significant change, and the nature of MPC turns from elastic to viscous. Based on the observed basic properties, the MPC (calcite based polymer composites) can be recommended for the treatment of adyanamic bone disorder.

  4. Selective glucocorticoid receptor modulation maintains bone mineral density in mice.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Sylvia; Ziegler, Nicole; Tsourdi, Elena; De Bosscher, Karolien; Tuckermann, Jan P; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rauner, Martina

    2012-11-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-inflammatory drugs, but their use is limited by their adverse effects on the skeleton. Compound A (CpdA) is a novel GC receptor modulator with the potential for an improved risk/benefit profile. We tested the effects of CpdA on bone in a mouse model of GC-induced bone loss. Bone loss was induced in FVB/N mice by implanting slow-release pellets containing either vehicle, prednisolone (PRED) (3.5 mg), or CpdA (3.5 mg). After 4 weeks, mice were killed to examine the effects on the skeleton using quantitative computed tomography, bone histomorphometry, serum markers of bone turnover, and gene expression analysis. To assess the underlying mechanisms, in vitro studies were performed with human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and murine osteocyte-like cells (MLO-Y4 cells). PRED reduced the total and trabecular bone density in the femur by 9% and 24% and in the spine by 11% and 20%, respectively, whereas CpdA did not influence these parameters. Histomorphometry confirmed these results and further showed that the mineral apposition rate was decreased by PRED whereas the number of osteoclasts was increased. Decreased bone formation was paralleled by a decline in serum procollagen type 1 N-terminal peptide (P1NP), reduced skeletal expression of osteoblast markers, and increased serum levels of the osteoblast inhibitor dickkopf-1 (DKK-1). In addition, serum CTX-1 and the skeletal receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio were increased by PRED. None of these effects were observed with CpdA. Consistent with the in vivo data, CpdA did not increase the RANKL/OPG ratio in MLO-Y4 cells or the expression of DKK-1 in bone tissue, BMSCs, and osteocytes. Finally, CpdA also failed to transactivate DKK-1 expression in bone tissue, BMSCs, and osteocytes. This study underlines the bone-sparing potential of CpdA and suggests that by preventing increases in the RANKL/OPG ratio or DKK-1 in osteoblast lineage cells, GC

  5. Bone Mineral Density of the Tarsals and Metatarsals With Reloading

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Mary Kent; Gelber, Judy; Commean, Paul K; Prior, Fred; Sinacore, David R

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Bone mineral density (BMD) decreases rapidly with prolonged non–weight bearing. Maximizing the BMD response to reloading activities after NWB is critical to minimizing fracture risk. Methods for measuring individual tarsal and metatarsal BMD have not been available. This case report describes tarsal and metatarsal BMD with a reloading program, as revealed by quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Case Description: A 24-year-old woman was non–weight bearing for 6 weeks after right talocrural arthroscopy. Tarsal and metatarsal BMD were measured with QCT 9 weeks (before reloading) and 32 weeks (after reloading) after surgery. A 26-week progressive reloading program was completed. Change scores were calculated for BMD before reloading and BMD after reloading for the total foot (average of all tarsals and metatarsals), tarsals, metatarsals, bones of the medial column (calcaneus, navicular, cuneiforms 1 and 2, and metatarsal 1), and bones of the lateral column (calcaneus, cuboid, cuneiform 3, and metatarsals 2–5). The percent differences in BMD between the involved side and the uninvolved side were calculated. Outcomes: Before reloading, BMD of the involved total foot was 9% lower than that on the uninvolved side. After reloading, BMD increased 22% and 21% for the total foot, 16% and 14% for the tarsals, 29% and 30% for the metatarsals, 14% and 15% for the medial column bones, and 28% and 26% for the lateral column bones on the involved and uninvolved sides, respectively. After reloading, BMD of the involved total foot remained 8% lower than that on the uninvolved side. Discussion: The increase in BMD with reloading was not uniform across all pedal bones; the metatarsals showed a greater increase than the tarsals, and the lateral column bones showed a greater increase than the medial column bones. PMID:18388153

  6. Effect of glucocorticoid withdrawal on glucocorticoid inducing bone impairment.

    PubMed

    Shen, Gengyang; Ren, Hui; Qiu, Ting; Liang, De; Wei, Qiushi; Tang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhida; Yao, Zhensong; Zhao, Wenhua; Jiang, Xiaobing

    2016-09-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) withdrawal after a short-term use was common in clinical practice like immediate post-transplant period. However, previous studies without setting age-control group failed to determine whether the BMD recovery was sufficient and whether it is necessary to accept anti-osteoporosis therapy after GC withdrawal. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GC withdrawal on bone impairment in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) rats. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats (3 months' old) were randomly divided into two treatment groups: an untreated age-control group (Con, n = 12); another group receiving a dexamethasone injection (DEXA, n = 12). Animals in the Con group were euthanized at 3rd month (M3) and 6th month (M6), respectively. Six rats in the DEXA group were euthanized at 3rd month (M3), whereas GC intervention was withdrew in the remaining animals of DEXA group, which were euthanized at the end of 6th month (M6). Bone mass, bone microarchitecture, biomechanical properties of vertebrae, morphology, serum levels of PINP and β-CTX were evaluated. Compared with the Con(M3) group, the Con(M6) group showed significantly better bone quantity, morphology and quality. Compared with the Con(M3) group, the DEXA (M3) group showed significantly lower BMC, BMD, BS/TV, BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th, vBMD, bone strength, compressive displacement, energy absorption capacity, PINP levels, β-CTX levels, and damaged trabecular morphology. And the same change trend was observed in the comparison between the Con(M6) group and DEXA (M6) group. Compared with the DEXA (M3) group, the DEXA (M6) group showed significantly higher BMC, BMD and AREA, but no significant difference in BS/TV, BV/TV, SMI, Tb.N, Tb.Th, Tb.Sp, vBMD, bone strength, bone stiffness, compressive displacement, energy absorption capacity, PINP levels, β-CTX levels, and improvement in trabecular morphology was observed. These results indicate that the reverse effect of GC withdrawal

  7. Menatetrenone ameliorates reduction in bone mineral density and bone strength in sciatic neurectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki-Ishizuka, Yoshiko; Yamato, Hideyuki; Murayama, Hisashi; Abe, Masako; Takahashi, Kei; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Ezawa, Ikuko

    2003-08-01

    Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) acts on the bone metabolism. Menatetrenon (MK-4) is a vitamin K2 homologue that has been used as a therapeutic agent for osteoporosis in Japan. Rat models of immobilization induced by sciatic neurectomy are characterized by transiently increased bone resorption and sustained reduction in bone formation. Using such a rat model, we investigated the efficacy of MK-4 on bone loss. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral sciatic neurectomy and administered MK-4 for 28 d beginning day 21 after operation. The effect of MK-4 on the immobilized bone was assessed by measuring the bone mineral density of the femur, breaking force of the femoral diaphysis, and bone histomorphometry in tibial diaphysis. The BMD on both the femoral distal metaphysis and diaphysis was reduced by sciatic neurectomy. The administration of MK-4 ameliorated this reduction in a dose-dependent manner. The administration of 30 mg/kg MK-4 ameliorated the reduction in bone strength. An improvement in bone formation was observed following the administration of MK-4. These results suggest that MK-4 has a therapeutic potential for immobilization-induced osteopenia. PMID:14598912

  8. Optical studies of changes in bone mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Matcher, Stephen J.; Attenburrow, Don P.

    2003-07-01

    The ability to measure changes in bone-mineral-density (BMD) in-vivo has potential applications in monitoring stress-induced bone remodelling in, for example, competition race horses. In this study we have begun to investigate the potential of optical techniques to monitor such changes via changes in bone optical scattering. Using integrating spheres, we have investigated the optical properties of bone samples taken from the leg of the horse. Since our samples have stable characteristics over the time, we are able to use a single integrating-sphere technique. Diffuse reflection and transmission coefficients have been measured over the wavelength range 520 to 960 nm. Measurements were made on samples immersed in formic acid solution for different lengths of time; this was to investigate the effect of reduction in BMD on the optical properties. The experimental results and a Monte-Carlo based inversion method were used to extract the absorption coefficient and unmodified scattering coefficient of the samples. After full demineralisation scattering coefficient fell by a factor 4. This shows that the calcium-content in bone influences its optical properties considerably. Our experiments confirm the possibility of using optical techniques to determine changes in the BMD of samples.

  9. Multiscale, Converging Defects of Macro-Porosity, Microstructure and Matrix Mineralization Impact Long Bone Fragility in NF1

    PubMed Central

    Kühnisch, Jirko; Seto, Jong; Lange, Claudia; Schrof, Susanne; Stumpp, Sabine; Kobus, Karolina; Grohmann, Julia; Kossler, Nadine; Varga, Peter; Osswald, Monika; Emmerich, Denise; Tinschert, Sigrid; Thielemann, Falk; Duda, Georg; Seifert, Wenke; el Khassawna, Thaqif; Stevenson, David A.; Elefteriou, Florent; Kornak, Uwe; Raum, Kay; Fratzl, Peter; Mundlos, Stefan; Kolanczyk, Mateusz

    2014-01-01

    Bone fragility due to osteopenia, osteoporosis or debilitating focal skeletal dysplasias is a frequent observation in the Mendelian disease Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). To determine the mechanisms underlying bone fragility in NF1 we analyzed two conditional mouse models, Nf1Prx1 (limb knock-out) and Nf1Col1 (osteoblast specific knock-out), as well as cortical bone samples from individuals with NF1. We examined mouse bone tissue with micro-computed tomography, qualitative and quantitative histology, mechanical tensile analysis, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM). In cortical bone of Nf1Prx1 mice we detected ectopic blood vessels that were associated with diaphyseal mineralization defects. Defective mineral binding in the proximity of blood vessels was most likely due to impaired bone collagen formation, as these areas were completely devoid of acidic matrix proteins and contained thin collagen fibers. Additionally, we found significantly reduced mechanical strength of the bone material, which was partially caused by increased osteocyte volume. Consistent with these observations, bone samples from individuals with NF1 and tibial dysplasia showed increased osteocyte lacuna volume. Reduced mechanical properties were associated with diminished matrix stiffness, as determined by SAM. In line with these observations, bone tissue from individuals with NF1 and tibial dysplasia showed heterogeneous mineralization and reduced collagen fiber thickness and packaging. Collectively, the data indicate that bone fragility in NF1 tibial dysplasia is partly due to an increased osteocyte-related micro-porosity, hypomineralization, a generalized defect of organic matrix formation, exacerbated in the regions of tensional and bending force integration, and finally persistence of ectopic blood vessels associated with localized macro-porotic bone lesions. PMID:24465906

  10. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  11. Lateral Packing of Mineral Crystals in Bone Collagen

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, C.; Zhou, H; Wang, H; Sics, I; Hsiao, B; Chu, B; Graham, L; Glimcher, M

    2008-01-01

    Combined small-angle x-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy studies of intramuscular fish bone (shad and herring) indicate that the lateral packing of nanoscale calcium-phosphate crystals in collagen fibrils can be represented by irregular stacks of platelet-shaped crystals, intercalated with organic layers of collagen molecules. The scattering intensity distribution in this system can be described by a modified Zernike-Prins model, taking preferred orientation effects into account. Using the model, the diffuse fan-shaped small-angle x-ray scattering intensity profile, dominating the equatorial region of the scattering pattern, could be quantitatively analyzed as a function of the degree of mineralization. The mineral platelets were found to be very thin (1.5nm{approx}2.0nm), having a narrow thickness distribution. The thickness of the organic layers between adjacent mineral platelets within a stack is more broadly distributed with the average value varying from 6nm to 10nm, depending on the extent of mineralization. The two-dimensional analytical scheme also leads to quantitative information about the preferred orientation of mineral stacks and the average height of crystals along the crystallographic c axis.

  12. Determinants of bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and body composition in a cohort of healthy children: influence of sex, age, puberty, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, Emanuele; Rigante, Donato; Salvaggio, Elio; Focarelli, Benedetta; Rendeli, Claudia; Ansuini, Valentina; Paolucci, Valentina; Triarico, Silvia; Martini, Lucilla; Caradonna, Paolo

    2012-09-01

    Interventions directed to the recognition of abnormal bone mineral density, bone mineral content, and body composition in the pediatric age require the definition of factors influencing bone mass acquisition during growth. We have evaluated in a cross-sectional manner by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry the impact of sex, age, puberty, and physical activity on total body areal bone mineral density, regional (lumbar and femoral) bone mineral densities, bone mineral content, and body composition (fat mass and lean mass) in a cohort of 359 healthy Italian children aged 3-14 years and investigated their specific contribution to bone mass accrual. Statistical multiple regression analysis was performed dividing the population in pre- and post-pubertal groups. Bone mineral density at the lumbar spine has resulted equally distributed in both sexes before puberty while has resulted higher at the femoral necks in males at whatever age. A significant effect on bone mass acquisition was exerted by male sex and lean mass. In the areas where the cortical bone is prevalent, males of the pre-pubertal group have presented the highest values; in the areas where the cancellous bone is prevalent, both sexes were equivalent until the age of 9 years, but after this age, females have presented higher increases, probably related to the inferior dimensional development of lumbar vertebrae. Conclusively, male sex and lean mass seem to represent independent predictors of bone mass accrual in the cortical bone of the examined children, while female sex and pubertal maturation are independent predictors of bone mass accrual in the trabecular bone. PMID:21809005

  13. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. derived minerals.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Graf, Kristin H; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A; Varani, James

    2013-12-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5, 12, and 18 months. At each time point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5 months). Cortical bone increased through month 5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5-10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals, but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis-prevention strategy. PMID:24096551

  14. Preservation of bone structure and function by Lithothamnion sp. – derived minerals

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad Nadeem; Bergin, Ingrid; Jepsen, Karl; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Graf, Kristin H.; Naik, Madhav; Goldstein, Steven A.; Varani, James

    2013-01-01

    Progressive bone mineral loss and increasing bone fragility are hallmarks of osteoporosis. A combination of minerals isolated from the red marine algae, Lithothamnion sp. was examined for ability to inhibit bone mineral loss in female mice maintained on either a standard rodent chow (control) diet or a high-fat western diet (HFWD) for 5-, 12- and 18-months. At each time-point, femora were subjected to μ-CT analysis and biomechanical testing. A subset of caudal vertebrae was also analyzed. Following this, individual elements were assessed in bones. Serum levels of the 5b isoform of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and procollagen type I propeptide (P1NP) were also measured. Trabecular bone loss occurred in both diets (evident as early as 5-months). Cortical bone increased through month-5 and then declined. Cortical bone loss was primarily in mice on the HFWD. Inclusion of the minerals in the diet reduced bone mineral loss in both diets and improved bone strength. Bone mineral density (BMD) was also enhanced by these minerals. Of several cationic minerals known to be important to bone health, only strontium was significantly increased in bone tissue from animals fed the mineral diets, but the increase was large (5–10 fold). Serum levels of TRAP were consistently higher in mice receiving the minerals but levels of P1NP were not. These data suggest that trace minerals derived from marine red algae may be used to prevent progressive bone mineral loss in conjunction with calcium. Mineral supplementation could find use as part of an osteoporosis - prevention strategy. PMID:24096551

  15. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3–6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up. PMID:27120266

  16. Periprosthetic tibial bone mineral density changes after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Jaroma, Antti; Soininvaara, Tarja; Kröger, Heikki

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may cause postoperative periprosthetic bone loss due to stress shielding. Bone also adapts to mechanical alterations such as correction of malalignment. We investigated medium-term changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in tibial periprosthetic bone after TKA. Patients and methods - 86 TKA patients were prospectively measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the baseline measurement being within 1 week after TKA and the follow-up measurements being at 3 and 6 months, and at 1, 2, 4, and 7 years postoperatively. Long standing radiographs were taken and clinical evaluation was done with the American Knee Society (AKS) score. Results - The baseline BMD of the medial tibial metaphyseal region of interest (ROI) was higher in the varus aligned knees (25%; p < 0.001). Medial metaphyseal BMD decreased in subjects with preoperatively varus aligned knees (13%, p < 0.001) and in those with preoperatively valgus aligned knees (12%, p = 0.02) between the baseline and 7-year measurements. No statistically significant changes in BMD were detected in lateral metaphyseal ROIs. No implant failures or revision surgery due to tibial problems occurred. Interpretation - Tibial metaphyseal periprosthetic bone is remodeled after TKA due to mechanical axis correction, resulting in more balanced bone stock below the tibial tray. The diaphyseal BMD remains unchanged after the initial drop, within 3-6 months. This remodeling process was related to good component survival, as there were no implant failures or revision operations due to tibial problems in this medium-term follow-up. PMID:27120266

  17. Measurement of bone mineral content in vivo using photon absorptiometry

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, R. M.; Cameron, E. C.; McIntosh, H. W.; Walker, V. R.

    1974-01-01

    Progress in evaluating treatment of systemic bone disease has been hampered in the past by lack of precise in vivo quantitative techniques. Recently a method has been developed for measurement of bone mineral content (BMC), based on bone absorption of low-energy monochromatic radiation. This paper discusses a technique of photon absorptiometry using 125l as a collimated point source. The technique is simple, with accuracy and precision within 2%. BMC and bone width (W) were measured in the distal radius of 359 normal subjects ranging in age from 5 to 82 years. A “normal” curve of BMC/W with age as the independent variable was then obtained from this population and was constructed for each sex. A positive correlation of BMC/W with height and body weight was found in a group of normal males. A series of patients with osteoporosis or malabsorption, or undergoing hemodialysis or steroid treatment, was then assessed in order to demonstrate changes in BMC/W that may occur secondary to disease or disturbances in calcium metabolism. Many of these patients were found to have a BMC/W below the normal mean value for their age and sex. PMID:4434288

  18. Pycnogenol® treatment inhibits bone mineral density loss and trabecular deterioration in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gangyong; Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Siqun; Wei, Yibing; Chen, Feiyan; Chen, Jie; Shi, Jingsheng; Xia, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Context: Pycnogenol® extracted from French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster Ait. subsp. atlantica) is functional for its antioxidant activity. Objective: To investigate the effects of Pycnogenol® on bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular microarchitecture and bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Materials and methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 3 groups: SHAM group (sham-operated rats), OVX group (OVX rats), and treatment group (OVX rats supplemented with 40 mg/kg Pycnogenol® by oral gavage). Serum levels of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and minerals were detected at the end of 9 weeks of gavage. Deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (DPYD/Cr) and N-telopeptide of type I collagen/creatinine (NTX/Cr) rate in urine were also calculated. Left femora were collected for BMD determination, and the right distal femora were made into undecalcified specimens for histomorphometry analysis. Results: At the end of study, PINP level, DPYD/Cr and NTX/Cr rate were significantly increased, and femoral BMD were dramatically decreased in OVX group compared with SHAM group (P < 0.01) while serum minerals and ALP concentrations showed no significant difference. The treatment group had dramatically decreased biomarkers and increased BMD than OVX group (P < 0.01). Histomorphometry analysis showed worse bone microarchitecture parameters in the OVX group compared with the SHAM group which were significantly improved in the treatment group compared with the OVX group (P < 0.01). Discussion and conclusion: Pycnogenol® (40 mg/kg) can inhibit aggravated bone resorption, prevent BMD loss, and restore the impaired trabecular microarchitecture in OVX rats after 9-week-intervention. PMID:26379883

  19. Asfotase-α improves bone growth, mineralization and strength in mouse models of neurofibromatosis type-1

    PubMed Central

    de la Croix Ndong, Jean; Makowski, Alexander James; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Vignaux, Guillaume; Ono, Koichiro; Perrien, Daniel S.; Joubert, Simon; Baglio, Serena R.; Granchi, Donatella; Stevenson, David A.; Rios, Jonathan J.; Nyman, Jeffry S.; Elefteriou, Florent

    2014-01-01

    Mineralization of the skeleton depends on the balance between levels of pyrophosphate (PPi), an inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation, and phosphate generated from PPi breakdown by alkaline phosphatase (ALP). We report here that ablation of Nf1, encoding the RAS/GTPase–activating protein neurofibromin, in bone–forming cells leads to supraphysiologic PPi accumulation, caused by a chronic ERK–dependent increase in genes promoting PPi synthesis and extracellular transport, namely Enpp1 and Ank. It also prevents BMP2–induced osteoprogenitor differentiation and, consequently, expression of ALP and PPi breakdown, further contributing to PPi accumulation. The short stature, impaired bone mineralization and strength in mice lacking Nf1 in osteochondroprogenitors or osteoblasts could be corrected by enzyme therapy aimed at reducing PPi concentration. These results establish neurofibromin as an essential regulator of bone mineralization, suggest that altered PPi homeostasis contributes to the skeletal dysplasiae associated with neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1), and that some of the NF1 skeletal conditions might be preventable pharmacologically. PMID:24997609

  20. Bone mineral density in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Athanassiadou, Fani; Tragiannidis, Athanassios; Rousso, Israel; Katsos, Georgios; Sidi, Vassiliki; Papageorgiou, Theodotis; Papastergiou, Christos; Tsituridis, Ioannis; Koliouskas, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate bone metabolism with measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) after management (chemo-, radiotherapy) for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Bone mineral density (g/cm2) of lumbar spine was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Norland bone densitometer) in 18 children with ALL and a median of 34 months' post-diagnosis with no history of relapse, secondary malignancy, or transplantation. In addition, patients' BMDs were correlated with particular attention to age, sex and time (years) from completion of chemotherapy. The results were compared with healthy age- and sex-matched controls of the same population and expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS). Mean age of children was 9.8 +/- 3.7 years. Of 18 children (10 boys and 8 girls), 13 were grouped as standard and 5 as high-risk, respectively. Based on z-score values, 9 were classified as normal (z-score <1 SD), 7 as osteopenic (z-score 1-2.5 SD) and 2 as osteoporotic (z-score >2.5 SD). Children with ALL had reduced lumbar BMDs (z score -0.99) in comparison to healthy controls (z score -0.14) (p=0.011), which is indicative of relative osteopenia. Moreover, the reduced BMD was associated with patient age (z score -0.14 and -1.52 for ages <10 and >10 years, respectively, p=0.016). Reduced BMD was not correlated with time from completion of chemotherapy (p=0.33), risk group (p=0.9) and sex (p=0.3). We conclude that children's BMDs are reduced after completion of chemotherapy for ALL. The causes are multifactorial and mainly related to antineoplastic treatments, such as corticosteroids and methotrexate, physical inactivity and cranial irradiation. We suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effect on BMD in these children and to prevent pathological fractures later in life. PMID:16848106

  1. Bone mineral crystal size and organization vary across mature rat bone cortex.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Mikael J; Kaspersen, Jørn D; Olsson, Ulf; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Bech, Martin; Schaff, Florian; Tägil, Magnus; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Isaksson, Hanna

    2016-09-01

    The macro- and micro-features of bone can be assessed by using imaging methods. However, nano- and molecular features require more detailed characterization, such as use of e.g., vibrational spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Nano- and molecular features also affect the mechanical competence of bone tissue. The aim of the present study was to reveal the effects of mineralization and its alterations on the mineral crystal scale, by investigating the spatial variation of molecular composition and mineral crystal structure across the cross-section of femur diaphyses in young rats, and healthy and osteoporotic mature rats (N=5). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques with high spatial resolution were used at identical locations over the whole cross-section. This allowed quantification of point-by-point information about the spatial distribution of mineral crystal volume. All measured parameters (crystal dimensions, degree of orientation and predominant orientation) varied across the cortex. Specifically, the crystal dimensions were lower in the central cortex than in the endosteal and periosteal regions. Mineral crystal orientation followed the cortical circumference in the periosteal and endosteal regions, but was less well-oriented in the central regions. Central cortex is formed rapidly during development through endochondral ossification. Since rats possess no osteonal remodeling, this bone remains (until old age). Significant linear correlations were observed between the dimensional and organizational parameters, e.g., between crystal length and degree of orientation (R(2)=0.83, p<0.001). Application of SAXS/WAXS provides valuable information on bone nanostructure and its constituents, effects of diseases and, prospectively, mechanical competence. PMID:27417019

  2. Quantitative CT for determination of bone mineral density: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Cann, C.E.

    1988-02-01

    One of the major uses of quantitative computed tomography (CT) has been the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) at various skeletal sites. The published literature on this subject from 1974 to the present is extensive. Because many investigators and clinicians are just now starting to explore the utility of this technique, the author reviewed this literature to provide both the historic perspective and current status of BMD measurement with CT. The physical and physiologic bases of the method, accuracy, reproducibility, radiation dose, and clinical utility are all discussed.103 references.

  3. Mechanisms of Bone Mineralization and Effects of Mechanical Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babich, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The data suggest that PTH and PKC inhibit nodule formation, and that alternative energy sources are utilized by osteoblasts in the process of mineralization. The conditions and techniques to grow, fix, photograph, and measure bone mineralization in vitro were defined. The results are presently in preliminary form and require further assessment as follows; quantitate the surface area of nodules + treatments via computer-aided image analysis; use PTH + inhibitors of signaling pathways to determine the mechanism of nodule formation; determine how protein kinase C is involved as a promotor of nodule formation; cell proliferation vs. cell death affected by modulation of signal transduction (i.e., PTH, enzyme inhibitors and activators); identify mRNA induced or decreased in response to PTH and signaling modulators that encode proteins that regulate cell morphology, proliferation, and nodule formation. Therefore, several follow-up studies between the laboratories at NASA-Ames Research Center and my laboratory at the University of Illinois have been initiated.

  4. Impairment of osteoclastic bone resorption in rapidly growing female p47phox knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone formation is dependent on the activity and differentiation of osteoblasts; whereas resorption of preexisting mineralized bone matrix by osteoclasts is necessary not only for bone development but also for regeneration and remodeling. Bone remodeling is a process in which osteoblasts and osteocla...

  5. The use of Na-22 as a tracer for long-term bone mineral turnover studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, H. E.; Rieksts, G. A.; Palmer, R. F.; Gillis, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    Sodium-22 has been studied as a tracer for bone mineral metabolism in rats and dogs. When incorporated into bone during growth from birth to adulthood, the bone becomes uniformly tagged with Na-22, which is released through the metabolic turnover of the bone. The Na-22 not incorporated in the bone matrix is rapidly excreted within a few days when animals are fed high, but nontoxic levels of NaCl. The Na-22 tracer can be used to measure bone mineral loss in animals during space flight and in research on bone disease.

  6. Rosiglitazone Promotes Bone Marrow Adipogenesis to Impair Myelopoiesis under Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wenyi; Wang, Weimin; Wang, Shujuan; Feng, Yonghuai; Liu, Kaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The therapeutic use of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) causes unwanted hematological side effects, although the underlying mechanisms of these effects are poorly understood. This study tests the hypothesis that rosiglitazone impairs the maintenance and differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, which ultimately leads to hematological abnormalities. Methods Mice were fed a rosiglitazone-supplemented diet or a normal diet for 6 weeks. To induce hematopoietic stress, all mice were injected once with 250 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) intraperitoneally. Next, hematopoietic recovery, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) subsets, and myeloid differentiation after 5-Fu treatment were evaluated. The adipogenesis induced by rosiglitazone was assessed by histopathology and oil red O staining. The effect of adipocytes on HSPCs was studied with an in vitro co-culture system. Results Rosiglitazone significantly enhanced bone marrow adipogenesis and delayed hematopoietic recovery after 5-Fu treatment. Moreover, rosiglitazone inhibited proliferation of a granulocyte/monocyte progenitor (GMP) cell population and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) colonies, although the proliferation and mobilization of Lin-c-kit+Sca-1+ cells (LSK) was maintained following hematopoietic stress. These effects could be partially reversed by the selective PPARγ antagonist BADGE. Finally, we demonstrated in a co-culture system that differentiated adipocytes actively suppressed the myeloid differentiation of HSPCs. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrate that rosiglitazone inhibits myeloid differentiation of HSPCs after stress partially by inducing bone marrow adipogenesis. Targeting the bone marrow microenvironment might be one mechanism by which rosiglitazone impairs stress-induced hematopoiesis. PMID:26895498

  7. On the pathway of mineral deposition in larval zebrafish caudal fin bone.

    PubMed

    Akiva, Anat; Malkinson, Guy; Masic, Admir; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Bennet, Mathieu; Fratzl, Peter; Addadi, Lia; Weiner, Steve; Yaniv, Karina

    2015-06-01

    A poorly understood aspect of bone biomineralization concerns the mechanisms whereby ions are sequestered from the environment, concentrated, and deposited in the extracellular matrix. In this study, we follow mineral deposition in the caudal fin of the zebrafish larva in vivo. Using fluorescence and cryo-SEM-microscopy, in combination with Raman and XRF spectroscopy, we detect the presence of intracellular mineral particles located between bones, and in close association with blood vessels. Calcium-rich particles are also located away from the mineralized bone, and these are also in close association with blood vessels. These observations challenge the view that mineral formation is restricted to osteoblast cells juxtaposed to bone, or to the extracellular matrix. Our results, derived from observations performed in living animals, contribute a new perspective to the comprehensive mechanism of bone formation in vertebrates, from the blood to the bone. More broadly, these findings may shed light on bone mineralization processes in other vertebrates, including humans. PMID:25725266

  8. Disruption of Scube2 Impairs Endochondral Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuh-Charn; Roffler, Steve R; Yan, Yu-Ting; Yang, Ruey-Bing

    2015-07-01

    Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 2 (SCUBE2) belongs to a secreted and membrane-tethered multidomain SCUBE protein family composed of three members found in vertebrates and mammals. Recent reports suggested that zebrafish scube2 could facilitate sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling for proper development of slow muscle. However, whether SCUBE2 can regulate the signaling activity of two other hedgehog ligands (Ihh and Dhh), and the developmental relevance of the SCUBE2-induced hedgehog signaling in mammals remain poorly understood. In this study, we first showed that as compared with SCUBE1 or SCUBE3, SCUBE2 is the most potent modulator of IHH signaling in vitro. In addition, gain and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that SCUBE2 exerted an osteogenic function by enhancing Ihh-stimulated osteoblast differentiation in the mouse mesenchymal progenitor cells. Consistent with these in vitro studies and the prominent roles of Ihh in coordinating skeletogenesis, genetic ablation of Scube2 (-/-) caused defective endochondral bone formation and impaired Ihh-mediated chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation as well as osteoblast differentiation of -/- bone-marrow mesenchymal stromal-cell cultures. Our data demonstrate that Scube2 plays a key regulatory role in Ihh-dependent endochondral bone formation. PMID:25639508

  9. Evaluation of Lunar small animal software for measuring bone mineral content in excised rat bones.

    PubMed

    Kiebzak, G M; Meyer, M H; Meyer, R A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate software from Lunar Corporation (Madison, WI) designed for the measurement of bone mineral content ([BMC],g) in excised rat femurs using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Femurs were harvested from intact 2- to 12-mo-old female Sprague-Dawley rats, stripped of soft tissues, wrapped in saline-soaked gauze, and frozen at -20 degrees F. Thawed bones were scanned in air on a 1.7-cm-thick Lucite plate that was laid on the manufacturer's supplied Delrin platform. Bones were in an anteroposterior position and scanned in a proximal-to-distal manner. Small animal software version 1.0d was used with a Lunar DPX-L densitometer. Regions of interest (ROIs) were the middle one-third of the diaphysis, a small central area of the distal metaphysis, and the total bone. Precision (n = 6 femurs) was calculated for each region of interest. After DXA scanning, one group of bones (n = 10 femurs) was dried and incinerated in a muffle furnace to obtain bone ash. The ash was then digested in acid and aliquots assayed for calcium using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. This group of bones was used to correlate BMC with ash weight and areal bone mineral density (BMD) with calcium concentration. A second group of bones (n = 14 femurs) was used to correlate BMC with maximal load to failure (N), a biomechanical variable that provides information about bone strength. Precision of repetitive measurements for the three ROIs was 1.2, 3.0, and 0.65%, respectively. Total femur BMC and total femur ash weights were significantly correlated (r = 0.974, p <0.0001). Total femur area BMD (g/cm2) was significantly correlated with calcium concentration (microM) of the bone hydrolysate (r = 0.686, p = 0.029). Total femur BMC and maximum load to midshaft fracture were also significantly correlated (r = 0.914, p<0.0001). The greatest problem with the software was with edge detection: operator intervention was necessary to place edges manually during scan

  10. The unsolved case of "bone-impairing analgesics": the endocrine effects of opioids on bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Coluzzi, Flaminia; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Raffa, Robert B; Mattia, Consalvo

    2015-01-01

    The current literature describes the possible risks for bone fracture in chronic analgesics users. There are three main hypotheses that could explain the increased risk of fracture associated with central analgesics, such as opioids: 1) the increased risk of falls caused by central nervous system effects, including sedation and dizziness; 2) reduced bone mass density caused by the direct opioid effect on osteoblasts; and 3) chronic opioid-induced hypogonadism. The impact of opioids varies by sex and among the type of opioid used (less, for example, for tapentadol and buprenorphine). Opioid-associated androgen deficiency is correlated with an increased risk of osteoporosis; thus, despite that standards have not been established for monitoring and treating opioid-induced hypogonadism or hypoadrenalism, all patients chronically taking opioids (particularly at doses ≥100 mg morphine daily) should be monitored for the early detection of hormonal impairment and low bone mass density. PMID:25848298

  11. Effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the bone-conserving effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang (RC-CGJ) supplemented with more intensified phytochemicals compared to general Cheonggukjang (CGJ) in growing rats. Eighteen rats were divided into 3 treatment groups (Control, CGJ, and RC-CGJ) and were given experimental diets for 9 weeks. All of the rats in this study were fed a AIN-93G-based diet. Both CGJ groups were fed with 33.1% CGJ and RC-CGJ powder, respectively. The results of this study indicate that weight gain, mean food intake, and food efficiency ratio were not significantly different by the experimental diets among all groups. Spine bone mineral density (BMD) and femur BMD were not significantly different by the experimental diets. Spine bone mineral content (BMC) was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ and CGJ groups than in the control group, regardless of CGJ type. The femur BMC of the CGJ supplemented group was significantly higher compared with the control group and the RC-CGJ group. Compared with the control group, spine BMD and femur BMD per weight were markedly increased in the RC-CGJ and CGJ group regardless of CGJ type. Also, spine BMC per weight was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ group than in the CGJ group. However, femur BMC per weight was significantly higher in the CGJ group than in the RC-CGJ group. It can be concluded that RC-CGJ and CGJ supplemented diets have more beneficial effects on spine and femur peak bone mass in growing rats. PMID:26770913

  12. Effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content in Growing Rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yun-Jung; Choi, Mi-Ja

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the bone-conserving effects of Rubus coreanus-Cheonggukjang (RC-CGJ) supplemented with more intensified phytochemicals compared to general Cheonggukjang (CGJ) in growing rats. Eighteen rats were divided into 3 treatment groups (Control, CGJ, and RC-CGJ) and were given experimental diets for 9 weeks. All of the rats in this study were fed a AIN-93G-based diet. Both CGJ groups were fed with 33.1% CGJ and RC-CGJ powder, respectively. The results of this study indicate that weight gain, mean food intake, and food efficiency ratio were not significantly different by the experimental diets among all groups. Spine bone mineral density (BMD) and femur BMD were not significantly different by the experimental diets. Spine bone mineral content (BMC) was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ and CGJ groups than in the control group, regardless of CGJ type. The femur BMC of the CGJ supplemented group was significantly higher compared with the control group and the RC-CGJ group. Compared with the control group, spine BMD and femur BMD per weight were markedly increased in the RC-CGJ and CGJ group regardless of CGJ type. Also, spine BMC per weight was significantly higher in the RC-CGJ group than in the CGJ group. However, femur BMC per weight was significantly higher in the CGJ group than in the RC-CGJ group. It can be concluded that RC-CGJ and CGJ supplemented diets have more beneficial effects on spine and femur peak bone mass in growing rats. PMID:26770913

  13. Vascular calcification, bone and mineral metabolism after kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    D’Marco, Luis; Bellasi, Antonio; Mazzaferro, Sandro; Raggi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The development of end stage renal failure can be seen as a catastrophic health event and patients with this condition are considered at the highest risk of cardiovascular disease among any other patient groups and risk categories. Although kidney transplantation was hailed as an optimal solution to such devastating disease, many issues related to immune-suppressive drugs soon emerged and it became evident that cardiovascular disease would remain a vexing problem. Progression of chronic kidney disease is accompanied by profound alterations of mineral and bone metabolism that are believed to have an impact on the cardiovascular health of patients with advanced degrees of renal failure. Cardiovascular risk factors remain highly prevalent after kidney transplantation, some immune-suppression drugs worsen the risk profile of graft recipients and the alterations of mineral and bone metabolism seen in end stage renal failure are not completely resolved. Whether this complex situation promotes progression of vascular calcification, a hall-mark of advanced chronic kidney disease, and whether vascular calcifications contribute to the poor cardiovascular outcome of post-transplant patients is reviewed in this article. PMID:26722649

  14. Bone mineral density of healthy Turkish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goksen, Damla; Darcan, Sukran; Coker, Mahmut; Kose, Timur

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to gain reference values of lumbar and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) for healthy Turkish children. Three hundred forty-five children aged 2-18 years were examined. Weight and height development were normal for age according to national growth charts. Areal BMD (aBMD) was corrected using the model of Kroger et al (9). The results of the lumbar and femoral aBMD increased progressively from childhood to adulthood. Statistically significant correlation was found between lumbar and femoral neck aBMD and age and height (p<0.01). Lumbar volumetric (vBMD) data were similar between males and females. Femoral vBMD was only significantly different at the ages of 8 and 16 (p<0.05) in girls and boys and did not increase with age. A significant increase in aBMD L1-L4 values according to puberty was observed between all Tanner stages, except Tanner stages 3 and 4 (p>0.05). A significant difference was found between stages 1 and 2, and 2 and 3 in femoral neck aBMD (p<0.05). This data provides a tool for the investigation and follow-up of Turkish children at risk for low-bone mineralization. PMID:16731436

  15. Multiple vibration intensities and frequencies for bone mineral density improvement.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Bertram; Burns, Edith; Wilson, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Devices that deliver controlled quantum vibration intensities at multiple frequencies (QVIMF) provide optimal stress to the musculoskeletal system for improved bone mineral density and muscle strength. This paper presents development of a QVIMF system and pilot study to determine device performance. Development is centered on specially-designed actuators that comprise multiple nodes of controlled and smooth, but variable rates of contact on a telescoping platform through sets of damping subsystems. The combination of specially-designed actuators and damping subsystems, powered by a DC controlled motor, delivers quantum busts of vibration at multiple frequencies resulting in whole body vibration. An initial feasibility study involved a 79 year old adult male. After IRB approval from both the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) and the Zablocki VA Medical Center, Milwaukee, the subject's bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual x-ray absorptimetry (DXA) at baseline. The subject then visited the UWM laboratory for two fifteen-minute vibration sessions per visit, three times a week for a total of 60 visits. Post-vibration BMD was again measured by DXA. Comparison pre- and post-vibration test results showed increases in BMD at the femoral neck, trochanter, total hip, forearm and lower lumbar spine (L1-4). PMID:19163635

  16. Accelerated Growth Plate Mineralization and Foreshortened Proximal Limb Bones in Fetuin-A Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Himadri S.; Schäfer, Cora; Krauss, Stefanie; Dunlop, John W. C.; Masic, Admir; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Zaslansky, Paul; Boesecke, Peter; Catalá-Lehnen, Philip; Schinke, Thorsten; Fratzl, Peter; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2012-01-01

    The plasma protein fetuin-A/alpha2-HS-glycoprotein (genetic symbol Ahsg) is a systemic inhibitor of extraskeletal mineralization, which is best underscored by the excessive mineral deposition found in various tissues of fetuin-A deficient mice on the calcification-prone genetic background DBA/2. Fetuin-A is known to accumulate in the bone matrix thus an effect of fetuin-A on skeletal mineralization is expected. We examined the bones of fetuin-A deficient mice maintained on a C57BL/6 genetic background to avoid bone disease secondary to renal calcification. Here, we show that fetuin-A deficient mice display normal trabecular bone mass in the spine, but increased cortical thickness in the femur. Bone material properties, as well as mineral and collagen characteristics of cortical bone were unaffected by the absence of fetuin-A. In contrast, the long bones especially proximal limb bones were severely stunted in fetuin-A deficient mice compared to wildtype littermates, resulting in increased biomechanical stability of fetuin-A deficient femora in three-point-bending tests. Elevated backscattered electron signal intensities reflected an increased mineral content in the growth plates of fetuin-A deficient long bones, corroborating its physiological role as an inhibitor of excessive mineralization in the growth plate cartilage matrix - a site of vigorous physiological mineralization. We show that in the case of fetuin-A deficiency, active mineralization inhibition is a necessity for proper long bone growth. PMID:23091616

  17. [Clinical evaluation for abnormalities of bone and mineral metabolism in ESKD].

    PubMed

    Yano, Shozo

    2016-09-01

    In patients with end-stage kidney disease(ESKD), bone disorders are characterized by cortical porosity and by abnormal turnover of bone metabolism:adynamic(low turnover)bone disease and high turnover bone due to various degrees of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Abnormalities of bone metabolism are generally assessed by interview, X-ray, bone mineral density(BMD), serum phosphorus, calcium, and parathyroid hormone levels, and bone metabolic markers. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated that high turnover bone representing elevated bone metabolic markers and low BMD are independent risks of bone fractures as well as mortality among this population. Treatment of bone disorders in ESKD patients should be aiming at the normalization of mineral metabolism and the maintenance and/or improvement of BMD. PMID:27561341

  18. Bone mineral density and changes in bone metabolism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Rabia; Yılmaz, Zahide

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and phenotypically similar subjects without OSAS in terms of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers. The study was conducted on 30 males diagnosed with OSAS and 20 healthy males. All subjects underwent polysomnographic testing. Calcium, phosphorus parathyroid hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, osteocalcin, and beta-CrossLaps (β-CTx) were measured. BMD in the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic data with the exception of bone mass index and waist circumference. (p < 0.05). Analyses showed significantly lower BMD measurements in the femoral neck and T-scores in the femoral neck in patients diagnosed with OSAS. Serum β-CTx levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in the OSAS group (p = 0.017). In multivariate assessments performed for apnea/hypopnea index values, mean saturation O2 levels were found to be significantly associated with osteocalcin levels and neck BMD. OSAS patients might represent a risk group with respect to loss of BMD and bone resorption. It is important to evaluate bone loss in these patients. Further studies should be carried out on larger study populations to evaluate the effects of chronic hypoxia on BMD in detail. PMID:26204846

  19. Dietary Pseudopurpurin Effects on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Geometry Architecture in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen-Chen; Li, Xiao-Bing; Han, Tie-Suo; Li, Peng; Liu, Guo-Wen; Wang, Wei-Zhong; Wang, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate whether feeding pseudopurpurin affects bone mineral density and bone geometry architecture in rats. Pseudopurpurin was extracted, analyzed and purified using an HLPC-ESI-MS. Rats were given 0% and 0.5% pseudopurpurin powder in their diet. Femurs of rats were examined at 0.5, 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Compared with rats in the group 0%, the bone mineral density, and the calcium, magnesium, zinc and manganese concentrations in the rats femur in the group 0.5% increased significantly at 1 month and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. Analytical results of micro-computed tomography showed that the group 0.5% displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness and trabecular number of the distal femur at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding, and the mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femur diaphysis were significantly increased at 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding compared with the group 0%. In parallel, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, compared with the group 0% at 1 and 2 months after pseudopurpurin feeding. In the 0.5% and 0% groups, there was no damage to kidney and liver by histopathology analysis. The long-term feeding of pseudopurpurin is safe for rats. The feeding of 0.5% pseudopurpurin which has specific chemical affinities for calcium for bone improvement and level of bone mineral density, enhances the geometry architecture compared with the 0% group. PMID:22489160

  20. Serum Bicarbonate and Bone Mineral Density in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L.; Abramowitz, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 9,724 nationally representative adults aged 20 years or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Factor Serum bicarbonate level. Outcomes Lumbar and total BMD as well as low lumbar and total bone mass defined as 1.0 SD below sex-specific mean of young adults. Measurements BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate levels were measured in all participants. Results Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD among the total population as well as in sex-specific models (p=0.02 for all three models, p=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate levels among women but not men (p=0.02 and p=0.1, respectively; p=0.8 for interaction); and a significant association was seen among post-menopausal women but not pre-menopausal women (p=0.02 and p=0.2, respectively; p=0.5 for interaction). Compared to women with serum bicarbonate level <24 mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate ≥27 mEq/L had 0.018 g/cm2 higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; p=0.01) and had 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; p=0.05). Limitations Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate level. The subgroup differences are not definitive. Conclusions Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be

  1. Utilization of DXA Bone Mineral Densitometry in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Issue Systematic reviews and analyses of administrative data were performed to determine the appropriate use of bone mineral density (BMD) assessments using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and the associated trends in wrist and hip fractures in Ontario. Background Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Bone Mineral Density Assessment Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry bone densitometers measure bone density based on differential absorption of 2 x-ray beams by bone and soft tissues. It is the gold standard for detecting and diagnosing osteoporosis, a systemic disease characterized by low bone density and altered bone structure, resulting in low bone strength and increased risk of fractures. The test is fast (approximately 10 minutes) and accurate (exceeds 90% at the hip), with low radiation (1/3 to 1/5 of that from a chest x-ray). DXA densitometers are licensed as Class 3 medical devices in Canada. The World Health Organization has established criteria for osteoporosis and osteopenia based on DXA BMD measurements: osteoporosis is defined as a BMD that is >2.5 standard deviations below the mean BMD for normal young adults (i.e. T-score <–2.5), while osteopenia is defined as BMD that is more than 1 standard deviation but less than 2.5 standard deviation below the mean for normal young adults (i.e. T-score< –1 & ≥–2.5). DXA densitometry is presently an insured health service in Ontario. Clinical Need   Burden of Disease The Canadian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (CaMos) found that 16% of Canadian women and 6.6% of Canadian men have osteoporosis based on the WHO criteria, with prevalence increasing with age. Osteopenia was found in 49.6% of Canadian women and 39% of Canadian men. In Ontario, it is estimated that nearly 530,000 Ontarians have some degrees of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis-related fragility fractures occur most often in the wrist, femur and pelvis. These fractures, particularly those in the hip, are associated with increased

  2. Ethnic and sex differences in bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density relationship

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Gantz, M.; Punyanitya, M.; Heymsfield, S. B.; Gallagher, D.; Albu, J.; Engelson, E.; Kotler, D.; Pi-Sunyer, X.; Shapses, S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and bone mineral density is different between African Americans and Caucasians as well as between men and women. This suggests that the mechanisms that regulate the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. Introduction It has long been established that there are ethnic and sex differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. Recent studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) may play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. It is unknown whether ethnic and sex differences exist in the relationship between BMAT and BMD. Methods Pelvic BMAT was evaluated in 455 healthy African American and Caucasian men and women (age 18–88 years) using whole-body T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. BMD was measured using whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results A negative correlation was observed between pelvic BMAT and total body BMD or pelvic BMD (r=−0.533, −0.576, respectively; P<0.001). In multiple regression analyses with BMD as the dependent variable, ethnicity significantly entered the regression models as either an individual term or an interaction with BMAT. Menopausal status significantly entered the regression model with total body BMD as the dependent variable. African Americans had higher total body BMD than Caucasians for the same amount of BMAT, and the ethnic difference for pelvic BMD was greater in those participants with a higher BMAT. Men and premeno-pausal women had higher total body BMD levels than postmenopausal women for the same amount of BMAT. Conclusions An inverse relationship exists between BMAT and BMD in African American and Caucasian men and women. The observed ethnic and sex differences between BMAT and BMD in the present study suggest the possibility that the mechanisms regulating the differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells may differ in these populations. PMID

  3. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  4. An investigation of the mineral in ductile and brittle cortical mouse bone.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Garcia-Tunon, Esther; Mukadam, Quresh; Saiz, Eduardo; Oldknow, Karla J; Farquharson, Colin; Millán, José Luis; Boyde, Alan; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2015-05-01

    Bone is a strong and tough material composed of apatite mineral, organic matter, and water. Changes in composition and organization of these building blocks affect bone's mechanical integrity. Skeletal disorders often affect bone's mineral phase, either by variations in the collagen or directly altering mineralization. The aim of the current study was to explore the differences in the mineral of brittle and ductile cortical bone at the mineral (nm) and tissue (µm) levels using two mouse phenotypes. Osteogenesis imperfecta model, oim(-/-) , mice have a defect in the collagen, which leads to brittle bone; PHOSPHO1 mutants, Phospho1(-/-) , have ductile bone resulting from altered mineralization. Oim(-/-) and Phospho1(-/-) were compared with their respective wild-type controls. Femora were defatted and ground to powder to measure average mineral crystal size using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and to monitor the bulk mineral to matrix ratio via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD scans were run after TGA for phase identification to assess the fractions of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate. Tibiae were embedded to measure elastic properties with nanoindentation and the extent of mineralization with backscattered electron microscopy (BSE SEM). Results revealed that although both pathology models had extremely different whole-bone mechanics, they both had smaller apatite crystals, lower bulk mineral to matrix ratio, and showed more thermal conversion to β-tricalcium phosphate than their wild types, indicating deviations from stoichiometric hydroxyapatite in the original mineral. In contrast, the degree of mineralization of bone matrix was different for each strain: brittle oim(-/-) were hypermineralized, whereas ductile Phospho1(-/-) were hypomineralized. Despite differences in the mineralization, nanoscale alterations in the mineral were associated with reduced tissue elastic moduli in both pathologies. Results indicated that alterations from normal crystal size

  5. Bone morphometry and mineral density measurement using quantitative computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of bone structure and density was explored and developed. A review of bone mineral densitometry (BMD) methodology and general principles of quantitative CT (QCT) are presented. A method for QCT of the spine was developed using a flexible tissue equivalent reference placed adjacent to the patient. A methodology for the development and production of tissue equivalent materials is also presented. Patient equivalent phantoms were used to characterize the method, and phantom studies were performed at five clinical sites. A protocol is defined for measuring the inside diameter of the lumbar pedicular canal. Data generated from this study has proven invaluable in the planning for lumbar fusion surgery when screws are to be used for immobilization. Pedicular canal data from 33 patients is presented. QCT was also used to quantify several parameters of the femoral shaft for use in hip replacement surgical planning. Parameters studied include inside diameter, BMD, endosteal BMD and proximal shaft morphology. The structure and trabecular BMD of the proximal femur was extensively studied using QCT. A large variation was found in the fat content of marrow within the proximal femur, and phantom studies were performed to quantify the effect of fat on trabecular QCT BMD. Cadaveric trabecular bone samples with marrow were analyzed physically to determine water, fat, non-fat soft tissue, and ash content. Multiple thin-slice CT studies were performed on cadaveric femurs. A structural model of the proximal femur was developed in which the structural support is provided primarily by trabecular bone. This model may have profound implications in the study of femoral fractures and prosthetic hardware design.

  6. Mineralization defects in cementum and craniofacial bone from loss of bone sialoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Foster, B.L.; Ao, M.; Willoughby, C.; Soenjaya, Y.; Holm, E.; Lukashova, L.; Tran, A. B.; Wimer, H.F.; Zerfas, P.M.; Nociti, F.H.; Kantovitz, K.R.; Quan, B.D.; Sone, E.D.; Goldberg, H.A.; Somerman, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein found in mineralized tissues, including bone, cartilage, tooth root cementum (both acellular and cellular types), and dentin. In order to define the role BSP plays in the process of biomineralization of these tissues, we analyzed cementogenesis, dentinogenesis, and osteogenesis (intramembranous and endochondral) in craniofacial bone in Bsp null mice and wild-type (WT) controls over a developmental period (1-60 days post natal; dpn) by histology, immunohistochemistry, undecalcified histochemistry, microcomputed tomography (microCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Regions of intramembranous ossification in the alveolus, mandible, and calvaria presented delayed mineralization and osteoid accumulation, assessed by von Kossa and Goldner's trichrome stains at 1 and 14 dpn. Moreover, Bsp−/− mice featured increased cranial suture size at the early time point, 1 dpn. Immunostaining and PCR demonstrated that osteoblast markers, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin were unchanged in Bsp null mandibles compared to WT. Bsp−/− mouse molars featured a lack of functional acellular cementum formation by histology, SEM, and TEM, and subsequent loss of Sharpey's collagen fiber insertion into the tooth root structure. Bsp−/− mouse alveolar and mandibular bone featured equivalent or fewer osteoclasts at early ages (1 and 14 dpn), however, increased RANKL immunostaining and mRNA, and significantly increased number of osteoclast-like cells (2-5 fold) were found at later ages (26 and 60 dpn), corresponding to periodontal breakdown and severe alveolar bone resorption observed following molar teeth entering occlusion. Dentin formation was unperturbed in Bsp−/− mouse molars, with no delay in mineralization, no alteration in dentin dimensions, and no differences in odontoblast markers analyzed. No defects were identified

  7. Mineralization defects in cementum and craniofacial bone from loss of bone sialoprotein.

    PubMed

    Foster, B L; Ao, M; Willoughby, C; Soenjaya, Y; Holm, E; Lukashova, L; Tran, A B; Wimer, H F; Zerfas, P M; Nociti, F H; Kantovitz, K R; Quan, B D; Sone, E D; Goldberg, H A; Somerman, M J

    2015-09-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein found in mineralized tissues, including bone, cartilage, tooth root cementum (both acellular and cellular types), and dentin. In order to define the role BSP plays in the process of biomineralization of these tissues, we analyzed cementogenesis, dentinogenesis, and osteogenesis (intramembranous and endochondral) in craniofacial bone in Bsp null mice and wild-type (WT) controls over a developmental period (1-60 days post natal; dpn) by histology, immunohistochemistry, undecalcified histochemistry, microcomputed tomography (microCT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Regions of intramembranous ossification in the alveolus, mandible, and calvaria presented delayed mineralization and osteoid accumulation, assessed by von Kossa and Goldner's trichrome stains at 1 and 14 dpn. Moreover, Bsp(-/-) mice featured increased cranial suture size at the early time point, 1 dpn. Immunostaining and PCR demonstrated that osteoblast markers, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and osteopontin were unchanged in Bsp null mandibles compared to WT. Bsp(-/-) mouse molars featured a lack of functional acellular cementum formation by histology, SEM, and TEM, and subsequent loss of Sharpey's collagen fiber insertion into the tooth root structure. Bsp(-/-) mouse alveolar and mandibular bone featured equivalent or fewer osteoclasts at early ages (1 and 14 dpn), however, increased RANKL immunostaining and mRNA, and significantly increased number of osteoclast-like cells (2-5 fold) were found at later ages (26 and 60 dpn), corresponding to periodontal breakdown and severe alveolar bone resorption observed following molar teeth entering occlusion. Dentin formation was unperturbed in Bsp(-/-) mouse molars, with no delay in mineralization, no alteration in dentin dimensions, and no differences in odontoblast markers analyzed. No defects were identified in

  8. Bone Mineral Density and Cognitive Decline in Elderly Women: Results from the InCHIANTI Study.

    PubMed

    Laudisio, Alice; Fontana, Davide Onofrio; Rivera, Chiara; Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gemma, Antonella; Ferrucci, Luigi; Antonelli Incalzi, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    Osteoporosis and cognitive impairment, which are highly prevalent conditions in elderly populations, share several risk factors. This study aims at evaluating the association of bone mineral density (BMD) with prevalent and incident cognitive impairment after a 3-year follow-up. We studied 655 community-dwelling women aged 65+ participating in the InCHIANTI study, who had been followed for 3 years. Total, trabecular, and cortical BMD were estimated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography using standard transverse scans at 4 and 38 % of the tibial length. Cognitive performance was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Trail Making Tests (TMT) A and B; a MMSE score <24 was adopted to define cognitive impairment. The TMT A-B score was calculated as the difference between TMT-A and TMT-B times (ΔTMT). The association of cognitive performance after 3 years with baseline indices of BMD was assessed by logistic and linear regression analyses. Cortical, but not trabecular, BMD was independently associated with incident cognitive impairment (OR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.88-0.98; P = 0.012), worsening cognitive performance (OR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.92-0.98; P = 0.039), and worsening performance in ΔTMT (OR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.92-0.99; P = 0.047). Increasing cortical BMD tertiles was associated with decreasing probability of incident cognitive impairment (P for linear trend =0.001), worsening cognitive performance (P = 0.013), and a worsening performance below the median value (P for linear trend <0.0001). In older women, low BMD might represent an independent and early marker of subsequent cognitive impairment. Physicians should assess and monitor cognitive performance in the routine management of elderly women with osteoporosis. PMID:26713334

  9. Autologous implantation of BMP2-expressing dermal fibroblasts to improve bone mineral density and architecture in rabbit long bones.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Akikazu; Weisbrode, Steve E; Bertone, Alicia L

    2015-10-01

    Cell-mediated gene therapy may treat bone fragility disorders. Dermal fibroblasts (DFb) may be an alternative cell source to stem cells for orthopedic gene therapy because of their rapid cell yield and excellent plasticity with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) gene transduction. Autologous DFb or BMP2-expressing autologous DFb were administered in twelve rabbits by two delivery routes; a transcortical intra-medullar infusion into tibiae and delayed intra-osseous injection into femoral drill defects. Both delivery methods of DFb-BMP2 resulted in a successful cell engraftment, increased bone volume, bone mineral density, improved trabecular bone microarchitecture, greater bone defect filling, external callus formation, and trabecular surface area, compared to non-transduced DFb or no cells. Cell engraftment within trabecular bone and bone marrow tissue was most efficiently achieved by intra-osseous injection of DFb-BMP2. Our results suggested that BMP2-expressing autologous DFb have enhanced efficiency of engraftment in target bones resulting in a measurable biologic response by the bone of improved bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. These results support that autologous implantation of DFb-BMP2 warrants further study on animal models of bone fragility disorders, such as osteogenesis imperfecta and osteoporosis to potentially enhance bone quality, particularly along with other gene modification of these diseases. PMID:25418909

  10. Agave fructans: their effect on mineral absorption and bone mineral content.

    PubMed

    García-Vieyra, María Isabel; Del Real, Alicia; López, Mercedes G

    2014-11-01

    In this study we investigate the effect that Agave fructans as new prebiotics have on mineral absorption improvement. Forty-eight 12-week-old C57BL/6J mice were used in this study. Forty mice were ovariectomized and eight were sham-operated controls. Mice were fed standard diets or diets supplemented with 10% Agave fructans or 10% inulin fructans. Calcium and magnesium were evaluated as well as their excretion in feces. Osteocalcin levels were also measured; femur structure was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Other parameters, such as food intake, body weight, glucose, and short-chain fatty acid content, were recorded. Calcium in plasma and bone increased in Agave fructan groups (from 53.1 to 56 and 85 mg/L and from 0.402 to 0.474 and 0.478 g/g, respectively) and osteocalcin increased in all fructan groups (>50%). Scanning electron microscopy showed that fructans were able to mitigate bone loss. In conclusion, we demonstrated that supplementation with Agave fructans prevents bone loss and improves bone formation. PMID:25069021

  11. Preoperative Periarticular Knee Bone Mineral Density in Osteoarthritic Patients Undergoing TKA

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideo; Sato, Junko; Todoroki, Koji; Ezawa, Nobukazu; Toyabe, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preoperative periarticular bone quality is affected by joint loading. The purpose of this study was to determine the periarticular bone mineral density of the knee joint of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty, and whether the location of the load-bearing axis correlates with the measured bone mineral density. Materials and Methods: The bone mineral densities of the medial and lateral femoral condyles and the medial and lateral tibial condyles were analyzed in consecutive 116 osteoarthritic patients (130 knees) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results: The median bone mineral density values in the condyles were 1.138 in femoral medial, 0.767 in femoral lateral, 1.056 in tibial medial, and 0.714 in tibial lateral. The medial condyles showed significantly higher bone mineral densities than the lateral condyles in both the femur and tibia. In addition, the femoral medial showed significantly higher bone mineral density levels than the tibial medial, and the femoral lateral condyle had higher bone mineral density levels than the tibial lateral. The bone mineral density Medial/Lateral ratio was significantly negatively correlated with the location (tibial medial edge 0%, lateral edge 100%) of the load-bearing axis in the femur and tibia. Conclusion: Preoperative bone mineral density values may provide against the changes in bone mineral density after total knee arthroplasty by reflecting the correlation with joint loading axis. These results help explain why total knee arthroplasty has such good long-term clinical outcomes with a low frequency of component loosening and periarticular fractures despite a high degree of postoperative bone loss. PMID:27583058

  12. Influence of the mineral staggering on the elastic properties of the mineralized collagen fibril in lamellar bone.

    PubMed

    Vercher-Martínez, Ana; Giner, Eugenio; Arango, Camila; Fuenmayor, F Javier

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model of the staggered distribution of the mineral within the mineralized collagen fibril has been developed to characterize the lamellar bone elastic behavior at the sub-micro length scale. Minerals have been assumed to be embedded in a collagen matrix, and different degrees of mineralization have been considered allowing the growth of platelet-shaped minerals both in the axial and the transverse directions of the fibril, through the variation of the lateral space between platelets. We provide numerical values and trends for all the elastic constants of the mineralized collagen fibril as a function of the volume fraction of mineral. In our results, we verify the high influence of the mineral overlapping on the mechanical response of the fibril and we highlight that the lateral distance between crystals is relevant to the mechanical behavior of the fibril and not only the mineral overlapping in the axial direction. PMID:25498297

  13. Dietary Strontium Increases Bone Mineral Density in Intact Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Potential Model System for Bone Research

    PubMed Central

    Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Garris, Heath W.; Nagy, Tim R.; D'Abramo, Louis R.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Zebrafish (Danio rerio) skeletal bone possesses properties similar to human bone, which suggests that they may be used as a model to study mineralization characteristics of the human Haversian system, as well as human bone diseases. One prerequisite for the use of zebrafish as an alternative osteoporotic bone model is to determine whether their bone displays functional plasticity similar to that observed in other bone models. Strontium citrate was supplemented into a laboratory-prepared diet (45% crude protein) to produce dietary strontium levels of 0%, 0.63%, 1.26%, 1.89%, and 2.43% and fed ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks to 28-day-old intact zebrafish. Length was determined at 4-week intervals, and both weight and length were recorded at 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, seven zebrafish from each dietary level were analyzed for total bone mineral density by microcomputed tomography. Dietary strontium citrate supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) increased zebrafish whole-body and spinal column bone mineral density. In addition, trace amounts of strontium were incorporated into the scale matrix in those zebrafish that consumed strontium-supplemented diets. These findings suggest that zebrafish bone displays plasticity similar to that reported for other bone models (i.e., rat, mouse, and monkey) that received supplements of strontium compounds and zebrafish should be viewed as an increasingly valuable bone model. PMID:20874492

  14. Dietary strontium increases bone mineral density in intact zebrafish (Danio rerio): a potential model system for bone research.

    PubMed

    Siccardi, Anthony J; Padgett-Vasquez, Steve; Garris, Heath W; Nagy, Tim R; D'Abramo, Louis R; Watts, Stephen A

    2010-09-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) skeletal bone possesses properties similar to human bone, which suggests that they may be used as a model to study mineralization characteristics of the human Haversian system, as well as human bone diseases. One prerequisite for the use of zebrafish as an alternative osteoporotic bone model is to determine whether their bone displays functional plasticity similar to that observed in other bone models. Strontium citrate was supplemented into a laboratory-prepared diet (45% crude protein) to produce dietary strontium levels of 0%, 0.63%, 1.26%, 1.89%, and 2.43% and fed ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks to 28-day-old intact zebrafish. Length was determined at 4-week intervals, and both weight and length were recorded at 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, seven zebrafish from each dietary level were analyzed for total bone mineral density by microcomputed tomography. Dietary strontium citrate supplementation significantly (p < 0.05) increased zebrafish whole-body and spinal column bone mineral density. In addition, trace amounts of strontium were incorporated into the scale matrix in those zebrafish that consumed strontium-supplemented diets. These findings suggest that zebrafish bone displays plasticity similar to that reported for other bone models (i.e., rat, mouse, and monkey) that received supplements of strontium compounds and zebrafish should be viewed as an increasingly valuable bone model. PMID:20874492

  15. Effects of risedronate on femoral bone mineral density and bone strength in sciatic neurectomized young rats.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Seki, Azusa; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Harumoto

    2005-01-01

    Immobilization induces a rapid loss of bone density and bone strength in rats. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of risedronate (Ris) on the femoral bone density and bone strength of sciatic neurectomized young rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats, 6 weeks of age, were randomized by the stratified weight method into the following four treatment groups of 10 rats each: sham-operation, bilateral sciatic neurectomy (NX), NX + low-dose Ris (0.25 mg/kg/day, orally), and NX + high-dose Ris (0.5 mg/kg/day, orally). After 8 weeks of feeding, the volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and stress strain index (SSI) of the femoral distal metaphysis and middiaphysis of the rats were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. The mechanical properties of the femoral distal metaphysis and middiaphysis were measured by the compression and three-point bending tests, respectively. The femoral length was also measured. As compared with the findings in the sham-operated controls, NX resulted in a loss of femoral length, cancellous vBMD, SSI, maximum load, stiffness, and breaking energy of the femoral distal metaphysis; there was also loss of cortical thickness, SSI, maximum load, and stiffness of the femoral middiaphysis, with no significant effects on the cortical vBMD or breaking energy of the femoral middiaphysis. High-dose Ris increased the vBMD to values higher than those in the sham-operated controls, and prevented the loss of SSI, maximum load, and stiffness of the femoral distal metaphysis, while low-dose Ris prevented the loss of cancellous vBMD of the femoral distal metaphysis. Neither high- nor low-dose Ris affected any of the cortical bone parameters of the femoral middiaphysis, except for cortical thickness, or the femoral length. These findings suggest that Ris may prevent immobilization-induced loss of cancellous bone density and bone strength in a dose-dependent manner without interfering with bone growth, but has no apparent

  16. The Development of Bone Mineral Lateralization in the Arms

    PubMed Central

    Siminoski, Kerry; Lee, Kwok-Choy; Abish, Sharon; Alos, Nathalie; Bell, Lorraine; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Couch, Robert; Cummings, Elizabeth A.; Ellsworth, Janet; Feber, Janusz; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Halton, Jacqueline; Huber, Adam M.; Israels, Sara; Jurencak, Roman; Lang, Bianca; Laverdière, Caroline; LeBlanc., Claire; Lewis, Victor; Midgley, Julian; Miettunen, Paivi M.; Oen, Kiem; Phan, Veronique; Pinsk, Maury; Rauch, Frank; Rodd, Celia; Roth, Johannes; Saint-Cyr, Claire; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Stephure, David; Taback, Shayne; Wilson, Beverly; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bone mineral content (BMC) exhibits sidedness in the arms after the age of 8 years, but it is not known whether BMC is greater in the dominant arm from birth or whether lateralization develops in early childhood. To address this, we examined bone mineral status in relation to handedness and age. Methods Subjects (n = 158) were children recently initiating glucocorticoid for underlying disease (leukemia 43%, rheumatic conditions 39%, nephrotic syndrome 18%). Handedness was determined by questionnaire and BMC by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Median age was 7.2 years (range, 1.5 to 17.0 years), 49% were male, and the spine BMD Z-score was −0.9 (SD, 1.3). By linear regression, BMC sidedness in the arms was significantly related to age (r = 0.294, p = 0.0005). Breakpoint analysis revealed two lines with a knot at 6.0 years (95% CI, 4.5–7.5 years). The formula for the first line was: dominant:nondominant arm BMC ratio = 0.029 × age [in years] + 0.850 (r = 0.323, p = 0.017). The slope of the second line was not different from 0 (p = 0.332), while the slopes for the two lines were significantly different (p = 0.027). Conclusions These results show that arm BMC sidedness in this patient group develops up to age six years and then remains stable into late adolescence. This temporal profile is consistent with mechanical stimulation of the skeleton in response to asymmetrical muscle use as handedness becomes manifest. PMID:22744715

  17. Photon absorptiometry for non-invasive measurement of bone mineral content

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Luna, E.; Belsky, J.; Gelfman, N.; Miller, K.; Davies, T.

    1984-08-01

    Bone mineral content of the distal radius was determined in 106 patients by single photon absorptiometry using iodine-125 monochromatic source. The technique provided a reliable means to assess the degree of mineral loss in conditions such as osteoporosis, renal osteodystrophy in patients on chronic maintenance dialysis, subjects on long-term steroid therapy, and those with diabetes mellitus. It is more sensitive than conventional radiography and completely noninvasive compared to bone biopsy. It is suggested that photon absorptiometry is a simple, sensitive, and reliable technique for assessment and follow-up of the bone mineral content in a host of disorders associated with bone demineralization.

  18. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, A.Z.; Mumford, S.L.; Wactawski-Wende, J.; Yeung, E.; Mendola, P.; Mattison, D.R.; Schisterman, E.F.

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18-44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 {mu}g/l (0.19-0.43), of lead was 0.86 {mu}g/dl (0.68-1.20), and of mercury was 1.10 {mu}g/l (0.58-2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages.

  19. Bone mineral density and blood metals in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, AZ; Mumford, SL; Wactawski-Wende, J; Yeung, E; Mendola, P; Mattison, DR; Schisterman, EF

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to metals, specifically cadmium, lead, and mercury, is widespread and is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in older populations, but the associations among premenopausal women are unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between these metals in blood and BMD (whole body, total hip, lumbar spine, and non-dominant wrist) quantified by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 248 premenopausal women, aged 18–44. Participants were of normal body mass index (mean BMI 24.1), young (mean age 27.4), 60% were white, 20% non-Hispanic black, 15% Asian, and 6% other race group, and were from the Buffalo, New York region. The median (interquartile range) level of cadmium was 0.30 μg/l (0.19–0.43), of lead was 0.86 μg/dl (0.68–1.20), and of mercury was, 1.10 μg/l (0.58–2.00). BMD was treated both as a continuous variable in linear regression and dichotomized at the 10th percentile for logistic regression analyses. Mercury was associated with reduced odds of decreased lumbar spine BMD (0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.99), but overall, metals at environmentally relevant levels of exposure were not associated with reduced BMD in this population of healthy, reproductive-aged women. Further research is needed to determine if the blood levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury in this population are sufficiently low that there is no substantive impact on bone, or if effects on bone can be expected only at older ages. PMID:23122770

  20. Age-related differences in the bone mineralization pattern of rats following exercise

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.; Hegenauer, J.; Saltman, P.

    1986-07-01

    The effect of 12 weeks of treadmill exercise on the mineralization of trabecular and cortical bone was studied in rats 7, 14, and 19 months of age. Bone mineralization was evaluated by measuring concentrations of Ca, Mg, and hydroxyproline as well as uptake of 45Ca concentration in the femur, humerus, rib and calvaria. The 7- and 14-month-old rats increased mineralization in those cortical bones directly involved in exercise. The 19-month animal responded to exercise by increasing mineralization in all bones examined, including the nonweight bearing trabecular calvaria and cortical rib. From these data, it is apparent that the older animals undergo a total skeletal mineralization in response to exercise compared with local adaptation in the younger animal. Further, we provide evidence to support the use of the rat as a model in which to study mammalian bone physiology during the aging process.

  1. Variations in Urine Calcium Isotope: Composition Reflect Changes in Bone Mineral Balance in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skulan, Joseph; Anbar, Ariel; Bullen, Thomas; Puzas, J. Edward; Shackelford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in bone mineral balance cause rapid and systematic changes in the calcium isotope composition of human urine. Urine from subjects in a 17 week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Comparison of isotopic data with measurements of bone mineral density and metabolic markers of bone metabolism indicates the calcium isotope composition of urine reflects changes in bone mineral balance. Urine calcium isotope composition probably is affected by both bone metabolism and renal processes. Calcium isotope. analysis of urine and other tissues may provide information on bone mineral balance that is in important respects better than that available from other techniques, and illustrates the usefulness of applying geochemical techniques to biomedical problems.

  2. Genetically Low Vitamin D Levels, Bone Mineral Density, and Bone Metabolism Markers: a Mendelian Randomisation Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan-Shan; Gao, Li-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Ya; He, Jin-We; Fu, Wen-Zhen; Liu, Yu-Juan; Hu, Yun-Qiu; Zhang, Zhen-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is associated with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture, but it remains uncertain whether these associations are causal. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study of 1,824 postmenopausal Chinese women to examine whether the detected associations between serum 25OHD and bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism markers were causal. In observational analyses, total serum 25OHD was positively associated with BMD at lumbar spine (P = 0.003), femoral neck (P = 0.006) and total hip (P = 0.005), and was inversely associated with intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (P = 8.18E-09) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) (P = 0.020). By contract, the associations of bioavailable and free 25OHD with all tested outcomes were negligible (all P > 0.05). The use of four single nucleotide polymorphisms, GC-rs2282679, NADSYN1-rs12785878, CYP2R1-rs10741657 and CYP24A1-rs6013897, as candidate instrumental variables in MR analyses showed that none of the two stage least squares models provided evidence for associations between serum 25OHD and either BMD or bone metabolism markers (all P > 0.05). We suggest that after controlling for unidentified confounding factors in MR analyses, the associations between genetically low serum 25OHD and BMD and bone metabolism markers are unlikely to be causal. PMID:27625044

  3. [The effect of magnesium sulfate electrophoresis and galvanization on the mineralization of teeth and bones].

    PubMed

    Varava, G N; Podorozhnaia, R P; Genesina, T I; Sukmanskiĭ, V B

    1990-01-01

    Effects of Mg2+ electrophoresis and galvanization on tooth and bone mineralization was experimentally studied with the use of radioactive Ca and P isotopes. Mg2+ electrophoresis and, to a lesser degree, galvanization enhanced 32P incorporation in incisors and maxillary bones. Mg2+ significantly increased 45Ca incorporation in teeth and maxillary bones. Experimental data permit clinical trials of Mg2+ efficacy in patients with disordered mineralization and remineralization. PMID:2389264

  4. Relationship of bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) in cortical and cancellous bone within the iliac crest of healthy premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Misof, B M; Dempster, D W; Zhou, Hua; Roschger, P; Fratzl-Zelman, N; Fratzl, P; Silverberg, S J; Shane, E; Cohen, A; Stein, E; Nickolas, T L; Recker, R R; Lappe, J; Bilezikian, J P; Klaushofer, K

    2014-10-01

    Bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) is an important determinant of bone mechanical properties. The most available skeletal site for access to the BMDD is the iliac crest. Compared to cancellous bone much less information on BMDD is available for cortical bone. Hence, we analyzed complete transiliac crest bone biopsy samples from premenopausal women (n = 73) aged 25-48 years, clinically classified as healthy, by quantitative backscattered electron imaging for cortical (Ct.) and cancellous (Cn.) BMDD. The Ct.BMDD was characterized by the arithmetic mean of the BMDD of the cortical plates. We found correlations between Ct. and Cn. BMDD variables with correlation coefficients r between 0.42 and 0.73 (all p < 0.001). Additionally to this synchronous behavior of cortical and cancellous compartments, we found that the heterogeneity of mineralization densities (Ct.Ca(Width)), as well as the cortical porosity (Ct.Po) was larger for a lower average degree of mineralization (Ct.Ca(Mean)). Moreover, Ct.Po correlated negatively with the percentage of highly mineralized bone areas (Ct.Ca(High)) and positively with the percentage of lowly mineralized bone areas (Ct.Ca(Low)). In conclusion, the correlation of cortical with cancellous BMDD in the iliac crest of the study cohort suggests coordinated regulation of bone turnover between both bone compartments. Only in a few cases, there was a difference in the degree of mineralization of >1wt % between both cortices suggesting a possible modeling situation. This normative dataset of healthy premenopausal women will provide a reference standard by which disease- and treatment-specific effects can be assessed at the level of cortical bone BMDD. PMID:25134800

  5. Bone geometry, structure and mineral distribution using Dual energy X ray Absorptiometry (DXA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Cleek, Tammy

    1993-01-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the most widely used method of analyzing regional and whole body changes in bone mineral content (BMC) and areal (g/sq cm) bone mineral density (BMD). However, BMC and BMD do not provide direct measures of long bone geometry, structure, or strength nor do regional measurements detect localized changes in other regions of the same bone. The capabilities of DXA can be enhanced significantly by special processing of pixel BMC data which yields cross-sectional geometric and structural information. We have extended this method of analysis in order to develop non-uniform structural beam models of long bones.

  6. The turnover of mineralized growth plate cartilage into bone may be regulated by osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Cox, Lieke G E; van Rietbergen, B; van Donkelaar, C C; Ito, K

    2011-06-01

    During endochondral ossification, growth plate cartilage is replaced with bone. Mineralized cartilage matrix is resorbed by osteoclasts, and new bone tissue is formed by osteoblasts. As mineralized cartilage does not contain any cells, it is unclear how this process is regulated. We hypothesize that, in analogy with bone remodeling, osteoclast and osteoblast activity are regulated by osteocytes, in response to mechanical loading. Since the cartilage does not contain osteocytes, this means that cartilage turnover during endochondral ossification would be regulated by the adjacent bone tissue. We investigated this hypothesis with an established computational bone adaptation model. In this model, osteocytes stimulate osteoblastic bone formation in response to the mechanical bone tissue loading. Osteoclasts resorb bone near randomly occurring microcracks that are assumed to block osteocyte signals. We used finite element modeling to evaluate our hypothesis in a 2D-domain representing part of the growth plate and adjacent bone. Cartilage was added at a constant physiological rate to simulate growth. Simulations showed that osteocyte signals from neighboring bone were sufficient for successful cartilage turnover, since equilibrium between cartilage remodeling and growth was obtained. Furthermore, there was good agreement between simulated bone structures and rat tibia histology, and the development of the trabecular architecture resembled that of infant long bones. Additionally, prohibiting osteoclast invasion resulted in thickened mineralized cartilage, similar to observations in a knock-out mouse model. We therefore conclude that it is well possible that osteocytes regulate the turnover of mineralized growth plate cartilage. PMID:21546025

  7. Dietary phylloquinone depletion and repletion in postmenopausal women: effects on bone and mineral metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin K has been implicated in increased bone fracture risk. Despite a potential role of vitamin K in bone, little is known about the effects of altered dietary vitamin K intake on the underlying components of bone and mineral metabolism. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of vitamin ...

  8. Effects of Statins on Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zongze; Li, Ying; Zhou, Fengxin; Piao, Zhe; Hao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although observational studies have identified the protective effect of statins on bone health, the effects remain controversial in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted a meta-analysis of RCTs to evaluate the effects of statins on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk among adults. We searched electronic databases of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and conducted a bibliography review to identify articles published until May, 2015. Studies included in this meta-analysis should be randomized controlled trials conducted in adults, using statins in the intervention group. Information on changes in BMD or odds ratio, relative risk or hazard ratio (HR) for fracture risk with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was provided. Two investigators independently reviewed the title or abstract, further reviewed the full-texts and extracted information on study characteristics and study outcomes. Net change estimates of BMD and pooled HR of fracture risk comparing the intervention group with the control group were estimated across trials using random-effects models. Of the relevant 334 citations, 7 trials (including 27,900 randomized participants in total) meeting the eligibility criteria were included. Of the 7 trials, 5 were conducted to assess the association of statins use with BMD change and 2 with fracture risk. Compared with the control group, statins use was associated with significant increase in BMD of 0.03 g/cm2 (95% CI: 0.006, 0.053; I2 = 99.2%; P < 0.001), but null association with fracture risk, with the pooled HR of 1.00 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.15; I2 = 0; P = 0.396). Sensitivity analyses revealed that the associations were consistent and robust. The effect of statins use on bone health among subpopulation could not be identified due to limited number of trials. These findings provide evidence that statins could be used to increase BMD other than decreasing fracture

  9. Bone mineral density in children with familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Duzova, Ali; Ozaltin, Fatih; Ozon, Alev; Besbas, Nesrin; Topaloglu, Rezan; Ozen, S; Bakkaloglu, A

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC), serum and urinary bone turnover parameters in patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation of serous membranes. Demographic characteristics and MEFV mutations were defined in 48 children diagnosed with FMF (23 F, 25 M; median age 7.0 years (3.0-10.0)). We evaluated the blood counts, acute-phase proteins and serum and urinary bone turnover parameters during attack-free periods. The BMC and BA (bone area) of vertebrae L1-L4 were measured by DEXA. Thirty-eight age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched healthy children constituted the control group. Mean L1-L4 BMC in Group I (patients with two mutations) and II (patients with no or single mutations) were 15.49+/-5.99 g and 15.68+/-4.89 g, respectively, both significantly lower than the mean L1-L4 BMC of control patients, which was 19.59+/-6.7 g (p<0.05). Mean L1-L4 BMD in Group I, Group II and the control group were 0.466+/-0.066 g/cm(2), 0.487+/-0.085 g/cm(2 )and 0.513+/-0.079 g/cm(2), respectively. Mean z-scores in Group I, Group II and the control group were -1.87+/-0.74, -1.55+/-0.92 and -1.39+/-0.84, respectively. Mean L1-L4 BMD and z-score of Group I were lower than in the control group (p<0.05). ESR and SAA (serum amyloid A) levels were higher in Group I patients: 28.3+/-14.5 mm/h and 350+/-62 mg/l in Group I; and 20.5+/-11.7 mm/h and 190+/-68 mg/l in Group II, respectively. In conclusion, FMF patients had lower BMC, BMD and z-scores than a control group. We suggest that decreased BMD, BMC and z-score in FMF patients may be secondary to subclinical inflammation. PMID:15168151

  10. FLUORIDE EFFECTS ON BONE FORMATION AND MINERALIZATION ARE INFLUENCED BY GENETICS

    PubMed Central

    Mousny, M.; Omelon, S.; Wise, L.; Everett, E. T.; Dumitriu, M.; Holmyard, D. P.; Banse, X.; Devogelaer, J. P.; Grynpas, M. D

    2008-01-01

    Introduction A variation in bone response to fluoride (F−) exposure has been attributed to genetic factors. Increasing fluoride doses (0ppm, 25ppm, 50ppm, 100ppm) for three inbred mouse strains with different susceptibilities to developing dental enamel fluorosis (A/J, a “susceptible” strain; SWR/J, an “intermediate” strain; 129P3/J, a “resistant” strain) had different effects on their cortical and trabecular bone mechanical properties. In this paper, the structural and material properties of the bone were evaluated to explain the previously observed changes in mechanical properties. Materials and Methods This study assessed the effect of increasing fluoride doses on the bone formation, microarchitecture, mineralization and microhardness of the A/J, SWR/J and 129P3/J mouse strains. Bone microarchitecture was quantified with microcomputed tomography and strut analysis. Bone formation was evaluated by static histomorphometry. Bone mineralization was quantified with backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and powder x-ray diffraction. Microhardness measurements were taken from the vertebral bodies (cortical and trabecular bone) and the cortex of the distal femur. Results Fluoride treatment had no significant effect on bone microarchitecture for any of the strains. All three strains demonstrated a significant increase in osteoid formation at the largest fluoride dose. Vertebral body trabecular bone BSE imaging revealed significantly decreased mineralization heterogeneity in the SWR/J strain at 50ppm and 100ppm F−. The trabecular and cortical bone mineralization profiles showed a non-significant shift towards higher mineralization with increasing F− dose in the three strains. Powder x-ray diffraction showed significantly smaller crystals for the 129P3/J strain, and increased crystal width with increasing F− dose for all strains. There was no effect of F− on trabecular and cortical bone microhardness. Conclusion Fluoride treatment had no significant

  11. Bone mineral density and disorders of mineral metabolism in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    George, Joe; Ganesh, Hosahithlu K; Acharya, Shrikrishna; Bandgar, Tushar R; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Karvat, Anjana; Bhatia, Shobna J; Shah, Samir; Menon, Padmavathy S; Shah, Nalini

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence and identify the risk factors for metabolic bone disease in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: The study was performed on 72 Indian patients with cirrhosis (63 male, nine female; aged < 50 years). Etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholism (n = 37), hepatitis B (n = 25) and hepatitis C (n = 10). Twenty-three patients belonged to Child class A, while 39 were in class B and 10 in class C. Secondary causes for metabolic bone disease and osteoporosis were ruled out. Sunlight exposure, physical activity and dietary constituents were calculated. Complete metabolic profiles were derived, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual energy X ray absorptiometry. Low BMD was defined as a Z score below -2. RESULTS: Low BMD was found in 68% of patients. Lumbar spine was the most frequently and severely affected site. Risk factors for low BMD included low physical activity, decreased sunlight exposure, and low lean body mass. Calcium intake was adequate, with unfavorable calcium: protein ratio and calcium: phosphorus ratio. Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent (92%). There was a high incidence of hypogonadism (41%). Serum estradiol level was elevated significantly in patients with normal BMD. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 and IGF binding protein 3 levels were below the age-related normal range in both groups. IGF-1 was significantly lower in patients with low BMD. Serum osteocalcin level was low (68%) and urinary deoxypyridinoline to creatinine ratio was high (79%), which demonstrated low bone formation with high resorption. CONCLUSION: Patients with cirrhosis have low BMD. Contributory factors are reduced physical activity, low lean body mass, vitamin D deficiency and hypogonadism and low IGF-1 level. PMID:19630107

  12. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible. PMID:22652567

  13. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-06-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Linear and Angular Measurements on Digital Orthopantomogram with Calcaneus Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramaniam Vasudevan; Koliyan, Ramadoss; Kumar, Jimsha Vannathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Bone remodeling is a continuous and complex process which occurs throughout life. Radiomorphometric and radioangular indices on the orthopantomogram are the predictors of bone remodeling associated with mandible. Bone mineral density is the amount of calcified tissue in a certain volume of the bone. Materials and Methods Fifty normal healthy individuals within the age range of 25-55 years were included in the study. Linear measurements including mandibular cortical width (MCW) and panoramic mandibular index (PMI); and angular measurements including mandibular angle (MA) and antegonial angle (AGA) were recorded. Quantitative ultrasound bone mineral density (BMD) scan of the heel bone (calcaneus) of the same patient were also performed. Results In our study, for both males and females, antegonial angle (AGA) had highest correlation with calcaneus bone mineral density. In the age group of less than 35 years, PMI in males, and AGA in females had highest correlation. In the age range of more than 35 years, MA in males and AGA in females had highest correlation. Conclusion There is a correlation between the mandibular bone remodelling changes and calcaneal bone mineral density in case of elder subjects and thus these parameters may be used as an inexpensive alternative screening method to assess the bone mineral density and identify individuals at risk for osteoporosis and fractures and also for dental treatment planning. PMID:26393197

  15. Calcium supplementation, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers during the 6-month postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Malpeli, Agustina; Apezteguia, María; Mansur, José L; Armanini, Alicia; Macías Couret, Melisa; Villalobos, Rosa; Kuzminczuk, Marta; Gonzalez, Horacio F

    2012-03-01

    We determined the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and identified predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers 6 months postpartum. A prospective, analytical, clinical study was performed in adolescent mothers (< or = 19 years old; n = 37) from La Plata, Argentina. At 15 days postpartum, mothers were randomly assigned into one of two groups and started with calcium supplementation; one group received dairy products (932 mg Ca; n = 19) and the other calcium citrate tablets (1000 mg calcium/day; n = 18). Weight, height and dietary intake were measured and BMD was determined by DEXA at 15 days (baseline) and 6 months postpartum. BMC, total body BMD and BMD were assessed in lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip. Regression models were used to identify the relationship of total body BMD and BMC with independent variables (calcium supplementation, months of lactation, weight at 6 months, percent weight change, lean mass at 6 months, percent lean mass change, total calcium intake). Results showed that changes in BMD and BMC at the different sites were similar in both groups, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were the main predictive factors. In conclusion, the effect of calcium was similar with either form of supplementation, i.e., dairy products or tablets, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were predictors of total body BMD and BMC changes. PMID:23477205

  16. The effects of strontium on bone mineral: A review on current knowledge and microanalytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Querido, William; Rossi, Andre L; Farina, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The interest in effects of strontium (Sr) on bone has greatly increased in the last decade due to the development of the promising drug strontium ranelate. This drug is used for treating osteoporosis, a major bone disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women. The novelty of strontium ranelate compared to other treatments for osteoporosis is its unique effect on bone: it simultaneously promotes bone formation by osteoblasts and inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts. Besides affecting bone cells, treatment with strontium ranelate also has a direct effect on the mineralized bone matrix. Due to the chemical similarities between Sr and Ca, a topic that has long been of particular interest is the incorporation of Sr into bones replacing Ca from the mineral phase, which is composed by carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocrystals. Several groups have analyzed the mineral produced during treatment; however, most analysis were done with relatively large samples containing numerous nanocrystals, resulting thus on data that represents an average of many crystalline domains. The nanoscale analysis of the bone apatite crystals containing Sr has only been described in a few studies. In this study, we review the current knowledge on the effects of Sr on bone mineral and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used in the field. In particular, we focus on the great potential that advanced microscopy and microanalytical techniques may have on the detailed analysis of the nanostructure and composition of bone apatite nanocrystals produced during treatment with strontium ranelate. PMID:26546967

  17. Modulation of Vitamin D Status and Dietary Calcium Affects Bone Mineral Density and Mineral Metabolism in Göttingen Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Scholz-Ahrens, Katharina E.; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bronner, Felix; Delling, Günter; Açil, Yahya; Hahne, Hans-Jürgen; Hassenpflug, Joachim; Timm, Wolfram; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Calcium and vitamin D deficiency impairs bone health and may cause rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Large animal models are useful to study experimental osteopathies and associated metabolic changes. We intended to modulate vitamin D status and induce nutritional osteomalacia in minipigs. The control group (n = 9) was fed a semisynthetic reference diet with 6 g calcium and 6,500 IU vitamin D3/kg and the experimental group (n = 10) the same diet but with only 2 g calcium/kg and without vitamin D. After 15 months, the deficient animals were in negative calcium balance, having lost bone mineral density significantly (means ± SEM) with −51.2 ± 14.7 mg/cm3 in contrast to controls (−2.3 ± 11.8 mg/cm3), whose calcium balance remained positive. Their osteoid surface was significantly higher, typical of osteomalacia. Their plasma 25(OH)D dropped significantly from 60.1 ± 11.4 nmol/L to 15.3 ± 3.4 nmol/L within 10 months, whereas that of the control group on the reference diet rose. Urinary phosphorus excretion and plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations were significantly higher and final plasma calcium significantly lower than in controls. We conclude that the minipig is a promising large animal model to induce nutritional osteomalacia and to study the time course of hypovitaminosis D and associated functional effects. PMID:24062955

  18. Effects of ethnicity and vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status and changes in bone mineral content in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effects on serum 25(OH)D and bone mineralization of supplementation of breast-fed Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian infants with vitamin D in infants in Houston, Texas. We measured cord serum 25(OH)D levels, bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) and their changes o...

  19. Bone mineral homeostasis, bone growth, and mineralisation during years of pubertal growth: a unifying concept.

    PubMed Central

    Krabbe, S; Transbøl, I; Christiansen, C

    1982-01-01

    Serum calcium, magnesium proteins, phosphate, and immunoparathyroid hormone were measured in 338 normal children and adolescents aged between 7 and 20 years and in 123 normal adults aged between 21 and 50 years. Protein corrected serum calcium and magnesium remained stable throughout the study. Despite hyperphosphataemia protein corrected calcium exceeded the concentrations of normal adults. Serum phosphate and the Ca X P product greatly exceeded adult values and fell rather slowly towards adult levels after the pubertal growth spurt. Serum immunoparathyroid hormone tended to exceed normal adult values and was judged high for the level of serum calcium. Similarities between mineral metabolism in childhood an adolescence and in acromegaly were striking. On this basis in the light of studies demonstrating stimulatory actions of gonadal hormones on growth hormone and of growth hormone on the secretion of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a unifying concept is developed. This concept places growth hormone in the unique position of being the main driver and co-ordinator during childhood and adolescence of bone growth an mineralisation on the one hand, and of blood mineral homeostasis on the other. Gonadal hormones probably express some of their actions through stimulation of growth hormone secretion and others by different mechanisms. According to this concept growth hormone is maintaining th Ca X P product at a suitable high level as long as growth hormone and gonadal hormones deliver bone matrix for mineralisation at a high rate. PMID:7092291

  20. Transport of membrane-bound mineral particles in blood vessels during chicken embryonic bone development.

    PubMed

    Kerschnitzki, Michael; Akiva, Anat; Ben Shoham, Adi; Koifman, Naama; Shimoni, Eyal; Rechav, Katya; Arraf, Alaa A; Schultheiss, Thomas M; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zelzer, Elazar; Weiner, Stephen; Addadi, Lia

    2016-02-01

    During bone formation in embryos, large amounts of calcium and phosphate are taken up and transported to the site where solid mineral is first deposited. The initial mineral forms in vesicles inside osteoblasts and is deposited as a highly disordered calcium phosphate phase. The mineral is then translocated to the extracellular space where it penetrates the collagen matrix and crystallizes. To date little is known about the transport mechanisms of calcium and phosphate in the vascular system, especially when high transport rates are needed and the concentrations of these ions in the blood serum may exceed the solubility product of the mineral phase. Here we used a rapidly growing biological model, the chick embryo, to study the bone mineralization pathway taking advantage of the fact that large amounts of bone mineral constituents are transported. Cryo scanning electron microscopy together with cryo energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and focused-ion beam imaging in the serial surface view mode surprisingly reveal the presence of abundant vesicles containing small mineral particles in the lumen of the blood vessels. Morphologically similar vesicles are also found in the cells associated with bone formation. This observation directly implicates the vascular system in solid mineral distribution, as opposed to the transport of ions in solution. Mineral particle transport inside vesicles implies that far larger amounts of the bone mineral constituents can be transported through the vasculature, without the danger of ectopic precipitation. This introduces a new stage into the bone mineral formation pathway, with the first mineral being formed far from the bone itself. PMID:26481471

  1. Factors associated with bone mineral density in healthy African women

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cliff; Gati, Brenda; Greenspan, Susan; Dai, James Y.; Bragg, Vivian; Livant, Edward; Piper, Jeanna M.; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Magure, Tsitsi; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Chirenje, Z. Mike; Riddler, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary There is a paucity of normative bone mineral density (BMD) data in healthy African women. Baseline total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured in premenopausal women. BMD distribution was comparable to that of a reference population and was impacted by several factors including contraception and duration of lactation. Introduction Normative data on bone mineral density (BMD) and the cumulative impact of lactation, contraceptive use, and other factors on BMD in healthy African women have not been well studied. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with BMD in healthy premenopausal women in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Methods Baseline total hip (TH) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in 518 healthy, premenopausal black women enrolling in VOICE, an HIV-1 chemoprevention trial, at sites in Uganda and Zimbabwe. Contraceptive and lactation histories, physical activity assessment, calcium intake, and serum vitamin D levels were assessed. Independent factors associated with BMD were identified using an analysis of covariance model. Results The study enrolled 331 women from Zimbabwe and 187 women from Uganda. Median age was 29 years (IQR 25, 32) and median body mass index (BMI) was 24.8 kg/m2 (IQR 22.2, 28.6). In univariate analyses, lower TH BMD values were associated with residence in Uganda (p<0.001), lower BMI (p<0.001), and any use of and duration of depot-medroxyprogresterone acetate. Use of oral contraceptives, progestin-only implants, and higher physical activity levels were protective against reduced BMD. Similarly, lower LS BMD values were associated with these same factors but also higher parity and history of breastfeeding. In a multivariable analysis, lower TH and LS BMD values were associated with enrollment in Uganda, lower BMI, and lower physical activity level; contraceptive use was associated with lower spine BMD, and breastfeeding contributed to lower total hip BMD. Conclusions

  2. Improved accuracy of cortical bone mineralization measured by polychromatic microcomputed tomography using a novel high mineral density composite calibration phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Deuerling, Justin M.; Rudy, David J.; Niebur, Glen L.; Roeder, Ryan K.

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) is increasingly used as a nondestructive alternative to ashing for measuring bone mineral content. Phantoms are utilized to calibrate the measured x-ray attenuation to discrete levels of mineral density, typically including levels up to 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, which encompasses levels of bone mineral density (BMD) observed in trabecular bone. However, levels of BMD observed in cortical bone and levels of tissue mineral density (TMD) in both cortical and trabecular bone typically exceed 1000 mg HA/cm{sup 3}, requiring extrapolation of the calibration regression, which may result in error. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the relationship between x-ray attenuation and an expanded range of hydroxyapatite (HA) density in a less attenuating polymer matrix and (2) the effects of the calibration on the accuracy of subsequent measurements of mineralization in human cortical bone specimens. Methods: A novel HA-polymer composite phantom was prepared comprising a less attenuating polymer phase (polyethylene) and an expanded range of HA density (0-1860 mg HA/cm{sup 3}) inclusive of characteristic levels of BMD in cortical bone or TMD in cortical and trabecular bone. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the new HA-polymer calibration phantom were compared to measurements using a conventional HA-polymer phantom comprising 0-800 mg HA/cm{sup 3} and the corresponding ash density measurements on the same specimens. Results: The HA-polymer composite phantom exhibited a nonlinear relationship between x-ray attenuation and HA density, rather than the linear relationship typically employed a priori, and obviated the need for extrapolation, when calibrating the measured x-ray attenuation to high levels of mineral density. The BMD and TMD of cortical bone specimens measured using the conventional phantom was significantly lower than the measured ash density by 19% (p<0.001, ANCOVA) and 33% (p<0

  3. Odanacatib in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density: a review of current clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Zerbini, Cristiano A F; McClung, Michael R

    2013-08-01

    Human bones are in a continuous process of remodeling that ensures renovation and maintenance of the skeletal mass. Bone remodeling has two phases that are normally coupled and balanced: bone resorption mediated by osteoclasts and bone formation mediated by osteoblasts. An increase in bone resorption over bone formation results in a progressive loss of bone mass and impairment of bone microarchitecture leading to osteoporosis and its associated fractures. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the remodeling process have allowed the development of new targets for osteoporosis treatment. Cathepsin K, a cysteine protease, is found in osteoclasts along the bone resorption surfaces and very efficiently degrades type I collagen, the major component of the organic bone matrix. Inhibition of cathepsin K reduces bone resorption but does not impair bone formation particularly at cortical sites. Odanacatib, a potent and highly selective cathepsin K inhibitor, showed prevention of bone loss without reduction of bone formation in preclinical and clinical trials (phase I and II). Odanacatib is currently in a phase III fracture outcome international trial for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:23904864

  4. Effects of resistance training on bone mineral content and density in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Blimkie, C J; Rice, S; Webber, C E; Martin, J; Levy, D; Gordon, C L

    1996-09-01

    Postmenarcheal adolescent girls performed resistance training (RT) for 26 weeks, which consisted of 4 sets of 13 exercises of varying and progressive intensity performed 3 times weekly on hydraulic resistance machines. Bone mineral was assessed by dual photon absorptiometry. Resistance training resulted in significant increases (pre-post) in biceps curl (21.4%), triceps press (21.5%), knee extension (25.1%), knee flexion (52.8%), and squat press (21.5%) strength. There were no significant differences between RT and control (C) groups initially, and no significant effects of training (pre-post) for total body (TB) or lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD). The largest increases in LS bone mineral occurred during the first 13 weeks, and although not significant, the increases in LS BMC (g) (3.9 vs. 5.9%), LS BMC (g.cm-1) (2.6 vs. 5.9%), LS areal BMD (g.cm-2) (1.48 vs. 4.75%), and LS bone mineral apparent density (BMAD, g.cm-3) (0.47 vs. 4.13%) were greater in the RT compared with the C group during this period. In conclusion, resistance training resulted in a trend towards a transient increase in LS bone mineral during the first 13 weeks, but despite significant strength gains, there were no significant changes in TB or LS bone mineral after 26 weeks of training. PMID:8960394

  5. Bio-inspired mineralization of hydroxyapatite in 3D silk fibroin hydrogel for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yashi; Kundu, Banani; Cai, Yurong; Kundu, Subhas C; Yao, Juming

    2015-10-01

    To fabricate hard tissue implants with bone-like structure using a biomimetic mineralization method is drawing much more attentions in bone tissue engineering. The present work focuses in designing 3D silk fibroin hydrogel to modulate the nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite crystals via a simple ion diffusion method. The study indicates that Ca(2+) incorporation within the hydrogel provides the nucleation sites for hydroxyapatite crystals and subsequently regulates their oriented growth. The mineralization process is regulated in a Ca(2+) concentration- and minerlization time-dependent way. Further, the compressive strength of the mineralized hydrogels is directly proportional with the mineral content in hydrogel. The orchestrated organic/inorganic composite supports well the viability and proliferation of human osteoblast cells; improved cyto-compatibility with increased mineral content. Together, the present investigation reports a simple and biomimetic process to fabricate 3D bone-like biomaterial with desired efficacy to repair bone defects. PMID:26209967

  6. Correlation between longitudinal, circumferential, and radial moduli in cortical bone: effect of mineral content.

    PubMed

    Macione, J; Depaula, C A; Guzelsu, N; Kotha, S P

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that changes in the longitudinal elastic properties of bone due to changes in mineral content are related to the longitudinal strength of bone tissue. Changes in mineral content are expected to affect bone tissue mechanical properties along all directions, albeit to different extents. However, changes in tissue mechanical properties along the different directions are expected to be correlated to one another. In this study, we investigate if radial, circumferential, and longitudinal moduli are related in bone tissue with varying mineral content. Plexiform bovine femoral bone samples were treated in fluoride ion solutions for a period of 3 and 12 days to obtain bones with 20% and 32% lower effective mineral contents. Transmission ultrasound velocities were obtained in the radial, circumferential, and longitudinal axes of bone and combined with measured densities to obtain corresponding tensorial moduli. Results indicate that moduli decreased with fluoride ion treatments and were significantly correlated to one another (r(2) radial vs. longitudinal = 0.80, r(2) circumferential vs. longitudinal = 0.90, r(2) radial vs. circumferential = 0.85). Densities calculated from using ultrasound parameters, acoustic impedance and transmission velocities, were moderately correlated to those measured by the Archimedes principle (r(2)=0.54, p<0.01). These results suggest that radial and circumferential ultrasound measurements could be used to determine the longitudinal properties of bone and that ultrasound may not be able to predict in vitro densities of bones containing unbonded mineral. PMID:20416555

  7. Bone mineral density and survival of elements and element portions in the bones of the Crow Creek massacre victims.

    PubMed

    Willey, P; Galloway, A; Snyder, L

    1997-12-01

    The interpretation of archaeologically-derived skeletal series is dependent on the elements and portions of elements preserved for examination. Bone and bone portion survival is affected by factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the elements themselves, that influence deterioration and preservation. Among the intrinsic variables, the density of the element and element portion are particularly important with respect to the degree of preservation. Recently reported bone mineral density values from a contemporary human sample are compared to the survival of prehistoric limb bones of the Crow Creek specimens, a fourteenth-century massacre skeletal series. The contemporary density values are positively correlated with Crow Creek element and element portion survival. Two calculations of bone mineral density, however, are more closely related to preservation than a third. Such density information has implications for assessing minimum number of elements and individuals and documenting taphonomic processes. PMID:9453699

  8. Factors Affecting Bone Mineral Density in Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young Kwon; Kim, Ae Ryoung; Kim, On Yoo; Lee, Kilchan; Suh, Young Joo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To clarify factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) in adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Method Thirty-five patients with CP participated in this study. Demographic data including gender, age, body mass index (BMI), subtype according to neuromotor type and topographical distribution, ambulatory function, and functional independence measure (FIM) were investigated. The BMD of the lumbar spine and femur were measured using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the factors affecting BMD were analyzed. Results The BMD had no significant association with factors such as gender, age, and subtype in adults with CP. However, BMI was significantly correlated with the BMD of lumbar spine and femur (p<0.05). The FIM score was also positively correlated with the BMD of femur (p<0.05). Moreover, CP patients with higher ambulatory function had significantly higher BMD of femur (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that BMI and functional levels such as FIM and ambulatory function can affect BMD in adults with CP. The results might be used as basic data, suggesting the importance of treatment including weight bearing exercise and gait training in adults with CP. PMID:23342308

  9. A comparative study of zwitterionic ligands-mediated mineralization and the potential of mineralized zwitterionic matrices for bone tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pingsheng; Emmons, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Cationic and anionic residues of the extracellular matrices (ECM) of bone play synergistic roles in recruiting precursor ions and templating the nucleation, growth and crystalline transformations of calcium apatite in natural biomineralization. We previously reported that zwitterionic sulfobetaine ligands can template extensive 3-dimensional (3-D) hydroxyapaptite (HA)-mineralization of photo-crosslinked polymethacrylatehydrogels. Here, we compared the potency of two other major zwitterionic ligands, phosphobetaine and carboxybetaine, with that of the sulfobetaine in mediating 3-D mineralization using the crosslinked polymethacrylate hydrogel platform. We confirmed that all three zwitterionic hydrogels were able to effectively template 3-D mineralization, supporting the general ability of zwitterions to mediate templated mineralization. Among them, however, sulfobetaine and phosphobetaine hydrogels templated denser 3-D mineralizationthan the carboxybetaine hydrogel, likely due to their higher free water fractions and better maintenance of zwitterionic nature throughout the pH-changes during the in vitro mineralization process. We further demonstrated that the extensively mineralized zwitterionic hydrogels could be exploited for efficient retention (e.g. 99% retention after 24-h incubation in PBS) of osteogenic growth factor recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and subsequent sustained local release with retained bioactivity. Combined with the excellent cytocompatibility of all three zwitterionic hydrogels and the significantly improved cell adhesive properties of their mineralized matrices, these materials could find promising applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:25558374

  10. Lack of CD47 impairs bone cell differentiation and results in an osteopenic phenotype in vivo due to impaired signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) signaling.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, Cecilia; Persson, Emelie; Baldock, Paul; Stenberg, Åsa; Boström, Ingrid; Matozaki, Takashi; Oldenborg, Per-Arne; Lundberg, Pernilla

    2013-10-11

    Here, we investigated whether the cell surface glycoprotein CD47 was required for normal formation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts and to maintain normal bone formation activity in vitro and in vivo. In parathyroid hormone or 1α,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 (D3)-stimulated bone marrow cultures (BMC) from CD47(-/-) mice, we found a strongly reduced formation of multinuclear tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)(+) osteoclasts, associated with reduced expression of osteoclastogenic genes (nfatc1, Oscar, Trap/Acp, ctr, catK, and dc-stamp). The production of M-CSF and RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand) was reduced in CD47(-/-) BMC, as compared with CD47(+/+) BMC. The stromal cell phenotype in CD47(-/-) BMC involved a blunted expression of the osteoblast-associated genes osterix, Alp/Akp1, and α-1-collagen, and reduced mineral deposition, as compared with that in CD47(+/+) BMC. CD47 is a ligand for SIRPα (signal regulatory protein α), which showed strongly reduced tyrosine phosphorylation in CD47(-/-) bone marrow stromal cells. In addition, stromal cells lacking the signaling SIRPα cytoplasmic domain also had a defect in osteogenic differentiation, and both CD47(-/-) and non-signaling SIRPα mutant stromal cells showed a markedly reduced ability to support osteoclastogenesis in wild-type bone marrow macrophages, demonstrating that CD47-induced SIRPα signaling is critical for stromal cell support of osteoclast formation. In vivo, femoral bones of 18- or 28-week-old CD47(-/-) mice showed significantly reduced osteoclast and osteoblast numbers and exhibited an osteopenic bone phenotype. In conclusion, lack of CD47 strongly impairs SIRPα-dependent osteoblast differentiation, deteriorate bone formation, and cause reduced formation of osteoclasts. PMID:23990469

  11. Moderate chronic kidney disease impairs bone quality in C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Heveran, Chelsea M; Ortega, Alicia M; Cureton, Andrew; Clark, Ryan; Livingston, Eric W; Bateman, Ted A; Levi, Moshe; King, Karen B; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2016-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases bone fracture risk. While the causes of bone fragility in CKD are not clear, the disrupted mineral homeostasis inherent to CKD may cause material quality changes to bone tissue. In this study, 11-week-old male C57Bl/6J mice underwent either 5/6th nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) or sham surgeries. Mice were fed a normal chow diet and euthanized 11weeks post-surgery. Moderate CKD with high bone turnover was established in the 5/6 Nx group as determined through serum chemistry and bone gene expression assays. We compared nanoindentation modulus and mineral volume fraction (assessed through quantitative backscattered scanning electron microscopy) at matched sites in arrays placed on the cortical bone of the tibia mid-diaphysis. Trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture and whole bone strength were also evaluated. We found that moderate CKD minimally affected bone microarchitecture and did not influence whole bone strength. Meanwhile, bone material quality decreased with CKD; a pattern of altered tissue maturation was observed with 5/6 Nx whereby the newest 60μm of bone tissue adjacent to the periosteal surface had lower indentation modulus and mineral volume fraction than more interior, older bone. The variance of modulus and mineral volume fraction was also altered following 5/6 Nx, implying that tissue-scale heterogeneity may be negatively affected by CKD. The observed lower bone material quality may play a role in the decreased fracture resistance that is clinically associated with human CKD. PMID:26860048

  12. High Salt Diets, Bone Strength and Mineral Content of Mature Femur After Skeletal Unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Michael T. C.

    1998-01-01

    It is known that high salt diets increase urinary calcium (Ca) loss, but it is not known whether this effect weakens bone during space flight. The Bone Hormone Lab has studied the effect of high salt diets on Ca balance and whole body Ca in a space flight model (2,8). Neither the strength nor mineral content of the femurs from these studies has been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high salt diets (HiNa) and skeletal unloading on femoral bone strength and bone mineral content (BMC) in mature rats.

  13. Correlations Between Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Bone Mineral Density or Bone Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Kang, Ming-Yang; Dong, Rong-Peng; Zhao, Jian-Wu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the correlations of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Relevant studies were identified using computerized and manual search strategies. The included studies were in strict accordance with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical analyses were conducted with the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). RESULTS Our present meta-analysis initially searched 844 studies, and 7 studies were eventually incorporated in the present meta-analysis. These 7 cohort studies included 1123 subjects altogether (560 patients with AGM and 563 healthy controls). The results showed that bone mass index (BMI), insulin, and insulin resistance (IR) of patients with AGM were significantly higher than that of the population with normal glucose metabolism (BMI: SMD=1.658, 95% CI=0.663~2.654, P=0.001; insulin: SMD=0.544, 95% CI=0.030~1.058, P=0.038; IR: SMD=8.767, 95% CI=4.178~13.356, P<0.001). However, the results also indicated there was no obvious difference in osteocalcin (OC) and BMD in patients with AGM and the population with normal glucose metabolism (OC: SMD=0.293, 95% CI=-0.023~0.609, P=0.069; BMD: SMD=0.805, 95% CI=-0. 212~1.821, P=0.121). CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis results suggest that AGM might lead to increased BMI, insulin, and IR, while it has no significant correlation with BMD or bone metabolism. PMID:26970713

  14. Correlations Between Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Bone Mineral Density or Bone Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yang; Kang, Ming-Yang; Dong, Rong-Peng; Zhao, Jian-Wu

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the correlations of abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM) with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism. Material/Methods Relevant studies were identified using computerized and manual search strategies. The included studies were in strict accordance with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical analyses were conducted with the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 (Biostat Inc., Englewood, NJ, USA). Results Our present meta-analysis initially searched 844 studies, and 7 studies were eventually incorporated in the present meta-analysis. These 7 cohort studies included 1123 subjects altogether (560 patients with AGM and 563 healthy controls). The results showed that bone mass index (BMI), insulin, and insulin resistance (IR) of patients with AGM were significantly higher than that of the population with normal glucose metabolism (BMI: SMD=1.658, 95% CI=0.663~2.654, P=0.001; insulin: SMD=0.544, 95% CI=0.030~1.058, P=0.038; IR: SMD=8.767, 95% CI=4.178~13.356, P<0.001). However, the results also indicated there was no obvious difference in osteocalcin (OC) and BMD in patients with AGM and the population with normal glucose metabolism (OC: SMD=0.293, 95% CI=−0.023~0.609, P=0.069; BMD: SMD=0.805, 95% CI=−0. 212~1.821, P=0.121). Conclusions Our meta-analysis results suggest that AGM might lead to increased BMI, insulin, and IR, while it has no significant correlation with BMD or bone metabolism. PMID:26970713

  15. Inhibition of PHOSPHO1 activity results in impaired skeletal mineralization during limb development of the chick

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Vicky E.; Davey, Megan G.; McTeir, Lynn; Narisawa, Sonoko; Yadav, Manisha C.; Millan, Jose Luis; Farquharson, Colin.

    2010-01-01

    PHOSPHO1 is a bone specific phosphatase implicated in the initiation of inorganic phosphate generation for matrix mineralization. The control of mineralization is attributed to the actions of tissue-non specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). However, matrix vesicles (MVs) containing apatite crystals are present in patients with hypophosphatasia as well as TNAP null (Akp2-/-) mice. It is therefore likely that other phosphatases work with TNAP to regulate matrix mineralization. Although PHOSPHO1 and TNAP expression is associated with MVs, it is not known if PHOSPHO1 and TNAP are co-expressed during the early stages of limb development. Furthermore the functional in-vivo role of PHOSPHO1 in matrix mineralization has yet to be established. Here, we studied the temporal expression and functional role of PHOSPHO1 within chick limb bud mesenchymal micromass cultures and also in wild-type and talpid3 chick mutants. These mutants are characterized by defective hedgehog signalling and the absence of endochondral mineralization. The ability of in-vitro micromass cultures to differentiate and mineralize their matrix was temporally associated with increased expression of PHOSPHO1 and TNAP. Comparable changes in expression were noted in developing embryonic legs (developmental stages 23–36HH). Micromass cultures treated with lansoprazole, a small-molecule inhibitor of PHOSPHO1 activity, or FGF2, an inhibitor of chondrocyte differentiation, resulted in reduced alizarin red staining (P<0.05). FGF2 treatment also caused a reduction in PHOSPHO1 (P<0.001) and TNAP (P<0.001) expression. Expression analysis by whole mount RNA in-situ hybridization, correlated with qPCR micromass data and demonstrated the existence of a tightly regulated pattern of Phospho1 and Tnap expression which precedes mineralization. Treatment of developing embryos for 5-days with lansoprazole completely inhibited mineralization of all leg and wing long bones as assessed by alcian blue/alizarin red staining

  16. Characteristics of bone turnover in the long bone metaphysis fractured patients with normal or low Bone Mineral Density (BMD).

    PubMed

    Wölfl, Christoph; Schweppenhäuser, Daniela; Gühring, Thorsten; Takur, Caner; Höner, Bernd; Kneser, Ulrich; Grützner, Paul Alfred; Kolios, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures increases as our population ages. Until now, the exact biochemical processes that occur during the healing of metaphyseal fractures remain unclear. Diagnostic instruments that allow a dynamic insight into the fracture healing process are as yet unavailable. In the present matched pair analysis, we study the time course of the osteoanabolic markers bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), as well as the osteocatabolic markers crosslinked C-telopeptide of type-I-collagen (β-CTX) and serum band 5 tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b), during the healing of fractures that have a low level of bone mineral density (BMD) compared with fractures that have a normal BMD. Between March 2007 and February 2009, 30 patients aged older than 50 years who suffered a metaphyseal fracture were included in our study. BMDs were verified by dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DXEA) scans. The levels of BTMs were examined over an 8-week period. Osteoanabolic BAP levels in those with low levels of BMD were significantly different from the BAP levels in those with normal BMD. BAP levels in the former group increased constantly, whereas the latter group showed an initial strong decrease in BAP followed by slowly rising values. Osteocatabolic β-CTX increased in the bone of the normal BMD group constantly, whereas these levels decreased significantly in the bone of the group with low BMD from the first week. TRAP5b was significantly reduced in the low level BMD group. With this work, we conduct first insights into the molecular biology of the fracture healing process in patients with low levels of BMD that explains the mechanism of its fracture healing. The results may be one reason for the reduced healing qualities in bones with low BMD. PMID:24788647

  17. Delay of natural bone loss by higher intakes of specific minerals and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Schaafsma, A; de Vries, P J; Saris, W H

    2001-05-01

    For early prevention or inhibition of postmenopausal and age-related bone loss, nutritional interventions might be a first choice. For some vitamins and minerals an important role in bone metabolism is known or suggested. Calcium and vitamin D support bone mineral density and are basic components in most preventive strategies. Magnesium is involved in a number of activities supporting bone strength, preservation, and remodeling. Fluorine and strontium have bone-forming effects. However, high amounts of both elements may reduce bone strength. Boron is especially effective in case of vitamin D, magnesium, and potassium deficiency. Vitamin K is essential for the activation of osteocalcin. Vitamin C is an important stimulus for osteoblast-derived proteins. Increasing the recommended amounts (US RDA 1989), adequate intakes (US DRI 1997), or assumed normal intakes of mentioned food components may lead to a considerable reduction or even prevention of bone loss, especially in late postmenopausal women and the elderly. PMID:11401244

  18. Relationship between spine osteoarthritis, bone mineral density and bone turn over markers in post menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies have observed an inverse relationship between osteoporosis and spinal osteoarthritis, the latter being considered as possibly delaying the development of osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to determine the association between individual radiographic features of spine degeneration, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone-turn over markers. Methods It was a cross sectional study of 277 post menopausal women. BMD of all patients was assessed at the spine and hip using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Lateral spinal radiographs were evaluated for features of disc degeneration. Each vertebral level from L1/2 to L4/5 was assessed for the presence and severity of osteophytes and disc space narrowing (DSN). For Bone turn-over markers, we assessed serum osteocalcin and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX). Linear regressions and partial correlation were used respectively to determine the association between each of disc degeneration features, BMD, and both CTX and osteocalcin. Results Mean age of patients was 58.7 ± 7.7 years. Eighty four patients (31.2%) were osteoporotic and 88.44% had spine osteoarthritis. At all measured sites, there was an increase in BMD with increasing severity of disc narrowing while there was no association between severity of osteophytes and BMD. After adjustment for age and BMI, there was a significant negative correlation between CTX and DSN. However, no significant correlation was found between CTX and osteophytes and between osteocalcin and both osteophytes or DSN. Conclusion In post menopausal women the severity of disc narrowing, but not osteophytes, is associated with a generalized increase in BMD and a decreased rate of bone resorption. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that osteoarthritis, through DSN, has a protective effect against bone loss, mediated by a lower rate of bone resorption. However, spine BMD is not a relevant surrogate marker for the assessment of

  19. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G.; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-12-01

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm2)], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  20. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Espinosa-Arbelaez, Diego G; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E

    2011-12-01

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm(2))], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones. PMID:22225247

  1. Single x-ray transmission system for bone mineral density determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Mendoza, Daniel; Vargas-Vazquez, Damian; Giraldo-Betancur, Astrid L.; Hernandez-Urbiola, Margarita I.; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2011-12-15

    Bones are the support of the body. They are composed of many inorganic compounds and other organic materials that all together can be used to determine the mineral density of the bones. The bone mineral density is a measure index that is widely used as an indicator of the health of the bone. A typical manner to evaluate the quality of the bone is a densitometry study; a dual x-ray absorptiometry system based study that has been widely used to assess the mineral density of some animals' bones. However, despite the success stories of utilizing these systems in many different applications, it is a very expensive method that requires frequent calibration processes to work properly. Moreover, its usage in small species applications (e.g., rodents) has not been quite demonstrated yet. Following this argument, it is suggested that there is a need for an instrument that would perform such a task in a more reliable and economical manner. Therefore, in this paper we explore the possibility to develop a new, affordable, and reliable single x-ray absorptiometry system. The method consists of utilizing a single x-ray source, an x-ray image sensor, and a computer platform that all together, as a whole, will allow us to calculate the mineral density of the bone. Utilizing an x-ray transmission theory modified through a version of the Lambert-Beer law equation, a law that expresses the relationship among the energy absorbed, the thickness, and the absorption coefficient of the sample at the x-rays wavelength to calculate the mineral density of the bone can be advantageous. Having determined the parameter equation that defines the ratio of the pixels in radiographies and the bone mineral density [measured in mass per unit of area (g/cm{sup 2})], we demonstrated the utility of our novel methodology by calculating the mineral density of Wistar rats' femur bones.

  2. Natural variations in calcium isotope composition as a monitor of bone mineral balance in humans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulan, J.; Anbar, A.; Thomas, B.; Smith, S.

    2004-12-01

    The skeleton is the largest reservoir of calcium in the human body and is responsible for the short term control of blood levels of this element. Accurate measurement of changes in bone calcium balance is critical to understanding how calcium metabolism responds to physiological and environmental changes and, more specifically, to diagnosing and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for osteoporosis and other serious calcium-related disorders. It is very difficult to measure bone calcium balance using current techniques, however, because these techniques rely either on separate estimates of bone resorption and formation that are not quantitatively comparable, or on complex and expensive studies of calcium kinetics using administered isotopic tracers. This difficulty is even more apparent and more severe for measurements of short-term changes in bone calcium balance that do not produce detectable changes in bone mineral density. Calcium isotopes may provide a novel means of addressing this problem. The foundation of this isotope application is the ca. 1.3 per mil fractionation of calcium during bone formation, favoring light calcium in the bone. This fractionation results in a steady-state isotopic offset between calcium in bone and calcium in soft tissues, blood and urine. Perturbations to this steady state due to changes in the net formation or resorption of bone should be reflected in changes in the isotopic composition of soft tissues and fluids. Here we present evidence that easily detectable shifts in the natural calcium isotope composition of human urine rapidly reflect changes in bone calcium balance. Urine from subjects in a 17-week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Bed rest promotes net resorption of bone, shifting calcium from bone to soft tissues, blood and urine. The calcium isotope composition of patients in this study shifted toward lighter values during bed rest, consistent with net resorption of isotopically

  3. Cooperative deformation of mineral and collagen in bone at the nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Himadri S.; Seto, Jong; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Zaslansky, Paul; Boesecke, Peter; Fratzl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In biomineralized tissues such as bone, the recurring structural motif at the supramolecular level is an anisotropic stiff inorganic component reinforcing the soft organic matrix. The high toughness and defect tolerance of natural biomineralized composites is believed to arise from these nanometer scale structural motifs. Specifically, load transfer in bone has been proposed to occur by a transfer of tensile strains between the stiff inorganic (mineral apatite) particles via shearing in the intervening soft organic (collagen) layers. This raises the question as to how and to what extent do the mineral particles and fibrils deform concurrently in response to tissue deformation. Here we show that both mineral nanoparticles and the enclosing mineralized fibril deform initially elastically, but to different degrees. Using in situ tensile testing with combined high brilliance synchrotron X-ray diffraction and scattering on the same sample, we show that tissue, fibrils, and mineral particles take up successively lower levels of strain, in a ratio of 12:5:2. The maximum strain seen in mineral nanoparticles (≈0.15–0.20%) can reach up to twice the fracture strain calculated for bulk apatite. The results are consistent with a staggered model of load transfer in bone matrix, exemplifying the hierarchical nature of bone deformation. We believe this process results in a mechanism of fibril–matrix decoupling for protecting the brittle mineral phase in bone, while effectively redistributing the strain energy within the bone tissue. PMID:17095608

  4. Varying ratios of omega-6: omega-3 fatty acids on the pre-and postmortem bone mineral density, bone ash, and bone breaking strength of laying chickens.

    PubMed

    Baird, H T; Eggett, D L; Fullmer, S

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of varying ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the diets of White Leghorn chickens on tibia bone characteristics [bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), ash bone mineral content, bone morphology, and cortical thickness] and tibia bone strength parameters (ultimate force, bending stress, maximum strain, Young's modulus of elasticity, area under the curve, and moment of inertia). Seventy-five 16-wk-old female White Leghorn chickens were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids: 47.8:1, 18.0:1, 7.6:1, 5.9:1, or 4.7:1. Corn oil was the n-6 fatty acid source, whereas flax oil provided the n-3 fatty acids. Bone density was measured on the left tibia via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) prior to killing and after excision. Bones were ashed in a muffle furnace at 500 degrees F. Tibia bones were broken by using a 3-point bending rig. Results showed no significant effect of diet on bone characteristics. There were no significant differences among diet groups for parameters of bone strength except cortical thickness (P < or = 0.01). Bone mineral content determined by ashing was significantly different by 9.2% (P < or = 0.0001) from BMC determined in vivo by DXA; however, there were no differences in ex vivo BMC and BMC ash, although they were highly correlated (r = 0.99, P < or = 0.0001). We concluded that there was no effect of n-3 fatty acids on tibia bone in mature White Leghorn chickens. The GE Lunar Prodigy DXA instrument significantly underestimated the in vivo BMC in chickens. PMID:18212376

  5. Mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells under physiological hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Tolba, Emad; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a physiological energy-rich polymer with multiple phosphoric anhydride bonds. In cells such as bone-forming osteoblasts, glycolysis is the main pathway generating metabolic energy in the form of ATP. In the present study, we show that, under hypoxic culture conditions, the growth/viability of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells is not impaired. The addition of polyP to those cells, administered as amorphous calcium polyP nanoparticles (aCa-polyP-NP; approximate size 100 nm), significantly increased the proliferation of the cells. In the presence of polyP, the cells produce significant levels of lactate, the end product of anaerobic glycolysis. Under those conditions, an eight-fold increase in the steady-state level of the membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase IX is found, as well as a six-fold induction of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Consequently, biomineral formation onto the SaOS-2 cells decreases under low oxygen tension. If the polyP nanoparticles are added to the cells, the degree of mineralization is enhanced. These changes had been measured also in human mesenchymal stem cells. The assumption that the bicarbonate, generated by the carbonic anhydrase in the presence of polyP under low oxygen, is deposited as a constituent of the bioseeds formed during initial hydroxyapatite formation is corroborated by the identification of carbon besides of calcium, oxygen and phosphorus in the initial biomineral deposit onto the cells using the sensitive technology of high-resolution energy dispersive spectrometry mapping. Based on these data, we conclude that polyP is required for the supply of metabolic energy during bone mineral formation under physiological, hypoxic conditions, acting as a 'metabolic fuel' for the cells to grow. PMID:26453899

  6. Geographic differences in bone mineral density of Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Delezé, M; Cons-Molina, F; Villa, A R; Morales-Torres, J; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J G; Calva, J J; Murillo, A; Briceño, A; Orozco, J; Morales-Franco, G; Peña-Rios, H; Guerrero-Yeo, G; Aguirre, E; Elizondo, J

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate standard curves for normal spinal and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) in Mexican women using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to analyze geographic differences and to compare these with 'Hispanic' reference data to determine its applicability. This was a cross-sectional study of 4460 urban, clinically normal, Mexican women, aged 20-90 years, from 10 different cities in Mexico (5 in the north, 4 in the center and 1 in the southeast) with densitometry centers. Women with suspected medical conditions or who had used drugs affecting bone metabolism, were excluded. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly higher (1.089 +/- 0.18 g/cm2) in women from the northern part of Mexico, with intermediate values in the center (1.065 +/- 0.17 g/cm2) and lower values (1.013 +/- 0.19 g/cm2) in the southeast (p < 0.0001). Similarly, femoral neck BMD was significantly higher in women from the north (0.895 +/- 0.14 g/cm2), intermediate in the center (0.864 +/- 0.14 g/cm2) and lower (0.844 +/- 0.14 g/cm ) in the southeast part of Mexico (p < 0.0001). Northern Mexican women tend to be taller and heavier than women from the center and, even more, than those from the southeast of Mexico (p < 0.0001). However, these differences in BMD remained significant after adjustment for weight (p < 0.0001). A significant loss (p < 0.0001) in BMD was observed from 40 to 69 years of age at the lumbar spine and up to the eighth decade at the femoral neck. Higher and lower lumbar spine values, as compared with the 'Hispanic' population, were observed in Mexican mestizo women from the northern and southeastern regions, respectively. In conclusion, there are geographic differences in weight and height of Mexican women, and in BMD despite adjustment for weight. PMID:11069189

  7. Mineralization of Synthetic Polymer Scaffolds: A Bottom-upApproach for the Development of Artificial Bone

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Jie; Viengkham, Malathong; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2004-09-27

    The controlled integration of organic and inorganic components confers natural bone with superior mechanical properties. Bone biogenesis is thought to occur by templated mineralization of hard apatite crystals by an elastic protein scaffold, a process we sought to emulate with synthetic biomimetic hydrogel polymers. Crosslinked polymethacrylamide and polymethacrylate hydrogels were functionalized with mineral-binding ligands and used to template the formation of hydroxyapatite. Strong adhesion between the organic and inorganic materials was achieved for hydrogels functionalized with either carboxylate or hydroxy ligands. The mineral-nucleating potential of hydroxyl groups identified here broadens the design parameters for synthetic bone-like composites and suggests a potential role for hydroxylated collagen proteins in bone mineralization.

  8. Bone formation is not impaired by hibernation (disuse) in black bears Ursus americanus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donahue, S.W.; Vaughan, M.R.; Demers, L.M.; Donahue, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Disuse by bed rest, limb immobilization or space flight causes rapid bone loss by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. This net bone loss increases the risk of fracture upon remobilization. Bone loss also occurs in hibernating ground squirrels, golden hamsters, and little brown bats by arresting bone formation and accelerating bone resorption. There is some histological evidence to suggest that black bears Ursus americanus do not lose bone mass during hibernation (i.e. disuse). There is also evidence suggesting that muscle mass and strength are preserved in black bears during hibernation. The question of whether bears can prevent bone loss during hibernation has not been conclusively answered. The goal of the current study was to further assess bone metabolism in hibernating black bears. Using the same serum markers of bone remodeling used to evaluate human patients with osteoporosis, we assayed serum from five black bears, collected every 10 days over a 196-day period, for bone resorption and formation markers. Here we show that bone resorption remains elevated over the entire hibernation period compared to the pre-hibernation period, but osteoblastic bone formation is not impaired by hibernation and is rapidly accelerated during remobilization following hibernation.

  9. Bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Fidan, Nuri; Inci, Ayca; Coban, Melahat; Ulman, Cevval; Kursat, Seyhun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of serum bone turnover markers (BTM) and bone mineral density (BMD) determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We enrolled 83 patients with CKD, 41 (49.4%) males, 42 (50.6%) females, with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 23.90±12 (range=6.0-56.0). BMD of the lumbar spine (LS) (anteroposterior, L2 through L4), femoral neck (FN) and femoral trochanter (FT) were measured by DEXA. Biochemical BTM, including calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum specific alkaline phosphatase (serum AP), bone-specific AP (BSAP), plasma bicarbonate and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25hD) were used for the prediction of BMD loss. T score results of LS and FN were worse than FT. BMD levels were lower in females than in males (all p<0.05). According to different BMD T score levels, patients with age ≥65 years and patients in menopause were significantly more osteopenic (p=0.026) and there was no relation between different BMD T scores and presence of diabetes (p=0.654). A positive correlation was identified between the BMD of FN T-Z scores (r=0.270, p=0.029, r=0.306, p=0.012), FT T-Z scores (r=0.220, p=0.076, r:0.250, p=0.043) and serum HCO3, while the correlation with serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) and BSAP was considered to be negative. No statistically significant association was found between BMD of all the measured skeletal sites and eGFR. Loss of BMD was identified mostly in females over ≥65 years of age and after menopause. Higher serum levels of BSAP and AP can be determined in the advanced stages of renal failure and they reflect fracture risk of the femur, but not spine. Measurements of BMD by DEXA are useful to demonstrate bone loss, but not technical enough to distinguish the quantity of bone loss between different stages of CKD. PMID:26969749

  10. Practice of martial arts and bone mineral density in adolescents of both sexes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Igor Hideki; Mantovani, Alessandra Madia; Agostinete, Ricardo Ribeiro; Costa, Paulo; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Ribeiro, Luis Pedro; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between martial arts practice (judo, karate and kung-fu) and bone mineral density in adolescents. Methods: The study was composed of 138 (48 martial arts practitioners and 90 non-practitioners) adolescents of both sexes, with an average age of 12.6 years. Bone mineral density was measured using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry in arms, legs, spine, trunk, pelvis and total. Weekly training load and previous time of engagement in the sport modality were reported by the coach. Partial correlation tested the association between weekly training load and bone mineral density, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Analysis of covariance was used to compare bone mineral density values according to control and martial arts groups, controlled by sex, chronological age, previous practice and somatic maturation. Significant relationships between bone mineral density and muscle mass were inserted into a multivariate model and the slopes of the models were compared using the Student t test (control versus martial art). Results: Adolescents engaged in judo practice presented higher values of bone mineral density than the control individuals (p-value=0.042; Medium Effect size [Eta-squared=0.063]), while the relationship between quantity of weekly training and bone mineral density was significant among adolescents engaged in judo (arms [r=0.308] and legs [r=0.223]) and kung-fu (arms [r=0.248] and spine [r=0.228]). Conclusions: Different modalities of martial arts are related to higher bone mineral density in different body regions among adolescents. PMID:27017002

  11. Bone mineral density, muscle strength, and recreational exercise in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow-Harter, C.; Whalen, R.; Myburgh, K.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1992-01-01

    Muscle strength has been shown to predict bone mineral density (BMD) in women. We examined this relationship in 50 healthy men who ranged in age from 28 to 51 years (average 38.3 years). BMD of the lumbar spine, proximal femur, whole body, and tibia were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR 1000W). Dynamic strength using one repetition maximum was assessed for the biceps, quadriceps, and back extensors and for the hip abductors, adductors, and flexors. Isometric grip strength was measured by dynamometry. Daily walking mileage was assessed by 9 week stepmeter records and kinematic analysis of video filming. Subjects were designated as exercisers and nonexercisers. Exercisers participated in recreational exercise at least two times each week. The results demonstrated that BMD at all sites correlated with back and biceps strength (p < 0.01 to p = 0.0001). Body weight correlated with tibia and whole-body BMD (p < 0.001); age negatively correlated with Ward's triangle BMD (p < 0.01). In stepwise multiple regressions, back strength was the only independent predictor of spine and femoral neck density (R2 = 0.27). Further, back strength was the most robust predictor of BMD at the trochanter, Ward's triangle, whole body, and tibia, although biceps strength, age, body weight, and leg strength contributed significantly to BMD at these skeletal sites, accounting for 35-52% of the variance in BMD. Exercisers and nonexercisers were similar for walking (3.97 versus 3.94 miles/day), age (37.8 versus 38.5) years, and weight (80.0 versus 77.7 kg). However, BMD and muscle strength were significantly greater in exercises than in nonexercisers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  12. Palmitic Acid Reduces Circulating Bone Formation Markers in Obese Animals and Impairs Osteoblast Activity via C16-Ceramide Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Alsahli, Ahmad; Kiefhaber, Kathryn; Gold, Tziporah; Muluke, Munira; Jiang, Hongfeng; Cremers, Serge; Schulze-Späte, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Obesity and impaired lipid metabolism increase circulating and local fatty acid (FA) levels. Our previous studies showed that a high high-saturated -fat diet induced greater bone loss in mice than a high high-unsaturated-fat diet due to increased osteoclast numbers and activity. The impact of elevated FA levels on osteoblasts is not yet clear. We induced obesity in 4 week old male mice using a palmitic acid (PA)- or oleic acid (OA)-enriched high fat high-fat diet (HFD) (20 % of calories from FA), and compared them to mice on a normal (R) caloric diet (10 % of calories from FA). We collected serum to determine FA and bone metabolism marker levels. Primary osteoblasts were isolated; cultured in PA, OA, or control (C) medium; and assessed for mineralization activity, gene expression, and ceramide levels. Obese animals in the PA and OA groups had significantly lower serum levels of bone formation markers P1NP and OC compared to normal weight animals (*p < 0.001), with the lowest marker levels in animals on an PA-enriched HFD (*p < 0.001). Accordingly, elevated levels of PA significantly reduced osteoblast mineralization activity in vitro (*p < 0.05). Elevated PA intake significantly increased C16 ceramide accumulation. This accumulation was preventable through inhibition of SPT2 (serine palmitoyl transferase 2) using myriocin. Elevated levels of PA reduce osteoblast function in vitro and bone formation markers in vivo. Our findings suggest that saturated PA can compromise bone health by affecting osteoblasts, and identify a potential mechanism through which obesity promotes bone loss. PMID:26758875

  13. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Scott; Bhatt, Harikrashna

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients. PMID:27446618

  14. Prolactinoma: A Massive Effect on Bone Mineral Density in a Young Patient

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This case highlights a prolactinoma in a young male, and its impact on bone health. Osteoporosis has been noted to be an issue in postmenopausal women with prolactinomas. This case shows a similar impact on bone health in a young male resulting in low bone mineral density for age based on Z-score. This case report highlights the possible mechanisms for the bone loss in the setting of prolactinoma and the need for assessing bone health in such patients. Furthermore it highlights the need for a thorough evaluation in such patients. PMID:27446618

  15. Revised Reference Curves for Bone Mineral Content and Areal Bone Mineral Density According to Age and Sex for Black and Non-Black Children: Results of the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Gilsanz, Vicente; Lappe, Joan M.; Oberfield, Sharon; Shepherd, John A.; Frederick, Margaret M.; Huang, Xiangke; Lu, Ming; Mahboubi, Soroosh; Hangartner, Thomas; Winer, Karen K.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Deficits in bone acquisition during growth may increase fracture risk. Assessment of bone health during childhood requires appropriate reference values relative to age, sex, and population ancestry to identify bone deficits. Objective: The objective of this study was to provide revised and extended reference curves for bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in children. Design: The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study was a multicenter longitudinal study with annual assessments for up to 7 yr. Setting: The study was conducted at five clinical centers in the United States. Participants: Two thousand fourteen healthy children (992 males, 22% African-Americans) aged 5–23 yr participated in the study. Intervention: There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measures: Reference percentiles for BMC and aBMD of the total body, lumbar spine, hip, and forearm were obtained using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for Black and non-Black children. Adjustment factors for height status were also calculated. Results: Extended reference curves for BMC and aBMD of the total body, total body less head, lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and forearm for ages 5–20 yr were constructed relative to sex and age for Black and non-Black children. Curves are similar to those previously published for 7–17 year olds. BMC and aBMD values were greater for Black vs. non-Black children at all measurement sites. Conclusions: We provide here dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry reference data on a well-characterized cohort of 2012 children and adolescents. These reference curves provide the most robust reference values for the assessment and monitoring of bone health in children and adolescents in the literature to date. PMID:21917867

  16. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE MINERAL IN DUCTILE AND BRITTLE CORTICAL MOUSE BONE

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Garcia-Tunon, Esther; Mukadam, Quresh; Saiz, Eduardo; Oldknow, Karla J.; Farquharson, Colin; Millán, José Luis; Boyde, Alan; Shefelbine, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Bone is a strong and tough material composed of apatite mineral, organic matter and water. Changes in composition and organization of these building blocks affect bone’s mechanical integrity. Skeletal disorders often affect bone’s mineral phase, either by variations in the collagen or directly altering mineralization. The aim of the current study was to explore the differences in the mineral of brittle and ductile cortical bone at the mineral (nm) and tissue (µm) levels using two mouse phenotypes. Osteogenesis imperfecta murine (oim−/−) mice were used to model brittle bone; PHOSPHO1 mutants (Phospho1−/−) had ductile bone. They were compared to their respective wild-type controls. Femora were defatted and ground to powder to measure average mineral crystal size using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and to monitor the bulk mineral to matrix ratio via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD scans were run after TGA for phase identification, to assess the fractions of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate. Tibiae were embedded to measure elastic properties with nanoindentation and the extent of mineralization with backscattered electron microscopy (qbSEM). Interestingly, the mineral of brittle oim−/− and ductile Phospho1−/− bones had many similar characteristics. Both pathology models had smaller apatite crystals, lower mineral to matrix ratio, and showed more thermal conversion to β-tricalcium phosphate than their wild-types, indicating deviations from stoichiometric hydroxyapatite in the original mineral. The degree of mineralization of the bone matrix was different for each strain: oim−/− were hypermineralized, while Phospho1−/− were hypomineralized. However, alterations in the mineral were associated with reduced tissue elastic moduli in both pathologies. Results revealed that despite having extremely different whole bone mechanics, the mineral of oim−/− and Phospho1−/− has several similar trends at smaller length scales. This

  17. Bone mineral density in asthmatic patients using low dose inhaled glucocorticosteroids.

    PubMed

    El, O; Gulbahar, S; Ceylan, E; Ergor, G; Sahin, E; Senocak, O; Oncel, S; Cimrin, A

    2005-01-01

    Inhaled glucocorticosteroids are clearly beneficial in subjects with moderate or severe asthma since they are well tolerated, reduce symptoms, and improve quality of life. Some studies suggest that inhaled glucocorticosteroids can adversely affect bone mineral density. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of inhaled glucocorticosteroid therapy on bone mineral density in female patients. Forty-five asthmatic female patients (36 premenopousal and 9 postmenopausal) and forty-six healthy control subjects were included in the study. Bone mineral density was measured from lumbar spine (L1-4) and femur (neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle) by dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry. Age, occupation, menopause and smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, previous fractures, family history of fractures, menstrual history, ooferectomy, number of pregnancies, the duration of lactation, physical activity and calcium intake were questioned according to the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study Group (EVOS) form. Cumulative inhaled glucocorticosteroid dose was calculated. T score of femoral neck and T score and bone mineral density of Ward's triangle were significantly lower in asthmatic patients compared to control group but no statistically significant correlation was found between the disease duration, inhaled steroid treatment duration, cumulative inhaled dose and annual inhaled steroid dose and bone mineral density measurement. These results suggest that in asthmatic patients using low dose inhaled corticosteroids bone mineral density is lower than in healthy controls but it is still unclear if asthma by itself is a risk factor for osteoporosis. PMID:15864884

  18. [Bone mineral density in residents living on radioactive territories of Cheliabinsk Region].

    PubMed

    Tolstykh, E I; Shagina, N B; Peremyslova, L M; Degteva, M O

    2010-01-01

    Operation of "Mayak" plutonium production complex resulted in radioactive contamination of the part of Chelyabinsk Region in 1950-60s. Significant gas-aerosol emissions of 1311 occurred since 1948; in 1957, a radiation accident resulted in 90Sr contamination of large territories. This paper presents comparison of bone mineral density of persons lived on territories with different levels of soil 90Sr-contamination with a control group. It was found that in 1970-1975 the bone mineral density, estimated from mineral content in bone samples, in residents of contaminated areas born in 1936-1952 was significantly lower compared with the control group. For persons born in 1880-1935 such differences were not found. It was shown that the decrease in bone mineral density was not related to 90Sr exposure of osteogenic cells in the dose range from 0.1 to 1300 mGy: the coefficient of correlation between individual 90Sr-doses and bone mineral contents was not significant. The decrease in bone mineral density of persons born in 1936-1952 could be associated with exposure of thyroid and parathyroid glands (systemic regulators of calcium turnover) by 131I from gas-aerosol emissions from "Mayak". Maximum gas-aerosol emissions occurred in 1948-1954 and coincided with growth and development of thyroid gland, characterizing by intensive accumulation of 131I, and with growth and maturation of the skeleton of persons born in these calendar years. PMID:20968060

  19. Response Of Mineralizing And Non-Mineralizing Bone Cells To Fluid Flow: An In Vitro Model For Mechanotransruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makuch, Lauren A.

    2004-01-01

    osteoblasts, including increased proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and production of nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and osteopontin. Several proteins have been implicated in osteoblastic mechanotransduction including Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2), parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor, osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and alkaline phosphatase (AP). We will characterize relative levels of each protein in mineralizing or non-mineralizing MC3T3 osteoblastic cells that have been exposed to fluid flow compared to non-fluid flow using immunofluorescent staining and two- photon laser microscopy as well as western blotting. Because calcium-mediated pathways are important in osteoblastic signaling, we will transfect MC3T3 cells with cameleon probes for Ca2+ containing YFP and CFP. Results will be analyzed using FRET/FLIM to study differential release of intracellular Ca(2+) in response to fluid flow and conditions inducing matrix mineralization. In addition, we plan to conduct several microarray experiments to determine differential gene expression in MC3T3 cells in response to fluid flow and conditions inducing mineralization.

  20. The role of water and mineral-collagen interfacial bonding on microdamage progression in bone.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qing; Leng, Huijie; Wang, Xiaodu; Zhou, Yanheng; Rong, Qiguo

    2014-02-01

    Microdamage would be accumulated in bone due to high-intensity training or even normal daily activity, which may consequently cause fragility fracture or stress fracture. On the other hand, microdamage formation serves as a toughening mechanism in bone. However, the mechanisms that control microdamage initiation and accumulation in bone are still poorly understood. Our previous finite element model indicated that different interfacial properties between mineral and collagen in bone may lead to distinct patterns of microdamage accumulation. Therefore, the current study was designed to examine such prediction and to investigate the role of water and mineral-collagen interactions on microdamage accumulation in bone. To address these issues, 48 mice femurs were divided randomly into four groups. These groups were dehydrated or treated with perfluorotripropylamine (PFTA) or NaF solution to change water distribution and mineral-collagen interfacial bonding in bone. After three-point bending fatigue tests, the types of microdamage (i.e., linear microcracks or diffuse damage) formed in bone were compared between different groups. The results suggested that (1) bone tissues with strong mineral-collagen interfacial bonding facilitate the formation of linear microcraks, and (2) water has little contribution to the growth of microcracks. PMID:24122969

  1. DLX3 regulates bone mass by targeting genes supporting osteoblast differentiation and mineral homeostasis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Isaac, J; Erthal, J; Gordon, J; Duverger, O; Sun, H-W; Lichtler, A C; Stein, G S; Lian, J B; Morasso, M I

    2014-09-01

    Human mutations and in vitro studies indicate that DLX3 has a crucial function in bone development, however, the in vivo role of DLX3 in endochondral ossification has not been established. Here, we identify DLX3 as a central attenuator of adult bone mass in the appendicular skeleton. Dynamic bone formation, histologic and micro-computed tomography analyses demonstrate that in vivo DLX3 conditional loss of function in mesenchymal cells (Prx1-Cre) and osteoblasts (OCN-Cre) results in increased bone mass accrual observed as early as 2 weeks that remains elevated throughout the lifespan owing to increased osteoblast activity and increased expression of bone matrix genes. Dlx3OCN-conditional knockout mice have more trabeculae that extend deeper in the medullary cavity and thicker cortical bone with an increased mineral apposition rate, decreased bone mineral density and increased cortical porosity. Trabecular TRAP staining and site-specific Q-PCR demonstrated that osteoclastic resorption remained normal on trabecular bone, whereas cortical bone exhibited altered osteoclast patterning on the periosteal surface associated with high Opg/Rankl ratios. Using RNA sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation-Seq analyses, we demonstrate that DLX3 regulates transcription factors crucial for bone formation such as Dlx5, Dlx6, Runx2 and Sp7 as well as genes important to mineral deposition (Ibsp, Enpp1, Mepe) and bone turnover (Opg). Furthermore, with the removal of DLX3, we observe increased occupancy of DLX5, as well as increased and earlier occupancy of RUNX2 on the bone-specific osteocalcin promoter. Together, these findings provide novel insight into mechanisms by which DLX3 attenuates bone mass accrual to support bone homeostasis by osteogenic gene pathway regulation. PMID:24948010

  2. DLX3 regulates bone mass by targeting genes supporting osteoblast differentiation and mineral homeostasis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, J; Erthal, J; Gordon, J; Duverger, O; Sun, H-W; Lichtler, A C; Stein, G S; Lian, J B; Morasso, M I

    2014-01-01

    Human mutations and in vitro studies indicate that DLX3 has a crucial function in bone development, however, the in vivo role of DLX3 in endochondral ossification has not been established. Here, we identify DLX3 as a central attenuator of adult bone mass in the appendicular skeleton. Dynamic bone formation, histologic and micro-computed tomography analyses demonstrate that in vivo DLX3 conditional loss of function in mesenchymal cells (Prx1-Cre) and osteoblasts (OCN-Cre) results in increased bone mass accrual observed as early as 2 weeks that remains elevated throughout the lifespan owing to increased osteoblast activity and increased expression of bone matrix genes. Dlx3OCN-conditional knockout mice have more trabeculae that extend deeper in the medullary cavity and thicker cortical bone with an increased mineral apposition rate, decreased bone mineral density and increased cortical porosity. Trabecular TRAP staining and site-specific Q-PCR demonstrated that osteoclastic resorption remained normal on trabecular bone, whereas cortical bone exhibited altered osteoclast patterning on the periosteal surface associated with high Opg/Rankl ratios. Using RNA sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation-Seq analyses, we demonstrate that DLX3 regulates transcription factors crucial for bone formation such as Dlx5, Dlx6, Runx2 and Sp7 as well as genes important to mineral deposition (Ibsp, Enpp1, Mepe) and bone turnover (Opg). Furthermore, with the removal of DLX3, we observe increased occupancy of DLX5, as well as increased and earlier occupancy of RUNX2 on the bone-specific osteocalcin promoter. Together, these findings provide novel insight into mechanisms by which DLX3 attenuates bone mass accrual to support bone homeostasis by osteogenic gene pathway regulation. PMID:24948010

  3. Osteoporotic-like effects of cadmium on bone mineral density and content in aged ovariectomized beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Sacco-Gibson, N.; Abrams, J.; Chaudhry, S.; Hurst, D.; Peterson, D.; Bhattacharyya, M.

    1992-12-31

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy in conjunction with cadmium (Cd) exposure on bone. Aged female beagles with {sup 45}Ca-labeled skeletons ovariectomized and exposed to Cd. Successive vertebral scans by dual photon absorptiometry monitored changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in each dog with time. Results showed that ovariectomy or Cd exposure alone caused significant decreases in BMD; ovariectomy with Cd exposure caused the greatest decrease. Ovariectomy alone did not decrease BMD in the distal end or mid-shaft of the tibia while BMD of the distal tibia decreased significantly due to Cd exposure alone. Combination treatment resulted in significant decreases in BMD of both tibial regions. At necropsy, tibiae, humeri, lumbar vertebrae and ribs were obtained for biochemical analysis. No group-to-group differences in bone weights (wet, dry, ash), in ash/dry ratios, or in long bone and vertebral Ca/dry or Ca/ash ratios were observed. Significantly higher total {sup 45}Ca content and {sup 45}Ca/dry and {sup 45}Ca/ash ratios were observed in long bones and vertebrae of OV- and OV+ groups. In contrast, intact ribs showed significantly decreased Ca/dry and Ca/ash ratios compared to the SO-group. Quartered ribs demonstrated regional responses to specific treatment; decreases in total Ca content were greatest in the mid-rib region ({minus}36 to {minus}46%). Results suggest that in the aged female beagle, bone mineral loss associated with estrogen depletion is not only related to bone type (trabecular versus cortical) but also to bone Ca pools. Our results also suggest that a regional heterogeneity of bone plays a role in responsiveness to ovariectomy and Cd exposure. These aspects suggest that Cd is an exogenous factor affecting bone mineral loss independently of estrogen depletion. However, estrogen depletion primes bone for responsiveness to Cd-induced bone mineral loss.

  4. Alfacalcidol prevents aromatase inhibitor (Letrozole)-induced bone mineral loss in young growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Idris; Yeh, James K

    2009-08-01

    Long-term aromatase inhibitor use causes bone loss and increases fracture risk secondary to induced estrogen deficiency. We postulated that alfacalcidol (A; vitamin D(3) analog) could help prevent the Letrozole (L)-induced mineral bone loss. Fifty intact 1-month-old female rats were randomly divided into basal group; age-matched control group (AMC); L group: oral administration of 2 mg/kg per day; A group: oral administration of 0.1 microg/kg per day; and group L+A for a period of 8 weeks. Eight-week administration of L resulted in a significant increase in body weight, bone length, bone area, bone formation, and bone resorption activities when compared with the AMC group. However, the bone mass and bone mineral density (BMD) were significantly lower than the AMC group. Serum levels of testosterone, LH, FSH, and IGF-1 were significantly higher and serum estrone and estradiol were lower along with a decrease in ovary+uterus horn weight, when compared with the AMC groups. None of those parameters were affected by A treatment, except suppression of bone resorption activities and increased trabecular bone mass and femoral BMD, when compared with the AMC group. Results of L+A combined intervention showed that bone length, bone area, and bone formation activities were higher than the AMC group, and the bone resorption activities were lower and BMD was significantly higher than that of the L group. This study demonstrates that the combined intervention of L and A not only enhances bone growth, but also increases bone density, and the effects of L and A are independent and additive. PMID:19420010

  5. Longitudinal bone mineral content and density in Rett syndrome and their contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Amanda; Fyfe, Sue; Downs, Jenny; Woodhead, Helen; Jacoby, Peter; Leonard, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Bone mass and density are low in females with Rett syndrome. This study used Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry to measure annual changes in z-scores for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in the lumbar spine and total body in an Australian Rett syndrome cohort at baseline and then after three to four years. Bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was calculated in the lumbar spine. Annual changes in lean tissue mass (LTM) and bone area (BA) were also assessed. The effects of age, genotype, mobility, menstrual status and epilepsy diagnosis on these parameters were also investigated. The baseline sample included 97 individuals who were representative of the total live Australian Rett syndrome population under 30years in 2005 (n=274). Of these 74 had a follow-up scan. Less than a quarter of females were able to walk on their own at follow-up. Bone area and LTM z-scores declined over the time between the baseline and follow-up scans. Mean height-standardised z-scores for the bone outcomes were obtained from multiple regression models. The lumbar spine showed a positive mean annual BMAD z-score change (0.08) and a marginal decrease in aBMD (-0.04). The mean z-score change per annum for those 'who could walk unaided' was more positive for LS BMAD (p=0.040). Total body BMD mean annual z-score change from baseline to follow-up was negative (-0.03). However this change was positive in those who had achieved menses prior to the study (0.03, p=0,040). Total body BMC showed the most negative change (-0.60), representing a decrease in bone mineral content over time. This normalised to a z-score change of 0.21 once adjusted for the reduced lean tissue mass mean z-score change (-0.21) and bone area mean z-score change (-0.14). Overall, the bone mineral content, bone mineral density, bone area and lean tissue mass z-scores for all outcome measures declined, with the TB BMC showing significant decreases. Weight, height and muscle mass appear to have

  6. Bone mineral content in hereditary polycystic osteodysplasia associated with progressive dementia.

    PubMed

    Hakola, H P; Karjalainen, P

    1975-07-01

    Measurements of the bone mineral content were made in five patients with a disease characterized by progressive dementia and lipomembranous polycystic osteodysplasia. Decreased bone mineral density (g/cm3) was observed not only in the region of cysts in the distal radius but also in the diaphyses of radius and ulna. The 85Sr vertebral uptake was low in the youngest patient, normal in two and raised in another two. The observations were compatible with the hypothesis of a general metabolic disorder of the bone. PMID:1189965

  7. State of the mineral component of rat bone tissue during hypokinesia and the recovery period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Stupakov, G. P.; Pavlova, M. N.; Muradov, I. S.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on young growing rats. Hypokinesia lasting from 20 to 200 days caused retarded gain in weight and volume of the femur and delayed development of the cortical layer of the diaphysis. In contrast, the density of the cortical layer of the femoral diaphysis increased due to elevation of the mineral saturation of the bone tissue microstructures. Incorporation of Ca into the bone tissue in hypokinesia had a tendency to reduce. Partial normalization of the bone tissue mineral component occurred during a 20 day recovery period following hypokinesia.

  8. Osteopenia of Prematurity: Does Physical Activity Improve Bone Mineralization in Preterm Infants?

    PubMed

    Stalnaker, Kelsey A; Poskey, Gail A

    2016-01-01

    Bone mineralization of preterm infants is significantly less than full-term infants at birth, placing preterm infants at risk for osteopenia of prematurity and other metabolic bone diseases. Advances in nutritional supplementation and standard nursing care alone have been unsuccessful in improving bone mineralization postnatally. Research supports a daily physical activity protocol of passive range of motion and gentle joint compression when combined with adequate nutritional supplementation reduces osteopenia of prematurity. This article provides a systematic review of the current evidence surrounding early physical activity and neonatal massage for the treatment of osteopenia and indicates the need for universal handling protocols in caring for this unique population. PMID:27052984

  9. Rapidly Assessing Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Skulan, J. L.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that variations in the Ca isotope ratios in urine rapidly and quantitatively reflect changes in bone mineral balance. This variation occurs because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes, while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue. In a study of 12 individuals confined to bed rest, a condition known to induce bone resorption, we show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker, while bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Ca isotopes indicate an average loss of 0.62 +/- 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. The Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  10. [The quantitative determination of bone mineral content--a system comparison of similarly built computed tomographs].

    PubMed

    Andresen, R; Radmer, S; Banzer, D; Felsenberg, D; Wolf, K J

    1994-03-01

    An intercomparison of 4 CT scanners of the same manufacturer was performed. The bone mineral content of 11 lumbar vertebral columns removed directly post mortem was determined in a specially constructed lucite-water phantom. Even devices of the same construction were shown to yield a variation in the quantitative evaluation markedly exceeding the annual physiological mineral loss. As long as scanner adjustment by physical calibration phantoms has not yet been established, a course assessment and therapy control of bone mineral content should always be carried out on the same QCT scanner. PMID:8136480

  11. Long-term safety of antiresorptive treatment: bone material, matrix and mineralization aspects

    PubMed Central

    Misof, Barbara M; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that long-term antiresorptive use is effective in the reduction of fracture risk in high bone turnover osteoporosis. Nevertheless, during recent years, concerns emerged that longer bone turnover reduction might favor the occurrence of fatigue fractures. However, the underlying mechanisms for both beneficial and suspected adverse effects are not fully understood yet. There is some evidence that their effects on the bone material characteristics have an important role. In principle, the composition and nanostructure of bone material, for example, collagen cross-links and mineral content and crystallinity, is highly dependent on tissue age. Bone turnover determines the age distribution of the bone structural units (BSUs) present in bone, which in turn is decisive for its intrinsic material properties. It is noteworthy that the effects of bone turnover reduction on bone material were observed to be dependent on the duration of the antiresorptive therapy. During the first 2–3 years, significant decreases in the heterogeneity of material properties such as mineralization of the BSUs have been observed. In the long term (5–10 years), the mineralization pattern reverts towards normal heterogeneity and degree of mineralization, with no signs of hypermineralization in the bone matrix. Nevertheless, it has been hypothesized that the occurrence of fatigue fractures (such as atypical femoral fractures) might be linked to a reduced ability of microdamage repair under antiresorptive therapy. The present article examines results from clinical studies after antiresorptive, in particular long-term, therapy with the aforementioned potentially positive or negative effects on bone material. PMID:25709811

  12. Disordered-Eating Attitudes in Relation to Bone Mineral Density and Markers of Bone Turnover in Overweight Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Schvey, Natasha A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanoff, Lisa B.; Checchi, Jenna M.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Brady, Sheila; Savastano, David M.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Reynolds, James C.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationships between cognitive eating restraint and both bone mineral density (BMD) and markers of bone turnover in overweight adolescents. Methods 137 overweight (BMI 39.1±6.8 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian adolescent (age=14.4 ± 1.4y) girls (66.4%) and boys were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview and Eating Inventory (EI) questionnaire and underwent dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to measure total lumbar spine BMD. Markers of bone formation (serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), bone resorption (24-hour urine N-telopeptides), and stress (urine free cortisol) were measured. Results After accounting for the contribution of demographics, height, weight, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and depressive symptoms, adolescents’ weight concern, as assessed by interview, was a significant contributor to a model of urine free cortisol (β =.30, p <.05). Shape concern, as also assessed by interview, was significantly associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density (β =.−.15, p < 05). Dietary restraint was not a significant predictor in any of these models. Conclusions These findings suggest that among severely overweight adolescents, dissatisfaction with shape and weight may be salient stressors. Future research is required to illuminate the relationship between bone health and disordered-eating attitudes in overweight adolescents. PMID:19541247

  13. Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) ethanol extract increases bone mineral density and improves bone properties in growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ying; Feng, Xin; Zhao, Pengling; Wu, Zhenghao; Xu, Hao; Fang, Yuehui; Hou, Yangfeng; Denney, Liya; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. It is generally accepted that acquisition of a high peak bone mass (PBM) early in life can reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) ethanol extract on bone mineral density and its mechanical properties in growing female rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The rats were given different doses of FLL extract mixed with AIN-93G formula (0.40, 0.65 and 0.90 %), and a group given AIN-93G diet treatment only was used as control. The intervention lasted for 16 weeks until the animals were about 5 months old, the time when the animals almost reach their PBM. Our results showed that FLL treatment increased bone mineral density and improved bone mechanical properties in the growing female rats in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, FLL treatment significantly decreased the serum bone-resorbing marker, CTX-I, while significantly increasing serum 25(OH)D3 and thereby increasing Ca absorption and Ca retention. Intriguingly, both in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated that FLL treatment could reduce the RANKL/OPG ratio. In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract exerted beneficial effects on peak bone mass acquisition and the improvement of bone mechanical properties by favoring Ca metabolism and decreasing the RANKL/OPG ratio. PMID:24362453

  14. Association between mean platelet volume and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Aypak, Cenk; Türedi, Özlem; Bircan, Mustafa A.; Civelek, Gul M.; Araz, Mine

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Osteoporosis is an inflammatory disease, and platelets play a critical role in bone remodeling. Mean platelet volume has been shown to be influenced by inflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between mean platelet volume and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] The records of female patients who had been referred to a tertiary hospital for bone mineral density analysis were retrospectively reviewed. [Results] A total of 175 patients (mean age: 61.3 ± 9.0 years) were enrolled. Overall, 72% (126/175) of patients met the criteria for osteoporosis. Mean platelet volume was found to be inversely correlated with body mass index. There was a significant positive correlation between mean platelet volume and femoral neck bone mineral density in our normal weight osteoporotic group, whereas there was a significant negative correlation in our overweight-obese osteoporotic group. The negative correlation between mean platelet volume and femoral neck bone mineral density in the overweight-obese osteoporotic group persisted after adjustment for confounding factors. Multivariate analyses revealed that mean platelet volume was significantly associated with femoral neck bone mineral density in osteoporotic patients in both our normal weight and overweight-obese groups. [Conclusion] Regardless of mechanisms, mean platelet volume might be used as a biomarker for osteoporosis in clinical settings. PMID:27390409

  15. Bone mineral density and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Debjani; Cooke, Andrew L; Lix, Lisa; Metge, Colleen; Lu, Huimin; Leslie, William D

    2011-04-01

    To determine if higher bone mineral density (BMD) is a risk factor for breast cancer in women age 50 years and older. 37,860 women ≥ 50-year old with no previous breast cancer diagnosis had baseline BMD assessment between January 1999 and December 2007. Cox proportional hazards models were created for time to a new breast cancer as a function of lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD quartile (1st = lowest as reference) with adjustment for relevant covariates. A secondary analysis was performed to look for an association with estrogen receptor-positive (ER-positive) breast cancers. 794 invasive and in situ breast cancers (484 ER-positive) occurred with a median follow up of 5.4 years. Increased breast cancer risk was seen for the 3rd and 4th quartiles of lumbar spine BMD with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.01-1.58) and 1.45 (95% CI, 1.16-1.81), respectively and for the 3rd quartile of femoral neck BMD with a HR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.07-1.64). A test for linear trend showed that lumbar spine BMD (P < 0.001) and femoral neck BMD (P = 0.04) were associated with increased risk. Higher lumbar spine BMD was also associated with increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer with HR of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.08-1.94), and 1.68 (95% CI, 1.24-2.27) for women in the 2nd and 4th quartiles, respectively. A test for linear trend showed lumbar spine BMD was associated with increasing risk of ER-positive breast cancer (P = 0.003). Increased ER-positive breast cancer risk was seen for the 3rd quartile of femoral neck BMD with a HR of 1.43 (95% CI, 1.08-1.89). Higher lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD are associated with higher risk of breast cancer in women ≥50-year old. Lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD are associated with increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer. PMID:20838879

  16. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47-78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  17. Osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor/osteoprotegerin ameliorates the decrease in both bone mineral density and bone strength in immobilized rats.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Shin-ichi; Fujise, Nobuaki; Higashio, Kanji; Tsuda, Eisuke

    2002-01-01

    Rat models of immobilization-induced osteopenia are characterized by uncoupling of bone metabolism, i.e., increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation in trabecular bone. Using such a rat model, the efficacy of osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor (OCIF)/osteoprotegerin, a novel secreted protein that inhibits osteoclastogenesis, in reducing bone loss was investigated. Male Fischer rats were neurectomized and injected intramuscularly with either OCIF (0.2, 1.0, or 5.0 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle once daily for 7 days. On the eighth day after sciatic neurectomy, significant bone loss was observed in the vehicle-injected rats. OCIF ameliorated the decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) of both the proximal and distal femur in a dose-dependent manner. OCIF also ameliorated the decrease in bone strength of the femoral neck at the highest dose. A high correlation (r = 0.805) was detected between the BMD of the distal femur and the bone strength of the femoral neck. When OCIF was administered intermittently to the immobilized rats twice weekly (on days 1 and 4) after immobilization, it also ameliorated the decrease in BMD of the distal femur. These results suggest that OCIF has therapeutic potential for the treatment of immobilization-induced osteopenia. PMID:11810411

  18. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47–78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  19. Assessment of bone mineral status in children with Marfan syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder with skeletal involvement. It is caused by mutations in fibrillin1 (FBN1) gene resulting in activation of TGF-ßeta, which developmentally regulates bone mass and matrix properties. There is no consensus regarding bone minerali...

  20. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence. Although, these athletes apparently undergo sufficient physical activity to develop healthy bones, it is possible that other...

  1. Physical activity and lifestyle effects on bone mineral density among young adults: sociodemographic and biochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the possible role of physical activities, calcium consumption and lifestyle factors in both bone mineral density and bone metabolism indices in 350 young adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] All volunteers were recruited for the assessment of lifestyle behaviors and physical activity traits using validated questioners, and bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin (s-OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and calcium were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, and immunoassay techniques. [Results] Male participants showed a significant increase in BMD along with an increase in bone metabolism markers compared with females in all groups. However, younger subjects showed a significant increase in BMD, OC, BAP, and calcium compared with older subjects. Osteoporosis was more common in older subjects linked with abnormal body mass index and waist circumference. Bone metabolism markers correlated positively with BMD, physically activity and negatively with osteoporosis in all stages. Also, moderate to higher calcium and milk intake correlated positively with higher BMD. However, low calcium and milk intake along with higher caffeine, and carbonated beverage consumption, and heavy cigarette smoking showed a negative effect on the status of bone mineral density. Stepwise regression analysis showed that life style factors including physical activity and demographic parameters explained around 58-69.8% of the bone mineral density variation in young adults especially females. [Conclusion] body mass index, physical activity, low calcium consumption, and abnormal lifestyle have role in bone mineral density and prognosis of osteoporosis in young adults. PMID:26311965

  2. [Exercise and bone mineral density in old subjects: theorical and practical implications].

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    With age advancement, the decrease of bone mineral density is ineluctable. Physical exercise constitutes a physiological approach likely to attenuate or limit the effects of normal bone demineralization (i.e. not pathological) particularly in elderly subjects. Indeed, physical exercise induces mechanical constraints generating bone deformation which stimulates osteogenesis and favors bone remodelage. Physical activities achieved in condition of body discharge (e.g. swimming, cycling) or in static condition (e.g. stretching, balance) do not stimulate (or very weakly) osteogenesis. The osteogenic function of aerobic training (e.g. walking, running) is effective only if the intensity of exercise is high (i.e. the impacts on the ground and thus the bone deformation) and that of strength training is effective only if the completed muscular contractions are dynamic and carried out with heavy loads. The calcium concentration increase is greater on the concave side than on the convex side for the bones which undergo strong mechanical pressures during exercise. Hence, it is advisable to vary the directions of mechanical constraints during physical activity to strengthen the resistance of the bone in all the plans. In order to obtain significant effects in terms of bone remodelage, the optimal duration of training programs should last at least 4 to 6 months. The osteogenic effects of regular exercise begin from 2-3 weekly sessions. The activation of osteogenesis by means of physical exercise is more difficult in aging women than in aging men because of hormonal factors that are not favorable in aging women. At last, regular exercise is fundamental not only to maintain bone mineral density but also to reduce the risk of bone fracture since there is a relationship between the bone mineral density and the risk of bone fracture. PMID:25245313

  3. A versatile new mineralized bone stain for simultaneous assessment of tetracycline and osteoid seams.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, A R; Lundin, K D

    1989-05-01

    A versatile mineralized bone stain (MIBS) for demonstrating osteoid seams and tetracycline fluorescence simultaneously in thin or thick undecalcified sections has been developed. Bone specimens are fixed in 70% ethanol, but 10% buffered formalin is permissible. Depending upon one's preference, these specimens can be left unstained or be prestained before plastic embedding. Osteoid seams are stained green to jade green, or light to dark purple. Mineralized bone matrix is unstained or green. Osteoblast and osteoclast nuclei are light to dark purple, cytoplasm varies from slightly gray to pink. The identification of osteoid seams by this method agrees closely with identification by in vivo tetracycline uptake using the same section from the same biopsy. The method demonstrates halo volumes, an abnormal, lacunar, low density bone around viable osteocytes in purple. This phenomenon is commonly seen in vitamin D-resistant rickets, fluorosis, renal osteodystrophy, hyperparathyroidism, and is sometimes seen in fluoride treated osteoporotic patients. In osteomalacic bone, most osteoid seams are irregularly stained as indicated by the presence of unmineralized osteoid between mineralized lamellae. The method has been used effectively in staining new bone formation in hydroxyapatite implants and bone grafts. Old, unstained, plastic embedded undecalcified sections are stained as well as fresh sections after removal of the coverslip. This stain also promises to be valuable in the study of different metabolic bone diseases from the point of view of remodeling, histomorphometry, and pathology. PMID:2480003

  4. Mineral Metabolism and Cortical Volumetric Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsampalieros, Anne K.; de Boer, Ian H.; Shults, Justine; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Zemel, Babette S.; Foerster, Debbie; Stokes, David; Leonard, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The relationships among cortical volumetric bone mineral density (CortBMD) and comprehensive measures of mineral metabolism have not been addressed in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective: The aim of the study was to identify the determinants of CortBMD in childhood CKD. A secondary objective was to assess whether CortBMD was associated with subsequent fracture. Design and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 171 children, adolescents, and young adults (aged 5–21 years) with CKD stages 2–5D at enrollment and 89 1 year later. Outcomes: Serum measures included vitamin D [25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D], vitamin D-binding protein, intact PTH, fibroblast growth factor 23, calcium, and phosphorus. Tibia quantitative computed tomography measures of CortBMD were expressed as sex-, race-, and age-specific Z-scores based on 675 controls. Multivariable linear regression identified the independent correlates of CortBMD Z-scores and the change in CortBMD Z-scores. Results: Lower calcium (β = .31/1 mg/dL, P = .01) and 25(OH)D (β = .18/10 ng/mL, P = .04) and higher PTH (β = −.02/10%, P = .002) and 1,25(OH)2D (β = −.07/10%, P < .001) were independently associated with lower CortBMD Z-scores at baseline. The correlations of total, free, and bioavailable 25(OH)D with CortBMD did not differ. Higher baseline 1,25(OH)2D (P < .05) and greater increases in PTH (P < .001) were associated with greater declines in CortBMD Z-scores. Greater increases in calcium concentrations were associated with greater increases in CortBMD Z-scores in growing children (interaction P = .009). The hazard ratio for fracture was 1.75 (95% confidence interval 1.15–2.67; P = .009) per SD lower baseline CortBMD. Conclusions: Greater PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and lower calcium concentrations were independently associated with baseline and progressive cortical deficits in childhood CKD. Lower CortBMD Z-score was

  5. Correlating chemical changes in subchondral bone mineral due to aging or defective type II collagen by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehring, Karen A.; Roessler, Blake J.; Morris, Michael D.

    2007-02-01

    We show that early indicators of osteoarthritis are observed in Raman spectroscopy by probing femur surfaces excised from mouse models of early-onset osteoarthritis. Current clinical methods to examine arthritic joints include radiological examination of the joint, but may not be capable of detecting subtle chemical changes in the bone tissue, which may provide the earliest indications of osteoarthritis. Recent research has indicated that the subchondral bone may have a more significant role in the onset of osteoarthritis than previously realized. We will report the effect of age and defective type II collagen on Raman band area ratios used to describe bone structure and function. The carbonate-to-phosphate ratio is used to assess carbonate substitution into the bone mineral and the mineral-to-matrix ratio is used to measure bone mineralization. Mineral-to-matrix ratios indicate that subchondral bone becomes less mineralized as both the wild-type and Del1 (+/-) transgenic mice age. Moreover, the mineral-to-matrix ratios show that the subchondral bone of Del1 (+/-) transgenic mice is less mineralized than that of the wild-type mice. Carbonate-to-phosphate ratios from Del1 (+/-) transgenic mice follow the same longitudinal trend as wild-type mice. The ratio is slightly higher in the transgenic mice, indicating more carbonate content in the bone mineral. Raman characterization of bone mineralization provides an invaluable insight into the process of cartilage degeneration and the relationship with subchondral bone at the ultrastructural level.

  6. Tibolone increases bone mineral density but also relapse in breast cancer survivors: LIBERATE trial bone substudy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Livial Intervention Following Breast Cancer: Efficacy, Recurrence and Tolerability Endpoints (LIBERATE: Clinical http://Trials.gov number NCT00408863), a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial that demonstrated that tibolone (Livial), a tissue-selective hormone-replacement therapy (HRT), increased breast cancer (BC) recurrence HR 1.40 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.70; P = 0.001). A subgroup of women was entered into a study of bone mineral density (BMD). Methods Women with surgically excised primary BC (T1-3, N0-2, M-0) within the last 5 years, complaining of vasomotor symptoms, were assigned to tibolone, 2.5 mg daily, or placebo treatment for a maximum of 5 years. The BMD substudy enrolled 763 patients, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning at baseline and at 2 years. Results In the bone substudy, 699 of 763 women were eligible (345 allocated to tibolone, and 354, to placebo). After undergoing DXA scans, 300 (43%) women had normal BMD; 317 (45%), osteopenia; and 82 (11.7%), osteoporosis. Low body-mass index (P < 0.001), Asian race (P < 0.001), and late age at menarche (P < 0.04) predicted low bone mass at baseline. Tibolone increased BMD by 3.2% at the lumbar spine and 2.9% at the hip compared with placebo (both P < 0.001). The majority of fractures (55%) occurred in osteopenic patients. Women with normal BMD had increased recurrence with tibolone, 22 (15.6%) of 141 compared with placebo, 11 (6.9%) of 159 (P = 0.016), whereas no increased BC recurrence was seen in women with low BMD; 15 (7.4%) of 204 taking tibolone versus 13 (6.7%) of 195 taking placebo. Conclusions Tibolone is contraindicated after BC treatment, as it increases BMD and BC recurrence. Risk of BC recurrence was elevated in BC women with normal BMD (compared with low) who took tibolone. PMID:22251615

  7. Tracking Circadian Rhythms of Bone Mineral Deposition in Murine Calvarial Organ Cultures

    PubMed Central

    McElderry, John-David P.; Zhao, Guisheng; Khmaladze, Alexander; Wilson, Christopher G.; Franceschi, Renny T.; Morris, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoblasts, which orchestrate the deposition of small apatite crystals through the expression of nucleating proteins, have been shown to also express clock genes associated with the circadian signaling pathway. We hypothesized that protein-mediated bone mineralization may be linked to circadian oscillator mechanisms functioning in peripheral bone tissue. In this study, Per1 expression in ex vivo neonatal murine calvaria organ cultures was monitored for 6 days using a Per1-luciferase transgene as a bioluminescent indicator of clock function. Fluctuations in Per1 expression had a period of 25±4 hours (n=14) with early expression at CT09:59±03:37 (circadian time). We also established the kinetics of mineral deposition in developing bone by using non-invasive Raman microscopy to track mineral accumulation in calvarial tissue. The content and quality of newly deposited mineral was continually examined at the interparietal bone/fontanel boundary for a period of 6 days with 1 hour temporal resolution. Using this approach, mineralization over time exhibited bursts of mineral deposition followed by little or no deposition, which was recurrent with a periodicity of 26.8±9.6 hours. As many as 6 near-daily mineralization events were observed in the calvaria before deposition ceased. Earliest mineralization events occurred at CT16:51±03:45, which is 6 hours behind Per1 expression. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that mineralization in developing bone tissue is regulated by a local circadian oscillator mechanism. PMID:23505073

  8. Bone mineral changes - The second manned Skylab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, J. M.; Whittle, M. W.

    1976-01-01

    The mineral content of the central os calcis, and distal radius and ulna was measured by the monoenergetic photon absorptiometric technique pre- and postflight on the SL-3 crewmen. No significant changes were observed in the radius and ulna. Only the SPT showed a loss in calcaneal mineral which slowly returned to preflight levels by the 87th postflight day.

  9. Inhibition of GSK-3β Rescues the Impairments in Bone Formation and Mechanical Properties Associated with Fracture Healing in Osteoblast Selective Connexin 43 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Loiselle, Alayna E.; Lloyd, Shane A. J.; Paul, Emmanuel M.; Lewis, Gregory S.; Donahue, Henry J.

    2013-01-01

    Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most abundant gap junction protein in bone and is required for osteoblastic differentiation and bone homeostasis. During fracture healing, Cx43 is abundantly expressed in osteoblasts and osteocytes, while Cx43 deficiency impairs bone formation and healing. In the present study we selectively deleted Cx43 in the osteoblastic lineage from immature osteoblasts through osteocytes and tested the hypothesis that Cx43 deficiency results in delayed osteoblastic differentiation and impaired restoration of biomechanical properties due to attenuated β-catenin expression relative to wild type littermates. Here we show that Cx43 deficiency results in alterations in the mineralization and remodeling phases of healing. In Cx43 deficient fractures the mineralization phase is marked by delayed expression of osteogenic genes. Additionally, the decrease in the RankL/ Opg ratio, osteoclast number and osteoclast size suggest decreased osteoclast bone resorption and remodeling. These changes in healing result in functional deficits as shown by a decrease in ultimate torque at failure. Consistent with these impairments in healing, β-catenin expression is attenuated in Cx43 deficient fractures at 14 and 21 days, while Sclerostin (Sost) expression, a negative regulator of bone formation is increased in Cx43cKO fractures at 21 days, as is GSK-3β, a key component of the β-catenin proteasomal degradation complex. Furthermore, we show that alterations in healing in Cx43 deficient fractures can be rescued by inhibiting GSK-3β activity using Lithium Chloride (LiCl). Treatment of Cx43 deficient mice with LiCl restores both normal bone formation and mechanical properties relative to LiCl treated WT fractures. This study suggests that Cx43 is a potential therapeutic target to enhance fracture healing and identifies a previously unknown role for Cx43 in regulating β-catenin expression and thus bone formation during fracture repair. PMID:24260576

  10. High-acceleration whole body vibration stimulates cortical bone accrual and increases bone mineral content in growing mice.

    PubMed

    Gnyubkin, Vasily; Guignandon, Alain; Laroche, Norbert; Vanden-Bossche, Arnaud; Malaval, Luc; Vico, Laurence

    2016-06-14

    Whole body vibration (WBV) is a promising tool for counteracting bone loss. Most WBV studies on animals have been performed at acceleration <1g and frequency between 30 and 90Hz. Such WBV conditions trigger bone growth in osteopenia models, but not in healthy animals. In order to test the ability of WBV to promote osteogenesis in young animals, we exposed seven-week-old male mice to vibration at 90Hz and 2g peak acceleration for 15min/day, 5 days/week. We examined the effects on skeletal tissues with micro-computed tomography and histology. We also quantified bone vascularization and mechanosensitive osteocyte proteins, sclerostin and DMP1. Three weeks of WBV resulted in an increase of femur cortical thickness (+5%) and area (+6%), associated with a 25% decrease of sclerostin expression, and 35% increase of DMP1 expression in cortical osteocytes. Mass-structural parameters of trabecular bone were unaltered in femur or vertebra, while osteoclastic parameters and bone formation rate were increased at both sites. Three weeks of WBV resulted in higher blood vessel numbers (+23%) in the distal femoral metaphysis. After 9-week WBV, we have not observed the difference in structural cortical or trabecular parameters. However, the tissue mineral density of cortical bone was increased by 2.5%. Three or nine weeks of 2g/90Hz WBV treatment did not affect longitudinal growth rate or body weight increase under our experimental conditions, indicating that these are safe to use. These results validate a potential of 2g/90Hz WBV to stimulate trabecular bone cellular activity, accelerate cortical bone growth, and increase bone mineral density. PMID:27178020