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Sample records for impaired drug-binding capacity

  1. Inflammatory remodeling of the HDL proteome impairs cholesterol efflux capacity.

    PubMed

    Vaisar, Tomáš; Tang, Chongren; Babenko, Ilona; Hutchins, Patrick; Wimberger, Jake; Suffredini, Anthony F; Heinecke, Jay W

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that HDL's ability to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages associates strongly with cardioprotection in humans independently of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apoA-I, HDL's major protein. However, the mechanisms that impair cholesterol efflux capacity during vascular disease are unclear. Inflammation, a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, has been shown to impair HDL's cholesterol efflux capacity. We therefore tested the hypothesis that HDL's impaired efflux capacity is mediated by specific changes of its protein cargo. Humans with acute inflammation induced by low-level endotoxin had unchanged HDL-C levels, but their HDL-C efflux capacity was significantly impaired. Proteomic analyses demonstrated that HDL's cholesterol efflux capacity correlated inversely with HDL content of serum amyloid A (SAA)1 and SAA2. In mice, acute inflammation caused a marked impairment of HDL-C efflux capacity that correlated with a large increase in HDL SAA. In striking contrast, the efflux capacity of mouse inflammatory HDL was preserved with genetic ablation of SAA1 and SAA2. Our observations indicate that the inflammatory impairment of HDL-C efflux capacity is due in part to SAA-mediated remodeling of HDL's protein cargo. PMID:25995210

  2. Hypercholesterolemia Impairs Exercise Capacity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Andrew J.; Niebauer, Josef; Lin, Patrick S.; Tsao, Philip S.; Bernstein, Daniel; Cooke, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We previously reported an attenuation of both exercise hyperemia and measures of aerobic capacity in hypercholesterolemic mice. In this study we expanded upon the previous findings by examining the temporal and quantitative relationship of hypercholesterolemia to aerobic and anaerobic capacity and by exploring several potential mechanisms of dysfunction. Methods Eight-week old wild type (n=123) and apoE knockout (n=79) C57BL/6J mice were divided into groups with distinct cholesterol levels by feeding regular or high fat diets. At various ages the mice underwent treadmill ergospirometry. To explore mechanisms, aortic ring vasodilator function and nitrate (NOx) activity, urinary excretion of NOx, running muscle microvascular density and citrate synthase activity, as well as myocardial mass and histologic evidence of ischemia were measured. Results At 8 weeks of age, all mice had similar measures of exercise capacity. All indices of aerobic exercise capacity progressively declined at 12 and 20 weeks of age in the hypercholesterolemic mice as cholesterol levels increased while indices of anaerobic capacity remained unaffected. Across the 4 cholesterol groups, the degree of aerobic dysfunction was related to serum cholesterol levels; a relationship that was maintained after correcting for confounding factors. Associated with the deterioration in exercise capacity was a decline in measures of nitric oxide-mediated vascular function while there was no evidence of aberrations in functional or oxidative capacities or in other components of transport capacity. Conclusion Aerobic exercise dysfunction is observed in murine models of genetic and diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and is associated with a reduction in vascular nitric oxide production. PMID:19651675

  3. Clinical relevance of drug binding to plasma proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Fanali, Gabriella; Fasano, Mauro; Pallottini, Valentina; Trezza, Viviana

    2014-12-01

    Binding to plasma proteins highly influences drug efficacy, distribution, and disposition. Serum albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, is a monomeric multi-domain macromolecule that displays an extraordinary ligand binding capacity, providing a depot and carrier for many endogenous and exogenous compounds, such as fatty acids and most acidic drugs. α-1-Acid glycoprotein, the second main plasma protein, is a glycoprotein physiologically involved in the acute phase reaction and is the main carrier for basic and neutral drugs. High- and low-density lipoproteins play a limited role in drug binding and are natural drug delivery system only for few lipophilic drugs or lipid-based formulations. Several factors influence drug binding to plasma proteins, such as pathological conditions, concurrent administration of drugs, sex, and age. Any of these factors, in turn, influences drug efficacy and toxicity. Here, biochemical, biomedical, and biotechnological aspects of drug binding to plasma proteins are reviewed.

  4. Measuring Decision-Making Capacity in Cognitively Impaired Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Karlawish, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive and functional losses are only part of the spectrum of disability experienced by persons with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. They also experience losses in the ability to make decisions, known as decision-making capacity. Researchers have made substantial progress in developing a model of capacity assessment that rests upon the concept of the 4 decision-making abilities: understanding, appreciation, choice and reasoning. Empirical research has increased our understanding of the effects of late-life cognitive impairment on a person’s ability to make decisions. This review examines studies of the capacity to consent to treatment, research and the management of everyday functional abilities. The results illustrate the clinical phenotype of the patient who retains the capacity to consent. They also suggest that measures of capacity can improve how researchers measure the benefits of cognitive enhancements and stage dementia. PMID:18097164

  5. Human mitochondrial oxidative capacity is acutely impaired following burn trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cree, Melanie G.; Fram, Ricki Y.; Herndon, David N.; Qian, Ting; Angel, Carlos; Green, Justin M.; Mlcak, Ronald; Aarsland, Asle; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial proteins and genes are damaged after burn injury in animals but have not previously been assessed in human burn patients. Methods The rates of maximal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity(ATP production) and uncoupled oxidation(heat production) for both palmitate and pyruvate were measured in muscle biopsies from 40 children sustaining burns >40% body surface area and from 13 healthy children controls. Results Maximal mitochondrial oxidation of pyruvate and palmitate were reduced in burn patients compared to controls (4.0±0.2:1.9±0.1 µmolO2/citrate synthase activity/mg protein/min pyruvate; Control:Burn;P<0.001 and 3.0±0.1:0.9±0.03 µmolO2/citrate synthase activity/mg protein/min palmatyl CoA; Control:Burn;P=0.003). Uncoupled oxidation was the same between groups. Conclusions The maximal coupled mitochondrial oxidative capacity is severely impaired after burn injury, although there are no alterations in the rate of uncoupled oxidative capacity. It may be that the ratio of these indicates that a larger portion of energy production in trauma patients is wasted through uncoupling, rather than used for healing. PMID:18639661

  6. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F.; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests. PMID:27065013

  7. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations.

    PubMed

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests. PMID:27065013

  8. Impairment of endothelial progenitor cell function and vascularization capacity by aldosterone in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Thum, Thomas; Schmitter, Kerstin; Fleissner, Felix; Wiebking, Volker; Dietrich, Bernd; Widder, Julian D.; Jazbutyte, Virginija; Hahner, Stefanie; Ertl, Georg; Bauersachs, Johann

    2011-01-01

    Aims Hyperaldosteronism is associated with vascular injury and increased cardiovascular events. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in endothelial repair and vascular homeostasis. We hypothesized that hyperaldosteronism impairs EPC function and vascularization capacity in mice and humans. Methods and results We characterized the effects of aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockade on EPC number and function as well as vascularization capacity and endothelial function. Treatment of human EPC with aldosterone induced translocation of the MR and impaired multiple cellular functions of EPC, such as differentiation, migration, and proliferation in vitro. Impaired EPC function was rescued by pharmacological blockade or genetic ablation of the MR. Aldosterone protein kinase A (PKA) dependently increased reactive oxygen species formation in EPC. Aldosterone infusion in mice impaired EPC function, EPC homing to vascular structures and vascularization capacity in a MR-dependent but blood pressure-independent manner. Endothelial progenitor cells from patients with primary hyperaldosteronism compared with controls of similar age displayed reduced migratory potential. Impaired EPC function was associated with endothelial dysfunction. MR blockade in patients with hyperaldosteronism improved EPC function and arterial stiffness. Conclusion Endothelial progenitor cells express a MR that mediates functional impairment by PKA-dependent increase of reactive oxygen species. Normalization of EPC function may represent a novel mechanism contributing to the beneficial effects of MR blockade in cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment. PMID:20926363

  9. Impaired Semantic Knowledge Underlies the Reduced Verbal Short-Term Storage Capacity in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve; De Baerdemaeker, Julie; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor…

  10. Impaired Contingent Attentional Capture Predicts Reduced Working Memory Capacity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Jutta S.; Fukuda, Keisuke; Vogel, Edward K.; Park, Sohee

    2012-01-01

    Although impairments in working memory (WM) are well documented in schizophrenia, the specific factors that cause these deficits are poorly understood. In this study, we hypothesized that a heightened susceptibility to attentional capture at an early stage of visual processing would result in working memory encoding problems. 30 patients with schizophrenia and 28 demographically matched healthy participants were presented with a search array and asked to report the orientation of the target stimulus. In some of the trials, a flanker stimulus preceded the search array that either matched the color of the target (relevant-flanker capture) or appeared in a different color (irrelevant-flanker capture). Working memory capacity was determined in each individual using the visual change detection paradigm. Patients needed considerably more time to find the target in the no-flanker condition. After adjusting the individual exposure time, both groups showed equivalent capture costs in the irrelevant-flanker condition. However, in the relevant-flanker condition, capture costs were increased in patients compared to controls when the stimulus onset asynchrony between the flanker and the search array was high. Moreover, the increase in relevant capture costs correlated negatively with working memory capacity. This study demonstrates preserved stimulus-driven attentional capture but impaired contingent attentional capture associated with low working memory capacity in schizophrenia. These findings suggest a selective impairment of top-down attentional control in schizophrenia, which may impair working memory encoding. PMID:23152783

  11. Correlation Between Working Capacity and APDL in Middle-Aged and Elderly People with Intellectual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kazuo

    1999-01-01

    In this study we investigated the correlation between working capacity and APDL of middle-aged and elderly residents of welfare homes for the intellectually retarded. The subjects were 313 intellectually retarded people over 35 years old. The subjects were chosen from residents of four welfare institutions and job-placement centers for intellectually retarded people in Otaru, Hokkaido. Personal attributes, working capacity, and APDL were investigated in each subject. The items of personal attributes were: gender, chronological age, severity of intellectual impairment, and presence/absence of Down's syndrome. Working capacity was evaluated according to the 6 items. APDL was evaluated according to the 51 items. For statistical analysis of the working capacity of the subjects, the variables were summarized using principal component analysis and scored. Next, a search was made for the common factors in the 51 items of APDL using the principal component method. Finally, the correlation between working capacity and APDL was investigated by multiple regression analysis, with the obtained composite scores as dependent variables and the scores of APDL factors extracted by principal component analysis as independent variables. The following three factors were selected for the subjects: health management, outdoor movement and social activity. The multiple correlation coefficient using these three factors was R=0.63 (F=55.20, p<0.01). This indicates the necessity, from the viewpoints of prevention of senility, to focus not only on the decrease in working capacity of aging residents with intellectual impairment in welfare institutions but to establish various countermeasures based on the interrelationship between working capacity and APDL. PMID:25792909

  12. Impaired seminal antioxidant capacity in human semen with hyperviscosity or oligoasthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, L; Tarantino, P; Longobardi, F; Rago, V; De Stefano, C; Carpino, A

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma was evaluated in 120 semen samples subdivided into asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic specimens with normal consistency and into asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic specimens with hyperviscosity. Semen samples (n = 25) from normozoospermic donors were used as a control group. Scavenger antioxidant capacity of reactive oxygen species was evaluated by superoxide dismutase and catalase activity measurements, whereas the chain-breaking antioxidant efficiency was detected by total antioxidant status assessment. In semen with normal viscosity, unaltered enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity was revealed in the asthenozoospermic specimens, whereas low superoxide dismutase activity was detected in oligoasthenozoospermic samples. On the contrary, impairment of both the scavenger and chain-breaking antioxidative systems was revealed in asthenozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic hyperviscous ejaculates, regardless of sperm count. Catalase activity and total antioxidant status values were also reduced in the 2 subgroups of hyperviscous ejaculates compared with their respective matched controls, whereas similar superoxide dismutase activities were detected in oligoasthenozoospermic samples with normal and high consistencies. These results suggest that asthenozoospermia could be related to an antioxidant deficiency only in combined ejaculate pathologies, and that a severe impairment of the low and high molecular weight seminal antioxidative capacities could be associated with semen hyperviscosity. PMID:11545292

  13. Augmentation of Normal and Glutamate-Impaired Neuronal Respiratory Capacity by Exogenous Alternative Biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Melissa D.; Clerc, Pascaline; Polster, Brian M.; Fiskum, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory capacity is critical for responding to changes in neuronal energy demand. One approach toward neuroprotection is administration of alternative energy substrates (“biofuels”) to overcome brain injury-induced inhibition of glucose-based aerobic energy metabolism. This study tested the hypothesis that exogenous pyruvate, lactate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetyl-L-carnitine each increase neuronal respiratory capacity in vitro either in the absence of, or following transient excitotoxic glutamate receptor stimulation. Compared to the presence of 5 mM glucose alone, the addition of pyruvate, lactate, or β-hydroxybutyrate (1.0 – 10.0 mM) to either day in vitro (DIV) 14 or 7 rat cortical neurons resulted in significant, dose-dependent stimulation of respiratory capacity, measured by cell respirometry as the maximal O2 consumption rate in the presence of the respiratory uncoupler FCCP. A thirty minute exposure to 100 μM glutamate impaired respiratory capacity for DIV 14 but not DIV 7 neurons. Glutamate reduced the respiratory capacity for DIV 14 neurons with glucose alone by 25% and also reduced respiratory capacity with glucose plus pyruvate, lactate or β-hydroxybutyrate. However, respiratory capacity in glutamate-exposed neurons following pyruvate or β-hydroxybutyrate addition was still at least as high as that obtained with glucose alone in the absence of glutamate exposure. These results support the interpretation that previously observed neuroprotection by exogenous pyruvate, lactate, or β-hydroxybutyrate is at least partially mediated by their preservation of neuronal respiratory capacity. PMID:24323418

  14. Does lung diffusion impairment affect exercise capacity in patients with heart failure?

    PubMed Central

    Agostoni, P G; Bussotti, M; Palermo, P; Guazzi, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is a relation between impairment of lung diffusion and reduced exercise capacity in chronic heart failure. Design: 40 patients with heart failure in stable clinical condition and 40 controls participated in the study. All subjects underwent standard pulmonary function tests plus measurements of resting lung diffusion (carbon monoxide transfer, Tlco), pulmonary capillary volume (Vc), and membrane resistance (Dm), and maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. In 20 patients and controls, the following investigations were also done: (1) resting and constant work rate Tlco; (2) maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing with inspiratory O2 fractions of 0.21 and 0.16; and (3) rest and peak exercise blood gases. The other subjects underwent Tlco, Dm, and Vc measurements during constant work rate exercise. Results: In normoxia, exercise induced reductions of haemoglobin O2 saturation never occurred. With hypoxia, peak exercise uptake (peak V̇o2) decreased from (mean (SD)) 1285 (395) to 1081 (396) ml/min (p < 0.01) in patients, and from 1861 (563) to 1771 (457) ml/min (p < 0.05) in controls. Resting Tlco correlated with peak V̇o2 in heart failure (normoxia < hypoxia). In heart failure patients and normal subjects, Tlco and peak V̇o2 correlated with O2 arterial content at rest and during peak exercise in both normoxia and hypoxia. Tlco, Vc, and Dm increased during exercise. The increase in Tlco was greater in patients who had a smaller reduction of exercise capacity with hypoxia. Alveolar–arterial O2 gradient at peak correlated with exercise capacity in heart failure during normoxia and, to a greater extent, during hypoxia. Conclusions: Lung diffusion impairment is related to exercise capacity in heart failure. PMID:12381630

  15. Modeling and Estimating Recall Processing Capacity: Sensitivity and Diagnostic Utility in Application to Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Michael K; Negash, Selamawit; Petersen, Ronald C; Petersen, Lyndsay

    2010-02-01

    We investigate the potential for using latency-based measures of retrieval processing capacity to assess changes in perfomance specific to individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a reliable precursor state to Alzheimer's Disease. Use of these capacity measures is motivated in part by exploration of the effects of atrophy on a computational model of a basic hippocampal circuit. We use this model to suggest that capacity may be a more sensitive indicator of undelying atrophy than speed of processing, and test this hypothesis by adapting a standard behavioral measure of memory (the free and cued selective reminding test, FCSRT) to allow for the collection of cued recall latencies. Participants were drawn from five groups: college-aged, middle-aged, healthy elderly, those with a diagnosis of MCI, and a sample of MCI control participants. The measure of capacity is shown to offer increased classificatory sensitivity relative to the standard behavioral measures, and is also shown to be the behavioral measure that correlated most strongly with hippocampal volume. PMID:20436932

  16. Modeling and Estimating Recall Processing Capacity: Sensitivity and Diagnostic Utility in Application to Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Michael K.; Negash, Selamawit; Petersen, Ronald C.; Petersen, Lyndsay

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the potential for using latency-based measures of retrieval processing capacity to assess changes in perfomance specific to individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a reliable precursor state to Alzheimer's Disease. Use of these capacity measures is motivated in part by exploration of the effects of atrophy on a computational model of a basic hippocampal circuit. We use this model to suggest that capacity may be a more sensitive indicator of undelying atrophy than speed of processing, and test this hypothesis by adapting a standard behavioral measure of memory (the free and cued selective reminding test, FCSRT) to allow for the collection of cued recall latencies. Participants were drawn from five groups: college-aged, middle-aged, healthy elderly, those with a diagnosis of MCI, and a sample of MCI control participants. The measure of capacity is shown to offer increased classificatory sensitivity relative to the standard behavioral measures, and is also shown to be the behavioral measure that correlated most strongly with hippocampal volume. PMID:20436932

  17. [Capacity impairments and participation restrictions : Assessment and qualifying in the sociomedical evaluation of mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Linden, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Participation is defined, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), as inclusion in life. Participation restrictions are the result of a mismatch between capacities and context requirements. Mental disorders are more impairing than many somatic disorders.There are instruments to assess and operationalize capacity and participation restrictions like the ADL-scales, the GAF, the ICF-AT-50, the ICFPsych A&P, the IMET, the ICF-Coresets, the WHODAS, or the Mini-ICF-APP, which differ in respect to indications, differentiation between function, capacity or context and context-adjusted qualifying.In addition to the type of participation restrictions, their chronicity must also be assessed. This is done in reference to the present mental disorder, the course, and the earlier treatment in respect to functions, capacities, and context.The assessment and qualifying of participation restrictions needs an adjustment to the environment or context. This is not only a problem for the individual but also for societal developments. PMID:27474691

  18. Inducible depletion of satellite cells in adult, sedentary mice impairs muscle regenerative capacity without affecting sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Fry, Christopher S; Lee, Jonah D; Mula, Jyothi; Kirby, Tyler J; Jackson, Janna R; Liu, Fujun; Yang, Lin; Mendias, Christopher L; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E; McCarthy, John J; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2015-01-01

    A key determinant of geriatric frailty is sarcopenia, the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. Although the etiology of sarcopenia is unknown, the correlation during aging between the loss of activity of satellite cells, which are endogenous muscle stem cells, and impaired muscle regenerative capacity has led to the hypothesis that the loss of satellite cell activity is also a cause of sarcopenia. We tested this hypothesis in male sedentary mice by experimentally depleting satellite cells in young adult animals to a degree sufficient to impair regeneration throughout the rest of their lives. A detailed analysis of multiple muscles harvested at various time points during aging in different cohorts of these mice showed that the muscles were of normal size, despite low regenerative capacity, but did have increased fibrosis. These results suggest that lifelong reduction of satellite cells neither accelerated nor exacerbated sarcopenia and that satellite cells did not contribute to the maintenance of muscle size or fiber type composition during aging, but that their loss may contribute to age-related muscle fibrosis. PMID:25501907

  19. Osteoblasts with impaired spreading capacity benefit from the positive charges of plasma polymerised allylamine.

    PubMed

    Kunz, F; Rebl, H; Quade, A; Matschegewski, C; Finke, B; Nebe, J B

    2015-01-01

    Bone diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, impinge on the performance of orthopaedic implants by impairing bone regeneration. For this reason, the development of effective surface modifications supporting the ingrowth of implants in morbid bone tissue is essential. Our study is designed to elucidate if cells with restricted cell-function limiting adhesion processes benefit from plasma polymer deposition on titanium. We used the actin filament disrupting agent cytochalasin D (CD) as an experimental model for cells with impaired actin cytoskeleton. Indeed, the cell's capacity to adhere and spread was drastically reduced due to shortened actin filaments and vinculin contacts that were smaller. The coating of titanium with a positively charged nanolayer of plasma polymerised allylamine (PPAAm) abrogated these disadvantages in cell adhesion and the CD-treated osteoblasts were able to spread significantly. Interestingly, PPAAm increased spreading by causing enhanced vinculin number and contact length, but without significantly reorganising actin filaments. PPAAm with the monomer allylamine was deposited in a microwave-excited low-pressure plasma-processing reactor. Cell physiology was monitored by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy, and the length and number of actin filaments was quantified by mathematical image processing. We showed that biomaterial surface modification with PPAAm could be beneficial even for osteoblasts with impaired cytoskeleton components. These insights into in vitro conditions may be used for the evaluation of future strategies to design implants for morbid bone tissue. PMID:25738585

  20. Physiological responses to heat of resting man with impaired sweating capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totel, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of total-body heat exposure were studied in three groups of subjects with varied degrees of impaired sweating capacity. The responses of two ectodermal dysplasic men, six quadriplegic men, and a man with widespread burned scar tissue were compared with the responses of three able-bodied men resting in the heat. It was found that the able-bodied and burned subjects competed successfully with a controlled environment of 38 C and 20% relative humidity for up to 150 min, whereas the quadriplegic and ectodermal dysplasic men developed hyperthermia, hyperventilation, and distress after only 120 and 75 min of heat exposure, respectively. The intolerance to heat is thus ascribed directly to the inability to produce and evaporate sweat.

  1. Impaired spare respiratory capacity in cortical synaptosomes from Sod2 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, James M.; Choi, Sung W.; Day, Nicholas U.; Gerencser, Akos A.; Hubbard, Alan; Melov, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Pre-synaptic nerve terminals require high levels of ATP for the maintenance of synaptic function. Failure of synaptic mitochondria to generate adequate ATP has been implicated as a causative event preceding loss of synaptic networks in neurodegenerative disease. Endogenous oxidative stress has often been postulated as an etiological basis for this pathology, but has been difficult to test in vivo. Inactivation of the superoxide dismutase gene (Sod2) encoding the chief defense enzyme against mitochondrial superoxide radicals results in neonatal lethality. However, intervention with an SOD mimetic extends the lifespan of this model, and uncovers a neurodegenerative phenotype providing a unique model for the examination of in vivo oxidative stress. We present here studies on synaptic termini isolated from the frontal cortex of Sod2 null mice demonstrating impaired bioenergetic function as a result of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Cortical synaptosomes from Sod2 null mice demonstrate a severe decline in mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity to physiological demand induced by mitochondrial respiratory chain uncoupling with FCCP or plasma membrane depolarization induced by 4-aminopyridine treatment. However, Sod2 null animals compensate for impaired oxidative metabolism in part by Pasteur effect allowing for normal neurotransmitter release at the synapse, setting up a potentially detrimental energetic paradigm. The results of this study demonstrate that high throughput respirometry is a facile method for analyzing specific regions of the brain in transgenic models, and can uncover bioenergetic deficits in subcellular regions due to endogenous oxidative stress. PMID:21215798

  2. Impaired Adipose Tissue Expandability and Lipogenic Capacities as Ones of the Main Causes of Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tinahones, Francisco José

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is considered a major health problem. However, mechanisms involved and its comorbidities are not elucidated. Recent theories concerning the causes of obesity have focused on a limit to the functional capacity of adipose tissue, comparing it with other vital organs. This assumption has been the central point of interest in our laboratory. We proposed that the failure of adipose tissue is initiated by the difficulty of this tissue to increase its cellularity due to excess in fat contribution, owing to genetic or environmental factors. Nevertheless, why the adipose tissue reduces its capacity to make new adipocytes via mesenchymal cells of the stroma has not yet been elucidated. Thus, we suggest that this tissue ceases fulfilling its main function, the storage of excess fat, thereby affecting some of the key factors involved in lipogenesis, some of which are reviewed in this paper (PPARγ, ROR1, FASN, SCD1, Rab18, BrCa1, ZAG, and FABP4). On the other hand, mechanisms involved in adipose tissue expandability are also impaired, predominating hypertrophy via an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in adipogenesis and angiogenesis. However, adipose tissue failure is only part of this great orchestra, only a chapter of this nightmare. PMID:25922847

  3. Abnormal spirometry after the Fontan procedure is common and associated with impaired aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Opotowsky, Alexander R; Landzberg, Michael J; Earing, Michael G; Wu, Fred M; Triedman, John K; Casey, Alicia; Ericson, Dawn A; Systrom, David; Paridon, Stephen M; Rhodes, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    Impaired exercise capacity is common after the Fontan procedure and is attributed to cardiovascular limits. The Fontan circulation, however, is also distinctively vulnerable to unfavorable lung mechanics. This study aimed to define the prevalence and physiological relevance of pulmonary dysfunction in patients with Fontan physiology. We analyzed data from the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross-Sectional Study to assess the prevalence and pattern of abnormal spirometry in Fontan patients (6-18 yr old) and investigated the relationship between low forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximum exercise variables, including peak O2 consumption (Vo2peak), among those who demonstrated adequate effort (n = 260). Average ages at the time of exercise testing and Fontan completion were 13.2 ± 3.0 and 3.5 ± 2.2 yr old, respectively. Aerobic capacity was reduced (Vo2peak: 67.3 ± 15.6% predicted). FVC averaged 79.0 ± 14.8% predicted, with 45.8% having a FVC less then the lower limit of normal. Only 7.8% demonstrated obstructive spirometry. Patients with low FVC had lower Vo2peak (64.4 ± 15.9% vs. 69.7 ± 14.9% predicted, P < 0.01); low FVC independently predicted lower Vo2peak after adjusting for relevant covariates. Among those with Vo2peak < 80% predicted (n = 204/260), 22.5% demonstrated a pulmonary mechanical contribution to exercise limitation (breathing reserve < 20%). Those with both low FVC and ventilatory inefficiency (minute ventilation/CO2 production > 40) had markedly reduced Vo2peak (61.5 ± 15.3% vs. 72.0 ± 14.9% predicted, P < 0.01) and a higher prevalence of pulmonary mechanical limit compared with patients with normal FVC and efficient ventilation (36.1% vs. 4.8%). In conclusion, abnormal FVC is common in young patients after the Fontan procedure and is independently associated with reduced exercise capacity. A large subset has a pathologically low breathing reserve, consistent with a pulmonary mechanical contribution to exercise limitation. PMID:24791784

  4. Subclinical zinc deficiency impairs pancreatic digestive enzyme activity and digestive capacity of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Daniel; Windisch, Wilhelm M

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of short-term subclinical Zn deficiency on exocrine pancreatic activity and changes in digestive capacity. A total of forty-eight weaned piglets were fed ad libitum a basal diet (maize and soyabean meal) with adequate Zn supply (88 mg Zn/kg diet) during a 2-week acclimatisation phase. Animals were then assigned to eight dietary treatment groups (n 6) according to a complete randomised block design considering litter, live weight and sex. All pigs were fed restrictively (450 g diet/d) the basal diet but with varying ZnSO4.7H2O additions, resulting in 28·1, 33·6, 38·8, 42·7, 47·5, 58·2, 67·8 and 88·0 mg Zn/kg diet for a total experimental period of 8 d. Pancreatic Zn concentrations and pancreatic activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A and B, elastase and α-amylase exhibited a broken-line response to stepwise reduction in dietary Zn by declining beneath thresholds of 39·0, 58·0, 58·0, 41·2, 47·5, 57·7 and 58·0 mg Zn/kg diet, respectively. Furthermore, carboxypeptidase B and α-amylase activities were significantly lower in samples with reduced pancreatic Zn contents. Coefficients of faecal digestibility of DM, crude protein, total lipids and crude ash responded similarly to pancreatic enzyme activities by declining below dietary thresholds of 54·7, 45·0, 46·9 and 58·2 mg Zn/kg diet, respectively. In conclusion, (1) subclinical Zn deficiency impaired pancreatic exocrine enzymes, (2) this response was connected to pancreatic Zn metabolism and (3) the decline in catalytic activity impaired faecal digestibility already after 1 week of insufficient alimentary Zn supply and very early before clinical deficiency symptoms arise. PMID:27230230

  5. Working Memory Capacity and Its Relation to Stroop Interference and Facilitation Effects in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Jee Eun; Kim, Jin Hee; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Kang, Heejin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of the study were to investigate (a) the task-specific differences in short-term memory (STM) and working memory capacity (WMC) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal elderly adults (NEAs), (b) the Stroop interference and facilitation effects, and (c) the relationship of STM and WMC to the Stroop…

  6. Sentence Comprehension in Specific Language Impairment: A Task Designed to Distinguish between Cognitive Capacity and Syntactic Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Deevy, Patricia; Fey, Marc E.; Bredin-Oja, Shelley L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined sentence comprehension in children with specific language impairment (SLI) in a manner designed to separate the contribution of cognitive capacity from the effects of syntactic structure. Method: Nineteen children with SLI, 19 typically developing children matched for age (TD-A), and 19 younger typically developing…

  7. Executive function impairment and recidivism in adult protective services clients referred for a decision making capacity assessment.

    PubMed

    Terracina, Katherine A; Aamodt, Whitley W; Schillerstrom, Jason E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if recidivistic Adult Protective Services (APS) cases referred for a decision-making capacity assessment were more cognitively impaired than nonrecidivistic cases. A retrospective medical record review of neuropsychological and demographic data was gathered during decisional capacity assessments. Recidivistic clients were those referred to APS more than once; those with a single open case were nonrecidivistic. Mean neuropsychological test scores were compared between recidivistic (n = 138) and nonrecidivistic (n = 95) subjects. No significant differences were found for age, gender, ethnicity, education, or dwelling status. Both recidivistic and nonrecidivistic cases performed poorly in all cognitive domains. Recidivistic clients performed significantly worse on measures of executive function (CLOX1, EXIT25). Executive function impairments seem to be one risk factor for recidivism in APS referrals. With 60% of cases referred for decision capacity assessments being recidivistic, identifying risk factors may help identify when targeted interventions are indicated to preclude recurrence of abuse. PMID:25495662

  8. Physicochemical features of the HERG channel drug binding site.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, David; Ghanta, Azad; Kauffman, Gregory W; Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2004-03-12

    Blockade of hERG K(+) channels in the heart is an unintentional side effect of many drugs and can induce cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death. It has become common practice in the past few years to screen compounds for hERG channel activity early during the drug discovery process. Understanding the molecular basis of drug binding to hERG is crucial for the rational design of medications devoid of this activity. We previously identified 2 aromatic residues, Tyr-652 and Phe-656, located in the S6 domain of hERG, as critical sites of interaction with structurally diverse drugs. Here, Tyr-652 and Phe-656 were systematically mutated to different residues to determine how the physicochemical properties of the amino acid side group affected channel block by cisapride, terfenadine, and MK-499. The potency for block by all three drugs was well correlated with measures of hydrophobicity, especially the two-dimensional approximation of the van der Waals hydrophobic surface area of the side chain of residue 656. For residue 652, an aromatic side group was essential for high affinity block, suggesting the importance of a cation-pi interaction between Tyr-652 and the basic tertiary nitrogen of these drugs. hERG also lacks a Pro-Val-Pro motif common to the S6 domain of most other voltage-gated K(+) channels. Introduction of Pro-Val-Pro into hERG reduced sensitivity to drugs but also altered channel gating. Together, these findings assign specific residues to receptor fields predicted by pharmacophore models of hERG channel blockers and provide a refined molecular understanding of the drug binding site. PMID:14699101

  9. Impaired glucose metabolism and exercise capacity with muscle-specific glycogen synthase 1 (gys1) deletion in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Xirouchaki, Chrysovalantou E.; Mangiafico, Salvatore P.; Bate, Katherine; Ruan, Zheng; Huang, Amy M.; Tedjosiswoyo, Bing Wilari; Lamont, Benjamin; Pong, Wynne; Favaloro, Jenny; Blair, Amy R.; Zajac, Jeffrey D.; Proietto, Joseph; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos

    2016-01-01

    Objective Muscle glucose storage and muscle glycogen synthase (gys1) defects have been associated with insulin resistance. As there are multiple mechanisms for insulin resistance, the specific role of glucose storage defects is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of muscle-specific gys1 deletion on glucose metabolism and exercise capacity. Methods Tamoxifen inducible and muscle specific gys-1 KO mice were generated using the Cre/loxP system. Mice were subjected to glucose tolerance tests, euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamps and exercise tests. Results gys1-KO mice showed ≥85% reduction in muscle gys1 mRNA and protein concentrations, 70% reduction in muscle glycogen levels, postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia and impaired glucose tolerance. Under insulin-stimulated conditions, gys1-KO mice displayed reduced glucose turnover and muscle glucose uptake, indicative of peripheral insulin resistance, as well as increased plasma and muscle lactate levels and reductions in muscle hexokinase II levels. gys1-KO mice also exhibited markedly reduced exercise and endurance capacity. Conclusions Thus, muscle-specific gys1 deletion in adult mice results in glucose intolerance due to insulin resistance and reduced muscle glucose uptake as well as impaired exercise and endurance capacity. In brief This study demonstrates why the body prioritises muscle glycogen storage over liver glycogen storage despite the critical role of the liver in supplying glucose to the brain in the fasting state and shows that glycogen deficiency results in impaired glucose metabolism and reduced exercise capacity. PMID:26977394

  10. Impaired Capacity of Fibroblasts to Support Airway Epithelial Progenitors in Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Su-Bei; Sun, Xin; Wu, Qi; Wu, Jun-Ping; Chen, Huai-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) often develops in transplant patients and results in injury to the respiratory and terminal airway epithelium. Owing to its rising incidence, the pathogenesis of BOS is currently an area of intensive research. Studies have shown that injury to the respiratory epithelium results in dysregulation of epithelial repair. Airway epithelial regeneration is supported by stromal cells, including fibroblasts. This study aimed to investigate whether the supportive role of lung fibroblasts is altered in BOS. Methods: Suspensions of lung cells were prepared by enzyme digestion. Lung progenitor cells (LPCs) were separated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Lung fibroblasts from patients with BOS or healthy controls were mixed with sorted mouse LPCs to compare the colony-forming efficiency of LPCs by counting the number of colonies with a diameter of ≥50 μm in each culture. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 17.0 software (SPSS Inc., USA). The paired Student's t-test was used to test for statistical significance. Results: LPCs were isolated with the surface phenotype of CD31- CD34- CD45- EpCAM+ Sca-1+. The colony-forming efficiency of LPCs was significantly reduced when co-cultured with fibroblasts isolated from patients with BOS. The addition of SB431542 increased the colony-forming efficiency of LPCs to 1.8%; however, it was still significantly less than that in co-culture with healthy control fibroblasts (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The epithelial-supportive capacity of fibroblasts is impaired in the development of BOS and suggest that inefficient repair of airway epithelium could contribute to persistent airway inflammation in BOS. PMID:27569228

  11. Investigating medical decision-making capacity in patients with cognitive impairment using a protocol based on linguistic features.

    PubMed

    Tallberg, Ing-Mari; Stormoen, Sara; Almkvist, Ove; Eriksdotter, Maria; Sundström, Erik

    2013-10-01

    A critical question is whether cognitively impaired patients have the competence for autonomous decisions regarding participation in clinical trials. The present study aimed to investigate medical decision-making capacity by use of a Swedish linguistic instrument for medical decision-making (LIMD) in hypothetical clinical trials in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Three comparable groups (age, education) participated in the study: AD (n = 20; MMSE: 24.1 ± 3.3) and MCI (n = 22; MMSE: 26.7 ± 2.4) patients and healthy controls (n = 37; MMSE: 29.1 ± 1.0). Medical decision-making capacity was operationalized as answers to questions regarding participation in three hypothetical clinical trials. Answers were scored regarding comprehension, evaluation and intelligibility of decisions, and a total LIMD score was used as the measure of medical decision-making ability. Groups differed significantly in LIMD with AD patients performing worst and MCI poorer than the control group. A strong association was found between all LIMD scores and diagnosis which supported the assertion that LIMD as it is designed is a one-dimensional instrument of medical decision-making capacity (MDMC). The results indicate that a fundamental communicative ability has an impact on the competence for autonomous decisions in cognitive impairment. PMID:23841467

  12. Increased Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Impaired Executive Performance Capacity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Goya, Thiago T.; Silva, Rosyvaldo F.; Guerra, Renan S.; Lima, Marta F.; Barbosa, Eline R.F.; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Lobo, Denise M.L.; Buchpiguel, Carlos A.; Busatto-Filho, Geraldo; Negrão, Carlos E.; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Ueno-Pardi, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    impaired executive performance capacity in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2016;39(1):25–33. PMID:26237773

  13. Aging-Induced Dysregulation of Dicer1-Dependent MicroRNA Expression Impairs Angiogenic Capacity of Rat Cerebromicrovascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Age-related impairment of angiogenesis is likely to play a central role in cerebromicrovascular rarefaction and development of vascular cognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To test the hypothesis that dysregulation of Dicer1 (ribonuclease III, a key enzyme of the microRNA [miRNA] machinery) impairs endothelial angiogenic capacity in aging, primary cerebromicrovascular endothelial cells (CMVECs) were isolated from young (3 months old) and aged (24 months old) Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats. We found an age-related downregulation of Dicer1 expression both in CMVECs and in small cerebral vessels isolated from aged rats. In aged CMVECs, Dicer1 expression was increased by treatment with polyethylene glycol–catalase. Compared with young cells, aged CMVECs exhibited altered miRNA expression profile, which was associated with impaired proliferation, adhesion to vitronectin, collagen and fibronectin, cellular migration (measured by a wound-healing assay using electric cell–substrate impedance sensing technology), and impaired ability to form capillary-like structures. Overexpression of Dicer1 in aged CMVECs partially restored miRNA expression profile and significantly improved angiogenic processes. In young CMVECs, downregulation of Dicer1 (siRNA) resulted in altered miRNA expression profile associated with impaired proliferation, adhesion, migration, and tube formation, mimicking the aging phenotype. Collectively, we found that Dicer1 is essential for normal endothelial angiogenic processes, suggesting that age-related dysregulation of Dicer1-dependent miRNA expression may be a potential mechanism underlying impaired angiogenesis and cerebromicrovascular rarefaction in aging. PMID:23239824

  14. Impaired mechanical stability, migration and contractile capacity in vimentin-deficient fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckes, B.; Dogic, D.; Colucci-Guyon, E.; Wang, N.; Maniotis, A.; Ingber, D.; Merckling, A.; Langa, F.; Aumailley, M.; Delouvee, A.; Koteliansky, V.; Babinet, C.; Krieg, T.

    1998-01-01

    Loss of a vimentin network due to gene disruption created viable mice that did not differ overtly from wild-type littermates. Here, primary fibroblasts derived from vimentin-deficient (-/-) and wild-type (+/+) mouse embryos were cultured, and biological functions were studied in in vitro systems resembling stress situations. Stiffness of -/- fibroblasts was reduced by 40% in comparison to wild-type cells. Vimentin-deficient cells also displayed reduced mechanical stability, motility and directional migration towards different chemo-attractive stimuli. Reorganization of collagen fibrils and contraction of collagen lattices were severely impaired. The spatial organization of focal contact proteins, as well as actin microfilament organization was disturbed. Thus, absence of a vimentin filament network does not impair basic cellular functions needed for growth in culture, but cells are mechanically less stable, and we propose that therefore they are impaired in all functions depending upon mechanical stability.

  15. Sustained Selective Attention Skills of Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence for Separate Attentional Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the performance of preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers on sustained selective attention tasks. Method: This study included 23 children diagnosed with SLI and 23 TD children matched for age, gender, and maternal education level.…

  16. Enhanced Glucose Transport, but not Phosphorylation Capacity, Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Impairments in Insulin-Stimulated Muscle Glucose Uptake.

    PubMed

    Otero, Yolanda F; Mulligan, Kimberly X; Barnes, Tammy M; Ford, Eric A; Malabanan, Carlo M; Zong, Haihong; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Wasserman, David H; McGuinness, Owen P

    2016-06-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to impair insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake (MGU). We determined if increased glucose transport (GLUT4) or phosphorylation capacity (hexokinase II; HKII) could overcome the impairment in MGU. We used mice that overexpressed GLUT4 (GLUT4) or HKII (HK) in skeletal muscle. Studies were performed in conscious, chronically catheterized (carotid artery and jugular vein) mice. Mice received an intravenous bolus of either LPS (10 μg/g body weight) or vehicle (VEH). After 5 h, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed. As MGU is also dependent on cardiovascular function that is negatively affected by LPS, cardiac function was assessed using echocardiography. LPS decreased whole body glucose disposal and MGU in wild-type (WT) and HK mice. In contrast, the decrease was attenuated in GLUT4 mice. Although membrane-associated GLUT4 was increased in VEH-treated GLUT4 mice, LPS impaired membrane-associated GLUT4 in GLUT4 mice to the same level as LPS-treated WT mice. This suggested that overexpression of GLUT4 had further benefits beyond preserving transport activity. In fact, GLUT4 overexpression attenuated the LPS-induced decrease in cardiac function. The maintenance of MGU in GLUT4 mice following LPS was accompanied by sustained anaerobic glycolytic flux as suggested by increased muscle Pdk4 expression, and elevated lactate availability. Thus, enhanced glucose transport, but not phosphorylation capacity, ameliorates LPS-induced impairments in MGU. This benefit is mediated by long-term adaptations to the overexpression of GLUT4 that sustain muscle anaerobic glycolytic flux and cardiac function in response to LPS. PMID:26682946

  17. Visual Impairment does not Limit Training Effects in Development of Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity in Tandem Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Malwina, Kamelska Anna; Krzysztof, Mazurek; Piotr, Zmijewski

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the differences in the effects of 7-month training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity in tandem cycling athletes with and without visual impairment. In this study, Polish elite (n=13) and sub-elite (n=13) visually impaired (VI) (n=13; 40.8 ±12.8 years) and properly sighted (PS) (n=13; 36.7 ±12.2 years) tandem-cycling athletes participated voluntarily in 7-month routine training. The following pre-/post-training measurements were conducted on separate days: maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated with age correction using the Physical Working Capacity test on a bicycle ergometer according to the Astrand-Ryhming method. Maximal power output (Pmax) was evaluated using the Quebec test on a bicycle ergometer. At baseline, VO2max (47.8 ±14.1 vs 42.0 ±8.3 ml/kg/min, respectively) and Pmax (11.5 ±1.5 vs 11.5 ±1.0 W/kg) did not differ significantly between PS and VI cyclists. However, differences in aerobic capacity were considered as clinically significant. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after 7 month training, there were statistically significant increases in VO2max (p=0.003) and Pmax (p=0.009) among VI (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +6.3%) and PS (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +11.7%) cyclists, however, no time × visual impairment interaction effect was found (VO2max, p=0.467; Pmax, p=0.364). After training, VO2max (p=0.03), but not Pmax (p=0.13), was significantly greater in elite compared to sub-elite tandem cyclists. VI and PS tandem cyclists showed similar rates of improvement in VO2max and Pmax after 7-month training. VO2max was a significant determinant of success in tandem cycling. This is one of the first studies providing reference values for aerobic and anaerobic capacity in visually impaired cyclists. PMID:26834877

  18. Visual Impairment does not Limit Training Effects in Development of Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity in Tandem Cyclists.

    PubMed

    Malwina, Kamelska Anna; Krzysztof, Mazurek; Piotr, Zmijewski

    2015-11-22

    The study aimed to investigate the differences in the effects of 7-month training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity in tandem cycling athletes with and without visual impairment. In this study, Polish elite (n=13) and sub-elite (n=13) visually impaired (VI) (n=13; 40.8 ±12.8 years) and properly sighted (PS) (n=13; 36.7 ±12.2 years) tandem-cycling athletes participated voluntarily in 7-month routine training. The following pre-/post-training measurements were conducted on separate days: maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated with age correction using the Physical Working Capacity test on a bicycle ergometer according to the Astrand-Ryhming method. Maximal power output (Pmax) was evaluated using the Quebec test on a bicycle ergometer. At baseline, VO2max (47.8 ±14.1 vs 42.0 ±8.3 ml/kg/min, respectively) and Pmax (11.5 ±1.5 vs 11.5 ±1.0 W/kg) did not differ significantly between PS and VI cyclists. However, differences in aerobic capacity were considered as clinically significant. Two-way ANOVA revealed that after 7 month training, there were statistically significant increases in VO2max (p=0.003) and Pmax (p=0.009) among VI (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +6.3%) and PS (VO2max, +9.1%; Pmax, +11.7%) cyclists, however, no time × visual impairment interaction effect was found (VO2max, p=0.467; Pmax, p=0.364). After training, VO2max (p=0.03), but not Pmax (p=0.13), was significantly greater in elite compared to sub-elite tandem cyclists. VI and PS tandem cyclists showed similar rates of improvement in VO2max and Pmax after 7-month training. VO2max was a significant determinant of success in tandem cycling. This is one of the first studies providing reference values for aerobic and anaerobic capacity in visually impaired cyclists. PMID:26834877

  19. Extending MIL-STD-1553 bandwidth: a study of impairments, EMI, and channel capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegarty, Michael G.

    2004-09-01

    This paper explores the possibility of increasing the data rates on existing MIL-STD-1553 networks beyond its current one megabit per second rate. A combination of empirical and theoretical methods is used in predicting the capacity of a MIL-STD-1553 network. The analysis begins with an assessment of the usable bandwidth in a 1553 network followed by the development of models to predict signal-to-noise ratios based on a transmit signal level that meets the emissions limits of MIL-STD-461 and a noise level that is representative of a real 1553 system. This paper presents the theoretical capacity limits for several 1553 network configurations. The results of the analysis predict that the theoretical capacity within a legacy MIL-STD-1553 system is expected to be several hundred megabits per second. The achievable rate depends on network configuration and usable bandwidth. Methods of approaching these theoretical capacity limits is not discussed in this paper, rather, this paper provides a framework and a baseline for the analysis of higher data rates over legacy MIL-STD-1553 networks.

  20. Pioglitazone ameliorates the lowered exercise capacity and impaired mitochondrial function of the skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Takada, Shingo; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Yokota, Takashi; Matsushima, Shouji; Suga, Tadashi; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Fukushima, Arata; Homma, Tsuneaki; Mizushima, Wataru; Masaki, Yoshihiro; Furihata, Takaaki; Katsuyama, Ryoichi; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-10-01

    We have reported that exercise capacity is reduced in high fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice, and that this reduction is associated with impaired mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle (SKM). However, it remains to be clarified whether the treatment of diabetes ameliorates the reduced exercise capacity. Therefore, we examined whether an insulin-sensitizing drug, pioglitazone, could improve exercise capacity in HFD mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD, then treated with or without pioglitazone (3 mg/kg/day) to yield the following 4 groups: ND+vehicle, ND+pioglitazone, HFD+vehicle, and HFD+pioglitazone (n=10 each). After 8 weeks, body weight, plasma glucose, and insulin in the HFD+vehicle were significantly increased compared to the ND+vehicle group. Pioglitazone normalized the insulin levels in HFD-fed mice, but did not affect the body weight or plasma glucose. Exercise capacity determined by treadmill tests was significantly reduced in the HFD+vehicle, and this reduction was almost completely ameliorated in HFD+pioglitazone mice. ADP-dependent mitochondrial respiration, complex I and III activities, and citrate synthase activity were significantly decreased in the SKM of the HFD+vehicle animals, and these decreases were also attenuated by pioglitazone. NAD(P)H oxidase activity was significantly increased in the HFD+vehicle compared with the ND+vehicle, and this increase was ameliorated in HFD+pioglitazone mice. Pioglitazone improved the exercise capacity in diabetic mice, which was due to the improvement in mitochondrial function and attenuation of oxidative stress in the SKM. Our data suggest that pioglitazone may be useful as an agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24964389

  1. Gait analysis in chronic heart failure: The calf as a locus of impaired walking capacity.

    PubMed

    Panizzolo, Fausto A; Maiorana, Andrew J; Naylor, Louise H; Dembo, Lawrence; Lloyd, David G; Green, Daniel J; Rubenson, Jonas

    2014-11-28

    Reduced walking capacity, a hallmark of chronic heart failure (CHF), is strongly correlated with hospitalization and morbidity. The aim of this work was to perform a detailed biomechanical gait analysis to better identify mechanisms underlying reduced walking capacity in CHF. Inverse dynamic analyses were conducted in CHF patients and age- and exercise level-matched control subjects on an instrumented treadmill at self-selected treadmill walking speeds and at speeds representing +20% and -20% of the subjects' preferred speed. Surprisingly, no difference in preferred speed was observed between groups, possibly explained by an optimization of the mechanical cost of transport in both groups (the mechanical cost to travel a given distance; J/kg/m). The majority of limb kinematics and kinetics were also similar between groups, with the exception of greater ankle dorsiflexion angles during stance in CHF. Nevertheless, over two times greater ankle plantarflexion work during stance and per distance traveled is required for a given triceps surae muscle volume in CHF patients. This, together with a greater reliance on the ankle compared to the hip to power walking in CHF patients, especially at faster speeds, may contribute to the earlier onset of fatigue in CHF patients. This observation also helps explain the high correlation between triceps surae muscle volume and exercise capacity that has previously been reported in CHF. Considering the key role played by the plantarflexors in powering walking and their association with exercise capacity, our findings strongly suggest that exercise-based rehabilitation in CHF should not omit the ankle muscle group. PMID:25307437

  2. Insulin-driven translational capacity is impaired in primary fibroblasts of Prader Willi.

    PubMed

    Meneghello, Cristiana; Segat, Daniela; Fortunati, Elisabetta

    2016-02-01

    Prader-Willi (PW) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities and severe hypotonia, hyperphagia, behavioural and psychiatric problems. Absence of satiety leads to severe obesity and frequently to diabetes. Furthermore, adult patients suffer from a severe loss of muscle mass, which severely impacts their quality of life. The mechanisms underlying alterations in muscle growth in PW remain to be clarified. In this study we explored the hypothesis that, in PW cells, alterations of protein synthesis are determined by dysfunctions in the promotion of cell growth. In order to study the molecular changes leading to dysfunction in protein translation, primary fibroblasts derived from four PW patients and five control subjects were used to study the insulin-mediated signaling pathway implicated in the control of protein synthesis by immunoblotting. Here we present, for the first time, evidences that the protein translation response to insulin is impaired in PW fibroblasts. Insulin alone has a major upregulatory effect on protein kinase B (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3beta), while phosphorylation of p70S6K1 protein elongation factor controlled by mammalian target of rapamycin complex I (mTORC1) is reduced. In addition, we provide data that the response to insulin in PW cells can be restored by previous treatment with the amino acid L-Leucine (L-Leu). Our experiments in primary cell cultures demonstrate an impairment of insulin signaling that can be rescued by supplementation with the branched aminoacid L-Leu, indicating a possible therapeutic approach for alleviating muscle mass loss in PW patients. PMID:26989644

  3. Increased fibrin formation and impaired fibrinolytic capacity in severe chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mörtberg, Josefin; Blombäck, Margareta; Wallén, Åkan; He, Shu; Jacobson, Stefan H; Spaak, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a concurrent increased risk of thrombosis and bleeding. We aimed to investigate whether CKD is associated with increased fibrin formation, impaired fibrin degradation, or both. Twenty-one patients with CKD stage 4 (CKD 4), 15 haemodialysis patients, and 13 controls (C) without kidney disease were studied. We used a global assay to determine fibrin formation and degradation in plasma. Fibrin turbidity was measured over time to obtain a value of the coagulation activation profile (Cp) and the fibrinolysis activation profile (Fp), and the amount of fibrin formed, termed fibrin optical density sum (fibrin OD-sum). We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to visualize the fibrin network. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 antigen, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor activity, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, antithrombin, albumin, and C-reactive protein were measured in plasma. Fibrin OD-sum was significantly elevated in haemodialysis patients [312 a.u.; 278-435 (median; interquartile range); P < 0.0013] and in CKD 4 (293 a.u.; 169-434; P = 0.0119) compared with controls (115 a.u.; 82-234). SEM showed a tight fibrin network in haemodialysis and CKD 4 patients. Fp was lower in the haemodialysis group than in controls (P = 0.030). Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 was lower in haemodialysis patients (P = 0.034). Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor activity, Cp, antithrombin, and C-reactive protein did not differ between groups. Fibrinogen was significantly elevated and albumin decreased in both haemodialysis and CKD 4 patients compared with controls. Von Willebrand factor was elevated in haemodialysis patients compared with controls (P = 0.010). The prothrombotic state in severe CKD is characterized by impaired fibrinolysis in association with increased fibrin formation despite normal levels of endogenous fibrinolysis inhibitors. PMID:26650459

  4. Insulin-driven translational capacity is impaired in primary fibroblasts of Prader Willi

    PubMed Central

    Meneghello, Cristiana; Segat, Daniela; Fortunati, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Summary Prader-Willi (PW) syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities and severe hypotonia, hyperphagia, behavioural and psychiatric problems. Absence of satiety leads to severe obesity and frequently to diabetes. Furthermore, adult patients suffer from a severe loss of muscle mass, which severely impacts their quality of life. The mechanisms underlying alterations in muscle growth in PW remain to be clarified. In this study we explored the hypothesis that, in PW cells, alterations of protein synthesis are determined by dysfunctions in the promotion of cell growth. In order to study the molecular changes leading to dysfunction in protein translation, primary fibroblasts derived from four PW patients and five control subjects were used to study the insulin-mediated signaling pathway implicated in the control of protein synthesis by immunoblotting. Here we present, for the first time, evidences that the protein translation response to insulin is impaired in PW fibroblasts. Insulin alone has a major upregulatory effect on protein kinase B (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3beta), while phosphorylation of p70S6K1 protein elongation factor controlled by mammalian target of rapamycin complex I (mTORC1) is reduced. In addition, we provide data that the response to insulin in PW cells can be restored by previous treatment with the amino acid L-Leucine (L-Leu). Our experiments in primary cell cultures demonstrate an impairment of insulin signaling that can be rescued by supplementation with the branched aminoacid L-Leu, indicating a possible therapeutic approach for alleviating muscle mass loss in PW patients. PMID:26989644

  5. Prion infection impairs lysosomal degradation capacity by interfering with rab7 membrane attachment in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Su Yeon; Karri, Srinivasarao; Law, Sampson; Schatzl, Hermann M.; Gilch, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Prions are proteinaceous infectious particles which cause fatal neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals. They consist of a mostly β-sheeted aggregated isoform (PrPSc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPc). Prions replicate autocatalytically in neurons and other cell types by inducing conformational conversion of PrPc into PrPSc. Within neurons, PrPSc accumulates at the plasma membrane and in vesicles of the endocytic pathway. To better understand the mechanisms underlying neuronal dysfunction and death it is critical to know the impact of PrPSc accumulation on cellular pathways. We have investigated the effects of prion infection on endo-lysosomal transport. Our study demonstrates that prion infection interferes with rab7 membrane association. Consequently, lysosomal maturation and degradation are impaired. Our findings indicate a mechanism induced by prion infection that supports stable prion replication. We suggest modulation of endo-lysosomal vesicle trafficking and enhancement of lysosomal maturation as novel targets for the treatment of prion diseases. PMID:26865414

  6. Prion infection impairs lysosomal degradation capacity by interfering with rab7 membrane attachment in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Shim, Su Yeon; Karri, Srinivasarao; Law, Sampson; Schatzl, Hermann M; Gilch, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Prions are proteinaceous infectious particles which cause fatal neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals. They consist of a mostly β-sheeted aggregated isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)). Prions replicate autocatalytically in neurons and other cell types by inducing conformational conversion of PrP(c) into PrP(Sc). Within neurons, PrP(Sc) accumulates at the plasma membrane and in vesicles of the endocytic pathway. To better understand the mechanisms underlying neuronal dysfunction and death it is critical to know the impact of PrP(Sc) accumulation on cellular pathways. We have investigated the effects of prion infection on endo-lysosomal transport. Our study demonstrates that prion infection interferes with rab7 membrane association. Consequently, lysosomal maturation and degradation are impaired. Our findings indicate a mechanism induced by prion infection that supports stable prion replication. We suggest modulation of endo-lysosomal vesicle trafficking and enhancement of lysosomal maturation as novel targets for the treatment of prion diseases. PMID:26865414

  7. Diabetes mellitus Type II and cognitive capacity in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Degen, Christina; Toro, Pablo; Schönknecht, Peter; Sattler, Christine; Schröder, Johannes

    2016-06-30

    While diabetes mellitus (DM) Type II has repeatedly been linked to Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), longitudinal research is scarce and disease duration has not always been taken into account. In a birth cohort born between 1930 and 1932 we investigated the influence of DM Type II and disease duration on neuropsychological functioning (memory/learning, attention, verbal fluency, visuospatial thinking and abstract thinking) across 14 years. Subjects who developed MCI or AD performed significantly poorer on all neuropsychological tests applied. While significant main effects DM Type II did not arise, its presence led to a significant deterioration of performance in the digit symbol test and visuospatial thinking over time. Additionally, in visuospatial thinking this change was more pronounced for individuals suffering from MCI/AD. We found that, as a concomitant disease DM Type II does not affect memory functioning, which is typically compromised in MCI and early AD. Rather, it may lead to deficits in cognitive flexibility and visuospatial thinking. DM Type II can be considered a frequent comorbid condition which can aggravate the course of MCI and AD. In this respect it may serve as a model for other comorbid conditions in AD. PMID:27082868

  8. Insulin Resistance in Adolescents with Type 2 Diabetes Is Associated with Impaired Exercise Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Kristen J.; Zeitler, Phillip S.; Bauer, Timothy A.; Brown, Mark S.; Dorosz, Jennifer L.; Draznin, Boris; Reusch, Jane E. B.; Regensteiner, Judith G.

    2009-01-01

    Context: The incidence of pediatric type 2 diabetes (T2D) is rising, with unclear effects on the cardiovascular system. Cardiopulmonary fitness, a marker of morbidity and mortality, is abnormal in adults with T2D, yet the mechanisms are incompletely understood. Objective: We hypothesized that cardiopulmonary fitness would be reduced in youth with T2D in association with insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular dysfunction. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional study at an academic hospital that included 14 adolescents (age range, 12–19 yr) with T2D, 13 equally obese adolescents and 12 lean adolescents similar in age, pubertal stage, and activity level. Main Outcome Measures: Cardiopulmonary fitness was measured by peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and oxygen uptake kinetics (VO2kinetics), IR by hyperinsulinemic clamp, cardiac function by echocardiography, vascular function by venous occlusion plethysmography, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, intramyocellular lipid by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and inflammation by serum markers. Results: Adolescents with T2D had significantly decreased VO2peak and insulin sensitivity, and increased soleus intramyocellular lipid, C-reactive protein, and IL-6 compared to obese or lean adolescents. Adolescents with T2D also had significantly prolonged VO2kinetics, decreased work rate, vascular reactivity, and adiponectin, and increased left ventricular mass and fatty acids compared to lean adolescents. In multivariate linear regression analysis, IR primarily, and fasting free fatty acids and forearm blood flow secondarily, were significant independent predictors of VO2peak. Conclusions: Given the strong relationship between decreased cardiopulmonary fitness and increased mortality, these findings in children are especially concerning and represent early signs of impaired cardiac function. PMID:19584191

  9. Integration of proprioceptive signals and attentional capacity during postural control are impaired but subject to improvement in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Quercia, Patrick; Demougeot, Laurent; Dos Santos, Mickaël; Bonnetblanc, François

    2011-04-01

    . Altogether, these results suggest that integration of proprioceptive signals in balance control and attentional capacity are impaired in dyslexic children. However, attention capacity during the control of stance could be improved significantly. PMID:21359661

  10. Isolation and chemical characterization of 2-hydroxybenzoylglycine as a drug binding inhibitor in uremia.

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenwalner, D M; Suh, B; Lichtenwalner, M R

    1983-01-01

    An organic compound that inhibits drug binding in uremia has been isolated from the sera of chronic renal failure patients, and its chemical structure has been determined. Addition of the compound to normal human sera in vitro resulted in drug binding defects similar to those seen in uremia. The purification of this substance was accomplished by n-butyl chloride extraction of acidified (pH 3.0) uremic sera followed by column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and paper electrophoresis. From analytical studies including ultraviolet and fluorescence spectroscopy, gas chromatography, chemical ionization and electron impact mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the chemical structure of the uremic binding inhibitor was deduced to be 2-hydroxybenzoylglycine. This confirms the hypothesis that the drug binding defect in uremia is due to the accumulation of endogenous metabolic products rather than an intrinsic structural defect in albumin. Images PMID:6853715

  11. Crystal Structure of an Integron Gene Cassette-Associated Protein from Vibrio cholerae Identifies a Cationic Drug-Binding Module

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Chandrika N.; Harrop, Stephen J.; Boucher, Yan; Hassan, Karl A.; Leo, Rosa Di; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Savchenko, Alexei; Chang, Changsoo; Labbate, Maurizio; Paulsen, Ian T.; Stokes, H. W.; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Mabbutt, Bridget C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The direct isolation of integron gene cassettes from cultivated and environmental microbial sources allows an assessment of the impact of the integron/gene cassette system on the emergence of new phenotypes, such as drug resistance or virulence. A structural approach is being exploited to investigate the modularity and function of novel integron gene cassettes. Methodology/Principal Findings We report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of Cass2, an integron-associated protein derived from an environmental V. cholerae. The structure defines a monomeric beta-barrel protein with a fold related to the effector-binding portion of AraC/XylS transcription activators. The closest homologs of Cass2 are multi-drug binding proteins, such as BmrR. Consistent with this, a binding pocket made up of hydrophobic residues and a single glutamate side chain is evident in Cass2, occupied in the crystal form by polyethylene glycol. Fluorescence assays demonstrate that Cass2 is capable of binding cationic drug compounds with submicromolar affinity. The Cass2 module possesses a protein interaction surface proximal to its drug-binding cavity with features homologous to those seen in multi-domain transcriptional regulators. Conclusions/Significance Genetic analysis identifies Cass2 to be representative of a larger family of independent effector-binding proteins associated with lateral gene transfer within Vibrio and closely-related species. We propose that the Cass2 family not only has capacity to form functional transcription regulator complexes, but represents possible evolutionary precursors to multi-domain regulators associated with cationic drug compounds. PMID:21390267

  12. Crystal Structure of an Integron Gene Cassette-Associated Protein from Vibrio cholerae Identifies a Cationic Drug-Binding Module

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Chandrika N.; Harrop, Stephen J.; Boucher, Yan; Hassan, Karl A.; Di Leo, Rosa; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Savchenko, Alexei; Chang, Changsoo; Labbate, Maurizio; Paulsen, Ian T.; Stokes, H.W.; Curmi, Paul M.G.; Mabbutt, Bridget C.

    2012-02-15

    The direct isolation of integron gene cassettes from cultivated and environmental microbial sources allows an assessment of the impact of the integron/gene cassette system on the emergence of new phenotypes, such as drug resistance or virulence. A structural approach is being exploited to investigate the modularity and function of novel integron gene cassettes. We report the 1.8 {angstrom} crystal structure of Cass2, an integron-associated protein derived from an environmental V. cholerae. The structure defines a monomeric beta-barrel protein with a fold related to the effector-binding portion of AraC/XylS transcription activators. The closest homologs of Cass2 are multi-drug binding proteins, such as BmrR. Consistent with this, a binding pocket made up of hydrophobic residues and a single glutamate side chain is evident in Cass2, occupied in the crystal form by polyethylene glycol. Fluorescence assays demonstrate that Cass2 is capable of binding cationic drug compounds with submicromolar affinity. The Cass2 module possesses a protein interaction surface proximal to its drug-binding cavity with features homologous to those seen in multi-domain transcriptional regulators. Genetic analysis identifies Cass2 to be representative of a larger family of independent effector-binding proteins associated with lateral gene transfer within Vibrio and closely-related species. We propose that the Cass2 family not only has capacity to form functional transcription regulator complexes, but represents possible evolutionary precursors to multi-domain regulators associated with cationic drug compounds.

  13. Capacity of the Catalan and Spanish Versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Distinguish between Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Ruiz, Isabel; Aguilar-Alonso, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed the capacity of the Catalan and Spanish versions of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) to distinguish between normal and pathological aging. Both versions of the test were administered to 45 bilingual subjects: 15 healthy aging subjects, 15 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease. To…

  14. Speech Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory Capacity in Language Impairment: Preliminary Evidence from Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick Greatorex; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Baird, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Background: The cognitive bases of language impairment in specific language impairment (SLI) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated in a novel non-word comparison task which manipulated phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and speech perception, both implicated in poor non-word repetition. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the…

  15. Combination of exercise training and diet restriction normalizes limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Suga, Tadashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Fukushima, Arata; Homma, Tsuneaki; Masaki, Yoshihiro; Furihata, Takaaki; Takahashi, Masashige; Sobirin, Mochamad A; Ono, Taisuke; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Yokota, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) and diet restriction (DR) are essential for effective management of obesity and insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus. However, whether these interventions ameliorate the limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diabetes patients remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EX and/or DR on exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice. Male C57BL/6J mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks were randomly assigned for an additional 4 weeks to 4 groups: control, EX, DR, and EX+DR. A lean group fed with a normal diet was also studied. Obesity and insulin resistance induced by a HFD were significantly but partially improved by EX or DR and completely reversed by EX+DR. Although exercise capacity decreased significantly with HFD compared with normal diet, it partially improved with EX and DR and completely reversed with EX+DR. In parallel, the impaired mitochondrial function and enhanced oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle caused by the HFD were normalized only by EX+DR. Although obesity and insulin resistance were completely reversed by DR with an insulin-sensitizing drug or a long-term intervention, the exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function could not be normalized. Therefore, improvement in impaired skeletal muscle function, rather than obesity and insulin resistance, may be an important therapeutic target for normalization of the limited exercise capacity in diabetes. In conclusion, a comprehensive lifestyle therapy of exercise and diet normalizes the limited exercise capacity and impaired muscle function in diabetes mellitus. PMID:24189138

  16. Selective Life-Long Skeletal Myofiber-Targeted VEGF Gene Ablation Impairs Exercise Capacity in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kechun; Gu, Yusu; Dalton, Nancy D; Wagner, Harrieth; Peterson, Kirk L; Wagner, Peter D; Breen, Ellen C

    2016-02-01

    Exercise is dependent on adequate oxygen supply for mitochondrial respiration in both cardiac and locomotor muscle. To determine whether skeletal myofiber VEGF is critical for regulating exercise capacity, independent of VEGF function in the heart, ablation of the VEGF gene was targeted to skeletal myofibers (skmVEGF-/-) during embryogenesis (∼ E9.5), leaving intact VEGF expression by all other cells in muscle. In adult mice, VEGF levels were decreased in the soleus (by 65%), plantaris (94%), gastrocnemius (74%), EDL (99%) and diaphragm (64%) (P < 0.0001, each muscle). VEGF levels were unchanged in the heart. Treadmill speed (WT 86 ± 4 cm/sec, skmVEGF-/- 70 ± 5 cm/sec, P = 0.006) and endurance (WT 78 ± 24 min, skmVEGF-/- 18 ± 4 min, P = 0.0004) were severely limited in skmVEGF-/- mice in contrast to minor effect of conditional skmVEGF gene deletion in the adult. Body weight was also reduced (WT 22.8 ± 1.6 g, skmVEGF-/-, 21.1 ± 1.5, P = 0.02), but the muscle mass/body weight ratio was unchanged. The capillary/fiber ratio was lower in skmVEGF-/- plantaris (WT 1.51 ± 0.12, skmVEGF-/- 1.16 ± 0.20, P = 0.01), gastrocnemius (WT 1.61 ± 0.08, skmVEGF-/- 1.39 ± 0.08, P = 0.01), EDL (WT 1.36 ± 0.07, skmVEGF-/- 1.14 ± 0.13, P = 0.03) and diaphragm (WT 1.39 ±  0.18, skmVEGF-/- 0.79 ± 0.16, P = 0.0001) but, not in soleus. Cardiac function (heart rate, maximal pressure, maximal dP/dt, minimal dP/dt,) in response to dobutamine was not impaired in anesthetized skmVEGF-/- mice. Isolated soleus and EDL fatigue times were 16% and 20% (P < 0.02) longer, respectively, in skmVEGF-/- mice than the WT group. These data suggest that skeletal myofiber VEGF expressed during development is necessary to establish capillary networks that allow maximal exercise capacity. PMID:26201683

  17. Impaired Cholesterol Efflux Capacity of High-Density Lipoprotein Isolated From Interstitial Fluid in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus—Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Tietge, Uwe J.F.; Dikkers, Arne; Parini, Paolo; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Objective— Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism of which is incompletely understood. Their high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in plasma have been reported to have impaired cholesterol efflux capacity. However, the efflux capacity of HDL from interstitial fluid (IF), the starting point for reverse cholesterol transport, has not been studied. We here investigated the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL from IF and plasma from T2D patients and healthy controls. Approach and Results— HDL was isolated from IF and peripheral plasma from 35 T2D patients and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Cholesterol efflux to HDL was determined in vitro, normalized for HDL cholesterol, using cholesterol-loaded macrophages. Efflux capacity of plasma HDL was 10% lower in T2D patients than in healthy controls, in line with previous observations. This difference was much more pronounced for HDL from IF, where efflux capacity was reduced by 28% in T2D. Somewhat surprisingly, the efflux capacity of HDL from IF was lower than that of plasma HDL, by 15% and 32% in controls and T2D patients, respectively. Conclusion— These data demonstrate that (1) HDL from IF has a lower cholesterol efflux capacity than plasma HDL and (2) the efflux capacity of HDL from IF is severely impaired in T2D when compared with controls. Because IF comprises the compartment where reverse cholesterol transport is initiated, the marked reduction in cholesterol efflux capacity of IF-HDL from T2D patients may play an important role for their increased risk to develop atherosclerosis. PMID:27034474

  18. Advanced Glycation End Products Modulate Structure and Drug Binding Properties of Albumin.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Murugan, N Arul; Saraswathi, N T

    2015-09-01

    The extraordinary ligand binding properties of albumin makes it a key player in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many vital drugs. Albumin is highly susceptible for nonenzymatic glycation mediated structural modifications, and there is a need to determine structural and functional impact of specific AGEs modifications. The present study was aimed toward determining the AGE mediated structure and function changes, primarily looking into the effect on binding affinity of drugs in the two major drug binding sites of albumin. The impact of the two most predominant AGEs modifications, i.e., carboxyethyllysine (CEL) and argpyrimidine (Arg-P), was studied on the basis of the combination of in vitro and in silico experiments. In vitro studies were carried out by AGEs modification of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for the formation of Arg-P and CEL followed by drug interaction studies. In silico studies involved molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and docking studies for native and AGEs modified BSAs. In particular the side chain modification was specifically carried out for the residues in the drug binding sites, i.e., Arg-194, Arg-196, Arg-198, and Arg-217, and Lys-204 (site I) and Arg-409 and Lys-413 (site II). The equilibrated structures of native BSA (n-BSA) and glycated BSA (G-BSA) as obtained from MD were used for drug binding studies using molecular docking approach. It was evident from the results of both in vitro and in silico drug interaction studies that AGEs modification results in the reduced drug binding affinity for tolbutamide (TLB) and ibuprofen (IBP) in sites I and II. Moreover, the AGEs modification mediated conformational changes resulted in the shallow binding pockets with reduced accessibility for drugs. PMID:26281017

  19. Structure of P-Glycoprotein Reveals a Molecular Basis for Poly-Specific Drug Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Aller, Stephen G.; Yu, Jodie; Ward, Andrew; Weng, Yue; Chittaboina, Srinivas; Zhuo, Rupeng; Harrell, Patina M.; Trinh, Yenphuong T.; Zhang, Qinghai; Urbatsch, Ina L.; Chang, Geoffrey

    2009-04-22

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) detoxifies cells by exporting hundreds of chemically unrelated toxins but has been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR) in the treatment of cancers. Substrate promiscuity is a hallmark of P-gp activity, thus a structural description of poly-specific drug-binding is important for the rational design of anticancer drugs and MDR inhibitors. The x-ray structure of apo P-gp at 3.8 angstroms reveals an internal cavity of -6000 angstroms cubed with a 30 angstrom separation of the two nucleotide-binding domains. Two additional P-gp structures with cyclic peptide inhibitors demonstrate distinct drug-binding sites in the internal cavity capable of stereoselectivity that is based on hydrophobic and aromatic interactions. Apo and drug-bound P-gp structures have portals open to the cytoplasm and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer for drug entry. The inward-facing conformation represents an initial stage of the transport cycle that is competent for drug binding.

  20. Calorimetric investigation of diclofenac drug binding to a panel of moderately glycated serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Indurthi, Venkata S K; Leclerc, Estelle; Vetter, Stefan W

    2014-08-01

    Glycation alters the drug binding properties of serum proteins and could affect free drug concentrations in diabetic patients with elevated glycation levels. We investigated the effect of bovine serum albumin glycation by eight physiologically relevant glycation reagents (glucose, ribose, carboxymethyllysine, acetoin, methylglyoxal, glyceraldehyde, diacetyl and glycolaldehyde) on diclofenac drug binding. We used this non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac as a paradigm for acidic drugs with high serum binding and because of its potential cardiovascular risks in diabetic patients. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that glycation reduced the binding affinity Ka of serum albumin and diclofenac 2 to 6-fold by reducing structural rigidity of albumin. Glycation affected the number of drug binding sites in a glycation reagent dependent manner and lead to a 25% decrease for most reagent, expect for ribose, with decreased by 60% and for the CML-modification, increased the number of binding sites by 60%. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry we derived the complete thermodynamic characterization of diclofenac binding to all glycated BSA samples. Our results suggest that glycation in diabetic patients could significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of the widely used over-the-counter NSDAI drug diclofenac and with possibly negative implications for patients. PMID:24751671

  1. Exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealed pavement induces genotoxicity and impairment of DNA repair capacity in the RTL-W1 fish liver cell line.

    PubMed

    Kienzler, Aude; Mahler, Barbara J; Van Metre, Peter C; Schweigert, Nathalie; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    Coal-tar-based (CTB) sealcoat, frequently applied to parking lots and driveways in North America, contains elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds. The RTL-W1 fish liver cell line was used to investigate two endpoints (genotoxicity and DNA-repair-capacity impairment) associated with exposure to runoff from asphalt pavement with CTB sealcoat or with an asphalt-based sealcoat hypothesized to contain about 7% CTB sealcoat (AS-blend). Genotoxic potential was assessed by the Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay for 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of runoff samples collected from 5 h to 36 d following sealcoat application. DNA-repair capacity was assessed by the base excision repair comet assay for 1:10 dilution of samples collected 26 h and 36 d following application. Both assays were run with and without co-exposure to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA). With co-exposure to UVA, genotoxic effects were significant for both dilutions of CTB runoff for three of four sample times, and for some samples of AS-blend runoff. Base excision repair was significantly impaired for CTB runoff both with and without UVA exposure, and for AS-blend runoff only in the absence of UVA. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure to the complex mixture of chemicals in coal tar on DNA repair capacity. The results indicate that co-exposure to runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement and UVA as much as a month after sealcoat application has the potential to cause genotoxicity and impair DNA repair capacity. PMID:25795989

  2. Exposure to runoff from coal-tar-sealed pavement induces genotoxicity and impairment of DNA repair capacity in the RTL-W1 fish liver cell line

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kienzler, Aude; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Schweigert, Nathalie; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Coal-tar-based (CTB) sealcoat, frequently applied to parking lots and driveways in North America, contains elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related compounds. The RTL-W1 fish liver cell line was used to investigate two endpoints (genotoxicity and DNA-repair-capacity impairment) associated with exposure to runoff from asphalt pavement with CTB sealcoat or with an asphalt-based sealcoat hypothesized to contain about 7% CTB sealcoat (AS-blend). Genotoxic potential was assessed by the Formamido pyrimidine glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay for 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of runoff samples collected from 5 h to 36 d following sealcoat application. DNA-repair capacity was assessed by the base excision repair comet assay for 1:10 dilution of samples collected 26 h and 36 d following application. Both assays were run with and without co-exposure to ultraviolet-A radiation (UVA). With co-exposure to UVA, genotoxic effects were significant for both dilutions of CTB runoff for three of four sample times, and for some samples of AS-blend runoff. Base excision repair was significantly impaired for CTB runoff both with and without UVA exposure, and for AS-blend runoff only in the absence of UVA. This study is the first to investigate the effects of exposure to the complex mixture of chemicals in coal tar on DNA repair capacity. The results indicate that co-exposure to runoff from CT-sealcoated pavement and UVA as much as a month after sealcoat application has the potential to cause genotoxicity and impair DNA repair capacity.

  3. Do drugs have access to the P-glycoprotein drug-binding pocket through gates?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ricardo J; Ferreira, Maria-José U; Dos Santos, Daniel J V A

    2015-10-13

    The P-glycoprotein efflux mechanism is being studied since its identification as a leading protagonist in multidrug resistance. Recently, it was suggested that drugs enter the drug-binding pocket (DBP) through gates located between the transmembrane domains. For both a substrate and a modulator, the potential of mean force curves along the reaction coordinate obtained with the WHAM approach were similar, with no activation energy required for crossing the gate. Moreover, drug transit from bulk water into the DBP was characterized as an overall free-energy downhill process. PMID:26574244

  4. Age-related decline in verbal learning is moderated by demographic factors, working memory capacity, and presence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Constantinidou, Fofi; Zaganas, Ioannis; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Nidos, Andreas; Simos, Panagiotis G

    2014-09-01

    Age-related memory changes are highly varied and heterogeneous. The study examined the rate of decline in verbal episodic memory as a function of education level, auditory attention span and verbal working memory capacity, and diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Data were available on a community sample of 653 adults aged 17-86 years and 70 patients with a-MCI recruited from eight broad geographic areas in Greece and Cyprus. Measures of auditory attention span and working memory capacity (digits forward and backward) and verbal episodic memory (Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]) were used. Moderated mediation regressions on data from the community sample did not reveal significant effects of education level on the rate of age-related decline in AVLT indices. The presence of a-MCI was a significant moderator of the direct effect of Age on both immediate and delayed episodic memory indices. The rate of age-related decline in verbal episodic memory is normally mediated by working memory capacity. Moreover, in persons who display poor episodic memory capacity (a-MCI group), age-related memory decline is expected to advance more rapidly for those who also display relatively poor verbal working memory capacity. PMID:25156204

  5. Crystal structure of equine serum albumin in complex with cetirizine reveals a novel drug binding site.

    PubMed

    Handing, Katarzyna B; Shabalin, Ivan G; Szlachta, Karol; Majorek, Karolina A; Minor, Wladek

    2016-03-01

    Serum albumin (SA) is the main transporter of drugs in mammalian blood plasma. Here, we report the first crystal structure of equine serum albumin (ESA) in complex with antihistamine drug cetirizine at a resolution of 2.1Å. Cetirizine is bound in two sites--a novel drug binding site (CBS1) and the fatty acid binding site 6 (CBS2). Both sites differ from those that have been proposed in multiple reports based on equilibrium dialysis and fluorescence studies for mammalian albumins as cetirizine binding sites. We show that the residues forming the binding pockets in ESA are highly conserved in human serum albumin (HSA), and suggest that binding of cetirizine to HSA will be similar. In support of that hypothesis, we show that the dissociation constants for cetirizine binding to CBS2 in ESA and HSA are identical using tryptophan fluorescence quenching. Presence of lysine and arginine residues that have been previously reported to undergo nonenzymatic glycosylation in CBS1 and CBS2 suggests that cetirizine transport in patients with diabetes could be altered. A review of all available SA structures from the PDB shows that in addition to the novel drug binding site we present here (CBS1), there are two pockets on SA capable of binding drugs that do not overlap with fatty acid binding sites and have not been discussed in published reviews. PMID:26896718

  6. Oligomycin frames a common drug-binding site in the ATP synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Symersky, Jindrich; Osowski, Daniel; Walters, D. Eric; Mueller, David M.

    2015-12-01

    We report the high-resolution (1.9 {angstrom}) crystal structure of oligomycin bound to the subunit c10 ring of the yeast mitochondrial ATP synthase. Oligomycin binds to the surface of the c10 ring making contact with two neighboring molecules at a position that explains the inhibitory effect on ATP synthesis. The carboxyl side chain of Glu59, which is essential for proton translocation, forms an H-bond with oligomycin via a bridging water molecule but is otherwise shielded from the aqueous environment. The remaining contacts between oligomycin and subunit c are primarily hydrophobic. The amino acid residues that form the oligomycin-binding site are 100% conserved between human and yeast but are widely different from those in bacterial homologs, thus explaining the differential sensitivity to oligomycin. Prior genetics studies suggest that the oligomycin-binding site overlaps with the binding site of other antibiotics, including those effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and thereby frames a common 'drug-binding site.' We anticipate that this drug-binding site will serve as an effective target for new antibiotics developed by rational design.

  7. Microstructural Integrity of the Superior Cerebellar Peduncle Is Associated with an Impaired Proprioceptive Weighting Capacity in Individuals with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Pijnenburg, Madelon; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Janssens, Lotte; Goossens, Nina; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Sunaert, Stefan; Brumagne, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postural control is a complex sensorimotor task that requires an intact network of white matter connections. The ability to weight proprioceptive signals is crucial for postural control. However, research into central processing of proprioceptive signals for postural control is lacking. This is specifically of interest in individuals with non-specific low back pain (NSLBP), because impairments in postural control have been observed as possible underlying mechanisms of NSLBP. Therefore, the objective was to investigate potential differences in sensorimotor white matter microstructure between individuals with NSLBP and healthy controls, and to determine whether the alterations in individuals with NSLBP are associated with the capacity to weight proprioceptive signals for postural control. Methods The contribution of proprioceptive signals from the ankle and back muscles to postural control was evaluated by local muscle vibration in 18 individuals with NSLBP and 18 healthy controls. Center of pressure displacement in response to muscle vibration was determined during upright standing on a stable and unstable support surface. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was applied to examine whether this proprioceptive contribution was associated with sensorimotor white matter microstructure. Results Individuals with NSLBP showed a trend towards a reduced fractional anisotropy along the left superior cerebellar peduncle compared to healthy controls (p = 0.039). The impaired microstructural integrity of the superior cerebellar peduncle in individuals with NSLBP was significantly correlated with the response to ankle muscle vibration (p<0.003). Conclusions In individuals with NSLBP, a decreased integrity of the superior cerebellar peduncle was associated with an increased reliance on ankle muscle proprioception, even on unstable support surface, which implies an impaired proprioceptive weighting capacity. Our findings emphasize the importance of the superior

  8. No Clear Association between Impaired Short-Term or Working Memory Storage and Time Reproduction Capacity in Adult ADHD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mette, Christian; Grabemann, Marco; Zimmermann, Marco; Strunz, Laura; Scherbaum, Norbert; Wiltfang, Jens; Kis, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Objective Altered time reproduction is exhibited by patients with adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It remains unclear whether memory capacity influences the ability of adults with ADHD to reproduce time intervals. Method We conducted a behavioral study on 30 ADHD patients who were medicated with methylphenidate, 29 unmedicated adult ADHD patients and 32 healthy controls (HCs). We assessed time reproduction using six time intervals (1 s, 4 s, 6 s, 10 s, 24 s and 60 s) and assessed memory performance using the Wechsler memory scale. Results The patients with ADHD exhibited lower memory performance scores than the HCs. No significant differences in the raw scores for any of the time intervals (p > .05), with the exception of the variability at the short time intervals (1 s, 4 s and 6 s) (p < .01), were found between the groups. The overall analyses failed to reveal any significant correlations between time reproduction at any of the time intervals examined in the time reproduction task and working memory performance (p > .05). Conclusion We detected no findings indicating that working memory might influence time reproduction in adult patients with ADHD. Therefore, further studies concerning time reproduction and memory capacity among adult patients with ADHD must be performed to verify and replicate the present findings. PMID:26221955

  9. Anguillicola crassus impairs the silvering-related enhancements of the ROS defense capacity in swimbladder tissue of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    PubMed

    Schneebauer, Gabriel; Hanel, Reinhold; Pelster, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    In a process called silvering, European eels prepare for their long-distance migration from European freshwater systems to the Sargasso Sea for reproduction. During this journey, eels perform extended diel vertical migrations, and the concomitant changes in hydrostatic pressure significantly affect the swimbladder, functioning as a buoyancy organ. As the swimbladder is primarily filled with oxygen, the tissue has to cope with extreme hyperoxic conditions, which typically are accompanied by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. In addition, since the introduction of the parasitic nematode Anguillicola crassus in the early 1980s, swimbladder function of most of the European eels is impaired by the infection with this parasite. However, the exact pathways to detoxify ROS and how these pathways are affected by silvering or the infection are still unknown. In swimbladder and muscle tissue from uninfected and infected yellow, and from uninfected and infected silver eels, we measured the level of lipid peroxidation, which increases with ROS stress. To assess the capacity of the ROS defense systems, we analyzed the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), and determined the concentration of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH + GSSG). In swimbladder tissue, we found increased concentrations of GSH + GSSG as well as higher activities of SOD, GPx and GR, suggesting that SOD and the glutathione cycle are important for ROS detoxification. Comparing swimbladder tissue of uninfected yellow with uninfected silver eels, the concentration of GSH + GSSG and the activity of SOD were higher after silvering, corresponding with lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Whereas in yellow eels the infection with A. crassus had no effect, in silver eels the capacity to cope with ROS was significantly impaired. In muscle tissue, silvering or the infection only affected the activity of SOD

  10. The motile and invasive capacity of human endometrial stromal cells: implications for normal and impaired reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Weimar, Charlotte H E; Macklon, Nick S; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Brosens, Jan J; Gellersen, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mechanisms underlying early reproductive loss in the human are beginning to be elucidated. The migratory and invasive capacity of human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) is increasingly recognized to contribute to the intense tissue remodelling associated with embryo implantation, trophoblast invasion and endometrial regeneration. In this review, we examine the signals and mechanisms that control ESC migration and invasion and assess how deregulation of these cell functions contributes to common reproductive disorders. METHODS The PubMed database was searched for publications on motility and invasiveness of human ESCs in normal endometrial function and in reproductive disorders including implantation failure, recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), endometriosis and adenomyosis, covering the period 2000-2012. RESULTS Increasing evidence suggests that implantation failure and RPL involve abnormal migratory responses of decidualizing ESCs to embryo and trophoblast signals. Numerous reports indicate that endometriosis, as well as adenomyosis, is associated with increased basal and stimulated invasiveness of ESCs and their progenitor cells, suggesting a link between a heightened menstrual repair response and the formation of ectopic implants. Migration and invasiveness of ESCs are controlled by a complex array of hormones, growth factors, chemokines and inflammatory mediators, and involve signalling through Rho GTPases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. CONCLUSIONS Novel concepts are extending our understanding of the key functions of ESCs in effecting tissue repair imposed by cyclic menstruation and parturition. Migration of decidualizing ESCs also serves to support blastocyst implantation and embryo selection through discriminate motile responses directed by embryo quality. Targeting regulatory molecules holds promise for developing new strategies for the treatment of reproductive disorders such as endometriosis and

  11. The drug binding sites and transport mechanism of the RND pumps from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Padmani; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-02-15

    RND permease superfamily drug efflux pumps are involved in multidrug transport and are attractive to study them for therapeutic purpose. In previous work we have classified 14 members of MmpL proteins belong to RND superfamily from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) within its families [Sandhu P. and Akhter Y., 2015. Int. J. Med. Microbiol., 305:413-423]. In this study, structures of these proteins are homology modelled. The drug binding sites and channels are identified using local micro-stereochemistry and charge densities. Potential transport mechanism based on differential structural behaviour in the absence and on the binding of drug molecules is explained using the molecular dynamics simulation results. Our studies show two potential drug binding sites positioned at opposite ends of the transport tunnel leading from cytoplasmic to the periplasmic space across MmpL5 trimer. The drug binding have effects on the structural conformation of the protein leading to molecular-scale peristaltic movements. The free binding energy calculations reveal that the subsequent binding events are interdependent and may have implications on transport mechanism. Two drug binding sites and a continuous channel in the RND pump have been reported. The proposed ligand binding mechanism shows peristaltic movements in the channel leading to the drug efflux. This study would be helpful in understanding the molecular basis of drugs resistance in Mtb. PMID:26792538

  12. Digalactosyl-diacylglycerol deficiency impairs the capacity for photosynthetic intersystem electron transport and state transitions in Arabidopsis thaliana due to photosystem I acceptor-side limitations.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Alexander G; Hendrickson, Luke; Krol, Marianna; Selstam, Eva; Oquist, Gunnar; Hurry, Vaughan; Huner, Norman P A

    2006-08-01

    Compared with wild type, the dgd1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibited a lower amount of PSI-related Chl-protein complexes and lower abundance of the PSI-associated polypeptides, PsaA, PsaB, PsaC, PsaL and PsaH, with no changes in the levels of Lhca1-4. Functionally, the dgd1 mutant exhibited a significantly lower light-dependent, steady-state oxidation level of P700 (P700(+)) in vivo, a higher intersystem electron pool size, restricted linear electron transport and a higher rate of reduction of P700(+) in the dark, indicating an increased capacity for PSI cyclic electron transfer compared with the wild type. Concomitantly, the dgd1 mutant exhibited a higher sensitivity to and incomplete recovery of photoinhibition of PSI. Furthermore, dgd1 exhibited a lower capacity to undergo state transitions compared with the wild type, which was associated with a higher reduction state of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. We conclude that digalactosyl-diacylglycerol (DGDG) deficiency results in PSI acceptor-side limitations that alter the flux of electrons through the photosynthetic electron chain and impair the regulation of distribution of excitation energy between the photosystems. These results are discussed in terms of thylakoid membrane domain reorganization in response to DGDG deficiency in A. thaliana. PMID:16854937

  13. Survey of phosphorylation near drug binding sites in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and their effects.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle P; Gifford, Kathleen M; Waitzman, Joshua S; Rice, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    While it is currently estimated that 40 to 50% of eukaryotic proteins are phosphorylated, little is known about the frequency and local effects of phosphorylation near pharmaceutical inhibitor binding sites. In this study, we investigated how frequently phosphorylation may affect the binding of drug inhibitors to target proteins. We examined the 453 non-redundant structures of soluble mammalian drug target proteins bound to inhibitors currently available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We cross-referenced these structures with phosphorylation data available from the PhosphoSitePlus database. Three hundred twenty-two of 453 (71%) of drug targets have evidence of phosphorylation that has been validated by multiple methods or labs. For 132 of 453 (29%) of those, the phosphorylation site is within 12 Å of the small molecule-binding site, where it would likely alter small molecule binding affinity. We propose a framework for distinguishing between drug-phosphorylation site interactions that are likely to alter the efficacy of drugs versus those that are not. In addition we highlight examples of well-established drug targets, such as estrogen receptor alpha, for which phosphorylation may affect drug affinity and clinical efficacy. Our data suggest that phosphorylation may affect drug binding and efficacy for a significant fraction of drug target proteins. PMID:24833420

  14. Effect of bioceramic functional groups on drug binding and release kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Christopher

    Bioceramics have been studied extensively as drug delivery systems (DDS). Those studies have aimed to tailor the drug binding and release kinetics to successfully treat infections and other diseases. This research suggests that the drug binding and release kinetics are predominantly driven by the functional groups available on the surface of a bioceramic. The goal of the present study is to explain the role of silicate and phosphate functional groups in drug binding to and release kinetics from bioceramics. alpha-cristobalite (Cris; SiO2) particles (90-150 microm) were prepared and doped with 0 microg (P-0), 39.1 microg (P-39.1), 78.2 microg (P-78.2), 165.5 microg (P-165.5) or 331 microg (P-331) of P 2O5 per gram Cris, using 85% orthophosphoric (H3PO 4) acid and thermal treatment. The material structure was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) with Rietveld Refinement and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with Gaussian fitting. XRD demonstrated an increase from sample P-0 (170.5373 A3) to P-331 (170.6466 A 3) in the unit cell volume as the P2O5 concentration increased in the material confirming phosphate silicate substitution in Cris. Moreover, FTIR showed the characteristic bands of phosphate functional groups of nu4 PO4/O-P-O bending, P-O-P stretching, P-O-P bending, P=O stretching, and P-O-H bending in doped Cris indicating phosphate incorporation in the silicate structure. Furthermore, FTIR showed that the nu4 PO4/O-P-O bending band around 557.6 cm-1 and P=O stretching band around 1343.9 cm-1 increased in area for samples P-39.1 to P-331 from 3.5 to 10.5 and from 10.1 to 22.4, respectively due to phosphate doping. In conjunction with the increase of the nu4 PO4/O-P-O bending band and P=O stretching band, a decrease in area of the O-Si-O bending bands around 488.1 and 629.8 cm-1 was noticed for samples P-39.1 to P-331 from 5 to 2 and from 11.8 to 5.4, respectively. Furthermore, Cris samples (200 mg, n=5 for each sample) were immersed separately in

  15. Survey of phosphorylation near drug binding sites in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and their effects

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyle P.; Gifford, Kathleen M.; Waitzman, Joshua S.; Rice, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    While it is currently estimated that 40–50% of eukaryotic proteins are phosphorylated, little is known about the frequency and local effects of phosphorylation near pharmaceutical inhibitor binding sites. In this study, we investigated how frequently phosphorylation may affect the binding of drug inhibitors to target proteins. We examined the 453 non-redundant structures of soluble mammalian drug target proteins bound to inhibitors currently available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). We cross-referenced these structures with phosphorylation data available from the PhosphoSitePlus database. 322/453 (71%) of drug targets have evidence of phosphorylation that has been validated by multiple methods or labs. For 132/453 (29%) of those, the phosphorylation site is within 12Å of the small molecule-binding site, where it would likely alter small molecule binding affinity. We propose a framework for distinguishing between drug-phosphorylation site interactions that are likely to alter the efficacy of drugs vs. those that are not. In addition we highlight examples of well-established drug targets, such as estrogen receptor alpha, for which phosphorylation may affect drug affinity and clinical efficacy. Our data suggest that phosphorylation may affect drug binding and efficacy for a significant fraction of drug target proteins. PMID:24833420

  16. High-throughput screening of drug-binding dynamics to HERG improves early drug safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Di Veroli, Giovanni Y; Davies, Mark R; Zhang, Henggui; Abi-Gerges, Najah; Boyett, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    The use of computational models to predict drug-induced changes in the action potential (AP) is a promising approach to reduce drug safety attrition but requires a better representation of more complex drug-target interactions to improve the quantitative prediction. The blockade of the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) channel is a major concern for QT prolongation and Torsade de Pointes risk. We aim to develop quantitative in-silico AP predictions based on a new electrophysiological protocol (suitable for high-throughput HERG screening) and mathematical modeling of ionic currents. Electrophysiological recordings using the IonWorks device were made from HERG channels stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. A new protocol that delineates inhibition over time was applied to assess dofetilide, cisapride, and almokalant effects. Dynamic effects displayed distinct profiles for these drugs compared with concentration-effects curves. Binding kinetics to specific states were identified using a new HERG Markov model. The model was then modified to represent the canine rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current at 37°C and carry out AP predictions. Predictions were compared with a simpler model based on conductance reduction and were found to be much closer to experimental data. Improved sensitivity to concentration and pacing frequency variables was obtained when including binding kinetics. Our new electrophysiological protocol is suitable for high-throughput screening and is able to distinguish drug-binding kinetics. The association of this protocol with our modeling approach indicates that quantitative predictions of AP modulation can be obtained, which is a significant improvement compared with traditional conductance reduction methods. PMID:23103500

  17. Molecular Dynamics of Rab7::REP1::GGTase-II Ternary Complex and Identification of Their Putative Drug Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Meenakshi; Saini, Vandana; Piplani, Sakshi; Kumar, A

    2013-01-01

    The structure-function correlation of membrane proteins have been a difficult task, particularly in context to transient protein complexes. The molecular simulation of ternary complex of Rab7::REP1::GGTase-II was carried out to understand the basic structural events occurring during the prenylation event of Rab proteins, using the software YASARA. The study suggested that the C-terminus of Rab7 has to be in completely extended conformation during prenylation to reach the active site of RabGGTase-II. Also, attempt was made to find putative drug binding sites on the ternary complex of Rab7::REP1::GGTase-II using Q-SiteFinder programme. The comprehensive consensus probe generated by the program revealed a total of 10 major pockets as putative drug binding sites on Rab7::REP:: GGTase-II ternary complex. These pockets were found on REP protein and GGTase protein subunits. The Rab7 was found to be devoid of any putative drug binding sites in the ternary complex. The phylogenetic analysis of 60 Rab proteins of human was carried out using PHYLIP and study indicated the close phylogenetic relationship between Rab7 and Rab9 proteins of human and hence with further in silico study, the present observations can be extrapolated to Rab9 proteins. The study paves a good platform for further experimental verifications of the findings and other in silico studies like identifying the potential drug targets by searching the putative drug binding sites, generating pharmacophoric pattern, searching or constructing suitable ligand and docking studies. PMID:23901157

  18. Effect of bioceramic functional groups on drug binding and release kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, Christopher

    Bioceramics have been studied extensively as drug delivery systems (DDS). Those studies have aimed to tailor the drug binding and release kinetics to successfully treat infections and other diseases. This research suggests that the drug binding and release kinetics are predominantly driven by the functional groups available on the surface of a bioceramic. The goal of the present study is to explain the role of silicate and phosphate functional groups in drug binding to and release kinetics from bioceramics. alpha-cristobalite (Cris; SiO2) particles (90-150 microm) were prepared and doped with 0 microg (P-0), 39.1 microg (P-39.1), 78.2 microg (P-78.2), 165.5 microg (P-165.5) or 331 microg (P-331) of P 2O5 per gram Cris, using 85% orthophosphoric (H3PO 4) acid and thermal treatment. The material structure was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) with Rietveld Refinement and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with Gaussian fitting. XRD demonstrated an increase from sample P-0 (170.5373 A3) to P-331 (170.6466 A 3) in the unit cell volume as the P2O5 concentration increased in the material confirming phosphate silicate substitution in Cris. Moreover, FTIR showed the characteristic bands of phosphate functional groups of nu4 PO4/O-P-O bending, P-O-P stretching, P-O-P bending, P=O stretching, and P-O-H bending in doped Cris indicating phosphate incorporation in the silicate structure. Furthermore, FTIR showed that the nu4 PO4/O-P-O bending band around 557.6 cm-1 and P=O stretching band around 1343.9 cm-1 increased in area for samples P-39.1 to P-331 from 3.5 to 10.5 and from 10.1 to 22.4, respectively due to phosphate doping. In conjunction with the increase of the nu4 PO4/O-P-O bending band and P=O stretching band, a decrease in area of the O-Si-O bending bands around 488.1 and 629.8 cm-1 was noticed for samples P-39.1 to P-331 from 5 to 2 and from 11.8 to 5.4, respectively. Furthermore, Cris samples (200 mg, n=5 for each sample) were immersed separately in

  19. Beyond capacity limitations II: Effects of lexical processes on word recall in verbal working memory tasks in children with and without specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the impact of lexical processes on target word recall in sentence span tasks in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method Participants were 42 children (ages 8;2–12;3), 21 with SLI and 21 typically developing peers matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children completed a sentence span task where target words to be recalled varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. Two measures of lexical processes were examined, the number of non-target competitor words activated during a gating task (lexical cohort competition) and word definitions. Results Neighborhood density had no effect on word recall for either group. However, both groups recalled significantly more high than low frequency words. Lexical cohort competition and specificity of semantic representations accounted for unique variance in the number of target word recalled in the SLI and CA groups combined. Conclusions Performance on verbal working memory span tasks for both SLI and CA children is influenced by word frequency, lexical cohorts, and semantic representations. Future studies need to examine the extent to which verbal working memory capacity is a cognitive construct independent of extant language knowledge representations. PMID:20705747

  20. A retroactive spatial cue improved VSTM capacity in mild cognitive impairment and medial temporal lobe amnesia but not in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Rachel N; Duarte, Audrey; Pun, Carson; Smith, Victoria M; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D

    2015-10-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a vital cognitive ability, connecting visual input with conscious awareness. VSTM performance declines with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and medial temporal lobe (MTL) amnesia. Many studies have shown that providing a spatial retrospective cue ("retrocue") improves VSTM capacity estimates for healthy young adults. However, one study has demonstrated that older adults are unable to use a retrocue to inhibit irrelevant items from memory. It is unknown whether patients with MCI and MTL amnesia will be able to use a retrocue to benefit their memory. We administered a retrocue and a baseline (simultaneous cue, "simucue") task to young adults, older adults, MCI patients, and MTL cases. Consistent with previous findings, young adults showed a retrocue benefit, whereas healthy older adults did not. In contrast, both MCI patients and MTL cases showed a retrocue benefit--the use of a retrocue brought patient performance up to the level of age-matched controls. We speculate that the patients were able to use the spatial information from the retrocue to reduce interference and facilitate binding items to their locations. PMID:26300388

  1. Impaired Endothelial Repair Capacity of Early Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Hypertensive Patients With Primary Hyperaldosteronemia: Role of 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobiopterin Oxidation and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Ding, Mei-Lin; Wu, Fang; He, Wen; Li, Jin; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Xie, Wen-Li; Duan, Sheng-Zhong; Xia, Wen-Hao; Tao, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Although hyperaldosteronemia exerts detrimental impacts on vascular endothelium in addition to elevating blood pressure, the effects and molecular mechanisms of hyperaldosteronemia on early endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-mediated endothelial repair after arterial damage are yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs from hypertensive patients with primary hyperaldosteronemia (PHA). In vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs from PHAs (n=20), age- and blood pressure-matched essential hypertension patients (n=20), and age-matched healthy subjects (n=20) was evaluated by transplantation into a nude mouse carotid endothelial denudation model. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation of brachial artery in human subjects. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs and flow-mediated dilation were impaired both in PHAs and in essential hypertension patients when compared with age-matched healthy subjects; however, the early EPC in vivo endothelial repair capacity and flow-mediated dilation of PHAs were impaired more severely than essential hypertension patients. Oral spironolactone improved early EPC in vivo endothelial repair capacity and flow-mediated dilation of PHAs. Increased oxidative stress, oxidative 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin degradation, endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling and decreased nitric oxide production were found in early EPCs from PHAs. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47(phox) knockdown or 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin supplementation attenuated endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling and enhanced in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs from PHAs. In conclusion, PHAs exhibited more impaired endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs than did essential hypertension patients independent of blood pressure, which was associated with mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent oxidative stress and subsequently 5

  2. MiR-137 Targets Estrogen-Related Receptor Alpha and Impairs the Proliferative and Migratory Capacity of Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuanyin; Li, Yuping; Lou, Guiyu; Zhao, Li; Xu, Zhizhen; Zhang, Yan; He, Fengtian

    2012-01-01

    ERRα is an orphan nuclear receptor emerging as a novel biomarker of breast cancer. Over-expression of ERRα in breast tumor is considered as a prognostic factor of poor clinical outcome. The mechanisms underlying the dysexpression of this nuclear receptor, however, are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play important roles in tumor initiation and progression. In the present study, we have identified that the expression of ERRα is regulated by miR-137, a potential tumor suppressor microRNA. The bioinformatics search revealed two putative and highly conserved target-sites for miR-137 located within the ERRα 3′UTR at nt 480–486 and nt 596–602 respectively. Luciferase-reporter assay demonstrated that the two predicted target sites were authentically functional. They mediated the repression of reporter gene expression induced by miR-137 in an additive manner. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-137 down-regulated ERRα expression at both protein level and mRNA level, and the miR-137 induced ERRα-knockdown contributed to the impaired proliferative and migratory capacity of breast cancer cells. Furthermore, transfection with miR-137mimics suppressed at least two downstream target genes of ERRα–CCNE1 and WNT11, which are important effectors of ERRα implicated in tumor proliferation and migration. Taken together, our results establish a role of miR-137 in negatively regulating ERRα expression and breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. They suggest that manipulating the expression level of ERRα by microRNAs has the potential to influence breast cancer progression. PMID:22723937

  3. Computational Assay of H7N9 Influenza Neuraminidase Reveals R292K Mutation Reduces Drug Binding Affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Christopher J.; Malaisree, Maturos; Long, Ben; McIntosh-Smith, Simon; Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2013-12-01

    The emergence of a novel H7N9 avian influenza that infects humans is a serious cause for concern. Of the genome sequences of H7N9 neuraminidase available, one contains a substitution of arginine to lysine at position 292, suggesting a potential for reduced drug binding efficacy. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of oseltamivir, zanamivir and peramivir bound to H7N9, H7N9-R292K, and a structurally related H11N9 neuraminidase. They show that H7N9 neuraminidase is structurally homologous to H11N9, binding the drugs in identical modes. The simulations reveal that the R292K mutation disrupts drug binding in H7N9 in a comparable manner to that observed experimentally for H11N9-R292K. Absolute binding free energy calculations with the WaterSwap method confirm a reduction in binding affinity. This indicates that the efficacy of antiviral drugs against H7N9-R292K will be reduced. Simulations can assist in predicting disruption of binding caused by mutations in neuraminidase, thereby providing a computational `assay.'

  4. A fluorescent reporter detects details of aromatic ligand interference in drug-binding sites of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Dobretsov, Gennady; Smolina, Natalia; Syrejshchikova, Tatiana; Brilliantova, Varvara; Uzbekov, Marat

    2016-09-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) transports many ligands including small aromatic molecules: metabolites, drugs etc. Phenylbutazone is an anti-inflammatory drug, which binds to the drug-binding site I of HSA. Its interaction with this site has been studied using a fluorescent dye, CAPIDAN, whose fluorescence in serum originates from HSA and is sensitive to the changes in HSA site I in some diseases. Its fluorescence in HSA solutions is strongly suppressed by phenylbutazone. This phenomenon seems to be a basic sign of a simple drug-dye competition. However, a more detailed study of the time-resolved fluorescence decay of CAPIDAN has shown that phenylbutazone lowers fluorescence without changing the total amount of bound dye. In brief, the HSA-bound dye forms three populations due to three types of environment at the binding sites. The first two populations probably have a rather strong Coulomb interaction with the positive charge of residues Arginine 218 or Arginine 222 in site I and are responsible for approximately 90% of the total fluorescence. Phenylbutazone blocks this interaction and therefore lowers this fluorescence. At the same time the binding of the third population increases considerably in the presence of phenylbutazone, and, as a result, the actual number of bound dye molecules remains almost unchanged despite the ligand competition. So, time resolved fluorescence of the reporter allows to observe details of interactions and interference of aromatic ligands in drug binding site I of HSA both in isolated HSA and in serum. PMID:27318089

  5. Drug-binding energetics of human α-1-acid glycoprotein assessed by isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular docking simulations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Johnny X.; Cooper, Matthew A.; Baker, Mark A.; Azad, Mohammad A.K.; Nation, Roger L.; Li, Jian; Velkov, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This study utilizes sensitive, modern isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) methods to characterize the microscopic thermodynamic parameters that drive the binding of basic drugs to α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and thereby rationalize the thermodynamic data in relation to docking models and crystallographic structures of the drug-AGP complexes. The binding of basic compounds from the tricyclic antidepressant series, together with miaserine, chlorpromazine, disopyramide and cimetidine all displayed an exothermically driven binding interaction with AGP. The impact of protonation/deprotonation events, ionic strength, temperature and the individual selectivity of the A and F1*S AGP variants on drug-binding thermodynamics were characterized. A correlation plot of the thermodynamic parameters for all of the test compounds revealed enthalpy-entropy compensation is in effect. The exothermic binding energetics of the test compounds were driven by a combination of favorable (negative) enthalpic (ΔH°) and favorable (positive) entropic (ΔS°) contributions to the Gibbs free energy (ΔG°). Collectively, the data imply that the free energies that drive drug binding to AGP and its relationship to drug-serum residency evolve from the complex interplay of enthalpic and entropic forces from interactions with explicit combinations of hydrophobic and polar side-chain sub-domains within the multi-lobed AGP ligand binding cavity. PMID:23192962

  6. Effect of drug-binding-induced deformation on the vibrational spectrum of a DNA.daunomycin complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Z.; Szabó, A.; Schroeter, D. F.; Powell, J. W.; Lee, S. A.; Prohofsky, E. W.

    1997-06-01

    Vibrational frequencies of a DNA.daunomycin complex and those of a free DNA helix and an isolated daunomycin are calculated and compared with the infrared spectrum of similar systems at frequencies above 600 cm-1. Our study indicates that the binding induces a considerable change in the vibrational spectrum of both DNA and the binding drug. The frequency shifts appear to be closely related to the conformational deformation in the complex caused by drug binding. Significant frequency shift is found in the normal modes in the DNA.drug complex that are primarily vibrations localized to the sugar-phosphate backbone of the binding site. Sizable frequency change is also found in the modes associated with base atoms involved in the drug binding and in the modes in regions of the binding daunomycin that are deformed by the binding. In contrast the frequency of the modes in the region with no significant deformation is relatively unchanged. The modification of the DNA dynamical force field by the nonbonded interactions between DNA and the drug is found to have little effect on the modes in DNA above 600 cm-1. The modification to the daunomycin dynamical force field appears to be sizable since the frequency of several daunomycin modes is changed by several cm-1. The close relationship between structure and spectrum revealed in this work is of potential application in the identification of sites and types of deformation of a biomolecule from Raman and infrared spectra.

  7. Cigarette smoke induces alterations in the drug-binding properties of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Clerici, Marco; Colombo, Graziano; Secundo, Francesco; Gagliano, Nicoletta; Colombo, Roberto; Portinaro, Nicola; Giustarini, Daniela; Milzani, Aldo; Rossi, Ranieri; Dalle-Donne, Isabella

    2014-04-01

    Albumin is the most abundant plasma protein and serves as a transport and depot protein for numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. Earlier we had shown that cigarette smoke induces carbonylation of human serum albumin (HSA) and alters its redox state. Here, the effect of whole-phase cigarette smoke on HSA ligand-binding properties was evaluated by equilibrium dialysis and size-exclusion HPLC or tryptophan fluorescence. The binding of salicylic acid and naproxen to cigarette smoke-oxidized HSA resulted to be impaired, unlike that of curcumin and genistein, chosen as representative ligands. Binding of the hydrophobic fluorescent probe 4,4'-bis(1-anilino-8-naphtalenesulfonic acid) (bis-ANS), intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, and susceptibility to enzymatic proteolysis revealed slight changes in albumin conformation. These findings suggest that cigarette smoke-induced modifications of HSA may affect the binding, transport and bioavailability of specific ligands in smokers. PMID:24388826

  8. Beyond Capacity Limitations II: Effects of Lexical Processes on Word Recall in Verbal Working Memory Tasks in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the impact of lexical processes on target word recall in sentence span tasks in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Participants were 42 children (ages 8;2-12;3 [years;months]): 21 with SLI and 21 typically developing peers matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children completed a…

  9. Cancer ‘survivor-care’: II. Disruption of prefrontal brain activation top-down control of working memory capacity as possible mechanism for chemo-fog/brain (chemotherapy-associated cognitive impairment)

    PubMed Central

    Raffa, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY What is known and Objective Cancer chemotherapy-associated cognitive impairments (termed ‘chemo-fog’ or ‘chemo-brain’), particularly in memory, have been self-reported or identified in cancer survivors previously treated with chemotherapy. While a variety of deficits have been detected, a consistent theme is a detriment in visuospatial working memory. The parietal cortex, a major site of storage of such memory, is implicated in chemotherapy-induced damage. However, if the findings of two recent publications are combined, the (pre)frontal cortex might be an equally viable target. Two recent studies, one postulating a mechanism for ‘top-down control’ of working memory capacity and another visualizing chemotherapy-induced alterations in brain activation during working memory processing, are reviewed and integrated. Comment A computational model and the proposal that the prefrontal cortex plays a role in working memory via top-down control of parietal working memory capacity is consistent with a recent demonstration of decreased frontal hyperactivation following chemotherapy. What is new and Conclusion Chemotherapy-associated impairment of visuospatial working memory might include the (pre)frontal cortex In addition to the parietal cortex. This provides new opportunity for basic science and clinical investigation. PMID:23656522

  10. The relationship between health-related quality of life and higher-level functional capacity in elderly women with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Kazuyoshi; Tsutou, Akimitsu; Fujino, Hidemi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To clarify health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), using EuroQOL (EQ-5D), and to investigate the relationship between HR-QOL and Tokyo Metropolitan Institute Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC) scores. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects included 25 women with MCI or frail constitutions. A variety of methods were used to assess mental states and activities of daily living (ADL). [Results] EQ-5D scores were significantly lower in the MCI group than in the normal cognitive (NC) group. Among the assessed subscales, the percentages of participants with “moderate problems” during self-care and “moderate and extreme problems” during usual activities were significantly higher in the MCI group. TMIG-IC scores were significantly lower in the MCI group than in the NC group. There was a positive correlation between TMIG-IC and EQ-5D scores in the MCI group. There were also significant positive correlations between instrumental activities of daily living and social roles between EQ-5D and TMIG-IC scores in the MCI group. [Conclusion] TMIG-IC scores may reflect cognitive disorders earlier than BI and FIM. The decline of TMIG-IC scores, especially for IADL and social roles, affects HR-QOL even in the early phases of cognitive impairment. PMID:27190474

  11. Sulfation of Lower Chlorinated Polychlorinated Biphenyls Increases Their Affinity for the Major Drug-Binding Sites of Human Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Eric A; Li, Xueshu; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W; Duffel, Michael W

    2016-05-17

    The disposition of toxicants is often affected by their binding to serum proteins, of which the most abundant in humans is serum albumin (HSA). There is increasing interest in the toxicities of environmentally persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with lower numbers of chlorine atoms (LC-PCBs) due to their presence in both indoor and outdoor air. PCB sulfates derived from metabolic hydroxylation and sulfation of LC-PCBs have been implicated in endocrine disruption due to high affinity-binding to the thyroxine-carrying protein, transthyretin. Interactions of these sulfated metabolites of LC-PCBs with HSA, however, have not been previously explored. We have now determined the relative HSA-binding affinities for a group of LC-PCBs and their hydroxylated and sulfated derivatives by selective displacement of the fluorescent probes 5-dimethylamino-1-naphthalenesulfonamide and dansyl-l-proline from the two major drug-binding sites on HSA (previously designated as Site I and Site II). Values for half-maximal displacement of the probes indicated that the relative binding affinities were generally PCB sulfate ≥ OH-PCB > PCB, although this affinity was site- and congener-selective. Moreover, specificity for Site II increased as the numbers of chlorine atoms increased. Thus, hydroxylation and sulfation of LC-PCBs result in selective interactions with HSA which may affect their overall retention and toxicity. PMID:27116425

  12. Energetic analysis of the two controversial drug binding sites of the M2 proton channel in influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Du, Qi-Shi; Huang, Ri-Bo; Wang, Cheng-Hua; Li, Xiao-Ming; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the mechanism of the M2 proton channel of influenza A is crucially important to both basic research and drug discovery. Recently, the structure was determined independently by high-resolution NMR and X-ray crystallography. However, the two studies lead to completely different drug-binding mechanisms: the X-ray structure shows the drug blocking the pore from inside; whereas the NMR structure shows the drug inhibiting the channel from outside by an allosteric mechanism. Which one of the two is correct? To address this problem, we conducted an in-depth computational analysis. The conclusions drawn from various aspects, such as energetics, the channel-gating dynamic process, the pK(a) shift and its impact on the channel, and the consistency with the previous functional studies, among others, are all in favour to the allosteric mechanism revealed by the NMR structure. The findings reported here may stimulate and encourage new strategies for developing effective drugs against influenza A, particularly in dealing with the drug-resistant problems. PMID:19285514

  13. A novel cyclophilin from parasitic and free-living nematodes with a unique substrate- and drug-binding domain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dong; Nelson, Laura S; LeCoz, Krystel; Poole, Catherine; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2002-04-26

    A highly diversified member of the cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases has been isolated from the human parasite Onchocerca volvulus (OvCYP-16). This 25-kDa cyclophilin shares 43-46% similarity to other filarial cyclophilins but does not belong to any of the groups previously defined in invertebrates or vertebrates. A homolog was also isolated from Caenorhabditis elegans (CeCYP-16). Both recombinant O. volvulus and C. elegans cyclophilins were found to possess an enzyme activity with similar substrate preference and insensitivity to cyclosporin A. They represent novel cyclophilins with important differences in the composition of the drug-binding site in particular, namely, a Glu(124) (C. elegans) or Asp(123) (O. volvulus) residue present in a critical position. Site-directed mutagenesis studies and kinetic characterization demonstrated that the single residue dictates the degree of binding to substrate and cyclosporin A. CeCYP-16::GFP-expressing lines were generated with expression in the anterior and posterior distal portions of the intestine, in all larval stages and adults. An exception was found in the dauer stage, where fluorescence was observed in both the cell bodies and processes of the ventral chord motor neurons but was absent from the intestine. These studies highlight the extensive diversification of cyclophilins in an important human parasite and a closely related model organism. PMID:11847225

  14. Characterization of the comparative drug binding to intra- (liver fatty acid binding protein) and extra- (human serum albumin) cellular proteins.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Andrew; Hallifax, David; Nussio, Matthew R; Shapter, Joseph G; Mackenzie, Peter I; Brian Houston, J; Knights, Kathleen M; Miners, John O

    2015-01-01

    1. This study compared the extent, affinity, and kinetics of drug binding to human serum albumin (HSA) and liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) using ultrafiltration and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). 2. Binding of basic and neutral drugs to both HSA and LFABP was typically negligible. Binding of acidic drugs ranged from minor (fu > 0.8) to extensive (fu < 0.1). Of the compounds screened, the highest binding to both HSA and LFABP was observed for the acidic drugs torsemide and sulfinpyrazone, and for β-estradiol (a polar, neutral compound). 3. The extent of binding of acidic drugs to HSA was up to 40% greater than binding to LFABP. SPR experiments demonstrated comparable kinetics and affinity for the binding of representative acidic drugs (naproxen, sulfinpyrazone, and torsemide) to HSA and LFABP. 4. Simulations based on in vitro kinetic constants derived from SPR experiments and a rapid equilibrium model were undertaken to examine the impact of binding characteristics on compartmental drug distribution. Simulations provided mechanistic confirmation that equilibration of intracellular unbound drug with the extracellular unbound drug is attained rapidly in the absence of active transport mechanisms for drugs bound moderately or extensively to HSA and LFABP. PMID:25801059

  15. Eight-Week Training Cessation Suppresses Physiological Stress but Rapidly Impairs Health Metabolic Profiles and Aerobic Capacity in Elite Taekwondo Athletes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Sung, Yu-Chi; Chou, Chun-Chung; Chen, Chung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Changes in an athlete's physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females) participated in this study. Physical activity level assessment using computerized physical activity logs was performed during the competitive preparation season (i.e. one-week before national competition) and at two week intervals throughout the detraining period. Participant aerobic capacity, body fat, and blood biomarkers were measured before and after detraining, and the blood biomarker analyses included leukocyte subpopulations, blood glucose, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), and cortisol. Eight-week detraining increased DHEA-S/cortisol ratio (+57.3%, p = 0.004), increased insulin/cortisol ratio (+59.9%, p = 0.004), reduced aerobic power (-2.43%, p = 0.043), increased body fat accumulation (body fat%: +21.3%, p < 0.001), decreased muscle mass (muscle mass%: -4.04%, p < 0.001), and elevated HOMA-IR (the biomarker of systemic insulin resistance; +34.2%, p = 0.006). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a systemic inflammatory index, increased by 48.2% (p = 0.005). The change in aerobic capacity was correlated with the increased fat mass (r = -0.429, p = 0.049) but not with muscle loss. An increase in the NLR was correlated to the changes in HOMA-IR (r = 0.44, p = 0.044) and aerobic capacity (r = -0.439, p = 0.045). We demonstrate that 8-week detraining suppresses physiological stress but rapidly results in declines in athletic performance and health metabolic profiles, including reduced aerobic capacity, increased body fat, muscle loss, insulin

  16. Eight-Week Training Cessation Suppresses Physiological Stress but Rapidly Impairs Health Metabolic Profiles and Aerobic Capacity in Elite Taekwondo Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Sung, Yu-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Changes in an athlete’s physiological and health metabolic profiles after detraining have not been studied in elite Taekwondo (TKD) athletes. To enable a better understanding of these physiological changes to training cessation, this study examined the effects of 8-weeks detraining on the aerobic capacity, body composition, inflammatory status and health metabolic profile in elite TKD athletes. Sixteen elite TKD athletes (age: 21.0 ± 0.8 yrs, BMI: 22.4 ± 3.9 kg/m2; Mean ± SD; 11 males and 5 females) participated in this study. Physical activity level assessment using computerized physical activity logs was performed during the competitive preparation season (i.e. one-week before national competition) and at two week intervals throughout the detraining period. Participant aerobic capacity, body fat, and blood biomarkers were measured before and after detraining, and the blood biomarker analyses included leukocyte subpopulations, blood glucose, insulin, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), and cortisol. Eight-week detraining increased DHEA-S/cortisol ratio (+57.3%, p = 0.004), increased insulin/cortisol ratio (+59.9%, p = 0.004), reduced aerobic power (–2.43%, p = 0.043), increased body fat accumulation (body fat%: +21.3%, p < 0.001), decreased muscle mass (muscle mass%: –4.04%, p < 0.001), and elevated HOMA-IR (the biomarker of systemic insulin resistance; +34.2%, p = 0.006). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), a systemic inflammatory index, increased by 48.2% (p = 0.005). The change in aerobic capacity was correlated with the increased fat mass (r = –0.429, p = 0.049) but not with muscle loss. An increase in the NLR was correlated to the changes in HOMA-IR (r = 0.44, p = 0.044) and aerobic capacity (r = –0.439, p = 0.045). We demonstrate that 8-week detraining suppresses physiological stress but rapidly results in declines in athletic performance and health metabolic profiles, including reduced aerobic capacity, increased body fat, muscle

  17. Ectopic lipid storage in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is not mediated by impaired mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Irwin, Andrew; Sprung, Victoria S; Jones, Helen; Pugh, Christopher J A; Daousi, Christina; Adams, Valerie L; Bimson, William E; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Richardson, Paul; Umpleby, A Margot; Wilding, John P; Kemp, Graham J

    2014-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by lipid deposition within the liver [intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL)], is associated with insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome (MS). It has been suggested that impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial function may contribute to ectopic lipid deposition, and the associated MS, by altering post-prandial energy storage. To test this hypothesis, we performed a cross-sectional study of 17 patients with NAFLD [mean±S.D.; age, 45±11 years; body mass index (BMI), 31.6±3.4 kg/m2] and 18 age- and BMI-matched healthy controls (age, 44±11 years; BMI, 30.5±5.2 kg/m2). We determined body composition by MRI, IHCL and intramyocellular (soleus and tibialis anterior) lipids (IMCLs) by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function by dynamic phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) of quadriceps muscle. Although matched for BMI and total adiposity, after statistical adjustment for gender, patients with NAFLD (defined by IHCL ≥ 5.5%) had higher IHCLs (25±16% compared with 2±2%; P<0.0005) and a higher prevalence of the MS (76% compared with 28%) compared with healthy controls. Despite this, the visceral fat/subcutaneous fat ratio, IMCLs and muscle mitochondrial function were similar between the NAFLD and control groups, with no significant difference in the rate constants of post-exercise phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery (1.55±0.4 compared with 1.51±0.4 min-1), a measure of muscle mitochondrial function. In conclusion, impaired muscle mitochondrial function does not seem to underlie ectopic lipid deposition, or the accompanying features of the MS, in patients with NAFLD. PMID:24738611

  18. High IFN-γ Release and Impaired Capacity of Multi-Cytokine Secretion in IGRA Supernatants Are Associated with Active Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Rubbo, Pierre-Alain; Pisoni, Amandine; Bendriss, Sophie; Marin, Grégory; Peries, Marianne; Bolloré, Karine; Terru, Dominique; Godreuil, Sylvain; Bourdin, Arnaud; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection regardless of the active (ATB) or latent (LTBI) forms of tuberculosis (TB). In this study, Mtb-specific T cell response against region of deletion 1 (RD1) antigens were explored by a microbead multiplex assay performed in T-SPOT TB assay (T-SPOT) supernatants from 35 patients with ATB and 115 patients with LTBI. T-SPOT is positive when over 7 IFN-γ secreting cells (SC)/250 000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are enumerated. However, over 100 IFN-γ SC /250 000 PBMC were more frequently observed in the ATB group compared to the LTBI group. By contrast, lower cytokine concentrations and lower cytokine productions relative to IFN-γ secretion were observed for IL 4, IL-12, TNF-α, GM-CSF, Eotaxin and IFN-α when compared to LTBI. Thus, high IFN-γ release and low cytokine secretions in relation with IFN-γ production appeared as signatures of ATB, corroborating that multicytokine Mtb-specific response against RD1 antigens reflects host capacity to contain TB reactivation. In this way, testing cytokine profile in IGRA supernatants would be helpful to improve ATB screening strategy including immunologic tests. PMID:27603919

  19. Exposure to Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Impairs the Differentiation of Human Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells and their Capacity for T cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Castaneda, Julie T.; Kiertscher, Sylvia M.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity for human monocytes to differentiate into antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DC) can be influenced by a number of immune modulating signals. Monocytes express intracellular cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) receptors and we demonstrate that exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibits the forskolin-induced generation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in a CB2-specific manner. In order to examine the potential impact of cannabinoids on the generation of monocyte-derived DC, monocytes were cultured in vitro with differentiation medium alone [containing granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and Interleukin-4 (IL-4)] or in combination with THC. The presence of THC (0.25–1.0 μg/ml) altered key features of DC differentiation, producing a concentration-dependent decrease in surface expression of CD11c, HLA-DR and costimulatory molecules (CD40 and CD86), less effective antigen uptake, and signs of functional skewing with decreased production of IL-12 but normal levels of IL-10. When examined in a mixed leukocyte reaction, DC that had been generated in the presence of THC were poor T cell activators as evidenced by their inability to generate effector/memory T cells or to stimulate robust IFN-γ responses. Some of these effects were partially restored by exposure to exogenous IL-7 and bacterial superantigen (S. aureus Cowans strain). These studies demonstrate that human monocytes express functional cannabinoid receptors and suggest that exposure to THC can alter their differentiation into functional antigen presenting cells; an effect that may be counter-balanced by the presence of other immunoregulatory factors. The impact of cannabinoids on adaptive immune responses in individuals with frequent drug exposure remains to be determined. PMID:25614186

  20. Do Aging and Dual-Tasking Impair the Capacity to Store and Retrieve Visuospatial Information Needed to Guide Perturbation-Evoked Reach-To-Grasp Reactions?

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kenneth C.; Pratt, Jay; Maki, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    A recent study involving young adults showed that rapid perturbation-evoked reach-to-grasp balance-recovery reactions can be guided successfully with visuospatial-information (VSI) retained in memory despite: 1) a reduction in endpoint accuracy due to recall-delay (time between visual occlusion and perturbation-onset, PO) and 2) slowing of the reaction when performing a concurrent cognitive task during the recall-delay interval. The present study aimed to determine whether this capacity is compromised by effects of aging. Ten healthy older adults were tested with the previous protocol and compared with the previously-tested young adults. Reactions to recover balance by grasping a small handhold were evoked by unpredictable antero-posterior platform-translation (barriers deterred stepping reactions), while using liquid-crystal goggles to occlude vision post-PO and for varying recall-delay times (0-10s) prior to PO (the handhold was moved unpredictably to one of four locations 2s prior to vision-occlusion). Subjects also performed a spatial- or non-spatial-memory cognitive task during the delay-time in a subset of trials. Results showed that older adults had slower reactions than the young across all experimental conditions. Both age groups showed similar reduction in medio-lateral end-point accuracy when recall-delay was longest (10s), but differed in the effect of recall delay on vertical hand elevation. For both age groups, engaging in either the non-spatial or spatial-memory task had similar (slowing) effects on the arm reactions; however, the older adults also showed a dual-task interference effect (poorer cognitive-task performance) that was specific to the spatial-memory task. This provides new evidence that spatial working memory plays a role in the control of perturbation-evoked balance-recovery reactions. The delays in completing the reaction that occurred when performing either cognitive task suggest that such dual-task situations in daily life could

  1. Identification of tubulin drug binding sites and prediction of relative differences in binding affinities to tubulin isotypes using digital signal processing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Huzil, J Torin; Freedman, Holly; Ramachandran, Parameswaran; Antoniou, Andreas; Tuszynski, Jack A; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2008-11-01

    Microtubules are involved in numerous cellular processes including chromosome segregation during mitosis and, as a result, their constituent protein, tubulin, has become a successful target of several chemotherapeutic drugs. In general, these drugs bind indiscriminately to tubulin within both cancerous and healthy cells, resulting in unwanted side effects. However, differences between beta-tubulin isotypes expressed in a wide range of cell types may aid in the development of anti-tubulin drugs having increased specificity for only certain types of cells. Here, we describe a digital signal processing (DSP) method that is capable of predicting hot spots for the tubulin family of proteins as well as determining relative differences in binding affinities to these hot spots based only on the primary sequence of 10 human tubulin isotypes. Due to the fact that several drug binding sites have already been characterized within beta-tubulin, we are able to correlate hot spots with the binding sites for known chemotherapy drugs. We have also verified the accuracy of this method using the correlation between the binding affinities of characterized drugs and the tubulin isotypes. Additionally, the DSP method enables the rapid estimation of relative differences in binding affinities within the binding sites of tubulin isotypes that are yet to be experimentally determined. PMID:18951052

  2. Membrane-dependent effects of a cytoplasmic helix on the structure and drug binding of the influenza virus M2 protein.

    PubMed

    Cady, Sarah; Wang, Tuo; Hong, Mei

    2011-08-01

    The influenza A M2 protein forms a proton channel for virus infection and also mediates virus assembly and budding. The minimum protein length that encodes both functions contains the transmembrane (TM) domain (roughly residues 22-46) for the amantadine-sensitive proton-channel activity and an amphipathic cytoplasmic helix (roughly residues 45-62) for curvature induction and virus budding. However, structural studies involving the TM domain with or without the amphipathic helix differed on the drug-binding site. Here we use solid-state NMR spectroscopy to determine the amantadine binding site in the cytoplasmic-helix-containing M2(21-61). (13)C-(2)H distance measurements of (13)C-labeled protein and (2)H-labeled amantadine showed that in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayers, the first equivalent of drug bound S31 inside the M2(21-61) pore, similar to the behavior of M2 transmembrane peptide (M2TM) in DMPC bilayers. The nonspecific surface site of D44 observed in M2TM is disfavored in the longer peptide. Thus, the pharmacologically relevant drug-binding site in the fully functional M2(21-61) is S31 in the TM pore. Interestingly, when M2(21-61) was reconstituted into a virus-mimetic membrane containing 30% cholesterol, no chemical shift perturbation was observed for pore-lining residues, whereas M2TM in the same membrane exhibited drug-induced chemical shift changes. Reduction of the cholesterol level and the use of unsaturated phospholipids shifted the conformational equilibrium of M2TM fully to the bound state but did not rescue drug binding to M2(21-61). These results suggest that the amphipathic helix, together with cholesterol, modulates the ability of the TM helix to bind amantadine. Thus, the M2 protein interacts with the lipid membrane and small-molecule inhibitors in a complex fashion, and a careful examination of the environmental dependence of the protein conformation is required to fully understand the structure-function relation of

  3. Structural insights into differences in drug-binding selectivity between two forms of human alpha1-acid glycoprotein genetic variants, the A and F1*S forms.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Koji; Ono, Tomomi; Nakamura, Teruya; Fukunaga, Naoko; Izumi, Miyoko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suenaga, Ayaka; Maruyama, Toru; Yamagata, Yuriko; Curry, Stephen; Otagiri, Masaki

    2011-04-22

    Human α(1)-acid glycoprotein (hAGP) in serum functions as a carrier of basic drugs. In most individuals, hAGP exists as a mixture of two genetic variants, the F1*S and A variants, which bind drugs with different selectivities. We prepared a mutant of the A variant, C149R, and showed that its drug-binding properties were indistinguishable from those of the wild type. In this study, we determined the crystal structures of this mutant hAGP alone and complexed with disopyramide (DSP), amitriptyline (AMT), and the nonspecific drug chlorpromazine (CPZ). The crystal structures revealed that the drug-binding pocket on the A variant is located within an eight-stranded β-barrel, similar to that found in the F1*S variant and other lipocalin family proteins. However, the binding region of the A variant is narrower than that of the F1*S variant. In the crystal structures of complexes with DSP and AMT, the two aromatic rings of each drug interact with Phe-49 and Phe-112 at the bottom of the binding pocket. Although the structure of CPZ is similar to those of DSP and AMT, its fused aromatic ring system, which is extended in length by the addition of a chlorine atom, appears to dictate an alternative mode of binding, which explains its nonselective binding to the F1*S and A variant hAGPs. Modeling experiments based on the co-crystal structures suggest that, in complexes of DSP, AMT, or CPZ with the F1*S variant, Phe-114 sterically hinders interactions with DSP and AMT, but not CPZ. PMID:21349832

  4. Interpretation of Ocular Melanin Drug Binding Assays. Alternatives to the Model of Multiple Classes of Independent Sites.

    PubMed

    Manzanares, José A; Rimpelä, Anna-Kaisa; Urtti, Arto

    2016-04-01

    Melanin has a high binding affinity for a wide range of drugs. The determination of the melanin binding capacity and its binding affinity are important, e.g., in the determination of the ocular drug distribution, the prediction of drug effects in the eye, and the trans-scleral drug delivery. The binding parameters estimated from a given data set vary significantly when using different isotherms or different nonlinear fitting methods. In this work, the commonly used bi-Langmuir isotherm, which assumes two classes of independent sites, is confronted with the Sips isotherm. Direct, log-log, and Scatchard plots are used, and the interpretation of the binding curves in the latter is critically analyzed. In addition to the goodness of fit, the emphasis is placed on the physical meaning of the binding parameters. The bi-Langmuir model imposes a bimodal distribution of binding energies for the sites on the melanin granules, but the actual distribution is most likely continuous and unimodal, as assumed by the Sips isotherm. Hence, the latter describes more accurately the distribution of binding energies and also the experimental results of melanin binding to drugs and metal ions. Simulations are used to show that the existence of two classes of sites cannot be confirmed on the sole basis of the shape of the binding curve in the Scatchard plot, and that serious doubts may appear on the meaning of the binding parameters of the bi-Langmuir model. Experimental results of melanin binding to chloroquine and metoprolol are used to illustrate the importance of the choice of the binding isotherm and of the method used to evaluate the binding parameters. PMID:26820602

  5. Multi-drug resistance profile of PR20 HIV-1 protease is attributed to distorted conformational and drug binding landscape: molecular dynamics insights.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Sarentha; Bhakat, Soumendranath; Martin, Alberto J M; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2016-01-01

    The PR20 HIV-1 protease, a variant with 20 mutations, exhibits high levels of multi-drug resistance; however, to date, there has been no report detailing the impact of these 20 mutations on the conformational and drug binding landscape at a molecular level. In this report, we demonstrate the first account of a comprehensive study designed to elaborate on the impact of these mutations on the dynamic features as well as drug binding and resistance profile, using extensive molecular dynamics analyses. Comparative MD simulations for the wild-type and PR20 HIV proteases, starting from bound and unbound conformations in each case, were performed. Results showed that the apo conformation of the PR20 variant of the HIV protease displayed a tendency to remain in the open conformation for a longer period of time when compared to the wild type. This led to a phenomena in which the inhibitor seated at the active site of PR20 tends to diffuse away from the binding site leading to a significant change in inhibitor-protein association. Calculating the per-residue fluctuation (RMSF) and radius of gyration, further validated these findings. MM/GBSA showed that the occurrence of 20 mutations led to a drop in the calculated binding free energies (ΔGbind) by ~25.17 kcal/mol and ~5 kcal/mol for p2-NC, a natural peptide substrate, and darunavir, respectively, when compared to wild type. Furthermore, the residue interaction network showed a diminished inter-residue hydrogen bond network and changes in inter-residue connections as a result of these mutations. The increased conformational flexibility in PR20 as a result of loss of intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bond interactions and other prominent binding forces led to a loss of protease grip on ligand. It is interesting to note that the difference in conformational flexibility between PR20 and WT conformations was much higher in the case of substrate-bound conformation as compared to DRV. Thus, developing analogues of DRV by

  6. Mucosal injury and. gamma. -irradiation produce persistent gastric ulcers in the rabbit. Evaluation of antiulcer drug binding to experimental ulcer sites

    SciTech Connect

    Yokel, R.A.; Dickey, K.M. )

    1991-05-01

    A method producing persistent gastric ulcers in the rhesus monkey by combined mucosal injury and {gamma}-irradiation was modified and evaluated in the rabbit. {gamma}-Irradiation (800-1000 cGy) immediately after removal of 2-mm-diameter sections of antral mucosa resulted in ulcer craters 5-7 days later. Ulcer sites were characterized by loss of the mucosa, muscularis mucosa, and much of the submucosa. The exposed submucosa was coated with fibrin and necrotic debris infiltrated with heterophils, the rabbit equivalent of neutrophils. These ulcers strongly resemble human chronic gastric ulcers. Binding of Carafate (sucralfate; Marion Laboratories, Inc., Kansas City, MO) and Maalox (magnesia-alumina oral suspension; Wm. H. Rorer, Inc., Ft. Washington, PA) to ulcer and nearby nonulcer sites in the antrum was assessed 1 hour after drug dosing. Drug binding was determined by aluminum quantitation of stomach wall punch biopsies at necropsy. Both drugs significantly increased aluminum bound to the stomach wall compared with vehicle treatment. Significantly more antiulcer drug was bound to ulcer sites than to nearby nonulcer sites only after sucralfate administration. This model of persistent gastric ulcer should be useful to further study gastric ulcer pathogenesis and treatment.

  7. Premelting base pair opening probability and drug binding constant of a daunomycin-poly d(GCAT).poly d(ATGC) complex.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y Z; Prohofsky, E W

    1994-01-01

    We calculate room temperature thermal fluctuational base pair opening probability of a daunomycin-poly d(GCAT).poly d(ATGC) complex. This system is constructed at an atomic level of detail based on x-ray analysis of a crystal structure. The base pair opening probabilities are calculated from a modified self-consistent phonon approach of anharmonic lattice dynamics theory. We find that daunomycin binding substantially enhances the thermal stability of one of the base pairs adjacent the drug because of strong hydrogen bonding between the drug and the base. The possible effect of this enhanced stability on the drug inhibition of DNA transcription and replication is discussed. We also calculate the probability of drug dissociation from the helix based on the selfconsistent calculation of the probability of the disruption of drug-base H-bonds and the unstacking probability of the drug. The calculations can be used to determine the equilibrium drug binding constant which is found to be in good agreement with observations on similar daunomycin-DNA systems. PMID:8011914

  8. General transfer matrix formalism to calculate DNA–protein–drug binding in gene regulation: application to OR operator of phage λ

    PubMed Central

    Teif, Vladimir B.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer matrix methodology is proposed as a systematic tool for the statistical–mechanical description of DNA–protein–drug binding involved in gene regulation. We show that a genetic system of several cis-regulatory modules is calculable using this method, considering explicitly the site-overlapping, competitive, cooperative binding of regulatory proteins, their multilayer assembly and DNA looping. In the methodological section, the matrix models are solved for the basic types of short- and long-range interactions between DNA-bound proteins, drugs and nucleosomes. We apply the matrix method to gene regulation at the OR operator of phage λ. The transfer matrix formalism allowed the description of the λ-switch at a single-nucleotide resolution, taking into account the effects of a range of inter-protein distances. Our calculations confirm previously established roles of the contact CI–Cro–RNAP interactions. Concerning long-range interactions, we show that while the DNA loop between the OR and OL operators is important at the lysogenic CI concentrations, the interference between the adjacent promoters PR and PRM becomes more important at small CI concentrations. A large change in the expression pattern may arise in this regime due to anticooperative interactions between DNA-bound RNA polymerases. The applicability of the matrix method to more complex systems is discussed. PMID:17526526

  9. Modeling of open, closed, and open-inactivated states of the hERG1 channel: structural mechanisms of the state-dependent drug binding.

    PubMed

    Durdagi, Serdar; Deshpande, Sumukh; Duff, Henry J; Noskov, Sergei Y

    2012-10-22

    The human ether-a-go-go related gene 1 (hERG1) K ion channel is a key element for the rapid component of the delayed rectified potassium current in cardiac myocytes. Since there are no crystal structures for hERG channels, creation and validation of its reliable atomistic models have been key targets in molecular cardiology for the past decade. In this study, we developed and vigorously validated models for open, closed, and open-inactivated states of hERG1 using a multistep protocol. The conserved elements were derived using multiple-template homology modeling utilizing available structures for Kv1.2, Kv1.2/2.1 chimera, and KcsA channels. Then missing elements were modeled with the ROSETTA De Novo protein-designing suite and further refined with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The final ensemble of models was evaluated for consistency to the reported experimental data from biochemical, biophysical, and electrophysiological studies. The closed state models were cross-validated against available experimental data on toxin footprinting with protein-protein docking using hERG state-selective toxin BeKm-1. Poisson-Boltzmann calculations were performed to determine gating charge and compare it to electrophysiological measurements. The validated structures offered us a unique chance to assess molecular mechanisms of state-dependent drug binding in three different states of the channel. PMID:22989185

  10. Hearing Impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavender, Anna; Ladner, Richard E.

    For many people with hearing impairments, the degree of hearing loss is only a small aspect of their disability and does not necessarily determine the types of accessibility solutions or accommodations that may be required. For some people, the ability to adjust the audio volume may be sufficient. For others, translation to a signed language may be more appropriate. For still others, access to text alternatives may be the best solution. Because of these differences, it is important for researchers in Web accessibility to understand that people with hearing impairments may have very different cultural-linguistic traditions and personal backgrounds.

  11. In Vitro Resistance Selections for Plasmodium falciparum Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors Give Mutants with Multiple Point Mutations in the Drug-binding Site and Altered Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Leila S.; Gamo, Francisco Javier; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria José; Singh, Onkar M. P.; Rowland, Paul; Wiegand, Roger C.; Wirth, Dyann F.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a preventable and treatable disease; yet half of the world's population lives at risk of infection, and an estimated 660,000 people die of malaria-related causes every year. Rising drug resistance threatens to make malaria untreatable, necessitating both the discovery of new antimalarial agents and the development of strategies to identify and suppress the emergence and spread of drug resistance. We focused on in-development dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitors. Characterizing resistance pathways for antimalarial agents not yet in clinical use will increase our understanding of the potential for resistance. We identified resistance mechanisms of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) DHODH inhibitors via in vitro resistance selections. We found 11 point mutations in the PfDHODH target. Target gene amplification and unknown mechanisms also contributed to resistance, albeit to a lesser extent. These mutant parasites were often hypersensitive to other PfDHODH inhibitors, which immediately suggested a novel combination therapy approach to preventing resistance. Indeed, a combination of wild-type and mutant-type selective inhibitors led to resistance far less often than either drug alone. The effects of point mutations in PfDHODH were corroborated with purified recombinant wild-type and mutant-type PfDHODH proteins, which showed the same trends in drug response as the cognate cell lines. Comparative growth assays demonstrated that two mutant parasites grew less robustly than their wild-type parent, and the purified protein of those mutants showed a decrease in catalytic efficiency, thereby suggesting a reason for the diminished growth rate. Co-crystallography of PfDHODH with three inhibitors suggested that hydrophobic interactions are important for drug binding and selectivity. PMID:24782313

  12. All Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jobs Home > Statistics and Data > All Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is ... being blind by the U.S. definition.) The category “All Vision Impairment” includes both low vision and blindness. ...

  13. Cognitive impairments may mimic delusions.

    PubMed

    Eterović, Marija; Kozarić-Kovačić, Dragica

    2015-12-01

    Delusions are often recognized as key to the concept of psychosis. What is delusion is one of the basic questions of psychopathology. The common denominator of definitions of delusions is the divergence between the strong conviction in the delusional belief and superior evidences to the contrary which are continually ignored. An implicit, sustainably unspoken assumption is that the person with delusional belief has cognitive capacities to process the (counter-)arguments relevant to their delusion. However, individual's cognitive capacities are not being emphasized when delusions are evaluated. Moreover, the impact of cognitive decline on formation of delusions is neglected, both in theory and practice. We elaborate that cognitive deficits may facilitate, oppose, or mimic delusions. We focus on the last, which can lead to diagnosing as delusion what could be explained by cognitive decline and better called pseudo-delusion. The risk is significant when cognition is impaired, as in demented people; an issue which has not yet been debated. True delusions are incompatible with person's cognitive capacities, i.e., if we take into account person's cognitive status, we still cannot understand how the person holds the strange belief with an extraordinary conviction. Pseudo-delusions would be beliefs, thoughts or judgments that at first seem delusional (they are false, subculturally atypical beliefs that are strongly maintained in the face of counterargument), but lose the essence of delusions after we take cognitive impairment into account. Pseudo-delusions could actually be explained or understood by person's cognitive impairments, they "fit into" them. The reported reality-based contents of delusions in the elderly, poor response to antipsychotics and lack of association with early or family history of psychiatric disorders could in part be accounted for by the bias of misdiagnosing the cognitive impairment as the delusion. Not recognizing that the cognitive impairment

  14. Deficiency of dietary niacin impaired gill immunity and antioxidant capacity, and changes its tight junction proteins via regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Quan; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary niacin on gill immunity, tight junction proteins, antioxidant system and related signaling molecules mRNA expression, young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were fed six diets containing graded levels of niacin (3.95-55.01 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks. The study indicated that niacin deficiency decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, and complement 3 content, and caused oxidative damage that might be partly due to the decreased copper, zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities and reduced glutathione content in fish gills (P < 0.05). Moreover, the relative mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 and Hepcidin), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1), tight junction proteins (Occludin, zonula occludens 1, Claudin-15 and -3), signaling molecules (inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), target of rapamycin (TOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)) and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in niacin-deficient diet group. Conversely, the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, interferon γ2, and interleukin 1β), signaling molecules (nuclear factor kappa B p65, IκB kinase α, IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ, Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1b, myosin light chain kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in fish gills fed niacin-deficient diet. Interestingly, the varying niacin levels of 3.95-55.01 mg/kg diet had no effect on the mRNA level of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a, Claudin-c and -12 in fish gills (P > 0.05). In conclusion, niacin deficiency decreased gill immunity, impaired gill antioxidant system, as well as regulated mRNA expression of gill tight junction proteins and related signaling

  15. 20 CFR 220.120 - The claimant's residual functional capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with a low back disorder may be fully capable of the physical demands consistent with those of... functional capacity. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s), and any related symptoms, such as pain, may... limitations that go beyond the symptoms, such as pain, that are important in the diagnosis and treatment...

  16. 20 CFR 220.120 - The claimant's residual functional capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... with a low back disorder may be fully capable of the physical demands consistent with those of... functional capacity. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s), and any related symptoms, such as pain, may... limitations that go beyond the symptoms, such as pain, that are important in the diagnosis and treatment...

  17. 20 CFR 220.120 - The claimant's residual functional capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with a low back disorder may be fully capable of the physical demands consistent with those of... functional capacity. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s), and any related symptoms, such as pain, may... limitations that go beyond the symptoms, such as pain, that are important in the diagnosis and treatment...

  18. 20 CFR 220.120 - The claimant's residual functional capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... with a low back disorder may be fully capable of the physical demands consistent with those of... functional capacity. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s), and any related symptoms, such as pain, may... limitations that go beyond the symptoms, such as pain, that are important in the diagnosis and treatment...

  19. 20 CFR 220.120 - The claimant's residual functional capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... with a low back disorder may be fully capable of the physical demands consistent with those of... functional capacity. (a) General. The claimant's impairment(s), and any related symptoms, such as pain, may... limitations that go beyond the symptoms, such as pain, that are important in the diagnosis and treatment...

  20. Capacity Building of MAGDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, K.

    2011-12-01

    Under the framework of the MAGDAS Project of SERC (at Kyushu University), this report will cover the three phases of "Capacity Building": (1) Development of instrument capacity, (2) Development of data analysis capacity, and (3) Development of science capacity. Capacity Building is one of the major goals of IHY and ISWI, as specified by the organizers of IHY and ISWI.

  1. Cognitive impairments in alcohol-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    Bernardin, Florent; Maheut-Bosser, Anne; Paille, François

    2014-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces cognitive impairments mainly affecting executive functions, episodic memory, and visuospatial capacities related to multiple brain lesions. These cognitive impairments not only determine everyday management of these patients, but also impact on the efficacy of management and may compromise the abstinence prognosis. Maintenance of lasting abstinence is associated with cognitive recovery in these patients, but some impairments may persist and interfere with the good conduct and the efficacy of management. It therefore appears essential to clearly define neuropsychological management designed to identify and evaluate the type and severity of alcohol-related cognitive impairments. It is also essential to develop cognitive remediation therapy so that the patient can fully benefit from the management proposed in addiction medicine units. PMID:25076914

  2. Cognitive Impairments in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bernardin, Florent; Maheut-Bosser, Anne; Paille, François

    2014-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces cognitive impairments mainly affecting executive functions, episodic memory, and visuospatial capacities related to multiple brain lesions. These cognitive impairments not only determine everyday management of these patients, but also impact on the efficacy of management and may compromise the abstinence prognosis. Maintenance of lasting abstinence is associated with cognitive recovery in these patients, but some impairments may persist and interfere with the good conduct and the efficacy of management. It therefore appears essential to clearly define neuropsychological management designed to identify and evaluate the type and severity of alcohol-related cognitive impairments. It is also essential to develop cognitive remediation therapy so that the patient can fully benefit from the management proposed in addiction medicine units. PMID:25076914

  3. Speech impairment (adult)

    MedlinePlus

    Language impairment; Impairment of speech; Inability to speak; Aphasia; Dysarthria; Slurred speech; Dysphonia voice disorders ... disorders develop gradually, but anyone can develop a speech and ... suddenly, usually in a trauma. APHASIA Alzheimer disease ...

  4. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Portfolio (IADRP) AMP-AD Detecting Cognitive Impairment Database ... Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition in which people have more memory or other thinking problems than normal for their ...

  5. Speech impairment (adult)

    MedlinePlus

    Language impairment; Impairment of speech; Inability to speak; Aphasia; Dysarthria; Slurred speech; Dysphonia voice disorders ... Common speech and language disorders include: APHASIA Aphasia is ... understand or express spoken or written language. It commonly ...

  6. Ciliary abnormalities in senescent human fibroblasts impair proliferative capacity

    PubMed Central

    Breslin, Loretta; Prosser, Suzanna L; Cuffe, Sandra; Morrison, Ciaran G

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cells senesce in culture after a finite number of divisions indefinitely arresting their proliferation. DNA damage and senescence increase the cellular number of centrosomes, the 2 microtubule organizing centers that ensure bipolar mitotic spindles. Centrosomes also provide the basal body from which primary cilia extend to sense and transduce various extracellular signals, notably Hedgehog. Primary cilium formation is facilitated by cellular quiescence a temporary cell cycle exit, but the impact of senescence on cilia is unknown. We found that senescent human fibroblasts have increased frequency and length of primary cilia. Levels of the negative ciliary regulator CP110 were reduced in senescent cells, as were levels of key elements of the Hedgehog pathway. Hedgehog inhibition reduced proliferation in young cells with increased cilium length accompanying cell cycle arrest suggesting a regulatory function for Hedgehog in primary ciliation. Depletion of CP110 in young cell populations increased ciliation frequencies and reduced cell proliferation. These data suggest that primary cilia are potentially novel determinants of the reduced cellular proliferation that initiates senescence. PMID:25486364

  7. Ciliary abnormalities in senescent human fibroblasts impair proliferative capacity.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Loretta; Prosser, Suzanna L; Cuffe, Sandra; Morrison, Ciaran G

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cells senesce in culture after a finite number of divisions indefinitely arresting their proliferation. DNA damage and senescence increase the cellular number of centrosomes, the 2 microtubule organizing centers that ensure bipolar mitotic spindles. Centrosomes also provide the basal body from which primary cilia extend to sense and transduce various extracellular signals, notably Hedgehog. Primary cilium formation is facilitated by cellular quiescence a temporary cell cycle exit, but the impact of senescence on cilia is unknown. We found that senescent human fibroblasts have increased frequency and length of primary cilia. Levels of the negative ciliary regulator CP110 were reduced in senescent cells, as were levels of key elements of the Hedgehog pathway. Hedgehog inhibition reduced proliferation in young cells with increased cilium length accompanying cell cycle arrest suggesting a regulatory function for Hedgehog in primary ciliation. Depletion of CP110 in young cell populations increased ciliation frequencies and reduced cell proliferation. These data suggest that primary cilia are potentially novel determinants of the reduced cellular proliferation that initiates senescence. PMID:25486364

  8. The Impaired Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reamer, Frederic G.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses concept of the impaired professional; reviews research on various types of impairment (personality disorders, depression and other emotional problems, marital problems, and physical illness), prevalence and causes of impairment, and responses to it; and outlines model assessment and action plan for social workers who encounter an…

  9. ABE. The Hearing Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, L. Sue

    This handbook was written to help teachers of adult basic education (ABE) adapt their teaching methods for hearing impaired persons. Written in a narrative format, the guide covers the following topics: ABE for the hearing impaired, hints for working with the hearing impaired without an interpreter, peer pairing, interpreters in the classroom…

  10. Adapting for Impaired Patrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.…

  11. Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

  12. Finances in the Older Patient with Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Widera, Eric; Steenpass, Veronika; Marson, Daniel; Sudore, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Financial capacity is the ability to manage money and financial assets in ways that meet a person’s needs and which are consistent with his/her values and self-interest. Financial capacity is essential for an individual to function independently in our society; however, dementia eventually leads to a complete loss of financial capacity. Many patients with cognitive impairment and their families turn to their primary care clinician for help with financial impairment, yet most clinicians do not understand their role or how to help. We review the prevalence and impact of financial incapacity in older adults with cognitive impairment. We also articulate the role of the primary clinician which includes: (1) educating older adult patients and families about the need for advance financial planning; (2) recognizing signs of possible impaired financial capacity; (3) assessing financial impairments in cognitively impaired adults; (4) recommending interventions to help patients maintain financial independence; and (5) knowing when and to whom to make medical and legal referrals. Clearly delineating the clinician’s role in financial impairment can lead to the establishment of effective financial protections and can limit the economic, psychological, and legal hardships of financial incapacity on patients with dementia and their families. PMID:21325186

  13. Programming placental nutrient transport capacity

    PubMed Central

    Fowden, A L; Ward, J W; Wooding, F P B; Forhead, A J; Constancia, M

    2006-01-01

    Many animal studies and human epidemiological findings have shown that impaired growth in utero is associated with physiological abnormalities in later life and have linked this to tissue programming during suboptimal intrauterine conditions at critical periods of development. However, few of these studies have considered the contribution of the placenta to the ensuing adult phenotype. In mammals, the major determinant of intrauterine growth is the placental nutrient supply, which, in turn, depends on the size, morphology, blood supply and transporter abundance of the placenta and on synthesis and metabolism of nutrients and hormones by the uteroplacental tissues. This review examines the regulation of placental nutrient transfer capacity and the potential programming effects of nutrition and glucocorticoid over-exposure on placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the role of the Igf2 gene in these processes. PMID:16439433

  14. Building Leadership Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanary, Dick

    2009-01-01

    The NASSP "Breaking Ranks" framework lays out multiple strategies for building capacity within a school, beginning with the leaders. To change an organization and increase its capacity to produce greater results, the people within the organization must change and increase their capacity. School change begins with changes in the principal, the…

  15. Education for the Hearing Impaired (Auditorily Impaired).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Education for the hearing impaired is discussed in nine conference papers. J. N. Howarth describes "The Education of Deaf Children in Schools for Hearing Pupils in the United Kingdom" and A.I.Dyachkov of the U.S.S.R. outlines Didactical Principles of Educating the Deaf in the Light of their Rehabilitation Goal." Seven papers from Poland are also…

  16. Development or Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakansson, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    Joanne Paradis' Keynote Article on bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI) is an impressive overview of research in language acquisition and language impairment. Studying different populations is crucial both for theorizing about language acquisition mechanisms, and for practical purposes of diagnosing and supporting children with…

  17. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and exercise impairment.

    PubMed

    Reusch, Jane E B; Bridenstine, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G

    2013-03-01

    Limitations in physical fitness, a consistent finding in individuals with both type I and type 2 diabetes mellitus, correlate strongly with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. These limitations may significantly contribute to the persistent excess cardiovascular mortality affecting this group. Exercise impairments in VO2 peak and VO2 kinetics manifest early on in diabetes, even with good glycemic control and in the absence of clinically apparent complications. Subclinical cardiac dysfunction is often present but does not fully explain the observed defect in exercise capacity in persons with diabetes. In part, the cardiac limitations are secondary to decreased perfusion with exercise challenge. This is a reversible defect. Similarly, in the skeletal muscle, impairments in nutritive blood flow correlate with slowed (or inefficient) exercise kinetics and decreased exercise capacity. Several correlations highlight the likelihood of endothelial-specific impairments as mediators of exercise dysfunction in diabetes, including insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, decreased myocardial perfusion, slowed tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and impairment in mitochondrial function. Both exercise training and therapies targeted at improving insulin sensitivity and endothelial function improve physical fitness in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Optimization of exercise functions in people with diabetes has implications for diabetes prevention and reductions in mortality risk. Understanding the molecular details of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes may provide specific therapeutic targets for the remediation of this defect. Rat models to test this hypothesis are under study. PMID:23299658

  18. Impairment in Non-Word Repetition: A Marker for Language Impairment or Reading Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Gillian; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily; Dworzynski, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Aim: A deficit in non-word repetition (NWR), a measure of short-term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment. We evaluated the strength of association between language impairment and reading impairment in children with current, past, and no language…

  19. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - hearing or speech impairment ... The following organizations are good resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing -- www.agbell. ...

  20. Impairments to Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  1. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... important job. Â Return to Steps World-Wide Web Search Kids Health: What is Vision Impairment What ... for the Blind (AFB) created the Braille Bug web site to teach sighted children about braille, and ...

  2. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... other people their age. This condition is called mild cognitive impairment, or MCI. People with MCI can take care of themselves and do their normal activities. MCI memory problems may include Losing things often Forgetting ...

  3. On Gaussian feedback capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dembo, Amir

    1989-01-01

    Pinsker and Ebert (1970) proved that in channels with additive Gaussian noise, feedback at most doubles the capacity. Cover and Pombra (1989) proved that feedback at most adds half a bit per transmission. Following their approach, the author proves that in the limit as signal power approaches either zero (very low SNR) or infinity (very high SNR), feedback does not increase the finite block-length capacity (which for nonstationary Gaussian channels replaces the standard notion of capacity that may not exist). Tighter upper bounds on the capacity are obtained in the process. Specializing these results to stationary channels, the author recovers some of the bounds recently obtained by Ozarow.

  4. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    A. Findikakis

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  5. Hearing Impairment and Retirement

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Pinto, Alex; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Dalton, Dayna S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many factors influence the decision to retire including age, insurance and pension availability along with physical and mental health. Hearing impairment may be one such factor. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the 15 year retirement rate among subjects with and without hearing impairment. RESEARCH DESIGN Prospective, population-based study STUDY SAMPLE Subjects were participants in the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a longitudinal investigation of age-related hearing loss. Participants who were working full- or part-time in 1993–1995 were included (n=1410, mean age=57.8 years). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Data from four EHLS phases (1993–1995, 1998–2000, 2003–2005, and 2009–2010) were analyzed in 2010–2012. Hearing impairment was defined as a pure tone threshold average (at 0.5,1,2 and 4 kHz) greater than 25 dB HL in the worse ear. Employment status was determined at each of the four phases. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative incidence of retirement were calculated and Cox discrete-time modeling was used to determine the effect of hearing impairment on the rate of retirement. RESULTS The cumulative incidence of retirement was significantly (p < 0.02) higher in those with a hearing impairment (77%) compared to those without a hearing impairment (74%). After adjustment for age, gender, self-reported health, and history of chronic disease, there was no significant difference in the rate of retirement between those with and without a hearing impairment (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.9, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.7, 1.1). Similar results were observed when hearing aid users were excluded, when hearing impairment was based on the better ear thresholds, and when analyses were restricted to those less than 65 years of age and working full-time at baseline. Participants with a hearing impairment were less likely to state that the main reason for retirement was that the time seemed right. CONCLUSIONS Hearing impairment

  6. Variable capacity gasification burner

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, D.I.

    1985-03-05

    A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.

  7. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOEpatents

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  8. Problems of Excess Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, G.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of excess capacity in the airline industry are discussed with focus on the following topics: load factors; fair rate of return on investment; service-quality rivalry among airlines; pricing (fare) policies; aircraft production; and the impacts of excess capacity on operating costs. Also included is a discussion of the interrelationships among these topics.

  9. Who needs capacity?

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Alec

    2015-01-01

    The UK Law Commission's Discussion Paper, Criminal Liability: Insanity and Automatism, recommends introducing the concept of capacity to the insanity defence. The concept of capacity has an established role in those parts of the law that concern the validity of the decisions that people make, for instance in composing a will or entering into a contract. Making mental capacity a criterion for criminal responsibility in a mentally disordered defendant, however, is potentially problematic. First, the term capacity already has several different meanings in the literature on the jurisprudence of mental abnormality. Second, using the concept of capacity in the way that the Law Commission proposes poses difficulties that relate to the provision of testimony by expert witnesses. PMID:25939285

  10. Nanofluid heat capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starace, Anne K.; Gomez, Judith C.; Wang, Jun; Pradhan, Sulolit; Glatzmaier, Greg C.

    2011-12-01

    Significant increases in the heat capacity of heat transfer fluids are needed not only to reduce the costs of liquid heating and cooling processes, but also to bring clean energy producing technologies like concentrating solar power (CSP) to price parity with conventional energy generation. It has been postulated that nanofluids could have higher heat capacities than conventional fluids. In this work, nano- and micron-sized particles were added to five base fluids (poly-α olefin, mineral oil, ethylene glycol, a mixture of water and ethylene glycol, and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate), and the resulting heat capacities were measured and compared with those of the neat base fluids and the weighted average of the heat capacities of the components. The particles used were inert metals and metal oxides that did not undergo any phase transitions over the temperature range studied. In the nanofluids studied here, we found no increase in heat capacity upon the addition of the particles larger than the experimental error.

  11. HEARING IMPAIRMENT IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmoos, H. W.

    1953-01-01

    Abnormal behavior in children may frequently be caused by impairment of hearing. Early detection of the impairment and of the cause are of utmost importance, not only to prevent irreversible changes where that is possible, but to permit early beginning of special training for children who are permanently deaf. Recent studies have shown that deafness of infants may follow rubella in the mother in early pregnancy, or kernicterus caused by Rh incompatibilities. Measures to control these disorders are being investigated. Adequate and careful treatment of diseases of the nose, as well as surgical drainage of infected ears when necessary, are important factors in the prevention of hearing loss in children. PMID:13009516

  12. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  13. Knudsen heat capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Babac, Gulru; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-05-15

    We present a “Knudsen heat capacity” as a more appropriate and useful fluid property in micro/nanoscale gas systems than the constant pressure heat capacity. At these scales, different fluid processes come to the fore that are not normally observed at the macroscale. For thermodynamic analyses that include these Knudsen processes, using the Knudsen heat capacity can be more effective and physical. We calculate this heat capacity theoretically for non-ideal monatomic and diatomic gases, in particular, helium, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The quantum modification for para and ortho hydrogen is also considered. We numerically model the Knudsen heat capacity using molecular dynamics simulations for the considered gases, and compare these results with the theoretical ones.

  14. Refinery Capacity Report

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity.

  15. Forward capacity market CONEfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, James F.

    2010-11-15

    In ISO New England and PJM it was assumed that sponsors of new capacity projects would offer them into the newly established forward centralized capacity markets at prices based on their levelized net cost of new entry, or ''Net CONE.'' But the FCCMs have not operated in the way their proponents had expected. To clear up the CONEfusion, FCCM designs should be reconsidered to adapt them to the changing circumstances and to be grounded in realistic expectations of market conduct. (author)

  16. Panama Canal capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S.

    1995-04-27

    Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

  17. [Working with hearing impairment: an integrated approach].

    PubMed

    van Til, Marten J; Kramer, Sophia E; Anema, Johannes R; Goverts, S T Theo

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hearing impairment are more likely to encounter health problems and difficulties at work than their colleagues with normal hearing. This is often not realised by either patients or professionals. In this article we describe three cases that illustrate how working conditions can influence the health of workers with hearing loss. We have implemented a vocational enablement protocol that follows a multidisciplinary approach in order to meet these patients' needs. Due to a mismatch between the demands of a job and an individual's auditory capacities, even a mild hearing impairment can cause serious problems if a patient works in adverse conditions. In addition, in many workplaces the ability to hear well is a safety issue. Professionals have to be aware of both possibilities. Specialized centres offer good facilities and ensure the optimal transfer of insight into the working environment by involving an occupational physician in their team. PMID:27050493

  18. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  19. Specific Language Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to distinguish between children who are struggling to learn a new language and children with true language impairments. After studying a large group of Hispanic children who speak English as a second language, NIDCD-funded researchers have developed a dual ...

  20. Cognitive Impairment After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Gauba, Charu; Chaudhari, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vascular dementia is extremely common and contributes to stroke-associated morbidity and mortality. The study of vascular dementia may help to plan preventive interventions. Aims: To study the frequency of cognitive impairment after stroke in a series of consecutive patients with acute stroke, along with factors which influence it. Methods: Fifty adults with acute infarct or hemorrhage (as seen on computed tomography of the brain) were included in the study. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and Barthel’s Index scores were done. Cognitive testing was done by PGI Battery of Brain Dysfunction (PGI-BBD) and Short Form of the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (SIQCODE). Statistical analysis was by Student’s t-test, Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Mean age of patients was 61.82 years; males and ischemic strokes predominated. Dementia was seen in 30%, cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) in 42%, and normal cognition in 28% patients. Factors associated with vascular cognitive impairment included old age, male sex, low education, hemorrhages, recurrent or severe stroke, silent infarcts, severe cortical atrophy, and left hemispheric or subcortical involvement. Conclusions: Up to 72% of patients have some form of cognitive impairment after a stroke. Secondary stroke prevention could reduce the incidence of vascular dementia. PMID:26543693

  1. Oral Morphosyntactic Competence as a Predictor of Reading Comprehension in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buil-Legaz, Lucía; Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Rodríguez-Ferreiro, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with a diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) present impaired oral comprehension. According to the simple view of reading, general amodal linguistic capacity accounts for both oral and reading comprehension. Considering this, we should expect SLI children to display a reading comprehension deficit. However, previous…

  2. Cognitive Impairment among the Aging Population in a Community in Southwest Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adebiyi, Akindele O.; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Adediran, Babatunde A.; Olakehinde, Olaide O.; Siwoku, Akeem A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vascular risk models can be quite informative in assisting the clinician to make a prediction of an individual's risk of cognitive impairment. Thus, a simple marker is a priority for low-capacity settings. This study examines the association of selected simple to deploy vascular markers with cognitive impairment in an elderly…

  3. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adger, W. Neil; Vincent, Katharine

    2005-03-01

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. To cite this article: W.N. Adger, K. Vincent, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  4. Capacity Maximizing Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  5. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  6. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, R.W.

    1984-10-30

    A multi-cylinder compressor particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor rotation is provided with an eccentric cam on a crank pin under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180[degree] apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons whose connecting rods ride on a crank pin without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation. 6 figs.

  7. Dual capacity reciprocating compressor

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-cylinder compressor 10 particularly useful in connection with northern climate heat pumps and in which different capacities are available in accordance with reversing motor 16 rotation is provided with an eccentric cam 38 on a crank pin 34 under a fraction of the connecting rods, and arranged for rotation upon the crank pin between opposite positions 180.degree. apart so that with cam rotation on the crank pin such that the crank throw is at its normal maximum value all pistons pump at full capacity, and with rotation of the crank shaft in the opposite direction the cam moves to a circumferential position on the crank pin such that the overall crank throw is zero. Pistons 24 whose connecting rods 30 ride on a crank pin 36 without a cam pump their normal rate with either crank rotational direction. Thus a small clearance volume is provided for any piston that moves when in either capacity mode of operation.

  8. Grammatical Impairments in PPA

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Mack, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Grammatical impairments are commonly observed in the agrammatic subtype of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G), whereas grammatical processing is relatively preserved in logopenic (PPA-L) and semantic (PPA-S) subtypes. Aims We review research on grammatical deficits in PPA and associated neural mechanisms, with discussion focused on production and comprehension of four aspects of morphosyntactic structure: grammatical morphology, functional categories, verbs and verb argument structure, and complex syntactic structures. We also address assessment of grammatical deficits in PPA, with emphasis on behavioral tests of grammatical processing. Finally, we address research examining the effects of treatment for progressive grammatical impairments. Main Contribution PPA-G is associated with grammatical deficits that are evident across linguistic domains in both production and comprehension. PPA-G is associated with damage to regions including the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and dorsal white matter tracts, which have been linked to impaired comprehension and production of complex sentences. Detailing grammatical deficits in PPA is important for estimating the trajectory of language decline and associated neuropathology. We, therefore, highlight several new assessment tools for examining different aspects of morphosyntactic processing in PPA. Conclusions Individuals with PPA-G present with agrammatic deficit patterns distinct from those associated with PPA-L and PPA-S, but similar to those seen in agrammatism resulting from stroke, and patterns of cortical atrophy and white matter changes associated with PPA-G have been identified. Methods for clinical evaluation of agrammatism, focusing on comprehension and production of grammatical morphology, functional categories, verbs and verb argument structure, and complex syntactic structures are recommended and tools for this are emerging in the literature. Further research is needed to investigate the real

  9. Auditory spatial localization: Developmental delay in children with visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2016-01-01

    For individuals with visual impairments, auditory spatial localization is one of the most important features to navigate in the environment. Many works suggest that blind adults show similar or even enhanced performance for localization of auditory cues compared to sighted adults (Collignon, Voss, Lassonde, & Lepore, 2009). To date, the investigation of auditory spatial localization in children with visual impairments has provided contrasting results. Here we report, for the first time, that contrary to visually impaired adults, children with low vision or total blindness show a significant impairment in the localization of static sounds. These results suggest that simple auditory spatial tasks are compromised in children, and that this capacity recovers over time. PMID:27002960

  10. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing -- www.agbell.org American Speech-Language-Hearing Association -- www.asha.org/public Center for ...

  11. Chemistry for the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Judy L.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses modifications to general education or introductory chemistry courses that allow visually impaired students to participate productively. Describes a strategy for teaching about elements and density, and the construction of a conductivity tester for visually impaired students. (JRH)

  12. Neurological Impairment: Nomenclature and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Catherine E.; Weber, Robert E.

    Neurological impairment as discussed includes a range of disabilities referred to as neurological impairment: minimal brain dysfunction/damage, developmental disability, perceptual handicap, learning disability, hyperkinetic behavioral syndrome, and others. Defined are causes of neurological impairment and methods of diagnosis. Symptoms…

  13. The impaired radiologist.

    PubMed

    Magnavita, N; Magnavita, G; Bergamaschi, A

    2010-08-01

    The concept of the "impaired physician" is an oxymoron. Physicians are by definition bearers of health, which can lead to overlooking the possibility of them contracting an illness that reduces their diagnostic and therapeutic abilities, with a consequent danger to their patients' health. The clinical reasons for which a radiologist may constitute a danger to patients can be divided into two categories: infectious blood-borne diseases, which can be transmitted to the patient during interventional radiology procedures; and neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, including alcohol and drug abuse, which temporarily or permanently impair the faculty of judgement. All radiologists have a duty to periodically verify their own state of health and seek help as soon as possible when they fear it may be a danger. This individual responsibility towards one's own patients is flanked by the health and safety requirements provided by European regulations for radiologists who are employers, directors or department heads. The occupational health physician plays a key role in identifying and managing the impaired radiologist. PMID:20221712

  14. Diabetes and Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Zilliox, Lindsay A; Chadrasekaran, Krish; Kwan, Justin Y; Russell, James W

    2016-09-01

    Both type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been associated with reduced performance on multiple domains of cognitive function and with evidence of abnormal structural and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cognitive deficits may occur at the very earliest stages of diabetes and are further exacerbated by the metabolic syndrome. The duration of diabetes and glycemic control may have an impact on the type and severity of cognitive impairment, but as yet we cannot predict who is at greatest risk of developing cognitive impairment. The pathophysiology of cognitive impairment is multifactorial, although dysfunction in each interconnecting pathway ultimately leads to discordance in metabolic signaling. The pathophysiology includes defects in insulin signaling, autonomic function, neuroinflammatory pathways, mitochondrial (Mt) metabolism, the sirtuin-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1α (SIRT-PGC-1α) axis, and Tau signaling. Several promising therapies have been identified in pre-clinical studies, but remain to be validated in clinical trials. PMID:27491830

  15. Attentional control mediates the relationship between social anhedonia and social impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Laura M.; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Hooker, Christine I.

    2014-01-01

    Social anhedonia (SA), a trait-like disinterest in social contact and diminished capacity to experience pleasure from social interactions, is consistently associated with social impairments in both healthy and clinical populations. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between SA and social impairment are poorly understood. Attentional control, selecting and focusing on relevant information and inhibiting irrelevant, may be one such mechanism. We examined individual differences in SA, attentional control, and social impairment in 108 healthy adults. High SA related to low attentional control and high social impairment. Moreover, attentional control mediated the relationship between SA and social impairment, establishing attentional control as one mechanism underlying aberrations in the fundamental human need for social contact. Although both attentional deficits and social impairment have been separately noted in SA, the relationship between SA, attentional control and social impairment in this non-clinical sample reflects a novel contribution. PMID:25538647

  16. Flood Bypass Capacity Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siclari, A.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Large river flows can damage adjacent flood-prone areas, by exceeding river channel and levee capacities. Particularly large floods are difficult to contain in leveed river banks alone. Flood bypasses often can efficiently reduce flood risks, where excess river flow is diverted over a weir to bypasses, that incur much less damage and cost. Additional benefits of bypasses include ecosystem protection, agriculture, groundwater recharge and recreation. Constructing or expanding an existing bypass costs in land purchase easements, and levee setbacks. Accounting for such benefits and costs, this study develops a simple mathematical model for optimizing flood bypass capacity using benefit-cost and risk analysis. Application to the Yolo Bypass, an existing bypass along the Sacramento River in California, estimates optimal capacity that economically reduces flood damage and increases various benefits, especially for agriculture. Land availability is likely to limit bypass expansion. Compensation for landowners could relax such limitations. Other economic values could affect the optimal results, which are shown by sensitivity analysis on major parameters. By including land geography into the model, location of promising capacity expansions can be identified.

  17. The Moral Capacity Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2011-01-01

    Effective counseling practice continues to be inevitably linked to underlying theories of behavioral causality. In this article, the authors present the Moral Capacity Profile of an individual from the perspective of the Amoral, Moral, Quasi-Moral/Quasi-Immoral, and Immoral Model of Behavior, a model that uniquely expands counseling's theoretical…

  18. Working Memory as a Predictor of Reading Achievement in Orally Educated Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneman, Meredyth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study found that three measures of working memory capacity (processing and storage capacity, reading and listening span, and visual shape span) were good predictors of reading achievement in 30 orally educated children (ages 5 to 14) with hearing impairments as well as in an age-matched hearing control group. Degree of hearing loss did not…

  19. Working memory contributions to reinforcement learning impairments in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Collins, Anne G E; Brown, Jaime K; Gold, James M; Waltz, James A; Frank, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    Previous research has shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in reinforcement learning tasks. However, behavioral learning curves in such tasks originate from the interaction of multiple neural processes, including the basal ganglia- and dopamine-dependent reinforcement learning (RL) system, but also prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive strategies involving working memory (WM). Thus, it is unclear which specific system induces impairments in schizophrenia. We recently developed a task and computational model allowing us to separately assess the roles of RL (slow, cumulative learning) mechanisms versus WM (fast but capacity-limited) mechanisms in healthy adult human subjects. Here, we used this task to assess patients' specific sources of impairments in learning. In 15 separate blocks, subjects learned to pick one of three actions for stimuli. The number of stimuli to learn in each block varied from two to six, allowing us to separate influences of capacity-limited WM from the incremental RL system. As expected, both patients (n = 49) and healthy controls (n = 36) showed effects of set size and delay between stimulus repetitions, confirming the presence of working memory effects. Patients performed significantly worse than controls overall, but computational model fits and behavioral analyses indicate that these deficits could be entirely accounted for by changes in WM parameters (capacity and reliability), whereas RL processes were spared. These results suggest that the working memory system contributes strongly to learning impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:25297101

  20. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Enhancing capacity management.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan; Houlahan, Beth; Lavrenz, Dennise

    2014-03-01

    It is essential for organizations to be able to accept patients requiring care. Capacity planning and management are necessary to ensure an organization has an accepting physician/service, an available bed, and staff to care for the patient and family. This organization implemented strategies including communication plans, staffing guidelines, morning rounds, proactive planning, and an escalation process to reverse the trend of not being able to accept all patients. PMID:24531280

  2. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  3. CSTI High Capacity Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Jerry M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  4. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  5. The visually impaired child.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lisa; Kaufman, Lawrence M

    2003-02-01

    This article discusses the causes of childhood blindness and how the primary care provider may begin the appropriate steps toward diagnosing and managing the visually impaired child. Community resources (see Box 3) and low-vision programs in schools should be used so that parents do not need to reinvent strategies to raise a blind child. Worldwide, childhood blindness, which places is a tremendous burden on families and communities of the third world, is mostly preventable with improved hygiene, diet, and immunization. PMID:12713115

  6. Specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Kamhi, Alan G; Clark, Mary Kristen

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of language is one of the most important achievements in young children, in part because most children appear to acquire language with little effort. Some children are not so fortunate, however. There is a large group of children who also have difficulty learning language, but do not have obvious neurological, cognitive, sensory, emotional, or environmental deficits. Clinicians often refer to these children as language disordered or language impaired. Researchers tend to refer to these children as specific language impaired (SLI). Children with SLI have intrigued researchers for many years because there is no obvious reason for their language learning difficulties. SLI has been found to be an enduring condition that begins in early childhood and often persists into adolescence and adulthood. The language problems of children with SLI are not limited to spoken language; they also affect reading and writing and thus much of academic learning. Knowledge of the characteristics of SLI should aid physicians, pediatricians, and early childhood specialists to identify these children during the preschool years and ensure that they receive appropriate services. With high-quality language intervention and literacy instruction, most children with SLI should be able to perform and function adequately in school and beyond. PMID:23622167

  7. Dimethylfumarate Impairs Neutrophil Functions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Susen; Behnen, Martina; Bieber, Katja; Möller, Sonja; Hellberg, Lars; Witte, Mareike; Hänsel, Martin; Zillikens, Detlef; Solbach, Werner; Laskay, Tamás; Ludwig, Ralf J

    2016-01-01

    Host defense against pathogens relies on neutrophil activation. Inadequate neutrophil activation is often associated with chronic inflammatory diseases. Neutrophils also constitute a significant portion of infiltrating cells in chronic inflammatory diseases, for example, psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. Fumarates improve the latter diseases, which so far has been attributed to the effects on lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Here, we focused on the effects of dimethylfumarate (DMF) on neutrophils. In vitro, DMF inhibited neutrophil activation, including changes in surface marker expression, reactive oxygen species production, formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, and migration. Phagocytic ability and autoantibody-induced, neutrophil-dependent tissue injury ex vivo was also impaired by DMF. Regarding the mode of action, DMF modulates-in a stimulus-dependent manner-neutrophil activation using the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathways. For in vivo validation, mouse models of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, an organ-specific autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies to type VII collagen, were employed. In the presence of DMF, blistering induced by injection of anti-type VII collagen antibodies into mice was significantly impaired. DMF treatment of mice with clinically already-manifested epidermolysis bullosa acquisita led to disease improvement. Collectively, we demonstrate a profound inhibitory activity of DMF on neutrophil functions. These findings encourage wider use of DMF in patients with neutrophil-mediated diseases. PMID:26763431

  8. Psychiatric Issues in Palliative Care: Assessing Mental Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Udo, Itoro; Mohammed, Zeid; Gash, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Issues surrounding capacity to consent to or refuse treatment are increasingly receiving clinical and legal attention. Through the use of 3 case vignettes that involve different aspects of mental health care in palliative care settings, mental capacity issues are discussed. The vignettes tackle capacity in a patient with newly developed mental illness consequent to physical illness, capacity in a patient with mental illness but without delirium and capacity in a patient with known impairment of the mind. These discussions give credence to best practice position where physicians act in the best interests of their patients at all times. It is important to emphasize that capacity decisions have to be made on a case by case basis, within the remit of legal protection. This is a fundamental requirement of the Mental Capacity Act 2005, England & Wales (MCA). The later is used as the legal basis for these discussions. The psychiatric liaison service is a useful resource to provide consultation, advice and or joint assessment to clinicians encountering complex dilemmas involving decision-making capacity. PMID:25278761

  9. Surface retention capacity calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of

  10. Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, Philip B; Counts, Scott E; Nyenhuis, David

    2016-05-01

    Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment are receiving heightened attention as potentially modifiable factors for dementias of later life. These factors have now been linked not only to vascular cognitive disorders but also Alzheimer's disease. In this chapter we review 3 related topics that address vascular contributions to cognitive impairment: 1. vascular pathogenesis and mechanisms; 2. neuropsychological and neuroimaging phenotypic manifestations of cerebrovascular disease; and 3. prospects for prevention of cognitive impairment of later life based on cardiovascular and stroke risk modification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26704177

  11. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    PubMed

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  12. Albermarle boosts MASC capacity

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-07-17

    Albemarle plans to triple capacity for methylaluminum sesquichloride (MASC) at its Houston complex. The move is in response to growing demand for aluminum alkyl catalyst systems, says Greg Lambeth, product manager/organometallics North America. MASC is the key raw material for trimethylaluminum (TMA), a Ziegler-Natta cocatalyst, and for methylaluminoxane (MAO), a cocatalyst for metallocene polyolefin catalysts. {open_quotes}This is a very competitive area because of the growing importance of metallocenes in polyolefin production,{close_quotes} Lambeth says. Several companies-including Exxon Chemical, Dow Chemical, and Hoechst - have invested in metallocene catalysts this year. Others have announced plans either to convert technology from conventional Ziegler-Natta catalyst systems or to build new facilities for metallocene catalyst production. Albemarle, the largest producer of TMA and other aluminum alkyls, completed a debottlenecking project in Houston earlier this year that increased its capacity 50%. The company also expects to complete a TMA expansion project at its Orangeburg, SC facility soon.

  13. Early hominin auditory capacities

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  14. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  15. Astrocytes Underlie Neuroinflammatory Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    Osso, Lindsay A; Chan, Jonah R

    2015-12-17

    Neuroinflammation is being increasingly recognized as a potential mediator of cognitive impairments in various neurological conditions. Habbas et al. demonstrate that the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha signals through astrocytes to alter synaptic transmission and impair cognition in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. PMID:26687350

  16. Toward the Neural Mechanisms of Reduced Working Memory Capacity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Carly J.; Kaiser, Sam T.; Robinson, Benjamin M.; Kappenman, Emily S.; Hahn, Britta; Gold, James M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    People with schizophrenia (PSZ) demonstrate reliable reductions in working memory (WM) capacity (i.e., the number of objects that can be held in memory). The present study asked whether WM impairments in PSZ can be explained by the same neural mechanisms that underlie individual differences in WM capacity among healthy individuals. Specifically, we examined event-related potentials in PSZ and healthy matched controls during a change detection task that required the storage of multiple objects in WM. The amplitude of contralateral delay activity (CDA), which correlates with WM capacity in healthy individuals, was larger in controls than in PSZ for memory loads of 3 and 5 objects, but larger in PSZ than in controls for a memory load of 1. This same pattern was found in the subgroups of PSZ and controls with an equivalent WM capacity. Moreover, the increase in CDA amplitude was correlated with individual differences in capacity in controls, but not in PSZ. These results demonstrate that WM impairment in PSZ is not associated with the same patterns of neural activity that characterize low WM capacity in healthy individuals. We propose that WM impairment in PSZ instead reflects a specific impairment in the ability to distribute attention broadly. PMID:22661407

  17. Development of Interleukin-12-Producing Capacity throughout Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Upham, John W.; Lee, Peter T.; Holt, Barbara J.; Heaton, Tricia; Prescott, Susan L.; Sharp, Mary J.; Sly, Peter D.; Holt, Patrick G.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the capacity to induce protective Th1 immune responses is impaired in early childhood, an observation that can be partially attributed to deficiencies in antigen-presenting-cell function. Synthesis of interleukin 12 (IL-12), a key Th1-trophic cytokine, is markedly reduced in the neonatal period, though there is a paucity of knowledge concerning the ontogeny of IL-12-synthetic capacity throughout the childhood years. Hence, we examined the production of bioactive IL-12 p70 by circulating mononuclear cells in a population of healthy individuals. As expected, the capacity to synthesize IL-12 p70 in response to either lipopolysaccharide or heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus was markedly impaired at birth, even after priming of cells with gamma interferon. Surprisingly however, IL-12 p70 synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from both 5- and 12-year-old children was still substantially below that seen in adults, and this did not appear to be related to excessive production of IL-10. In contrast, dendritic cells from adults and neonates, derived from monocytes with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-4, synthesized equivalent amounts of IL-12 p70 in response to microbial stimulation. This indicates that the impaired capacity for IL-12 synthesis in childhood is not an intrinsic property of circulating mononuclear cells but rather can be readily overcome in response to appropriate maturational stimuli. Because IL-12 arose predominantly from circulating HLA-DR+ cells that lacked B-cell- and monocyte-specific markers, we propose that the slow maturation of IL-12-synthetic capacity in the childhood years can be attributed to deficiencies in the number and/or function of dendritic cells. PMID:12438328

  18. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in January 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Numerical data for the production of ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, phosphoric acid and ammonium phosphates is included.

  19. [Cognitive impairment of alcohol-dependent subjects].

    PubMed

    Bernardin, Florent; Maheut-Bosser, Anne; Paille, François

    2014-04-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces multiple brain damages. Secondary cognitive disorders include executive functions, episodic memory and visuospatial capacities. The severity of these alcohol induced disorders may vary between sub-clinical manifestations (that may, nevertheless, interfere with medical management) and more important ones like Korsakoff syndrome or dementia. The latter are usually irreversible but many of these manifestations are potentially reversible with persistent abstinence. It therefore appears of particular importance to clearly define neuropsychological management in order to identify and evaluate the type and severity of alcohol-related cognitive disorders. The patients may then be offered rehabilitation for these cognitive impairments. This is the first step of a complete addiction program based especially on cognitive behavioral therapies. PMID:24855773

  20. Resilience and vision impairment in older people.

    PubMed

    Thetford, Clare; Bennett, Kate M; Hodge, Suzanne; Knox, Paul C; Robinson, Jude

    2015-12-01

    Some people fare better than others when faced with adversity; they appear to be more 'resilient'. This article explores the concept of resilience in the context of vision impairment using two linked sets of narrative interview data from 2007 to 2010. Three case studies were analysed in detail using a framework approach based upon a social-ecological model of resilience and vision impairment. Within the model a range of assets and resources are identified which influence an individual's capacity for resilience. A set of criteria were used to establish the extent to which each individual appeared to be resilient at each point in time. Analysis revealed that it is not merely the presence or absence of individual, social, and community resources - but how these resources interact with each other - that influences resilience and can create a risk to wellbeing. To possess only some of these resources is not sufficient; there is a co-dependency between these resources which requires the presence of other resources for resilience to be achieved. Resilience is not a fixed state; individuals can become more or less resilient as their circumstances and resources change over time. We suggest that the concept of resilience has much to offer the field of vision impairment as it allows the identification of enablers as well as areas of barriers to improving people's health and wellbeing and suggests further opportunities for service providers to engage with clients, even those who appear to be supported, as people's social, economic and emotional landscapes continue to change over time, rather than identifying deficit. PMID:26568213

  1. High capacity oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrosa, O.A. Jr.; Couto, N.C.; Fanqueiro, R.C.C.

    1983-11-01

    The present invention relates to a high capacity oil burner comprising a cylindrical atomizer completely surrounded by a protective cylindrical housing having a diameter from 2 to 3 times greater than the diameter of said atomizer; liquid fuels being injected under pressure into said atomizer and accumulating within said atomizer in a chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels, and compressed air being injected into a chamber for the accumulation of air; cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels with the outside and cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of air with said cylindrical holes communicating the chamber for the accumulation of liquids with the outside so that the injection of compressed air into said liquid fuel discharge holes atomizes said fuel which is expelled to the outside through the end portions of said discharge holes which are circumferentially positioned to be burnt by a pilot flame; said protecting cylindrical housing having at its ends perforated circular rings into which water is injected under pressure to form a protecting fan-like water curtain at the rear end of the housing and a fan-like water curtain at the flame to reduce the formation of soot; the burning efficiency of said burner being superior to 30 barrels of liquid fuel per day/kg of the apparatus.

  2. First mideast capacity planned

    SciTech Connect

    Fattah, H.

    1996-11-06

    Kuwait catalyst Co.`s (KCC) plans to build a hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts plant in Kuwait will mark the startup of the first refining catalysts production in the Persian Gulf region. KCC, owned by a conglomerate of Kuwait companies and governmental agencies, has licensed catalyst manufacturing technology from Japan Energy in a deal estimated at more than 7 billion ($62 million). Plant design will be based on technology from Orient Catalyst, Japan Energy`s catalysts division. Construction is expected to begin in January 1997 for production startup by January 1998. A source close to the deal says the new plant will eventually reach a capacity of 5,000 m.t./year of HDS catalysts to supply most of Kuwait`s estimated 3,500-m.t./year demand, driven primarily by Kuwait National Petroleum refineries. KCC also expects to supply demand from other catalyst consumers in the region. Alumina supply will be acquired on the open market. KCC will take all production from the plant and will be responsible for marketing.

  3. Advanced work capacity testing.

    PubMed

    Bretz, Károly J; Dános, László; Smudla, Szilvia; Pálosi, Adrienn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe an accurate work capacity testing which can be used in the industry, as well as in rehabilitation process. The first part of this paper is dealing with the NIOSH lifting equation, which is a tool used by occupational health and safety professionals. The second part of this paper summarizes the features and applications of the "ErgoScope" work simulator. Static and dynamic strength of upper and lower limbs, as well as whole body efforts can be measured. The equipment makes it possible to evaluate pushing, pulling, lifting and carrying activities comprising reaching, bending and stooping movements. In the third part of this paper we demonstrate handgrip force data recorded using the "ErgoScope" work simulator comparing with handgrip force data published in the literature. "ErgoScope" work simulator is capable to measure handgrip and pinch forces, suitable to evaluate fine motor skills, hand and finger dexterity, as well as reaction times. PMID:26294589

  4. Accurate perception of negative emotions predicts functional capacity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Abram, Samantha V; Karpouzian, Tatiana M; Reilly, James L; Derntl, Birgit; Habel, Ute; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-04-30

    Several studies suggest facial affect perception (FAP) deficits in schizophrenia are linked to poorer social functioning. However, whether reduced functioning is associated with inaccurate perception of specific emotional valence or a global FAP impairment remains unclear. The present study examined whether impairment in the perception of specific emotional valences (positive, negative) and neutrality were uniquely associated with social functioning, using a multimodal social functioning battery. A sample of 59 individuals with schizophrenia and 41 controls completed a computerized FAP task, and measures of functional capacity, social competence, and social attainment. Participants also underwent neuropsychological testing and symptom assessment. Regression analyses revealed that only accurately perceiving negative emotions explained significant variance (7.9%) in functional capacity after accounting for neurocognitive function and symptoms. Partial correlations indicated that accurately perceiving anger, in particular, was positively correlated with functional capacity. FAP for positive, negative, or neutral emotions were not related to social competence or social attainment. Our findings were consistent with prior literature suggesting negative emotions are related to functional capacity in schizophrenia. Furthermore, the observed relationship between perceiving anger and performance of everyday living skills is novel and warrants further exploration. PMID:24524947

  5. Specific Language Impairment in Families: Evidence for Co-Occurrence with Reading Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Judy F.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Hirsch, Linda S.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher W.; Tallal, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Two family aggregation studies involving 25 children (ages 5-10) with specific language impairment (SLI) report the occurrence and co-occurrence of oral language impairments and reading impairments. Results indicate that when language impairments occur within families of SLI probands, these impairments generally co-occur with reading impairments.…

  6. Bioethics for clinicians: 3. Capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, E; Sharpe, G; Elliott, C; Singer, P A

    1996-01-01

    In the context of patient consent, "capacity" refers to the patient's ability to understand information relevant to a treatment decision and to appreciate the reasonably foreseeable consequences of a decision or lack of decision. A person may be "capable" with respect to one decision but not with respect to another. Clinicians can usually identify patients who are clearly capable or incapable, but in some cases a clinical capacity assessment is required. Such assessment may consist of cognitive status testing, general impressions of capacity or specific capacity assessment. Specific capacity assessment, in which the clinician evaluates the patient's ability to understand pertinent information and appreciate its implications, is probably the optimal method. When conducting a specific capacity assessment, the clinician must ensure that the disclosure of information is effective and must evaluate the patient's reason for his or her decision. If the assessment suggests that the patient is incapable, further assessment is generally recommended. PMID:8823211

  7. Age-dependent capacity to accelerate protein synthesis dictates the extent of compensatory growth in skeletal muscle following undernutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In both humans and animals, impaired growth during early life compromises adult lean body mass and muscle strength despite skeletal muscle’s large regenerative capacity. To identify the significance of developmental age on skeletal muscle’s capacity for catch-up growth following an episode of under ...

  8. Psychiatric Issues in Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Aarsland, Dag; Taylor, John-Paul; Weintraub, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as depression, hallucinations and apathy commonly occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and have major clinical consequences including a negative impact on quality of life. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and treatment issues of NPS in PD and related disorders in the perspective of cognitive impairment, focusing on depression, anxiety, visual hallucinations, apathy, sleep disturbances, impulse control disorder and non-motor fluctuations. The majority of NPS are more common in PD patients with dementia, possibly related to shared underlying pathologies. Recent studies also suggest that NPS are associated with mild cognitive impairment in PD, in particular with the amnestic type. Accurate diagnosis of NPS is important but can be difficult, due to overlapping symptoms and similar appearance of symptoms of motor symptoms of parkinsonism, cognitive impairment, mood disorders and apathy. There are few systematic studies focusing on the management of NPS in PD with cognitive impairment. PMID:24757113

  9. [Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Niino, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Yusei

    2016-04-01

    While cognitive impairment is a major symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is commonly overlooked. This may be explained by the fact that it is difficult to evaluate cognitive function in patients with MS using screening batteries for the detection of dementia such as the mini-mental state examination. Further more, cognitive impairment in MS typically involves domain-specific deficits such as imparement of sustained attention and information processing speed rather than global cognitive decline. Cognitive impairment may influence the daily living and social lines of affected patients. This review discusses the characteristics of cognitive impairment, appropreate tests to evaluate its symptoms, and the current status of clinical trials for the treatment of MS. PMID:27056855

  10. [Drug-induced Cognitive Impairment].

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Moeko; Yamada, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    Elderly people are more likely than young people to develop cognitive impairments associated with medication use. One of the reasons for this is that renal and liver functions are often impaired in elderly people. Dementia and delirium (an acute confused state) are known to be associated with drug toxicity. Anticholinergic medications are common causes of both acute and chronic cognitive impairment. Psychoactive drugs, antidepressants and anticonvulsants can cause dementia and delirium. In addition, non-psychoactive drugs such as histamine H2 receptor antagonists, corticosteroids, NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent), and cardiac medications, may cause acute or chronic cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis and withdrawal of the offending agent are essential for the prevention of drug-induced dementia and delirium. PMID:27056860

  11. CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-11-30

    The CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application that determines the most economic amount of capacity of distributed generation and thermal utilization equipment (e.g., absorption chillers) to install for any user-defined set of load and cost data. Installing the optimum amount of capacity is critical to the life-cycle economic viability of a distributed generation/cooling heat and power (CHP) application. Using advanced optimization algorithms, the software accesses the loads, utility tariffs, equipment costs,more » etc., and provides to the user the most economic amount of system capacity to install.« less

  12. CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer Software

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-30

    The CHP Installed Capacity Optimizer is a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application that determines the most economic amount of capacity of distributed generation and thermal utilization equipment (e.g., absorption chillers) to install for any user-defined set of load and cost data. Installing the optimum amount of capacity is critical to the life-cycle economic viability of a distributed generation/cooling heat and power (CHP) application. Using advanced optimization algorithms, the software accesses the loads, utility tariffs, equipment costs, etc., and provides to the user the most economic amount of system capacity to install.

  13. Adaptive capacity and its assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, Nathan L.

    2011-04-20

    This paper reviews the concept of adaptive capacity and various approaches to assessing it, particularly with respect to climate variability and change. I find that adaptive capacity is a relatively under-researched topic within the sustainability science and global change communities, particularly since it is uniquely positioned to improve linkages between vulnerability and resilience research. I identify opportunities for advancing the measurement and characterization of adaptive capacity by combining insights from both vulnerability and resilience frameworks, and I suggest several assessment approaches for possible future development that draw from both frameworks and focus on analyzing the governance, institutions, and management that have helped foster adaptive capacity in light of recent climatic events.

  14. Premenstrual changes. Impaired hormonal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Halbreich, U; Alt, I H; Paul, L

    1988-03-01

    Premenstrual changes (PMCs) in mood and behavior are very prevalent. Nonetheless, their pathophysiology is still obscure and no proven treatment is yet available. Evaluation of the plethora of available data leads to the suggestion that PMCs may result from a temporary impairment of homeostasis among a multitude of systems. This impairment is triggered by a differential pace and magnitude of change-over-time in levels of several hormones and other substances during the luteal phase. PMID:3288473

  15. Chemistry for the Visually Impaired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratliff, Judy L.

    1997-06-01

    Methods used to try to provide a valuable experience for visually impaired students in a general education or an introductory chemistry class are discussed. Modifications that can be made cheaply and with little time commitment which will allow visually impaired students to participate productively in the laboratory are examined. A conductivity tester that cost less than $4.00 to construct, is easy to assemble, very rugged, and provides a great deal of entertainment for sighted and non-sighted students is described.

  16. The Capacity to Build Organizational Capacity in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, M. Bruce; Bouchard, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Reformers, policymakers, and researchers have given considerable attention to organizational capacity in schools, especially in those schools that perpetuate or exacerbate achievement gaps among diverse student groups and reproduce social inequalities. There is an emerging consensus about key dimensions of school capacity and how they can…

  17. Dystypia: isolated typing impairment without aphasia, apraxia or visuospatial impairment.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Mika; Soma, Yoshiaki; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term 'dystypia' for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient's typing impairment was not attributable to a disturbance of the linguistic process, since he had no aphasia or agraphia. The impairment was not attributable to the impairment of the motor execution process either, since he had no apraxia. Thus, his typing impairment was deduced to be based on a disturbance of the intermediate process where the linguistic phonological information is converted into the corresponding performance. We hypothesized that there is a specific process for typing which branches from the motor programming process presented in neurolinguistic models. The foot of the left second frontal convolution and the operculum may play an important role in the manifestation of 'dystypia'. PMID:11914550

  18. Building Organizational Capacity through Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosner, Shelby

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the cultivation of collegial trust as a central feature of the capacity-building work of 11 high school principals, nominated for their expertise with capacity building. This qualitative study examined interview data and school documents collected over 18 months. Principals regarded trust as critical and were motivated to…

  19. Measuring Capacities for Community Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H.; Galea, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the sets of adaptive capacities for Economic Development and Social Capital in the Norris et al. (2008) community resilience model with publicly accessible population indicators. Our approach involved five steps. First, we conducted a literature review on measurements of the capacities. Second, we created…

  20. Enrollment Capacity and Technology Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The 2007-09 Appropriations Act provided funding to the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) to study the state's capital facility and technology capacity. Specifically, "...state appropriation is provided solely to implement a capital facility and technology capacity study which will compare the 10-year enrollment projections with the…

  1. Heat capacity, configurational heat capacity and fragility of hydrous magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, D.; Romano, C.; Giordano, D.; Alletti, M.

    2014-10-01

    The glassy and liquid heat capacities of four series of dry and hydrous natural glasses and magma as a function of temperature and water content (up to 19.9 mol%) were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analyzed compositions are basalt, latite, trachyte and pantellerite. The results of this study indicate that the measured heat capacity of glasses (Cpg) is a linear function of composition and is well reproduced by the empirical model of Richet (1987). For the investigated glasses, the partial molar heat capacity of water can be considered as independent of composition, in agreement with Bouhifd et al. (2006). For hydrous liquids, the heat capacity (Cpliq) decreases nonlinearly with increasing water content. Previously published models, combined with the partial molar heat capacity of water from the literature, are not able to reproduce our experimental data in a satisfactory way. We estimated the partial molar heat capacity of water (CpH2O) in hydrous magma over a broad compositional range. The proposed value is 41 ± 3 J mol-1 K-1. Water strongly affects the configurational heat capacity at the glass transition temperature [Cpconf (Tg)]. An increases of Cpconf (Tg) with water content was measured for the polymerized liquids (trachyte and pantellerite), while the opposite behavior was observed for the most depolymerized liquids (basalt and latite). Structural and rheological implications of this behavior are discussed in light of the presented results.

  2. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This listing of fertilizer producers and their production capacities was compiled in February 1993 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. TVA does not guarantee the completeness or accuracy of the information. Capacity is only an indicator of supply. Nameplate capacity differs from planned production levels or actual production because plants often operate above or below design capacity. Unless reported otherwise, plant capacities are based on 340 days per year of operation. No adjustment is made for partial year operation. Information is given on the following types of fertilizers: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium sulfate, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, potash, nitric acid, superphosphoric acid, upgraded phosphoric acids, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  3. Heat capacity of molten halides.

    PubMed

    Redkin, Alexander A; Zaikov, Yurii P; Korzun, Iraida V; Reznitskikh, Olga G; Yaroslavtseva, Tatiana V; Kumkov, Sergey I

    2015-01-15

    The heat capacities of molten salts are very important for their practical use. Experimental investigation of this property is challenging because of the high temperatures involved and the corrosive nature of these materials. It is preferable to combine experimental investigations with empirical relationships, which allows for the evaluation of the heat capacity of molten salt mixtures. The isobaric molar heat capacities of all molten alkali and alkaline-earth halides were found to be constant for each group of salts. The value depends on the number of atoms in the salt, and the molar heat capacity per atom is constant for all molten halide salts with the exception of the lithium halides. The molar heat capacities of molten halides do not change when the anions are changed. PMID:25530462

  4. Alternative neural circuitry that might be impaired in the development of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Jesus; Perry, George; Strange, Bryan A.; Hernandez, Felix

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that some individuals with normal cognitive capacity have abundant senile plaques in their brains. It has been proposed that those individuals are resilient or have compensation factors to prevent cognitive decline. In this comment, we explore an alternative mechanism through which cognitive capacity is maintained. This mechanism could involve the impairment of alternative neural circuitry. Also, the proportion of molecules such as Aβ or tau protein present in different areas of the brain could be important. PMID:25954151

  5. Workload capacity spaces: a unified methodology for response time measures of efficiency as workload is varied.

    PubMed

    Townsend, James T; Eidels, Ami

    2011-08-01

    Increasing the number of available sources of information may impair or facilitate performance, depending on the capacity of the processing system. Tests performed on response time distributions are proving to be useful tools in determining the workload capacity (as well as other properties) of cognitive systems. In this article, we develop a framework and relevant mathematical formulae that represent different capacity assays (Miller's race model bound, Grice's bound, and Townsend's capacity coefficient) in the same space. The new space allows a direct comparison between the distinct bounds and the capacity coefficient values and helps explicate the relationships among the different measures. An analogous common space is proposed for the AND paradigm, relating the capacity index to the Colonius-Vorberg bounds. We illustrate the effectiveness of the unified spaces by presenting data from two simulated models (standard parallel, coactive) and a prototypical visual detection experiment. A conversion table for the unified spaces is provided. PMID:21607804

  6. Legal capacity of the elderly in Greece.

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Tsolaki, Magda

    2014-01-01

    Legal capacity of the elderly people in Greece is of great legal, medical and social importance, but has received little attention till now from medical literature. This paper aims to study whether elderly people with dementia are able to participate in legal contracts like sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We tried to introduce a new test for the above legal-financial contracts and show some preliminary findings. The test consists of six examined relevant domains concerning basic monetary skills, cash transactions, bank statement management, financial conceptual knowledge, knowledge of potential heirs (beneficiaries) and assets/estate and finally the decision making process for different dilemmas on sales, purchases, loans, leases, donations and testaments. We studied 203 people. Eighty three people were healthy, 64 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (10 with severe AD, 22 with moderate, and 32 with mild AD), 10 with Parkinson's disease (PD), and 46 with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Individuals were included in the study only if they were aged 60 and over and only if they had a partner or a guardian who could give information on the individual's daily living. The exclusion criteria were predefined as follows: history of any other mental health disease and/or any other serious somatic health disease except for their official diagnosis of dementia. Results showed statistically significant differences with all three groups of patients characterized as incapable for legal-financial actions. Patients with severe AD (P<0.001), patients with moderate AD (P<0.001), patients with mild AD (P<0.001), patients with PD (P<0.001) and aMCI patients (P<0.001) differed significantly from healthy controls. Further research should include more extensive sampling of elderly patients with varying demographic characteristics in Greece, to confirm and expand our initial findings. In conclusion, our new test which is based on Marson's theoretical model

  7. The effects of sleep loss on capacity and effort

    PubMed Central

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy

    2014-01-01

    Sleep loss appears to affect the capacity for performance and access to energetic resources. This paper reviews research examining the physical substrates referred to as resource capacity, the role of sleep in protecting that capacity and the reaction of the system as it attempts to respond with effort to overcome the limitations on capacity caused by sleep loss. Effort is the extent to which an organism will exert itself beyond basic levels of functioning or attempt alternative strategies to maintain performance. The purpose of this review is to bring together research across sleep disciplines to clarify the substrates that constitute and influence capacity for performance, consider how the loss of sleep influences access to those resources, examine cortical, physiological, perceptual, behavioral and subjective effort responses and consider how these responses reflect a system reacting to changes in the resource environment. When sleep deprived, the ability to perform tasks that require additional energy is impaired and the ability of the system to overcome the deficiencies caused by sleep loss is limited. Taking on tasks that require effort including school work, meal preparation, pulling off the road to nap when driving drowsy appear to be more challenging during sleep loss. Sleep loss impacts the effort-related choices we make and those choices may influence our health and safety. PMID:26483932

  8. The effects of sleep loss on capacity and effort.

    PubMed

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy

    2014-12-01

    Sleep loss appears to affect the capacity for performance and access to energetic resources. This paper reviews research examining the physical substrates referred to as resource capacity, the role of sleep in protecting that capacity and the reaction of the system as it attempts to respond with effort to overcome the limitations on capacity caused by sleep loss. Effort is the extent to which an organism will exert itself beyond basic levels of functioning or attempt alternative strategies to maintain performance. The purpose of this review is to bring together research across sleep disciplines to clarify the substrates that constitute and influence capacity for performance, consider how the loss of sleep influences access to those resources, examine cortical, physiological, perceptual, behavioral and subjective effort responses and consider how these responses reflect a system reacting to changes in the resource environment. When sleep deprived, the ability to perform tasks that require additional energy is impaired and the ability of the system to overcome the deficiencies caused by sleep loss is limited. Taking on tasks that require effort including school work, meal preparation, pulling off the road to nap when driving drowsy appear to be more challenging during sleep loss. Sleep loss impacts the effort-related choices we make and those choices may influence our health and safety. PMID:26483932

  9. 20 CFR 404.1598 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment... Disability § 404.1598 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe impairment(s) begins... are still disabled under § 404.1594....

  10. 20 CFR 404.1598 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment... Disability § 404.1598 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe impairment(s) begins... are still disabled under § 404.1594....

  11. 20 CFR 404.1598 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment... Disability § 404.1598 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe impairment(s) begins... are still disabled under § 404.1594....

  12. 20 CFR 404.1598 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment... Disability § 404.1598 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe impairment(s) begins... are still disabled under § 404.1594....

  13. 20 CFR 404.1598 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment... Disability § 404.1598 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe impairment(s) begins... are still disabled under § 404.1594....

  14. Lacking power impairs executive functions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pamela K; Jostmann, Nils B; Galinsky, Adam D; van Dijk, Wilco W

    2008-05-01

    Four experiments explored whether lacking power impairs executive functioning, testing the hypothesis that the cognitive presses of powerlessness increase vulnerability to performance decrements during complex executive tasks. In the first three experiments, low power impaired performance on executive-function tasks: The powerless were less effective than the powerful at updating (Experiment 1), inhibiting (Experiment 2), and planning (Experiment 3). Existing research suggests that the powerless have difficulty distinguishing between what is goal relevant and what is goal irrelevant in the environment. A fourth experiment established that the executive-function impairment associated with low power is driven by goal neglect. The current research implies that the cognitive alterations arising from powerlessness may help foster stable social hierarchies and that empowering employees may reduce costly organizational errors. PMID:18466404

  15. Zymosan-mediated inflammation impairs in vivo reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Malik, Priya; Berisha, Stela Z; Santore, Jennifer; Agatisa-Boyle, Colin; Brubaker, Gregory; Smith, Jonathan D

    2011-05-01

    Inflammation has been proposed to impair HDL function and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We investigated the effects of inflammation mediated by zymosan, a yeast glucan, on multiple steps along the RCT pathway in vivo and ex vivo. Acute inflammation with 70 mg/kg zymosan impaired RCT to plasma, liver, and feces similarly by 17-22% (P < 0.05), with no additional block at the liver. Hepatic gene expression further demonstrated no change in ABCG5, ABCB4, and ABCB11 expression but a decline in ABCG8 mRNA (32% P < 0.05). Plasma from zymosan-treated mice had a 21% decrease in cholesterol acceptor ability (P < 0.01) and a 35% decrease in ABCA1-specific efflux capacity (P < 0.01) in vitro. Zymosan treatment also decreased HDL levels and led to HDL remodeling with increased incorporation of serum amyloid A. In addition, cholesterol efflux from cultured macrophages declined with zymosan treatment in a dose dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that zymosan impairs in vivo RCT primarily by decreasing macrophage-derived cholesterol entering the plasma, with minimal additional blocks downstream. Our study supports the notion that RCT impairment is one of the mechanisms for the increased atherosclerotic burden observed in inflammatory conditions. PMID:21335620

  16. Neuropsychological impairments in anorexia nervosa: a spanish sample pilot study.

    PubMed

    Oltra-Cucarella, Javier; Espert, Raul; Rojo, Luís; Jacas, Carlos; Guillén, Verónica; Moreno, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This work was aimed at obtaining a profile of neuropsychological impairments in young Spanish participants with anorexia nervosa (AN) to demonstrate that right-hemisphere and frontal capacity impairments are present not only in the acute phase but also after weight recovery in a Spanish sample compared with a healthy control group. Twelve patients with AN in the acute phase (body mass index [BMI] < 17) were compared both to 16 healthy control subjects and 12 weight-recovered AN participants (BMI ≥ 17) matched by age, IQ, and educational level by utilizing a wide neuropsychological battery. Differences were found between AN groups only for long-term verbal memory, which worsens as BMI increases. Among participants with AN as a group, results showed differences in speed of information processing, working memory, visual memory, and inhibition, unrelated to attentional capabilities. We cannot support the hypothesis of a specific right cerebral dysfunction in patients with AN. A general cognitive dysfunction, primarily in information processing, working memory, visual and verbal memory, as well as frontal impairments such as impulsivity and poor behavioral control, appeared unrelated to BMI. We support previous works affirming that neuropsychological impairments in AN are not a consequence of the illness but a risk factor for it to develop. PMID:25084841

  17. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Unlike many neurodegenerative causes of cognitive impairment and dementia, vascular damage is preventable. Despite the heterogeneity of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and the complexity of its clinical presentations, the potential for limiting progression and changing the trajectory of damage makes it all the more important for physicians to be educated about the syndrome and to remain vigilant when taking care of patients. In this review, we outline an approach to patients with possible VCI, summarize current treatment and prevention guidelines, and provide an overview with case examples. PMID:26124978

  18. Visitation arrangements for impaired parents.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Stephen A; Street, David F

    2011-07-01

    Forensic mental health professionals are frequently asked to evaluate the parenting skills of divorcing parents because the court seeks help in determining the custody, visitation, and parenting time arrangements for the children. When one of the parents is impaired, the court wants to know the way to help the children have a good relationship with that parent and keep the children safe. There is little empirical research to answer such questions. In this article, the authors describe their methodology for providing useful clinical information to the court to help guide their decisions regarding visitation with impaired parents. PMID:21683915

  19. Driver Compensation: Impairment or Improvement?

    PubMed

    Young, Richard A

    2015-12-01

    Strayer et al.'s conclusion that their "cognitive distraction scale" for auditory-vocal tasks indicates "significant impairments to driving" is not supported by their data. Additional analysis demonstrates that slower brake reaction times during auditory-vocal tasks were fully compensated for by longer following distances to the lead car. Naturalistic driving data demonstrate that cellular conversation decreases crash risk, the opposite of the article's assumption. Hence, the scale's internal and external validities for indicating driving impairment are highly questionable. PMID:26534851

  20. Bilateral common carotid artery stenosis in normotensive rats impairs endothelium-dependent dilation of parenchymal arterioles.

    PubMed

    Matin, Nusrat; Fisher, Courtney; Jackson, William F; Dorrance, Anne M

    2016-05-15

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Reduced blood flow through the common carotid arteries induced by bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) is a physiologically relevant model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. We hypothesized that BCAS in 20-wk-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats would impair cognitive function and lead to reduced endothelium-dependent dilation and outward remodeling in the parenchymal arterioles (PAs). After 8 wk of BCAS, both short-term memory and spatial discrimination abilities were impaired. In vivo assessment of cerebrovascular reserve capacity showed a severe impairment after BCAS. PA endothelial function and structure were assessed by pressure myography. BCAS impaired endothelial function in PAs, as evidenced by reduced dilation to carbachol. Addition of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase inhibitors did not change carbachol-mediated dilation in either group. Inhibiting CYP epoxygenase, the enzyme that produces epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EETs), a key determinant of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-mediated dilation, abolished dilation in PAs from Sham rats, but had no effect in PAs from BCAS rats. Expression of TRPV4 channels, a target for EETs, was decreased and maximal dilation to a TRPV4 agonist was attenuated after BCAS. Together these data suggest that EET-mediated dilation is impaired in PAs after BCAS. Thus impaired endothelium-dependent dilation in the PAs may be one of the contributing factors to the cognitive impairment observed after BCAS. PMID:26968546

  1. To build capacity, build confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    The history of attempts to spread scientific know-how beyond western centres of excellence is littered with failures. Capacity building needs long-term commitment, a critical mass of trainees, and a supportive home environment.

  2. Neuropsychological assessment of mental capacity.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Karen

    2004-09-01

    The assessment of mental capacity to assist legal determinations of competency is potentially a growth area for neuropsychology, although to date neuropsychologists have published relatively little in this area. In this paper a systematic review of methods used to assess capacity is presented, including coverage of specialized tests and interviews used for this purpose. A neuropsychological model for conducting capacity assessments is proposed. This model involves comprehensive assessment of a wide range of cognitive abilities as well as assessment of specific skills and knowledge related to the type of capacity being assessed. The purpose of proposing this model is to stimulate further discussion and debate about the contribution neuropsychologists might make in this area. PMID:15673234

  3. The diffusing capacity in adult cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Espiritu, J D; Ruppel, G; Shrestha, Y; Kleinhenz, M E

    2003-06-01

    The value of adjusting the diffusing capacity for the lung volume has been demonstrated in a large number of patients with other lung diseases but has not been validated in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Pulmonary function test results on a cohort of 52 adult CF patients were analyzed to determine whether the diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide by single breath method (DLCO(SB)) when adjusted for alveolar volume (V(A)%), correlated with the severity of pulmonary dysfunction. The DLCO(SB) remained within the reference range except in those with severe lung impairment (61.88 +/- 15.48%). DLCO(SB) has a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation (0.70, 0.67, 048, 0.69 and 0.31, respectively) with measures of airflow limitation (FVC%, FEV1%, FEV1/FVC%, MVV%, and sGaw) and negative correlation (-0.36 and -0.21, respectively) with measures of air trapping (RV% and RV/TLC%). DLCO(SB)/V(A) remained above 100% of predicted despite worsening lung disease and did not correlate with other measures of lung function. On the other hand, the DLCO(SB) and DLCO(SB)/V(A), when adjusted for V(A)%, decreased and were significantly correlated with worsening airflow limitation and, to a lesser extent, air trapping. The relatively preserved adjusted DLCO(SB) and DLCO(SB)/V(A) values in CF patients up until late in its course may be explained the predominant airway involvement, minimal loss of alveolar-capillary units, and enhanced V/Q relationship due to claustration in CF. PMID:12814143

  4. Physical impairment aware transparent optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antona, Jean-Christophe; Morea, Annalisa; Zami, Thierry; Leplingard, Florence

    2009-11-01

    As illustrated by optical fiber and optical amplification, optical telecommunications have appeared for the last ten years as one of the most promising candidates to increase the transmission capacities. More recently, the concept of optical transparency has been investigated and introduced: it consists of the optical routing of Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) channels without systematic optoelectronic processing at nodes, as long as propagation impairments remain acceptable [1]. This allows achieving less power-consuming, more scalable and flexible networks, and today partial optical transparency has become a reality in deployed systems. However, because of the evolution of traffic features, optical networks are facing new challenges such as demand for higher transmitted capacity, further upgradeability, and more automation. Making all these evolutions compliant on the same current network infrastructure with a minimum of upgrades is one of the main issues for equipment vendors and operators. Hence, an automatic and efficient management of the network needs a control plan aware of the expected Quality of Transmission (QoT) of the connections to set-up with respect to numerous parameters such as: the services demanded by the customers in terms of protection/restoration; the modulation rate and format of the connection under test and also of its adjacent WDM channels; the engineering rules of the network elements traversed with an accurate knowledge of the associated physical impairments. Whatever the method and/or the technology used to collect this information, the issue about its accuracy is one of the main concerns of the network system vendors, because an inaccurate knowledge could yield a sub-optimal dimensioning and so additional costs when installing the network in the field. Previous studies [1], [2] illustrated the impact of this knowledge accuracy on the ability to predict the connection feasibility. After describing usual methods to build

  5. Human Impairment from Living near Confined Animal (Hog) Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Kaye H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem. To determine whether neighbors around manure lagoons and massive hog confinement buildings who complained of offensive odors and symptoms had impaired brain and lung functions. Method. We compared near hog manure neighbors of lagoons to people living beyond 3 kilometers in Ohio and to unexposed people controls in a nearby state for neurophysiological, cognitive, recall and memory functions, and pulmonary performance. Results. The 25 exposed subjects averaged 4.3 neurobehavioral abnormalities, significantly different from 2.5 for local controls and 2.3 for Tennessee controls. Exposed subjects mean forced vital capacity and expiratory volume in 1 sec were reduced significantly compared to local and regional controls. Conclusions. Near neighbors of hog enclosures and manure lagoon gases had impaired neurobehavioral functions and pulmonary functions and these effects extended to nearby people thought to be controls. Hydrogen sulfide must be abated because people living near lagoons cannot avoid rotten egg gas. PMID:22496706

  6. Mental juggling: when does multitasking impair reading comprehension?

    PubMed

    Cho, Kit W; Altarriba, Jeanette; Popiel, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the conditions under which multitasking impairs reading comprehension. Participants read prose passages (the primary task), some of which required them to perform a secondary task. In Experiment 1, we compared two different types of secondary tasks (answering trivia questions and solving math problems). Reading comprehension was assessed using a multiple-choice test that measured both factual and conceptual knowledge. The results showed no observable detrimental effects associated with multitasking. In Experiment 2, the secondary task was a cognitive load task that required participants to remember a string of numbers while reading the passages. Performance on the reading comprehension test was lower in the cognitive load conditions relative to the no-load condition. The present study delineates the conditions under which multitasking can impair or have no effect on reading comprehension. These results further our understanding of our capacity to multitask and have practical implications in our technologically advanced society in which multitasking has become commonplace. PMID:25832739

  7. The Capacity Profile: A Method to Classify Additional Care Needs in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meester-Delver, Anke; Beelen, Anita; Hennekam, Raoul; Nollet, Frans; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the interrater reliability and stability over time of the Capacity Profile (CAP). The CAP is a standardized method for classifying additional care needs indicated by current impairments in five domains of body functions: physical health, neuromusculoskeletal and movement-related, sensory, mental, and voice…

  8. LOW-LEVEL CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE AND WORK CAPACITY AT 1600 METERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    At sea level, low-level carbon monoxide (CO) exposure impairs exercise performance. To determine if altitude residence at 1600 m augments this CO effect, two studies of graded treadmill work capacity were done. The Initial Study investigated nine, non-smoking male subjects breath...

  9. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  10. Maximizing the optical network capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A.; Lavery, Domaniç; Killey, Robert I.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. PMID:26809572

  11. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    PubMed

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. PMID:26809572

  12. A Case Study of Parental Perceptions of Literacy Skill Development for Severe Speech Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweat, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Students exhibiting speech deficits may not have the appropriate skills or support structures necessary to obtain adequate or acceptable literacy development as mixed results from past research have indicated that some students with speech impairments have the capacity to gain appropriate literacy skills. The purpose of the qualitative holistic…

  13. Psycholinguistic Profiling Differentiates Specific Language Impairment from Typical Development and from Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.; Thompson, Heather L.; Goldstein, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Practitioners must have confidence in the capacity of their language measures to discriminate developmental language disorders from typical development and from other common disorders. In this study, psycholinguistic profiles were collected from 3 groups: children with specific language impairment (SLI), children with…

  14. The Impact of Dual Tasking on Sentence Comprehension in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve; Prigent, Gaid; Maillart, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors assessed the hypothesis of a limitation in attentional allocation capacity as underlying poor sentence comprehension in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Fifteen children with SLI, 15 age-matched controls, and 15 grammar-matched controls participated in the study. Sixty sentences were…

  15. A Comparison of Language Abilities in Adolescents with Down Syndrome and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Glynis; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2003-01-01

    This article compared the language profiles of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) and children with specific language impairment matched for nonverbal cognitive ability, and investigated whether similar relationships could be established between language measures and other capacities in both groups. Language profiles were very similar: Expressive…

  16. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation of Verbal Working Memory in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Plante, Elena; Jones, Maura; Tomblin, Bruce J.

    2005-01-01

    This study used neuroimaging and behavioral techniques to examine the claim that processing capacity limitations underlie specific language impairment (SLI). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate verbal working memory in adolescents with SLI and normal language (NL) controls. The experimental task involved a modified…

  17. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  18. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  19. [Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Ochi, Hirofumi

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive impairment may occur in up to 70% of all patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Although MS can affect various sites within the central nervous system, a specific pattern of cognitive deficits tends to be seen, especially in the early stages of the disease. These deficits include problems with attention, information processing speed, and working memory. This constellation of deficits can occur with any disease course, and a minimal correlation has been found between physical disability assessed by EDSS and cognitive impairment. Many studies have shown that cognitive impairment is correlated with brain lesion volume, as well as brain atrophy. There are promising neuroimaging indicators that may be useful for identifying patients at risk for cognitive impairment, such as diffusion tensor imaging, the magnetization transfer ratio, and N-acetyl aspartate levels. Cognitive dysfunction is associated with adverse effects on quality of life, employment status, and social activities. Today, there are three avenues for treatment: disease modifying therapies, symptomatic treatments, and cognitive rehabilitation. Unfortunately, data linking therapeutic interventions are limited. A better understanding of cognitive function and its correlation with disease mechanisms will assist in providing a new comprehensive treatment strategy that begins immediately with the diagnosis of MS. PMID:25296874

  20. Working memory and control of attention in persons with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Belleville, Sylvie; Chertkow, Howard; Gauthier, Serge

    2007-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to assess 3 attentional control processes--divided attention, manipulation capacities, and inhibition--in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Manipulation capacities were tested by comparing immediate serial recall with alphabetical-order recall of words. Divided attention was tested with the Brown-Peterson procedure, in which participants divide their attention between simple addition tasks and consonant trigrams over delays. Inhibition was tested with the Hayling procedure, in which participants complete sentences with words irrelevant to their context. Persons with AD showed severe impairment on the 3 attentional control components. Persons with MCI exhibited impaired performance on the Brown-Peterson procedure but normal performance on the other 2 tasks. With AD and MCI participants, there was a negative correlation between general cognitive deficits and impairment on attentional control tasks, indicating that attentional control deficits increase in the MCI/AD continuum. When separating MCI with and without significant subsequent decline, those with subsequent decline showed impaired performance on both the Brown-Peterson procedure and manipulation task. These data suggest that control of attention tasks can track AD at a preclinical stage and that impairment increases gradually during the preclinical phase of AD. PMID:17605579

  1. Skeletal Muscle Loading Changes its Regenerative Capacity.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Eduardo; Duarte, José Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Whenever skeletal muscle insults occur, both by functional impositions or other injury forms, skeletal muscle repair (SMR) follows. The SMR succeeds when proper skeletal muscle regeneration and limited fibrosis ensue. Muscle fiber replenishment by fibrosis negatively affects the tissue quality and functionality and, furthermore, represents the worst post-injury phenotypic adaptation. Acute muscle injury treatment commonly follows the RICE method-rest, ice, compression, and elevation. This immediate immobilization seems to be beneficial to preserving the tissue structure and avoiding further destruction; however, if these interventions are delayed, the risk of muscle atrophy and its deleterious-related effects increase, with resultant impaired SMR. Moreover, a growing body of evidence shows positive skeletal muscle loading (SML) effects during SMR since it seems to effectively increase satellite cells (SCs) in their activation, proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation capacities. Additionally, recent data show that SML may also influence the functions of other participants in SMR, compelling SMR to achieve less fibrotic accretion and accelerated muscle mass recovery. Moreover, given the SML effects on SCs, it is plausible to consider that these can increase the myofibers' basal myogenic potential. Thus, it seems relevant to scrutinize the possible acute and chronic SML therapeutic and prophylactic effects regarding the SMR process. PMID:26838984

  2. Individual differences in working memory capacity and workload capacity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ju-Chi; Chang, Ting-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and workload capacity (WLC). Each participant performed an operation span (OSPAN) task to measure his/her WMC and three redundant-target detection tasks to measure his/her WLC. WLC was computed non-parametrically (Experiments 1 and 2) and parametrically (Experiment 2). Both levels of analyses showed that participants high in WMC had larger WLC than those low in WMC only when redundant information came from visual and auditory modalities, suggesting that high-WMC participants had superior processing capacity in dealing with redundant visual and auditory information. This difference was eliminated when multiple processes required processing for only a single working memory subsystem in a color-shape detection task and a double-dot detection task. These results highlighted the role of executive control in integrating and binding information from the two working memory subsystems for perceptual decision making. PMID:25566143

  3. Functional impairment in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Aderka, Idan M; Hofmann, Stefan G; Nickerson, Angela; Hermesh, Haggai; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Marom, Sofi

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined functional impairment among treatment seekers with social anxiety disorder (SAD). We investigated the effects of diagnostic subtypes of SAD and comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders on impairment. In addition, we used cluster analysis procedures to empirically identify subgroups of individuals with distinct patterns of impairment. Participants were 216 treatment-seeking individuals with SAD. Clinical interviews were undertaken to determine diagnoses of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder, and a battery of self-report measures was administered to index symptoms of social anxiety, depression and extent of impairment. Results indicated that individuals with the generalized subtype of SAD had greater impairment in all three life domains compared to individuals with the nongeneralized subtype. Comorbidity with mood disorders was associated with greater impairment than SAD alone, but comorbidity with anxiety disorders was not. Four distinct impairment profiles emerged from the cluster analysis: primary work/studies impairment, primary social life impairment, both work/studies and social impairment, and impairment in all domains. Findings from this study suggest that SAD is associated with substantial impairment across multiple domains, and that individuals with SAD present diverse impairment profiles. These profiles may inform subtyping of the disorder as well as therapeutic interventions. PMID:22306132

  4. Capacity sharing of water reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, Norman J.; Musgrave, Warren F.

    1988-05-01

    The concept of a water use property right is developed which does not apply to water volumes as such but to a share of the capacity (not contents) of river storage reservoirs and their inflows. The shareholders can withdraw water from their share over time in accordance with their preferences for stability of water deliveries. The reservoir authority does not manage reservoir releases but keeps record of individual shareholder's withdrawals and net inflows to monitor the quantity of water in each shareholder's capacity share. A surplus of total reservoir contents over the sum of the contents of the individual shareholder's capacity shares will accrue over time. Two different criteria for its periodic distribution among shareholders are compared. A previous paper Dudley (this issue(b)) noted a loss of short-run economic efficiency as reservoir and farm management decision making become separated. This is largely overcome by capacity sharing which allows each user to integrate the management of their portion of the reservoir and their farming operations. The nonattenuated nature of the capacity sharing water rights also promotes long-run economic efficiency.

  5. Impairment of phagocytic functions of alveolar macrophages by hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Oosting, R.S.; van Bree, L.; van Iwaarden, J.F.; van Golde, L.M.; Verhoef, J. )

    1990-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inhibited phagocytosis and superoxide anion production by rat alveolar macrophages. The inhibition was irreversible and concentration and exposure time dependent. The potential relationship between H2O2-induced biochemical perturbations and impaired alveolar macrophage phagocytic functions was investigated. Alveolar macrophage viability and Fc receptor binding capacity were not affected by H2O2. There was probably no correlation between a H2O2-induced rise in cytosolic (Ca2+) ((Ca2+)i) and the impairment of phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages, as was suggested by the following findings. First, the H2O2-induced rise in (Ca2+)i could be inhibited by chelation of extracellular Ca2+, whereas the H2O2-induced impairment of phagocytosis could not. Second, the H2O2-induced rise in (Ca2+)i was reversible, whereas the impairment of phagocytosis was not. And finally, a rise in (Ca2+)i by incubation of alveolar macrophages with the calcium ionophore A23187 did not affect phagocytosis. Various experiments suggested that ATP depletion may play an important role in the H2O2 toxicity for alveolar macrophages. Comparable concentrations of H2O2 caused an irreversible decrease both in cellular ATP and in phagocytosis and superoxide production by alveolar macrophages. In addition, time course of ATP depletion and induction of impaired alveolar macrophage function were similar. In view of the fact that the strong oxidant H2O2 may react with a large variety of biological substances, possible other toxic lesions may not be excluded as underlying mechanism for H2O2-induced inhibition of phagocytic functions of alveolar macrophages.

  6. [Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Hisao

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common finding in Parkinson's disease (PD), even in the early stages. The concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in PD was recently formalized with diagnosis being reached after impairments in neuropsychological tasks become significant in at least one domain. The brain profile of cognitive deficits involves executive functions (e. g., planning, set shifting, set maintenance, problem solving), attention and memory function. Memory deficits are characterized by impairments in delayed recall, temporal ordering and conditional associate learning. PD patients demonstrate relatively preserved recognition. Visuospatial dysfunctions have also been reported, while language is largely preserved. The existence of two distinct mild cognitive syndromes has also been suggested. One of these affects mainly the frontostriatal executive deficits that are modulated by dopaminergic medications and by a genetically determined level of prefrontal cortex dopamine release. The other affects the more-posterior cortical abilities, such as visuospatial and memory functions, and is suggested to be associated with an increased risk for conversion to dementia. Cross-sectional studies have commonly reported dementia in 20-30% of PD patients, although the 8-year cumulative incidence of dementia may be as high as 78%. Factors associated with dementia in PD are age at onset, age at the time of examination, akinetic-rigid form PD, depression, hallucination, rapid eye movement sleep behavioral disorder and severe olfactory deficits. Clinical features generally involve the same type of deficits as those found in MCI patients, which are more severe and more extensive. The phenomenology of the dementia syndrome is similar to that seen in dementia with Lewy bodies, and clinicopathological correlation studies have revealed varying results with regard to neurochemical deficits and the pathological substrate underlying cognitive impairment and dementia. Early cognitive

  7. Neurosonological Examination: A Non-Invasive Approach for the Detection of Cerebrovascular Impairment in AD

    PubMed Central

    Urbanova, Barbora; Tomek, Ales; Mikulik, Robert; Magerova, Hana; Horinek, Daniel; Hort, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in vascular impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This interest was stimulated by the findings of higher incidence of vascular risk factors in AD. Signs of vascular impairment were investigated notably in the field of imaging methods. Our aim was to explore ultrasonographic studies of extra- and intracranial vessels in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and define implications for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease. The most frequently studied parameters with extracranial ultrasound are intima-media thickness in common carotid artery, carotid atherosclerosis, and total cerebral blood flow. The transcranial ultrasound concentrates mostly on flow velocities, pulsatility indices, cerebrovascular reserve capacity, and cerebral microembolization. Studies suggest that there is morphological and functional impairment of cerebral circulation in AD compared to healthy subjects. Ultrasound as a non-invasive method could be potentially useful in identifying individuals in a higher risk of progression of cognitive decline. PMID:24478651

  8. On risk and decisional capacity.

    PubMed

    Checkland, D

    2001-02-01

    Limits to paternalism are, in the liberal democracies, partially defined by the concepts of decision-making capacity/incapacity (mental competence/incompetence). The paper is a response to Ian Wilks's (1997) recent attempt to defend the idea that the standards for decisional capacity ought to vary with the degree of risk incurred by certain choices. Wilks's defense is based on a direct appeal to the logical features of examples and analogies, thus attempting to by-pass earlier criticisms (e.g., Culver & Gert, 1990) of risk-based standards. Wilks's argument is found wanting on the grounds that he misconstrues the logic of such capacity, especially in accounting for conceptual and pragmatic ties with issues of decisional authority. A diagnosis is offered as to the source of Wilks's error (the assumption that mental competence is a species of wider genus of "competence"), and an alternative way of accounting for risk within the predominant contemporary legal framework is sketched. PMID:11262640

  9. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Email Facebook Twitter March ... methamphetamine use, such as tobacco smoking. Can the Brain Recover? The UCLA study’s findings underscore the importance ...

  10. The Effect of Supercharger Capacity on Engine and Airplane Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, O W; Gove, W D

    1930-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of different supercharger capacities on the performance of an airplane and its engine . The tests were conducted on a DH4-M2 airplane powered with a Liberty 12 engine. In this investigation four supercharger capacities, obtained by driving a roots type supercharger at 1.615, 1.957, 2.4, and 3 time engine speed, were used to maintain sea-level pressure at the carburetor to altitudes of 7,000, 11,500, 17,000, and 22,000 feet, respectively. The performance of the airplane in climb and in level flight was determined for each of the four supercharger drive ratios and for the unsupercharged condition. The engine power was measured during these tests by means of a calibrated propeller. It was found that very little sacrifice in sea-level performance was experienced with the larger supercharger drive ratios as compared with performance obtained when using the smaller drive ratios. The results indicate that further increase in supercharger capacity over that obtained when using 3:1 drive ratio would give a slight increase in ceiling and in high-altitude performance but would considerably impair the performance for an appreciable distance below the critical altitude. As the supercharger capacity was increased, the height at which sea-level high speeds could be equaled or improved became a larger percentage of the maximum height of operation of the airplane.

  11. Unreasonable reasons: normative judgements in the assessment of mental capacity

    PubMed Central

    Banner, Natalie F

    2012-01-01

    The recent Mental Capacity Act (2005) sets out a test for assessing a person's capacity to make treatment choices. In some cases, particularly in psychiatry, it is unclear how the criteria ought to be interpreted and applied by clinicians. In this paper, I argue that this uncertainty arises because the concept of capacity employed in the Act, and the diagnostic tools developed to assist its assessment, overlook the inherent normativity of judgements made about whether a person is using or weighing information in the decision-making process. Patients may fail on this criterion to the extent that they do not appear to be handling the information given in an appropriate way, on account of a mental impairment disrupting the way the decision process ought to proceed. Using case law and clinical examples, I describe some of the normative dimensions along which judgements of incapacity can be made, namely epistemic, evaluative and affective dimensions. Such judgements are complex and the normative standards by which a clinician may determine capacity cannot be reduced to a set of criteria. Rather, in recognizing this normativity, clinicians may better understand how clinical judgements are structured and what kinds of assumption may inform their assessment. PMID:22995005

  12. Buffer Capacity: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a quantitative experiment designed to demonstrate buffer action and the measurement of buffer capacity. Discusses how to make acetate buffers, determine their buffer capacity, plot the capacity/pH curve, and interpret the data obtained. (TW)

  13. Spray dryer capacity stretched 50%

    SciTech Connect

    Paraskevas, J.

    1983-01-01

    This article describes plant equipment modifications which has resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. The installation of a new atomizer and screening system in NL Chemicals' Newberry Springs plant which produces natural clays for use as rheological additives in industrial coatings, cosmetics and other products, resulted in a 50% increase in spray drying capacity. Energy consumption per pound of product was reduced by 7%, and product quality improved. This was achieved in less than three months at an investment of less than 10% of what an additional spray dryer would have cost.

  14. In vivo analysis of impaired macrophage bactericidal capacity during experimental African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Glick, D L; Jones, J F

    1984-01-01

    Since innate resistance of mice to Salmonella typhimurium depends on an intact macrophage system, we have used this bacterium to investigate the effect of Trypanosoma brucei subsp. rhodesiense infection on macrophage phagocytic and cytolytic function. CBA/CaJ mice infected with T. brucei subsp. rhodesiense have decreased resistance to S. typhimurium, since doubly infected mice rapidly succumb to sublethal doses of S. typhimurium. Although trypanosomiasis is known to suppress antibody formation, such a suppression of antibody does not seem to play a role in trypanosome-induced sensitivity to S. typhimurium. A trypanosome-induced blockade of the reticuloendothelial system also does not occur, since parasitized and control mice clear S. typhimurium from the blood equally well. Early killing (0 to 48 h) of S. typhimurium in the liver and spleen is mainly macrophage mediated, and mice infected with trypanosomes kill S. typhimurium in the liver and spleen very poorly. Apparently trypanosomiasis inhibits macrophage bactericidal activity, but has no effect on phagocytosis. PMID:6389356

  15. Sentence Repetition Accuracy in Adults with Developmental Language Impairment: Interactions of Participant Capacities and Sentence Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poll, Gerard H.; Miller, Carol A.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We asked whether sentence repetition accuracy could be explained by interactions of participant processing limitations with the structures of the sentences. We also tested a prediction of the procedural deficit hypothesis (Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) that adjuncts are more difficult than arguments for individuals with developmental…

  16. Reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity and increased mitochondrial uncoupling impair myocardial energetics in obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is strongly associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies in obese humans and animals demonstrated increased myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) and reduced cardiac efficiency (CE); however, the underlying mechanisms r...

  17. Factors That Impair Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kristin; Hamm, Rose L.

    2014-01-01

    The body's response to tissue injury in a healthy individual is an intricate, sequential physiologic process that results in timely healing with full re-epithelialization, resolution of drainage, and return of function to the affected tissue. Chronic wounds, however, do not follow this sequence of events and can challenge the most experienced clinician if the underlying factors that are impairing wound healing are not identified. The purpose of this article is to present recent information about factors that impair wound healing with the underlying pathophysiological mechanism that interferes with the response to tissue injury. These factors include co-morbidities (diabetes, obesity, protein energy malnutrition), medications (steroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, anti-rejection medications), oncology interventions (radiation, chemotherapy), and life style habits (smoking, alcohol abuse). Successful treatment of any chronic wound depends upon identification and management of the factors for each individual. PMID:26199879

  18. Ability of older people with dementia or cognitive impairment to manage medicine regimens: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Rohan A; Goeman, Dianne; Beanland, Christine; Koch, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Impaired cognition has a significant impact on a person's ability to manage their medicines. The aim of this paper is to provide a narrative review of contemporary literature on medicines management by people with dementia or cognitive impairment living in the community, methods for assessing their capacity to safely manage medicines, and strategies for supporting independent medicines management. Studies and reviews addressing medicines management by people with dementia or cognitive impairment published between 2003 and 2013 were identified via searches of Medline and other databases. The literature indicates that as cognitive impairment progresses, the ability to plan, organise, and execute medicine management tasks is impaired, leading to increased risk of unintentional non-adherence, medication errors, preventable medication-related hospital admissions and dependence on family carers or community nursing services to assist with medicines management. Impaired functional capacity may not be detected by health professionals in routine clinical encounters. Assessment of patients' (or carers') ability to safely manage medicines is not undertaken routinely, and when it is there is variability in the methods used. Self-report and informant report may be helpful, but can be unreliable or prone to bias. Measures of cognitive function are useful, but may lack sensitivity and specificity. Direct observation, using a structured, standardised performance-based tool, may help to determine whether a person is able to manage their medicines and identify barriers to adherence such as inability to open medicine packaging. A range of strategies have been used to support independent medicines management in people with cognitive impairment, but there is little high-quality research underpinning these strategies. Further studies are needed to develop and evaluate approaches to facilitate safe medicines management by older people with cognitive impairment and their carers. PMID

  19. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Gestures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    A study found the gestural activity of 15 adolescents with visual impairments differed from that of 15 adolescents with sight. Subjects with visual impairments used more adapters (especially finger-to-hand gestures) and fewer conversational gestures. Differences in gestural activity by degree of visual impairment and grade in school were also…

  20. Evaluating the Visually Impaired: Neuropsychological Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, J. R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of nonvisual neuropsychological impairments in visually impaired persons can be achieved through modification of existing intelligence, memory, sensory-motor, personality, language, and achievement tests so that they do not require vision or penalize visually impaired persons. The Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological…

  1. Familial Aggregation in Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallal, Paula; Hirsch, Linda S.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Miller, Steve; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher; Flax, Judy F.

    2001-01-01

    A case-control family study design examined the current language-related abilities of all biological, primary relatives of probands (N=22) with specific language impairment (SLI) and of matched controls. Impairment rates for family members of SLI probands was significantly higher than for controls. Also, impairment rates estimated from a family…

  2. Alcohol and the Physically Impaired: Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boros, Alexander, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The articles in this special issue explore the connections between the dual disabilities of alcohol abuse and physical impairment, and reflect progress made in exploring the causes and treatments of alcohol abuse among the physically impaired. Selected articles include: "Results of a Model Intervention Program for Physically Impaired Persons"…

  3. Nature Trails for the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jonathan R.

    Many interpretive nature trails have been established for the visually impaired in recent years. The objectives of the investigation were to (a) identify what has been done in the past in the way of nature trail design for the visually impaired, (b) compare this with what professional workers for the visually impaired consider important in the…

  4. Mobile Device Impairment ... Similar Problems, Similar Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz; Chen, Tianyi

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have defined a new type of impairment in which an able-bodied user's behaviour is impaired by both the characteristics of a device and the environment in which it is used. This behavioural change is defined as a situationally-induced impairment and is often associated with small devices used in a mobile setting or constrained…

  5. 20 CFR 416.923 - Multiple impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Evaluation of Disability § 416.923 Multiple impairments. In... impairments, the combined impact of the impairments will be considered throughout the disability...

  6. 20 CFR 416.923 - Multiple impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Evaluation of Disability § 416.923 Multiple impairments. In... impairments, the combined impact of the impairments will be considered throughout the disability...

  7. 20 CFR 416.923 - Multiple impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Evaluation of Disability § 416.923 Multiple impairments. In... impairments, the combined impact of the impairments will be considered throughout the disability...

  8. 20 CFR 416.923 - Multiple impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Evaluation of Disability § 416.923 Multiple impairments. In... impairments, the combined impact of the impairments will be considered throughout the disability...

  9. 20 CFR 416.923 - Multiple impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Evaluation of Disability § 416.923 Multiple impairments. In... impairments, the combined impact of the impairments will be considered throughout the disability...

  10. Cortical Visual Impairment: New Directions

    PubMed Central

    Good, William V.

    2009-01-01

    Cortical visual impairment is the leading cause of bilateral low vision in children in the U.S., yet very little research is being done to find new diagnostic measures and treatments. Dr. Velma Dobson's pioneering work on visual assessments of developmentally delayed children stands out as highly significant in this field. Future research will assess new diagnostic measures, including advanced imaging techniques. In addition, research will evaluate methods to prevent, treat, and rehabilitate infants and children afflicted with this condition. PMID:19417710

  11. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Jeremy; Alty, Jane Elizabeth; Jamieson, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive impairment is a significant non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Longitudinal cohort studies have demonstrated that approximately 50% of those with PD develop dementia after 10 years, increasing to over 80% after 20 years. Deficits in cognition can be identified at the time of PD diagnosis in some patients and this mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) has been studied extensively over the last decade. Although PD-MCI is a risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease dementia there is evidence to suggest that PD-MCI might consist of distinct subtypes with different pathophysiologies and prognoses. The major pathological correlate of Parkinson's disease dementia is Lewy body deposition in the limbic system and neocortex although Alzheimer's related pathology is also an important contributor. Pathological damage causes alteration to neurotransmitter systems within the brain, producing behavioural change. Management of cognitive impairment in PD requires a multidisciplinary approach and accurate communication with patients and relatives is essential. PMID:25814509

  12. Mandatory notification of impaired doctors.

    PubMed

    Beran, R G

    2014-12-01

    Mandatory reporting of impaired doctors is compulsory in Australasia. Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency guidelines for notification claim high benchmark though the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Royal Australasian College of Physicians suggest they still obstruct doctors seeking help. Western Australia excludes mandatory reporting of practitioner-patients. This study examines reporting, consequences and international experiences with notification. Depressed doctors avoid diagnosis and treatment, fearing consequences, yet are more prone to marital problems, substance dependence and needing psychotherapy. South African research confirms isolation of impaired doctors and delayed seeking help with definable characteristics of those at risk. New Zealand data acknowledge: errors occur; questionable contribution from mandatory reporting; issues concerning competence assessment; favouring reporting to senior colleagues or self-intervention to compliance with mandatory reporting. UK found an anaesthetist guilty of professional misconduct for not reporting and sanctioned doctors regarding Harold Shipman. Australians are reluctant to report, fearing legalistic intrusion into care. Australian research confirmed definable characteristics for doctors with psychiatric illness or alcohol abuse. Exposure to legal medicine evokes personal disenchantment for doctors involved. Medicine poses barriers for impaired doctors. Spanish and UK doctors do not use general practitioners and may have suboptimal care. US and European doctors self-medicate using samples. US drug-dependent doctors also prescribe for spouses. Junior doctors are losing empathy with the profession. UK doctors favour private care, avoiding public scrutiny. NZ and Brazil created specific services for doctors, which appear effective. Mandatory reporting may be counterproductive requiring reappraisal. PMID:25442756

  13. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Fertilizers production is reported or forecasted for the years 1987 through 1997. The fertilizers reported on are: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, and potash.

  14. North American fertilizer capacity data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industries. Yearly production and forecasts are given for 1987 through 1997. Fertilizers reported on include: ammonium sulfate, nitric acid, wet-process superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, elemental phosphorus, potassium sulfate, and sulfate of potash/magnesia.

  15. AccessSTEM: Building Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DO-IT, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A series of activities were undertaken to understand the underrepresentation of people with disabilities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers and increase their participation in these fields. "AccessSTEM" collaborated with key stakeholders to conduct a "Capacity-Building Institute" ("CBI") in April 2009; share…

  16. What limits working memory capacity?

    PubMed

    Oberauer, Klaus; Farrell, Simon; Jarrold, Christopher; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    We review the evidence for the 3 principal theoretical contenders that vie to explain why and how working memory (WM) capacity is limited. We examine the possibility that capacity limitations arise from temporal decay; we examine whether they might reflect a limitation in cognitive resources; and we ask whether capacity might be limited because of mutual interference of representations in WM. We evaluate each hypothesis against a common set of findings reflecting the capacity limit: The set-size effect and its modulation by domain-specificity and heterogeneity of the memory set; the effects of unfilled retention intervals and of distractor processing in the retention interval; and the pattern of correlates of WM tests. We conclude that-at least for verbal memoranda-a decay explanation is untenable. A resource-based view remains tenable but has difficulty accommodating several findings. The interference approach has its own set of difficulties but accounts best for the set of findings, and therefore, appears to present the most promising approach for future development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950009

  17. Capacity Issue Looms for Vouchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    State-level momentum in support of vouchers and tax credits that help students go to private schools highlights what has been a largely theoretical issue: private school capacity to support voucher-financed enrollment. Academics say the national supply of seats in secular and religious private schools is sufficient to meet short-term demand from…

  18. Quantum channel capacities: Multiparty communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demianowicz, Maciej; Horodecki, Paweł

    2006-10-01

    We analyze different aspects of multiparty communication over quantum memoryless channels and generalize some of the key results known from bipartite channels to the multiparty scenario. In particular, we introduce multiparty versions of subspace and entanglement transmission fidelities. We also provide alternative, local, versions of fidelities and show their equivalence to the global ones in context of capacity regions defined. An equivalence of two different capacity notions with respect to two types of fidelities is proven. In analogy to the bipartite case it is shown, via sufficiency of isometric encoding theorem, that additional classical forward side channel does not increase capacity region of any quantum channel with k senders and m receivers which represents a compact unit of general quantum networks theory. The result proves that recently provided capacity region of a multiple access channel [M. Horodecki , Nature 436, 673 (2005); J. Yard , e-print quant-ph/0501045], is optimal also in a scenario of an additional support of forward classical communication.

  19. Auditory Short-Term Memory Capacity Correlates with Gray Matter Density in the Left Posterior STS in Cognitively Normal and Dyslexic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Fiona M.; Ramsden, Sue; Ellis, Caroline; Burnett, Stephanie; Megnin, Odette; Catmur, Caroline; Schofield, Tom M.; Leff, Alex P.; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of auditory STM is its item-limited processing capacity. We investigated whether auditory STM capacity correlated with regional gray and white matter in the structural MRI images from 74 healthy adults, 40 of whom had a prior diagnosis of developmental dyslexia whereas 34 had no history of any cognitive impairment. Using…

  20. [Impaired lung function in patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2004-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, RV, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SS, paO2 and paCO2 were determined in 22 patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis (FEV1, 79-50% of the normal value). All the patients were found to have impaired bronchial patency, 90.9% of the patients had lung volume and capacity changes; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction was present in 72.7%. Bronchial patency impairments were manifested by a decrease in FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, and an increase in Raw, Rin, Rex. Changes in the lung volumes and capacities appeared as higher RV, TGV, TLC, lower VC and FVC. Pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up as a reduction in pO2 and DLCO-SS a reduction and an increase in paCO2. The magnitude of the functional changes observed in most patients was low. Significant and pronounced disorders were seen in one third of the patients. PMID:15719666

  1. Impaired protein metabolism: interlinks between obesity, insulin resistance and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Guillet, C; Masgrau, A; Walrand, S; Boirie, Y

    2012-12-01

    Metabolic and structural changes in skeletal muscle that accompany obesity are often associated with the development of insulin resistance. The first events in the pathogenesis of this disorder are considered as an accumulation of lipids within skeletal muscle due to blunted muscle capacity to oxidize fatty acids. Fat infiltration is also associated with muscle fibre typology modification, decrease in muscle mass and impairments in muscle strength. Thus, as a result of obesity, mobility and quality of life are affected, and this is in part due to quantitative and qualitative impairments in skeletal muscle. In addition, the insulin resistance related to obesity results not only in defective insulin-stimulated glucose disposal but has also detrimental consequences on protein metabolism at the skeletal muscle level and whole-body level. This review highlights the involvement of fat accumulation and insulin resistance in metabolic disorders occurring in skeletal muscle during the development of obesity, and the impairments in the regulation of protein metabolism and protein turnover in the links between obesity, metabolic inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:23107259

  2. Fluoroquinolone-gyrase-DNA complexes: two modes of drug binding.

    PubMed

    Mustaev, Arkady; Malik, Muhammad; Zhao, Xilin; Kurepina, Natalia; Luan, Gan; Oppegard, Lisa M; Hiasa, Hiroshi; Marks, Kevin R; Kerns, Robert J; Berger, James M; Drlica, Karl

    2014-05-01

    DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV control bacterial DNA topology by breaking DNA, passing duplex DNA through the break, and then resealing the break. This process is subject to reversible corruption by fluoroquinolones, antibacterials that form drug-enzyme-DNA complexes in which the DNA is broken. The complexes, called cleaved complexes because of the presence of DNA breaks, have been crystallized and found to have the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring system facing the GyrB/ParE subunits. As expected from x-ray crystallography, a thiol-reactive, C-7-modified chloroacetyl derivative of ciprofloxacin (Cip-AcCl) formed cross-linked cleaved complexes with mutant GyrB-Cys(466) gyrase as evidenced by resistance to reversal by both EDTA and thermal treatments. Surprisingly, cross-linking was also readily seen with complexes formed by mutant GyrA-G81C gyrase, thereby revealing a novel drug-gyrase interaction not observed in crystal structures. The cross-link between fluoroquinolone and GyrA-G81C gyrase correlated with exceptional bacteriostatic activity for Cip-AcCl with a quinolone-resistant GyrA-G81C variant of Escherichia coli and its Mycobacterium smegmatis equivalent (GyrA-G89C). Cip-AcCl-mediated, irreversible inhibition of DNA replication provided further evidence for a GyrA-drug cross-link. Collectively these data establish the existence of interactions between the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring and both GyrA and GyrB. Because the GyrA-Gly(81) and GyrB-Glu(466) residues are far apart (17 Å) in the crystal structure of cleaved complexes, two modes of quinolone binding must exist. The presence of two binding modes raises the possibility that multiple quinolone-enzyme-DNA complexes can form, a discovery that opens new avenues for exploring and exploiting relationships between drug structure and activity with type II DNA topoisomerases. PMID:24497635

  3. Insulin Secretory Defect and Insulin Resistance in Isolated Impaired Fasting Glucose and Isolated Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama-Sasabe, Sae; Fukushima, Mitsuo; Xin, Xin; Taniguchi, Ataru; Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Mitsui, Rie; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Hideaki; Yabe, Daisuke; Yasuda, Koichiro; Kurose, Takeshi; Inagaki, Nobuya; Seino, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the characteristics of isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and isolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG), we analyzed the factors responsible for elevation of 2-hour postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels. Methods. We investigated the relationship between 2 h PG and FPG levels who underwent 75 g OGTT in 5620 Japanese subjects at initial examination for medical check-up. We compared clinical characteristics between isolated IGT and isolated IFG and analyzed the relationships of 2 h PG and FPG with clinical characteristics, the indices of insulin secretory capacity, and insulin sensitivity. Results. In a comparison between isolated IGT and isolated IFG, insulinogenic index was lower in isolated IGT than that of isolated IFG (0.43 ± 0.34 versus 0.50 ± 0.47, resp.; p < 0.01). ISI composite was lower in isolated IFG than that of isolated IGT (6.87 ± 3.38 versus 7.98 ± 4.03, resp.; p < 0.0001). In isolated IGT group, insulinogenic index showed a significant correlation with 2 h PG (r = −0.245, p < 0.0001) and had the strongest correlation with 2 h PG (β = −0.290). In isolated IFG group, ISI composite showed a significant correlation with FPG (r = −0.162, p < 0.0001) and had the strongest correlation with FPG (β = −0.214). Conclusions. We have elucidated that decreased early-phase insulin secretion is the most important factor responsible for elevation of 2 h PG levels in isolated IGT subjects, and decreased insulin sensitivity is the most important factor responsible for elevation of FPG levels in isolated IFG subjects. PMID:26788515

  4. Characterization of Lung Function Impairment in Adults with Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhi-ya; Tang, Yan; Li, Hui-min; Lin, Zhi-min; Zheng, Jin-ping; Chen, Rong-chang; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2014-01-01

    Background Characteristics of lung function impairment in bronchiectasis is not fully understood. Objectives To determine the factors associated with lung function impairment and to compare changes in spirometry during bronchiectasis exacerbation and convalescence (1 week following 14-day antibiotic therapy). Methods We recruited 142 patients with steady-state bronchiectasis, of whom 44 with acute exacerbations in the follow-up were included in subgroup analyses. Baseline measurements consisted of chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), sputum volume, purulence and bacteriology, spirometry and diffusing capacity. Spirometry, but not diffusing capacity, was examined during acute exacerbations and convalescence. Results In the final multivariate models, having bronchiectasis symptoms for 10 years or greater (OR = 4.75, 95%CI: 1.46–15.43, P = 0.01), sputum culture positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR = 4.93, 95%CI: 1.52–15.94, P<0.01) and HRCT total score being 12 or greater (OR = 7.77, 95%CI: 3.21–18.79, P<0.01) were the major variables associated with FEV1 being 50%pred or less; and the only variable associated with reduced DLCO was 4 or more bronchiectatic lobes (OR = 5.91, 95%CI: 2.20–17.23, P<0.01). Overall differences in FVC and FEV1 during exacerbations and convalescence were significant (P<0.05), whereas changes in other spirometric parameters were less notable. This applied even when stratified by the magnitude of FEV1 and DLCO reduction at baseline. Conclusion Significant lung function impairment should raise alert of chest HRCT abnormality and sputum culture positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in patients with predominantly mild to moderate steady-state bronchiectasis. Acute exacerbations elicited reductions in FVC and FEV1. Changes of other spirometric parameters were less significant during exacerbations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01761214 PMID:25405614

  5. Impaired Insulin Signaling Accelerates Cardiac Mitochondrial Dysfunction After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sena, Sandra; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Dongfang; Wang, Xiaohui; Wayment, Benjamin; Olsen, Curtis; Avelar, Erick; Abel, E. Dale; Litwin, Sheldon E

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes increases mortality and accelerates left ventricular (LV) dysfunction following myocardial infarction (MI). This study sought to determine the impact of impaired myocardial insulin signaling, in the absence of diabetes, on the development of LV dysfunction following MI. Mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted knock out of the insulin receptor (CIRKO) and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to proximal left coronary artery ligation (MI) and followed for 14 days. Despite equivalent infarct size, mortality was increased in CIRKO-MI vs. WT-MI mice (68 % vs. 40 %, respectively). In surviving mice, LV ejection fraction and dP/dt were reduced by > 40% in CIRKO-MI vs. WT-MI. Relative to shams, isometric developed tension in LV papillary muscles increased in WT-MI but not in CIRKO-MI. Time to peak tension and relaxation times were prolonged in CIRKO-MI vs. WT-MI suggesting impaired, load-independent myocardial contractile function. To elucidate mechanisms for impaired LV contractility, mitochondrial function was examined in permeabilized cardiac fibers. Whereas maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial O2 consumption rates (VADP) with palmitoyl carnitine were unchanged in WT-MI mice relative to sham-operated animals, VADP was significantly reduced in CIRKO-MI (13.17 ± 0.94 vs. 9.14 ± 0.88 nmol O2/min/mgdw, p<0.05). Relative to WT-MI, expression levels of GLUT4, PPAR-α, SERCA2, and the FA-Oxidation genes MCAD, LCAD, CPT2 and the electron transfer flavoprotein ETFDH were repressed in CIRKO-MI. Thus reduced insulin action in cardiac myocytes accelerates post-MI LV dysfunction, due in part to a rapid decline in mitochondrial FA oxidative capacity, which combined with limited glucose transport capacity may reduce substrate utilization and availability. PMID:19249310

  6. Remarks on entanglement assisted classical capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Heng

    2003-06-01

    The property of the optimal signal ensembles of entanglement assisted channel capacity is studied. A relationship between entanglement assisted channel capacity and one-shot capacity of unassisted channel is obtained. The data processing inequalities, convexity and additivity of the entanglement assisted channel capacity are reformulated by simple methods.

  7. Domains and correlates of clinical balance impairment associated with Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jesse V; Boyd, James T; Hogarth, Penelope; Horak, Fay B

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to (a) determine the domains of clinical balance impairments associated with Huntington's disease (HD), and (b) evaluate associations between balance test scores and other disease-related impairments. Eighteen subjects with genetically definite HD and 17 age-matched control subjects were evaluated on the Mini-BESTest for their clinical balance impairments as well as the Unified HD Rating Scale (UHDRS) motor and total functional capacity scales, Activity-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale-short form, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Results showed that subjects with HD exhibited significantly lower total Mini-BESTest scores than subjects without HD (mean (95% CI)=76 (64-87)% with HD, 98 (96-99)% without HD; p=0.0011). Mini-BESTest item scores were significantly lower for subjects with HD on one-leg stance, postural responses, standing with eyes closed on foam, and dual-task timed up-and-go. Mini-BESTest scores significantly correlated with UHDRS motor (r(2)=0.68; p=0.00003) and total functional capacity (r(2)=0.75; p=0.000006) scores as well as with scores on the ABC short form (r(2)=0.45; p=0.0024), SDMT (r(2)=0.42; p=0.0036), and MoCA (r(2)=0.23; p=0.046) assessments. This study, therefore, demonstrates that balance impairments associated with HD span domains of anticipatory postural adjustments, postural responses, stance in challenging sensory conditions, and gait. Although preliminary, clinical balance impairment appears to be an efficient proxy evaluation of multiple HD-related factors due to associations with functional capacity, other motor impairments, balance confidence, and cognitive abilities. PMID:25797790

  8. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  9. Photophobia and cortical visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Jan, J E; Groenveld, M; Anderson, D P

    1993-06-01

    Photophobia, or intolerance of light, is not completely understood as a symptom. It has been divided into ocular and central types. This study shows that persistent, usually mild, photophobia occurs in about one-third of children with cortical visual impairment (CVI). When the CVI is congenital the photophobia is present from birth, and when it is acquired the sensitivity to light appears immediately after the brain insult. The intensity of photophobia tends to diminish with time and occasionally it may even disappear. The pathophysiology is unclear, as in all other neurological disorders associated with photophobia. PMID:8504889

  10. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Filburn, Thomas

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  11. Communication Capacity of Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, S.; Rallan, L.; Vedral, V.

    2000-12-01

    By considering quantum computation as a communication process, we relate its efficiency to its classical communication capacity. This formalism allows us to derive lower bounds on the complexity of search algorithms in the most general context. It enables us to link the mixedness of a quantum computer to its efficiency and also allows us to derive the critical level of mixedness beyond which there is no quantum advantage in computation.

  12. Information capacity of specific interactions.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Miriam H; Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael P

    2016-05-24

    Specific interactions are a hallmark feature of self-assembly and signal-processing systems in both synthetic and biological settings. Specificity between components may arise from a wide variety of physical and chemical mechanisms in diverse contexts, from DNA hybridization to shape-sensitive depletion interactions. Despite this diversity, all systems that rely on interaction specificity operate under the constraint that increasing the number of distinct components inevitably increases off-target binding. Here we introduce "capacity," the maximal information encodable using specific interactions, to compare specificity across diverse experimental systems and to compute how specificity changes with physical parameters. Using this framework, we find that "shape" coding of interactions has higher capacity than chemical ("color") coding because the strength of off-target binding is strongly sublinear in binding-site size for shapes while being linear for colors. We also find that different specificity mechanisms, such as shape and color, can be combined in a synergistic manner, giving a capacity greater than the sum of the parts. PMID:27155013

  13. Heat capacity of coal chars

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The selected starting materials were, a North Dakota lignite, an Illinois No. 6 bituminous and a Virginia coking coal. The carbon content of these coals ranged from 59 to 75 wt% (mineral matter included). Half of each of the received coal sample was demineralized using a standard procedure. Chars were prepared from the received and demineralized pulverized coals by pyrolysis. Heating rate of 5/sup 0/C/minute was employed for the pyrolysis under dry nitrogen gas atmosphere. The pyrolysis temperatures were 700, 900 and 1100/sup 0/C for periods of 0.1, 1 and 24. The char samples were characterized by chemical composition analysis, x-ray diffraction and porosimetry. Heat capacity data were collected over 75 to 300/sup 0/K temperature range using an adiabatic calorimeter. The heat capacity of these samples increases, with increasing temperature and moisture content, and its behavior and order of magnitude are similar to that of carbon when compared on a moisture free basis. Due to the uncertainties of the chemical forms of the mineral matter and the water phase below room temperature, all the heat capacity data are analyzed on a dry mineral matter free basis.

  14. Health reform requires policy capacity

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D.; Helms, David

    2015-01-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  15. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    PubMed

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-05-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  16. Reduced aerobic capacity causes leaky ryanodine receptors that trigger arrhythmia in a rat strain artificially selected and bred for low aerobic running capacity

    PubMed Central

    Høydal, MA; Stølen, TO; Johnsen, AB; Alvez, M; Catalucci, D; Condorelli, G; Koch, LG; Britton, SL; Smith, GL; Wisløff, U

    2014-01-01

    Aim Rats selectively bred for inborn Low Capacity of Running (LCR) display a series of poor health indices where as rats selected for High Capacity of Running (HCR) display a healthy profile. We hypothesized that selection of low aerobic capacity over generations leads to a phenotype with increased diastolic Ca2+ leak that trigger arrhythmia. Methods We used rats selected for HCR (N=10) or LCR (N=10) to determine the effect of inborn aerobic capacity on Ca2+ leak and susceptibility of ventricular arrhythmia. We studied isolated FURA2/AM loaded cardiomyocytes to detect Ca2+-handling and function on an inverted epi-fluorescence microscope. To determine arrhythmogenicity we did a final experiment with electrical burst pacing in Langendorff perfused hearts. Results Ca2+-handling was impaired by reduced Ca2+ amplitude, prolonged time to 50% Ca2+ decay, and reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-content. Impaired Ca2+ removal was influenced by reduced SR Ca2+ ATP-ase 2a (SERCA2a) function and increased sodium/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX) in LCR rats. Diastolic Ca2 leak was 87% higher in LCR rats. The leak was reduced by CaMKII inhibition. Expression levels of phosphorylated theorine-286 CaMKII levels and increased RyR2 phosphorylation at the Serine-2814 site mechanistically support our findings of increased leak in LCR. LCR rats had significantly higher incidence of ventricular fibrillation. Conclusion Selection of inborn low aerobic capacity over generations leads to a phenotype with increased risk of ventricular fibrillation. Increased phosphorylation of CaMKII at serine-2814 at the cardiac ryanodine receptor appears as an important mechanism of impaired Ca2+ handling and diastolic Ca2+ leak that results in increased susceptibility to ventricular fibrillation. PMID:24444142

  17. An index of reservoir habitat impairment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

  18. Ventilatory impairment in the dysmyelinated Long Evans shaker (les) rat

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rebecca A.; Baker-Herman, Tracy L.; Duncan, Ian D.; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2010-01-01

    Although respiratory complications significantly contribute to morbidity/mortality in advanced myelin disorders, little is known concerning mechanisms whereby dysmyelination impairs ventilation, or how patients compensate (i.e. plasticity). To establish a model for studies concerning mechanisms of ventilatory impairment/compensation, we tested the hypotheses that respiratory function progressively declines in a model of CNS dysmyelination, the Long Evans shaker rat (les). The observed impairment is associated with abnormal inspiratory neural output. Minimal myelin staining was found throughout the CNS of les rats, including the brainstem and cervical bulbospinal tracts. Ventilation (via whole-body plethysmography) and phrenic motor output were assessed in les and wild-type (WT) rats during baseline, hypoxia (11% O2) and hypercapnia (7% CO2). Hypercapnic ventilatory responses were similar in young adult les and WT rats (2 months old); in hypoxia, rats exhibited seizure-like activity with sustained apneas. However, 5–6 month old les rats exhibited decreased breathing frequencies, mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI) and ventilation (V̇E) during baseline and hypercapnia. Although phrenic motor output exhibited normal burst frequency and amplitude in 5–6 month old les rats, intra-burst activity was abnormal. In WT rats, phrenic activity was progressive and augmenting; in les rats, phrenic activity was decrementing with asynchronized, multipeaked activity. Thus, although ventilatory capacity is maintained in young, dysmyelinated rats, ventilatory impairment develops with age, possibly through discoordination in respiratory motor output. This study is the first reporting age-related breathing abnormalities in a rodent dysmyelination model, and provides the foundation for mechanistic studies of respiratory insufficiency and therapeutic interventions. PMID:20542092

  19. Ventilatory impairment in the dysmyelinated Long Evans shaker rat.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R A; Baker-Herman, T L; Duncan, I D; Mitchell, G S

    2010-09-01

    Although respiratory complications significantly contribute to morbidity/mortality in advanced myelin disorders, little is known concerning mechanisms whereby dysmyelination impairs ventilation, or how patients compensate (i.e. plasticity). To establish a model for studies concerning mechanisms of ventilatory impairment/compensation, we tested the hypotheses that respiratory function progressively declines in a model of CNS dysmyelination, the Long Evans shaker rat (les). The observed impairment is associated with abnormal inspiratory neural output. Minimal myelin staining was found throughout the CNS of les rats, including the brainstem and cervical bulbospinal tracts. Ventilation (via whole-body plethysmography) and phrenic motor output were assessed in les and wild-type (WT) rats during baseline, hypoxia (11% O(2)) and hypercapnia (7% CO(2)). Hypercapnic ventilatory responses were similar in young adult les and WT rats (2 months old); in hypoxia, rats exhibited seizure-like activity with sustained apneas. However, 5-6 month old les rats exhibited decreased breathing frequencies, mean inspiratory flow (V(T)/T(I)) and ventilation (V (E)) during baseline and hypercapnia. Although phrenic motor output exhibited normal burst frequency and amplitude in 5-6 month old les rats, intra-burst activity was abnormal. In WT rats, phrenic activity was progressive and augmenting; in les rats, phrenic activity was decrementing with asynchronized, multipeaked activity. Thus, although ventilatory capacity is maintained in young, dysmyelinated rats, ventilatory impairment develops with age, possibly through discoordination in respiratory motor output. This study is the first reporting age-related breathing abnormalities in a rodent dysmyelination model, and provides the foundation for mechanistic studies of respiratory insufficiency and therapeutic interventions. PMID:20542092

  20. Disruptive camouflage impairs object recognition.

    PubMed

    Webster, Richard J; Hassall, Christopher; Herdman, Chris M; Godin, Jean-Guy J; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2013-01-01

    Whether hiding from predators, or avoiding battlefield casualties, camouflage is widely employed to prevent detection. Disruptive coloration is a seemingly well-known camouflage mechanism proposed to function by breaking up an object's salient features (for example their characteristic outline), rendering objects more difficult to recognize. However, while a wide range of animals are thought to evade detection using disruptive patterns, there is no direct experimental evidence that disruptive coloration impairs recognition. Using humans searching for computer-generated moth targets, we demonstrate that the number of edge-intersecting patches on a target reduces the likelihood of it being detected, even at the expense of reduced background matching. Crucially, eye-tracking data show that targets with more edge-intersecting patches were looked at for longer periods prior to attack, and passed-over more frequently during search tasks. We therefore show directly that edge patches enhance survivorship by impairing recognition, confirming that disruptive coloration is a distinct camouflage strategy, not simply an artefact of background matching. PMID:24152693

  1. Sleep, Torpor and Memory Impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palchykova, S.; Tobler, I.

    It is now well known that daily torpor induces a sleep deficit. Djungarian hamsters emerging from this hypometabolic state spend most of the time in sleep. This sleep is characterized by high initial values of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) that monotonically decline during recovery sleep. These features resemble the changes seen in numerous species during recovery after prolonged wakefulness or sleep deprivation (SD). When hamsters are totally or partially sleep deprived immediately after emerging from torpor, an additional increase in SWA can be induced. It has been therefore postulated, that these slow- waves are homeostatically regulated, as predicted by the two-process model of sleep regulation, and that during daily torpor a sleep deficit is accumulated as it is during prolonged waking. The predominance of SWA in the frontal EEG observed both after SD and daily torpor provides further evidence for the similarity of these conditions. It has been shown in several animal and human studies that sleep can enhance memory consolidation, and that SD leads to memory impairment. Preliminary data obtained in the Djungarian hamster showed that both SD and daily torpor result in object recognition deficits. Thus, animals subjected to SD immediately after learning, or if they underwent an episode of daily torpor between learning and retention, displayed impaired recognition memory for complex object scenes. The investigation of daily torpor can reveal mechanisms that could have important implications for hypometabolic state induction in other mammalian species, including humans.

  2. 20 CFR 416.921 - What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. 416.921 Section 416.921 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... Disability § 416.921 What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. (a) Non-severe impairment(s)....

  3. 20 CFR 416.921 - What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. 416.921 Section 416.921 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... Disability § 416.921 What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. (a) Non-severe impairment(s)....

  4. 20 CFR 416.921 - What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. 416.921 Section 416.921 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... Disability § 416.921 What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. (a) Non-severe impairment(s)....

  5. 20 CFR 416.921 - What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. 416.921 Section 416.921 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... Disability § 416.921 What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. (a) Non-severe impairment(s)....

  6. Ethical Aspects of Evaluating a Patient’s Mental Capacity

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    When a patient’s mental capacity to make decisions is open to question, the physician often calls in a psychiatrist to help make the determination. The psychiatrist’s conclusions may be taken to a court to determine the patient’s legal competency. In this article, the author presents several clinical criteria psychiatrists may use when determining patients’ mental capacities. The author discusses two critical ethical questions psychiatrists should consider when they use this criteria: (1) whether they should use a fixed or sliding standard and (2) if they adopt a sliding standard, what clinical factors should be given the greatest weight. The author also discusses whether psychiatrists should take initiative to obtain a second opinion from another psychiatrist or mental health professional. Finally, the author discusses research regarding patients who are likely to have more impaired capacity for performing executive functions, patients requesting surgical procedures that are ethically without precedent, and patients possibly having inner awareness under conditions that previously were not considered possible. PMID:19724765

  7. Mobility in Old Age: Capacity Is Not Performance.

    PubMed

    Giannouli, Eleftheria; Bock, Otmar; Mellone, Sabato; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2016-01-01

    Background. Outcomes of laboratory-based tests for mobility are often used to infer about older adults' performance in real life; however, it is unclear whether such association exists. We hypothesized that mobility capacity, as measured in the laboratory, and mobility performance, as measured in real life, would be poorly linked. Methods. The sample consisted of 84 older adults (72.5 ± 5.9 years). Capacity was assessed via the iTUG and standard gait parameters (stride length, stride velocity, and cadence). Performance was assessed in real life over a period of 6.95 ± 1.99 days using smartphone technology to calculate following parameters: active and gait time, number of steps, life-space, mean action-range, and maximum action-range. Correlation analyses and stepwise multiple regression analyses were applied. Results. All laboratory measures demonstrated significant associations with the real-life measures (between r = .229 and r = .461). The multiple regression analyses indicated that the laboratory measures accounted for a significant but very low proportion of variance (between 5% and 21%) in real-life measures. Conclusion. In older adults without mobility impairments, capacity-related measures of mobility bear little significance for predicting real-life performance. Hence, other factors play a role in how older people manage their daily-life mobility. This should be considered for diagnosis and treatment of mobility deficits in older people. PMID:27034932

  8. Mobility in Old Age: Capacity Is Not Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mellone, Sabato; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2016-01-01

    Background. Outcomes of laboratory-based tests for mobility are often used to infer about older adults' performance in real life; however, it is unclear whether such association exists. We hypothesized that mobility capacity, as measured in the laboratory, and mobility performance, as measured in real life, would be poorly linked. Methods. The sample consisted of 84 older adults (72.5 ± 5.9 years). Capacity was assessed via the iTUG and standard gait parameters (stride length, stride velocity, and cadence). Performance was assessed in real life over a period of 6.95 ± 1.99 days using smartphone technology to calculate following parameters: active and gait time, number of steps, life-space, mean action-range, and maximum action-range. Correlation analyses and stepwise multiple regression analyses were applied. Results. All laboratory measures demonstrated significant associations with the real-life measures (between r = .229 and r = .461). The multiple regression analyses indicated that the laboratory measures accounted for a significant but very low proportion of variance (between 5% and 21%) in real-life measures. Conclusion. In older adults without mobility impairments, capacity-related measures of mobility bear little significance for predicting real-life performance. Hence, other factors play a role in how older people manage their daily-life mobility. This should be considered for diagnosis and treatment of mobility deficits in older people. PMID:27034932

  9. Impaired reasoning and problem-solving in individuals with language impairment due to aphasia or language delay.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Juliana V; Paulraj, Selvi R; Curran, Brian C; Dronkers, Nina F

    2015-01-01

    The precise nature of the relationship between language and thought is an intriguing and challenging area of inquiry for scientists across many disciplines. In the realm of neuropsychology, research has investigated the inter-dependence of language and thought by testing individuals with compromised language abilities and observing whether performance in other cognitive domains is diminished. One group of such individuals is patients with aphasia who have an impairment in speech and language arising from a brain injury, such as a stroke. Our previous research has shown that the degree of language impairment in these individuals is strongly associated with the degree of impairment on complex reasoning tasks, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and Raven's Matrices. In the current study, we present new data from a large group of individuals with aphasia that show a dissociation in performance between putatively non-verbal tasks on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) that require differing degrees of reasoning (Picture Completion vs. Picture Arrangement tasks). We also present an update and replication of our previous findings with the WCST showing that individuals with the most profound core language deficits (i.e., impaired comprehension and disordered language output) are particularly impaired on problem-solving tasks. In the second part of the paper, we present findings from a neurologically intact individual known as "Chelsea" who was not exposed to language due to an unaddressed hearing loss that was present since birth. At the age of 32, she was fitted with hearing aids and exposed to spoken and signed language for the first time, but she was only able to acquire a limited language capacity. Chelsea was tested on a series of standardized neuropsychological measures, including reasoning and problem-solving tasks. She was able to perform well on a number of visuospatial tasks but was disproportionately impaired on tasks that required reasoning

  10. Impaired reasoning and problem-solving in individuals with language impairment due to aphasia or language delay

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Juliana V.; Paulraj, Selvi R.; Curran, Brian C.; Dronkers, Nina F.

    2015-01-01

    The precise nature of the relationship between language and thought is an intriguing and challenging area of inquiry for scientists across many disciplines. In the realm of neuropsychology, research has investigated the inter-dependence of language and thought by testing individuals with compromised language abilities and observing whether performance in other cognitive domains is diminished. One group of such individuals is patients with aphasia who have an impairment in speech and language arising from a brain injury, such as a stroke. Our previous research has shown that the degree of language impairment in these individuals is strongly associated with the degree of impairment on complex reasoning tasks, such as the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and Raven’s Matrices. In the current study, we present new data from a large group of individuals with aphasia that show a dissociation in performance between putatively non-verbal tasks on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) that require differing degrees of reasoning (Picture Completion vs. Picture Arrangement tasks). We also present an update and replication of our previous findings with the WCST showing that individuals with the most profound core language deficits (i.e., impaired comprehension and disordered language output) are particularly impaired on problem-solving tasks. In the second part of the paper, we present findings from a neurologically intact individual known as “Chelsea” who was not exposed to language due to an unaddressed hearing loss that was present since birth. At the age of 32, she was fitted with hearing aids and exposed to spoken and signed language for the first time, but she was only able to acquire a limited language capacity. Chelsea was tested on a series of standardized neuropsychological measures, including reasoning and problem-solving tasks. She was able to perform well on a number of visuospatial tasks but was disproportionately impaired on tasks that required

  11. A Comparison of Dosing Accuracy: Visually Impaired and Sighted People Using Insulin Pens

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ann S.; Schnarrenberger, Patrick A.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the United States, 18% of people with diagnosed diabetes have visual impairment. Insulin pens are widely used by both blind and sighted people. However, major manufacturers include a disclaimer in the instructions warning against use by visually impaired people, without giving a rationale. Published studies neither support nor refute the disclaimer. Method The purpose of this study was to compare accuracy of dosing with insulin pens between visually impaired and sighted people. Inclusion criteria were self-reported diabetes and inability (visually impaired group) or ability (sighted group) to read regular print. The sole exclusion criterion was inability to pass a brief test of decisional capacity. Each participant received standardized instructions for insulin pen use, either in recorded (visually impaired group) or in printed (sighted group) format, and delivered 10 systematically varied doses into an injection ball, which was weighed on a precision laboratory balance. Results No significant correlation with accuracy of insulin dosing was found for any of the analyzed variables: visual status, age, gender, years of having diabetes mellitus (DM), or treatment of DM with or without insulin. Conclusions This study provided preliminary evidence of the safety of use of insulin pens by visually impaired people and raised questions about the validity of the disclaimer. Further study of the safety of use of insulin pens by blind people is needed. Inclusion of people with disabilities in research on technology intended for patient use would ensure that people with disabilities can benefit from new technology. PMID:20513315

  12. Impairment of mesenchymal stem cells derived from oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihui; Song, Jiangyuan; Han, Ying; Mu, Dongdong; Su, Sha; Ji, Xiaoli; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is one of the common precancerous lesions in oral mucosa. To compare the biological characteristics and regenerative capacities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from oral leukoplakia (epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia) and normal oral mucosa, MSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion. Then these cells were identified by the expression of MSC related markers, STRO-1, CD105 and CD90, with the absent for the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34 by flow cytometric detection. The self-renewal ability of MSCs from oral leukoplakia was enhanced, while the multipotent differentiation was descended, compared with MSCs from normal oral mucosa. Fibrin gel was used as a carrier for MSCs transplanted into immunocompromised mice to detect their regenerative capacity. The regenerative capacities of MSCs from oral leukoplakia became impaired partly. Collagen IV (Col IV) and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) were selected to analyze the potential mechanism for the functional changes of MSCs from oral leukoplakia by immunochemical and western blot analysis. The expression of Col IV was decreased and that of MMP-9 was increased by MSCs with the progression of oral leukoplakia, especially in MSCs from epithelial dysplasia. The imbalance between regenerative and metabolic self-regulatory functions of MSCs from oral leukoplakia may be related to the progression of this premalignant disorder. PMID:26617710

  13. Inferential functioning in visually impaired children.

    PubMed

    Puche-Navarro, Rebeca; Millán, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The current study explores the inferential abilities of visually impaired children in a task presented in two formats, manipulative and verbal. The results showed that in the group of visually impaired children, just as with children with normal sight, there was a wide range of inference types. It was found that the visually impaired children perform slightly better in the use of inductive and relational inferences in the verbal format, while in the manipulative format children with normal sight perform better. These results suggest that in inferential functioning of young children, and especially visually impaired children, the format of the task influences performance more than the child's visual ability. PMID:16647837

  14. Reliability of esthetic ratings of cleft impairment.

    PubMed

    Tobiasen, J M; Hiebert, J M

    1988-07-01

    The decision to seek secondary treatment for facial clefts is often the result of concerns about the esthetic acceptability of appearance. There are no standard techniques to assess cleft impairment for esthetic acceptability. Therefore, it is not possible to evaluate objectively either the need for or the benefits of treatment. If it could be shown that people agree closely on how they rate the esthetic appearance of cleft impairments that vary in severity, then esthetic measures of cleft impairment could be developed with human judgment as the yardstick. The goals of this study were: (1) to examine the reliability with which children express their preferences for cleft impairments that vary in severity, (2) to determine if other facial characteristics influence the reliability of children's preferences for cleft impairments, and (3) to evaluate if age and gender of children influence preferences for cleft impairments. Based on preratings, eight types of photographic slides were created that varied in severity of cleft impairment and global facial attractiveness. A second sample of subjects then rated the slides on the esthetic acceptability of appearance. Children ranked the photographic types consistently. They least preferred the photographic types depicting severe impairment or low facial attractiveness, or both, and most preferred faces with no impairment or moderate attractiveness, or both. There were also developmental effects in that younger children tended to have less consensus in their ratings of appearance than older children. Finally, boys displayed greater consensus than girls. PMID:3168276

  15. Life Science for Visually Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Larry; De Lucchi, Linda

    1979-01-01

    Describes life science activities for blind or visually impaired students including aquarium studies, plant germination, classroom animals, and outdoor activities designed with a multisensory approach. (MA)

  16. Phonological working memory impairments in children with specific language impairment: where does the problem lie?

    PubMed Central

    Alt, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine which factors contribute to the lexical learning deficits of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Method Participants included 40 7-8-year old participants, half of whom were diagnosed with SLI and half of whom had normal language skills. We tested hypotheses about the contributions to word learning of the initial encoding of phonological information and the link to long-term memory. Children took part in a computer-based fast-mapping task which manipulated word length and phonotactic probability to address the hypotheses. The task had a recognition and a production component. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs with post-hoc testing. Results Results indicate that the main problem for children with SLI is with initial encoding, with implications for limited capacity. There was not strong evidence for specific deficits in the link to long term memory. Conclusions We were able to ascertain which aspects of lexical learning are most problematic for children with SLI in terms of fast-mapping. These findings may allow clinicians to focus intervention on known areas of weakness. Future directions include extending these findings to slow mapping scenarios. PMID:20943232

  17. Verbal memory impairments in dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J H; Knee, K; Delis, D C

    2000-01-01

    Although verbal memory deficits are frequently reported in reading disabled children, the specific mechanisms underlying these impairments have yet to be clearly defined. The present study used the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C) to assess verbal learning in 57 dyslexic children and 114 controls matched for gender, age, and WISC-R Vocabulary score. Three areas of verbal memory were investigated: Recall and recognition, use of learning strategies, and interference effects. The dyslexic group learned the list items more slowly, recalled fewer words on the last learning trial and the delayed trials, and performed less well on the recognition condition. Dyslexics and controls displayed similar vulnerability to interference, but group differences were evident in serial position effects. Taken together, our data suggest that dyslexics have less efficient rehearsal and encoding mechanisms, resulting in deficient encoding of new information, but normal retention and retrieval. PMID:14590570

  18. Invisible collinear structures impair search.

    PubMed

    Chow, Hiu Mei; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2015-01-01

    Visual attention and perceptual grouping both help us from being overloaded by the vast amount of information, and attentional search is delayed when a target overlaps with a snake-like collinear distractor (Jingling & Tseng, 2013). We assessed whether awareness of the collinear distractor is required for this modulation. We first identified that visible long (=9 elements), but not short (=3 elements) collinear distractor slowed observers' detection of an overlapping target. Then we masked part of a long distractor (=9 elements) with continuous flashing color patches (=6 elements) so that the combined dichoptic percept to observers' awareness was a short collinear distractor (=3 elements). We found that the invisible collinear parts, like visible ones, can form a continuous contour to impair search, suggesting that conscious awareness is not a pre-requisite for contour integration and its interaction with selective attention. PMID:25460240

  19. Specific Language Impairment Across Languages.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Laurence B

    2014-03-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those areas of language that are relatively challenging for younger typically developing children. Although these children's deficits warrant clinical and educational attention, their weaknesses might reflect the extreme end of a language aptitude continuum rather than a distinct, separable condition. PMID:24765105

  20. Pain assessment in cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Passmore, Peter; Cunningham, Emma

    2014-09-01

    Pain may adversely affect cognition through its effects on mood and sleep, and chronic pain has been associated with brain atrophy. Studies suggest that chronic pain is undertreated in cognitively impaired people. Pain assessment should involve direct enquiry with the patient; where this is not possible, a proxy history from a caregiver or nurse should be obtained, and observational scales may also be useful. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 1, Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, Ltd., and is distributed free of charge to health care professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the Web site: http://www.paineurope.com, at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication. PMID:25166774

  1. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. There is significantly elevated risk of cognitive decline and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Dementia may develop insidiously several years after manifestation of Parkinson motor symptoms (dementia associated with Parkinson's disease; Parkinson's disease dementia) or in close temporal relationship (within one year) after onset of motor symptoms (Dementia with Lewy bodies). There are clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic similarities between these two conditions. Men are more frequently affected than women. Risk factor or indicators are advanced age at disease onset, disease duration, rigidity, akinesia and posture and gait impairment and falls as opposed to tremor dominance, and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, apathy, hallucinosis, delirium). Dementia is treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, donepezil), memantine, and adjustment of the pharmacological regimen of parkinsonian motor symptoms. Concomitant autonomic nervous system symptoms and neuropsychiatric complications warrant early clinical awareness and are accessible to pharmacological therapy. PMID:26609664

  2. Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lovera, Jesus; Kovner, Blake

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive Impairment (CI) is a serious complication of MS, and the domains affected are well established but new affected domains such as theory of mind are still being identified. The evidence that some disease modifying therapies (DMTs) may improve and prevent the development of CI in MS is not solid. Recent studies on the prevalence CI in MS, although not as solid as studies completed prior to DMT introduction, suggest that CI remains a problem even among people on DMTs and even at the very earliest stages of MS. Functional MRI studies and studies using diffusion tractography show that the impact of lesions on cognition depends on the particular cortical networks affected and their plasticity. Cognitive rehabilitation and L-amphetamine appear promising treatments, cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine have failed, and data on Ginkgo and exercise are limited. We need more work to understand and develop treatment for CI in MS. PMID:22791241

  3. Thresholds for impaired species recovery.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-22

    Studies on small and declining populations dominate research in conservation biology. This emphasis reflects two overarching frameworks: the small-population paradigm focuses on correlates of increased extinction probability; the declining-population paradigm directs attention to the causes and consequences of depletion. Neither, however, particularly informs research on the determinants, rate or uncertainty of population increase. By contrast, Allee effects (positive associations between population size and realized per capita population growth rate, r(realized), a metric of average individual fitness) offer a theoretical and empirical basis for identifying numerical and temporal thresholds at which recovery is unlikely or uncertain. Following a critique of studies on Allee effects, I quantify population-size minima and subsequent trajectories of marine fishes that have and have not recovered following threat mitigation. The data suggest that threat amelioration, albeit necessary, can be insufficient to effect recovery for populations depleted to less than 10% of maximum abundance (N(max)), especially when they remain depleted for lengthy periods of time. Comparing terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, life-history analyses suggest that population-size thresholds for impaired recovery are likely to be comparatively low for marine fishes but high for marine mammals.Articulation of a 'recovering population paradigm' would seem warranted. It might stimulate concerted efforts to identify generic impaired recovery thresholds across species. It might also serve to reduce the confusion of terminology, and the conflation of causes and consequences with patterns currently evident in the literature on Allee effects, thus strengthening communication among researchers and enhancing the practical utility of recovery-oriented research to conservation practitioners and resource managers. PMID:26213739

  4. Nutrition in neurologically impaired children

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition, either under- or overnutrition, is a common condition among neurologically impaired children. Energy needs are difficult to define in this heterogeneous population, and there is a lack of information on what normal growth should be in these children. Non-nutritional factors may influence growth, but nutritional factors such as insufficient caloric intake, excessive nutrient losses and abnormal energy metabolism also contribute to growth failure. Malnutrition is associated with significant morbidity, while nutritional rehabilitation improves overall health. Nutritional support should be an integral part of the management of neurologically impaired children, and should focus not only on improving nutritional status but also on improving quality of life for patients and their families. When considering nutritional intervention, oromotor dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux and pulmonary aspiration must be addressed and a multidisciplinary team should be involved. Children at risk for nutrition-related problems should be identified early. An assessment of nutritional status should be performed at least yearly, and more frequently in infants and young children, or in children at risk for malnutrition. Oral intake should be optimized if safe, but enteral tube feedings should be initiated in children with oromotor dysfunction, leading to clinically significant aspiration, or in children unable to maintain an adequate nutritional status with oral intake. Nasogastric tube feeding should be used for short-term intervention, but if long-term nutritional intervention is required, a gastrostomy should be considered. Antireflux procedures should be reserved for children with significant gastroesophageal reflux. The patient’s response to nutritional intervention should be carefully monitored to avoid excessive weight gain after initiation of enteral nutrition, and paediatric formulas should be used to avoid micronutrient deficiencies. PMID:20592978

  5. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent. PMID:25275517

  6. Thresholds for impaired species recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on small and declining populations dominate research in conservation biology. This emphasis reflects two overarching frameworks: the small-population paradigm focuses on correlates of increased extinction probability; the declining-population paradigm directs attention to the causes and consequences of depletion. Neither, however, particularly informs research on the determinants, rate or uncertainty of population increase. By contrast, Allee effects (positive associations between population size and realized per capita population growth rate, rrealized, a metric of average individual fitness) offer a theoretical and empirical basis for identifying numerical and temporal thresholds at which recovery is unlikely or uncertain. Following a critique of studies on Allee effects, I quantify population-size minima and subsequent trajectories of marine fishes that have and have not recovered following threat mitigation. The data suggest that threat amelioration, albeit necessary, can be insufficient to effect recovery for populations depleted to less than 10% of maximum abundance (Nmax), especially when they remain depleted for lengthy periods of time. Comparing terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, life-history analyses suggest that population-size thresholds for impaired recovery are likely to be comparatively low for marine fishes but high for marine mammals. Articulation of a ‘recovering population paradigm’ would seem warranted. It might stimulate concerted efforts to identify generic impaired recovery thresholds across species. It might also serve to reduce the confusion of terminology, and the conflation of causes and consequences with patterns currently evident in the literature on Allee effects, thus strengthening communication among researchers and enhancing the practical utility of recovery-oriented research to conservation practitioners and resource managers. PMID:26213739

  7. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe...

  8. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe...

  9. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe...

  10. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe...

  11. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe...

  12. Rethinking health research capacity strengthening.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Emily E; Hirsch, Jennifer S; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Health research capacity strengthening (HRCS) is a strategy implemented worldwide to improve the ability of developing countries to tackle the persistent and disproportionate burdens of disease they face. Drawing on a review of existing HRCS literature and our experiences over the course of an HRCS project in Vietnam, we summarise major challenges to the HRCS enterprise at the interpersonal, institutional and macro levels. While over the course of several decades of HRCS initiatives many of these challenges have been well documented, we highlight several considerations that remain underarticulated. We advance critical considerations of the HRCS enterprise by discussing (1) how the organisation of US public health funding shapes the ecology of knowledge production in low- and middle-income country contexts, (2) the barriers US researchers face to effectively collaborate in capacity strengthening for research-to-policy translation, and (3) the potential for unintentional negative consequences if HRCS efforts are not sufficiently reflexive about the limitations of dominant paradigms in public health research and intervention. PMID:23651463

  13. Rethinking health research capacity strengthening

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Emily; Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Health research capacity strengthening (HRCS) is a strategy implemented worldwide to improve the ability of developing countries to tackle the persistent and disproportionate burdens of disease they face. Drawing on a review of existing HRCS literature and our experiences over the course of an NIH-funded HRCS project in Vietnam, we summarise major challenges to the HRCS enterprise at the interpersonal, institutional and macro levels. While over the course of several decades of HRCS initiatives many of these challenges have been well documented, we highlight several considerations that remain under-articulated. We advance critical considerations of the HRCS enterprise by discussing 1) how the organisation of US public health funding shapes the ecology of knowledge production in low- and middle-income country contexts, 2) the barriers US researchers face to effectively collaborating in capacity strengthening for research-to-policy translation, and 3) the potential for unintentional negative consequences if HRCS efforts are not sufficiently reflexive about the limitations of dominant paradigms in public health research and intervention. PMID:23651463

  14. Effects of diffusion impairment on O2 and CO2 time courses in pulmonary capillaries.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, P. D.; West, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Simultaneous time courses for O2 and CO2 exchange along the capillary have been calculated for homogeneous lungs, allowing for O2-CO2 interactions, dissolved O2, and chemical reaction rates. As diffusing capacity (Dl) was reduced, the transfer of CO2 and O2 was impaired by similar amounts, in spite of the 20-fold greater diffusing capacity for CO2. The reason why CO2 is affected so much is that the slope of the content against partial pressure is so much greater in blood than tissue for this gas. Because of the shapes of their respective dissociation curves, O2 transfer was most affected at normal ventilation-perfusion ratios, whereas CO2 was most affected at high ratios. Exercise exaggerated the impairment of transfer of both gases.

  15. Diminished Schwann cell repair responses underlie age-associated impaired axonal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Michio W.; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Cheng, Yung-Chih; Latremoliere, Alban; Duong, Kelly; Miller, Christine M.; Posada, Sean; Cobos, Enrique J.; Zhang, Alice X.; Wagers, Amy J.; Havton, Leif A.; Barres, Ben; Omura, Takao

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system declines with age. Why this occurs, however, is unknown. We demonstrate that 24-month old mice exhibit an impairment of functional recovery after nerve injury compared to 2-month old animals. We find no difference in the intrinsic growth capacity between aged and young sensory neurons in vitro nor in their ability to activate growth-associated transcriptional programs after injury. Instead, using age-mismatched nerve transplants in vivo, we show that the extent of functional recovery depends on the age of the nerve graft, and not the age of the host. Molecular interrogation of the sciatic nerve reveals that aged Schwann cells (SCs) fail to rapidly activate a transcriptional repair program after injury. Functionally, aged SCs exhibit impaired de-differentiation, myelin clearance and macrophage recruitment. These results suggest that the age-associated decline in axonal regeneration results from diminished Schwann cell plasticity, leading to slower myelin clearance. PMID:25033179

  16. Diminished Schwann cell repair responses underlie age-associated impaired axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Painter, Michio W; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Cheng, Yung-Chih; Latremoliere, Alban; Duong, Kelly; Miller, Christine M; Posada, Sean; Cobos, Enrique J; Zhang, Alice X; Wagers, Amy J; Havton, Leif A; Barres, Ben; Omura, Takao; Woolf, Clifford J

    2014-07-16

    The regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system declines with age. Why this occurs, however, is unknown. We demonstrate that 24-month-old mice exhibit an impairment of functional recovery after nerve injury compared to 2-month-old animals. We find no difference in the intrinsic growth capacity between aged and young sensory neurons in vitro or in their ability to activate growth-associated transcriptional programs after injury. Instead, using age-mismatched nerve transplants in vivo, we show that the extent of functional recovery depends on the age of the nerve graft, and not the age of the host. Molecular interrogation of the sciatic nerve reveals that aged Schwann cells (SCs) fail to rapidly activate a transcriptional repair program after injury. Functionally, aged SCs exhibit impaired dedifferentiation, myelin clearance, and macrophage recruitment. These results suggest that the age-associated decline in axonal regeneration results from diminished Schwann cell plasticity, leading to slower myelin clearance. PMID:25033179

  17. U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization

    EIA Publications

    1995-01-01

    This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in reported crude oil distillation capacities and utilization rates among different classes of refineries.

  18. Validation of a Computerized test of Functional Capacity.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Richard S E; Davis, Vicki G; Atkins, Alexandra S; Vaughan, Adam; Patterson, Tom; Narasimhan, Meera; Harvey, Philip D

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory guidance for schizophrenia cognition clinical trials requires that the assessment of cognitive change is accompanied by a functionally meaningful endpoint. However, currently available measures are challenged by resistance to change, psychometric weaknesses, and for interview-based assessments, dependence upon the presence of an informant. The aims of the current study were to: 1) assess the validity, sensitivity, and reliability of the Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) as a measure of functional capacity; 2) determine the association between performance on the VRFCAT and performance on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB); and 3) compare the metrics of the VRFCAT with the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA). 167 patients with schizophrenia and 166 healthy controls completed the VRFCAT, UPSA, and the MCCB at baseline. The VRFCAT and UPSA were completed again at follow-up. The VRFCAT, MCCB, and UPSA were very sensitive to impairment in schizophrenia (d=1.16 to 1.22). High test-retest reliability was demonstrated for VRFCAT total completion time and the UPSA total score in patients (ICC=0.81 and 0.78, respectively). The UPSA demonstrated significant practice effects in patients (d=0.35), while the VRFCAT did not (d=-0.04). VRFCAT total completion time was correlated with both UPSA (r=-0.56, p<0.0001 for patients and -0.58, p<0.0001 for controls) and MCCB Composite (r=-0.57, p<0.0001 for patients and -0.68, p<0.0001 for controls). The VRFCAT is a highly reliable and sensitive measure of functional capacity with associations to the UPSA and MCCB. These results provide encouraging support for a computerized functional capacity assessment for use in schizophrenia. PMID:27091656

  19. Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter during Development Impairs Memory in Adult Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Drago, Ilaria; Davis, Ronald L

    2016-09-01

    The uptake of cytoplasmic calcium into mitochondria is critical for a variety of physiological processes, including calcium buffering, metabolism, and cell survival. Here, we demonstrate that inhibiting the mitochondrial calcium uniporter in the Drosophila mushroom body neurons (MBn)-a brain region critical for olfactory memory formation-causes memory impairment without altering the capacity to learn. Inhibiting uniporter activity only during pupation impaired adult memory, whereas the same inhibition during adulthood was without effect. The behavioral impairment was associated with structural defects in MBn, including a decrease in synaptic vesicles and an increased length in the axons of the αβ MBn. Our results reveal an in vivo developmental role for the mitochondrial uniporter complex in establishing the necessary structural and functional neuronal substrates for normal memory formation in the adult organism. PMID:27568554

  20. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity. Experiment 3 demonstrated that manual tapping produces a similar pattern of impairment to that of chewing gum. These results clearly qualify the assertion that chewing gum improves short-term memory. They also pose a problem for short-term memory theories asserting that forgetting is based on domain-specific interference given that chewing does not interfere with verbal memory any more than tapping. It is suggested that tapping and chewing reduce the general capacity to process sequences. PMID:22150606

  1. Electroacupuncture restores learning and memory impairment induced by both diabetes mellitus and cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiang-Hong; Chen, Shu-Li; Shi, Hong; Cai, Hong; Jin, Zhi-Gao

    2008-10-10

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that electroacupunctural stimulation can ameliorate primary and secondary symptoms such as peripheral neuropathy and diabetic encephalopathy in diabetic rats. In this study, we investigated whether electroacupuncture could improve learning and memory which was typically impaired in diabetic rats with cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanisms underlying its effects using passive avoidance test, active avoidance test, Morris water maze and electrophysiology. Electroacupuncture increased the step-down latency in passive avoidance test and accurate rate in active avoidance test, decreased the escape latency in Morris water maze. After electroacupuncture treatment, the long-term potentiation (LTP) impaired by both diabetes and cerebral ischemia was restored significantly. These results suggest that electroacupuncture can ameliorate learning and memory capacity impaired by hyperglycemia and ischemia. LTP plays a very important role in this beneficial effect. PMID:18692547

  2. Genetically encoded impairment of neuronal KCC2 cotransporter function in human idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Kristopher T; Merner, Nancy D; Friedel, Perrine; Silayeva, Liliya; Liang, Bo; Khanna, Arjun; Shang, Yuze; Lachance-Touchette, Pamela; Bourassa, Cynthia; Levert, Annie; Dion, Patrick A; Walcott, Brian; Spiegelman, Dan; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Hodgkinson, Alan; Awadalla, Philip; Nikbakht, Hamid; Majewski, Jacek; Cossette, Patrick; Deeb, Tarek Z; Moss, Stephen J; Medina, Igor; Rouleau, Guy A

    2014-01-01

    The KCC2 cotransporter establishes the low neuronal Cl− levels required for GABAA and glycine (Gly) receptor-mediated inhibition, and KCC2 deficiency in model organisms results in network hyperexcitability. However, no mutations in KCC2 have been documented in human disease. Here, we report two non-synonymous functional variants in human KCC2, R952H and R1049C, exhibiting clear statistical association with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). These variants reside in conserved residues in the KCC2 cytoplasmic C-terminus, exhibit significantly impaired Cl−-extrusion capacities resulting in less hyperpolarized Gly equilibrium potentials (EGly), and impair KCC2 stimulatory phosphorylation at serine 940, a key regulatory site. These data describe a novel KCC2 variant significantly associated with a human disease and suggest genetically encoded impairment of KCC2 functional regulation may be a risk factor for the development of human IGE. PMID:24928908

  3. Relationship between linear and nonlinear dynamics of heart rate and impairment of lung function in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuco, Adriana; Medeiros, Wladimir Musetti; Sperling, Milena Pelosi Rizk; de Souza, Aline Soares; Alencar, Maria Clara Noman; Arbex, Flávio Ferlin; Neder, José Alberto; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Background In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), functional and structural impairment of lung function can negatively impact heart rate variability (HRV); however, it is unknown if static lung volumes and lung diffusion capacity negatively impacts HRV responses. We investigated whether impairment of static lung volumes and lung diffusion capacity could be related to HRV indices in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Methods Sixteen sedentary males with COPD were enrolled in this study. Resting blood gases, static lung volumes, and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were measured. The RR interval (RRi) was registered in the supine, standing, and seated positions (10 minutes each) and during 4 minutes of a respiratory sinus arrhythmia maneuver (M-RSA). Delta changes (Δsupine-standing and Δsupine-M-RSA) of the standard deviation of normal RRi, low frequency (LF, normalized units [nu]) and high frequency (HF [nu]), SD1, SD2, alpha1, alpha2, and approximate entropy (ApEn) indices were calculated. Results HF, LF, SD1, SD2, and alpha1 deltas significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second, DLCO, airway resistance, residual volume, inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity ratio, and residual volume/total lung capacity ratio. Significant and moderate associations were also observed between LF/HF ratio versus total gas volume (%), r=0.53; LF/HF ratio versus residual volume, %, r=0.52; and HF versus total gas volume (%), r=−0.53 (P<0.05). Linear regression analysis revealed that ΔRRi supine-M-RSA was independently related to DLCO (r=−0.77, r2=0.43, P<0.05). Conclusion Responses of HRV indices were more prominent during M-RSA in moderate to severe COPD. Moreover, greater lung function impairment was related to poorer heart rate dynamics. Finally, impaired lung diffusion capacity was related to an altered parasympathetic response in these patients. PMID:26316739

  4. Working memory capacity, controlled attention and aiming performance under pressure.

    PubMed

    Wood, Greg; Vine, Samuel J; Wilson, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the possibility that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) could predict those individuals who would experience attentional disruptions and performance decrements under pressure. Two WMC groups performed a Stroop handgun task under counterbalanced conditions of threat whilst wearing eye-tracking equipment that measured visual search activity and quiet eye (QE) aiming duration. Performance was measured in terms of shooting accuracy. Low-WMC individuals experienced impaired visual search time to locate the target and reduced QE durations when shooting at incongruent target words. Furthermore, the low-WMC group experienced significant reductions in shooting accuracy when anxious. Conversely, high-WMC individuals experienced no significant differences in attentional control or performance across congruency or threat conditions. Results support the suggestion that WMC is not only a good predictor of an individual's ability to control their attention but can also predict those likely to fail under pressure. PMID:26021749

  5. Writing Motivation of Students with Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Kyle L.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the writing motivation of students with language impairments (LI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. For the study 272 students (33 students with language impairments, 242 TD peers) aged 8-10 years, in 11 elementary schools, were sampled. The two groups completed self-report measures of writing motivation and 20…

  6. [Cognitive impairments in psychoactive drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Chukhlovina, M T

    2015-01-01

    This short literature review addresses common features of the pathogenesis and treatment of cognitive impairment in people with drug addiction (cocaine, opioids, hashish, amphetamine, benzodiazepines). A role of cholinergic deficit in the development of cognitive impairment and possibilities of its treatment with acetylcholineesterase inhibitions are analyzed. PMID:26438897

  7. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Respiration in Sleep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliwise, Donald L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Associations between depression and impaired respiration in sleep are frequently noted clinically. This relationship was documented psychometrically with the Geriatric Depression Scale, a self-report measure of nonsomatic depressive symptoms. Mean values and effect size suggest that impaired respiration in sleep was associated with only relatively…

  8. Pegasus Project for the Hearing-Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahe, Jane M.

    The Pegasus Project offered nine gifted hearing impaired students (11-15 years old) a summer enrichment experience with hearing peers. Courses included computer programming, literature, fine arts, physical and biological sciences, math enrichment, and sign language. All hearing impaired students also attended a special class on issues for the…

  9. Resource Guide for Persons with Mobility Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IBM, Atlanta, GA. National Support Center for Persons with Disabilities.

    The resource guide identifies products which assist individuals with mobility impairments in accessing IBM (International Business Machine) Personal Computers or the IBM Personal System/2 family of products. An introduction provides a general overview of ways computers can help persons with mobility impairments. The main portion of the document…

  10. Spatial Coding of Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the ability of children and adolescents with visual impairments to code and represent near space. Moreover, it examines the impact of the strategies they use and individual differences in their performance. A total of 30 individuals with visual impairments up to the age of 18 were given eight different object…

  11. Hearing-Impaired Formal Inservice Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Media Center for the Deaf, Amherst, MA.

    The HI-FI (Hearing-Impaired Formal Inservice) Program is described as a set of inservice materials targeted for workshops of regular classroom teachers and other school personnel concerned with school district and classroom management of hearing impaired (HI) children. An introductory section focuses on the design of the program materials,…

  12. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  13. Counseling the Chronically Health Impaired Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brian, Comp.; And Others

    The role of counselors in working with chronically health impaired students is examined, and illustrations of the Chronic Health Impaired/Sickle Cell Anemia Program in Baltimore (MD) are presented. The importance of setting goals with the student is underlined, as is the necessity for counselors to have proper flexibility and time to devote to…

  14. Teaching Science to the Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sandy White; Johnston, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that students with exceptionalities such as visual impairments are more academically successful when they are included in the regular classroom setting and have opportunities to engage in active learning. Therefore, science educators must address their needs by motivating visually impaired students in science and making…

  15. Resources for Visually Impaired or Blind Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Suggests resources for school librarians who need materials for visually impaired or blind students. Highlights include the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped; Louis Database of Accessible Materials for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired; Braille books; large print books, audio books; assistive technology; and…

  16. Identification of Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Lesley J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of a wide range of language measures (phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics) for the identification of adults with developmental language impairment. Method: Measures were administered to 3 groups of adults, each representing a population expected to demonstrate high levels of language impairment, and to…

  17. Pragmatic Language Impairment and Associated Behavioural Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelaars, Mieke P.; Cuperus, Juliane; Jansonius, Kino; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2010-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child shows isolated structural language problems. The diagnosis of pragmatic language impairment (PLI) is given to children who show difficulties with the use of language in context. Unlike children with SLI, these children tend to show relatively intact structural language skills…

  18. PERCENT OF IMPAIRED WATERS - 1998 IWI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Importance of Clean Water Act Section 303(d) Listing Information Section 303(d) waters show water quality standards impairments or threats to the attainment of beneficial uses or anti-degradation provisions. This map is a representation of threatened and impaired streams, rivers,...

  19. Dual-Retrieval Models and Neurocognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Gomes, C. F. A.; Kenney, A. E.; Gross, C. J.; Taub, E. S.; Spreng, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in dual-retrieval models of recall make it possible to use clinical data to test theoretical hypotheses about mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD), the most common forms of neurocognitive impairment. Hypotheses about the nature of the episodic memory declines in these diseases, about decline versus sparing of…

  20. The Physical Environment and the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braf, Per-Gunnar

    Reported are results of a project carried out at the Swedish Institute for the Handicapped to determine needs of the visually impaired in the planning and adaptation of buildings and other forms of physical environment. Chapter 1 considers implications of impaired vision and includes definitions, statistics, and problems of the visually impaired…

  1. Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review*

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Sánchez, Irene; Rodríguez-Alzueta, Elisabeth; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; López-Torres, Isabel; Moreno-Ramírez, Maria Paz; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD. PMID:25909154

  2. Psychosocial development among adolescents with visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Huurre, T M; Aro, H M

    1998-06-01

    The psychosocial development of adolescents with visual impairment was studied in a group of 54 adolescents (40 boys, 14 girls) attending Finnish regular schools. Mean age was 14.0 (SD 0.87). The control group consisted of normally sighted adolescents of the same age level (N=385, 172 boys, 213 girls). Data were collected with self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that the adolescent group with visual impairment did not differ from the control group in the frequency of depression, distress symptoms or in their relations with parents and siblings. Adolescents with visual impairment less often had many friends and dates with other young people than those without visual impairment. They also reported more often feelings of loneliness and difficulties in making friends. Self-esteem, school achievement and social skills were lower in girls with visual impairment than in the control girls. In summary, our results showed that the psychosocial developmental outcomes of many adolescents with visual impairment were similar to their peers without visual impairment. However, some adolescents with visual impairment, especially girls, need more support in their psychosocial development. PMID:9712373

  3. Identifying Language Comprehension Impairment in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth; Dempsey, Lynn; Lee, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the validity of 3 discourse comprehension measures for preschool children and the ability of a combination of them to classify children with and without language impairment. Method: Thirty-seven children with typical language and 12 children with language impairment completed 3 measures of oral story comprehension: the…

  4. Resource Guide for Persons with Hearing Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IBM, Atlanta, GA. National Support Center for Persons with Disabilities.

    The resource guide identifies products which assist hearing impaired individuals in accessing IBM (International Business Machine) Personal Computers or the IBM PS/2 family of products. An introduction provides a general overview of ways computers can help hearing impaired persons. The document then provides descriptions of about 20 adaptive aids…

  5. Narrative Skills of Children with Communication Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Narrative assessment is sensitive to the communication impairments of children with specific language impairment and those with autistic spectrum disorders. Although both groups of children tend to show deficits in narrative, it is unclear whether these deficits are qualitatively different and how language and pragmatic ability may…

  6. Library Automation Design for Visually Impaired People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurtay, Nilufer; Bicil, Yucel; Celebi, Sait; Cit, Guluzar; Dural, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Speech synthesis is a technology used in many different areas in computer science. This technology can bring a solution to reading activity of visually impaired people due to its text to speech conversion. Based on this problem, in this study, a system is designed needed for a visually impaired person to make use of all the library facilities in…

  7. 38 CFR 4.10 - Functional impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Functional impairment. 4.10 Section 4.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.10 Functional impairment. The basis of disability evaluations is the ability of the body as a...

  8. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  9. Computer Access for the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krolick, Bettye

    1984-01-01

    Provides information on and evaluation of microcomputer equipment modifications for improving accessibility to the visually impaired. Equipment discussed includes input and visual output modification techniques and devices, software designed for visually impaired users, and braille output peripherals. Lists sources for available peripherals,…

  10. Signs and Symptoms of the Impaired Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Shirley; Markos, Patricia A.

    1996-01-01

    Although the problem of impaired professionals has been with us for as long as professionals have been so designated, this article considers potential harm to clients and the profession's obligation to monitor its members and provide appropriate rehabilitation. Definitions of distress and professional impairment are discussed, as are the…

  11. Capacity Reviews for Trades Training in BC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report was commissioned in December 2006 to assess the capacity for trades training in the public post-secondary system with the key objectives to identify current levels of utilization for each of the top trades; identify methods of increasing capacity for top trades; and determine future levels of capacity that can be achieved without…

  12. Understanding Dimensions of Organizational Evaluation Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Isabelle; Cousins, J. Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Organizational evaluation capacity building has been a topic of increasing interest in recent years. However, the actual dimensions of evaluation capacity have not been clearly articulated through empirical research. This study sought to address this gap by identifying the key dimensions of evaluation capacity in Canadian federal government…

  13. Rehabilitation Medicine Summit: Building Research Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frontera, Walter R.; Fuhrer, Marcus J.; Jette, Alan M.; Chan, Leighton; Cooper, Rory A.; Duncan, Pamela W.; Kemp, John D.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Peckham, P. Hunter; Roth, Elliot J.; Tate, Denise G.

    2006-01-01

    The general objective of the "Rehabilitation Medicine Summit: Building Research Capacity" was to advance and promote research in medical rehabilitation by making recommendations to expand research capacity. The 5 elements of research capacity that guided the discussions were (a) researchers; (b) research culture, environment, and infrastructure;…

  14. 25 CFR 167.6 - Carrying capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carrying capacities. 167.6 Section 167.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.6 Carrying capacities. (a) The Commissioner of Indian Affairs on June 26, 1943, promulgated the authorized carrying capacity for each land...

  15. Specific cooling capacity of liquid nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Adcock, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    The assumed cooling process and the method used to calculate the specific cooling capacity of liquid nitrogen are described, and the simple equation fitted to the calculated specific cooling capacity data, together with the graphical form calculated values of the specific cooling capacity of nitrogen for stagnation temperatures from saturation to 350 K and stagnation pressures from 1 to 10 atmospheres, are given.

  16. High current capacity electrical connector

    DOEpatents

    Bettis, Edward S.; Watts, Harry L.

    1976-01-13

    An electrical connector is provided for coupling high current capacity electrical conductors such as copper busses or the like. The connector is arranged in a "sandwiched" configuration in which a conductor plate contacts the busses along major surfaces thereof clamped between two stainless steel backing plates. The conductor plate is provided with a plurality of contact buttons affixed therein in a spaced array such that the caps of the buttons extend above the conductor plate surface to contact the busses. When clamping bolts provided through openings in the sandwiched arrangement are tightened, Belleville springs provided under the rim of each button cap are compressed and resiliently force the caps into contact with the busses' contacting surfaces to maintain a predetermined electrical contact area provided by the button cap tops. The contact area does not change with changing thermal or mechanical stresses applied to the coupled conductors.

  17. The heat capacity mapping mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1981-01-01

    The first in a series of low cost Atmospheric Explorer Satellites, the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) was designed to evaluate the utility of thermal inertial and other thermal and reflectance data for: (1) discriminating bedrock and unconsolidated regolith types; (2) mapping soil moisture; (3) measuring plant canopy temperatures; (4) examining thermal circulation in large bodies of water; and (5) monitoring urban heat islands. Final reports from the HCMM investigator's program are beginning to define the utility of day/the night thermal data. Under favorable circumstances, some major rock types can be identified, soil moisture in extensive agricultural and alluvial terrains can be detected and at least semiqualitatively assessed; and circulation of currents in large bodies of water can be followed by noting thermal patterns.

  18. Capacity of the Hopfield model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jianfeng; Tirozzi, Brunello

    1997-05-01

    For a given 0305-4470/30/10/016/img5 if 0305-4470/30/10/016/img6 neurons deviating from the memorized patterns are allowed, we constructively show that if and only if 0305-4470/30/10/016/img7 all stored patterns are fixed points of the Hopfield model. If 0305-4470/30/10/016/img8 neurons are allowed with 0305-4470/30/10/016/img9 then 0305-4470/30/10/016/img10 where 0305-4470/30/10/016/img11 is the distribution function of the normal distribution. The result obtained by Amit and co-workers only formally coincides with the latter case which indicates that the replica trick approach to the capacity of the Hopfield model is only valid in the case 0305-4470/30/10/016/img12.

  19. Partnership to build research capacity.

    PubMed

    Boland, Mary G; Kamikawa, Cindy; Inouye, Jillian; Latimer, Renee W; Marshall, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Today's nursing leaders are setting the stage for the next evolution--bringing together skilled clinicians and administrators with peers in education to create new approaches to leading the profession forward. Partnerships share goals, common purpose, mutual respect, willingness to negotiate and compromise, informed participation, information giving, and shared decision making. The shared practice academia effort between a public university and a private health care system situated in the island state of Hawai'i is described. The medical center and school of nursing pursued individual strategic efforts to build research capacity and used the opportunity to fund academic practice research projects. The mutual need and recognition of the high stakes involved, in concert with stable, committed leaders at all levels, were key to the early success of their efforts. Through the formal research partnership mechanism, a discrete focus was created for efforts and used to move to tactical, operational, and interpersonal integration in this relationship. PMID:21158252

  20. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via functional impairment. We estimated a latent variable causal model using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,832). Results indicated that marital conflict directly led to increases in depression and functional impairment and indirectly led to a rise in depression via functional impairment. Overall, findings suggest marital conflict is a significant risk factor for psychological and physical health among midlife and older adults. PMID:18698378

  1. Impaired acquisition of swimming navigation in adult mice exposed prenatally to oxazepam.

    PubMed

    Dell'Omo, G; Wolfer, D; Alleva, E; Lipp, H P

    1993-01-01

    Prenatally administered oxazepam (OX) impairs adult radial maze performance in mice, possibly by permanent hippocampal changes. CDI mice were tested in swimming navigation, a sensitive indicator for hippocampal damage. Ten males and ten females were exposed to OX on fetal days 12-16 by maternal administration PO of 30 mg/kg/day and fostered at birth to untreated dams, while control mice received vehicle solution. All mice were tested at 8-9 weeks for ability to find a submerged platform in a fixed location (acquisition: 18 trials, 6 trials per day) and for capacity to re-orient towards a new platform position (reversal: 12 trials, 6 trials per day). OX mice showed a slight but significant impairment of swimming navigation during the initial part of training, as indicated by longer swimming paths during the fourth and fifth trial (day 1), an impairment due both to delayed habituation to the novel stressfull condition and acquisition of platform climbing but unrelated to navigational abilities. No treatment-dependent differences were observed in the reversal phase. During reversal, both OX and control females spent significantly more time in swimming across the location of the old platform. Unrelated to navigational performance, females showed a slightly but significantly higher swimming speed than males. Due to the absence of any navigational impairment, data suggest that prenatal exposure to oxazepam exerts long-term influence on adult learning capacities primarily through interaction with brain systems located outside the hippocampus. PMID:7870931

  2. Impaired killing of Candida albicans by granulocytes mobilized for transfusion purposes: a role for granule components

    PubMed Central

    Gazendam, Roel P.; van de Geer, Annemarie; van Hamme, John L.; Tool, Anton T.J.; van Rees, Dieke J.; Aarts, Cathelijn E.M.; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; van Alphen, Floris; Verkuijlen, Paul; Meijer, Alexander B.; Janssen, Hans; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2016-01-01

    Granulocyte transfusions are used to treat neutropenic patients with life-threatening bacterial or fungal infections that do not respond to anti-microbial drugs. Donor neutrophils that have been mobilized with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dexamethasone are functional in terms of antibacterial activity, but less is known about their fungal killing capacity. We investigated the neutrophil-mediated cytotoxic response against C. albicans and A. fumigatus in detail. Whereas G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils appeared less mature as compared to neutrophils from untreated controls, these cells exhibited normal ROS production by the NADPH oxidase system and an unaltered granule mobilization capacity upon stimulation. G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils efficiently inhibited A. fumigatus germination and killed Aspergillus and Candida hyphae, but the killing of C. albicans yeasts was distinctly impaired. Following normal Candida phagocytosis, analysis by mass spectrometry of purified phagosomes after fusion with granules demonstrated that major constituents of the antimicrobial granule components, including major basic protein (MBP), were reduced. Purified MBP showed candidacidal activity, and neutrophil-like Crisp-Cas9 NB4-KO-MBP differentiated into phagocytes were impaired in Candida killing. Together, these findings indicate that G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils for transfusion purposes have a selectively impaired capacity to kill Candida yeasts, as a consequence of an altered neutrophil granular content. PMID:26802050

  3. From the prodrome to chronic schizophrenia: the neurobiology underlying psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairments

    PubMed Central

    Howes, OD; Fusar-Poli, P; Bloomfield, M; Selvaraj, S; McGuire, P

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder that remains a considerable cause of global disease burden. Cognitive impairments are common and contribute significantly to the morbidity of the disorder. Over the last two decades or so molecular imaging studies have refined understanding of the pathophysiology underlying the development of psychosis and cognitive impairments. Firstly they have consistently implicated presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction in the disorder, finding that dopamine synthesis capacity, dopamine release and baseline dopamine levels are increased in the illness. Secondly recent findings show that dopamine synthesis capacity is elevated in those that go on to develop psychosis in the following year, but not in those that do not, and appears to increase further with the development of psychosis. Thirdly evidence links greater dopamine synthesis capacity to poorer cognitive performance and altered frontal cortical function measured using functional imaging during cognitive tasks. Finally they have provided data on the nature of other neurofunctional alterations in the disorder, in particular in the serotonergic system and neuroinflammation. We review these findings and discuss their implications for understanding the neurobiology of psychosis and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:22239576

  4. Impaired killing of Candida albicans by granulocytes mobilized for transfusion purposes: a role for granule components.

    PubMed

    Gazendam, Roel P; van de Geer, Annemarie; van Hamme, John L; Tool, Anton T J; van Rees, Dieke J; Aarts, Cathelijn E M; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; van Alphen, Floris; Verkuijlen, Paul; Meijer, Alexander B; Janssen, Hans; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2016-05-01

    Granulocyte transfusions are used to treat neutropenic patients with life-threatening bacterial or fungal infections that do not respond to anti-microbial drugs. Donor neutrophils that have been mobilized with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dexamethasone are functional in terms of antibacterial activity, but less is known about their fungal killing capacity. We investigated the neutrophil-mediated cytotoxic response against C. albicans and A. fumigatus in detail. Whereas G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils appeared less mature as compared to neutrophils from untreated controls, these cells exhibited normal ROS production by the NADPH oxidase system and an unaltered granule mobilization capacity upon stimulation. G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils efficiently inhibited A. fumigatus germination and killed Aspergillus and Candida hyphae, but the killing of C. albicans yeasts was distinctly impaired. Following normal Candida phagocytosis, analysis by mass spectrometry of purified phagosomes after fusion with granules demonstrated that major constituents of the antimicrobial granule components, including major basic protein (MBP), were reduced. Purified MBP showed candidacidal activity, and neutrophil-like Crisp-Cas9 NB4-KO-MBP differentiated into phagocytes were impaired in Candida killing. Together, these findings indicate that G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils for transfusion purposes have a selectively impaired capacity to kill Candida yeasts, as a consequence of an altered neutrophil granular content. PMID:26802050

  5. Assessment of Capacity to Consent to Research Among Psychiatric Outpatients: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Morán-Sánchez, Inés; Luna, Aurelio; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria D

    2016-03-01

    Mental capacity is an emerging ethical legal concept in psychiatric settings but its relation to clinical parameters remains yet uncertain. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between capacity to consent research and different psychiatric disorders and to characterize predictors of impairments in research decision-making capacity across diagnostic groups in a cross-sectional study. 139 consecutively referred outpatients with DSM-IV TR diagnoses of psychotic, mood and anxiety disorders were interviewed and a binary judgment of incapacity was made guided by the MacArthur competence assessment tool for consent research (MacCAT-CR). Demographics and clinical information were assessed by cases notes. Patients with anxiety disorders performed the best on the MacCAT-CR, and patients with psychotic disorders had the worst performance, however, there was considerable heterogeneity within each group. Cognitive impairment and global functioning were strongly correlated with MacCAT-CR subscales scores. 30.6% participants lacked research-related decisional capacity. Low Understanding score OR 0.07 (IC 95% 0.01-0.32) and Low Reasoning score OR 0.30 (IC 95% 0.11-0.82) were the factors most closely associated with lack of capacity. No absolute statements about decisional capacity can be driven merely due to the diagnosis. We found several risk factors which may be considered to decide which populations may require more thorough capacity assessments. The issues under consideration in the present study are by no means unique to people with psychiatric conditions. Ignoring this caveat, risks further inappropriate stigmatization of those with serious mental illness. PMID:25952945

  6. Impaired goal-directed behavioural control in human impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, Lee; Chase, Henry W.; Baess, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Two dissociable learning processes underlie instrumental behaviour. Whereas goal-directed behaviour is controlled by knowledge of the consequences, habitual behaviour is elicited directly by antecedent Pavlovian stimuli without knowledge of the consequences. Predominance of habitual control is thought to underlie psychopathological conditions associated with corticostriatal abnormalities, such as impulsivity and drug dependence. To explore this claim, smokers were assessed for nicotine dependence, impulsivity, and capacity for goal-directed control over instrumental performance in an outcome devaluation procedure. Reduced goal-directed control was selectively associated with the Motor Impulsivity factor of Barrett's Impulsivity Scale (BIS), which reflects propensity for action without thought. These data support the claim that human impulsivity is marked by impaired use of causal knowledge to make adaptive decisions. The predominance of habit learning may play a role in psychopathological conditions that are associated with trait impulsivity. PMID:21077008

  7. Mammalian cell culture capacity for biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Dawn M; Ransohoff, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    : With worldwide sales of biopharmaceuticals increasing each year and continuing growth on the horizon, the manufacture of mammalian biopharmaceuticals has become a major global enterprise. We describe the current and future industry wide supply of manufacturing capacity with regard to capacity type, distribution, and geographic location. Bioreactor capacity and the use of single-use products for biomanufacturing are also profiled. An analysis of the use of this capacity is performed, including a discussion of current trends that will influence capacity growth, availability, and utilization in the coming years. PMID:23748352

  8. Heat Capacity Identification Method Using MT System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Arata; Sugimoto, Kenji

    This paper proposes a heat capacity identification method for cooking household appliances. Cooking household appliances select a cooking flow according to a cooking object capacity, hence the heat capacity identification is a very important function. However, a conventional heat capacity identification method has been based on one variable using “if-then rules”, hence it gives a low accuracy. This paper proposes a new heat capacity identification method that uses Mahalanobis-Taguchi System which is similar to discriminant analysis, and the effectiveness of this method is confirmed by the experiment.

  9. A methoxydiphenidine-impaired driver.

    PubMed

    Stachel, Nicole; Jacobsen-Bauer, Andrea; Skopp, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    Methoxydiphenidine (MXP) was first reported in 1989 as a dissociative anesthetic but did not enter the market for pharmaceuticals. The substance re-appeared in 2013 as a new psychoactive substance. A case of driving under the influence of MXP is reported. The concentration of MXP has been determined from a serum sample (57 ng/mL) by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry following liquid-liquid extraction. In addition, amphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and its major metabolite were present in concentrations of 111, 28, and 3 ng/mL, respectively. The subject presented with amnesia, out-of-body experiences, bizarre behavior, and decreased motor abilities. At present, information on human toxicity of MXP is not available. MXP is comparable in structure as well as in action at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor to phencyclidine or ketamine. Therefore, it is likely that MXP exerts similar severe psychotropic action in man. However, there is no information on the duration and intensity of MXP's impairing effects, the interpretation of a particular concentration in the blood or serum, and its detectability in routine drug screenings. Confirmation analysis may be confined to cases where the police has specific intelligence that points to MXP use. PMID:26482953

  10. Numerosity Impairment in Corticobasal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koss, Shira; Clark, Robin; Vesely, Luisa; Weinstein, Jessica; Anderson, Chivon; Richmond, Lauren; Farag, Christine; Gross, Rachel; Liang, Tsao-Wei; Grossman, Murray

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We assessed the representation of numerosity in corticobasal syndrome (CBS), a neurodegenerative condition affecting the parietal lobe. METHOD Patients judged whether a target numerosity (e.g., “3”) falls between two bounding numerosities (e.g., “1” and “5”). We manipulated the format for representing numerosity (Arabic numerals or dot arrays), the size of the gap between the two bounding numerosities, the absolute magnitude of the numerosities, and the order for presenting the bounding numerosities. In a subset of patients with available imaging, we related performance to cortical atrophy using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). RESULTS CBS patients were significantly impaired overall (65.7% ±16.2 correct) compared to healthy seniors (96.6% ± 2.4 correct), and required three times longer than controls to judge correct stimuli. This deficit was equally evident for Arabic numeral and dot array formats. Controls were significantly slower with smaller gaps than larger gaps, consistent with the greater challenge distinguishing between numerosities that are more similar to each other than very different numerosities. However, CBS patients were equally slow and inaccurate for all gap sizes. Controls also were significantly slower with larger numerosities than smaller numerosities, but CBS patients were equally slow and inaccurate with all numerosity magnitudes. VBM revealed significant cortical atrophy in parietal and frontal regions in CBS compared to controls, including the intraparietal sulcus. CONCLUSIONS These observations are consistent with the claim that the representation of numerosity is degraded in CBS. PMID:20604622

  11. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  12. Impaired cortical mitochondrial function following TBI precedes behavioral changes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, William D.; Buonora, John E.; Yarnell, Angela M.; Lucky, Jessica J.; D’Acchille, Michaela I.; McMullen, David C.; Boston, Andrew G.; Kuczmarski, Andrew V.; Kean, William S.; Verma, Ajay; Grunberg, Neil E.; Cole, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathophysiology can be attributed to either the immediate, primary physical injury, or the delayed, secondary injury which begins minutes to hours after the initial injury and can persist for several months or longer. Because these secondary cascades are delayed and last for a significant time period post-TBI, they are primary research targets for new therapeutics. To investigate changes in mitochondrial function after a brain injury, both the cortical impact site and ipsilateral hippocampus of adult male rats 7 and 17 days after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury were examined. State 3, state 4, and uncoupler-stimulated rates of oxygen consumption, respiratory control ratios (RCRs) were measured and membrane potential quantified, and all were significantly decreased in 7 day post-TBI cortical mitochondria. By contrast, hippocampal mitochondria at 7 days showed only non-significant decreases in rates of oxygen consumption and membrane potential. NADH oxidase activities measured in disrupted mitochondria were normal in both injured cortex and hippocampus at 7 days post-CCI. Respiratory and phosphorylation capacities at 17 days post-CCI were comparable to naïve animals for both cortical and hippocampus mitochondria. However, unlike oxidative phosphorylation, membrane potential of mitochondria in the cortical lining of the impact site did not recover at 17 days, suggesting that while diminished cortical membrane potential at 17 days does not adversely affect mitochondrial capacity to synthesize ATP, it may negatively impact other membrane potential-sensitive mitochondrial functions. Memory status, as assessed by a passive avoidance paradigm, was not significantly impaired until 17 days after injury. These results indicate pronounced disturbances in cortical mitochondrial function 7 days after CCI which precede the behavioral impairment observed at 17 days. PMID:24550822

  13. Impairment of the Bacterial Biofilm Stability by Triclosan

    PubMed Central

    Hubas, Cédric; Behrens, Sebastian; Ricciardi, Francesco; Paterson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of the widely-used antibacterial and antifungal compound triclosan (TCS) in freshwaters raises concerns about the impact of this harmful chemical on the biofilms that are the dominant life style of microorganisms in aquatic systems. However, investigations to-date rarely go beyond effects at the cellular, physiological or morphological level. The present paper focuses on bacterial biofilms addressing the possible chemical impairment of their functionality, while also examining their substratum stabilization potential as one example of an important ecosystem service. The development of a bacterial assemblage of natural composition – isolated from sediments of the Eden Estuary (Scotland, UK) – on non-cohesive glass beads (<63 µm) and exposed to a range of triclosan concentrations (control, 2 – 100 µg L−1) was monitored over time by Magnetic Particle Induction (MagPI). In parallel, bacterial cell numbers, division rate, community composition (DGGE) and EPS (extracellular polymeric substances: carbohydrates and proteins) secretion were determined. While the triclosan exposure did not prevent bacterial settlement, biofilm development was increasingly inhibited by increasing TCS levels. The surface binding capacity (MagPI) of the assemblages was positively correlated to the microbial secreted EPS matrix. The EPS concentrations and composition (quantity and quality) were closely linked to bacterial growth, which was affected by enhanced TCS exposure. Furthermore, TCS induced significant changes in bacterial community composition as well as a significant decrease in bacterial diversity. The impairment of the stabilization potential of bacterial biofilm under even low, environmentally relevant TCS levels is of concern since the resistance of sediments to erosive forces has large implications for the dynamics of sediments and associated pollutant dispersal. In addition, the surface adhesive capacity of the biofilm acts as a sensitive measure of

  14. Diabetes Impairs Stem Cell and Proangiogenic Cell Mobilization in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fadini, Gian Paolo; Albiero, Mattia; Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Saula; Boscaro, Elisa; Cappellari, Roberta; Marescotti, Mariacristina; Poncina, Nicol; Agostini, Carlo; Avogaro, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases cardiovascular risk, at least in part, through shortage of vascular regenerative cells derived from the bone marrow (BM). In experimental models, DM causes morphological and functional BM alterations, but information on BM function in human DM is missing. Herein, we sought to assay mobilization of stem and proangiogenic cells in subjects with and without DM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a prospective trial (NCT01102699), we tested BM responsiveness to 5 μg/kg human recombinant granulocyte colony–stimulating factor (hrG-CSF) in 24 individuals with DM (10 type 1 and 14 type 2) and 14 individuals without DM. Before and 24 h after hrG-CSF, we quantified circulating stem/progenitor cells and total and differential white blood cell counts. We also evaluated in vivo the proangiogenic capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells using the Matrigel plug assay. RESULTS In response to hrG-CSF, levels of CD34+ cells and other progenitor cell phenotypes increased in subjects without DM. Patients with DM had significantly impaired mobilization of CD34+, CD133+, and CD34+CD133+ hematopoietic stem cells and CD133+KDR+ endothelial progenitors, independently of potential confounders. The in vivo angiogenic capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells significantly increased after hrG-CSF in control subjects without DM, but not in patients with DM. DM was also associated with the inability to upregulate CD26/DPP-4 on CD34+ cells, which is required for the mobilizing effect of granulocyte colony–stimulating factor. CONCLUSIONS Stem and proangiogenic cell mobilization in response to hrG-CSF is impaired in DM, possibly because of maladaptive CD26/DPP-4 regulation. These alterations may hamper tissue repair and favor the development of cardiovascular complications. PMID:23111057

  15. Understanding, Deriving, and Computing Buffer Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbansky, Edward T.; Schock, Michael R.

    2000-12-01

    The concept of buffer capacity appears in varied disciplines, including bio-, geo-, analytical, and environmental chemistry, physiology, medicine, dentistry, and agriculture. Unfortunately, however, derivation and systematic calculation of buffer capacity is a topic that seems to be neglected in the undergraduate analytical chemistry curriculum. In this work, we give an account of the development of the buffer capacity concept and derive the buffer capacity contribution equations for buffer systems containing mono-, di-, and triprotic weak acids (and their conjugate bases) and aluminum(III), which undergoes hydrolysis. A brief review of pH is provided because pH is involved in applying buffer capacity to the real world. In addition, we discuss evaluation of the equations, numerical approximation of buffer capacity when an analytic solution is not derived, and the mathematical properties of the buffer capacity expressions.

  16. Impairments that Influence Physical Function among Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Carmen L.; Gawade, Prasad L.; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Children treated for cancer are at increased risk of developing chronic health conditions, some of which may manifest during or soon after treatment while others emerge many years after therapy. These health problems may limit physical performance and functional capacity, interfering with participation in work, social, and recreational activities. In this review, we discuss treatment-induced impairments in the endocrine, musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiopulmonary systems and their influence on mobility and physical function. We found that cranial radiation at a young age was associated with a broad range of chronic conditions including obesity, short stature, low bone mineral density and neuromotor impairments. Anthracyclines and chest radiation are associated with both short and long-term cardiotoxicity. Although numerous chronic conditions are documented among individuals treated for childhood cancer, the impact of these conditions on mobility and function are not well characterized, with most studies limited to survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors. Moving forward, further research assessing the impact of chronic conditions on participation in work and social activities is required. Moreover, interventions to prevent or ameliorate the loss of physical function among children treated for cancer are likely to become an important area of survivorship research. PMID:25692094

  17. Dyslexia Impairs Speech Recognition but Can Spare Phonological Competence

    PubMed Central

    Berent, Iris; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered; Balaban, Evan; Galaburda, Albert M.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslexia is associated with numerous deficits to speech processing. Accordingly, a large literature asserts that dyslexics manifest a phonological deficit. Few studies, however, have assessed the phonological grammar of dyslexics, and none has distinguished a phonological deficit from a phonetic impairment. Here, we show that these two sources can be dissociated. Three experiments demonstrate that a group of adult dyslexics studied here is impaired in phonetic discrimination (e.g., ba vs. pa), and their deficit compromises even the basic ability to identify acoustic stimuli as human speech. Remarkably, the ability of these individuals to generalize grammatical phonological rules is intact. Like typical readers, these Hebrew-speaking dyslexics identified ill-formed AAB stems (e.g., titug) as less wordlike than well-formed ABB controls (e.g., gitut), and both groups automatically extended this rule to nonspeech stimuli, irrespective of reading ability. The contrast between the phonetic and phonological capacities of these individuals demonstrates that the algebraic engine that generates phonological patterns is distinct from the phonetic interface that implements them. While dyslexia compromises the phonetic system, certain core aspects of the phonological grammar can be spared. PMID:23028654

  18. Impaired spontaneous anthropomorphizing despite intact perception and social knowledge.

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Andrea S; Adolphs, Ralph

    2004-05-11

    Humans spontaneously imbue the world with social meaning: we see not only emotions and intentional behaviors in humans and other animals, but also anger in the movements of thunderstorms and willful sabotage in crashing computers. Converging evidence supports a role for the amygdala, a collection of nuclei in the temporal lobe, in processing emotionally and socially relevant information. Here, we report that a patient with bilateral amygdala damage described a film of animated shapes (normally seen as full of social content) in entirely asocial, geometric terms, despite otherwise normal visual perception. Control tasks showed that the impairment did not result from a global inability to describe social stimuli or a bias in language use, nor was a similar impairment observed in eight comparison subjects with damage to orbitofrontal cortex. This finding extends the role of the amygdala to the social attributions we make even to stimuli that are not explicitly social and, in so doing, suggests that the human capacity for anthropomorphizing draws on some of the same neural systems as do basic emotional responses. PMID:15123799

  19. Heritable risk factors associated with language impairments.

    PubMed

    Barry, J G; Yasin, I; Bishop, D V M

    2007-02-01

    There is a strong genetic contribution to children's language and literacy impairments. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of the phenotype are familial by comparing 34 parents of probands with language/literacy impairments and 33 parents of typically developing probands. The parents responded to questionnaires regarding previous history for language/reading impairment and participated in psychometric testing. The psychometric test battery consisted of tests assessing non-verbal IQ, short-term memory, articulation, receptive grammar, reading abilities and spelling. Self-report measures demonstrated a higher prevalence of language and literacy impairments in parents of affected probands (32%) compared with parents of unaffected probands (6%). The two groups of parents differed significantly in their performance on the non-word repetition, oromotor and digit span tasks. Non-word repetition gave the best discrimination between the parent groups even when the data from the parents who actually were impaired as ascertained by direct testing or self-report were removed from the analyses. This suggests that non-word repetition serves as a marker of a family risk for language impairment. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues associated with ascertainment of specific language impairment (SLI). PMID:17233642

  20. The COSPAR Capacity Building Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, C.; Willmore, P.; Méndez, M.; Mathieu, P.-P.; Santolik, O.; Smith, R.

    2011-07-01

    The COSPAR Capacity Building Workshops have been conceived to meet the following objectives: (1) To increase knowledge and use of public archives of space data in order both to broaden the scope of research programs in developing countries and to ensure that scientists in those countries are aware of the full range of facilities that are available to them; (2) To provide highly-practical instruction in the use of these archives and the associated publicly-available software; and (3) To foster personal links between participants and experienced scientists attending the workshops to contribute to reducing the isolation often experienced by scientists in developing countries. Since 2001 a total of twelve workshops have been successfully held in different scientific areas (X-ray, Gamma-ray, Space Optical and UV Astronomy, Magnetospheric Physics, Space Oceanography and Planetary Science) in nine developing countries (Brazil, India, China, South Africa, Morocco, Romania, Uruguay, Egypt and Malaysia). In this contribution we discuss the modalities of the workshops, the experience so-far gained, and the future including collaborations with other institutions sharing the aim of increasing the scientific activities in developing countries.

  1. Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    MedlinePlus

    ... People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired ... Saskatchewan Yukon Territory Other (International) Organization Name Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired ...

  2. The Frontal Eye Fields Limit the Capacity of Visual Short-Term Memory in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyoung-Min; Ahn, Kyung-Ha

    2013-01-01

    The frontal eye fields (FEF) in rhesus monkeys have been implicated in visual short-term memory (VSTM) as well as control of visual attention. Here we examined the importance of the area in the VSTM capacity and the relationship between VSTM and attention, using the chemical inactivation technique and multi-target saccade tasks with or without the need of target-location memory. During FEF inactivation, serial saccades to targets defined by color contrast were unaffected, but saccades relying on short-term memory were impaired when the target count was at the capacity limit of VSTM. The memory impairment was specific to the FEF-coded retinotopic locations, and subject to competition among targets distributed across visual fields. These results together suggest that the FEF plays a crucial role during the entry of information into VSTM, by enabling attention deployment on targets to be remembered. In this view, the memory capacity results from the limited availability of attentional resources provided by FEF: The FEF can concurrently maintain only a limited number of activations to register the targets into memory. When lesions render part of the area unavailable for activation, the number would decrease, further reducing the capacity of VSTM. PMID:23555049

  3. Capacity to Delay Reward Differentiates Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Anthony; Steinglass, Joanna E.; Greene, Ashley L.; Weber, Elke U.; Simpson, H. Blair

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the relationship between obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has long been debated, clinical samples of OCD (without OCPD) and OCPD (without OCD) have never been systematically compared. We studied whether individuals with OCD, OCPD, or both conditions differ on symptomatology, functioning, and a measure of self-control: the capacity to delay reward. Methods 25 OCD, 25 OCPD, 25 comorbid OCD+OCPD, and 25 healthy controls (HC) completed clinical assessments and a validated intertemporal choice task that measures capacity to forego small immediate rewards for larger delayed rewards. Results OCD and OCPD subjects both showed impairment in psychosocial functioning and quality of life, as well as compulsive behavior, but only subjects with OCD reported obsessions. Individuals with OCPD, with or without comorbid OCD, discounted the value of delayed monetary rewards significantly less than OCD and HC. This excessive capacity to delay reward discriminates OCPD from OCD, and is associated with perfectionism and rigidity. Conclusions OCD and OCPD are both impairing disorders marked by compulsive behaviors, but they can be differentiated by the presence of obsessions in OCD and by excessive capacity to delay reward in OCPD. That individuals with OCPD show less temporal discounting (suggestive of excessive self-control) whereas prior studies have shown that individuals with substance use disorders show greater discounting (suggestive of impulsivity) supports the premise that this component of self-control lies on a continuum in which both extremes (impulsivity and overcontrol) contribute to psychopathology. PMID:24199665

  4. Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy Impairs Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Swastik; Umapathy, Sridharan; Dhiman, Radha K.

    2015-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of the spectrum of neurocognitive impairment in cirrhosis. It is a frequent occurrence in patients of cirrhosis and is detectable only by specialized neurocognitive testing. MHE is a clinically significant disorder which impairs daily functioning, driving performance, work capability and learning ability. It also predisposes to the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, increased falls and increased mortality. This results in impaired quality of life for the patient as well as significant social and economic burden for health providers and care givers. Early detection and treatment of MHE with ammonia lowering therapy can reverse MHE and improve quality of life. PMID:26041957

  5. [Study on diabetes-induced cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhijie; Lu, Chengbiao; Luo, Jianping; Cui, Dong; Li, Xiaoli

    2013-08-01

    The diabetes-induced cognitive impairment complications have serious effects on the patients' lives, and there is an enormous and financial burden on patients, their families and society as a whole. This review investigates the current research status of diabetes-induced cognitive impairment from different view points including molecular, models, clinics and electrophysiology. The relationship between diabetes and cognitive function and developments of research are hereby summarized. And finally, future issues of diabetes-induced cognitive impairments are pointed out, and the effective rehabilitation methods should be considered. PMID:24059075

  6. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy impairs quality of life.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swastik; Umapathy, Sridharan; Dhiman, Radha K

    2015-03-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of the spectrum of neurocognitive impairment in cirrhosis. It is a frequent occurrence in patients of cirrhosis and is detectable only by specialized neurocognitive testing. MHE is a clinically significant disorder which impairs daily functioning, driving performance, work capability and learning ability. It also predisposes to the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, increased falls and increased mortality. This results in impaired quality of life for the patient as well as significant social and economic burden for health providers and care givers. Early detection and treatment of MHE with ammonia lowering therapy can reverse MHE and improve quality of life. PMID:26041957

  7. Mental status tests and the capacity for self-care.

    PubMed

    Winograd, C H

    1984-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that self-care capacity can be predicted by tests of mental functioning, the performances of patients in a long-term care institution on a Self-Care Scale were compared with their scores on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) and a Mental Competence Scale. The Self-Care Scale measures ability to perform activities of daily living; the SPMSQ assesses memory, orientation, and calculation; and the Mental Competence Scale measures ability to respond sensibly to interview questions and to judge the environment. Many people who had poor scores on the SPMSQ were able to perform activities of daily living in the nursing home setting, but none whose scores on the Mental Competence Scale were fair or poor were independent in activities of daily living. Despite the fact that both the Self-Care Scale and the Mental Competence Scale are still in the developmental stages, the author concludes that the SPMSQ is not an adequate predictor of capacity for self-care. Moreover, the ability to respond appropriately to an interview may be more relevant for daily functioning than are tests of mental status. The three methods of assessment used in this study measure distinct yet complementary components of functioning that need to be considered in evaluating a mentally impaired elderly person. PMID:6690576

  8. Should the Functional Residual Capacity be Ignored?

    PubMed Central

    Selvi E, Chandra; K.V Rao, Kuppu; Malathi

    2013-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: The functional residual capacity was given the least importance than the other lung volume parameters. Studies have revealed the restrictive pattern of lung disease in patients with liver cirrhosis. We aimed to analyze the importance of the functional residual capacity and other lung volumes of cirrhotic patients. Subjects and Methods: Forty (40) patients with cirrhosis (Child’s-B) were enrolled in this study. The vital capacity was measured by an instrument called V02 Max 22. The other lung volumes which were measured were derived parameters. The functional residual capacity was measured by the nitrogen wash-out method. Results: The measured value of the functional residual capacity was below normal as compared to the reference value. The total lung capacity and the vital capacity were positively correlated with the functional residual capacity. The residual volume was found to be increased in twelve out of forty cirrhotic patients. Conclusion: The functional residual capacity can be determined by the compliance of the lung and the chest wall. The patients with a reduced functional residual capacity may be suffering from dyspnoea, probably due to the restrictive pattern of the lung disease. Hence, the reduced lung volumes of the subjects may be due to the abnormalities in the mechanics of ventilation. PMID:23450122

  9. The aged nonhematopoietic environment impairs natural killer cell maturation and function

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Hesham M; Hoebe, Kasper; Chougnet, Claire A

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are critical in eliminating tumors and viral infections, both of which occur at a high incidence in the elderly. Previous studies showed that aged NK cells are less cytotoxic and exhibit impaired maturation compared to young NK cells. We evaluated whether extrinsic or intrinsic factors were responsible for the impaired maturation and function of NK cells in aging and whether impaired maturation correlated with functional hyporesponsiveness. We confirmed that aged mice have a significant decrease in the frequency of mature NK cells in all lymphoid organs. Impaired NK cell maturation in aged mice correlated with a reduced capacity to eliminate allogeneic and B16 tumor targets in vivo. This could be explained by impaired degranulation, particularly by mature NK cells of aged mice. Consistent with impaired aged NK cell maturation, expression of T-bet and Eomes, which regulate NK cell functional maturation, was significantly decreased in aged bone marrow (BM) NK cells. Mixed BM chimeras revealed that the nonhematopoietic environment was a key determinant of NK cell maturation and T-bet and Eomes expression. In mixed BM chimeras, NK cells derived from both young or aged BM cells adopted an ‘aged’ phenotype in an aged host, that is, were hyporesponsive to stimuli in vitro, while adopting a ‘young’ phenotype following transfer in young hosts. Overall, our data suggest that the aged nonhematopoietic environment is responsible for the impaired maturation and function of NK cells. Defining these nonhematopoietic factors could have important implications for improving NK cell function in the elderly. PMID:25677698

  10. Building capacity for dementia care in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Francisco J.; Gaona, Ciro; Quintero, Marialcira; Chavez, Carlos A.; Selga, Joyce; Maestre, Gladys E.

    2015-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have limited facilities and professionals trained to diagnose, treat, and support people with dementia and other forms of cognitive impairment. The situation for people with dementia is poor, and worsening as the proportion of elderly in the general population is rapidly expanding. We reviewed existing initiatives and provided examples of actions taken to build capacity and improve the effectiveness of individuals, organizations, and national systems that provide treatment and support for people with dementia and their caregivers. Regional barriers to capacity building and the importance of public engagement are highlighted. Existing programs need to disseminate their objectives, accomplishments, limitations, and overall lessons learned in order to gain greater recognition of the need for capacity-building programs. PMID:25932285

  11. The effectiveness of a stimulation program on cognitive capacity among individuals older than 60.

    PubMed

    Karatay, Gülnaz; Akkuş, Yeliz

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of a multistimulant home-based intervention program on cognitive function, anxiety, and depression among older adults with cognitive impairment. This research is quasi-experimental and was designed in an effort to increase the cognitive capacity of individuals above the age of 60 with reduced cognitive capacities. Each senior received a total of seven home visits, including intervention conversation, newspaper/ book reading, painting/handcraft activities, and physical exercise. The Mini Mental State Test scores of the participants statistically increased, whereas the Beck Anxiety and the Geriatric Depression Scale scores showed a decrease (p < .05) after the intervention. Findings demonstrate that the multistimulant approach to improve cognitive capacity among individuals older than 60 years was successful. PMID:20802086

  12. In normal subjects bracing impairs the function of the inspiratory muscles.

    PubMed

    Prandi, E; Couture, J; Bellemare, F

    1999-05-01

    Normal subjects can increase their capacity to sustain hyperpnoea by bracing their arms on fixed objects, a procedure which is also known to reduce dyspnoea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the present study, it was tested whether bracing per se could improve the function of the diaphragm. The effect of bracing on diaphragm function was studied in six normal subjects by recording changes in oesophageal (delta Poes) and transdiaphragmatic (delta Pdi) pressure during inspiratory capacity (IC) manoeuvres in the seated and upright postures, and in the seated posture, also during bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation (BPNS) at functional residual capacity (FRC). The pattern of ribcage motion and deformation associated with bracing and with diaphragm contraction was also evaluated using inductance plethysmography and magnetometers. Bracing increased FRC by >300 mL and reduced IC by approximately 200 mL, in both postures. Delta Pdi during BPNS decreased on average by 15% indicating an impaired diaphragmatic function. The ribcage was deformed with bracing and was more distortable during BPNS. In conclusion, in normal subjects, bracing impairs the function of the inspiratory muscles and reduces ribcage stability. These negative effects cannot explain the improved capacity to sustain hyperpnoea when the arms are braced. PMID:10414407

  13. Impaired retention is responsible for temporal order memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Gillis, M Meredith; Quinn, Kristen M; Phillips, Pamela A T; Hampstead, Benjamin M

    2013-05-01

    Temporal order memory, or remembering the order of events, is critical for everyday functioning and is difficult for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). It is currently unclear whether these patients have difficulty acquiring and/or retaining such information and whether deficits in these patients are in excess of "normal" age-related declines. Therefore, the current study examined age and disease-related changes in temporal order memory as well as whether memory load played a role in such changes. Young controls (n=25), older controls (n=34), and MCI patients (n=32) completed an experimental task that required the reconstruction of sequences that were 3, 4, or 5 items in length both immediately after presentation (i.e., immediate recall) and again after a 10-min delay (i.e., delayed recall). During the immediate recall phase, there was an effect of age largely due to reduced performance at the two longest span lengths. Older controls and MCI patients only differed during the five span (controls>MCI). During the delayed recall, however, there were significant effects of both age and MCI regardless of span length. In MCI patients, immediate recall was significantly correlated with measures of executive functioning, whereas delayed recall performance was only related to other memory tests. These findings suggest that MCI patients experience initial temporal order memory deficits at the point when information begins to exceed working memory capacity and become dependent on medial temporal lobe functioning. Longer-term deficits are due to an inability to retain information, consistent with the characteristic medial temporal lobe dysfunction in MCI. PMID:23542809

  14. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  15. Dating human cultural capacity using phylogenetic principles.

    PubMed

    Lind, J; Lindenfors, P; Ghirlanda, S; Lidén, K; Enquist, M

    2013-01-01

    Humans have genetically based unique abilities making complex culture possible; an assemblage of traits which we term "cultural capacity". The age of this capacity has for long been subject to controversy. We apply phylogenetic principles to date this capacity, integrating evidence from archaeology, genetics, paleoanthropology, and linguistics. We show that cultural capacity is older than the first split in the modern human lineage, and at least 170,000 years old, based on data on hyoid bone morphology, FOXP2 alleles, agreement between genetic and language trees, fire use, burials, and the early appearance of tools comparable to those of modern hunter-gatherers. We cannot exclude that Neanderthals had cultural capacity some 500,000 years ago. A capacity for complex culture, therefore, must have existed before complex culture itself. It may even originated long before. This seeming paradox is resolved by theoretical models suggesting that cultural evolution is exceedingly slow in its initial stages. PMID:23648831

  16. Loss of PPARγ in endothelial cells leads to impaired angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vattulainen-Collanus, Sanna; Akinrinade, Oyediran; Li, Molong; Koskenvuo, Minna; Li, Caiyun Grace; Rao, Shailaja P; de Jesus Perez, Vinicio; Yuan, Ke; Sawada, Hirofumi; Koskenvuo, Juha W; Alvira, Cristina; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka

    2016-02-15

    Tie2-promoter-mediated loss of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, also known as PPARG) in mice leads to osteopetrosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Vascular disease is associated with loss of PPARγ in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC); we evaluated the role of PPARγ in PMVEC functions, such as angiogenesis and migration. The role of PPARγ in angiogenesis was evaluated in Tie2CrePPARγ(flox/flox) and wild-type mice, and in mouse and human PMVECs. RNA sequencing and bioinformatic approaches were utilized to reveal angiogenesis-associated targets for PPARγ. Tie2CrePPARγ(flox/flox) mice showed an impaired angiogenic capacity. Analysis of endothelial progenitor-like cells using bone marrow transplantation combined with evaluation of isolated PMVECs revealed that loss of PPARγ attenuates the migration and angiogenic capacity of mature PMVECs. PPARγ-deficient human PMVECs showed a similar migration defect in culture. Bioinformatic and experimental analyses newly revealed E2F1 as a target of PPARγ in the regulation of PMVEC migration. Disruption of the PPARγ-E2F1 axis was associated with a dysregulated Wnt pathway related to the GSK3B interacting protein (GSKIP). In conclusion, PPARγ plays an important role in sustaining angiogenic potential in mature PMVECs through E2F1-mediated gene regulation. PMID:26743080

  17. Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... OTC) drugs. back to top Most Widely Used Sleep Drug Zolpidem—which has been on the market ...

  18. Personality Profiles of Physically Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Lynn C.; Harper, Dennis C.

    1980-01-01

    Different forms of chronic observable disability may have differing impacts on adult personality adjustment. Young adults with cleft lip/palate display fewer personality adjustment problems than those with orthopedic impairment. (Author)

  19. Space Activities for the Visually Impaired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. G.; Baguio, M.

    2005-12-01

    To a visually impaired person celestial objects or concepts of space exploration are likely to be more abstract than to other people, but they encounter news about the universe through their daily life. A partnership between Texas Space Grant Consortium, The University of Texas at Austin, and the Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired provided the opportunity to assist visually impaired students increase their understanding of astronomy and space science. The activities helped visually impaired students activity engage in inquiry-based, hands-on astronomy activities. The experiences provided during the educator workshops, adapted instructional classroom activities, and tactile learning aids will be shared in the hopes that others may be able to incorporate these lessons into their regular teaching activities.

  20. Limited OXPHOS capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of obesity in laboratory mice irrespective of the glucose tolerance status

    PubMed Central

    Schöttl, Theresa; Kappler, Lisa; Fromme, Tobias; Klingenspor, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several human and rodent obesity studies speculate on a causal link between altered white adipocyte mitochondria in the obese state and changes in glucose homeostasis. We here aimed to dissect whether alterations in white adipocyte mitochondrial respiratory function are a specific phenomenon of obesity or impaired glucose tolerance or both. Methods Mature white adipocytes were purified from posterior subcutaneous and intraabdominal epididymal fat of four murine obesity models characterized by either impaired or normal oral glucose tolerance. Bioenergetic profiles, including basal, leak, and maximal respiration, were generated using high-resolution respirometry. Cell respiratory control ratios were calculated to evaluate mitochondrial respiratory function. Results Maximal respiration capacity and cell respiratory control ratios were diminished in white adipocytes of each of the four murine obesity models, both in the absence and the presence of impaired glucose tolerance. Limitation was more pronounced in adipocytes of intraabdominal versus subcutaneous fat. Conclusion Reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of murine obesity irrespective of the glucose tolerance status. Impaired respiratory capacity in white adipocytes solely is not sufficient for the development of systemic glucose intolerance. PMID:26413469

  1. Unpacking "Health Reform" and "Policy Capacity"

    PubMed Central

    Legge, David; Gleeson, Deborah H

    2015-01-01

    Health reform is the outcome of dispersed policy initiatives in different sectors, at different levels and across time. Policy work which can drive coherent health reform needs to operate across the governance structures as well as the institutions that comprise healthcare systems. Building policy capacity to support health reform calls for clarity regarding the nature of such policy work and the elements of policy capacity involved; and for evidence regarding effective strategies for capacity building. PMID:26673185

  2. Large capacity cryopropellant orbital storage facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive study was performed to develop the major features of a large capacity orbital propellant storage facility for the space-based cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle. Projected propellant usage and delivery schedules can be accommodated by two orbital tank sets of 100,000 lb storage capacity, with advanced missions expected to require increased capacity. Information is given on tank pressurization schemes, propellant transfer configurations, pump specifications, the refrigeration system, and flight tests.

  3. Cargo distributions differentiate pathological axonal transport impairments

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cassie S.; Lee, Robert H.; Coulter, Wallace H.

    2012-01-01

    Axonal transport is an essential process in neurons, analogous to shipping goods, by which energetic and cellular building supplies are carried downstream (anterogradely) and wastes are carried upstream (retrogradely) by molecular motors, which act as cargo porters. Impairments in axonal transport have been linked to devastating and often lethal neurodegenerative diseases, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington’s, and Alzheimer’s. Axonal transport impairment types include a decrease in available motors for cargo transport (motor depletion), the presence of defective or non-functional motors (motor dilution), and the presence of increased or larger cargos (protein aggregation). An impediment to potential treatment identification has been the inability to determine what type(s) of axonal transport impairment candidates that could be present in a given disease. In this study, we utilize a computational model and common axonal transport experimental metrics to reveal the axonal transport impairment general characteristics or “signatures” that result from three general defect types of motor depletion, motor dilution, and protein aggregation. Our results not only provide a means to discern these general impairments types, they also reveal key dynamic and emergent features of axonal transport, which potentially underlie multiple impairment types. The identified characteristics, as well as the analytical method, can be used to help elucidate the axonal transport impairments observed in experimental and clinical data. For example, using the model-predicted defect signatures, we identify the defect candidates, which are most likely to be responsible for the axonal transport impairments in the G93A SOD1 mouse model of ALS. PMID:22285784

  4. Statistical measures for workload capacity analysis.

    PubMed

    Houpt, Joseph W; Townsend, James T

    2012-10-01

    A critical component of how we understand a mental process is given by measuring the effect of varying the workload. The capacity coefficient (Townsend & Nozawa, 1995; Townsend & Wenger, 2004) is a measure on response times for quantifying changes in performance due to workload. Despite its precise mathematical foundation, until now rigorous statistical tests have been lacking. In this paper, we demonstrate statistical properties of the components of the capacity measure and propose a significance test for comparing the capacity coefficient to a baseline measure or two capacity coefficients to each other. PMID:23175582

  5. Capacity fade of Sony 18650 cells cycled at elevated temperatures. Part II. Capacity fade analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadass, P.; Haran, Bala; White, Ralph; Popov, Branko N.

    A complete capacity fade analysis was carried out for Sony 18650 cells cycled at elevated temperatures. The major causes of capacity loss were identified and a complete capacity fade balance was carried out to account for the total capacity loss of Li-ion battery as a function of cycle number and temperature. The three most significant parameters that cause capacity loss were loss of secondary active material (LiCoO 2/carbon) and primary active material (Li +) and the rate capability losses. Intrinsic capacity measurements for both positive and negative electrode has been used to estimate the capacity loss due to secondary active material and a charge balance gives the capacity lost due to primary active material (Li +). Capacity fade has been quantified with secondary active material loss dominating the other losses.

  6. Chewing impairment and associated factors among adults

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Daniela de Rossi; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Luchi, Carla Antoni; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chewing impairment according to sex, and its associated factors in adults. METHODS A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out with 2,016 subjects aged between 20 and 59 years in Florianopolis, SC, Southern Brazil, in 2009. The sampling was undertaken in two stages, census tracts and households. The outcome 'chewing impairment' was obtained from the question "How often do you have chewing impairment due to teeth or denture problems?". Analyses were carried out with demographics and socioeconomic factors, dental services utilization, and self-related oral health using multivariable logistic regression and stratified by sex. RESULTS The response rate was 85.3% (1,720 adults). The prevalence of chewing impairment was 13,0% (95%CI 10.3;15.8) and 18,0% (95%CI 14.6;21.3) among men and women, respectively. Women and men fifty years old and over, who had ten or fewer natural teeth and those who reported toothache were more likely to have chewing impairment. The combination of tooth loss and toothache on chewing impairment was almost four times higher among women. CONCLUSIONS The magnitude of the associations among socioeconomic, demographics and self-related oral health factors was different according to sex, in general higher for women, with emphasis on toothache. The findings suggest that the impact of oral conditions varies by sex. PMID:24626541

  7. Frailty and the risk of cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Searle, Samuel D; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Aging occurs as a series of small steps, first causing cellular damage and then affecting tissues and organs. This is also true in the brain. Frailty, a state of increased risk due to accelerated deficit accumulation, is robustly a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Community-based autopsy studies show that frail individuals have brains that show multiple deficits without necessarily demonstrating cognitive impairment. These facts cast a new light on the growing number of risk factors for cognitive impairment, suggesting that, on a population basis, most health deficits can be associated with late-life cognitive impairment. The systems mechanism by which things that are bad for the body are likely to be bad for the brain can be understood like this: the burden of health deficits anywhere indicates impaired ability to withstand or repair endogenous and environmental damage. This in turn makes additional damage more likely. If true, this suggests that a life course approach to preventing cognitive impairment is desirable. Furthermore, conducting studies in highly selected, younger, healthier individuals to provide 'proof of concept' information is now common. This strategy might exclude the very circumstances that are required for disease expression in the people in whom dementia chiefly occurs (that is, older adults who are often in poor health). PMID:26240611

  8. Muscle Impairments in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Alnahdi, Ali H.; Zeni, Joseph A.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Context: Muscle impairments associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are the primary underlying cause of functional limitations. Understanding the extent of muscle impairments, its relationship with physical function and disease progression, and the evidence behind exercise therapy that targets muscle impairments is crucial. Evidence Acquisition: An electronic search for relevant articles using MEDLINE and CINHAL databases up to September 2011 was performed. In addition to the electronic search, retrieved articles were searched manually for relevant studies. Results: Quadriceps, hamstrings, and hip muscles are significantly impaired in subjects with knee OA compared with age-matched controls. Muscle strength, especially quadriceps, is a major determinant of both performance-based and self-reported physical function. Whether stronger quadriceps is protective against knee OA onset and progression is not clear. Exercise therapy, including global and targeted resistance training, is effective in reducing pain and improving function in subjects with knee OA. Conclusions: Subjects with knee OA have significant muscle impairments. These muscle impairments affect physical function and should be targeted in therapy. Further research is needed to explore the relationship between quadriceps strength and knee OA initiation and progression and to determine the optimal exercise prescription that augments outcomes in this patient population. PMID:23016099

  9. Protective Effect of Tempol on Buthionine Sulfoximine-Induced Mitochondrial Impairment in Hippocampal Derived HT22 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Ankita; Patki, Gaurav; Khan, Eisha; Asghar, Mohammad; Salim, Samina

    2016-01-01

    Using a simulated oxidative stress model of hippocampus-derived immortalized cell line (HT22), we report that prooxidant buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, 1 mM, 14 h), without adversely affecting cell viability or morphology, induced oxidative stress by inhibiting glutathione synthesis. BSO treatment also significantly reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (p < 0.05) and significantly lowered total antioxidant capacity (p < 0.001) in HT22 cells when compared to vehicle treated control cells. Antioxidant tempol, a piperidine nitroxide considered a SOD mimetic, reversed BSO-induced decline in SOD activity (p < 0.01) and also increased BSO-induced decline in total antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05). Interestingly, BSO treatment significantly reduced mitochondrial oxygen consumption (p < 0.05), decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (p < 0.05), and lowered ATP production (p < 0.05) when compared to vehicle treated control cells, collectively indicative of mitochondrial impairment. Antioxidant tempol treatment mitigated all three indicators of mitochondrial impairment. We postulate that BSO-induced oxidative stress in HT22 cells caused mitochondrial impairment, and tempol by increasing SOD activity and improving antioxidant capacity presumably protected the cells from BSO-induced mitochondrial impairment. In conclusion, present study provides an interesting simulation of oxidative stress in hippocampal cells, which will serve as an excellent model to study mitochondrial functions. PMID:27069531

  10. Essential fatty acid deficiency in mice impairs lactose digestion.

    PubMed

    Lukovac, S; Los, E L; Stellaard, F; Rings, E H H M; Verkade, H J

    2008-09-01

    Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency in mice induces fat malabsorption. We previously reported indications that the underlying mechanism is located at the level of the intestinal mucosa. We have investigated the effects of EFA deficiency on small intestinal morphology and function. Mice were fed an EFA-deficient or control diet for 8 wk. A 72-h fat balance, the EFA status, and small intestinal histology were determined. Carbohydrate absorptive and digestive capacities were assessed by stable isotope methodology after administration of [U-(13)C]glucose and [1-(13)C]lactose. The mRNA expression and enzyme activity of lactase, and concentrations of the EFA linoleic acid (LA) were measured in small intestinal mucosa. Mice fed the EFA-deficient diet were markedly EFA-deficient with a profound fat malabsorption. EFA deficiency did not affect the histology or proliferative capacity of the small intestine. Blood [13C6]glucose appearance and disappearance were similar in both groups, indicating unaffected monosaccharide absorption. In contrast, blood appearance of [13C]glucose, originating from [1-(13)C]lactose, was delayed in EFA-deficient mice. EFA deficiency profoundly reduced lactase activity (-58%, P<0.01) and mRNA expression (-55%, P<0.01) in mid-small intestine. Both lactase activity and its mRNA expression strongly correlated with mucosal LA concentrations (r=0.77 and 0.79, respectively, P<0.01). EFA deficiency in mice inhibits the capacity to digest lactose but does not affect small intestinal histology. These data underscore the observation that EFA deficiency functionally impairs the small intestine, which in part may be mediated by low LA levels in the enterocytes. PMID:18653724

  11. Emergent Biosynthetic Capacity in Simple Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hsuan-Chao; Levy, Roie; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2014-01-01

    Microbes have an astonishing capacity to transform their environments. Yet, the metabolic capacity of a single species is limited and the vast majority of microorganisms form complex communities and join forces to exhibit capabilities far exceeding those achieved by any single species. Such enhanced metabolic capacities represent a promising route to many medical, environmental, and industrial applications and call for the development of a predictive, systems-level understanding of synergistic microbial capacity. Here we present a comprehensive computational framework, integrating high-quality metabolic models of multiple species, temporal dynamics, and flux variability analysis, to study the metabolic capacity and dynamics of simple two-species microbial ecosystems. We specifically focus on detecting emergent biosynthetic capacity – instances in which a community growing on some medium produces and secretes metabolites that are not secreted by any member species when growing in isolation on that same medium. Using this framework to model a large collection of two-species communities on multiple media, we demonstrate that emergent biosynthetic capacity is highly prevalent. We identify commonly observed emergent metabolites and metabolic reprogramming patterns, characterizing typical mechanisms of emergent capacity. We further find that emergent secretion tends to occur in two waves, the first as soon as the two organisms are introduced, and the second when the medium is depleted and nutrients become limited. Finally, aiming to identify global community determinants of emergent capacity, we find a marked association between the level of emergent biosynthetic capacity and the functional/phylogenetic distance between community members. Specifically, we demonstrate a “Goldilocks” principle, where high levels of emergent capacity are observed when the species comprising the community are functionally neither too close, nor too distant. Taken together, our results

  12. [Cognitive impairments in alcohol dependence: From screening to treatment improvements].

    PubMed

    Cabé, N; Laniepce, A; Ritz, L; Lannuzel, C; Boudehent, C; Vabret, F; Eustache, F; Beaunieux, H; Pitel, A-L

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol-related cognitive impairments are largely underestimated in clinical practice, even though they could limit the benefit of alcohol treatment and hamper the patient's ability to remain abstinent or to respect his/her therapeutic contract. These neuropsychological deficits can impact the management of patients well before the development of the well-known Korsakoff's syndrome. Indeed, even in the absence of ostensible neurological complications, excessive and chronic alcohol consumption results in damage of brain structure and function. The frontocerebellar circuit and the circuit of Papez, respectively involved in motor and executive abilities and episodic memory, are mainly affected. Those brain dysfunctions are associated with neuropsychological deficits, including deficits of executive functions, episodic memory, social cognition, as well as visuospatial and motor abilities. Such cognitive disorders can interfere with the motivation process to abandon maladjusted drinking behavior in favor of a healthier lifestyle (such as abstinence or controlled alcohol consumption). They can also limit the patient's capacity to fully benefit from treatment (notably psychoeducation and cognitive-behavioural treatments) currently widely proposed in French Addiction departments. In addition, they may contribute to relapse which is multi-determinated. A neuropsychological assessment appears therefore crucial to take relevant clinical decisions. However, very few addiction departments have the human and financial resources to conduct an extensive neuropsychological examination of all patients with alcohol dependence. Some brief screening tools can be used, notably the MOntreal Cognitive Assessment and the Brief Evaluation of Alcohol-Related Neuropsychological Impairments, which has been especially designed to assess cognitive and motor deficits in alcoholism. These tools can be used by non-psychologist clinicians to detect alcohol-related cognitive deficits, which require

  13. Wind Capacity Credit in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Porter, K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an analysis and comparison of recent studies on the capacity credit of wind in the United States. We offer suggestions and recommendations for future studies, based on the recent work. We examine key wind capacity studies in the United States, emphasizing those done in the past three years.

  14. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...

  15. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...

  16. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...

  17. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... health facility. (b) An applicant is adjudicated as lacking mental capacity if— (1) A court, board... committed to a mental health facility if he or she is formally committed to a mental health facility by a... lacking mental capacity, mental illness, and drug use. This does not include commitment to a mental...

  18. A capacity assessment towards more resilient societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlicke, C.; Steinführer, A.

    2012-04-01

    Social capacity building for natural hazards is a topic increasingly gaining relevance not only for so-called developing countries but also for European welfare states which are continuously challenged by the social, economic and ecological impacts of natural hazards. Following an outline of recent governance changes with regard to natural hazards, we develop a heuristic model of social capacity building by taking into account a wide range of existing expertise from different fields of research. Particular attention is paid to social vulnerability and its assessment, as well as to risk communication and risk education as specific strategies of social capacity building. We propose to distinguish between interventionist and participatory approaches, thus enabling for a better understanding of existing practices of social capacity building as well as their particular strengths and weaknesses. It is from this typology the presentation will develop two kinds of operational social capacity audits; one for communities and one for organisations. These assessments aim to identify appropriate measures and strategies regarding how to enhance, develop and build different kinds of capacities. By using these assessments participants will be able to identify strong capacities and can refer to the recommendations for tips on how to improve capacities identified as weak. That way deficits and outcomes are defined by those who are most likely to be affected by a future hazard event and most likely to be implementing improvements towards resilience.

  19. 49 CFR 1572.109 - Mental capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... intelligence, mental illness, incompetence, condition, or disease, is a danger to himself or herself or to... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mental capacity. 1572.109 Section 1572.109... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.109 Mental capacity. (a) An applicant has...

  20. UNDERSTANDING, DERIVING, AND COMPUTING BUFFER CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Derivation and systematic calculation of buffer capacity is a topic that seems often to be neglected in chemistry courses and given minimal treatment in most texts. However, buffer capacity is very important in the chemistry of natural waters and potable water. It affects corro...

  1. REDUCTION CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE AND SALTSTONE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.

    2009-11-30

    The duration that saltstone retains its ability to immobilize some key radionuclides, such as technetium (Tc), plutonium (Pu), and neptunium (Np), depends on its capacity to maintain a low redox status (or low oxidation state). The reduction capacity is a measure of the mass of reductants present in the saltstone; the reductants are the active ingredients that immobilize Tc, Pu, and Np. Once reductants are exhausted, the saltstone loses its ability to immobilize these radionuclides. The reduction capacity values reported here are based on the Ce(IV)/Fe(II) system. The Portland cement (198 {micro}eq/g) and especially the fly ash (299 {micro}eq/g) had a measurable amount of reduction capacity, but the blast furnace slag (820 {micro}eq/g) not surprisingly accounted for most of the reduction capacity. The blast furnace slag contains ferrous iron and sulfides which are strong reducing and precipitating species for a large number of solids. Three saltstone samples containing 45% slag or one sample containing 90% slag had essentially the same reduction capacity as pure slag. There appears to be some critical concentration between 10% and 45% slag in the Saltstone formulation that is needed to create the maximum reduction capacity. Values from this work supported those previously reported, namely that the reduction capacity of SRS saltstone is about 820 {micro}eq/g; this value is recommended for estimating the longevity that the Saltstone Disposal Facility will retain its ability to immobilize radionuclides.

  2. Measuring Fiscal Capacity of School Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Harry A.

    Ways of measuring the fiscal capacity of school systems are examined in this paper, which presents a representative tax system model. Fiscal capacity is influenced by factors other than tax base size; the "ideal" model should address adjustments for variations in cost across communities and school systems. The first section examines the…

  3. Developing Evaluation Capacity through Process Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jean A.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to make process use an independent variable in evaluation practice: the purposeful means of building an organization's capacity to conduct and use evaluations in the long run. The goal of evaluation capacity building (ECB) is to strengthen and sustain effective program evaluation practices through a number of activities:…

  4. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering this...-irrigated forage acreage when acreage of traditionally irrigated forage (forage actually irrigated 3 of...

  5. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering this...-irrigated forage acreage when acreage of traditionally irrigated forage (forage actually irrigated 3 of...

  6. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering this...-irrigated forage acreage when acreage of traditionally irrigated forage (forage actually irrigated 3 of...

  7. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering this...-irrigated forage acreage when acreage of traditionally irrigated forage (forage actually irrigated 3 of...

  8. 7 CFR 1437.402 - Carrying capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Determining Coverage of Forage Intended for Animal Consumption § 1437.402 Carrying capacity. (a) CCC will establish a carrying capacity for all grazed forage present in the county for purposes of administering this...-irrigated forage acreage when acreage of traditionally irrigated forage (forage actually irrigated 3 of...

  9. The Heat Capacity of Ideal Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The heat capacity of an ideal gas has been shown to be calculable directly by statistical mechanics if the energies of the quantum states are known. However, unless one makes careful calculations, it is not easy for a student to understand the qualitative results. Why there are maxima (and occasionally minima) in heat capacity-temperature curves…

  10. Assessment of Capacity in an Aging Society

    PubMed Central

    Moye, Jennifer; Marson, Daniel C.; Edelstein, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, the assessment and scientific study of capacity in older adults has emerged as a distinct field of clinical and research activity for psychologists. This new field reflects the convergence of several trends: the aging of American society, the growing incidence and prevalence of dementia, and the patient rights, deinstitutionalization, and disability rights movements. Because of these forces, capacity issues now permeate the fabric of everyday life, whether in the form of guardianship petitions, questions of capacity to consent to treatment, the ability to make a new will, or participation in human research. In seeking to resolve these issues, families, clinicians, and legal professionals increasingly turn to psychologists to assess a capacity and to provide empirically supported judgments that properly balance autonomy and protection for the individual. Psychologists have taken a leading role in the development of functional assessment instruments that measure important aspects of the capacity construct. In addition, psychology has been a major contributor to the scientific study of capacity. In collaboration with colleagues from medicine and law, psychologists have articulated crucial theoretical frameworks that integrate legal, clinical, and ethical dimensions of the capacity problem. This article focuses on the evolution of theory, law, science, and practice in the evaluation of capacity in older adults and its recent culmination in a series of interdisciplinary handbooks sponsored by the American Psychological Association and the American Bar Association. PMID:23586491

  11. 15 CFR 241.1 - Capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.1 Capacities. (a) The capacities of the standard barrel for fruits, vegetables, and other dry commodities, other than cranberries, and its subdivisions, are... standard cranberry barrel and its subdivisions are as follows: Size Cubic inches Bushels 1 Quarts...

  12. 15 CFR 241.1 - Capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.1 Capacities. (a) The capacities of the standard barrel for fruits, vegetables, and other dry commodities, other than cranberries, and its subdivisions, are... standard cranberry barrel and its subdivisions are as follows: Size Cubic inches Bushels 1 Quarts...

  13. 15 CFR 241.1 - Capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.1 Capacities. (a) The capacities of the standard barrel for fruits, vegetables, and other dry commodities, other than cranberries, and its subdivisions, are... standard cranberry barrel and its subdivisions are as follows: Size Cubic inches Bushels 1 Quarts...

  14. 15 CFR 241.1 - Capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.1 Capacities. (a) The capacities of the standard barrel for fruits, vegetables, and other dry commodities, other than cranberries, and its subdivisions, are... standard cranberry barrel and its subdivisions are as follows: Size Cubic inches Bushels 1 Quarts...

  15. 15 CFR 241.1 - Capacities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.1 Capacities. (a) The capacities of the standard barrel for fruits, vegetables, and other dry commodities, other than cranberries, and its subdivisions, are... standard cranberry barrel and its subdivisions are as follows: Size Cubic inches Bushels 1 Quarts...

  16. Thinking about Community Capacity Building & Asset Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Building Resources, Spruce Grove (Alberta).

    This book describes the mindshift that is the key to successful community capacity building and to the development of social and economic structures that nurture local sustainability. Its focus is how the development of community, through community capacity building, connects, animates, and informs citizens. Chapter I introduces community building…

  17. Assessment of capacity in an aging society.

    PubMed

    Moye, Jennifer; Marson, Daniel C; Edelstein, Barry

    2013-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, the assessment and scientific study of capacity in older adults has emerged as a distinct field of clinical and research activity for psychologists. This new field reflects the convergence of several trends: the aging of American society, the growing incidence and prevalence of dementia, and the patient rights, deinstitutionalization, and disability rights movements. Because of these forces, capacity issues now permeate the fabric of everyday life, whether in the form of guardianship petitions, questions of capacity to consent to treatment, the ability to make a new will, or participation in human research. In seeking to resolve these issues, families, clinicians, and legal professionals increasingly turn to psychologists to assess a capacity and to provide empirically supported judgments that properly balance autonomy and protection for the individual. Psychologists have taken a leading role in the development of functional assessment instruments that measure important aspects of the capacity construct. In addition, psychology has been a major contributor to the scientific study of capacity. In collaboration with colleagues from medicine and law, psychologists have articulated crucial theoretical frameworks that integrate legal, clinical, and ethical dimensions of the capacity problem. This article focuses on the evolution of theory, law, science, and practice in the evaluation of capacity in older adults and its recent culmination in a series of interdisciplinary handbooks sponsored by the American Psychological Association and the American Bar Association. PMID:23586491

  18. On entanglement-assisted classical capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holevo, A. S.

    2002-09-01

    We give a modified proof of the recent result of C. H. Bennett, P. W. Shor, J. A. Smolin, and A. V. Thapliyal concerning entanglement-assisted classical capacity of a quantum channel and discuss the relation between entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities.

  19. Leadership Capacity for Lasting School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Linda

    This book is intended to enable educators to more fully implement the concept of leadership capacity in schools and districts. It begins by outlining the five major prerequisites for high leadership capacity: (1) skillful participation in the work of leadership; (2) inquiry-based use of data to inform decisions and practices; (3) broad involvement…

  20. 14 CFR 25 - Traffic and Capacity Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting part 241, section 25, see the List of CFR Sections... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Traffic and Capacity Elements Section 25... Traffic Reporting Requirements Section 25 Traffic and Capacity Elements General Instructions. (a)...

  1. Impairment of learning and memory after photothrombosis of the prefrontal cortex in rat brain: effects of Noopept.

    PubMed

    Romanova, G A; Shakova, F M; Gudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaya, R U

    2002-12-01

    Experiments were performed on rats trained conditioned passive avoidance response. Acquisition and retention of memory traces were impaired after photothrombosis of the prefrontal cortex. The acyl-prolyl-containing dipeptide Noopept facilitated retention and retrieval of a conditioned passive avoidance response, normalized learning capacity in animals with ischemic damage to the cerebral cortex, and promoted finish training in rats with hereditary learning deficit. These results show that Noopept improves all three stages of memory. It should be emphasized that the effect of Noopept was most pronounced in animals with impaired mnesic function. PMID:12660828

  2. Dating human cultural capacity using phylogenetic principles

    PubMed Central

    Lind, J.; Lindenfors, P.; Ghirlanda, S.; Lidén, K.; Enquist, M.

    2013-01-01

    Humans have genetically based unique abilities making complex culture possible; an assemblage of traits which we term “cultural capacity”. The age of this capacity has for long been subject to controversy. We apply phylogenetic principles to date this capacity, integrating evidence from archaeology, genetics, paleoanthropology, and linguistics. We show that cultural capacity is older than the first split in the modern human lineage, and at least 170,000 years old, based on data on hyoid bone morphology, FOXP2 alleles, agreement between genetic and language trees, fire use, burials, and the early appearance of tools comparable to those of modern hunter-gatherers. We cannot exclude that Neanderthals had cultural capacity some 500,000 years ago. A capacity for complex culture, therefore, must have existed before complex culture itself. It may even originated long before. This seeming paradox is resolved by theoretical models suggesting that cultural evolution is exceedingly slow in its initial stages. PMID:23648831

  3. Health promotion capacity mapping: the Korean situation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Eun Woo; Engelhardt, Katrin

    2007-06-01

    Ten years ago the Republic of Korea enacted the National Health Promotion Act, setting the stage for health promotion action in the country. A National Health Promotion Fund was established, financed through tobacco taxes, which is now one of the largest in the world. However, despite abundant financial resources, the infrastructure needed to plan, implement, coordinate and evaluate health promotion efforts is still underdeveloped. Currently, health promotion capacity mapping efforts are emerging in Korea. Two international capacity mapping tools have been used to assess the Korean situation, namely HP-Source and the Health Promotion Capacity Profile, which was developed prior to the sixth Global Conference of Health Promotion, held in August 2005 in Bangkok, Thailand. The article summarizes and discusses the results of the capacity mapping exercise, highlights its challenges and suggest ways to improve the accuracy of health promotion capacity mapping. PMID:17341492

  4. Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) report containing storage capacity data for crude oil, petroleum products, and selected biofuels. The report includes tables detailing working and net available shell storage capacity by type of facility, product, and Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District). Net available shell storage capacity is broken down further to show the percent for exclusive use by facility operators and the percent leased to others. Crude oil storage capacity data are also provided for Cushing, Oklahoma, an important crude oil market center. Data are released twice each year near the end of May (data for March 31) and near the end of November (data for September 30).

  5. Intervention for Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Impairment: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Law, James

    2010-01-01

    Studies indicate that language impairment that cannot be accounted for by factors such as below-average non-verbal ability, hearing impairment, behaviour or emotional problems, or neurological impairments affects some 6% of school-age children. Language impairment with a receptive language component is more resistant to intervention than specific…

  6. Personality Traits and Impairment Experiences of Abusive Drinkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giga, Susan; Redfering, David L.

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between personality traits and impairment experiences of 80 males who completed the California Psychological Inventory and an impairment scale. Results showed significant differences between the personality scores of impaired and unimpaired problem drinkers, suggesting that impairment aspects differ both in nature and…

  7. Heart Rate Variability Is Associated with Exercise Capacity in Patients with Cardiac Syndrome X

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hao-Min; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chen-Huan

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the healthiness of autonomic nervous system, which is associated with exercise capacity. We therefore investigated whether HRV could predict the exercise capacity in the adults with cardiac syndrome X (CSX). A total of 238 subjects (57±12 years, 67.8% men), who were diagnosed as CSX by the positive exercise stress test and nearly normal coronary angiogram were enrolled. Power spectrum from the 24-hour recording of heart rate was analyzed in frequency domain using total power (TP) and spectral components of the very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) ranges. Among the study population, 129 subjects with impaired exercise capacity during the treadmill test had significantly lower HRV indices than those with preserved exercise capacity (≥90% of the age predicted maximal heart rate). After accounting for age, sex, and baseline SBP and heart rate, VLF (odds ratio per 1SD and 95% CI: 2.02, 1.19–3.42), LF (1.67, 1.10–2.55), and TP (1.82, 1.17–2.83) remained significantly associated with preserved exercise capacity. In addition, increased HRV indices were also associated with increased exercise duration, rate-pressure product, and heart rate recovery, independent of age, body mass index, and baseline SBP and heart rate. In subgroup analysis, HRV indices demonstrated similar predictive values related to exercise capacity across various subpopulations, especially in the young. In patients with CSX, HRV was independently associated with exercise capacity, especially in young subjects. The healthiness of autonomic nervous system may have a role in modulating the exercise capacity in patients with CSX. PMID:26812652

  8. Heart Rate Variability Is Associated with Exercise Capacity in Patients with Cardiac Syndrome X.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dai-Yin; Yang, Albert C; Cheng, Hao-Min; Lu, Tse-Min; Yu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chen-Huan; Sung, Shih-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the healthiness of autonomic nervous system, which is associated with exercise capacity. We therefore investigated whether HRV could predict the exercise capacity in the adults with cardiac syndrome X (CSX). A total of 238 subjects (57±12 years, 67.8% men), who were diagnosed as CSX by the positive exercise stress test and nearly normal coronary angiogram were enrolled. Power spectrum from the 24-hour recording of heart rate was analyzed in frequency domain using total power (TP) and spectral components of the very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) ranges. Among the study population, 129 subjects with impaired exercise capacity during the treadmill test had significantly lower HRV indices than those with preserved exercise capacity (≥90% of the age predicted maximal heart rate). After accounting for age, sex, and baseline SBP and heart rate, VLF (odds ratio per 1SD and 95% CI: 2.02, 1.19-3.42), LF (1.67, 1.10-2.55), and TP (1.82, 1.17-2.83) remained significantly associated with preserved exercise capacity. In addition, increased HRV indices were also associated with increased exercise duration, rate-pressure product, and heart rate recovery, independent of age, body mass index, and baseline SBP and heart rate. In subgroup analysis, HRV indices demonstrated similar predictive values related to exercise capacity across various subpopulations, especially in the young. In patients with CSX, HRV was independently associated with exercise capacity, especially in young subjects. The healthiness of autonomic nervous system may have a role in modulating the exercise capacity in patients with CSX. PMID:26812652

  9. Maternal Transfer of Bisphenol A During Nursing Causes Sperm Impairment in Male Offspring.

    PubMed

    Kalb, Ana Cristina; Kalb, Ana Luiza; Cardoso, Tainã Figueiredo; Fernandes, Cristina Gevehr; Corcini, Carine Dahl; Junior, Antonio Sergio Varela; Martínez, Pablo Elías

    2016-05-01

    The health effects of environmental chemicals on animals and humans are of growing concern. Human epidemiological and animal study data indicate that reproductive disorders and diseases begin early during prenatal and postnatal development. An increase of human male reproductive disturbance in the past several decades was associated to chemicals called endocrine disruptors (ED). Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous organic environmental contaminant with ED activity. This study verified the effect of BPA exposure via breast milk during the lactation (early postnatal) period in male mice. Dams were exposed to oral BPA (300, 900, and 3000 µg/kg/BW/day) during the breastfeeding period (21 days). BPA at all concentrations significantly impaired sperm parameters in adult mice (8 months old), but mitochondrial functionality was more affected at BPA 3000. The acrosome membrane parameter was affected by BPA concentrations from 900 to 3000, and DNA integrity showed pronounced impairment at BPA 900 and 3000. BPA 3000 treatment also induced testicular degeneration and complete aplasia in some seminiferous tubules. Testicular oxidative damage was observed, and the total antioxidant capacity was impaired in BPA 900 and 3000 treatment groups. Taken together, the present study demonstrated long-term adverse effects of BPA in male mice, including reduced sperm quality, antioxidant capacity, and changes in testicular tissue. Our results clearly demonstrate the danger of BPA transferred via lactation on sperm quality registered even after a long time-elapsed from exposure to this harmful chemical. PMID:26250451

  10. Exercise reveals impairments in left ventricular systolic function in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Sara B.; Reger, Brian L.; Donley, David A.; Bonner, Daniel E.; Warden, Bradford E.; Gharib, Wissam; Failinger, Conard F.; Olfert, Melissa D.; Frisbee, Jefferson C.; Olfert, I. Mark; Chantler, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    MetS is the manifestation of a cluster of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and is associated with a three-fold increase risk of CV morbidity and mortality, which is suggested to be mediated, in part, by resting left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. However, to what extent resting LV systolic function is impaired in MetS is controversial, and there are no data indicating whether LV systolic function is impaired during exercise. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to comprehensively examine LV and arterial responses to exercise in MetS individuals without diabetes and/or overt CVD compared to a healthy control population. CV function was characterized using Doppler echocardiography and gas exchange in MetS (n=27) vs. healthy controls (n=20) at rest and during peak exercise. At rest, MetS individuals displayed normal LV systolic function but reduced LV diastolic function vs. healthy controls. During peak exercise, individuals with MetS had impaired contractility; pump performance, and vasodilator reserve capacity vs. controls. A blunted contractile reserve response resulted in diminished arterial-ventricular coupling reserve and limited aerobic capacity in MetS vs. controls. These findings possess clinical importance as they provide insight to the pathophysiological changes in MetS that may predispose this population of individuals to an increased risk of CV morbidity and mortality. PMID:24036595

  11. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Fried, Ronna; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity. PMID:26900567

  12. Association Between Alcohol-Impaired Driving Enforcement-Related Strategies and Alcohol-Impaired Driving

    PubMed Central

    Sanem, Julia R.; Erickson, Darin J.; Rutledge, Patricia C.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity. PMID:25756846

  13. Computer-Based Compensatory Augmentative Communications Technology for Physically Disabled, Visually Impaired, and Speech Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shell, Duane F.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The paper addresses computer-based augmentative writing systems for physically disabled and visually impaired students and augmentative communication systems for nonverbal speech-impaired students. Among the components described are keyboard support systems, switch systems, alternate interface systems, support software, voice output systems, and…

  14. 20 CFR 220.102 - Non-severe impairment(s), defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... significantly limit the claimant's physical or mental ability to do basic work activities. (b) Basic work activities. Basic work activities means the ability and aptitudes necessary to do most jobs. Examples of... ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Evaluation of Disability § 220.102 Non-severe impairment(s), defined....

  15. Association between alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and alcohol-impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Sanem, Julia R; Erickson, Darin J; Rutledge, Patricia C; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-05-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity. PMID:25756846

  16. 20 CFR 220.184 - If the annuitant becomes disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true If the annuitant becomes disabled by another... Activity or Medical Improvement § 220.184 If the annuitant becomes disabled by another impairment(s). If a... activity, or severe enough so that he or she is still disabled....

  17. 20 CFR 220.184 - If the annuitant becomes disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If the annuitant becomes disabled by another... Activity or Medical Improvement § 220.184 If the annuitant becomes disabled by another impairment(s). If a... activity, or severe enough so that he or she is still disabled....

  18. 20 CFR 220.184 - If the annuitant becomes disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true If the annuitant becomes disabled by another... Activity or Medical Improvement § 220.184 If the annuitant becomes disabled by another impairment(s). If a... activity, or severe enough so that he or she is still disabled....

  19. 20 CFR 220.184 - If the annuitant becomes disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false If the annuitant becomes disabled by another... Activity or Medical Improvement § 220.184 If the annuitant becomes disabled by another impairment(s). If a... activity, or severe enough so that he or she is still disabled....

  20. 20 CFR 220.184 - If the annuitant becomes disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false If the annuitant becomes disabled by another... Activity or Medical Improvement § 220.184 If the annuitant becomes disabled by another impairment(s). If a... activity, or severe enough so that he or she is still disabled....