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Sample records for impaired heart function

  1. Rbfox2 function in RNA metabolism is impaired in hypoplastic left heart syndrome patient hearts.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sunil K; Deshmukh, Vaibhav; Nutter, Curtis A; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Jin, Wenhao; Wadhwa, Lalita; Abata, Joshua; Ricci, Marco; Lincoln, Joy; Martin, James F; Yeo, Gene W; Kuyumcu-Martinez, Muge N

    2016-01-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a fatal congenital heart disease in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, impairing the systemic circulation. Underdeveloped left ventricle exerts biomechanical stress on the right ventricle that can progress into heart failure. Genome-wide transcriptome changes have been identified at early stages in the right ventricle (RV) of infants with HLHS, although the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the RNA binding protein Rbfox2, which is mutated in HLHS patients, is a contributor to transcriptome changes in HLHS patient RVs. Our results indicate that majority of transcripts differentially expressed in HLHS patient hearts have validated Rbfox2 binding sites. We show that Rbfox2 regulates mRNA levels of targets with 3'UTR binding sites contributing to aberrant gene expression in HLHS patients. Strikingly, the Rbfox2 nonsense mutation identified in HLHS patients truncates the protein, impairs its subcellular distribution and adversely affects its function in RNA metabolism. Overall, our findings uncover a novel role for Rbfox2 in controlling transcriptome in HLHS. PMID:27485310

  2. Rbfox2 function in RNA metabolism is impaired in hypoplastic left heart syndrome patient hearts

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sunil K.; Deshmukh, Vaibhav; Nutter, Curtis A.; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Jin, Wenhao; Wadhwa, Lalita; Abata, Joshua; Ricci, Marco; Lincoln, Joy; Martin, James F.; Yeo, Gene W.; Kuyumcu-Martinez, Muge N.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a fatal congenital heart disease in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, impairing the systemic circulation. Underdeveloped left ventricle exerts biomechanical stress on the right ventricle that can progress into heart failure. Genome-wide transcriptome changes have been identified at early stages in the right ventricle (RV) of infants with HLHS, although the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the RNA binding protein Rbfox2, which is mutated in HLHS patients, is a contributor to transcriptome changes in HLHS patient RVs. Our results indicate that majority of transcripts differentially expressed in HLHS patient hearts have validated Rbfox2 binding sites. We show that Rbfox2 regulates mRNA levels of targets with 3’UTR binding sites contributing to aberrant gene expression in HLHS patients. Strikingly, the Rbfox2 nonsense mutation identified in HLHS patients truncates the protein, impairs its subcellular distribution and adversely affects its function in RNA metabolism. Overall, our findings uncover a novel role for Rbfox2 in controlling transcriptome in HLHS. PMID:27485310

  3. SIRT3 deficiency impairs mitochondrial and contractile function in the heart.

    PubMed

    Koentges, Christoph; Pfeil, Katharina; Schnick, Tilman; Wiese, Sebastian; Dahlbock, Rabea; Cimolai, Maria C; Meyer-Steenbuck, Maximilian; Cenkerova, Katarina; Hoffmann, Michael M; Jaeger, Carsten; Odening, Katja E; Kammerer, Bernd; Hein, Lutz; Bode, Christoph; Bugger, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that regulates energy metabolic enzymes by reversible protein lysine acetylation in various extracardiac tissues. The role of SIRT3 in myocardial energetics and in the development of mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac pathologies, such as the failing heart, remains to be elucidated. To investigate the role of SIRT3 in the regulation of myocardial energetics and function SIRT3(-/-) mice developed progressive age-related deterioration of cardiac function, as evidenced by a decrease in ejection fraction and an increase in enddiastolic volume at 24 but not 8 weeks of age using echocardiography. Four weeks following transverse aortic constriction, ejection fraction was further decreased in SIRT3(-/-) mice compared to WT mice, accompanied by a greater degree of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. In isolated working hearts, a decrease in cardiac function in SIRT3(-/-) mice was accompanied by a decrease in palmitate oxidation, glucose oxidation, and oxygen consumption, whereas rates of glycolysis were increased. Respiratory capacity and ATP synthesis were decreased in cardiac mitochondria of SIRT3(-/-) mice. HPLC measurements revealed a decrease of the myocardial ATP/AMP ratio and of myocardial energy charge. Using LC-MS/MS, we identified increased acetylation of 84 mitochondrial proteins, including 6 enzymes of fatty acid import and oxidation, 50 subunits of the electron transport chain, and 3 enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Lack of SIRT3 impairs mitochondrial and contractile function in the heart, likely due to increased acetylation of various energy metabolic proteins and subsequent myocardial energy depletion. PMID:25962702

  4. Echocardiographic features of impaired left ventricular diastolic function in Chagas's heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Combellas, I; Puigbo, J J; Acquatella, H; Tortoledo, F; Gomez, J R

    1985-01-01

    To study left ventricular diastolic function in Chagas's disease, simultaneous echocardiograms, phonocardiograms, and apexcardiograms were recorded in 20 asymptomatic patients with positive Chagas's serology and no signs of heart disease (group 1), 12 with Chagas's heart disease and symptoms of ventricular arrhythmia but no heart failure (group 2), 20 normal subjects (group 3), and 12 patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (group 4). The recordings were digitised to determine left ventricular isovolumic relaxation time and the rate and duration of left ventricular cavity dimension increase and wall thinning. In groups 1 and 2 (a) aortic valve closure (A2) and mitral valve opening were significantly delayed relative to minimum dimension and were associated with prolonged isovolumic relaxation, (b) left ventricular cavity size was abnormally increased during isovolumic relaxation and abnormally reduced during isovolumic contraction, and (c) peak rate of posterior wall thinning and dimension increase were significantly reduced and duration of posterior wall thinning was significantly prolonged; both of these abnormalities occurred at the onset of diastolic filling. These abnormalities were more pronounced in group 2 and were accompanied by an increase in the height of the apexcardiogram "a" wave, an indication of pronounced atrial systole secondary to end diastolic filling impairment due to reduced left ventricular distensibility. Group 4, which had an established pattern of diastolic abnormalities, showed changes similar to those in group 2; however, the delay in aortic valve closure (A2) and in mitral valve opening and the degree of dimension change were greater in the latter group. Thus early isovolumic relaxation and left ventricular abnormalities were pronounced in the patients with Chagas's heart disease and may precede systolic compromise, which may become apparent in later stages of the disease. The digitised method is valuable in the early detection of

  5. Impaired heart rate regulation and depression of cardiac chronotropic and dromotropic function in polymicrobial sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Donald B.; Ozment, Tammy R.; Wondergem, Robert; Li, Chuanfu; Williams, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of cardiac pathophysiology in sepsis has not been fully defined. Accordingly, we evaluated the effects of sepsis on heart rate (HR), HR variability, and conduction parameters in a murine model of sepsis. Electrocardiograms were recorded non-invasively from conscious mice before and after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham surgery. Responses of isolated atria to tyramine and isoproterenol were quantified to assess the functional state of sympathetic nerves and postjunctional sensitivity to adrenergic stimulation. CLP mice had lower HR compared to sham at 16-18 h post-surgery (Sham: 741±7 beats per min, CLP: 557±31 beats per min, n=6/group, P<0.001), and there was significant prolongation of the PR, QRS and QTc intervals. Slowing of HR and conduction developed within 4-6 h after CLP and were preceded by a decrease in HR variability. Treatment of CLP mice with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg, i.p.) at 25 h post-surgery failed to increase HR or decrease conduction intervals. The lack of in vivo response to isoproterenol cannot be attributed to hypothermia since robust chronotropic and inotropic responses to isoproterenol were evoked from isolated atria at 25 and 30° C. These findings demonstrate that impaired regulation of HR (i.e, reduced HR variability) develops before the onset of overt cardiac rate and conduction changes in septic mice. Subsequent time-dependent decreases in HR and cardiac conduction can be attributed to hypothermia and would contribute to decreased cardiac output and organ perfusion. Since isolated atria from septic mice showed normal responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation, we conclude that impaired effectiveness of isoproterenol in vivo can be attributed to reversible effects of systemic factors on adrenergic receptors and/or post-receptor signaling. PMID:25271380

  6. B lymphocytes trigger monocyte mobilization and impair heart function after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Zouggari, Yasmine; Ait-Oufella, Hafid; Bonnin, Philippe; Simon, Tabassome; Sage, Andrew P; Guérin, Coralie; Vilar, José; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Laurans, Ludivine; Dumeau, Edouard; Kotti, Salma; Bruneval, Patrick; Charo, Israel F; Binder, Christoph J; Danchin, Nicolas; Tedgui, Alain; Tedder, Thomas F; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Mallat, Ziad

    2013-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a severe ischemic disease responsible for heart failure and sudden death. Here, we show that after acute myocardial infarction in mice, mature B lymphocytes selectively produce Ccl7 and induce Ly6C(hi) monocyte mobilization and recruitment to the heart, leading to enhanced tissue injury and deterioration of myocardial function. Genetic (Baff receptor deficiency) or antibody-mediated (CD20- or Baff-specific antibody) depletion of mature B lymphocytes impeded Ccl7 production and monocyte mobilization, limited myocardial injury and improved heart function. These effects were recapitulated in mice with B cell-selective Ccl7 deficiency. We also show that high circulating concentrations of CCL7 and BAFF in patients with acute myocardial infarction predict increased risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction. This work identifies a crucial interaction between mature B lymphocytes and monocytes after acute myocardial ischemia and identifies new therapeutic targets for acute myocardial infarction. PMID:24037091

  7. The Prognostic Importance of Impaired Systolic Function in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction and the Impact of Spironolactone

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amil M.; Claggett, Brian; Sweitzer, Nancy K.; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Anand, Inder S.; Liu, Li; Pitt, Bertram; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Solomon, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impairment in left ventricular (LV) systolic function has been described in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), but its prognostic relevance is not known. We determined whether LV longitudinal strain (LS) is predictive of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in HFpEF beyond clinical and conventional echocardiographic measures. Methods and Results LS was assessed by 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography at baseline in 447 HFpEF patients enrolled in the Treatment Of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist (TOPCAT) trial. At a median follow-up of 2.6 (IQR 1.5–3.9) years, 115 patients experienced the primary composite outcome of CV death, HF hospitalization, or aborted cardiac arrest. Impaired LS, defined as an absolute LS<15.8%, was present in 52% of patients and was predictive of the composite outcome (adjusted HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.26–3.66; p=0.005), CV death alone (adjusted HR 3.20, 95% CI 1.44–7.12; p=0.004), and HF hospitalization alone (adjusted HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.16–4.28; p=0.016) after adjusting for clinical and conventional echocardiographic variables. LS was the strongest echocardiographic predictor of the composite outcome. Exploratory analysis in a subset of 131 patients with follow-up LS assessed after 12–18 months demonstrated a trend towards improvement in LS associated with spironolactone in patients enrolled in the Americas but not in Russia or Georgia. Conclusions Impaired LV systolic function is a powerful predictor of HF hospitalization, CV death, or aborted cardiac arrest in HFpEF, independent of clinical predictors. Impaired LS represents a novel imaging biomarker to identify HFpEF patients at particularly high risk for CV morbidity and mortality. Clinical Trial Registration Information Clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier NCT00094302. PMID:26130119

  8. Relationship between linear and nonlinear dynamics of heart rate and impairment of lung function in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuco, Adriana; Medeiros, Wladimir Musetti; Sperling, Milena Pelosi Rizk; de Souza, Aline Soares; Alencar, Maria Clara Noman; Arbex, Flávio Ferlin; Neder, José Alberto; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Background In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), functional and structural impairment of lung function can negatively impact heart rate variability (HRV); however, it is unknown if static lung volumes and lung diffusion capacity negatively impacts HRV responses. We investigated whether impairment of static lung volumes and lung diffusion capacity could be related to HRV indices in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Methods Sixteen sedentary males with COPD were enrolled in this study. Resting blood gases, static lung volumes, and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were measured. The RR interval (RRi) was registered in the supine, standing, and seated positions (10 minutes each) and during 4 minutes of a respiratory sinus arrhythmia maneuver (M-RSA). Delta changes (Δsupine-standing and Δsupine-M-RSA) of the standard deviation of normal RRi, low frequency (LF, normalized units [nu]) and high frequency (HF [nu]), SD1, SD2, alpha1, alpha2, and approximate entropy (ApEn) indices were calculated. Results HF, LF, SD1, SD2, and alpha1 deltas significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second, DLCO, airway resistance, residual volume, inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity ratio, and residual volume/total lung capacity ratio. Significant and moderate associations were also observed between LF/HF ratio versus total gas volume (%), r=0.53; LF/HF ratio versus residual volume, %, r=0.52; and HF versus total gas volume (%), r=−0.53 (P<0.05). Linear regression analysis revealed that ΔRRi supine-M-RSA was independently related to DLCO (r=−0.77, r2=0.43, P<0.05). Conclusion Responses of HRV indices were more prominent during M-RSA in moderate to severe COPD. Moreover, greater lung function impairment was related to poorer heart rate dynamics. Finally, impaired lung diffusion capacity was related to an altered parasympathetic response in these patients. PMID:26316739

  9. Eosinophil cationic granule proteins impair thrombomodulin function. A potential mechanism for thromboembolism in hypereosinophilic heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Slungaard, A; Vercellotti, G M; Tran, T; Gleich, G J; Key, N S

    1993-01-01

    Thromboembolism is a prominent but poorly understood feature of eosinophilic, or Loeffler's endocarditis. Eosinophil (EO) specific granule proteins, in particular major basic protein (MBP), accumulate on endocardial surfaces in the course of this disease. We hypothesized that these unusually cationic proteins promote thrombosis by binding to the anionic endothelial protein thrombomodulin (TM) and impairing its anticoagulant activities. We find that MBP potently (IC50 of 1-2 microM) inhibits the capacity of endothelial cell surface TM to generate the natural anticoagulant activated protein C (APC). MBP also inhibits APC generation by purified soluble rabbit TM with an IC50 of 100 nM without altering its apparent Kd for thrombin or Km for protein C. This inhibition is reversed by polyanions such as chondroitin sulfate E and heparin. A TM polypeptide fragment comprising the extracellular domain that includes its naturally occurring anionic glycosaminoglycan (GAG) moiety (TMD-105) is strongly inhibited by MBP, whereas its counterpart lacking the GAG moiety (TMD-75) is not. MBP also curtails the capacity of TMD-105 but not TMD-75 to prolong the thrombin clotting time. Thus, EO cationic proteins potently inhibit anticoagulant activities of the glycosylated form of TM, thereby suggesting a potential mechanism for thromboembolism in hypereosinophilic heart disease. Images PMID:8386194

  10. Renal impairment and worsening of renal function in acute heart failure: can new therapies help? The potential role of serelaxin.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Roland E; Mitrovic, Veselin; Hengstenberg, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Renal dysfunction is a frequent finding in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and an important prognostic factor for adverse outcomes. Worsening of renal function occurs in 30-50% of patients hospitalised for AHF, and is associated with increased mortality, prolonged hospital stay and increased risk of readmission. Likely mechanisms involved in the decrease in renal function include impaired haemodynamics and activation of neurohormonal factors, such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the sympathetic nervous system and the arginine-vasopressin system. Additionally, many drugs currently used to treat AHF have a detrimental effect on renal function. Therefore, pharmacotherapy for AHF should carefully take into account any potential complications related to renal function. Serelaxin, currently in clinical development for the treatment of AHF is a recombinant form of human relaxin-2, identical in structure to the naturally occurring human relaxin-2 peptide hormone that mediates cardiac and renal adaptations during pregnancy. Data from both pre-clinical and clinical studies indicate a potentially beneficial effect of serelaxin on kidney function. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms and impact of impairment of renal function in AHF, and the potential benefits of new therapies, such as serelaxin, in this context. PMID:25787721

  11. Short-Term Exposure to Ozone Does Not Impair Vascular Function or Affect Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Barath, Stefan; Langrish, Jeremy P.; Blomberg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, yet the role of individual pollutants remains unclear. In particular, there is uncertainty regarding the acute effect of ozone exposure on cardiovascular disease. In these studies, we aimed to determine the effect of ozone exposure on vascular function, fibrinolysis, and the autonomic regulation of the heart. Thirty-six healthy men were exposed to ozone (300 ppb) and filtered air for 75min on two occasions in randomized double-blind crossover studies. Bilateral forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured using forearm venous occlusion plethysmography before and during intra-arterial infusions of vasodilators 2–4 and 6–8h after each exposure. Heart rhythm and heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored during and 24h after exposure. Compared with filtered air, ozone exposure did not alter heart rate, blood pressure, or resting FBF at either 2 or 6h. There was a dose-dependent increase in FBF with all vasodilators that was similar after both exposures at 2–4h. Ozone exposure did not impair vasomotor or fibrinolytic function at 6–8h but rather increased vasodilatation to acetylcholine (p = .015) and sodium nitroprusside (p = .005). Ozone did not affect measures of HRV during or after the exposure. Our findings do not support a direct rapid effect of ozone on vascular function or cardiac autonomic control although we cannot exclude an effect of chronic exposure or an interaction between ozone and alternative air pollutants that may be responsible for the adverse cardiovascular health effects attributed to ozone. PMID:23872581

  12. [Heart valves after 22 years - good long-term function of aortic homograft, advanced impairment in function of atrioventricular valves].

    PubMed

    Michalski, Błazej; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Krzemińska-Pakula, Maria; Kasprzak, Jarosław D

    2010-03-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old female patient with a history of aortic valve replacement, who was admitted to our hospital with symptoms and signs of decompensated heart failure (NYHA class III). Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed mitral valve and tricuspid valve regurgitation (III grade) with normal function of aortic valve homograft implanted 22 years ago. The patient underwent cardiosurgical mitral valve replacement and tricuspid valve annuloplasty with very good result. An aortic valve homograft may be the best alternative to a mechanical valves for a young female patients. PMID:20411462

  13. Cardiac-Restricted Expression of VCP/TER94 RNAi or Disease Alleles Perturbs Drosophila Heart Structure and Impairs Function

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Meera C.; Blice-Baum, Anna C.; Sang, Tzu-Kang; Cammarato, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a highly conserved mechanoenzyme that helps maintain protein homeostasis in all cells and serves specialized functions in distinct cell types. In skeletal muscle, it is critical for myofibrillogenesis and atrophy. However, little is known about VCP's role(s) in the heart. Its functional diversity is determined by differential binding of distinct cofactors/adapters, which is likely disrupted during disease. VCP mutations cause multisystem proteinopathy (MSP), a pleiotropic degenerative disorder that involves inclusion body myopathy. MSP patients display progressive muscle weakness. They also exhibit cardiomyopathy and die from cardiac and respiratory failure, which are consistent with critical myocardial roles for the enzyme. Nonetheless, efficient models to interrogate VCP in cardiac muscle remain underdeveloped and poorly studied. Here, we investigated the significance of VCP and mutant VCP in the Drosophila heart. Cardiac-restricted RNAi-mediated knockdown of TER94, the Drosophila VCP homolog, severely perturbed myofibrillar organization and heart function in adult flies. Furthermore, expression of MSP disease-causing alleles engendered cardiomyopathy in adults and structural defects in embryonic hearts. Drosophila may therefore serve as a valuable model for examining role(s) of VCP in cardiogenesis and for identifying novel heart-specific VCP interactions, which when disrupted via mutation, contribute to or elicit cardiac pathology. PMID:27500162

  14. Cognitive impairment in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Leto, Laura; Feola, Mauro

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive damage in heart failure (HF) involves different domains thus interfering with the ability for single patient to self-care and to cope with treatment regimens, modifying symptoms and health behaviours. Many cerebral and functional changes were detected in brain imaging, involving areas of both grey and white matter deputed to cognition. Although various instruments are available to explore cognition, no consensus was obtained on better tools to be used in HF population. Reduction in cerebral blood flow, decreased cardiac output, alterations of cerebrovascular reactivity and modification of blood pressure levels are the main features involved in the etiopathogenetic mechanisms of cognitive deficit. Several cardiac variables, laboratory parameters, demographic and clinical elements were studied for their possible relation with cognition and should be properly evaluated to define patients at increased risk of impairment. The present review gathers available data pointing out assured information and discussing possible areas of research development. PMID:25593581

  15. Endocardial Remodeling in Heart Failure Patients with Impaired and Preserved Left Ventricular Systolic Function-A Magnetic Resonance Image Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Su, Mao-Yuan M.; Pham, Van-Truong; Tran, Thi-Thao; Wang, Yung-Hung; Tseng, Wen-Yih I.; Lo, Men-Tzung; Lin, Jiunn-Lee

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) trabeculation has been studied in certain forms of cardiomyopathy. However, the changes of LV endocardial trabeculation during the remodeling process leading to heart failure (HF) are unclear. Seventy-four patients with systolic heart failure (SHF), 65 with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and 61 without HF were prospectively enrolled. All subjects received magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study including cine, T1 and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images. Trabecular-papillary muscle (TPM) mass, fractal dimension (FD) and extracellular volume (ECV) were derived. The results showed that TPM mass index was higher in patients with SHF than that in patients with HFpEF and non-HF. The TPM mass-LV mass ratio (TPMm/LVM) was higher in SHF group than that in HFpEF and non-HF. FD was not different among groups. The presence of LGE was inversely associated with TPM mass index and TPMm/LVM while the ECV were positively associated with TPMm/LVM. The FD was positively associated with LV chamber size. In conclusion, TPM increases in patients with SHF and are probably related to myocardial cell hypertrophy and fibrotic repair during remodeling. The FD increases with the dilatation of LV chamber but remain unchanged with the deterioration of LV function. PMID:26876005

  16. Endocardial Remodeling in Heart Failure Patients with Impaired and Preserved Left Ventricular Systolic Function--A Magnetic Resonance Image Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Su, Mao-Yuan M; Pham, Van-Truong; Tran, Thi-Thao; Wang, Yung-Hung; Tseng, Wen-Yih I; Lo, Men-Tzung; Lin, Jiunn-Lee

    2016-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) trabeculation has been studied in certain forms of cardiomyopathy. However, the changes of LV endocardial trabeculation during the remodeling process leading to heart failure (HF) are unclear. Seventy-four patients with systolic heart failure (SHF), 65 with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and 61 without HF were prospectively enrolled. All subjects received magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study including cine, T1 and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images. Trabecular-papillary muscle (TPM) mass, fractal dimension (FD) and extracellular volume (ECV) were derived. The results showed that TPM mass index was higher in patients with SHF than that in patients with HFpEF and non-HF. The TPM mass-LV mass ratio (TPMm/LVM) was higher in SHF group than that in HFpEF and non-HF. FD was not different among groups. The presence of LGE was inversely associated with TPM mass index and TPMm/LVM while the ECV were positively associated with TPMm/LVM. The FD was positively associated with LV chamber size. In conclusion, TPM increases in patients with SHF and are probably related to myocardial cell hypertrophy and fibrotic repair during remodeling. The FD increases with the dilatation of LV chamber but remain unchanged with the deterioration of LV function. PMID:26876005

  17. Comparison of Frequency of Frailty and Severely Impaired Physical Function in Patients ≥60 Years Hospitalized With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Versus Chronic Stable Heart Failure With Reduced and Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gordon R; Whellan, David J; Patel, Mahesh J; O'Connor, Christopher M; Duncan, Pamela; Eggebeen, Joel D; Morgan, Timothy M; Hewston, Leigh A; Pastva, Amy M; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2016-06-15

    Older patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) have persistently poor outcomes including frequent rehospitalization despite guidelines-based therapy. We hypothesized that such patients have multiple, severe impairments in physical function, cognition, and mood that are not addressed by current care pathways. We prospectively examined frailty, physical function, cognition, mood, and quality of life in 27 consecutive older patients with ADHF at 3 medical centers and compared these with 197 participants in 3 age-matched cohorts: stable heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (n = 80), stable HF with reduced ejection fraction (n = 56), and healthy older adults (n = 61). Based on Fried criteria, frailty was present in 56% of patients with ADHF versus 0 for the age-matched chronic HF and health cohorts. Patients with ADHF had markedly reduced Short Physical Performance Battery score (5.3 ± 2.8) and 6-minute walk distance (178 ± 102 m) (p <0.001 vs other cohorts), with severe deficits in all domains of physical function: balance, mobility, strength, and endurance. In the patients with ADHF, cognitive impairment (78%) and depression (30%) were common, and quality of life was poor. In conclusion, older patients with ADHF are frequently frail with severe and widespread impairments in physical function, cognition, mood, and quality of life that may contribute to their persistently poor outcomes, are frequently unrecognized, are not addressed in current ADHF care paradigms, and are potentially modifiable with targeted interventions. PMID:27156830

  18. Comorbid Heart Failure and Renal Impairment: Epidemiology and Management

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Thomas, Merlin; Majoni, William; Anavekar, Nagesh S.; Ronco, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure mortality is significantly increased in patients with baseline renal impairment and those with underlying heart failure who subsequently develop renal dysfunction. This accelerated progression occurs independent of the cause or grade of renal dysfunction and baseline risk factors. Recent large prospective databases have highlighted the depth of the current problem, while longitudinal population studies support an increasing disease burden. We have extensively reviewed the epidemiological and therapeutic data among these patients. The evidence points to a progression of heart failure early in renal impairment, even in the albuminuric stage. The data also support poor prescription of prognostic therapies. As renal function is the most important prognostic factor in heart failure, it is important to establish the current understanding of the disease burden and the therapeutic implications. PMID:23381594

  19. Ace inhibitor therapy for heart failure in patients with impaired renal function: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Valika, Ali A; Gheorghiade, Mihai

    2013-03-01

    Heart failure syndromes are often associated with multi-organ dysfunction, and concomitant liver, renal, and neurologic involvement is very common. Neuro-hormonal antagonism plays a key role in the management of this syndrome, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are one of the cornerstones of therapy. Cardiorenal physiology is becoming more recognized in these patients with advanced heart failure, and the role of neuro-hormonal blockade in this setting is vaguely defined in the literature. Often, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are decreased or even withheld in these circumstances. The purpose of this article is to review the role and pathophysiology of ace inhibition and angiotensin receptor blockade in patients with acute and chronic heart failure syndromes and concomitant cardiorenal physiology. PMID:22213014

  20. Dimethylfumarate Impairs Neutrophil Functions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Susen; Behnen, Martina; Bieber, Katja; Möller, Sonja; Hellberg, Lars; Witte, Mareike; Hänsel, Martin; Zillikens, Detlef; Solbach, Werner; Laskay, Tamás; Ludwig, Ralf J

    2016-01-01

    Host defense against pathogens relies on neutrophil activation. Inadequate neutrophil activation is often associated with chronic inflammatory diseases. Neutrophils also constitute a significant portion of infiltrating cells in chronic inflammatory diseases, for example, psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. Fumarates improve the latter diseases, which so far has been attributed to the effects on lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Here, we focused on the effects of dimethylfumarate (DMF) on neutrophils. In vitro, DMF inhibited neutrophil activation, including changes in surface marker expression, reactive oxygen species production, formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, and migration. Phagocytic ability and autoantibody-induced, neutrophil-dependent tissue injury ex vivo was also impaired by DMF. Regarding the mode of action, DMF modulates-in a stimulus-dependent manner-neutrophil activation using the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathways. For in vivo validation, mouse models of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, an organ-specific autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies to type VII collagen, were employed. In the presence of DMF, blistering induced by injection of anti-type VII collagen antibodies into mice was significantly impaired. DMF treatment of mice with clinically already-manifested epidermolysis bullosa acquisita led to disease improvement. Collectively, we demonstrate a profound inhibitory activity of DMF on neutrophil functions. These findings encourage wider use of DMF in patients with neutrophil-mediated diseases. PMID:26763431

  1. Coexisting Frailty, Cognitive Impairment, and Heart Failure: Implications for Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Brittany; Gary, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review some of the proposed pathways that increase frailty risk in older persons with heart failure and to discuss tools that may be used to assess for changes in physical and cognitive functioning in this population in order to assist with appropriate and timely intervention. Methods Review of the literature. Results Heart failure is the only cardiovascular disease that is increasing by epidemic proportions, largely due to an aging society and therapeutic advances in disease management. Because heart failure is largely a cardiogeriatric syndrome, age-related syndromes such as frailty and cognitive impairment are common in heart failure patients. Compared with age-matched counterparts, older adults with heart failure 4 to 6 times more likely to be frail or cognitively impaired. The reason for the high prevalence of frailty and cognitive impairment in this population is not well known but may likely reflect the synergistic effects of heart failure and aging, which may heighten vulnerability to stressors and accelerate loss of physiologic reserve. Despite the high prevalence of frailty and cognitive impairment in the heart failure population, these conditions are not routinely screened for in clinical practice settings and guidelines on optimal assessment strategies are lacking. Conclusion Persons with heart failure are at an increased risk for frailty, which may worsen symptoms, impair self-management, and lead to worse heart failure outcomes. Early detection of frailty and cognitive impairment may be an opportunity for intervention and a key strategy for improving clinical outcomes in older adults with heart failure. PMID:26594103

  2. Abnormal splicing in the N‐terminal variable region of cardiac troponin T impairs systolic function of the heart with preserved Frank‐Starling compensation

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Han‐Zhong; Chen, Guozhen; Nan, Changlong; Huang, Xupei; Jin, Jian‐Ping

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Abnormal splice‐out of the exon 7‐encoded segment in the N‐terminal variable region of cardiac troponin T (cTnT‐ΔE7) was found in turkeys and, together with the inclusion of embryonic exon (eTnT), in adult dogs with a correlation with dilated cardiomyopathy. Overexpression of these cTnT variants in transgenic mouse hearts significantly decreased cardiac function. To further investigate the functional effect of cTnT‐ΔE7 or ΔE7+eTnT in vivo under systemic regulation, echocardiography was carried out in single and double‐transgenic mice. No atrial enlargement, ventricular hypertrophy or dilation was detected in the hearts of 2‐month‐old cTnT‐ΔE7 and ΔE7+eTnT mice in comparison to wild‐type controls, indicating a compensated state. However, left ventricular fractional shortening and ejection fraction were decreased in ΔE7 and ΔE7+eTnT mice, and the response to isoproterenol was lower in ΔE7+eTnT mice. Left ventricular outflow tract velocity and gradient were decreased in the transgenic mouse hearts, indicating decreased systolic function. Ex vivo working heart function showed that high afterload or low preload resulted in more severe decreases in the systolic function and energetic efficiency of cTnT‐ΔE7 and ΔE7+eTnT hearts. On the other hand, increases in preload demonstrated preserved Frank‐Starling responses and minimized the loss of cardiac function and efficiency. The data demonstrate that the N‐terminal variable region of cardiac TnT regulates systolic function of the heart. PMID:25194024

  3. Functional Assessment for Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Significant improvement in survival of children with congenital cardiac malformations has resulted in an increasing population of adolescent and adult patients with congenital heart disease. Of the long-term cardiac problems, ventricular dysfunction remains an important issue of concern. Despite corrective or palliative repair of congenital heart lesions, the right ventricle, which may be the subpulmonary or systemic ventricular chamber, and the functional single ventricle are particularly vulnerable to functional impairment. Regular assessment of cardiac function constitutes an important aspect in the long-term follow up of patients with congenital heart disease. Echocardiography remains the most useful imaging modality for longitudinal monitoring of cardiac function. Conventional echocardiographic assessment has focused primarily on quantification of changes in ventricular size and blood flow velocities during the cardiac cycles. Advances in echocardiographic technologies including tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking echocardiography have enabled direct interrogation of myocardial deformation. In this review, the issues of ventricular dysfunction in congenital heart disease, conventional echocardiographic and novel myocardial deformation imaging techniques, and clinical applications of these techniques in the functional assessment of congenital heart disease are discussed. PMID:24653734

  4. Diastolic function in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Sándor J

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure has reached epidemic proportions, and diastolic heart failure or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes about 50% of all heart failure admissions. Long-term prognosis of both reduced ejection fraction heart failure and HFpEF are similarly dismal. No pharmacologic agent has been developed that actually treats or repairs the physiologic deficit(s) responsible for HFpEF. Because the physiology of diastole is both subtle and counterintuitive, its role in heart failure has received insufficient attention. In this review, the focus is on the physiology of diastole in heart failure, the dominant physiologic laws that govern the process in all hearts, how all hearts work as a suction pump, and, therefore, the elucidation and characterization of what actually is meant by "diastolic function". The intent is for the reader to understand what diastolic function actually is, what it is not, and how to measure it. Proper measurement of diastolic function requires one to go beyond the usual E/A, E/E', etc. phenomenological metrics and employ more rigorous causality (mathematical modeling) based parameters of diastolic function. The method simultaneously provides new physiologic insight into the meaning of in vivo "equilibrium volume" of the left ventricle (LV), longitudinal versus transverse volume accommodation of the chamber, diastatic "ringing" of the mitral annulus, and the mechanism of L-wave generation, as well as availability of a load-independent index of diastolic function (LIIDF). One important consequence of understanding what diastolic function is, is the recognition that all that current therapies can do is basically alter the load, rather than actually "repair" the functional components (chamber stiffness, chamber relaxation). If beneficial (biological/structural/metabolic) remodeling due to therapy does manifest ultimately as improved diastolic function, it is due to resumption of normal physiology (as in alleviation of

  5. Lacking power impairs executive functions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pamela K; Jostmann, Nils B; Galinsky, Adam D; van Dijk, Wilco W

    2008-05-01

    Four experiments explored whether lacking power impairs executive functioning, testing the hypothesis that the cognitive presses of powerlessness increase vulnerability to performance decrements during complex executive tasks. In the first three experiments, low power impaired performance on executive-function tasks: The powerless were less effective than the powerful at updating (Experiment 1), inhibiting (Experiment 2), and planning (Experiment 3). Existing research suggests that the powerless have difficulty distinguishing between what is goal relevant and what is goal irrelevant in the environment. A fourth experiment established that the executive-function impairment associated with low power is driven by goal neglect. The current research implies that the cognitive alterations arising from powerlessness may help foster stable social hierarchies and that empowering employees may reduce costly organizational errors. PMID:18466404

  6. Diastolic Function in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Sándor J

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure has reached epidemic proportions, and diastolic heart failure or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes about 50% of all heart failure admissions. Long-term prognosis of both reduced ejection fraction heart failure and HFpEF are similarly dismal. No pharmacologic agent has been developed that actually treats or repairs the physiologic deficit(s) responsible for HFpEF. Because the physiology of diastole is both subtle and counterintuitive, its role in heart failure has received insufficient attention. In this review, the focus is on the physiology of diastole in heart failure, the dominant physiologic laws that govern the process in all hearts, how all hearts work as a suction pump, and, therefore, the elucidation and characterization of what actually is meant by “diastolic function”. The intent is for the reader to understand what diastolic function actually is, what it is not, and how to measure it. Proper measurement of diastolic function requires one to go beyond the usual E/A, E/E′, etc. phenomenological metrics and employ more rigorous causality (mathematical modeling) based parameters of diastolic function. The method simultaneously provides new physiologic insight into the meaning of in vivo “equilibrium volume” of the left ventricle (LV), longitudinal versus transverse volume accommodation of the chamber, diastatic “ringing” of the mitral annulus, and the mechanism of L-wave generation, as well as availability of a load-independent index of diastolic function (LIIDF). One important consequence of understanding what diastolic function is, is the recognition that all that current therapies can do is basically alter the load, rather than actually “repair” the functional components (chamber stiffness, chamber relaxation). If beneficial (biological/structural/metabolic) remodeling due to therapy does manifest ultimately as improved diastolic function, it is due to resumption of normal physiology (as in

  7. Heart rhythm complexity impairment in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Lin, Chen; Ho, Yi-Heng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Lin, Lian-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in patients with advanced renal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate impairments in heart rhythm complexity in patients with end-stage renal disease. We prospectively analyzed 65 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) without prior cardiovascular disease and 72 individuals with normal renal function as the control group. Heart rhythm analysis including complexity analysis by including detrended fractal analysis (DFA) and multiscale entropy (MSE) were performed. In linear analysis, the PD patients had a significantly lower standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDRR) and percentage of absolute differences in normal RR intervals greater than 20 ms (pNN20). Of the nonlinear analysis indicators, scale 5, area under the MSE curve for scale 1 to 5 (area 1-5) and 6 to 20 (area 6-20) were significantly lower than those in the control group. In DFA anaylsis, both DFA α1 and DFA α2 were comparable in both groups. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, scale 5 had the greatest discriminatory power for two groups. In both net reclassification improvement model and integrated discrimination improvement models, MSE parameters significantly improved the discriminatory power of SDRR, pNN20, and pNN50. In conclusion, PD patients had worse cardiac complexity parameters. MSE parameters are useful to discriminate PD patients from patients with normal renal function. PMID:27324066

  8. Heart rhythm complexity impairment in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Lin, Chen; Ho, Yi-Heng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Lin, Lian-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in patients with advanced renal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate impairments in heart rhythm complexity in patients with end-stage renal disease. We prospectively analyzed 65 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) without prior cardiovascular disease and 72 individuals with normal renal function as the control group. Heart rhythm analysis including complexity analysis by including detrended fractal analysis (DFA) and multiscale entropy (MSE) were performed. In linear analysis, the PD patients had a significantly lower standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDRR) and percentage of absolute differences in normal RR intervals greater than 20 ms (pNN20). Of the nonlinear analysis indicators, scale 5, area under the MSE curve for scale 1 to 5 (area 1–5) and 6 to 20 (area 6–20) were significantly lower than those in the control group. In DFA anaylsis, both DFA α1 and DFA α2 were comparable in both groups. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, scale 5 had the greatest discriminatory power for two groups. In both net reclassification improvement model and integrated discrimination improvement models, MSE parameters significantly improved the discriminatory power of SDRR, pNN20, and pNN50. In conclusion, PD patients had worse cardiac complexity parameters. MSE parameters are useful to discriminate PD patients from patients with normal renal function.

  9. Heart rhythm complexity impairment in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Lin, Chen; Ho, Yi-Heng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Lin, Lian-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in patients with advanced renal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate impairments in heart rhythm complexity in patients with end-stage renal disease. We prospectively analyzed 65 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) without prior cardiovascular disease and 72 individuals with normal renal function as the control group. Heart rhythm analysis including complexity analysis by including detrended fractal analysis (DFA) and multiscale entropy (MSE) were performed. In linear analysis, the PD patients had a significantly lower standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDRR) and percentage of absolute differences in normal RR intervals greater than 20 ms (pNN20). Of the nonlinear analysis indicators, scale 5, area under the MSE curve for scale 1 to 5 (area 1–5) and 6 to 20 (area 6–20) were significantly lower than those in the control group. In DFA anaylsis, both DFA α1 and DFA α2 were comparable in both groups. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, scale 5 had the greatest discriminatory power for two groups. In both net reclassification improvement model and integrated discrimination improvement models, MSE parameters significantly improved the discriminatory power of SDRR, pNN20, and pNN50. In conclusion, PD patients had worse cardiac complexity parameters. MSE parameters are useful to discriminate PD patients from patients with normal renal function. PMID:27324066

  10. Dietary Habits Moderate the Association between Heart Failure and Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; van Dulmen, Manfred; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in heart failure patients. Poor dietary habits are associated with reduced neurocognitive function in other medical populations, including diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. This study examined whether dietary habits help moderate the relationship between heart failure severity and cognitive function. A total of 152 persons with heart failure completed neuropsychological testing and a fitness assessment. Dietary habits were assessed using the Starting the Conversation-Diet questionnaire, a nutrition measure suggested for use in primary care settings. Moderation analyses showed that better dietary habits attenuated the adverse impact of heart failure severity on frontal functioning (b =1.28, p < .05). Follow-up analyses revealed consumption of foods high in sodium was associated with reduced cognitive function (p < .05). This study suggests dietary habits can moderate the association between heart failure and performance on tests of attention and executive function. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm and clarify the mechanisms for our findings. PMID:23663211

  11. Cognitive Reserve Moderates the Association between Heart Failure and Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; van Dulmen, Manfred; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Waechter, Donna; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment in persons with heart failure is common. Theories of cognitive reserve suggest that premorbid factors, such as intellectual ability, may provide a buffer against cognitive impairment due to neuropathological insult. No study has examined the influence of cognitive reserve on cognitive functioning in older adults with heart failure. Aim This study examined whether cognitive reserve moderates the relationship between heart failure severity and cognitive function. Methods A total of 157 persons with heart failure (69.26 ± 9.26 years; 39% female) completed neuropsychological testing and a brief fitness assessment. Cognitive reserve was operationalized using estimated premorbid intellect on American National Adult Reading Test (AMNART). Results A moderation analysis was performed using a hierarchical regression models for each cognitive domain. An interaction term between the AMNART and 2-minute step test was created and entered into the final block of the model, with demographic, psychosocial, and heart failure severity entered in the previous blocks. The interaction term was significant for attention (t(155) = −2.54, p = .012), executive function (t(155) = −3.30, p = .001), and language (t(155) = −2.83, p = .005) domains. Conclusion The current findings suggest that cognitive reserve moderates the association between heart failure severity and cognitive function in multiple cognitive domains. Further work is needed to clarify the mechanisms by which cognitive reserve attenuates cognitive impairment in this population. PMID:22034987

  12. Reduced heart rate variability in chronic severe traumatic brain injury: Association with impaired emotional and social functioning, and potential for treatment using biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Francis, Heather M; Fisher, Alana; Rushby, Jacqueline A; McDonald, Skye

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) may provide an index of capacity for social functioning and may be remediated by HRV biofeedback. Given reductions in HRV are found following traumatic brain injury (TBI), the present study aimed to determine whether lower HRV in TBI is associated with social function, and whether HRV biofeedback might be a useful remediation technique in this population. Resting state HRV and measures of social and emotional processing were collected in 30 individuals with severe TBI (3-34 years post-injury) and 30 controls. This was followed by a single session of HRV biofeedback. HRV was positively associated with social cognition and empathy, and negatively associated with alexithymia for the TBI group. Both TBI and control groups showed significantly increased HRV on both time-domain (i.e., SDNN, rMSSD) and frequency-domain measures (LF, HF, LF:HF ratio) during biofeedback compared to baseline. These results suggest that decreased HRV is linked to social and emotional function following severe TBI, and may be a novel target for therapy using HRV biofeedback techniques. PMID:25627984

  13. Association of the Frontal QRS-T Angle with Adverse Cardiac Remodeling, Impaired Left and Right Ventricular Function, and Worse Outcomes in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Senthil; Ilkhanoff, Leonard; Burke, Michael A.; Freed, Benjamin H.; Lang, Roberto M.; Martinez, Eva E.; Shah, Sanjiv J.

    2013-01-01

    Background No prior studies have investigated the association of QRS-T angle with cardiac structure/function and outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We hypothesized that increased frontal QRS-T angle is associated with worse cardiac function/remodeling and adverse outcomes in HFpEF. Methods We prospectively studied 376 patients with HFpEF (i.e. symptomatic HF with left ventricular [LV] ejection fraction >50%.) The frontal QRS-T angle was calculated from the 12-lead electrocardiogram. Patients were divided into tertiles by frontal QRS-T angle (0–26°, 27–75°, and 76–179°), and clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic data were compared among groups. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to determine the association between QRS-T angle and outcomes. Results The mean age of the cohort was 64±13 years, 65% were women, and the mean QRS-T angle was 61±51°. Patients with increased QRS-T angle were older, had a lower body-mass index, more frequently had coronary artery disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and atrial fibrillation, and had higher B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels (P<0.05 for all comparisons). After multivariable adjustment, patients with increased QRS-T angle had higher BNP levels in addition to higher LV mass index, worse diastolic function parameters, more right ventricular (RV) remodeling, and worse RV systolic function (P<0.05 for all associations). QRS-T angle was independently associated with the composite outcome of cardiovascular hospitalization or death on multivariable analysis, even after adjusting for BNP (HR for the highest QRS-T tertile = 2.0, 95% CI 1.2–3.4; P=0.008). Conclusions In HFpEF, increased QRS-T angle is independently associated with worse left and right ventricular function/remodeling and adverse outcomes. PMID:24075945

  14. Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers Predict Lung Function Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Naveed, Bushra; Weiden, Michael D.; Kwon, Sophia; Gracely, Edward J.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Ferrier, Natalia; Kasturiarachchi, Kusali J.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Rom, William N.; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Cross-sectional studies demonstrate an association between metabolic syndrome and impaired lung function. Objectives: To define if metabolic syndrome biomarkers are risk factors for loss of lung function after irritant exposure. Methods: A nested case-control study of Fire Department of New York personnel with normal pre–September 11th FEV1 and who presented for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation before March 10, 2008. We correlated metabolic syndrome biomarkers obtained within 6 months of World Trade Center dust exposure with subsequent FEV1. FEV1 at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation within 6.5 years defined disease status; cases had FEV1 less than lower limit of normal, whereas control subjects had FEV1 greater than or equal to lower limit of normal. Measurements and Main Results: Clinical data and serum sampled at the first monitoring examination within 6 months of September 11, 2001, assessed body mass index, heart rate, serum glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), leptin, pancreatic polypeptide, and amylin. Cases and control subjects had significant differences in HDL less than 40 mg/dl with triglycerides greater than or equal to 150 mg/dl, heart rate greater than or equal to 66 bpm, and leptin greater than or equal to 10,300 pg/ml. Each increased the odds of abnormal FEV1 at pulmonary evaluation by more than twofold, whereas amylin greater than or equal to 116 pg/ml decreased the odds by 84%, in a multibiomarker model adjusting for age, race, body mass index, and World Trade Center arrival time. This model had a sensitivity of 41%, a specificity of 86%, and a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.77. Conclusions: Abnormal triglycerides and HDL and elevated heart rate and leptin are independent risk factors of greater susceptibility to lung function impairment after September 11, 2001, whereas elevated amylin is protective. Metabolic biomarkers are predictors of lung disease, and may be useful for assessing

  15. Reversible heart rhythm complexity impairment in patients with primary aldosteronism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Wu, Vin-Cent; Lo, Men-Tzung; Wu, Xue-Ming; Hung, Chi-Sheng; Wu, Kwan-Dun; Lin, Chen; Ho, Yi-Lwun; Stowasser, Michael; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2015-08-01

    Excess aldosterone secretion in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) impairs their cardiovascular system. Heart rhythm complexity analysis, derived from heart rate variability (HRV), is a powerful tool to quantify the complex regulatory dynamics of human physiology. We prospectively analyzed 20 patients with aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) that underwent adrenalectomy and 25 patients with essential hypertension (EH). The heart rate data were analyzed by conventional HRV and heart rhythm complexity analysis including detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and multiscale entropy (MSE). We found APA patients had significantly decreased DFAα2 on DFA analysis and decreased area 1-5, area 6-15, and area 6-20 on MSE analysis (all p < 0.05). Area 1-5, area 6-15, area 6-20 in the MSE study correlated significantly with log-transformed renin activity and log-transformed aldosterone-renin ratio (all p < = 0.01). The conventional HRV parameters were comparable between PA and EH patients. After adrenalectomy, all the altered DFA and MSE parameters improved significantly (all p < 0.05). The conventional HRV parameters did not change. Our result suggested that heart rhythm complexity is impaired in APA patients and this is at least partially reversed by adrenalectomy.

  16. Aspirate from human stented saphenous vein grafts induces epicardial coronary vasoconstriction and impairs perfusion and left ventricular function in rat bioassay hearts with pharmacologically induced endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Helmut R; Baars, Theodor; Kahlert, Philipp; Kleinbongard, Petra

    2016-08-01

    Stent implantation into aortocoronary saphenous vein grafts (SVG) releases particulate debris and soluble vasoactive mediators, for example, serotonin. We now analyzed effects of the soluble mediators released into the coronary arterial blood during stent implantation on vasomotion of isolated rat epicardial coronary artery segments and on coronary flow and left ventricular developed pressure in isolated perfused rat hearts. Coronary blood was retrieved during percutaneous SVG intervention using a distal occlusion/aspiration protection device in nine symptomatic patients with stable angina pectoris and a flow-limiting SVG stenosis. The blood was separated into particulate debris and plasma. Responses to coronary plasma were determined in isolated rat epicardial coronary arteries and in isolated, constant pressure-perfused rat hearts (±nitric oxide synthase [NOS] inhibition and ±serotonin receptor blockade, respectively). Coronary aspirate plasma taken after stent implantation induced a stronger vasoconstriction of rat epicardial coronary arteries (52 ± 8% of maximal potassium chloride induced vasoconstriction [% KClmax = 100%]) than plasma taken before stent implantation (12 ± 8% of KClmax); NOS inhibition augmented this vasoconstrictor response (to 110 ± 15% and 24 ± 9% of KClmax). Coronary aspirate plasma taken after stent implantation reduced in isolated perfused rat hearts only under NOS inhibition coronary flow by 17 ± 3% and left ventricular developed pressure by 25 ± 4%. Blockade of serotonin receptors abrogated these effects. Coronary aspirate plasma taken after stent implantation induces vasoconstriction in isolated rat epicardial coronary arteries and reduces coronary flow and left ventricular developed pressure in isolated perfused rat hearts with pharmacologically induced endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27482071

  17. Functional impairment in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Aderka, Idan M; Hofmann, Stefan G; Nickerson, Angela; Hermesh, Haggai; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Marom, Sofi

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined functional impairment among treatment seekers with social anxiety disorder (SAD). We investigated the effects of diagnostic subtypes of SAD and comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders on impairment. In addition, we used cluster analysis procedures to empirically identify subgroups of individuals with distinct patterns of impairment. Participants were 216 treatment-seeking individuals with SAD. Clinical interviews were undertaken to determine diagnoses of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder, and a battery of self-report measures was administered to index symptoms of social anxiety, depression and extent of impairment. Results indicated that individuals with the generalized subtype of SAD had greater impairment in all three life domains compared to individuals with the nongeneralized subtype. Comorbidity with mood disorders was associated with greater impairment than SAD alone, but comorbidity with anxiety disorders was not. Four distinct impairment profiles emerged from the cluster analysis: primary work/studies impairment, primary social life impairment, both work/studies and social impairment, and impairment in all domains. Findings from this study suggest that SAD is associated with substantial impairment across multiple domains, and that individuals with SAD present diverse impairment profiles. These profiles may inform subtyping of the disorder as well as therapeutic interventions. PMID:22306132

  18. Impaired ADP channeling to mitochondria and elevated reactive oxygen species in hypertensive hearts.

    PubMed

    Power, Amelia S C; Pham, Toan; Loiselle, Denis S; Crossman, David H; Ward, Marie-Louise; Hickey, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Systemic hypertension initially promotes a compensatory cardiac hypertrophy, yet it progresses to heart failure (HF), and energetic deficits appear to be central to this failure. However, the transfer of energy between the mitochondria and the myofibrils is not often considered as part of the energetic equation. We compared hearts from old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar controls. SHR hearts showed a 35% depression in mitochondrial function, yet produced at least double the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in all respiration states in left ventricular (LV) homogenates. To test the connectivity between mitochondria and myofibrils, respiration was further tested in situ with LV permeabilized fibers by addition of multiple substrates and ATP, which requires hydrolysis to mediate oxidative phosphorylation. By trapping ADP using a pyruvate kinase enzyme system, we tested ADP channeling towards mitochondria, and this suppressed respiration and elevated ROS production more in the SHR fibers. The ADP-trapped state was also less relieved on creatine addition, likely reflecting the 30% depression in total CK activity in the SHR heart fibers. Confocal imaging identified a 34% longer distance between the centers of myofibril to mitochondria in the SHR hearts, which increases transverse metabolite diffusion distances (e.g., for ATP, ADP, and creatine phosphate). We propose that impaired connectivity between mitochondria and myofibrils may contribute to elevated ROS production. Impaired energy exchange could be the result of ultrastructural changes that occur with hypertrophy in this model of hypertension. PMID:27084386

  19. 38 CFR 4.10 - Functional impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Functional impairment. 4.10 Section 4.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.10 Functional impairment. The basis of disability evaluations is the ability of the body as a...

  20. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via functional impairment. We estimated a latent variable causal model using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,832). Results indicated that marital conflict directly led to increases in depression and functional impairment and indirectly led to a rise in depression via functional impairment. Overall, findings suggest marital conflict is a significant risk factor for psychological and physical health among midlife and older adults. PMID:18698378

  1. Right heart function in COPD.

    PubMed

    Macnee, William

    2010-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a common complication in patients with severe hypoxic COPD, but the elevation in pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) is usually relatively mild, although its presence indicates a poor prognosis. A minority of patients have severe pulmonary hypertension, whose prognosis is very poor with the development of right heart failure. Pulmonary hypertension in COPD is thought to result from hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction leading to structural remodeling of all layers of the pulmonary arterial walls. The simple hypothesis that hypoxemia in patients with chronic lung disease results in pulmonary hypertension, which adversely affects right ventricular function and hence increases morbidity and decreases exercise tolerance, leading to the development of peripheral edema and increased mortality, is still somewhat controversial. Whether therapeutic interventions that directly affect PAP or right ventricular function have a significant effect on long-term survival in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to hypoxic lung disease is still a matter of debate. Furthermore, whether such interventions will have an effect on symptoms or exercise tolerance remains unproven. Present therapies are limited to the correction of hypoxemia over the long term, which has been shown to have proven benefits on survival. Further studies are required of more specific pulmonary vasodilators or therapies to improve right ventricular function in these patients. PMID:20496299

  2. Loss of MCL-1 leads to impaired autophagy and rapid development of heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Robert L.; Roberts, David J.; Kubli, Dieter A.; Lee, Youngil; Quinsay, Melissa N.; Owens, Jarvis B.; Fischer, Kimberlee M.; Sussman, Mark A.; Miyamoto, Shigeki; Gustafsson, Åsa B.

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) is an anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein that is up-regulated in several human cancers. MCL-1 is also highly expressed in myocardium, but its function in myocytes has not been investigated. We generated inducible, cardiomyocyte-specific Mcl-1 knockout mice and found that ablation of Mcl-1 in the adult heart led to rapid cardiomyopathy and death. Although MCL-1 is known to inhibit apoptosis, this process was not activated in MCL-1-deficient hearts. Ultrastructural analysis revealed disorganized sarcomeres and swollen mitochondria in myocytes. Mitochondria isolated from MCL-1-deficient hearts exhibited reduced respiration and limited Ca2+-mediated swelling, consistent with opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Double-knockout mice lacking MCL-1 and cyclophilin D, an essential regulator of the mPTP, exhibited delayed progression to heart failure and extended survival. Autophagy is normally induced by myocardial stress, but induction of autophagy was impaired in MCL-1-deficient hearts. These data demonstrate that MCL-1 is essential for mitochondrial homeostasis and induction of autophagy in the heart. This study also raises concerns about potential cardiotoxicity for chemotherapeutics that target MCL-1. PMID:23788623

  3. Inferential functioning in visually impaired children.

    PubMed

    Puche-Navarro, Rebeca; Millán, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The current study explores the inferential abilities of visually impaired children in a task presented in two formats, manipulative and verbal. The results showed that in the group of visually impaired children, just as with children with normal sight, there was a wide range of inference types. It was found that the visually impaired children perform slightly better in the use of inductive and relational inferences in the verbal format, while in the manipulative format children with normal sight perform better. These results suggest that in inferential functioning of young children, and especially visually impaired children, the format of the task influences performance more than the child's visual ability. PMID:16647837

  4. Does lung diffusion impairment affect exercise capacity in patients with heart failure?

    PubMed Central

    Agostoni, P G; Bussotti, M; Palermo, P; Guazzi, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is a relation between impairment of lung diffusion and reduced exercise capacity in chronic heart failure. Design: 40 patients with heart failure in stable clinical condition and 40 controls participated in the study. All subjects underwent standard pulmonary function tests plus measurements of resting lung diffusion (carbon monoxide transfer, Tlco), pulmonary capillary volume (Vc), and membrane resistance (Dm), and maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. In 20 patients and controls, the following investigations were also done: (1) resting and constant work rate Tlco; (2) maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing with inspiratory O2 fractions of 0.21 and 0.16; and (3) rest and peak exercise blood gases. The other subjects underwent Tlco, Dm, and Vc measurements during constant work rate exercise. Results: In normoxia, exercise induced reductions of haemoglobin O2 saturation never occurred. With hypoxia, peak exercise uptake (peak V̇o2) decreased from (mean (SD)) 1285 (395) to 1081 (396) ml/min (p < 0.01) in patients, and from 1861 (563) to 1771 (457) ml/min (p < 0.05) in controls. Resting Tlco correlated with peak V̇o2 in heart failure (normoxia < hypoxia). In heart failure patients and normal subjects, Tlco and peak V̇o2 correlated with O2 arterial content at rest and during peak exercise in both normoxia and hypoxia. Tlco, Vc, and Dm increased during exercise. The increase in Tlco was greater in patients who had a smaller reduction of exercise capacity with hypoxia. Alveolar–arterial O2 gradient at peak correlated with exercise capacity in heart failure during normoxia and, to a greater extent, during hypoxia. Conclusions: Lung diffusion impairment is related to exercise capacity in heart failure. PMID:12381630

  5. Functional impairment in progressive supranuclear palsy

    PubMed Central

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Litvan, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study sought to describe the functional profiles of patients with early-stage progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) in a large prospective, multisite study. Methods: Using data from 202 individuals meeting criteria for clinically definite or probable PSP, 3 functional scales were examined. Functional scores were then compared to measures of motor, cognition, and psychiatric symptoms. Results: Functional disability was high in early-stage PSP, with 100% of patients having less than perfect scores on all functional scales. Whereas functional scores tended not to be related to cognition or psychiatric symptoms, they were strongly related to motoric ratings. Conclusions: Both clinically and in research settings, the definition of functional intactness/impairment has important implications. Future studies should examine if functional impairment is this high in PSP or if new scales of functional abilities need to be developed for this condition. PMID:23303854

  6. Quantification of the Impaired Cardiac Output Response to Exercise in Heart Failure: Application of a Non-Invasive Device

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jonathan; Gujja, Pradeep; Neelagaru, Suresh; Hsu, Leon; Burkhoff, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    An impaired cardiac output (CO) response to exercise is a hallmark of chronic heart failure (CHF), and the degree to which CO is impaired is related to the severity of CHF and prognosis. However, practical methods for obtaining cardiac output during exercise are lacking, and what constitutes and impaired response is unclear. Forty six CHF patients and 13 normal subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) while CO and other hemodynamic measurements at rest and during exercise were obtained using a novel, non-invasive, bioreactance device based on assessment of relative phase shifts of electric currents injected across the thorax, heart rate and ventricular ejection time. An abnormal cardiac output response to exercise was defined as achieving ≤ 95% of the confidence limits of the slope of the relationship between CO and oxygen uptake (VO2). An impaired CO slope identified patients with more severe CHF as evidenced by a lower peak VO2, lower peak CO, heightened VE/VCO2 slope, and lower oxygen uptake efficiency slope. CO can be estimated during exercise using a novel bioreactance technique; patients with an impaired response to exercise exhibit reduced exercise capacity and inefficient ventilation typical of more severe CHF. Non- invasive measurement of cardiac performance in response to exercise provides a simple method of identifying patients with more severe CHF and may complement the CPX in identifying CHF patients at high risk. Key points Non-invasive measurement of cardiac output during exercise is feasible in patients with heart failure. Impairment in the CO response to exercise identifies heart failure patients with more severe disease, lower exercise capacity and inefficient ventilation. Non-invasive measurement of cardiac performance during exercise has potentially important applications for the functional and prognostic assessment of patients with heart failure. PMID:24149996

  7. In vivo 2D mapping of impaired murine cardiac energetics in NO-induced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Flögel, Ulrich; Jacoby, Christoph; Gödecke, Axel; Schrader, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    (31)P MRS studies in humans have shown that an impairment of cardiac energetics is characteristic of heart failure. Although numerous transgenic mouse models with a heart-failure phenotype have been generated, current methods to analyze murine high-energy phosphates (HEPs) in vivo are hampered by limited spatial resolution. Using acquisition-weighted 2D (31)P chemical shift imaging (CSI) at 9.4 Tesla, we were able to acquire (31)P MR spectra over the entire thorax of the mouse with high spatial resolution in defined regions of the heart (the anterior, lateral, posterior, and septal walls) within a reasonable acquisition time of about 75 min. Analysis of a transgenic cardiomyopathy model (double mutant: cardiospecific inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) overexpression and lack of myoglobin (tg-iNOS(+)/myo(-/-)) revealed that cardiac dysfunction in the mutant was associated with an impaired energy state (phosphocreatine (PCr)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) 1.54 +/- 0.18) over the entire left ventricle (LV; wild-type (WT): PCr/ATP 2.06 +/- 0.22, N = 5, P < 0.05), indicating that in the absence of efficient cytosolic NO scavenging, iNOS-derived NO critically interferes with the respiratory chain. In vivo data were validated against (31)P MR spectra of perchloric acid extracts (PCr/ATP: 1.87 +/- 0.21 (WT), 1.39 +/- 0.17 (tg-iNOS(+)/myo(-/-), N = 5, P < 0.05). Future applications will substantially benefit studies on the cause-and-effect relationship between cardiac energetics and function in other genetically well-defined models of heart failure. PMID:17139621

  8. Quercetin Affects Erythropoiesis and Heart Mitochondrial Function in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Lina M; Salazar, Celia; Jensen, Erik; Ruiz, Paula A; Tiznado, William; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A; Barreto, Marlen; Elorza, Alvaro A

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, showed powerful antioxidant effects in different cellular models. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in mammals have suggested a prooxidant effect of quercetin and described an interaction with mitochondria causing an increase in O2 (∙-) production, a decrease in ATP levels, and impairment of respiratory chain in liver tissue. Therefore, because of its dual actions, we studied the effect of quercetin in vivo to analyze heart mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. Mice were injected with 50 mg/kg of quercetin for 15 days. Treatment with quercetin decreased body weight, serum insulin, and ceruloplasmin levels as compared with untreated mice. Along with an impaired antioxidant capacity in plasma, quercetin-treated mice showed a significant delay on erythropoiesis progression. Heart mitochondrial function was also impaired displaying more protein oxidation and less activity for IV, respectively, than no-treated mice. In addition, a significant reduction in the protein expression levels of Mitofusin 2 and Voltage-Dependent Anion Carrier was observed. All these results suggest that quercetin affects erythropoiesis and mitochondrial function and then its potential use as a dietary supplement should be reexamined. PMID:26106459

  9. Loss of Mitochondrial Function Impairs Lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Demers-Lamarche, Julie; Guillebaud, Gérald; Tlili, Mouna; Todkar, Kiran; Bélanger, Noémie; Grondin, Martine; Nguyen, Angela P; Michel, Jennifer; Germain, Marc

    2016-05-01

    Alterations in mitochondrial function, as observed in neurodegenerative diseases, lead to disrupted energy metabolism and production of damaging reactive oxygen species. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction also disrupts the structure and function of lysosomes, the main degradation and recycling organelle. Specifically, inhibition of mitochondrial function, following deletion of the mitochondrial protein AIF, OPA1, or PINK1, as well as chemical inhibition of the electron transport chain, impaired lysosomal activity and caused the appearance of large lysosomal vacuoles. Importantly, our results show that lysosomal impairment is dependent on reactive oxygen species. Given that alterations in both mitochondrial function and lysosomal activity are key features of neurodegenerative diseases, this work provides important insights into the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26987902

  10. ON THE BIOMECHANICS OF HEART VALVE FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Michael S.; Merryman, W. David; Schmidt, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Heart valves (HVs) are fluidic control components of the heart that ensure unidirectional blood flow during the cardiac cycle. However, this description does not adequately describe the biomechanical ramifications of their function in that their mechanics are multi-modal. Moreover, they must replicate their cyclic function over an entire lifetime, with an estimated total functional demand of least 3×109 cycles. The focus of the present review is on the functional biomechanics of heart valves. Thus, the focus of the present review is on functional biomechanics, referring primarily to biosolid as well as several key biofluid mechanical aspects underlying heart valve physiological function. Specifically, we refer to the mechanical behaviors of the extra-cellular matrix structural proteins, underlying cellular function, and their integrated relation to the major aspects of valvular hemodynamic function. While we focus on the work from the author’s laboratories, relevant works of other investigators have been included whenever appropriate. We conclude with a summary of important future trends. PMID:19540499

  11. Heart Rate Recovery Is Impaired After Maximal Exercise Testing in Children with Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Anthony M.; Ward, Kendra M.; Muntz, Devin S.; Thompson, Alexis A.; Rodeghier, Mark; Fernhall, Bo; Liem, Robert I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine heart rate recovery (HRR) as an indicator of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction following maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Study design Recovery phase heart rate (HR) in the first 5 minutes following maximal exercise testing in 60 subjects with SCA and 30 matched controls without SCA was assessed. The difference between maximal HR and HR at both 1-minute (ΔHR1min) and 2-minute (ΔHR2min) recovery was our primary outcome. Results Compared with controls, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly smaller mean ΔHR1min (23 bpm, 95% CI [20, 26] vs. 32 bpm, 95% CI [26, 37], p = 0.006) and ΔHR2min (39 bpm, 95% CI [36, 43] vs. 48 bpm, 95% CI [42, 53], p = 0.011). Subjects with SCA also showed smaller mean changes in HR from peak HR to 1 minute, from 1 minute to 2 minutes and from 2 through 5 minutes of recovery by repeated measures testing. In a multivariable regression model, older age was independently associated with smaller ΔHR1min in subjects with SCA. Cardiopulmonary fitness and hydroxyurea use, however, were not independent predictors of ΔHR1min. Conclusions Children with SCA demonstrate impaired HRR following maximal exercise. Reduced post-exercise HRR in SCA suggests impaired parasympathetic function, which may become progressively worse with age, in this population. PMID:25477159

  12. Congestive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is associated with severely impaired dynamic Starling mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Shigeki; Hastings, Jeff L.; Prasad, Anand; Fu, Qi; Bhella, Paul S.; Pacini, Eric; Krainski, Felix; Palmer, M. Dean; Zhang, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Sedentary aging leads to increased cardiovascular stiffening, which can be ameliorated by sufficient amounts of lifelong exercise training. An even more extreme form of cardiovascular stiffening can be seen in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which comprises ∼40∼50% of elderly patients diagnosed with congestive heart failure. There are two major interrelated hypotheses proposed to explain heart failure in these patients: 1) increased left ventricular (LV) diastolic stiffness and 2) increased arterial stiffening. The beat-to-beat dynamic Starling mechanism, which is impaired with healthy human aging, reflects the interaction between ventricular and arterial stiffness and thus may provide a link between these two mechanisms underlying HFpEF. Spectral transfer function analysis was applied between beat-to-beat changes in LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP; estimated from pulmonary artery diastolic pressure with a right heart catheter) and stroke volume (SV) index. The dynamic Starling mechanism (transfer function gain between LVEDP and the SV index) was impaired in HFpEF patients (n = 10) compared with healthy age-matched controls (n = 12) (HFpEF: 0.23 ± 0.10 ml·m−2·mmHg−1 and control: 0.37 ± 0.11 ml·m−2·mmHg−1, means ± SD, P = 0.008). There was also a markedly increased (3-fold) fluctuation of LV filling pressures (power spectral density of LVEDP) in HFpEF patients, which may predispose to pulmonary edema due to intermittent exposure to higher pulmonary capillary pressure (HFpEF: 12.2 ± 10.4 mmHg2 and control: 3.8 ± 2.9 mmHg2, P = 0.014). An impaired dynamic Starling mechanism, even more extreme than that observed with healthy aging, is associated with marked breath-by-breath LVEDP variability and may reflect advanced ventricular and arterial stiffness in HFpEF, possibly contributing to reduced forward output and pulmonary congestion. PMID:21310890

  13. Gap junction modulation and its implications for heart function

    PubMed Central

    Kurtenbach, Stefan; Kurtenbach, Sarah; Zoidl, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Gap junction communication (GJC) mediated by connexins is critical for heart function. To gain insight into the causal relationship of molecular mechanisms of disease pathology, it is important to understand which mechanisms contribute to impairment of gap junctional communication. Here, we present an update on the known modulators of connexins, including various interaction partners, kinases, and signaling cascades. This gap junction network (GJN) can serve as a blueprint for data mining approaches exploring the growing number of publicly available data sets from experimental and clinical studies. PMID:24578694

  14. Progressive troponin I loss impairs cardiac relaxation and causes heart failure in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Du, Jianfeng; Zhang, Chi; Walker, Jeffery W; Huang, Xupei

    2007-08-01

    Cardiac troponin I (TnI) knockout mice exhibit a phenotype of sudden death at 17-18 days after birth due to a progressive loss of TnI. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the physiological consequences of TnI depletion and the cause of death in these mice. Cardiac function was monitored serially between 12 and 17 days of age by using high-resolution ultrasonic imaging and Doppler echocardiography. Two-dimensional B-mode and anatomical M-mode imaging and Doppler echocardiography were performed using a high-frequency ( approximately 20-45 MHz) ultrasound imaging system on homozygous cardiac TnI mutant mice (cTnI(-/-)) and wild-type littermates. On day 12, cTnI(-/-) mice were indistinguishable from wild-type mice in terms of heart rate, atrial and LV (LV) chamber dimensions, LV posterior wall thickness, and body weight. By days 16 through 17, wild-type mice showed up to a 40% increase in chamber dimensions due to normal growth, whereas cTnI(-/-) mice showed increases in atrial dimensions of up to 97% but decreases in ventricular dimensions of up to 70%. Mitral Doppler analysis revealed prolonged isovolumic relaxation time and pronounced inversion of the mitral E/A ratio (early ventricular filling wave-to-late atrial contraction filling wave) only in cTnI(-/-) mice indicative of impaired LV relaxation. cTnI(-/-) mouse hearts showed clear signs of failure on day 17, characterized by >50% declines in cardiac output, ejection fraction, and fractional shortening. B-mode echocardiography showed a profoundly narrowed tube-like LV and enlarged atria at this time. Our data are consistent with TnI deficiency causing impaired LV relaxation, which leads to diastolic heart failure in this model. PMID:17526646

  15. Rehabilitation of impaired speech function (dysarthria, dysglossia)

    PubMed Central

    Schröter-Morasch, Heidrun; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    Speech disorders can result (1) from sensorimotor impairments of articulatory movements = dysarthria, or (2) from structural changes of the speech organs, in adults particularly after surgical and radiochemical treatment of tumors = dysglossia. The decrease of intelligibility, a reduced vocal stamina, the stigmatization of a conspicuous voice and manner of speech, the reduction of emotional expressivity all mean greatly diminished quality of life, restricted career opportunities and diminished social contacts. Intensive therapy based on the pathophysiological facts is absolutely essential: Functional exercise therapy plays a central role; according to symptoms and their progression it can be complemented with prosthetic and surgical approaches. In severe cases communicational aids have to be used. All rehabilitation measures have to take account of frequently associated disorders of body motor control and/or impairment of cognition and behaviour. PMID:22073063

  16. Left atrial booster function in valvular heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Heidenreich, Fred P.; Shaver, James A.; Thompson, Mark E.; Leonard, James J.

    1970-01-01

    This study was designed to assess atrial booster pump action in valvular heart disease and to dissect booster pump from reservoir-conduit functions. In five patients with aortic stenosis and six with mitral stenosis, sequential atrioventricular (A-V) pacing was instituted during the course of diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Continuous recording of valvular gradient allowed estimation of flow for each cardiac cycle by transposition of the Gorlin formula. Left ventricular ejection time and left ventricular stroke work in aortic stenosis or left ventricular mean systolic pressure in mitral stenosis were also determined. Control observations were recorded during sequential A-V pacing with well-timed atrial systole. Cardiac cycles were then produced with no atrial contraction but undisturbed atrial reservoir function by intermittently interrupting the atrial pacing stimulus during sequential A-V pacing. This intervention significantly reduced valvular gradient, flow, left ventricular ejection time, and left ventricular mean systolic pressure or stroke work. Cardiac cycles were then produced with atrial booster action eliminated by instituting synchronous A-V pacing. The resultant simultaneous contraction of the atrium and ventricle not only eliminated effective atrial systole but also placed atrial systole during the normal period of atrial reservoir function. This also significantly reduced all the hemodynamic measurements. However, comparison of the magnitude of change from these two different pacing interventions showed no greater impairment of hemodynamic state when both booster pump action and reservoir function were impaired than when booster pump action alone was impaired. The study confirms the potential benefit of well placed atrial booster pump action in valvular heart disease in man. PMID:5449701

  17. Functional Hubs in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, Adrián; Papo, David; Boccaletti, Stefano; Del-Pozo, F.; Bajo, Ricardo; Maestú, Fernando; Martínez, J. H.; Gil, Pablo; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Buldú, Javier M.

    We investigate how hubs of functional brain networks are modified as a result of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a condition causing a slight but noticeable decline in cognitive abilities, which sometimes precedes the onset of Alzheimer's disease. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the functional brain networks of a group of patients suffering from MCI and a control group of healthy subjects, during the execution of a short-term memory task. Couplings between brain sites were evaluated using synchronization likelihood, from which a network of functional interdependencies was constructed and the centrality, i.e. importance, of their nodes was quantified. The results showed that, with respect to healthy controls, MCI patients were associated with decreases and increases in hub centrality respectively in occipital and central scalp regions, supporting the hypothesis that MCI modifies functional brain network topology, leading to more random structures.

  18. Compound heterozygous NOTCH1 mutations underlie impaired cardiogenesis in a patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Theis, Jeanne L; Hrstka, Sybil C L; Evans, Jared M; O'Byrne, Megan M; de Andrade, Mariza; O'Leary, Patrick W; Nelson, Timothy J; Olson, Timothy M

    2015-09-01

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a severe congenital heart defect (CHD) that necessitates staged, single ventricle surgical palliation. An increased frequency of bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) has been observed among relatives. We postulated number of mutant alleles as a molecular basis for variable CHD expression in an extended family comprised of an HLHS proband and four family members who underwent echocardiography and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Dermal fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) were procured from the proband-parent trio and bioengineered into cardiomyocytes. Cardiac phenotyping revealed aortic valve atresia and a slit-like left ventricular cavity in the HLHS proband, isolated bicuspid pulmonary valve in his mother, BAV in a maternal 4° relative, and no CHD in his father or sister. Filtering of WGS for rare, functional variants that segregated with CHD and were compound heterozygous in the HLHS proband identified NOTCH1 as the sole candidate gene. An unreported missense mutation (P1964L) in the cytoplasmic domain, segregating with semilunar valve malformation, was maternally inherited and a rare missense mutation (P1256L) in the extracellular domain, clinically silent in the heterozygous state, was paternally inherited. Patient-specific iPSCs exhibited diminished transcript levels of NOTCH1 signaling pathway components, impaired myocardiogenesis, and a higher prevalence of heterogeneous myofilament organization. Extended, phenotypically characterized families enable WGS-derived variant filtering for plausible Mendelian modes of inheritance, a powerful strategy to discover molecular underpinnings of CHD. Identification of compound heterozygous NOTCH1 mutations and iPSC-based functional modeling implicate mutant allele burden and impaired myogenic potential as mechanisms for HLHS. PMID:26164125

  19. How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

  20. Heart Rate Variability and Drawing Impairment in Hypoxemic COPD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Corsonello, Andrea; Trojano, Luigi; Pedone, Claudio; Acanfora, Domenico; Spada, Aldo; D'Addio, Gianni; Maestri, Roberto; Rengo, Franco; Rengo, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    We studied 54 patients with hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Mini Mental State Examination and the Mental Deterioration Battery were used for neuropsychological assessment. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed based on 24-h Holter ECG recording. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare HRV parameters of patients…

  1. Impaired Serotonergic Brainstem Function during and after Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Qiong; Buchanan, Gordon F.; Motelow, Joshua E.; Andrews, John; Vitkovskiy, Petr; Chen, William C.; Serout, Florian; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Kundishora, Adam; Furman, Moran; Li, Wei; Bo, Xiao; Richerson, George B.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired breathing, cardiac function, and arousal during and after seizures are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Previous work suggests that these changes are associated with depressed brainstem function in the ictal and post-ictal periods. Lower brainstem serotonergic systems are postulated to play an important role in cardiorespiratory changes during and after seizures, whereas upper brainstem serotonergic and other systems regulate arousal. However, direct demonstration of seizure-associated neuronal activity changes in brainstem serotonergic regions has been lacking. Here, we performed multiunit and single-unit recordings from medullary raphe and midbrain dorsal raphe nuclei in an established rat seizure model while measuring changes in breathing rate and depth as well as heart rate. Serotonergic neurons were identified by immunohistochemistry. Respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute ventilation were all significantly decreased during and after seizures in this model. We found that population firing of neurons in the medullary and midbrain raphe on multiunit recordings was significantly decreased during the ictal and post-ictal periods. Single-unit recordings from identified serotonergic neurons in the medullary raphe revealed highly consistently decreased firing during and after seizures. In contrast, firing of midbrain raphe serotonergic neurons was more variable, with a mixture of increases and decreases. The markedly suppressed firing of medullary serotonergic neurons supports their possible role in simultaneously impaired cardiorespiratory function in seizures. Decreased arousal likely arises from depressed population activity of several neuronal pools in the upper brainstem and forebrain. These findings have important implications for preventing morbidity and mortality in people living with epilepsy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Seizures often cause impaired breathing, cardiac dysfunction, and loss of consciousness. The brainstem and

  2. Impairment of energy metabolism in intact residual myocardium of rat hearts with chronic myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, S; Horn, M; Naumann, A; Tian, R; Hu, K; Laser, M; Friedrich, J; Gaudron, P; Schnackerz, K; Ingwall, J S

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that energy metabolism is impaired in residual intact myocardium of chronically infarcted rat heart, contributing to contractile dysfunction. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in rats by coronary artery ligation. Hearts were isolated 8 wk later and buffer-perfused isovolumically. MI hearts showed reduced left ventricular developed pressure, but oxygen consumption was unchanged. High-energy phosphate contents were measured chemically and by 31P-NMR spectroscopy. In residual intact left ventricular tissue, ATP was unchanged after MI, while creatine phosphate was reduced by 31%. Total creatine kinase (CK) activity was reduced by 17%, the fetal CK isoenzymes BB and MB increased, while the "adult" mitochondrial CK isoenzyme activity decreased by 44%. Total creatine content decreased by 35%. Phosphoryl exchange between ATP and creatine phosphate, measured by 31P-NMR magnetization transfer, fell by 50% in MI hearts. Thus, energy reserve is substantially impaired in residual intact myocardium of chronically infarcted rats. Because phosphoryl exchange was still five times higher than ATP synthesis rates calculated from oxygen consumption, phosphoryl transfer via CK may not limit baseline contractile performance 2 mo after MI. In contrast, when MI hearts were subjected to acute stress (hypoxia), mechanical recovery during reoxygenation was impaired, suggesting that reduced energy reserve contributes to increased susceptibility of MI hearts to acute metabolic stress. PMID:7883957

  3. The prevalence of cognitive impairment among African-American patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Akomolafe, Abimbola; Quarshie, Alexander; Jackson, Patricia; Thomas, Jerome; Deffer, Orlando; Oduwole, Adefisayo; Onwuanyi, Anekwe; Lapu-Bula, Rigobert; Strayhorn, Gregory; Ofili, Elizabeth; Mayberry, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This cross-sectional study sought to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment among African-American patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). We studied 100 African-American CHF patients (aged 55-87 years) in New York Heart Association classes II-IV, who are enrolled in an ongoing, randomized, controlled trial, evaluating the effectiveness of a telemonitoring intervention to improve access to ambulatory care for heart failure patients. These CHF patients were recruited from an inner-city practice, rural physician practices and an urban physician practice in Atlanta. The Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) was used to measure cognition. Cognitive impairment was defined as a MMSE score of less than 24. The crude prevalence of cognitive impairment was 10% in this population of African Americans with CHF. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated an increase in odds of cognitive impairment with increasing age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.10 and 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.20; p=0.042]. There was no significant relationship between cognitive impairment and gender, education status, depression and severity of CHF. This study indicates that cognitive impairment is relatively prevalent among African Americans with CHF, but lower than previously reported among Caucasians with CHF. PMID:15926646

  4. Functions for the cardiomyokine, MANF, in cardioprotection, hypertrophy and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Glembotski, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    We define cardiomyokines as heart-derived secreted proteins that affect cardiovascular function via autocrine, paracrine and/or endocrine mechanisms. The subject of this review is the cardiomyokine, mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF). The expression of MANF is increased in the ischemic heart, in part, through activation of ER stress, a condition that drastically impairs the expression and secretion of most cardiomyokines. This novel function of MANF suggests that it may have important roles in the ER stressed, ischemic heart. Consistent with this are recent findings showing that MANF protects against ischemic damage, and that it is anti-hypertrophic. Accordingly, in light of its function as a potentially secreted cardiomyokine, MANF has translational potential as a novel therapy for ischemic heart disease. This article is part of a special issue entitled “Key Signaling Molecules in Hypertrophy and Heart Failure. PMID:20970425

  5. Interplay between cardiac function and heart development.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Delgado, Laura; Mercader, Nadia

    2016-07-01

    Mechanotransduction refers to the conversion of mechanical forces into biochemical or electrical signals that initiate structural and functional remodeling in cells and tissues. The heart is a kinetic organ whose form changes considerably during development and disease. This requires cardiomyocytes to be mechanically durable and able to mount coordinated responses to a variety of environmental signals on different time scales, including cardiac pressure loading and electrical and hemodynamic forces. During physiological growth, myocytes, endocardial and epicardial cells have to adaptively remodel to these mechanical forces. Here we review some of the recent advances in the understanding of how mechanical forces influence cardiac development, with a focus on fluid flow forces. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. PMID:26952935

  6. Executive Dysfunction is Independently Associated with Reduced Functional Independence in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; van Dulmen, Manfred; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives To examine the independent association between executive function with instrumental activities of daily living and health behaviors in older adults with heart failure. Background Executive function is an important contributor to functional independence as it consists of cognitive processes needed for decision-making, planning, organizing, and behavioral monitoring. Impairment in this domain is common in heart failure patients and associated with reduced performance of instrumental activities of daily living in many medical and neurological populations. However, the contribution of executive functions to functional independence and healthy lifestyle choices in heart failure patients has not been fully examined. Design Cross-sectional analyses. Methods 175 heart failure patients completed a neuropsychological battery and echocardiogram. Participants also completed the Lawton-Brody instrumental activities of daily living scale and reported current cigarette use. Results Hierarchical regressions revealed reduced executive function was independently associated with worse instrumental activity of daily living performance with a specific association for decreased ability to manage medications. Partial correlations showed executive dysfunction was associated with current cigarette use. Conclusions Our findings suggest that executive dysfunction is associated with poorer functional independence and contributes to unhealthy behaviors in heart failure. Future studies should examine whether heart failure patients benefit from formal organization schemae (i.e., pill organizers) to maintain independence. Relevance to Clinical Practice Screening of executive function in heart failure patients may provide key insight into their ability to perform daily tasks, including management of treatment recommendations. PMID:23650879

  7. [The effect of droperidol on heart function].

    PubMed

    Chernikov, V S; Bakuleva, N P; Kostava, V T

    1992-01-01

    The effect of droperidol (3.3 x 10(-6) M) on the functional capacities of the isolated heart has been studied. The drug inhibited myocardial contractility. The effect manifested directly after the introduction of droperidol into perfusate (prompt phase). Afterwards the progress of the drug inhibitory effect was slow (slow phase). It is assumed that the difficulties in the use of droperidol in the critical cardiosurgical patients are associated with the attenuation in the realization of the regulatory effects of the central nervous system. PMID:1416194

  8. Annual Research Review: Conceptualising Functional Impairment in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapee, Ronald M.; Bogels, Susan M.; van der Sluis, Cathy M.; Craske, Michelle G.; Ollendick, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Functional impairment is a key factor in the clinical importance of mental health problems in children. Yet, the nature of impairment and criteria for defining and assessing impairment in childhood disorders has been surprisingly overlooked in much of the literature. The current article examines the extant literature on the conceptualisation,…

  9. Association of Central Sleep Apnea with Impaired Heart Structure and Cardiovascular Hemodynamics in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kazimierczak, Anna; Krzesiński, Paweł; Gielerak, Grzegorz; Uziebło-Życzkowska, Beata; Smurzyński, Paweł; Ryczek, Robert; Cwetsch, Andrzej; Skrobowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background Advanced heart failure (HF) is commonly accompanied by central sleep apnea (CSA) with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CSA/CSR and other clinical features of HF, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular hemodynamics. Material/Methods In 161 stable HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% (NYHA class I–III; mean LVEF 32.8%) the clinical evaluation included: LVEF; left and right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDd, RVDd); ratio of early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic septal mitral annulus velocity (E/e’) assessed by echocardiography; stroke index (SI); heart rate (HR); cardiac index (CI); and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) assessed by impedance cardiography (ICG). The comparison was performed between 2 subgroups: one with moderate/severe CSA/CSR - CSR_ [+] (n=51), and one with mild or no CSA/CSR – CSR_ [−] (n=110). Results CSR_ [+] patients presented more advanced NYHA class (p<0.001) and more frequently had permanent atrial fibrillation (p=0.018). Moreover, they had: lower LVEF (p<0.0001); higher LVDd (p<0.0001), RVDd (p<0.001), and E/e’ (p<0.001); lower SI (p<0.001) and CI (p=0.009); and higher HR (p=0.044) and SVRI (p=0.016). The following predictors of CSR_ [+] were identified: NYHA class (OR=3.34 per class, p<0.001, which was the only independent predictor); atrial fibrillation (OR=2.29, p=0.019); RV enlargement (OR=2.75, p=0.005); LVEF<35% (OR=3.38, p=0.001); E/e’ (OR=3.15; p=0.003); and SI<35 ml/m2 (OR=2.96, p=0.003). Conclusions Presence of CSA/CSR in HF is associated with NYHA class, atrial fibrillation and more advanced impairment of cardiovascular structure and hemodynamics. Patient functional state remains the main determinant of CSR. PMID:27558771

  10. Association of Central Sleep Apnea with Impaired Heart Structure and Cardiovascular Hemodynamics in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kazimierczak, Anna; Krzesiński, Paweł; Gielerak, Grzegorz; Uziębło-Życzkowska, Beata; Smurzyński, Paweł; Ryczek, Robert; Cwetsch, Andrzej; Skrobowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Advanced heart failure (HF) is commonly accompanied by central sleep apnea (CSA) with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between CSA/CSR and other clinical features of HF, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular hemodynamics. MATERIAL AND METHODS In 161 stable HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% (NYHA class I-III; mean LVEF 32.8%) the clinical evaluation included: LVEF; left and right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDd, RVDd); ratio of early transmitral flow velocity to early diastolic septal mitral annulus velocity (E/e') assessed by echocardiography; stroke index (SI); heart rate (HR); cardiac index (CI); and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) assessed by impedance cardiography (ICG). The comparison was performed between 2 subgroups: one with moderate/severe CSA/CSR - CSR_ [+] (n=51), and one with mild or no CSA/CSR - CSR_ [-] (n=110). RESULTS CSR_ [+] patients presented more advanced NYHA class (p<0.001) and more frequently had permanent atrial fibrillation (p=0.018). Moreover, they had: lower LVEF (p<0.0001); higher LVDd (p<0.0001), RVDd (p<0.001), and E/e' (p<0.001); lower SI (p<0.001) and CI (p=0.009); and higher HR (p=0.044) and SVRI (p=0.016). The following predictors of CSR_ [+] were identified: NYHA class (OR=3.34 per class, p<0.001, which was the only independent predictor); atrial fibrillation (OR=2.29, p=0.019); RV enlargement (OR=2.75, p=0.005); LVEF<35% (OR=3.38, p=0.001); E/e' (OR=3.15; p=0.003); and SI<35 ml/m2 (OR=2.96, p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS Presence of CSA/CSR in HF is associated with NYHA class, atrial fibrillation and more advanced impairment of cardiovascular structure and hemodynamics. Patient functional state remains the main determinant of CSR. PMID:27558771

  11. Functional impairments due to unilateral deafness.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Louis W; Welsh, John J; Rosen, Laurie F; Dragonette, Joseph E

    2004-12-01

    The authors investigated the impact of unilateral listening upon two central auditory functions: speech discrimination in a noisy environment, and the ability to process and clearly recognize modestly accelerated speech by 30% compression (shortened exposure). We determined that the negative impact of listening to speech in the milieu of noise was individually variable. The data revealed a wide range of impairment, from mild to relatively severe (ie, 0% to 60% [mean, 34%]; normative data, 4% to 36% [mean, 14%]). The performance scores for recognition of compressed sentences were not markedly influenced by unilateral deafness, but the functional results of the residual ear were correlated with a loss of high-frequency sensitivity (mean of 54% correct in severe unilateral deafness with an associated high-frequency loss versus 93% correct in normal controls). Reorganization of the central nervous system by "plasticity" or biological maturation over time failed to improve the performance of monaural listening. The currently recommended methods of remediation for this sensory deficit are discussed, and newer technologies under investigation are examined. PMID:15633902

  12. Dietary Nitrate and Skeletal Muscle Contractile Function in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Coggan, Andrew R; Peterson, Linda R

    2016-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients suffer from exercise intolerance that diminishes their ability to perform normal activities of daily living and hence compromises their quality of life. This is due largely to detrimental changes in skeletal muscle mass, structure, metabolism, and function. This includes an impairment of muscle contractile performance, i.e., a decline in the maximal force, speed, and power of muscle shortening. Although numerous mechanisms underlie this reduction in contractility, one contributing factor may be a decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Consistent with this, recent data demonstrate that acute ingestion of NO3 (-)-rich beetroot juice, a source of NO via the NO synthase-independent enterosalivary pathway, markedly increases maximal muscle speed and power in HF patients. This review discusses the role of muscle contractile dysfunction in the exercise intolerance characteristic of HF, and the evidence that dietary NO3 (-) supplementation may represent a novel and simple therapy for this currently underappreciated problem. PMID:27271563

  13. Impaired Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF)-AMPK Activation and Ischemic Recovery in the Senescent Heart

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Heng; Wang, Jingying; Thomas, D Paul; Tong, Chao; Leng, Lin; Wang, Wenkui; Merk, Melanie; Zierow, Swen; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Ren, Jun; Bucala, Richard; Li, Ji

    2010-01-01

    Background Elderly patients are more sensitive to myocardial ischemia, which results in higher mortality. We investigated how aging impacts the cardioprotective AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Methods and Results Ischemic AMPK activation was impaired in aged compared to young murine hearts. The expression and secretion of the AMPK upstream regulator, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), were lower in aged compared to young adult hearts. Additionally, the levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), a known transcriptional activator of MIF, were reduced in aged compared to young hearts. Ischemia-induced AMPK activation in MIF knock-out (MIF KO) mice was blunted, leading to greater contractile dysfunction in MIF-deficient than in wild type (WT) hearts. Furthermore, intra-myocardial injection of adenovirus encoding MIF (Adv-MIF) in aged mice increased MIF expression and ischemic AMPK activation, and reduced infarct size. Conclusions An impaired MIF-AMPK activation response in senescence thus may be attributed to an aging-associated defect in the transcription factor for MIF, HIF-1α. In the clinical setting, impaired cardiac HIF-1α activation and consequent reduced MIF expression may play an important role in the increased susceptibility to myocardial ischemia observed in older cardiac patients. PMID:20606117

  14. Chamber identity programs drive early functional partitioning of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Mosimann, Christian; Panáková, Daniela; Werdich, Andreas A.; Musso, Gabriel; Burger, Alexa; Lawson, Katy L.; Carr, Logan A.; Nevis, Kathleen R.; Sabeh, M. Khaled; Zhou, Yi; Davidson, Alan J.; DiBiase, Anthony; Burns, Caroline E.; Burns, C. Geoffrey; MacRae, Calum A.; Zon, Leonard I.

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate heart muscle (myocardium) develops from the first heart field (FHF) and expands by adding second heart field (SHF) cells. While both lineages exist already in teleosts, the primordial contributions of FHF and SHF to heart structure and function remain incompletely understood. Here we delineate the functional contribution of the FHF and SHF to the zebrafish heart using the cis-regulatory elements of the draculin (drl) gene. The drl reporters initially delineate the lateral plate mesoderm, including heart progenitors. Subsequent myocardial drl reporter expression restricts to FHF descendants. We harnessed this unique feature to uncover that loss of tbx5a and pitx2 affect relative FHF versus SHF contributions to the heart. High-resolution physiology reveals distinctive electrical properties of each heart field territory that define a functional boundary within the single zebrafish ventricle. Our data establish that the transcriptional program driving cardiac septation regulates physiologic ventricle partitioning, which successively provides mechanical advantages of sequential contraction. PMID:26306682

  15. JWH-018 impairs sensorimotor functions in mice.

    PubMed

    Ossato, A; Vigolo, A; Trapella, C; Seri, C; Rimondo, C; Serpelloni, G; Marti, M

    2015-08-01

    Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-018) is a synthetic cannabinoid agonist illegally marketed in "Spice" and "herbal blend" for its psychoactive effect greater than those produced by cannabis. In rodents JWH-018 reproduces typical effects of (-)-Δ(9)-THC or Dronabinol® (Δ(9)-THC) such as hypothermia, analgesia, hypolocomotion and akinesia, while its effects on sensorimotor functions are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of acute administration of JWH-018 (0.01-6mg/kg i.p.) on sensorimotor functions in male CD-1 mice and to compare its effects with those caused by the administration of Δ(9)-THC (0.01-6mg/kg i.p.). A specific battery of behavioral tests were adopted to investigate effects of cannabinoid agonists on sensorimotor functions (visual, auditory, tactile) and neurological changes (convulsion, myoclonia, hyperreflexia) while video-tracking analysis was used to study spontaneous locomotion. JWH-018 administration inhibited sensorimotor responses at lower doses (0.01-0.1mg/kg), reduced spontaneous locomotion at intermediate/high doses (1-6mg/kg) and induced convulsions, myoclonia and hyperreflexia at high doses (6mg/kg). Similarly, administration of Δ(9)-THC reduced sensorimotor responses in mice but it did not inhibit spontaneous locomotion and it did not induce neurological alterations. All behavioral effects and neurological alterations were prevented by the administration of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM 251). For the first time these data demonstrate that JWH-018 impairs sensorimotor responses in mice. This aspect should be carefully evaluated to better understand the potential danger that JWH-018 may pose to public health, with particular reference to decreased performance in driving and hazardous works. PMID:25987201

  16. Cerebral changes and cognitive impairment after an ischemic heart disease: a multimodal MRI study.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Charlotte; Catheline, Gwénaëlle; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Couffinhal, Thierry; Ledure, Sylvain; Lassalle-Lagadec, Saioa; Callaert, Dorothée; Allard, Michèle; Sibon, Igor

    2016-09-01

    Three to 6 months after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), cognitive impairment is observed in more than 30 % of the patients, mainly in executive functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate, using multimodal MRI, cerebral anatomo-functional substratum of executive dysfunction. Thirty-three patients were recruited 4 ± 1 months after a first ACS. Executive functions were evaluated with the Trail-Making-Test-B (TMTB) at baseline (ie 4 ± 1 months after ACS) and 6 months later (ie 10 ± 1 months after ACS). Using both time-points, we identified 3 groups of patients according to normative data based on age, gender and education level: 15 'cognitively normal' patients without impairment at each follow-up, 10 'transient impaired' patients with an impairment only at baseline and 8 'impairing' patients with an impairment only at follow-up. We explored, in the whole-brain, the structural integrity using Voxel-Based Morphometry and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics and the resting-state functional connectivity using Network-Based Statistics. No structural difference was observed between impaired and cognitively normal patients. At the functional level, compared to the 'cognitively normal' group, the 'transient impaired' patients presented an increased functional connectivity in a network centered on middle-orbito-frontal regions, whereas the 'impairing' patients presented only a non-significant decrease of functional connectivity. Executive dysfunction in ACS patients is associated to functional but no structural characteristics, particularly to an increased functional connectivity in cognitive networks in transient impaired patients. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these results and to determine if these patients could be at higher risk for developing permanent cognitive disorders. PMID:26589710

  17. Hyperglycemia Impairs Proteasome Function by Methylglyoxal

    PubMed Central

    Queisser, Markus A.; Yao, Dachun; Geisler, Sven; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Lochnit, Günter; Schleicher, Erwin D.; Brownlee, Michael; Preissner, Klaus T.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the main degradation machinery for intracellularly altered proteins. Hyperglycemia has been shown to increase intracellular levels of the reactive dicarbonyl methylglyoxal (MGO) in cells damaged by diabetes, resulting in modification of proteins and alterations of their function. In this study, the influence of MGO-derived advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation on the activity of the proteasome was investigated in vitro and in vivo. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS MGO-derived AGE modification of proteasome subunits was analyzed by mass spectrometry, immunoprecipitation, and Western blots. Proteasome activity was analyzed using proteasome-specific fluorogenic substrates. Experimental models included bovine retinal endothelial cells, diabetic Ins2Akita mice, glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) knockdown mice, and streptozotocin (STZ)-injected diabetic mice. RESULTS In vitro incubation with MGO caused adduct formation on several 20S proteasomal subunit proteins. In cultured endothelial cells, the expression level of the catalytic 20S proteasome subunit was not altered but proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity was significantly reduced. In contrast, levels of regulatory 19S proteasomal proteins were decreased. In diabetic Ins2Akita, STZ diabetic, and nondiabetic and diabetic G101 knockdown mice, chymotrypsin-like activity was also reduced and MGO modification of the 20S-β2 subunit was increased. CONCLUSIONS Hyperglycemia-induced formation of MGO covalently modifies the 20S proteasome, decreasing its activity in the diabetic kidney and reducing the polyubiquitin receptor 19S-S5a. The results indicate a new link between hyperglycemia and impairment of cell functions. PMID:20009088

  18. Impaired immune function in Gulf War Illness

    PubMed Central

    Whistler, Toni; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Lonergan, William; Zeng, Xiao-R; Lin, Jin-Mann; LaPerriere, Arthur; Vernon, Suzanne D; Klimas, Nancy G

    2009-01-01

    Background Gulf War Illness (GWI) remains a serious health consequence for at least 11,000 veterans of the first Gulf War in the early 1990s. Our understanding of the health consequences that resulted remains inadequate, and this is of great concern with another deployment to the same theater of operations occurring now. Chronic immune cell dysfunction and activation have been demonstrated in patients with GWI, although the literature is not uniform. We exposed GWI patients and matched controls to an exercise challenge to explore differences in immune cell function measured by classic immune assays and gene expression profiling. Methods This pilot study enrolled 9 GWI cases identified from the Department of Veterans Affairs GWI registry, and 11 sedentary control veterans who had not been deployed to the Persian Gulf and were matched to cases by sex, body mass index (BMI) and age. We measured peripheral blood cell numbers, NK cytotoxicity, cytokines and expression levels of 20,000 genes immediately before, immediately after and 4 hours following a standard bicycle ergometer exercise challenge. Results A repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed statistically significant differences for three NK cell subsets and NK cytotoxicity between cases and controls (p < 0.05). Linear regression analysis correlating NK cell numbers to the gene expression profiles showed high correlation of genes associated with NK cell function, serving as a biologic validation of both the in vitro assays and the microarray platform. Intracellular perforin levels in NK and CD8 T-cells trended lower and showed a flatter profile in GWI cases than controls, as did the expression levels of the perforin gene PRF1. Genes distinguishing cases from controls were associated with the glucocorticoid signaling pathway. Conclusion GWI patients demonstrated impaired immune function as demonstrated by decreased NK cytotoxicity and altered gene expression associated with NK cell function. Pro

  19. Performance of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) in Detecting Cognitive Impairment in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Susan S.; Goldstein, Carly M.; Gathright, Emily C.; Gunstad, John; Dolansky, Mary A.; Redle, Joseph; Hughes, Joel W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Evaluate capacity of the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) to detect cognitive impairment (CI) in heart failure (HF) patients. Background CI is a key prognostic marker in HF. Though the most widely used cognitive screen in HF, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is insufficiently sensitive. The ANAM has demonstrated sensitivity to cognitive domains affected by HF, but has not been assessed in this population. Methods Investigators administered the ANAM and MMSE to 57 HF patients, compared against a composite model of cognitive function. Results ANAM efficiency (p < .05) and accuracy scores (p < .001) successfully differentiated CI and non-CI. ANAM efficiency and accuracy scores classified 97.7% and 93.0% of non-CI patients, and 14.3% and 21.4% with CI, respectively. Conclusions The ANAM is more effective than the MMSE for detecting CI, but further research is needed to develop a more optimal cognitive screen for routine use in HF patients. PMID:26354858

  20. Using en-face optical coherence tomography to analyse gene function in Drosophila Melanogaster larval heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradu, Adrian; Ma, Lisha; Bloor, Jim; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2008-09-01

    In-vivo Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging of the fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster larval heart allows non invasive visualizations and assessment of its cardiac function. In order to image Drosophila heart, we have developed a dedicated imaging instrument able to provide simultaneous OCT and Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy (LSCM) images. With this dual imaging system, the heart can easily be located and visualised within the specimen and the change of the heart shape in a cardiac cycle monitored. Here we have used targeted gene expression to knockdown the myospheroid (mys) gene in the larval heart using a specific RNAi construct. By knocking down a β integrin subunit encoded by mys we have recorded an enlarged heart chamber in both diastolic and systolic states. Also, the fraction of reduction of the chamber diameter was smaller in the knockdown heart. These phenotypic differences indicate that impaired cardiac contractility occurs in the heart where the integrin gene express level is reduced. At our knowledge, this is for the first time when it is shown that integrins have a direct relationship to a dilated heart defect.

  1. Heart Failure Impairs Muscle Blood Flow and Endurance Exercise Tolerance in COPD.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Mayron F; Arbex, Flavio F; Alencar, Maria Clara; Souza, Aline; Sperandio, Priscila A; Medeiros, Wladimir M; Mazzuco, Adriana; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Medina, Luiz A; Santos, Rita; Hirai, Daniel M; Mancuso, Frederico; Almeida, Dirceu; O'Donnell, Denis E; Neder, J Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Heart failure, a prevalent and disabling co-morbidity of COPD, may impair cardiac output and muscle blood flow thereby contributing to exercise intolerance. To investigate the role of impaired central and peripheral hemodynamics in limiting exercise tolerance in COPD-heart failure overlap, cycle ergometer exercise tests at 20% and 80% peak work rate were performed by overlap (FEV1 = 56.9 ± 15.9% predicted, ejection fraction = 32.5 ± 6.9%; N = 16), FEV1-matched COPD (N = 16), ejection fraction-matched heart failure patients (N = 15) and controls (N = 12). Differences (Δ) in cardiac output (impedance cardiography) and vastus lateralis blood flow (indocyanine green) and deoxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy) between work rates were expressed relative to concurrent changes in muscle metabolic demands (ΔO2 uptake). Overlap patients had approximately 30% lower endurance exercise tolerance than COPD and heart failure (p < 0.05). ΔBlood flow was closely proportional to Δcardiac output in all groups (r = 0.89-0.98; p < 0.01). Overlap showed the largest impairments in Δcardiac output/ΔO2 uptake and Δblood flow/ΔO2 uptake (p < 0.05). Systemic arterial oxygenation, however, was preserved in overlap compared to COPD. Blunted limb perfusion was related to greater muscle deoxygenation and lactate concentration in overlap (r = 0.78 and r = 0.73, respectively; p < 0.05). ΔBlood flow/ΔO2 uptake was related to time to exercise intolerance only in overlap and heart failure (p < 0.01). In conclusion, COPD and heart failure add to decrease exercising cardiac output and skeletal muscle perfusion to a greater extent than that expected by heart failure alone. Treatment strategies that increase muscle O2 delivery and/or decrease O2 demand may be particularly helpful to improve exercise tolerance in COPD patients presenting heart failure as co-morbidity. PMID:26790095

  2. Functional Impairment in Youth Three Years after Detention

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Karen M.; Choe, Jeanne Y.; Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin G.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This article examines functional impairment across global and specific dimensions among youth 3 years after their detention. Methods Functional impairment was assessed using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) in a large, stratified, random sample of formerly detained youth (N = 1653). Results More than one-fifth of the sample were scored as having marked impairment that required, at minimum, “multiple sources of care” (CAFAS Total Score of 100 or higher); 7.0% required “intensive intervention” (CAFAS Total Score ≥140). Most of the sample had impairment; only 7.5% of the sample had “no noteworthy impairment” (CAFAS Total Score ≤10). Significantly more males were impaired than females. Among males living in the community at follow-up, African Americans and Hispanics were more likely to be impaired than non-Hispanic whites. In comparison to males living in the community, males who were incarcerated at follow-up were significantly more likely to have impaired thinking and impaired functioning at their place of residence but less likely to have substance use problems. Conclusions Three years after detention, most youth struggle in one or more life domains; more than one in five have marked impairment in functioning. These findings underscore the ongoing costs, to both youth and society, of our failure to provide effective rehabilitation to youth after detention. PMID:19465316

  3. [Association between function of selenium and heart disease].

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Yuji

    2016-07-01

    An excessive oxidative stress is considered to be responsible for the development and progression of heart disease. Deficiency of trace elements with antioxidative activities is present in patients with heart disease. Selenium (Se) is an integral part of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase(GPx), one of the central players of the heart's antioxidant system, and it's deficiency is implicated in certain types of heart disease. Our study suggests that myocardial oxidative stress in chronic heart failure may be augmented at least in part by concomitant GPx deficiency, and that the administration of Se could rescue the exhaustion of this selenoprotein, resulting in improved left ventricular function. PMID:27455811

  4. Impaired heart rate recovery is associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, Thomas M; Ross, Colleen; Ho, P Michael; Magid, David; Rumsfeld, John S

    2009-01-01

    Background Autonomic dysfunction appears to play a significant role in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), and impaired heart rate recovery (HRR) during exercise treadmill testing (ETT) is a known marker for autonomic dysfunction. However, whether impaired HRR is associated with incident AF is unknown. We studied the association of impaired HRR with the development of incident AF, after controlling for demographic and clinical confounders. Methods We studied 8236 patients referred for ETT between 2001 and 2004, and without a prior history of AF. Patients were categorized by normal or impaired HRR on ETT. The primary outcome was the development of AF. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to control for demographic and clinical characteristics. Secondary analyses exploring a continuous relationship between impaired HRR and AF, and exploring interactions between cardiac medication use, HRR, and AF were also conducted. Results After adjustment, patients with impaired HRR were more likely to develop AF than patients with normal HRR (HR 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06, 1.93). In addition, there was a linear trend between impaired HRR and AF (HR 1.05 for each decreasing BPM in HRR, 95% CI 0.99, 1.11). No interactions between cardiac medications, HRR, and AF were noted. Conclusion Patients with impaired HRR on ETT were more likely to develop new-onset AF, as compared to patients with normal HRR. These findings support the hypothesis that autonomic dysfunction mediates the development of AF, and suggest that interventions known to improve HRR, such as exercise training, may delay or prevent AF. PMID:19284627

  5. Individual residual symptoms and functional impairment in patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Romera, Irene; Pérez, Víctor; Quail, Deborah; Berggren, Lovisa; Lenox-Smith, Alan; Gilaberte, Inmaculada

    2014-12-15

    The aim of treatment of depression is remission of symptoms and functioning. Although there is a relationship between remission of symptoms and remission of functioning, it is not known how individual residual symptoms are related to functioning. Here we report a post-hoc analysis of two studies which treated depressed patients with duloxetine in an open fashion for 10-12 weeks. We evaluated the association of individual residual symptoms and functional impairment in patients who remitted or partially remitted after acute treatment. Logistic regression was used to investigate residual symptoms associated with functional impairment at endpoint. Our results suggest that in partial remitters, the only residual symptom associated with a reduction in the risk of having impaired function was the resolution of painful physical symptoms (PPS). In patients who remitted, the presence of residual core mood symptoms (CMS), particularly in patients without any anxiety, predicted impaired functioning. The resolution of PPS in the presence of residual CMS was associated with less risk of impaired functioning. Our results contribute to understand better the role of specific residual symptoms on functional impairment. To achieve normal functioning, intervention on specific residual symptoms is recommended. PMID:25149132

  6. 1q21.1 microduplication in a patient with mental impairment and congenital heart defect.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guowen; Tan, Zhiping; Fan, Liangliang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Yifeng; Zhang, Weizhi

    2015-10-01

    1q21.1 duplication is a rare copy number variant with multiple congenital malformations, including developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, dysmorphic features and congenital heart anomalies. The present study described a Chinese female patient (age, four years and eight months) with multiple malformations, including congenital heart defect, mental impairment and developmental delay. The parents and the monozygotic twin sister of the patient, however, were physically and psychologically normal. High‑resolution genome‑wide single nucleotide polymorphism array revealed a 1.6‑Mb duplication in chromosome region 1q21.1. This chromosome region contained HFE2, a critical gene involved in hereditary hemochromatosis. However, the parents and monozygotic twin sister of the patient did not carry this genomic lesion. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to report on a 1q21.1 duplication patient in mainland China. PMID:26238956

  7. Diosmin pretreatment improves cardiac function and suppresses oxidative stress in rat heart after ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Senthamizhselvan, Oomaidurai; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Raja, Boobalan

    2014-08-01

    Reperfusion of ischemic tissue leads to the generation of oxygen derived free radicals which plays an important role in cellular damage. Objective of the current study is to evaluate the cardio-protective and antioxidant effect of diosmin on ischemia-reperfusion related cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Diosmin (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight (bw)) was given every day to the rats orally throughout the experimental period. Ischemia/reperfusion protocol was carried out ex vivo using langendorff perfusion method and the cardiac functional recovery was assessed in terms of percentage rate pressure product. Coronary effluents of LDH and CK-MB activities, antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation products, activity of TCA cycle enzymes were evaluated. Moreover, in vitro superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging potential of diosmin was also quantified. Finally, quantitative real-time PCR was used for assessing Bcl-2 mRNA expression in heart. Cardiac functional recovery was impaired after reperfusion compared with continuously perfused heart. It was significantly prevented by diosmin treatment. Impaired antioxidant enzyme activities and elevated lipid peroxidation products level were also significantly suppressed. The activity of TCA cycle enzymes was protected against reperfusion stress. Down regulated Bcl-2 was also significantly increased. This study concluded that diosmin pretreatment prevents all the impaired patterns including cardiac function, oxidative stress and apoptosis associated with reperfusion in control heart by its antioxidant role. PMID:24769512

  8. Structure and function of the hearts of lizards and snakes.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bjarke; Moorman, Antoon F M; Wang, Tobias

    2014-05-01

    With approximately 7000 species, snakes and lizards, collectively known as squamates, are by far the most species-rich group of reptiles. It was from reptile-like ancestors that mammals and birds evolved and squamates can be viewed as phylogenetically positioned between them and fishes. Hence, their hearts have been studied for more than a century yielding insights into the group itself and into the independent evolution of the fully divided four-chambered hearts of mammals and birds. Structurally the heart is complex and debates persist on rudimentary issues such as identifying structures critical to understanding ventricle function. In seeking to resolve these controversies we have generated three-dimensional (3D) models in portable digital format (pdf) of the anaconda and anole lizard hearts ('typical' squamate hearts) and the uniquely specialized python heart with comprehensive annotations of structures and cavities. We review the anatomy and physiology of squamate hearts in general and emphasize the unique features of pythonid and varanid lizard hearts that endow them with mammal-like blood pressures. Excluding pythons and varanid lizards it is concluded that the squamate heart has a highly consistent design including a disproportionately large right side (systemic venous) probably due to prevailing pulmonary bypass (intraventricular shunting). Unfortunately, investigations on rudimentary features are sparse. We therefore point out gaps in our knowledge, such as the size and functional importance of the coronary vasculature and of the first cardiac chamber, the sinus venosus, and highlight areas with implications for vertebrate cardiac evolution. PMID:23998743

  9. Cognitive Impairment Precedes and Predicts Functional Impairment in Mild Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu-Seifert, Hong; Siemers, Eric; Price, Karen; Han, Baoguang; Selzler, Katherine J.; Henley, David; Sundell, Karen; Aisen, Paul; Cummings, Jeffrey; Raskin, Joel; Mohs, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The temporal relationship of cognitive deficit and functional impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is not well characterized. Recent analyses suggest cognitive decline predicts subsequent functional decline throughout AD progression. Objective: To better understand the relationship between cognitive and functional decline in mild AD using autoregressive cross-lagged (ARCL) panel analyses in several clinical trials. Methods: Data included placebo patients with mild AD pooled from two multicenter, double-blind, Phase 3 solanezumab (EXPEDITION/2) or semagacestat (IDENTITY/2) studies, and from AD patients participating in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Cognitive and functional outcomes were assessed using AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), AD Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living instrumental subscale (ADCS-iADL), or Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ), respectively. ARCL panel analyses evaluated relationships between cognitive and functional impairment over time. Results: In EXPEDITION, ARCL panel analyses demonstrated cognitive scores significantly predicted future functional impairment at 5 of 6 time points, while functional scores predicted subsequent cognitive scores in only 1 of 6 time points. Data from IDENTITY and ADNI programs yielded consistent results whereby cognition predicted subsequent function, but not vice-versa. Conclusions: Analyses from three databases indicated cognitive decline precedes and predicts subsequent functional decline in mild AD dementia, consistent with previously proposed hypotheses, and corroborate recent publications using similar methodologies. Cognitive impairment may be used as a predictor of future functional impairment in mild AD dementia and can be considered a critical target for prevention strategies to limit future functional decline in the dementia process. PMID:26402769

  10. Impairment of Caloric Function after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuang, Heide; Haversat, Heather H.; Michaelides, Elias M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to review current literature on caloric function following cochlear implantation while analyzing any correlations of caloric function changes with vestibular symptoms. Method: This article is a systematic review of evidence-based literature. English language articles published between 1980 and 2014 that presented some…

  11. Functional requirements of a mathematical model of the heart.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Joseph L; Noordergraaf, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    Functional descriptions of the heart, especially the left ventricle, are often based on the measured variables pressure and ventricular outflow, embodied as a time-varying elastance. The fundamental difficulty of describing the mechanical properties of the heart with a time-varying elastance function that is set a priori is described. As an alternative, a new functional model of the heart is presented, which characterizes the ventricle's contractile state with parameters, rather than variables. Each chamber is treated as a pressure generator that is time and volume dependent. The heart's complex dynamics develop from a single equation based on the formation and relaxation of crossbridge bonds. This equation permits the calculation of ventricular elastance via E(v) = partial differentialp(v)/ partial differentialV(v). This heart model is defined independently from load properties, and ventricular elastance is dynamic and reflects changing numbers of crossbridge bonds. In this paper, the functionality of this new heart model is presented via computed work loops that demonstrate the Frank-Starling mechanism and the effects of preload, the effects of afterload, inotropic changes, and varied heart rate, as well as the interdependence of these effects. Results suggest the origin of the equivalent of Hill's force-velocity relation in the ventricle. PMID:19964370

  12. Impaired physical function following pediatric LT.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Amy G; Neighbors, Katie; Mukherjee, Shubhra; Rak, Melanie; Varni, James W; Alonso, Estella M

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the spectrum of physical function of pediatric liver transplantation (LT) recipients 12-24 months after LT. Review data were collected through the functional outcomes group, an ancillary study of the Studies of Pediatric Liver Transplantation registry. Patients were eligible if they had survived LT by 12-24 months. Children ≥ 8 years and parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ 4.0 generic core scales, which includes 8 questions assessing physical function. Scores were compared to a matched healthy child population (n = 1658) and between survivors with optimal versus nonoptimal health. A total of 263 patients were included. Median age at transplant and survey was 4.8 years (interquartile range [IQR], 1.3-11.4 years) and 5.9 years (IQR, 2.6-13.1 years), respectively. The mean physical functioning score on child and parent reports were 81.2 ± 17.3 and 77.1 ± 23.7, respectively. Compared to a matched healthy population, transplant survivors and their parents reported lower physical function scores (P < 0.001); 32.9% of patients and 35.0% of parents reported a physical function score <75, which is > 1 standard deviation below the mean of a healthy population. Physical functioning scores were significantly higher in survivors with optimal health than those with nonoptimal health (P < 0.01). There was a significant relationship between emotional functioning and physical functioning scores for LT recipients (r = 0.69; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, primary disease, height z score < -1.64 at longterm follow-up (LTF) visit,  > 4 days of hospitalization since LTF visit, and not being listed as status 1 were predictors of poor physical function. In conclusion, pediatric LT recipients 1-2 years after LT and their parents report lower physical function than a healthy population. Findings suggest practitioners need to routinely assess physical function, and

  13. Reduced Cognitive Function Predicts Functional Decline in Patients with Heart Failure over 12 months

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired activities of daily living (ADL) are common in heart failure (HF) patients and contribute to the elevated mortality and hospitalization rates in this population. Cognitive impairment is also prevalent in HF, though its ability to predict functional decline over time is unknown. Aims This study examined the longitudinal pattern of activities of daily living in HF persons and whether reduced baseline cognitive status predicts functional decline in this population. Methods 110 persons with HF completed the Lawton-Brody Activities of Daily Living Scale and were administered the Modified Mini-Mental Status Examination (3MS) at baseline and a 12-month follow-up. Three composite scores were derived from the Lawton-Brody, including total, instrumental, and basic ADLs. Results HF patients reported high rates of baseline impairments in instrumental ADLs, including shopping, food preparation, housekeeping duties, laundry, among others. Repeated measures analyses showed significant declines in total and instrumental ADLs from baseline to the 12-month follow-up in HF (p < .05). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that poorer baseline performance on the 3MS predicted worse total ADL performance at 12-months (β = .15, p = .049), including greater dependence in shopping, driving, feeding, and physical ambulation (p < .05 for all). Conclusion The current results show that HF patients report significant functional decline over a 12-month period and brief cognitive tests can identify those patients at highest risk for decline. If replicated, such findings encourage the use of cognitive screening measures to identify HF patients most likely to require assistance with ADL tasks. PMID:23754840

  14. Triadin Deletion Induces Impaired Skeletal Muscle Function*

    PubMed Central

    Oddoux, Sarah; Brocard, Julie; Schweitzer, Annie; Szentesi, Peter; Giannesini, Benoit; Brocard, Jacques; Fauré, Julien; Pernet-Gallay, Karine; Bendahan, David; Lunardi, Joël; Csernoch, Laszlo; Marty, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Triadin is a multiple proteins family, some isoforms being involved in muscle excitation-contraction coupling, and some having still unknown functions. To obtain clues on triadin functions, we engineered a triadin knock-out mouse line and characterized the physiological effect of triadin ablation on skeletal muscle function. These mice presented a reduced muscle strength, which seemed not to alter their survival and has been characterized in the present work. We first checked in these mice the expression level of the different proteins involved in calcium homeostasis and observed in fast muscles an increase in expression of dihydropyridine receptor, with a large reduction in calsequestrin expression. Electron microscopy analysis of KO muscles morphology demonstrated the presence of triads in abnormal orientation and a reduction in the sarcoplasmic reticulum terminal cisternae volume. Using calcium imaging on cultured myotubes, we observed a reduction in the total amount of calcium stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Physiological studies have been performed to evaluate the influence of triadin deletion on skeletal muscle function. Muscle strength has been measured both on the whole animal model, using hang test or electrical stimulation combined with NMR analysis and strength measurement, or on isolated muscle using electrical stimulation. All the results obtained demonstrate an important reduction in muscle strength, indicating that triadin plays an essential role in skeletal muscle function and in skeletal muscle structure. These results indicate that triadin alteration leads to the development of a myopathy, which could be studied using this new animal model. PMID:19843516

  15. Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…

  16. Phonatory Function of Neurologically Impaired Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwirner, Petra; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This investigation compared five parameters of phonatory function in an examination of the use of acoustic measures in differential diagnosis in 39 subjects in 3 neuropathological groups (Parkinson, Huntington, cerebellar ataxia) and a normal control group. Results indicated higher variability in perturbation in all the neuropathological groups.…

  17. Association between renal function and cardiovascular structure and function in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Mauro; Senni, Michele; Gupta, Deepak K.; Charytan, David M.; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Pieske, Burkert; Claggett, Brian; Shah, Amil M.; Santos, Angela B. S.; Zile, Michael R.; Voors, Adriaan A.; McMurray, John J. V.; Packer, Milton; Bransford, Toni; Lefkowitz, Martin; Solomon, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Renal dysfunction is a common comorbidity in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We sought to determine whether renal dysfunction was associated with measures of cardiovascular structure/function in patients with HFpEF. Methods We studied 217 participants from the PARAMOUNT study with HFpEF who had echocardiography and measures of kidney function. We evaluated the relationships between renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >30 and <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or albuminuria] and cardiovascular structure/function. Results The mean age of the study population was 71 years, 55% were women, 94% hypertensive, and 40% diabetic. Impairment of at least one parameter of kidney function was present in 62% of patients (16% only albuminuria, 23% only low eGFR, 23% both). Renal dysfunction was associated with abnormal LV geometry (defined as concentric hypertrophy, or eccentric hypertrophy, or concentric remodelling) (adjusted P = 0.048), lower midwall fractional shortening (MWFS) (P = 0.009), and higher NT-proBNP (P = 0.006). Compared with patients without renal dysfunction, those with low eGFR and no albuminuria had a higher prevalence of abnormal LV geometry (P = 0.032) and lower MWFS (P < 0.01), as opposed to those with only albuminuria. Conversely, albuminuria alone was associated with greater LV dimensions (P < 0.05). Patients with combined renal impairment had mixed abnormalities (higher LV wall thicknesses, NT-proBNP; lower MWFS). Conclusion Renal dysfunction, as determined by both eGFR and albuminuria, is highly prevalent in HFpEF, and associated with cardiac remodelling and subtle systolic dysfunction. The observed differences in cardiac structure/function between each type of renal damage suggest that both parameters of kidney function might play a distinct role in HFpEF. PMID:24980489

  18. Pharmacokinetics of oral cefatrizine in patients with impaired renal function.

    PubMed

    Couet, W; Fauvel, J P; Laville, M; Pozet, N; Fourtillan, J B

    1991-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cefatrizine was studied in 15 patients with various degrees of renal impairment, after single oral administration of 500 mg. Cefatrizine elimination was reduced in parallel to renal function, as indicated by the significant correlations between apparent clearance (Cl/F) and creatinine clearance (Clcr), and between renal clearance (Clr) and creatinine clearance (Clcr). In patients with totally impaired renal function, the residual clearance (Cl/F) was 63 ml.min-1 per 1.73 m2. Comparisons with previously published data indicate that the apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of cefatrizine was lower in patients with impaired renal function than in young healthy volunteers, leading to increased peak concentrations (Cmax), but there was no relationship between V/F and Clcr. In patients with totally impaired renal function, the upper limit of cefatrizine elimination half-life was estimated to 5.5 h. The clinical significance of pharmacokinetic modifications observed in renal disease patients may only be realized through integration of pharmacodynamic characteristics of cefatrizine. The observed increase in Cmax and the lengthening of t1/2 could suggest a reduction of dosing frequency in patients with severe renal impairment. PMID:1869342

  19. Evaluation of effect of impaired renal function on lamivudine pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Bouazza, Naïm; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Ghosn, Jade; Hirt, Déborah; Benaboud, Sihem; Foissac, Frantz; Viard, Jean-Paul; Urien, Saik

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to describe lamivudine pharmacokinetics in patients with impaired renal function and to evaluate the consistency of current dosing recommendations. Methods A total of 244 patients, ranging in age from 18 to 79 years (median 40 years) and in bodyweight from 38 to 117 kg (median 71 kg), with 344 lamivudine plasma concentrations, were analysed using a population pharmacokinetic analysis. Serum creatinine clearance (CLCR) was calculated using the Cockcroft–Gault formula; 177 patients had normal renal function (CLCR > 90 ml min−1), 50 patients had mild renal impairment (CLCR = 60–90 ml min−1), 20 patients had moderate renal impairment (CLCR = 30–60 ml min−1), and five patients had severe renal impairment (CLCR < 30 ml min−1). Results A two-compartment model adequately described the data. Typical population estimates (percentage interindividual variability) of the apparent clearance (CL/F), central (Vc/F) and peripheral volumes of distribution (Vp/F), intercompartmental clearance (Q/F) and absorption rate constant (Ka) were 29.7 l h−1 (32%), 68.2 l, 114 l, 10.1 l h−1 (85%) and 1 h−1, respectively. Clearance increased significantly and gradually with CLCR. Our simulations showed that a dose of 300 mg day−1 in patients with mild renal impairment could overexpose them. A dose of 200 mg day−1 maintained an exposure close to that of adults with normal renal function. However, the current US Food and Drug Administration recommendations for lamivudine in other categories of patients (from severe to moderate renal impairment) provided optimal exposures. Conclusions Lamivudine elimination clearance is related to renal function. To provide optimal exposure, patients with mild renal impairment should receive 200 mg day−1 instead of 300 mg day−1. PMID:24750102

  20. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  1. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Laura; Hansel, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, particularly in individuals with existing lung disease. Of the most common air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased risk of exacerbations and respiratory symptoms in individuals with existing lung disease, and to a lesser extent, in those without known respiratory issues. The majority of published research has focused on the effects of PM exposures on symptoms and health care utilization. Fewer studies focus on the impact of PM on objective measurements of pulmonary function. This review will focus on the effects of PM exposure on objective measurements of lung function in both healthy individuals and those with existing lung disease. PMID:26962445

  2. Myoglobin function evaluated in working heart tissue.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J D; Schubert, R W

    1998-01-01

    Previous modeling efforts suggest that myoglobin-facilitated diffusion contributes very little to oxygen transport in a Krebs-Henseleit perfused isolated heart when literature-derived values for the diffusion coefficient of myoglobin (DMb) were used. Simulations have strongly suggested that the contractile mechanisms of muscle may augment diffusion in working preparations. Myoglobin-facilitated oxygen diffusion may be augmented by the same mechanism. In this study, parameters of an oxygen transport to tissue model are optimized to investigate the possibility of elevated diffusion coefficients for oxygen and myoglobin in working heart tissue. The Radially-Averaged, Axially-Distributed (RAAD) model considers axial diffusion of oxygen in tissue, myoglobin facilitation of oxygen transport, and pO2-dependent oxygen consumption (Michaelis-Menten kinetics). Models are solved numerically using a variable-mesh finite-difference scheme. Parameters are optimized using a Nelder-Mead simplex routine and are chosen to minimize the sum-of-squares error (SSE) between model oxygen partial pressure (pO2) predictions and experimental pO2 data. Models are solved both with and without myoglobin facilitation. Myoglobin was found to have little effect on the oxygen distribution predicted by the models. Optimized values for the oxygen diffusion coefficient remained elevated. However, optimized values for myoglobin diffusion coefficient were found to be less than measured values. The RAAD model optimization results suggest that myoglobin does not significantly facilitate oxygen diffusion to tissue in the steady state and that myoglobin diffusion is not elevated in working heart. PMID:9889930

  3. Fancb deficiency impairs hematopoietic stem cell function

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wei; Amarachintha, Surya; Erden, Ozlem; Wilson, Andrew; Meetei, Amom Ruhikanta; Andreassen, Paul R.; Namekawa, Satoshi H.; Pang, Qishen

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, variable congenital malformations and a predisposition to malignancies. FANCB (also known as FAAP95), is the only X-linked FA gene discovered thus far. In the present study, we investigated hematopoiesis in adult Fancb deficient (Fancb−/y) mice and found that Fancb−/y mice have decreased hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) quiescence accompanied by reduced progenitor activity in vitro and reduced repopulating capacity in vivo. Like other FA mouse models previously reported, the hematopoietic system of Fancb−/y mice is hypersensitive to DNA cross-linking agent mitomycin C (MMC), which induces bone marrow failure in Fancb−/y mice. Furthermore, Fancb−/y BM exhibits slower recovery kinetics and less tolerance to myelotoxic stress induced by 5-fluorouracil than wild-type littermates. RNA-seq analysis reveals altered expression of genes involved in HSC function and cell cycle regulation in Fancb−/y HSC and progenitor cells. Thus, this Fancb−/y mouse model provides a novel approach for studying the critical role of the FA pathway not only in germ cell development but also in the maintenance of HSC function. PMID:26658157

  4. Dysferlin deficiency blunts β-adrenergic-dependent lusitropic function of mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bin; Wei, Hongguang; Jin, J-P

    2015-12-01

    Dysferlin is a cell membrane bound protein with a role in the repair of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Deficiency of dysferlin leads to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2B (LGMD2B) and Miyoshi myopathy. In cardiac muscle, dysferlin is located at the intercalated disc and transverse tubule membranes. Loss of dysferlin causes death of cardiomyocytes, notably in ageing hearts, leading to dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure in LGM2B patients. To understand the primary pathogenesis and pathophysiology of dysferlin cardiomyopathy, we studied cardiac phenotypes of young adult dysferlin knockout mice and found early myocardial hypertrophy with largely compensated baseline cardiac function. Cardiomyocytes isolated from dysferlin-deficient mice showed normal shortening and re-lengthening velocities in the absence of external load with normal peak systolic Ca(2+) but slower Ca(2+) re-sequestration than wild-type controls. The effects of isoproterenol on relaxation velocity, left ventricular systolic pressure and stroke volume were blunted in dysferlin-deficient mouse hearts compared with that in wild-type hearts. Young dysferlin-deficient mouse hearts expressed normal isoforms of myofilament proteins whereas the phosphorylation of ventricular myosin light chain 2 was significantly increased, implying a molecular response to the impaired lusitropic function. These early phenotypes of diastolic cardiac dysfunction and blunted lusitropic response of cardiac muscle to β-adrenergic stimulation indicate a novel pathogenic mechanism of dysferlin cardiomyopathy. PMID:26415898

  5. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

  6. Topoisomerase 1 inhibition reversibly impairs synaptic function

    PubMed Central

    Mabb, Angela M.; Kullmann, Paul H. M.; Twomey, Margaret A.; Miriyala, Jayalakshmi; Philpot, Benjamin D.; Zylka, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Topotecan is a topoisomerase 1 (TOP1) inhibitor that is used to treat various forms of cancer. We recently found that topotecan reduces the expression of multiple long genes, including many neuronal genes linked to synapses and autism. However, whether topotecan alters synaptic protein levels and synapse function is currently unknown. Here we report that in primary cortical neurons, topotecan depleted synaptic proteins that are encoded by extremely long genes, including Neurexin-1, Neuroligin-1, Cntnap2, and GABAAβ3. Topotecan also suppressed spontaneous network activity without affecting resting membrane potential, action potential threshold, or neuron health. Topotecan strongly suppressed inhibitory neurotransmission via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms and reduced excitatory neurotransmission. The effects on synaptic protein levels and inhibitory neurotransmission were fully reversible upon drug washout. Collectively, our findings suggest that TOP1 controls the levels of multiple synaptic proteins and is required for normal excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. PMID:25404338

  7. Neural origins of psychosocial functioning impairments in major depression.

    PubMed

    Pulcu, Erdem; Elliott, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    Major depressive disorder, a complex neuropsychiatric condition, is associated with psychosocial functioning impairments that could become chronic even after symptoms remit. Social functioning impairments in patients could also pose coping difficulties to individuals around them. In this Personal View, we trace the potential neurobiological origins of these impairments down to three candidate domains-namely, social perception and emotion processing, motivation and reward value processing, and social decision making. We argue that the neural basis of abnormalities in these domains could be detectable at different temporal stages during social interactions (eg, before and after decision stages), particularly within frontomesolimbic networks (ie, frontostriatal and amygdala-striatal circuitries). We review some of the experimental designs used to probe these circuits and suggest novel, integrative approaches. We propose that an understanding of the interactions between these domains could provide valuable insights for the clinical stratification of major depressive disorder subtypes and might inform future developments of novel treatment options in return. PMID:26360902

  8. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  9. Altered distribution of ICa impairs Ca release at the t-tubules of ventricular myocytes from failing hearts

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Simon M.; Kong, Cherrie H.T.; Watson, Judy; Cannell, Mark B.; James, Andrew F.; Orchard, Clive H.

    2015-01-01

    In mammalian cardiac ventricular myocytes, Ca influx and release occur predominantly at t-tubules, ensuring synchronous Ca release throughout the cell. Heart failure is associated with disrupted t-tubule structure, but its effect on t-tubule function is less clear. We therefore investigated Ca influx and release at the t-tubules of ventricular myocytes isolated from rat hearts ~ 18 weeks after coronary artery ligation (CAL) or corresponding Sham operation. L-type Ca current (ICa) was recorded using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique in intact and detubulated myocytes; Ca release at t-tubules was monitored using confocal microscopy with voltage- and Ca-sensitive fluorophores. CAL was associated with cardiac and cellular hypertrophy, decreased ejection fraction, disruption of t-tubule structure and a smaller, slower Ca transient, but no change in ryanodine receptor distribution, L-type Ca channel expression, or ICa density. In Sham myocytes, ICa was located predominantly at the t-tubules, while in CAL myocytes, it was uniformly distributed between the t-tubule and surface membranes. Inhibition of protein kinase A with H-89 caused a greater decrease of t-tubular ICa in CAL than in Sham myocytes; in the presence of H-89, t-tubular ICa density was smaller in CAL than in Sham myocytes. The smaller t-tubular ICa in CAL myocytes was accompanied by increased latency and heterogeneity of SR Ca release at t-tubules, which could be mimicked by decreasing ICa using nifedipine. These data show that CAL decreases t-tubular ICa via a PKA-independent mechanism, thereby impairing Ca release at t-tubules and contributing to the altered excitation–contraction coupling observed in heart failure. PMID:26103619

  10. Altered distribution of ICa impairs Ca release at the t-tubules of ventricular myocytes from failing hearts.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Simon M; Kong, Cherrie H T; Watson, Judy; Cannell, Mark B; James, Andrew F; Orchard, Clive H

    2015-09-01

    In mammalian cardiac ventricular myocytes, Ca influx and release occur predominantly at t-tubules, ensuring synchronous Ca release throughout the cell. Heart failure is associated with disrupted t-tubule structure, but its effect on t-tubule function is less clear. We therefore investigated Ca influx and release at the t-tubules of ventricular myocytes isolated from rat hearts ~18weeks after coronary artery ligation (CAL) or corresponding Sham operation. L-type Ca current (ICa) was recorded using the whole-cell voltage-clamp technique in intact and detubulated myocytes; Ca release at t-tubules was monitored using confocal microscopy with voltage- and Ca-sensitive fluorophores. CAL was associated with cardiac and cellular hypertrophy, decreased ejection fraction, disruption of t-tubule structure and a smaller, slower Ca transient, but no change in ryanodine receptor distribution, L-type Ca channel expression, or ICa density. In Sham myocytes, ICa was located predominantly at the t-tubules, while in CAL myocytes, it was uniformly distributed between the t-tubule and surface membranes. Inhibition of protein kinase A with H-89 caused a greater decrease of t-tubular ICa in CAL than in Sham myocytes; in the presence of H-89, t-tubular ICa density was smaller in CAL than in Sham myocytes. The smaller t-tubular ICa in CAL myocytes was accompanied by increased latency and heterogeneity of SR Ca release at t-tubules, which could be mimicked by decreasing ICa using nifedipine. These data show that CAL decreases t-tubular ICa via a PKA-independent mechanism, thereby impairing Ca release at t-tubules and contributing to the altered excitation-contraction coupling observed in heart failure. PMID:26103619

  11. Action Potential-Evoked Calcium Release Is Impaired in Single Skeletal Muscle Fibers from Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    DiFranco, Marino; Quiñonez, Marbella; Shieh, Perry; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Cruz, Daniel; Deng, Mario C.; Vergara, Julio L.; Middlekauff, Holly R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (HF) has been attributed to abnormalities of the skeletal muscles. Muscle function depends on intact excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), but ECC studies in HF models have been inconclusive, due to deficiencies in the animal models and tools used to measure calcium (Ca2+) release, mandating investigations in skeletal muscle from HF patients. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ca2+ release is significantly impaired in the skeletal muscle of HF patients in whom exercise capacity is severely diminished compared to age-matched healthy volunteers. Methods and Findings Using state-of-the-art electrophysiological and optical techniques in single muscle fibers from biopsies of the locomotive vastus lateralis muscle, we measured the action potential (AP)-evoked Ca2+ release in 4 HF patients and 4 age-matched healthy controls. The mean peak Ca2+ release flux in fibers obtained from HF patients (10±1.2 µM/ms) was markedly (2.6-fold) and significantly (p<0.05) smaller than in fibers from healthy volunteers (28±3.3 µM/ms). This impairment in AP-evoked Ca2+ release was ubiquitous and was not explained by differences in the excitability mechanisms since single APs were indistinguishable between HF patients and healthy volunteers. Conclusions These findings prove the feasibility of performing electrophysiological experiments in single fibers from human skeletal muscle, and offer a new approach for investigations of myopathies due to HF and other diseases. Importantly, we have demonstrated that one step in the ECC process, AP-evoked Ca2+ release, is impaired in single muscle fibers in HF patients. PMID:25310188

  12. Executive function deficits in congenital heart disease: why is intervention important?

    PubMed

    Calderon, Johanna; Bellinger, David C

    2015-10-01

    It is widely recognised that children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at high risk for neurodevelopmental impairments including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder symptoms. Executive function impairments are one of the most prominent neurodevelopmental features associated with CHD. These deficits can have widespread debilitating repercussions in children's neurocognitive, behavioural, and psycho-social development. There is a crucial gap in research regarding the efficacy of preventive or treatment strategies for these important cognitive morbidities. Executive functions are complex neurocognitive skills highly amenable to improvement. Evidence-based interventions have shown promising results in other paediatric populations, strongly suggesting that they might also benefit the growing population of children with CHD. In this review, we summarise the available data on executive function impairments in children and adolescents with CHD. We underline the important co-morbidity of executive dysfunction with other cognitive and psychiatric issues in CHD, which raises awareness of the crucial need to prevent or at least mitigate these deficits. Finally, we summarise future avenues for research in terms of interventions that may help reduce executive function impairments in youth with CHD. PMID:26082199

  13. Executive Functioning in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Lucy A.; Messer, David J.; Nash, Gilly

    2012-01-01

    Background: A limited range of evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulties with higher order thinking and reasoning skills (executive functioning, EF). This study involved a comprehensive investigation of EF in this population taking into account the contributions of age, nonverbal IQ and verbal…

  14. A Methodology for Quantifying Heart Function in the Embryonic Zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Brennan; Garrity, Deborah; Dasi, Lakshmi

    2012-11-01

    Several studies have linked epigenetic factors such as blood flow dynamics and cardiac function to proper heart development. To better understand this process, it is essential to develop robust quantitative methods to investigate the blood dynamics and wall kinematics in vivo. Here, we develop a methodology that can be used throughout the early stages of development which requires no specialized equipment other than a bright field microscope and high-speed camera. We use the embryonic zebrafish as our model due to its superb optical access and widespread acceptance as a powerful model for human heart development. Using these methods, we quantify blood flow rates, stroke volume, cardiac output, ejection fraction, and other important parameters related to heart function. We also investigate the pumping mechanics from heart tube to looped configuration. We show that although the mechanism changes fundamentally, it does so in a continuous fashion that can incorporate combined pumping mechanisms at intermediate stages. This work provides a basis for quantitatively comparing normal and abnormal heart development, and may help us gain a better understanding of congenital heart defects. Funded by NSF.

  15. Aging Impairs Myocardial Fatty Acid and Ketone Oxidation and Modifies Cardiac Functional and Metabolic Responses to Insulin in Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hyyti, Outi M.; Ledee, Dolena; Ning, Xue-Han; Ge, Ming; Portman, Michael A.

    2010-07-02

    Aging presumably initiates shifts in substrate oxidation mediated in part by changes in insulin sensitivity. Similar shifts occur with cardiac hypertrophy and may contribute to contractile dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that aging modifies substrate utilization and alters insulin sensitivity in mouse heart when provided multiple substrates. In vivo cardiac function was measured with microtipped pressure transducers in the left ventricle from control (4–6 mo) and aged (22–24 mo) mice. Cardiac function was also measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate and anaplerotic fractional contributions to the citric acid cycle (CAC) by using perfusate containing 13C-labeled free fatty acids (FFA), acetoacetate, lactate, and unlabeled glucose. Stroke volume and cardiac output were diminished in aged mice in vivo, but pressure development was preserved. Systolic and diastolic functions were maintained in aged isolated hearts. Insulin prompted an increase in systolic function in aged hearts, resulting in an increase in cardiac efficiency. FFA and ketone flux were present but were markedly impaired in aged hearts. These changes in myocardial substrate utilization corresponded to alterations in circulating lipids, thyroid hormone, and reductions in protein expression for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)4. Insulin further suppressed FFA oxidation in the aged. Insulin stimulation of anaplerosis in control hearts was absent in the aged. The aged heart shows metabolic plasticity by accessing multiple substrates to maintain function. However, fatty acid oxidation capacity is limited. Impaired insulin-stimulated anaplerosis may contribute to elevated cardiac efficiency, but may also limit response to acute stress through depletion of CAC intermediates.

  16. The Living Heart Project: A robust and integrative simulator for human heart function.

    PubMed

    Baillargeon, Brian; Rebelo, Nuno; Fox, David D; Taylor, Robert L; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-11-01

    The heart is not only our most vital, but also our most complex organ: Precisely controlled by the interplay of electrical and mechanical fields, it consists of four chambers and four valves, which act in concert to regulate its filling, ejection, and overall pump function. While numerous computational models exist to study either the electrical or the mechanical response of its individual chambers, the integrative electro-mechanical response of the whole heart remains poorly understood. Here we present a proof-of-concept simulator for a four-chamber human heart model created from computer topography and magnetic resonance images. We illustrate the governing equations of excitation-contraction coupling and discretize them using a single, unified finite element environment. To illustrate the basic features of our model, we visualize the electrical potential and the mechanical deformation across the human heart throughout its cardiac cycle. To compare our simulation against common metrics of cardiac function, we extract the pressure-volume relationship and show that it agrees well with clinical observations. Our prototype model allows us to explore and understand the key features, physics, and technologies to create an integrative, predictive model of the living human heart. Ultimately, our simulator will open opportunities to probe landscapes of clinical parameters, and guide device design and treatment planning in cardiac diseases such as stenosis, regurgitation, or prolapse of the aortic, pulmonary, tricuspid, or mitral valve. PMID:25267880

  17. Acute inhibition of myoglobin impairs contractility and energy state of iNOS-overexpressing hearts.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Carsten; Flögel, Ulrich; Gödecke, Axel; Heger, Jacqueline; Schrader, Jürgen

    2003-06-27

    Elevated cardiac levels of nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) have been implicated in the development of heart failure. The surprisingly benign phenotype of recently generated mice with cardiac-specific iNOS overexpression (TGiNOS) provided the rationale to investigate whether NO scavenging by oxymyoglobin (MbO2) yielding nitrate and metmyoglobin (metMb) is involved in preservation of myocardial function in TGiNOS mice. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to monitor changes of cardiac myoglobin (Mb) metabolism in isolated hearts of wild-type (WT) and TGiNOS mice. NO formation by iNOS resulted in a significant decrease of the MbO2 signal and a concomitantly emerging metMb signal in spectra of TGiNOS hearts only (DeltaMbO2: -46.3+/-38.4 micromol/kg, DeltametMb: +41.4+/-17.6 micromol/kg, n=6; P<0.05) leaving contractility and energetics unaffected. Inhibition of the Mb-mediated NO degradation by carbon monoxide (20%) led to a deterioration of myocardial contractility in TGiNOS hearts (left ventricular developed pressure: 78.2+/-8.2% versus 96.7+/-4.6% of baseline, n=6; P<0.005), which was associated with a profound pertubation of cardiac energy state as assessed by 31P NMR spectroscopy (eg, phosphocreatine: 13.3+/-1.3 mmol/L (TGiNOS) versus 15.9+/-0.7 mmol/L (WT), n=6; P<0.005). These alterations could be fully antagonized by the NOS inhibitor S-ethylisothiourea. Our findings demonstrate that myoglobin serves as an important cytoplasmic buffer of iNOS-derived NO, which determines the functional consequences of iNOS overexpression. PMID:12775582

  18. Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function

    PubMed Central

    Çiftçi, Özgür; Günday, Murat; Çalışkan, Mustafa; Güllü, Hakan; Doğan, Rafi; Güven, Aytekin; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Echocardiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and 1 week after poisoning. Results: The impairment observed in the left and right ventricular diastolic function at the time of admission was greater than the impairment 1 week after poisoning. Mild CO poisoning did not have a significant effect on systolic function. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were positively correlated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, whereas the levels were not correlated with right ventricular diastolic function. Conclusions: In CO intoxication, the development of left and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction precedes systolic abnormality. Patients with mild CO poisoning do not manifest cardiovascular symptoms; however, it should be borne in mind that most of these patients have myocardial involvement. PMID:24082611

  19. Diminishing impairments in glucose uptake, mitochondrial content, and ADP-stimulated oxygen flux by mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the infarcted heart.

    PubMed

    Hughey, Curtis C; James, Freyja D; Ma, Lianli; Bracy, Deanna P; Wang, Zhizhang; Wasserman, David H; Rottman, Jeffrey N; Shearer, Jane

    2014-01-01

    A constant provision of ATP is of necessity for cardiac contraction. As the heart progresses toward failure following a myocardial infarction (MI), it undergoes metabolic alterations that have the potential to compromise the ability to meet energetic demands. This study evaluated the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation into the infarcted heart to minimize impairments in the metabolic processes that contribute to energy provision. Seven and twenty-eight days following the MI and MSC transplantation, MSC administration minimized cardiac systolic dysfunction. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, coupled with 2-[(14)C]deoxyglucose administration, were employed to assess systemic insulin sensitivity and tissue-specific, insulin-mediated glucose uptake 36 days following the MI in the conscious, unrestrained, C57BL/6 mouse. The improved systolic performance in MSC-treated mice was associated with a preservation of in vivo insulin-stimulated cardiac glucose uptake. Conserved glucose uptake in the heart was linked to the ability of the MSC treatment to diminish the decline in insulin signaling as assessed by Akt phosphorylation. The MSC treatment also sustained mitochondrial content, ADP-stimulated oxygen flux, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation efficiency in the heart. Maintenance of mitochondrial function and density was accompanied by preserved peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. These studies provide insight into mechanisms of action that lead to an enhanced energetic state in the infarcted heart following MSC transplantation that may assist in energy provision and dampen cardiac dysfunction. PMID:24196528

  20. Diminishing impairments in glucose uptake, mitochondrial content, and ADP-stimulated oxygen flux by mesenchymal stem cell therapy in the infarcted heart

    PubMed Central

    James, Freyja D.; Ma, Lianli; Bracy, Deanna P.; Wang, Zhizhang; Wasserman, David H.; Rottman, Jeffrey N.; Shearer, Jane

    2013-01-01

    A constant provision of ATP is of necessity for cardiac contraction. As the heart progresses toward failure following a myocardial infarction (MI), it undergoes metabolic alterations that have the potential to compromise the ability to meet energetic demands. This study evaluated the efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation into the infarcted heart to minimize impairments in the metabolic processes that contribute to energy provision. Seven and twenty-eight days following the MI and MSC transplantation, MSC administration minimized cardiac systolic dysfunction. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, coupled with 2-[14C]deoxyglucose administration, were employed to assess systemic insulin sensitivity and tissue-specific, insulin-mediated glucose uptake 36 days following the MI in the conscious, unrestrained, C57BL/6 mouse. The improved systolic performance in MSC-treated mice was associated with a preservation of in vivo insulin-stimulated cardiac glucose uptake. Conserved glucose uptake in the heart was linked to the ability of the MSC treatment to diminish the decline in insulin signaling as assessed by Akt phosphorylation. The MSC treatment also sustained mitochondrial content, ADP-stimulated oxygen flux, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation efficiency in the heart. Maintenance of mitochondrial function and density was accompanied by preserved peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis. These studies provide insight into mechanisms of action that lead to an enhanced energetic state in the infarcted heart following MSC transplantation that may assist in energy provision and dampen cardiac dysfunction. PMID:24196528

  1. Brief Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Reversibly Impairs Endothelial Vasodilatory Function

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We sought to determine the effects of brief exposures to low concentrations of tobacco secondhand smoke (SHS) on arterial flow-mediated dilation (FMD, a nitric oxide-dependent measure of vascular endothelial function), in a controlled animal model never before exposed to smoke. In humans, SHS exposure for 30min impairs FMD. It is important to gain a better understanding of the acute effects of exposure to SHS at low concentrations and for brief periods of time. Methods: We measured changes in FMD in rats exposed to a range of real-world levels of SHS for durations of 30min, 10min, 1min, and 4 breaths (roughly 15 s). Results: We observed a dose-response relationship between SHS particle concentration over 30min and post-exposure impairment of FMD, which was linear through the range typically encountered in smoky restaurants and then saturated at higher concentrations. One min of exposure to SHS at moderate concentrations was sufficient to impair FMD. Conclusions: Brief SHS exposure at real-world levels reversibly impairs FMD. Even 1min of SHS exposure can cause reduction of endothelial function. PMID:24302638

  2. Impairment of phagocytic functions of alveolar macrophages by hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Oosting, R.S.; van Bree, L.; van Iwaarden, J.F.; van Golde, L.M.; Verhoef, J. )

    1990-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inhibited phagocytosis and superoxide anion production by rat alveolar macrophages. The inhibition was irreversible and concentration and exposure time dependent. The potential relationship between H2O2-induced biochemical perturbations and impaired alveolar macrophage phagocytic functions was investigated. Alveolar macrophage viability and Fc receptor binding capacity were not affected by H2O2. There was probably no correlation between a H2O2-induced rise in cytosolic (Ca2+) ((Ca2+)i) and the impairment of phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages, as was suggested by the following findings. First, the H2O2-induced rise in (Ca2+)i could be inhibited by chelation of extracellular Ca2+, whereas the H2O2-induced impairment of phagocytosis could not. Second, the H2O2-induced rise in (Ca2+)i was reversible, whereas the impairment of phagocytosis was not. And finally, a rise in (Ca2+)i by incubation of alveolar macrophages with the calcium ionophore A23187 did not affect phagocytosis. Various experiments suggested that ATP depletion may play an important role in the H2O2 toxicity for alveolar macrophages. Comparable concentrations of H2O2 caused an irreversible decrease both in cellular ATP and in phagocytosis and superoxide production by alveolar macrophages. In addition, time course of ATP depletion and induction of impaired alveolar macrophage function were similar. In view of the fact that the strong oxidant H2O2 may react with a large variety of biological substances, possible other toxic lesions may not be excluded as underlying mechanism for H2O2-induced inhibition of phagocytic functions of alveolar macrophages.

  3. Insulin Resistance and Impaired Mitochondrial Function in Obese Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Thakur, Hena; Torriani, Martin; Misra, Madhusmita

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a role in the development of muscle insulin resistance (IR) and the accumulation of intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) in skeletal muscle that can, in turn, interfere with insulin signaling. The purpose of this study was to assess mitochondrial function (MF) and IMCL in obese adolescent girls with and without IR to determine whether: (1) Girls with IR have impaired MF, and (2) impaired MF in girls with IR is related to higher IMCL. Methods: We examined 22 obese girls aged 13–21 years old for IR [defined as a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value >4. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), respectively, were used to determine MF and IMCL of the soleus muscle along with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of visceral, subcutaneous, and total adipose tissue (VAT, SAT, and TAT) in girls with HOMA-IR >4 (insulin-resistant group) versus HOMA-IR ≤4 (insulin-sensitive group). Serum lipids and waist-to-hip ratio (W/H) were also measured. Results: Girls with IR (n=8) did not differ from the insulin-sensitive group (n=14) for age, bone age, weight, VAT, SAT, TAT, or IMCL. However, the insulin-resistant group had higher W/H. Additionally the insulin-resistance group had a lower log rate of postexercise phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery (ViPCr) and a higher log PCr recovery constant (tau), indicative of impaired MF. Conclusions: Obese girls with increased IR have impaired mitochondrial function. This association is not mediated by alterations in IMCL or adipose tissue. Further studies are necessary to determine whether there is a causal relation between impaired mitochondrial function and IR in obesity and mediators of such a relationship. PMID:24251951

  4. Impaired renal function and bleeding in elderly treated with dabigatran.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Emmanuelle; Lavenu-Bombled, Cecile; Orostegui-Giron, Lupe; Desconclois, Céline; Assayag, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    Advantages of dabigatran, a thrombin inhibitor, for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation are numerous. Elderly patients with impaired renal function are at high risk of bleeding. Recommendations about the renal monitoring in elderly patients are not precise enough. The hemoclot direct thrombin inhibitor (HTI) assay measures accurately the dabigatran activity. Both could help managing serious bleeding events in selected populations. Four elderly patients recently treated with appropriate doses of dabigatran were hospitalized for major bleeding. Three patients were very elderly (> 80 years) and three had impaired renal function (clearance < 50 ml/min) before treatment initiation. Serious bleeding events occurred shortly after dabigatran initiation (< 2 months). In all cases, there was a documented dabigatran plasma overdose associated with a renal function impairment concomitant with the bleeding. Why should physicians be aware of this finding?: A close follow-up of the renal function in clinically fragile elderly patient, before and during the weeks following dabigatran initiation, could help to detect the risk of major bleeding event. The HTI dosage could help managing the treatment in case of severe bleeding event. PMID:24509332

  5. Functional Literacy for Students with Visual Impairments and Significant Cognitive Disabilities: The Perspective of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebehazy, Kim T.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports opinions and practices of teachers of students with visual impairments (TSVIs) in 34 states regarding functional literacy for students with visual impairments (VIs) and significant cognitive disabilities (SCDs). The survey asked TSVIs to select a definition of functional literacy, indicate agreement with a series of literacy…

  6. Assessment of right ventricular systolic function by echocardiography after surgical repair of congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Khraiche, Diala; Ben Moussa, Nidhal

    2016-02-01

    Postoperative impairment of right ventricular (RV) systolic function can appear after surgical repair of complex congenital heart defects, such as tetralogy of Fallot; it is caused by chronic volume and/or pressure overload due to pulmonary regurgitation and/or stenosis. RV dysfunction is strongly associated with prognosis in these patients. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard for quantification of RV volumes and ejection fraction in patients with congenital heart diseases; however, it is costly and is not widely available. Echocardiography is the imaging modality that is most available and most frequently used to assess RV systolic function. However, RV ejection fraction cannot be measured accurately by standard two-dimensional echocardiography because of its pyramidal shape. Surrogate parameters of RV systolic function are mostly used in routine practice. New techniques of two-dimensional strain and three-dimensional quantification of RV volumes and ejection fraction have been developed in recent years. The aim of this article is to show the pertinence of each variable of RV systolic function measured by echocardiography in patients with repaired congenital heart disease and residual chronic RV overload. PMID:26774976

  7. Phosphoinositide-Dependent Kinase 1 and mTORC2 Synergistically Maintain Postnatal Heart Growth and Heart Function in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xia; Lu, Shuangshuang; Nie, Junwei; Hu, Xiaoshan; Luo, Wen; Wu, Xiangqi; Liu, Hailang; Feng, Qiuting; Chang, Zai; Liu, Yaoqiu; Cao, Yunshan; Sun, Haixiang; Li, Xinli; Hu, Yali

    2014-01-01

    The protein kinase Akt plays a critical role in heart function and is activated by phosphorylation of threonine 308 (T308) and serine 473 (S473). While phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) is responsible for Akt T308 phosphorylation, the identities of the kinases for Akt S473 phosphorylation in the heart remain controversial. Here, we disrupted mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) through deletion of Rictor in the heart and found normal heart growth and function. Rictor deletion caused significant reduction of Akt S473 phosphorylation but enhanced Akt T308 phosphorylation, suggesting that a high level of Akt T308 phosphorylation maintains Akt activity and heart function. Deletion of Pdk1 in the heart caused significantly enhanced Akt S473 phosphorylation that was suppressed by removal of Rictor, leading to worsened dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and accelerated heart failure in Pdk1-deficient mice. In addition, we found that increasing Akt S473 phosphorylation through deletion of Pten or chemical inhibition of PTEN reversed DCM and heart failure in Pdk1-deficient mice. Investigation of heart samples from human DCM patients revealed changes similar to those in the mouse models. These results demonstrated that PDK1 and mTORC2 synergistically promote postnatal heart growth and maintain heart function in postnatal mice. PMID:24662050

  8. Functions of miRNAs during Mammalian Heart Development

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shun; Jiao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles during mammalian heart development and have emerged as attractive therapeutic targets for cardiovascular diseases. The mammalian embryonic heart is mainly derived from four major cell types during development. These include cardiomyocytes, endocardial cells, epicardial cells, and neural crest cells. Recent data have identified various miRNAs as critical regulators of the proper differentiation, proliferation, and survival of these cell types. In this review, we briefly introduce the contemporary understanding of mammalian cardiac development. We also focus on recent developments in the field of cardiac miRNAs and their functions during the development of different cell types. PMID:27213371

  9. Impairment of Endothelial Function by Little Cigar Secondhand Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaoyin; Narayan, Shilpa; Glantz, Stanton A.; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Springer, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Little cigars and cigarillos are gaining in popularity as cigarette use wanes, mainly due to relaxed regulatory standards that make them cheaper, easier to buy individually, and available in a variety of flavors not allowed in cigarettes. To address whether they should be regulated as strictly as cigarettes, we investigated whether little cigar secondhand smoke (SHS) decreases vascular endothelial function like that of cigarettes. Methods We exposed rats to SHS from little cigars, cigarettes, or chamber air, for 10 minutes and measured the resulting acute impairment of arterial flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Results SHS from both little cigars and cigarettes impaired FMD. Impairment was greater after exposure to little cigar SHS than by cigarette SHS relative to pre-exposure values, although the post-exposure FMD values were not significantly different from each other. Conclusions Exposure to little cigar SHS leads to impairment of FMD that is at least equal to that resulting from similar levels of cigarette SHS. Our findings support the need to prevent even brief exposure to little cigar SHS, and support tobacco control policies that regulate little cigars as strictly as cigarettes. PMID:26753171

  10. Prenatal ethanol exposure impairs executive function in mice into adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Kristin; Sigdel, Rahul; Caldwell, Kevin; Brigman, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to a wide range of impairments in cognitive, social and emotional behaviors, drinking during pregnancy remains common. Although there is a general understanding that high levels of drinking during pregnancy are unsafe, conflicting evidence regarding the impact of low intake may account for the persistence of this behavior. Methods In order to investigate the effects of PAE on learning and executive control we utilized a voluntary paradigm where pregnant mice had access to a saccharin sweetened 10% alcohol solution for 4 hours, during the dark cycle, throughout gestation. Male and female offspring were tested as adults on a touch-screen discrimination and reversal task mediated by corticostriatal circuits. Results Consistent with previous findings, PAE did not lead to gross morphological, motor or sensory alterations in offspring. Both PAE and saccharin control female mice were slower to acquire the discrimination than males, but PAE did not impair associative learning in either sex. During reversal, PAE led to a specific and significant impairment in the early phase, where cortical control is most required to flexibly alter choice behavior. PAE mice showed a significant increase in maladaptive perseverative responses but showed intact learning of the new association during late reversal. Conclusions Previously, data from clinical studies have suggested that executive control deficits may underlie cognitive, as well as social, problems seen in adolescents with documented PAE. These data demonstrate that even more moderate alcohol exposure during development can lead to impaired cognitive functioning well into adulthood. PMID:25581651

  11. Treatment Concerns and Functional Impairment in Pediatric Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Wu, Monica S; Salloum, Alison; Lewin, Adam B; Selles, Robert R; McBride, Nicole M; Crawford, Erika A; Storch, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    Although there are efficacious, evidence-based treatments for anxiety disorders, youth often experience delays in seeking therapy. Myriad reasons may contribute to this lag in treatment initiation, with some youth possessing concerns about therapy. Treatment concerns are broadly characterized by worries/ambivalence about seeking treatment, including concerns about the negative reactions, consequences, and inconvenience of treatment. As no studies exist for youth with anxiety disorders, this study examined the phenomenology of treatment concerns in 119 treatment-seeking, anxious youth and utilized a structural equation model to examine the relationship between child anxiety, depressive symptoms, treatment concerns, and anxiety-related functional impairment. Over 90 % of the children positively endorsed some type of treatment-related fear, with the most frequently expressed concern being that therapy would take too much time (50.4 %). Based on the model, both child anxiety and depressive symptoms predicted functional impairment, and treatment concerns mediated the relationship between child anxiety and functional impairment. PMID:26438217

  12. Exploring Heart and Lung Function in Space: ARMS Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Andre; Cork, Michael; LeGouic, Marine

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Respiratory Monitoring System (ARMS) is a suite of monitoring instruments and supplies used to study the heart, lungs, and metabolism. Many experiments sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA) will be conducted using ARMS during STS-107. The near-weightless environment of space causes the body to undergo many physiological adaptations, and the regulation of blood pressure is no exception. Astronauts also experience a decrease in blood volume as an adaptation to microgravity. Reduced blood volume may not provide enough blood pressure to the head during entry or landing. As a result, astronauts often experience light-headedness, and sometimes even fainting, when they stand shortly after returning to Earth. To help regulate blood pressure and heart rate, baroreceptors, sensors located in artery walls in the neck and near the heart, control blood pressure by sending information to the brain and ensuring blood flow to organs. These mechanisms work properly in Earth's gravity but must adapt in the microgravity environment of space. However, upon return to Earth during entry and landing, the cardiovascular system must readjust itself to gravity, which can cause fluctuation in the control of blood pressure and heart rate. Although the system recovers in hours or days, these occurrences are not easily predicted or understood - a puzzle investigators will study with the ARMS equipment. In space, researchers can focus on aspects of the cardiovascular system normally masked by gravity. The STS-107 experiments using ARMS will provide data on how the heart and lungs function in space, as well as how the nervous system controls them. Exercise will also be combined with breath holding and straining (the Valsalva maneuver) to test how heart rate and blood pressure react to different stresses. This understanding will improve astronauts' cardiopulmonary function after return to Earth, and may well help Earthbound patients who experience similar effects after long

  13. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Prevents Apoptosis and Preserves Contractile Function in Hypertrophied Infant Heart

    PubMed Central

    Friehs, Ingeborg; Barillas, Rodrigo; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; Roy, Nathalie; McGowan, Francis X.; del Nido, Pedro J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive response to increased workload that, if unrelieved, leads to heart failure. It has been reported that cardiomyocyte apoptosis contributes to failure, and that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment of hypertrophied myocardium increases capillary density and improves myocardial perfusion. In this study we hypothesized that VEGF treatment reduces cardiomyocyte apoptosis and thereby preserves myocardial contractile function. Methods and Results Newborn rabbits underwent aortic banding. At 4 and 6 weeks of age, hypertrophied animals were treated with intrapericardial administration of recombinant VEGF protein. Three groups of animals were investigated: age-matched controls (C), untreated hypertrophied (H), and VEGF-treated hypertrophied hearts (T). Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining and PARP cleavage (immunoblotting of nuclear extracts) and cardiac function by transthoracic echocardiography. Death attributable to severe heart failure occurred in 14 of 43 untreated and 2 of 29 VEGF-treated animals (P<0.01). TUNEL-positive cardiomyocyte nuclei (n/1000 nuclei) were significantly increased in untreated hearts at 5 weeks (H: 10±1.8 versus T: 3±0.7) and at 7 weeks (H: 13±3.6 versus T: 5±1.5; P<0.05). Increased apoptosis in untreated hypertrophy was also confirmed by the presence of PARP cleavage (H: 74±7 versus T: 41±4 arbitrary densitometry units; P<0.05). VEGF treatment preserved left ventricular mass, prevented dilation (T: 1.01±0.06 versus H: 0.77±0.07; P<0.05), and preserved contractility indices compared with untreated hearts. Conclusions Lack of adaptive capillary growth impairs myocardial perfusion and substrate delivery in hypertrophying myocardium. VEGF treatment reduces myocardial apoptosis and prolongs survival in a model of severe progressive left ventricular hypertrophy. Promoting capillary growth with VEGF reduces apoptosis, preserves myocardial contractile function, and

  14. Aberrant Functional Connectivity and Structural Atrophy in Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment: Relationship with Cognitive Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Hu, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Haibao; Zhu, Xiaoqun; Xu, Liyan; Sun, Zhongwu; Yu, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal structures in the cortical and subcortical regions have been identified in subcortical vascular cognition impairment (SVCI). However, little is known about the functional alterations in SVCI, and no study refers to the functional connectivity in the prefrontal and subcortical regions in this context. The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is an important region of the executive network and default mode network, and the subcortical thalamus plays vital roles in mediating or modulating these two networks. To investigate both thalamus- and MPFC-related functional connectivity as well as its relationship with cognition in SVCI, 32 SVCI patients and 23 control individuals were administered neuropsychological assessments. They also underwent structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity analysis were performed to detect gray matter (GM) atrophy and to characterize the functional alterations in the thalamus and the MPFC. For structural data, we observed that GM atrophy was distributed in both cortical regions and subcortical areas. For functional data, we observed that the thalamus functional connectivity in SVCI was significantly decreased in several cortical regions [i.e., the orbitofrontal lobe (OFL)], which are mainly involved in executive function and memory function. However, connectivity was increased in several frontal regions (i.e., the inferior frontal gyrus), which may be induced by the compensatory recruitment of the decreased functional connectivity. The MPFC functional connectivity was also decreased in executive- and memory-related regions (i.e., the anterior cingulate cortex) along with a motor region (i.e., the supplementary motor area). In addition, the cognitive performance was closely correlated with functional connectivity between the left thalamus and the left OFL in SVCI. The present study, thus, provides evidence for an association between structural and functional alterations

  15. Impaired functional integration in multiple sclerosis: a graph theory study.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Maria A; Valsasina, Paola; Meani, Alessandro; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to explore the topological organization of functional brain network connectivity in a large cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and to assess whether its disruption contributes to disease clinical manifestations. Graph theoretical analysis was applied to resting state fMRI data from 246 MS patients and 55 matched healthy controls (HC). Functional connectivity between 116 cortical and subcortical brain regions was estimated using a bivariate correlation analysis. Global network properties (network degree, global efficiency, hierarchy, path length and assortativity) were abnormal in MS patients vs HC, and contributed to distinguish cognitively impaired MS patients (34%) from HC, but not the main MS clinical phenotypes. Compared to HC, MS patients also showed: (1) a loss of hubs in the superior frontal gyrus, precuneus and anterior cingulum in the left hemisphere; (2) a different lateralization of basal ganglia hubs (mostly located in the left hemisphere in HC, and in the right hemisphere in MS patients); and (3) a formation of hubs, not seen in HC, in the left temporal pole and cerebellum. MS patients also experienced a decreased nodal degree in the bilateral caudate nucleus and right cerebellum. Such a modification of regional network properties contributed to cognitive impairment and phenotypic variability of MS. An impairment of global integration (likely to reflect a reduced competence in information exchange between distant brain areas) occurs in MS and is associated with cognitive deficits. A regional redistribution of network properties contributes to cognitive status and phenotypic variability of these patients. PMID:25257603

  16. Functional MRI in investigating cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rocca, M A; De Meo, E; Filippi, M

    2016-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that the severity of the clinical manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS) does not simply result from the extent of tissue destruction, but it rather represents a complex balance between tissue damage, tissue repair, and cortical reorganization. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides information about the plasticity of the human brain. Therefore, it has the potential to provide important pieces of information about brain reorganization following MS-related structural damage. When investigating cognitive systems, fMRI changes have been described in virtually all patients with MS and different clinical phenotypes. These functional changes have been related to the extent of brain damage within and outside T2-visible lesions as well as to the involvement of specific central nervous system structures. It has also been suggested that a maladaptive recruitment of specific brain regions might be associated with the appearance of clinical symptoms in MS, such as fatigue and cognitive impairment. fMRI studies from clinically (and cognitively) impaired MS patients may be influenced by different task performances between patients and controls. As a consequence, new strategies have been introduced to assess the role, if any, of brain reorganization in severely impaired patients, including the analysis of resting-state networks. The enhancement of any beneficial effects of this brain adaptive plasticity should be considered as a potential target of therapy for MS. PMID:27580905

  17. [Changes of heart function after different cell type stem cell transplantation in chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhongcai; Chen, Mao; Deng, Juelin; Liu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Li; Rao, Li; Yang, Qing; Huang, Dejia

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility of introcoronary cell infusion into nonischemic heart failure (HF) heart and whether different types of stem cell transplantation would affect heart function to a similar degree. Japanese white ears rabbits were used as HF models by intravenous injection adriamycin. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells(BMCs), bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs), skeletal myoblasts (SMs) or culture medium were infused into coronary arteries respectively by occluding the root of ascending aorta. The mortality during and 4 weeks after the procedure the mortality was 7.1% and 16.7% respectively. After 4 weeks, the ejection fraction (EF) in BMCs group had significant improvement (P < 0.05, n=8). No significant difference was seen in MSCs (n =8), SMs (n=6) and sham groups (n=8) compared with pretransplantation (P > 0.05). In sham group,the left ventricular endostolic diameter (LVED) had significant enlargement (P < 0.05), No significant difference was seen in MBCs, MSCs and SMs groups compared with pretransplantation (P > 0.05). Immunofluorescence revealed de novo expression of cardiac troponin I in BMCs and MSCs groups, cardiac troponin I was not detected in SMs group. In conclusions, intracoronary cell transplantation could provide effective cell delivery into dilated cardiomyopathy hearts and could be a useful strategy for treating CHF, BMCs cell transplantation may be the first choice in all the above cell types. PMID:17228727

  18. Assessing Depression Related Severity and Functional Impairment: The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS)

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Masaya; Bentley, Kate H.; Oe, Yuki; Nakajima, Shun; Fujisato, Hiroko; Kato, Noriko; Miyamae, Mitsuhiro; Kanie, Ayako; Horikoshi, Masaru; Barlow, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale (ODSIS) is a brief, five-item measure for assessing the frequency and intensity of depressive symptoms, as well as functional impairments in pleasurable activities, work or school, and interpersonal relationships due to depression. Although this scale is expected to be useful in various psychiatric and mental health settings, the reliability, validity, and interpretability have not yet been fully examined. This study was designed to examine the reliability, factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of a Japanese version of the ODSIS, as well as its ability to distinguish between individuals with and without a major depressive disorder diagnosis. Methods From a pool of registrants at an internet survey company, 2830 non-clinical and clinical participants were selected randomly (619 with major depressive disorder, 619 with panic disorder, 576 with social anxiety disorder, 645 with obsessive–compulsive disorder, and 371 non-clinical panelists). Participants were asked to respond to the ODSIS and conventional measures of depression, functional impairment, anxiety, neuroticism, satisfaction with life, and emotion regulation. Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of three split subsamples indicated the unidimensional factor structure of ODSIS. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed invariance of factor loadings between non-clinical and clinical subsamples. The ODSIS also showed excellent internal consistency and test–retest intraclass correlation coefficients. Convergence and discriminance of the ODSIS with various measures were in line with our expectations. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that the ODSIS was able to detect a major depressive syndrome accurately. Conclusions This study supports the reliability and validity of ODSIS in a non-western population, which can be interpreted as demonstrating cross-cultural validity. PMID:25874558

  19. Functional engineered human cardiac patches prepared from nature's platform improve heart function after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingjie; Yang, Hui; Bai, Aobing; Jiang, Wei; Li, Xiuya; Wang, Xinhong; Mao, Yishen; Lu, Chao; Qian, Ruizhe; Guo, Feng; Ding, Tianling; Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Sifeng; Zhang, Jianyi; Liu, Chen; Sun, Ning

    2016-10-01

    With the advent of induced pluripotent stem cells and directed differentiation techniques, it is now feasible to derive individual-specific cardiac cells for human heart tissue engineering. Here we report the generation of functional engineered human cardiac patches using human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiac cells and decellularized natural heart ECM as scaffolds. The engineered human cardiac patches can be tailored to any desired size and shape and exhibited normal contractile and electrical physiology in vitro. Further, when patching on the infarct area, these patches improved heart function of rats with acute myocardial infarction in vivo. These engineered human cardiac patches can be of great value for normal and disease-specific heart tissue engineering, drug screening, and meet the demands for individual-specific heart tissues for personalized regenerative therapy of myocardial damages in the future. PMID:27509303

  20. Impairments that Influence Physical Function among Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Carmen L.; Gawade, Prasad L.; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Children treated for cancer are at increased risk of developing chronic health conditions, some of which may manifest during or soon after treatment while others emerge many years after therapy. These health problems may limit physical performance and functional capacity, interfering with participation in work, social, and recreational activities. In this review, we discuss treatment-induced impairments in the endocrine, musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiopulmonary systems and their influence on mobility and physical function. We found that cranial radiation at a young age was associated with a broad range of chronic conditions including obesity, short stature, low bone mineral density and neuromotor impairments. Anthracyclines and chest radiation are associated with both short and long-term cardiotoxicity. Although numerous chronic conditions are documented among individuals treated for childhood cancer, the impact of these conditions on mobility and function are not well characterized, with most studies limited to survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors. Moving forward, further research assessing the impact of chronic conditions on participation in work and social activities is required. Moreover, interventions to prevent or ameliorate the loss of physical function among children treated for cancer are likely to become an important area of survivorship research. PMID:25692094

  1. The Early Indicators of Functional Decrease in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kubicki, Alexandre; Fautrelle, Lilian; Bourrelier, Julien; Rouaud, Olivier; Mourey, France

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Motor deficiency is associated with cognitive frailty in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI). In this study we aimed to test the integrity in muscle synergies involved in an arm-pointing movement in functionally unimpaired MCI patients. We hypothesized that early motor indicators exist in this population at a preclinical level. Methods: Electromyographic signals were collected for 11 muscles in 3 groups: Young Adults (YA), Older Adults (OA), and MCI patients. The OA and MCI groups presented the same functional status. Each subject performed 20 arm-pointing movements from a standing position. Results: The main differences were (1) an earlier activation of the left Obliquus internus in MCI compared with OA group, (2) an earlier activation for the MCI compared with both OA and YA. The temporal differences in muscle synergies between MCI and OA groups were linked with executive functions of MCI patients, assessed by the trail making test. Moreover, the results show a delayed activation of the right Biceps Femoris and the right Erector Spinae at l3 in MCI and OA compared with YA. Interpretation: The motor program changes highlighted in our patient MCI group suggest that discrete modifications of the motor command seem to exist even in the absence of functional impairment. Instead of showing an indication of delayed muscle activation in the MCI patients, our results highlight some early activation of several trunk muscles. PMID:27570509

  2. Resting heart rate and the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose and diabetes: the Kailuan prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Cui, Liufu; Wang, Yanxue; Vaidya, Anand; Chen, Shuohua; Zhang, Caifeng; Zhu, Ying; Li, Dongqing; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the association between resting heart rate and the risk of developing impaired fasting glucose (IFG), diabetes and conversion from IFG to diabetes. Methods: The prospective analysis included 73 357 participants of the Kailuan cohort (57 719 men and 15 638 women). Resting heart rate was measured via electrocardiogram in 2006. Incident diabetes was defined as either the fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/l or new active use of diabetes medications during the 4-year follow-up period. IFG was defined as a FBG between 5.6 and 6.9 mmol/l. A meta-analysis including seven published prospective studies focused on heart rate and diabetes risk, and our current study was then conducted using random-effects models. Results: During 4 years of follow-up, 17 463 incident IFG cases and 4 649 incident diabetes cases were identified. The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for each 10 beats/min increase in heart rate were 1.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19, 1.27] for incident diabetes, 1.11 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.13) for incident IFG and 1.13 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.17) for IFG to diabetes conversion. The risks of incident IFG and diabetes were significantly higher among participants aged < 50 years than those aged ≥ 50 years (P-interaction < 0.02 for both). A meta-analysis confirmed the positive association between resting heart rate and diabetes risk (pooled HR for the highest vs lowest heart rate quintile = 1.59, 95% CI:1.27, 2.00; n = 8). Conclusion: Faster resting heart rate is associated with higher risk of developing IFG and diabetes, suggesting that heart rate could be used to identify individuals with a higher future risk of diabetes. PMID:26002923

  3. The Nature of Elder Impairment and Its Impact on Family Caregivers' Health and Psychosocial Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cattanach, Lynn; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    1991-01-01

    Assessed nature of elder impairment and its impact on health and psychosocial functioning of 102 family caregivers. Found no differences among caregivers of cognitively impaired, functionally impaired, and nonimpaired elderly relatives in terms of self-reported health or psychosocial functioning. Suggests that other aspects of caregiving context…

  4. [Improved kidney function with intravenous prostaglandin E1 in patients with terminal heart failure].

    PubMed

    Wutte, M; Hülsmann, M; Berger, R; Rödler, S; Frey, B; Stanek, B; Pacher, R

    1998-07-31

    In end stage congestive heart failure activation of a series of compensatory mechanisms increase renal vascular resistance and impair renal function. Prostaglandin E1 is increasingly used in the treatment of severe heart failure for its vasodilating actions. In various experimental settings prostaglandin E analogues are known to improve renal function by modulating renal filtration pressure and redistribution of renal blood flow. However, prostaglandin E1 decreases systemic blood pressure and thus, also renal perfusion pressure, a fact by which renal function might be further compromized in heart failure patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prostaglandin E1 on excretory renal function in patients with end stage heart failure and to prove the hypothesis, that the well known local actions of prostaglandins on renal microcirculation might outweigh the negative impact of an expected decrease in perfusion pressure. 25 patients with terminal congestive heart failure were investigated. 13 patients received prostaglandin E1 at a dose of 13.5 +/- 1.9 ng/kg/min in combination with constant rates of dopamine and dobutamine (group A), 12 patients received prostaglandin E1 at a dose of 10.3 +/- 1.7 ng/kg/min without catecholamines (group B). There was no significant difference in prostaglandin dosages between groups. Kidney function was assessed by measuring plasma creatinine and urea nitrogen, urinary output, creatinine clearance, osmotic and free water clearance at baseline and after 72 h of infusion therapy. Hemodynamic parameters were measured by using a balloon tipped pulmonary arterial catheter. Hemodynamic measurements during infusion showed a significant improvement in all patients. At the same time as expected mean arterial pressure decreased in both groups (p < 0.001). Nevertheless, in both groups a significant increase of creatinine clearance during infusion was observed (in group A from 45 ml/min to 78 ml/min., p < 0.05, in group B from 59

  5. Mortality and heart rate in the elderly: role of cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Cacciatore, Francesco; Mazzella, Francesca; Abete, Pasquale; Viati, Luisa; Galizia, Gianluigi; D'Ambrosio, Daniele; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Russo, Salvatore; Visconti, Claudia; Della Morte, David; Ferrara, Nicola; Rengo, Franco

    2007-01-01

    Mortality related to heart rate (HR) increase in the elderly has not yet been well established. To ascertain the relationships among cognitive impairment (CI), mortality, and HR increase, the authors prospectively studied a random sample of elderly subjects stratified according to presence or absence of CI. Elderly subjects randomly selected in 1991 (n = 1332) were followed up for 12 years. Mortality was established in 98.1% of the subjects. When HR was stratified in quartiles (< 69, 70-75, 76-80, and > 80 bpm), mortality was linearly associated with increased HR in all (from 47.7 to 57.0; r2 = .43, p = .019) and in subjects without (from 41.7 to 51.1%; r2 = .50, p = .043) but not in those with CI (from 57.5 to 66.1; r2 = .20, p = .363). Cox regression analysis, adjusted for several variables, shows that HR doesn't predict mortality in all subjects (RR 0.69; 95% CI = 0.27-1.73) or in those with CI (RR 0.91; 95% CI = 0.81-1.02). In contrast, HR predicts mortality in subjects without CI (RR 1.10; 95% CI = 1.00-1.22). Hence, HR increase is a predictor of mortality in elderly subjects without CI. However, when considering all elderly subjects and those with CI, HR increase seems to have no effect on mortality. Thus, CI should be considered when focusing on HR increase as risk factor for mortality in the elderly. PMID:17364903

  6. 2D imaging of functional structures in perfused pig heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Manfred D.; Cristea, Paul D.; Hiller, Michael; Trinks, Tobias

    2002-06-01

    In 2000 by 2D-imaging we were able for the first time to visualize in subcellular space functional structures of myocardium. For these experiments we used hemoglobin-free perfused pig hearts in our lab. Step by step we learned to understand the meaning of subcellular structures. Principally, the experiment revealed that in subcellular space very fast changes of light scattering can occur. Furthermore, coefficients of different parameters were determined on the basis of multicomponent system theory.

  7. Current aspects of thiamine deficiency on heart function.

    PubMed

    Roman-Campos, Danilo; Cruz, Jader Santos

    2014-03-01

    Beriberi is a disease caused by thiamine deficiency (TD), which may lead to heart problems, including heart failure. Despite the fact that thiamine prevalence is reduced in the industrialized world, it remains a health hazard especially due to chronic alcohol consumption. Diagnosing the presence of TD based on both electrocardiogram and echocardiogram exams is particularly challenging because of its non-specific symptoms. TD diagnosis is unique, which then leads to determination of its severity. If thiamine infusion abrogates its symptomology, only then can the case be definitely diagnosed as TD. Another condition eliciting increased likelihood of developing TD in humans is furosemide administration to heart failure patients. Furosemide administration worsens heart failure due to heightened TD. However, literature data provided are contradictory and require clarification. Up until now, the rat has been the preferred TD animal model. However, the results are even more contradictory than those in humans. It seems that if the rat TD models are separated into two distinct groups, according to animal age, the results appear to be more consistent: younger rats are more prone to develop TD signs similar to those found in humans. Their symptoms stem from changes in cardiac myocyte function that are reversed after thiamine supplementation. However, it remains an open question as to why only younger rats are able to develop human-like symptoms and deserve further investigation. PMID:24398040

  8. Mechanisms Linking Energy Substrate Metabolism to the Function of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Carley, Andrew N.; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Lewandowski, E. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic signaling mechanisms are increasingly recognized to mediate the cellular response to alterations in workload demand, as a consequence of physiological and pathophysiological challenges. Thus, an understanding of the metabolic mechanisms coordinating activity in the cytosol with the energy-providing pathways in the mitochondrial matrix becomes critical for deepening our insights into the pathogenic changes that occur in the stressed cardiomyocyte. Processes that exchange both metabolic intermediates and cations between the cytosol and mitochondria enable transduction of dynamic changes in contractile state to the mitochondrial compartment of the cell. Disruption of such metabolic transduction pathways has severe consequences for the energetic support of contractile function in the heart and is implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Deficiencies in metabolic reserve and impaired metabolic transduction in the cardiomyocyte can result from inherent deficiencies in metabolic phenotype or maladaptive changes in metabolic enzyme expression and regulation in the response to pathogenic stress. This review examines both current and emerging concepts of the functional linkage between the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix with a specific focus on metabolic reserve and energetic efficiency. These principles of exchange and transport mechanisms across the mitochondrial membrane are reviewed for the failing heart from the perspectives of chronic pressure overload and diabetes mellitus. PMID:24526677

  9. Balance Functional Assessment in People with Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowska, Izabela; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Koc, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: to assess the level of balance of people with visual impairment against the BOT-2 standard scores for the able-bodied, and to identify in which trials subjects had the greatest difficulties in maintaining balance with respect to the degree of vision loss and age categories. One hundred twenty-seven subjects with visual impairment aged 6–16 years, participated in the study (68 girls and 59 boys). The division for partially sighted people (61) and the blind (66) was made according to the WHO classification. Functional balance assessment was made using a balance subtest from the Bruininks-Oseretsky test. Significant relationships were noticed between age and the level of balance (χ2 = 8.35 p <0,05), as well as between the degree of vision loss and the level of balance (χ2 = 24.53 p <0,001). The level of balance of almost all blind subjects was below (20%) or well-below (60%) the average for the able-bodied. The subjects’ ability to maintain balance was not dependent on gender and was associated primarily with the degree of visual impairment and age. Partially sighted people had better balance than the blind and the decrease in visual acuity resulted in reduction of balance skills. The lowest level of balance was observed in blind students aged 7–11 years. Elaborating physical fitness improvement programs for children and adolescents with visual impairment, diversity of age, the degree of vision loss and limitations of ablility to maintain balance should be taken into account. PMID:26834878

  10. Balance Functional Assessment in People with Visual Impairment.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Izabela; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Koc, Krzysztof

    2015-11-22

    The aims of this study were twofold: to assess the level of balance of people with visual impairment against the BOT-2 standard scores for the able-bodied, and to identify in which trials subjects had the greatest difficulties in maintaining balance with respect to the degree of vision loss and age categories. One hundred twenty-seven subjects with visual impairment aged 6-16 years, participated in the study (68 girls and 59 boys). The division for partially sighted people (61) and the blind (66) was made according to the WHO classification. Functional balance assessment was made using a balance subtest from the Bruininks-Oseretsky test. Significant relationships were noticed between age and the level of balance (χ2 = 8.35 p <0,05), as well as between the degree of vision loss and the level of balance (χ2 = 24.53 p <0,001). The level of balance of almost all blind subjects was below (20%) or well-below (60%) the average for the able-bodied. The subjects' ability to maintain balance was not dependent on gender and was associated primarily with the degree of visual impairment and age. Partially sighted people had better balance than the blind and the decrease in visual acuity resulted in reduction of balance skills. The lowest level of balance was observed in blind students aged 7-11 years. Elaborating physical fitness improvement programs for children and adolescents with visual impairment, diversity of age, the degree of vision loss and limitations of ablility to maintain balance should be taken into account. PMID:26834878

  11. Characterization of Lung Function Impairment in Adults with Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhi-ya; Tang, Yan; Li, Hui-min; Lin, Zhi-min; Zheng, Jin-ping; Chen, Rong-chang; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2014-01-01

    Background Characteristics of lung function impairment in bronchiectasis is not fully understood. Objectives To determine the factors associated with lung function impairment and to compare changes in spirometry during bronchiectasis exacerbation and convalescence (1 week following 14-day antibiotic therapy). Methods We recruited 142 patients with steady-state bronchiectasis, of whom 44 with acute exacerbations in the follow-up were included in subgroup analyses. Baseline measurements consisted of chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), sputum volume, purulence and bacteriology, spirometry and diffusing capacity. Spirometry, but not diffusing capacity, was examined during acute exacerbations and convalescence. Results In the final multivariate models, having bronchiectasis symptoms for 10 years or greater (OR = 4.75, 95%CI: 1.46–15.43, P = 0.01), sputum culture positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR = 4.93, 95%CI: 1.52–15.94, P<0.01) and HRCT total score being 12 or greater (OR = 7.77, 95%CI: 3.21–18.79, P<0.01) were the major variables associated with FEV1 being 50%pred or less; and the only variable associated with reduced DLCO was 4 or more bronchiectatic lobes (OR = 5.91, 95%CI: 2.20–17.23, P<0.01). Overall differences in FVC and FEV1 during exacerbations and convalescence were significant (P<0.05), whereas changes in other spirometric parameters were less notable. This applied even when stratified by the magnitude of FEV1 and DLCO reduction at baseline. Conclusion Significant lung function impairment should raise alert of chest HRCT abnormality and sputum culture positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in patients with predominantly mild to moderate steady-state bronchiectasis. Acute exacerbations elicited reductions in FVC and FEV1. Changes of other spirometric parameters were less significant during exacerbations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01761214 PMID:25405614

  12. Mitochondrial dysfunction impairs tumor suppressor p53 expression/function.

    PubMed

    Compton, Shannon; Kim, Chul; Griner, Nicholas B; Potluri, Prasanth; Scheffler, Immo E; Sen, Sabyasachi; Jerry, D Joseph; Schneider, Sallie; Yadava, Nagendra

    2011-06-10

    Recently, mitochondria have been suggested to act in tumor suppression. However, the underlying mechanisms by which mitochondria suppress tumorigenesis are far from being clear. In this study, we have investigated the link between mitochondrial dysfunction and the tumor suppressor protein p53 using a set of respiration-deficient (Res(-)) mammalian cell mutants with impaired assembly of the oxidative phosphorylation machinery. Our data suggest that normal mitochondrial function is required for γ-irradiation (γIR)-induced cell death, which is mainly a p53-dependent process. The Res(-) cells are protected against γIR-induced cell death due to impaired p53 expression/function. We find that the loss of complex I biogenesis in the absence of the MWFE subunit reduces the steady-state level of the p53 protein, although there is no effect on the p53 protein level in the absence of the ESSS subunit that is also essential for complex I assembly. The p53 protein level was also reduced to undetectable levels in Res(-) cells with severely impaired mitochondrial protein synthesis. This suggests that p53 protein expression is differentially regulated depending upon the type of electron transport chain/respiratory chain deficiency. Moreover, irrespective of the differences in the p53 protein expression profile, γIR-induced p53 activity is compromised in all Res(-) cells. Using two different conditional systems for complex I assembly, we also show that the effect of mitochondrial dysfunction on p53 expression/function is a reversible phenomenon. We believe that these findings will have major implications in the understanding of cancer development and therapy. PMID:21502317

  13. Impaired Baroreflex Function in Mice Overexpressing Alpha-Synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Sheila M.; Jordan, Maria C.; Mulligan, Caitlin K.; Masliah, Eliezer; Holden, John G.; Millard, Ronald W.; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise; Roos, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, such as orthostatic hypotension consequent to baroreflex failure and cardiac sympathetic denervation, is frequently observed in the synucleinopathy Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the present study, the baroreceptor reflex was assessed in mice overexpressing human wildtype alpha-synuclein (Thy1-aSyn), a genetic mouse model of synucleinopathy. The beat-to-beat change in heart rate (HR), computed from R–R interval, in relation to blood pressure was measured in anesthetized and conscious mice equipped with arterial blood pressure telemetry transducers during transient bouts of hypertension and hypotension. Compared to wildtype, tachycardia following nitroprusside-induced hypotension was significantly reduced in Thy1-aSyn mice. Thy1-aSyn mice also showed an abnormal cardiovascular response (i.e., diminished tachycardia) to muscarinic blockade with atropine. We conclude that Thy1-aSyn mice have impaired basal and dynamic range of sympathetic and parasympathetic-mediated changes in HR and will be a useful model for long-term study of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction associated with PD. PMID:23888153

  14. Human G109E-inhibitor-1 impairs cardiac function and promotes arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Kobra; Pritchard, Tracy J; Liu, Guan-Sheng; Singh, Vivek P; Bidwell, Philip; Lam, Chi Keung; Vafiadaki, Elizabeth; Das, Parthib; Ma, Jianyong; Kunduri, Swati; Sanoudou, Despina; Florea, Stela; Vanderbilt, Erica; Wang, Hong-Shang; Rubinstein, Jack; Hajjar, Roger J; Kranias, Evangelia G

    2015-12-01

    A hallmark of human and experimental heart failure is deficient sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca-uptake reflecting impaired contractile function. This is at least partially attributed to dephosphorylation of phospholamban by increased protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) activity. Indeed inhibition of PP1 by transgenic overexpression or gene-transfer of constitutively active inhibitor-1 improved Ca-cycling, preserved function and decreased fibrosis in small and large animal models of heart failure, suggesting that inhibitor-1 may represent a potential therapeutic target. We recently identified a novel human polymorphism (G109E) in the inhibitor-1 gene with a frequency of 7% in either normal or heart failure patients. Transgenic mice, harboring cardiac-specific expression of G109E inhibitor-1, exhibited decreases in contractility, Ca-kinetics and SR Ca-load. These depressive effects were relieved by isoproterenol stimulation. Furthermore, stress conditions (2Hz +/- Iso) induced increases in Ca-sparks, Ca-waves (60% of G109E versus 20% in wild types) and after-contractions (76% of G109E versus 23% of wild types) in mutant cardiomyocytes. Similar findings were obtained by acute expression of the G109E variant in adult cardiomyocytes in the absence or presence of endogenous inhibitor-1. The underlying mechanisms included reduced binding of mutant inhibitor-1 to PP1, increased PP1 activity, and dephosphorylation of phospholamban at Ser16 and Thr17. However, phosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor at Ser2808 was not altered while phosphorylation at Ser2814 was increased, consistent with increased activation of Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), promoting aberrant SR Ca-release. Parallel in vivo studies revealed that mutant mice developed ventricular ectopy and complex ventricular arrhythmias (including bigeminy, trigeminy and ventricular tachycardia), when challenged with isoproterenol. Inhibition of CaMKII activity by KN-93 prevented the increased propensity to

  15. Pulmonary function differences in patients with chronic right heart failure secondary to pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic left heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei-Hua; Luo, Qin; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Qing; Xi, Qun-Ying; Xue, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Zhi-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary abnormalities are found in both chronic heart failure (CHF) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The differences of pulmonary function in chronic left heart failure and chronic right heart failure are not fully understood. Material/Methods We evaluated 120 patients with stable CHF (60 with chronic left heart failure and 60 with chronic right heart failure). All patients had pulmonary function testing, including pulmonary function testing at rest and incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Results Patients with right heart failure had a significantly lower end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PetCO2), higher end-tidal partial pressure of O2 (PetO2) and minute ventilation/CO2 production (VE/VCO2) at rest. Patients with right heart failure had a lower peak PetCO2, and a higher peak dead space volume/tidal volume (VD/VT) ratio, peak PetO2, peak VE/VCO2, and VE/VCO2 slope during exercise. Patients with right heart failure had more changes in ΔPetCO2 and ΔVE/VCO2, from rest to exercise. Conclusions Patients with right heart failure had worse pulmonary function at rest and exercise, which was due to severe ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatching, severe ventilation inefficiency, and gas exchange abnormality. PMID:24916204

  16. Overnutrition during lactation leads to impairment in insulin signaling, up-regulation of GLUT1 and increased mitochondrial carbohydrate oxidation in heart of weaned mice.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Amélia F; Cortez, Erika; Neves, Fabiana A; Vieira, Anatalia K G; Soares, Vivian de M; Rodrigues-Cunha, Alessandra C de S; Andrade, Daniela C; Thole, Alessandra A; Gabriel-Costa, Daniele; Brum, Patricia C; Moura, Aníbal S; Garcia-Souza, Érica P

    2016-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that overnutrition during early postnatal period can increase the long-term risk of developing obesity and cardiac disorders, yet the short-term effects of postnatal overfeeding in cardiac metabolism remains unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the cardiac metabolism of weaned mice submitted to overnutrition during lactation, particularly as to mitochondrial function, substrate preference and insulin signaling. Postnatal overfeeding was induced by litter size reduction in mice at postnatal day 3. At 21 days of age (weaning), mice in the overfed group (OG) presented biometric and biochemical parameters of obesity, including increased body weight, visceral fat, liver weight and increased left ventricle weight/tibia length ratio; indicating cardiac hypertrophy, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and increased liver glycogen content compared to control group. In the heart, we detected impaired insulin signaling, mainly due to decreased IRβ, pTyr-IRS1, PI3K, GLUT4 and pAkt/Akt and increased PTP1B, GLUT1 and pAMPKα/AMPKα content. Activities of lactate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase were increased, accompanied by enhanced carbohydrate oxidation, as observed by high-resolution respirometry. Moreover, OG hearts had lower CPT1, PPARα and increased UCP2 mRNA expression, associated with increased oxidative stress (4-HNE content), BAX/BCL2 ratio and cardiac fibrosis. Ultrastructural analysis of OG hearts demonstrated mild mitochondrial damage without alterations in OXPHOS complexes. In conclusion, overnutrition during early life induces short-term metabolic disturbances, impairment in heart insulin signaling, up-regulates GLUT-1 and switch cardiac fuel preference in juvenile mice. PMID:26608021

  17. Health literacy and global cognitive function predict e-mail but not internet use in heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Schprechman, Jared P; Gathright, Emily C; Goldstein, Carly M; Guerini, Kate A; Dolansky, Mary A; Redle, Joseph; Hughes, Joel W

    2013-01-01

    Background. The internet offers a potential for improving patient knowledge, and e-mail may be used in patient communication with providers. However, barriers to internet and e-mail use, such as low health literacy and cognitive impairment, may prevent patients from using technological resources. Purpose. We investigated whether health literacy, heart failure knowledge, and cognitive function were related to internet and e-mail use in older adults with heart failure (HF). Methods. Older adults (N = 119) with heart failure (69.84 ± 9.09 years) completed measures of health literacy, heart failure knowledge, cognitive functioning, and internet use in a cross-sectional study. Results. Internet and e-mail use were reported in 78.2% and 71.4% of this sample of patients with HF, respectively. Controlling for age and education, logistic regression analyses indicated that higher health literacy predicted e-mail (P < .05) but not internet use. Global cognitive function predicted e-mail (P < .05) but not internet use. Only 45% used the Internet to obtain information on HF and internet use was not associated with greater HF knowledge. Conclusions. The majority of HF patients use the internet and e-mail, but poor health literacy and cognitive impairment may prevent some patients from accessing these resources. Future studies that examine specific internet and email interventions to increase HF knowledge are needed. PMID:24282634

  18. Health Literacy and Global Cognitive Function Predict E-Mail but Not Internet Use in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schprechman, Jared P.; Gathright, Emily C.; Goldstein, Carly M.; Guerini, Kate A.; Dolansky, Mary A.; Redle, Joseph; Hughes, Joel W.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The internet offers a potential for improving patient knowledge, and e-mail may be used in patient communication with providers. However, barriers to internet and e-mail use, such as low health literacy and cognitive impairment, may prevent patients from using technological resources. Purpose. We investigated whether health literacy, heart failure knowledge, and cognitive function were related to internet and e-mail use in older adults with heart failure (HF). Methods. Older adults (N = 119) with heart failure (69.84 ± 9.09 years) completed measures of health literacy, heart failure knowledge, cognitive functioning, and internet use in a cross-sectional study. Results. Internet and e-mail use were reported in 78.2% and 71.4% of this sample of patients with HF, respectively. Controlling for age and education, logistic regression analyses indicated that higher health literacy predicted e-mail (P < .05) but not internet use. Global cognitive function predicted e-mail (P < .05) but not internet use. Only 45% used the Internet to obtain information on HF and internet use was not associated with greater HF knowledge. Conclusions. The majority of HF patients use the internet and e-mail, but poor health literacy and cognitive impairment may prevent some patients from accessing these resources. Future studies that examine specific internet and email interventions to increase HF knowledge are needed. PMID:24282634

  19. Ethanol exposure alters early cardiac function in the looping heart: a mechanism for congenital heart defects?

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Peterson, Lindsy M.; Mai, Katherine; McHale, Quinn; Jenkins, Michael W.; Linask, Kersti K.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-induced congenital heart defects are frequently among the most life threatening and require surgical correction in newborns. The etiology of these defects, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome, has been the focus of much study, particularly involving cellular and molecular mechanisms. Few studies have addressed the influential role of altered cardiac function in early embryogenesis because of a lack of tools with the capability to assay tiny beating hearts. To overcome this gap in our understanding, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT), a nondestructive imaging modality capable of micrometer-scale resolution imaging, to rapidly and accurately map cardiovascular structure and hemodynamics in real time under physiological conditions. In this study, we exposed avian embryos to a single dose of alcohol/ethanol at gastrulation when the embryo is sensitive to the induction of birth defects. Late-stage hearts were analyzed using standard histological analysis with a focus on the atrio-ventricular valves. Early cardiac function was assayed using Doppler OCT, and structural analysis of the cardiac cushions was performed using OCT imaging. Our results indicated that ethanol-exposed embryos developed late-stage valvuloseptal defects. At early stages, they exhibited increased regurgitant flow and developed smaller atrio-ventricular cardiac cushions, compared with controls (uninjected and saline-injected embryos). The embryos also exhibited abnormal flexion/torsion of the body. Our evidence suggests that ethanol-induced alterations in early cardiac function have the potential to contribute to late-stage valve and septal defects, thus demonstrating that functional parameters may serve as early and sensitive gauges of cardiac normalcy and abnormalities. PMID:24271490

  20. Ethanol exposure alters early cardiac function in the looping heart: a mechanism for congenital heart defects?

    PubMed

    Karunamuni, Ganga; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Peterson, Lindsy M; Mai, Katherine; McHale, Quinn; Jenkins, Michael W; Linask, Kersti K; Rollins, Andrew M; Watanabe, Michiko

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol-induced congenital heart defects are frequently among the most life threatening and require surgical correction in newborns. The etiology of these defects, collectively known as fetal alcohol syndrome, has been the focus of much study, particularly involving cellular and molecular mechanisms. Few studies have addressed the influential role of altered cardiac function in early embryogenesis because of a lack of tools with the capability to assay tiny beating hearts. To overcome this gap in our understanding, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT), a nondestructive imaging modality capable of micrometer-scale resolution imaging, to rapidly and accurately map cardiovascular structure and hemodynamics in real time under physiological conditions. In this study, we exposed avian embryos to a single dose of alcohol/ethanol at gastrulation when the embryo is sensitive to the induction of birth defects. Late-stage hearts were analyzed using standard histological analysis with a focus on the atrio-ventricular valves. Early cardiac function was assayed using Doppler OCT, and structural analysis of the cardiac cushions was performed using OCT imaging. Our results indicated that ethanol-exposed embryos developed late-stage valvuloseptal defects. At early stages, they exhibited increased regurgitant flow and developed smaller atrio-ventricular cardiac cushions, compared with controls (uninjected and saline-injected embryos). The embryos also exhibited abnormal flexion/torsion of the body. Our evidence suggests that ethanol-induced alterations in early cardiac function have the potential to contribute to late-stage valve and septal defects, thus demonstrating that functional parameters may serve as early and sensitive gauges of cardiac normalcy and abnormalities. PMID:24271490

  1. Does perinatal asphyxia impair cognitive function without cerebral palsy?

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, F F; Miller, S P

    2006-01-01

    Some studies on neurodevelopmental outcomes after neonatal encephalopathy have suggested that cognitive deficits do not occur in the absence of cerebral palsy. It is increasingly apparent that childhood survivors of overt neonatal encephalopathy may have cognitive impairments, even in the absence of functional motor deficits. The risk of cognitive deficits is related to the severity of neonatal encephalopathy and the pattern of brain injury on neuroimaging, particularly the watershed pattern of injury. A better understanding of the risk factors for cognitive abnormalities after neonatal encephalopathy will ultimately lead to interventions to prevent these deficits. Identifying the full spectrum of neurodevelopmental outcomes after neonatal encephalopathy will also allow care givers to identify children requiring early intervention to maximise their potential for independent function throughout development. PMID:17056843

  2. Structural Equation Modeling of Motor Impairment, Gross Motor Function, and the Functional Outcome in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Physical therapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is focused on reducing neurological impairments, improving strength, and preventing the development of secondary impairments in order to improve functional outcomes. However, relationship between motor impairments and functional outcome has not been proved definitely. This study…

  3. The Reliability of the CVI Range: A Functional Vision Assessment for Children with Cortical Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Children who are identified as visually impaired frequently have a functional vision assessment as one way to determine how their visual impairment affects their educational performance. The CVI Range is a functional vision assessment for children with cortical visual impairment. The purpose of the study presented here was to examine the…

  4. Functional connectivity correlates of response inhibition impairment in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Collantoni, Enrico; Michelon, Silvia; Tenconi, Elena; Degortes, Daniela; Titton, Francesca; Manara, Renzo; Clementi, Maurizio; Pinato, Claudia; Forzan, Monica; Cassina, Matteo; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2016-01-30

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized by high levels of cognitive control and behavioral perseveration. The present study aims at exploring inhibitory control abilities and their functional connectivity correlates in patients with AN. Inhibitory control - an executive function that allows the realization of adaptive behavior according to environmental contingencies - has been assessed by means of the Stop-Signal paradigm. The study involved 155 patients with lifetime AN and 102 healthy women. A subsample underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and was genotyped for COMT and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. AN patients showed an impaired response inhibition and a disruption of the functional connectivity of the ventral attention circuit, a neural network implicated in behavioral response when a stimulus occurs unexpected. The 5-HTTLPR genotype appears to significantly interact with the functional connectivity of ventral attention network in explaining task performance in both patients and controls, suggesting a role of the serotoninergic system in mechanisms of response selection. The disruption of the ventral attention network in patients with AN suggests lower efficiency of bottom-up signal filtering, which might be involved in difficulties to adapt behavioral responses to environmental needs. Our findings deserve further research to confirm their scientific and therapeutic implications. PMID:26655584

  5. Impaired cortical mitochondrial function following TBI precedes behavioral changes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, William D.; Buonora, John E.; Yarnell, Angela M.; Lucky, Jessica J.; D’Acchille, Michaela I.; McMullen, David C.; Boston, Andrew G.; Kuczmarski, Andrew V.; Kean, William S.; Verma, Ajay; Grunberg, Neil E.; Cole, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathophysiology can be attributed to either the immediate, primary physical injury, or the delayed, secondary injury which begins minutes to hours after the initial injury and can persist for several months or longer. Because these secondary cascades are delayed and last for a significant time period post-TBI, they are primary research targets for new therapeutics. To investigate changes in mitochondrial function after a brain injury, both the cortical impact site and ipsilateral hippocampus of adult male rats 7 and 17 days after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury were examined. State 3, state 4, and uncoupler-stimulated rates of oxygen consumption, respiratory control ratios (RCRs) were measured and membrane potential quantified, and all were significantly decreased in 7 day post-TBI cortical mitochondria. By contrast, hippocampal mitochondria at 7 days showed only non-significant decreases in rates of oxygen consumption and membrane potential. NADH oxidase activities measured in disrupted mitochondria were normal in both injured cortex and hippocampus at 7 days post-CCI. Respiratory and phosphorylation capacities at 17 days post-CCI were comparable to naïve animals for both cortical and hippocampus mitochondria. However, unlike oxidative phosphorylation, membrane potential of mitochondria in the cortical lining of the impact site did not recover at 17 days, suggesting that while diminished cortical membrane potential at 17 days does not adversely affect mitochondrial capacity to synthesize ATP, it may negatively impact other membrane potential-sensitive mitochondrial functions. Memory status, as assessed by a passive avoidance paradigm, was not significantly impaired until 17 days after injury. These results indicate pronounced disturbances in cortical mitochondrial function 7 days after CCI which precede the behavioral impairment observed at 17 days. PMID:24550822

  6. Impaired dendritic cell function in a spontaneous autoimmune polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Quan, Songhua; Kim, Hye-Jung; Dukala, Danuta; Sheng, Jian Rong; Soliven, Betty

    2015-05-01

    Spontaneous autoimmune polyneuropathy (SAP) in B7-2 knockout NOD mice mimics the progressive form of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, and is mediated by myelin protein zero (P0)-reactive Th1 cells. In this study, we focused on the effect of B7-2 deletion on the function of dendritic cells (DCs) within the context of SAP. We found that development of SAP was associated with a preponderance or increase of CD11b(+) DCs in peripheral lymph nodes and sciatic nerves. B7-2 deletion led to altered immunophenotypic properties that differ between CD11b(+) DCs and CD8α(+) DCs. Both DC subsets from B7-2 knockout NOD mice exhibited impaired capacity to capture fluorophore-labeled myelin P0, but diminished Ag-presenting function was observed only in CD11b(+) DCs. Clinical assessment, electrophysiologic studies, and splenocyte proliferation studies revealed that absence of B7-2 on DCs was sufficient to cause impaired ability to induce tolerance to P0, which could be overcome by preconditioning with IL-10. Tolerance induction by Ag-pulsed wild-type NOD DCs was dependent on IL-10 and was associated with increased CD4(+) regulatory T cells, whereas tolerance induction by IL-10-conditioned B7-2-deficient DCs was associated with increased percentages of both regulatory T cells and B10 cells in the spleen. We conclude that B7-2 deletion has an impact on the distribution of DC subsets in lymphoid organs and alters the expression of costimulatory molecules, but functional consequences are not uniform across DC subsets. Defective tolerance induction in the absence of B7-2 can be restored by preconditioning of DCs with IL-10. PMID:25825437

  7. Work related impairment of nasal function in Swedish woodwork teachers.

    PubMed Central

    Ahman, M; Holmström, M; Cynkier, I; Söderman, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between exposure and nasal function in woodwork teachers. METHODS: 39 selected woodwork teachers employed full time and 32 control subjects (other school personnel) were examined at the beginning and at the end of a working week with symptom rating, nose and throat inspection, rhinomanometry, nasal mucociliary clearance test, and a smell identification test. During one working day of the same week climate, dust and terpene concentrations were measured in all 39 schools. RESULTS: The ventilation rate was highest in rooms with mechanical ventilation. Range of total dust (personally sampled) was 0.12-1.18 mg/m3, respirable dust 0.02-0.21 mg/m3, and terpenes (area sampled) 0.02-6.8 mg/m3. In contrast to the control subjects, the woodwork teachers had more nasal symptoms on the Thursday afternoon than on the Monday morning, especially those working in rooms without mechanical ventilation. Their mucociliary clearance worsened during the week (mean increase 4 min, P < 0.001). A small impairment of olfactory function was also found, but their rhinomanometric values did not change significantly. Nasal symptoms correlated weakly with the percentage of respirable dust in the total dust. Otherwise there were no significant dose-effect relations between measured dust or terpene concentrations and nasal tests. CONCLUSIONS: The woodwork teachers had mainly reversible nasal complaints, impaired nasal mucociliary clearance and olfactory function related to the work environment, with dust concentrations below the Swedish threshold limit value of 2 mg/m3. PMID:8777447

  8. Formaldehyde exposure impairs the function and differentiation of NK cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Lee, Hwa-Youn; Lee, Eun-Hee; Lee, Ki-Mo; Park, Min; Ji, Kon-Young; Jang, Ji-Hun; Jeong, Yun-Hwa; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Yoon, Il-Joo; Kim, Su-Man; Jeong, Moon-Jin; Kim, Kwang Dong; Kang, Hyung-Sik

    2013-11-25

    We investigated the cytotoxic effects of formaldehyde (FA) on lymphocytes. FA-exposed mice showed a profound reduction not only in the number of natural killer (NK) cells but also in the expression of NK cell-specific receptors, but these mice did not exhibit decreases in the numbers of T or B lymphocytes. FA exposure also induced decreases in NK cytolytic activity and in the expression of NK cell-associated genes, such as IFN-γ, perforin and CD122. To determine the effect of FA on tumorigenicity, C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with B16F10 melanoma cells after FA exposure. The mass of the B16F10 tumor and the concentration of extravascular polymorphonuclear leukocytes were greater than those in unexposed tumor-bearing control mice. The number and cytolytic activity of NK cells were also reduced in B16F10 tumor-bearing mice exposed to FA. To determine how FA reduces the NK cell number, NK precursor (pNK) cells were treated with FA, and the differentiation status of the NK cells was analyzed. NK cell differentiation was impaired by FA treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings indicate that FA exposure may promote tumor progression by impairing NK cell function and differentiation. PMID:24060340

  9. [Impaired lung function in patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2004-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, RV, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SS, paO2 and paCO2 were determined in 22 patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis (FEV1, 79-50% of the normal value). All the patients were found to have impaired bronchial patency, 90.9% of the patients had lung volume and capacity changes; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction was present in 72.7%. Bronchial patency impairments were manifested by a decrease in FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, and an increase in Raw, Rin, Rex. Changes in the lung volumes and capacities appeared as higher RV, TGV, TLC, lower VC and FVC. Pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up as a reduction in pO2 and DLCO-SS a reduction and an increase in paCO2. The magnitude of the functional changes observed in most patients was low. Significant and pronounced disorders were seen in one third of the patients. PMID:15719666

  10. Executive functioning in preschoolers with specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Vissers, Constance; Koolen, Sophieke; Hermans, Daan; Scheper, Annette; Knoors, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is still largely beyond our understanding. In this review, a neuropsychological perspective on language impairments in SLI is taken, focusing specifically on executive functioning (EF) in preschoolers (age range: 2.6–6.1 years) with SLI. Based on the studies described in this review, it can be concluded that similar to school-aged children with SLI, preschoolers with SLI show difficulties in working memory, inhibition and shifting, as revealed by both performance based measures and behavioral ratings. It seems plausible that a complex, reciprocal relationship exists between language and EF throughout development. Future research is needed to examine if, and if yes how, language and EF interact in SLI. Broad neuropsychological assessment in which both language and EF are taken into account may contribute to early detection of SLI. This in turn can lead to early and tailored treatment of children with (suspected) SLI aimed not only at stimulating language development but also at strengthening EF. PMID:26539136

  11. The Influence of Motor Impairment on Autonomic Heart Rate Modulation among Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamuner, Antonio Roberto; Cunha, Andrea Baraldi; da Silva, Ester; Negri, Ana Paola; Tudella, Eloisa; Moreno, Marlene Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    The study of heart rate variability is an important tool for a noninvasive evaluation of the neurocardiac integrity. The present study aims to evaluate the autonomic heart rate modulation in supine and standing positions in 12 children diagnosed with cerebral palsy and 16 children with typical motor development (control group), as well as to…

  12. The Role of Impaired Epidermal Barrier Function in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Jurakić Tončić, Ružica; Marinović, Branka

    2016-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory, pruritic skin disease with increasing prevalence. The etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis is multifactorial and involves a complex interplay of environmental and genetic factors that induce derangements in the structure and function of the epidermal barrier and immune system. Due to great heterogeneity of etiopathogenesis, there is also great variability of clinical presentation, and diagnosis can sometimes be challenging and difficult. Diagnosis mostly relies on clinical features and laboratory tests, but morphology alone cannot reliably establish the diagnosis, so the spectrum of features associated with AD must be considered. Traditionally, patients with AD have been separated into two different subgroups, i.e. intrinsic and extrinsic. Today, most of authors prefer the outside to inside and back to outside hypothesis, suggesting that the primary disorder lies in epidermal structure and function, resulting in inflammation and immunological downstream activation which further provokes secondary barrier abnormalities. In this review, we discuss the structure and function of the epidermal barrier and the role of impaired barrier function in etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. PMID:27477169

  13. Decreased function of survival motor neuron protein impairs endocytic pathways.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadi, Maria; Derdowski, Aaron; Kalloo, Geetika; Maginnis, Melissa S; O'Hern, Patrick; Bliska, Bryn; Sorkaç, Altar; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Cook, Steven J; Poulogiannis, George; Atwood, Walter J; Hall, David H; Hart, Anne C

    2016-07-26

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by depletion of the ubiquitously expressed survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, with 1 in 40 Caucasians being heterozygous for a disease allele. SMN is critical for the assembly of numerous ribonucleoprotein complexes, yet it is still unclear how reduced SMN levels affect motor neuron function. Here, we examined the impact of SMN depletion in Caenorhabditis elegans and found that decreased function of the SMN ortholog SMN-1 perturbed endocytic pathways at motor neuron synapses and in other tissues. Diminished SMN-1 levels caused defects in C. elegans neuromuscular function, and smn-1 genetic interactions were consistent with an endocytic defect. Changes were observed in synaptic endocytic proteins when SMN-1 levels decreased. At the ultrastructural level, defects were observed in endosomal compartments, including significantly fewer docked synaptic vesicles. Finally, endocytosis-dependent infection by JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was reduced in human cells with decreased SMN levels. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that SMN depletion causes defects in endosomal trafficking that impair synaptic function, even in the absence of motor neuron cell death. PMID:27402754

  14. Acrylamide exposure impairs blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xue; Yan, Licheng; Yao, Lin; Guan, Weijun; Zeng, Fanxu; Cao, Fuyuan; Zhang, Yanshu

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies show that chronic acrylamide exposure leads to central and peripheral neu-ropathy. However, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. In this study, we examined the permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and its ability to secrete transthyretin and transport leptin of rats exposed to acrylamide for 7, 14, 21 or 28 days. Transthyretin levels in cerebrospinal fluid began to decline on day 7 after acrylamide exposure. The sodium fluorescein level in cerebrospinal fluid was increased on day 14 after exposure. Evans blue concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was increased and the cerebrospinal fluid/serum leptin ratio was decreased on days 21 and 28 after exposure. In comparison, the cerebrospinal fluid/serum albumin ratio was increased on day 28 after exposure. Our findings show that acrylamide exposure damages the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and impairs secretory and transport functions. These changes may underlie acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:25206854

  15. Acrylamide exposure impairs blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xue; Yan, Licheng; Yao, Lin; Guan, Weijun; Zeng, Fanxu; Cao, Fuyuan; Zhang, Yanshu

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies show that chronic acrylamide exposure leads to central and peripheral neu-ropathy. However, the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. In this study, we examined the permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and its ability to secrete transthyretin and transport leptin of rats exposed to acrylamide for 7, 14, 21 or 28 days. Transthyretin levels in cerebrospinal fluid began to decline on day 7 after acrylamide exposure. The sodium fluorescein level in cerebrospinal fluid was increased on day 14 after exposure. Evans blue concentration in cerebrospinal fluid was increased and the cerebrospinal fluid/serum leptin ratio was decreased on days 21 and 28 after exposure. In comparison, the cerebrospinal fluid/serum albumin ratio was increased on day 28 after exposure. Our findings show that acrylamide exposure damages the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and impairs secretory and transport functions. These changes may underlie acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:25206854

  16. Effect of Permanent Atrial Fibrillation on Cognitive Function in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Coma, Maria; González-Moneo, Maria Jesús; Enjuanes, Cristina; Velázquez, Paula Poveda; Espargaró, Deva Bas; Pérez, Bernardo Andrés; Tajes, Marta; Garcia-Elias, Anna; Farré, Núria; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Martí-Almor, Julio; Comin-Colet, Josep; Benito, Begoña

    2016-01-15

    In patients with chronic heart failure (HF), cognitive impairment (CI) is associated with poorer treatment adherence and higher readmission and mortality rates. Previous studies suggest that atrial fibrillation (AF) could impair cognitive function. This study sought to assess the association between permanent AF (permAF) and CI in patients with HF. We evaluated cognitive function in 881 patients with stable HF (73 ± 11 years, 44% women, 48% with preserved ejection fraction) using the Mini-Mental State Examination test (n = 876) and the Pfeiffer's Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (n = 848). CI was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score <24 or Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (errors) >2. The independent association between permAF and CI was assessed by binary logistic regression analysis. A total of 295 patients (33.5%) had CI, in 5.1% of cases moderate/severe. Patients with permAF had more frequently any degree of CI (43% vs 31%), and moderate/severe CI (8% vs 5%). In the multivariate analysis, CI was associated with permAF (odds ratio 1.54, 95% C.I. 1.05 to 2.28), an older age, female gender, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, previous stroke, New York Heart Association class III/IV, and lower systolic blood pressure. No interaction was found for AF and CI between patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction. In conclusion, the presence of permAF is independently associated with CI in patients with HF, both with reduced and preserved ejection fraction. Given the clinical impact of CI in the HF population, active assessment of cognitive function is particularly warranted in patients with HF with permAF. PMID:26686573

  17. Endothelial RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function

    SciTech Connect

    Asdonk, Tobias; Nickenig, Georg; Zimmer, Sebastian

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation alters HCAEC biology in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPC function is affected by RIG-I stimulation in vitro. -- Abstract: Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a crucial part of the chronic inflammatory atherosclerotic process and is mediated by innate and acquired immune mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) specialized in immunorecognition of nucleic acids may play an important role in endothelial biology in a proatherogenic manner. Here, we analyzed the impact of endothelial retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) activation upon vascular endothelial biology. Methods and results: Wild type mice were injected intravenously with 32.5 {mu}g of the RIG-ligand 3pRNA (RNA with triphosphate at the 5 Prime end) or polyA control every other day for 7 days. In 3pRNA-treated mice, endothelium-depended vasodilation was significantly impaired, vascular oxidative stress significantly increased and circulating endothelial microparticle (EMP) numbers significantly elevated compared to controls. To gain further insight in RIG-I dependent endothelial biology, cultured human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were stimulated in vitro with 3pRNA. Both cells types express RIG-I and react with receptor upregulation upon stimulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is enhanced in both cell types, whereas apoptosis and proliferation is not significantly affected in HCAEC. Importantly, HCAEC release significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines in response to RIG-I stimulation. Conclusion: This study shows that activation of the cytoplasmatic nucleic acid receptor RIG-I leads to endothelial dysfunction. RIG-I induced endothelial damage could therefore be an important pathway in atherogenesis.

  18. Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie; Fardel, Olivier; Vernhet, Laurent

    2013-01-15

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-γ and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 μM) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 μM) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-γ and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ► Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ► Arsenite (> 1 μM) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by

  19. Hepatitis B virus antigens impair NK cell function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yinli; Han, Qiuju; Zhang, Cai; Xiao, Min; Zhang, Jian

    2016-09-01

    An inadequate immune response of the host is thought to be a critical factor causing chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection. Natural killer (NK) cells, as one of the key players in the eradication and control of viral infections, were functionally impaired in CHB patients, which might contribute to viral persistence. Here, we reported that HBV antigens HBsAg and HBeAg directly inhibited NK cell function. HBsAg and/or HBeAg blocked NK cell activation, cytokine production and cytotoxic granule release in human NK cell-line NK-92 cells, which might be related to the downregulation of activating receptors and upregulation of inhibitory receptor. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms likely involved the suppression of STAT1, NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways. These findings implicated that HBV antigen-mediated inhibition of NK cells might be an efficient strategy for HBV evasion, targeting the early antiviral responses mediated by NK cells and resulting in the establishment of chronic virus infection. Therefore, this study revealed the relationship between viral antigens and human immune function, especially a potential important interaction between HBV and innate immune responses. PMID:27341035

  20. Melamine Impairs Renal and Vascular Function in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao Yu; Wong, Wing Tak; Lau, Chi Wai; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Cheang, Wai San; Liu, Jian; Lu, Ye; Huang, Huihui; Xia, Yin; Chen, Zhen Yu; Mok, Chuen-Shing; Lau, Chau-Ming; Huang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Melamine incident, linked to nephrotoxicity and kidney stone in infants previously exposed to melamine-contaminated milk products, was unprecedentedly grave in China in 2008 as little was known about the mechanistic process leading to renal dysfunction in affected children. This study investigates whether neonatal ingestion of melamine leads to renal and vascular dysfunction in adulthood; and whether ingestion of melamine in pregnant rats leads to renal dysfunction in their offspring. A combination of approaches employed includes functional studies in rat renal arteries, renal blood flow measurement by functional magnetic resonance imaging, assay for pro-inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers, immunohistochemistry, and detection of plasma and renal melamine. We provide mechanistic evidence showing for the first time that melamine reduces renal blood flow and impairs renal and vascular function associated with overexpression of inflammatory markers, transforming growth factor-β1, bone morphogenic protein 4 and cyclooxygenase-2 in kidney and renal vasculature. Melamine also induces renal inflammation and fibrosis. More importantly, melamine causes nephropathies in offsprings from pregnant rat exposed to melamine during pregnancy, as well as in neonatal rat exposed to melamine afterbirth, thus supporting the clinical observations of kidney stone and acute renal failure in infants consuming melamine-contaminated milk products. PMID:27324576

  1. Melamine Impairs Renal and Vascular Function in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiao Yu; Wong, Wing Tak; Lau, Chi Wai; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Cheang, Wai San; Liu, Jian; Lu, Ye; Huang, Huihui; Xia, Yin; Chen, Zhen Yu; Mok, Chuen-Shing; Lau, Chau-Ming; Huang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Melamine incident, linked to nephrotoxicity and kidney stone in infants previously exposed to melamine-contaminated milk products, was unprecedentedly grave in China in 2008 as little was known about the mechanistic process leading to renal dysfunction in affected children. This study investigates whether neonatal ingestion of melamine leads to renal and vascular dysfunction in adulthood; and whether ingestion of melamine in pregnant rats leads to renal dysfunction in their offspring. A combination of approaches employed includes functional studies in rat renal arteries, renal blood flow measurement by functional magnetic resonance imaging, assay for pro-inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers, immunohistochemistry, and detection of plasma and renal melamine. We provide mechanistic evidence showing for the first time that melamine reduces renal blood flow and impairs renal and vascular function associated with overexpression of inflammatory markers, transforming growth factor-β1, bone morphogenic protein 4 and cyclooxygenase-2 in kidney and renal vasculature. Melamine also induces renal inflammation and fibrosis. More importantly, melamine causes nephropathies in offsprings from pregnant rat exposed to melamine during pregnancy, as well as in neonatal rat exposed to melamine afterbirth, thus supporting the clinical observations of kidney stone and acute renal failure in infants consuming melamine-contaminated milk products. PMID:27324576

  2. Impairment of immunological functions in genetically epilepsy-prone rats.

    PubMed

    De Sarro, G; Liberto, M C; Berlinghieri, M C; Focà, A; Aragona, M; Cavaliere, R; Gulletta, E

    1996-06-01

    1. In genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPR-9s), which represent a natural genetic model of epilepsy, we observed that the number of peritoneal macrophages was significantly lower with respect to normal rats, and that some functional parameters (i.e. phagocytosis and intracellular killing) of these macrophages were impaired. 2. The count of lymphocyte populations showed a predominance of T-helper over T-cytotoxic/suppressor both in the spleen and lymph nodes. Moreover, an increased T-cell/B-cell ratio was observed in GEPR-9s. Flow cytometry revealed that GEPR-9s spleens possessed a large percentage of T-helper cells in comparison to normal rats. 3. By using concanavalin A-induced proliferation of GEPR-9s cultured lymphocytes, we have shown increased functional activation. 4. We suggest that the alterations in T-cell functions in GEPR-9s could be due to the involvement of the neuroendocrine system in the modulation of immunity, in the shift between Th1 and Th2, and in the activation of stress response. PMID:8853298

  3. Neuropsychological functioning in youth with obsessive compulsive disorder: an examination of executive function and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Adam B; Larson, Michael J; Park, Jennifer M; McGuire, Joseph F; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2014-04-30

    Preliminary research suggests neuropsychological deficits in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) similar to those in adults; however, small samples and methodological confounds limit interpretation. We aimed to examine the rates and clinical correlates of cognitive sequelae in youth with OCD, focusing on executive functioning and memory abilities. Youth ages 7-17 years with OCD (N=96) completed a hypothesis-driven neuropsychological battery (including the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure, California Verbal Learning Test, and subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System and Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning) that primarily assessed executive functioning, memory and processing speed. Cognitive sequelae were identified in 65% of youth (37% using a more stringent definition of impairment). Magnitude of cognitive sequelae was not associated with OCD severity or age; however, greater neuropsychological impairments were found amongst youth prescribed atypical neuroleptics and those diagnosed with comorbid tic disorders. Comorbidity burden was associated with presence of neuropsychological impairment, but was not specific to any single test. Findings suggest that the presence of cognitive sequelae is prevalent amongst treatment-seeking youth with OCD. Deficits were found in executive functioning and non-verbal memory performance but these impairments were not associated with OCD severity. PMID:24508366

  4. Assistive Devices for Children with Functional Impairments: Impact on Child and Caregiver Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Stacey; Skelton, Heather; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Functional impairments can limit a child's ability to participate in the experiences of childhood. This "deprivation" can, in turn, have a negative effect on such children's development, academic performance, and quality of life, as well as on the lives of their caregivers and families. Many adults use assistive devices to overcome functional…

  5. Functional role of voltage gated Ca2+ channels in heart automaticity

    PubMed Central

    Mesirca, Pietro; Torrente, Angelo G.; Mangoni, Matteo E.

    2015-01-01

    Pacemaker activity of automatic cardiac myocytes controls the heartbeat in everyday life. Cardiac automaticity is under the control of several neurotransmitters and hormones and is constantly regulated by the autonomic nervous system to match the physiological needs of the organism. Several classes of ion channels and proteins involved in intracellular Ca2+ dynamics contribute to pacemaker activity. The functional role of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in heart automaticity and impulse conduction has been matter of debate for 30 years. However, growing evidence shows that VGCCs are important regulators of the pacemaker mechanisms and play also a major role in atrio-ventricular impulse conduction. Incidentally, studies performed in genetically modified mice lacking L-type Cav1.3 (Cav1.3−/−) or T-type Cav3.1 (Cav3.1−/−) channels show that genetic inactivation of these channels strongly impacts pacemaking. In cardiac pacemaker cells, VGCCs activate at negative voltages at the beginning of the diastolic depolarization and importantly contribute to this phase by supplying inward current. Loss-of-function of these channels also impairs atrio-ventricular conduction. Furthermore, inactivation of Cav1.3 channels promotes also atrial fibrillation and flutter in knockout mice suggesting that these channels can play a role in stabilizing atrial rhythm. Genomic analysis demonstrated that Cav1.3 and Cav3.1 channels are widely expressed in pacemaker tissue of mice, rabbits and humans. Importantly, human diseases of pacemaker activity such as congenital bradycardia and heart block have been attributed to loss-of-function of Cav1.3 and Cav3.1 channels. In this article, we will review the current knowledge on the role of VGCCs in the generation and regulation of heart rate and rhythm. We will discuss also how loss of Ca2+ entry through VGCCs could influence intracellular Ca2+ handling and promote atrial arrhythmias. PMID:25698974

  6. What is your patient’s cognitive profile? Three distinct subgroups of cognitive function in persons with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Misty A.W.; Schaefer, Julie T.; Gunstad, John; Dolansky, Mary A.; Redle, Joseph D.; Josephson, Richard; Moore, Shirley M.; Hughes, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether patients with heart failure (HF) have distinct profiles of cognitive impairment. Background Cognitive impairment is common in HF. Recent work found three cognitive profiles in HF patients— (1) intact, (2) impaired, and (3) memory-impaired. We examined the reproducibility of these profiles and clarified mechanisms. Methods HF patients (68.6±9.7years; N=329) completed neuropsychological testing. Composite scores were created for cognitive domains and used to identify clusters via agglomerative-hierarchical cluster analysis. Results A 3-cluster solution emerged. Cluster 1 (n=109) had intact cognition. Cluster 2 (n=123) was impaired across all domains. Cluster 3 (n=97) had impaired memory only. Clusters differed in age, race, education, SES, IQ, BMI, and diabetes (ps ≤.026) but not in mood, anxiety, cardiovascular, or pulmonary disease (ps≥.118). Conclusions We replicated three distinct patterns of cognitive function in persons with HF. These profiles may help providers offer tailored care to patients with different cognitive and clinical needs. PMID:25510559

  7. The 2-Minute Step Test is Independently Associated with Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Colbert, Lisa H.; Josephson, Richard; Waechter, Donna; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Cognitive impairment is common in persons with heart failure (HF), and measures like the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) are known to correspond to level of impairment. The 2-minute step test (2MST) has been suggested as a more practical alternative to the 6MWT, though no study has examined whether it is associated with cognitive impairment in persons with HF. This study examined whether the 2MST is associated with cognitive function in older adults with HF. Methods Older adults with HF (N = 145; 68.97±9.31 years) completed the 2MST and a neuropsychological test battery that assessed function in multiple cognitive domains. Results Consistent with past work, HF patients exhibited high rates of cognitive impairment. Hierarchical regression analyses adjusting for demographic and medical characteistics found that the 2MST accounted for unique variance in global cognitive function (ΔR2 = .09, p < .001), executive function (ΔR2 = .03, p < .05), and language (ΔR2 = .10, p < .001). A trend emerged for attention (ΔR2 = .02, p = .09), Follow-up tests indicated that better 2MST performance was significantly correlated with better global, attention, executive, and language test performance. Conclusion The current results indicate that the 2MST is associated with cognitive function in older adults with HF. Further work is needed to clarify underlying mechanisms for this association and the value of implementing the 2MST during routine visits. PMID:22182711

  8. Mitochondrial protein synthesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) heart is enhanced in sexually mature males but impaired by low temperature

    PubMed

    West; Driedzic

    1999-09-01

    (-)(1 )protein min(-)(1)). However, the rate of protein synthesis was severely impaired at 5 degrees C (0.125+/-0.02 pmol phenylalanine mg(-)(1 )protein min(-)(1)). Since the rate of state 3 respiration by isolated mitochondria decreased in a linear fashion over the temperature range 25 to 5 degrees C, the rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis is not directly coupled to the rate of respiration. Thermal acclimation to 5 degrees C did not result in positive thermal compensation in either the rate of protein synthesis or the rate of oxygen consumption by isolated mitochondria. In a further series of experiments, total protein synthesis and oxygen consumption were measured in isolated myocytes. The rate of oxygen consumption by myocytes remained constant over the temperature range 25 to 5 degrees C. There was no difference in the rate of total cell protein synthesis between 25 degrees C (1.73+/-0. 29 pmol phenylalanine 10(6 )cells(-)(1 )h(-)(1)) and 15 degrees C (2. 12+/-0.19 pmol phenylalanine 10(6 )cells(-)(1 )h(-)(1)), but at 5 degrees C protein synthesis was substantially impaired to approximately one-sixth of the level observed at 15 degrees C. As such, rates of total cell protein synthesis were not directly coupled to rates of respiration and were curtailed at low temperature. In vitro studies show that mitochondria isolated from the heart of sexually mature male rainbow trout are inherently different from mitochondria isolated from the heart of females such that the former are able to synthesize protein at a faster rate. The rate of mitochondrial protein synthesis does not correlate with the greater than twofold changes in rates of oxygen consumption induced by acute changes in assay temperature, suggesting that protein synthesis is not directly coupled to rates of ATP or GTP synthesis. PMID:10441087

  9. Heart Valve Structure and Function in Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Robert B.; Yutzey, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    The mature heart valves are made up of highly organized extracellular matrix (ECM) and valve interstitial cells (VIC) surrounded by an endothelial cell layer. The ECM of the valves is stratified into elastin-, proteoglycan- and collagen-rich layers that confer distinct biomechanical properties to the leaflets and supporting structures. Signaling pathways have critical functions in primary valvulogenesis as well as maintenance of valve structure and function over time. Animal models provide powerful tools to study valve development and disease processes. Valve disease is a significant public health problem and increasing evidence implicates aberrant developmental mechanisms underlying pathogenesis. Further studies are necessary to determine regulatory pathway interactions underlying pathogenesis in order to generate new avenues for novel therapeutics. PMID:20809794

  10. CoQ₁₀ Function and Role in Heart Failure and Ischemic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Ayer, Anita; Macdonald, Peter; Stocker, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is an essential lipid of cells present in all cellular compartments. The functions of CoQ in mitochondrial respiration and as an antioxidant are established, although the lipid likely has additional, presently unknown, roles. While the therapeutic utility of CoQ10 supplements is recognized in the rare cases of primary CoQ10 deficiencies, a potential role for CoQ10 supplements in cardiovascular disease, particularly heart failure, has also been studied for over 40 years. This review summarizes our current knowledge in these areas derived from animal studies and human trials. Current evidence for a benefit of CoQ10 supplements in diseases other than primary CoQ10 deficiencies is insufficient. PMID:25974695

  11. Recovery of impaired muscle function in severe sciatica.

    PubMed

    Balagué, F; Nordin, M; Sheikhzadeh, A; Echegoyen, A C; Skovron, M L; Bech, H; Chassot, D; Helsen, M

    2001-06-01

    were not found during the last three visits. The isokinetic tests showed a higher prevalence of muscle function impairment. At visit 5, the isokinetic test showed impaired muscle function recovery from 23% to 32%, while the manual test showed almost full recovery. The issues of agreement between manual and isokinetic muscle testing are discussed. In this selected and homogeneous cohort of patients, the prevalence of motor deficit was rather low and the outcome excellent according to the results of the manual testing. Isokinetic muscle tests showed a higher prevalence of deficit and a much slower recovery. The manual muscle test is a crude clinical test. For more indepth muscle performance evaluation, additional testing may be necessary, especially for those patients with physically demanding jobs or activities. PMID:11469737

  12. Protective Mechanisms of Mitochondria and Heart Function in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tocchetti, Carlo G.; Bhatt, Niraj; Paolocci, Nazareno; Cortassa, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The heart depends on continuous mitochondrial ATP supply and maintained redox balance to properly develop force, particularly under increased workload. During diabetes, however, myocardial energetic-redox balance is perturbed, contributing to the systolic and diastolic dysfunction known as diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Critical Issues: How these energetic and redox alterations intertwine to influence the DC progression is still poorly understood. Excessive bioavailability of both glucose and fatty acids (FAs) play a central role, leading, among other effects, to mitochondrial dysfunction. However, where and how this nutrient excess affects mitochondrial and cytoplasmic energetic/redox crossroads remains to be defined in greater detail. Recent Advances: We review how high glucose alters cellular redox balance and affects mitochondrial DNA. Next, we address how lipid excess, either stored in lipid droplets or utilized by mitochondria, affects performance in diabetic hearts by influencing cardiac energetic and redox assets. Finally, we examine how the reciprocal energetic/redox influence between mitochondrial and cytoplasmic compartments shapes myocardial mechanical activity during the course of DC, focusing especially on the glutathione and thioredoxin systems. Future Directions: Protecting mitochondria from losing their ability to generate energy, and to control their own reactive oxygen species emission is essential to prevent the onset and/or to slow down DC progression. We highlight mechanisms enforced by the diabetic heart to counteract glucose/FAs surplus-induced damage, such as lipid storage, enhanced mitochondria-lipid droplet interaction, and upregulation of key antioxidant enzymes. Learning more on the nature and location of mechanisms sheltering mitochondrial functions would certainly help in further optimizing therapies for human DC. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1563–1586. PMID:25674814

  13. Impaired proteasome function in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kabashi, Edor; Agar, Jeffrey N; Strong, Michael J; Durham, Heather D

    2012-06-01

    Abstract The ubiquitin-proteasome system, important for maintaining protein quality control, is compromised in experimental models of familial ALS. The objective of this study was to determine if proteasome function is impaired in sporadic ALS. Proteasomal activities and subunit composition were evaluated in homogenates of spinal cord samples obtained at autopsy from sporadic ALS and non-neurological control cases, compared to cerebellum as a clinically spared tissue. The level of 20S α structural proteasome subunits was assessed in motor neurons by immunohistochemistry. Catalysis of peptide substrates of the three major proteasomal activities was substantially reduced in ALS thoracic spinal cord, but not in cerebellum, accompanied by alterations in the constitutive proteasome machinery. Chymotrypsin-like activity was decreased to 60% and 65% of control in ventral and dorsal spinal cord, respectively, concomitant with reduction in the β5 subunit with this catalytic activity. Caspase- and trypsin-like activities were reduced to a similar extent (46% - 68% of control). Proteasome levels, although generally maintained, appeared reduced specifically in motor neurons by immunolabelling. In conclusion, there are commonalities of findings in sporadic ALS patients and presymptomatic SOD1-G93A transgenic mice and these implicate inadequate proteasome function in the pathogenesis of both familial and sporadic ALS. PMID:22632443

  14. Sleep Restriction Impairs Blood–Brain Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    He, Junyun; Hsuchou, Hung; He, Yi; Kastin, Abba J.; Wang, Yuping

    2014-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a large regulatory and exchange interface between the brain and peripheral circulation. We propose that changes of the BBB contribute to many pathophysiological processes in the brain of subjects with chronic sleep restriction (CSR). To achieve CSR that mimics a common pattern of human sleep loss, we quantified a new procedure of sleep disruption in mice by a week of consecutive sleep recording. We then tested the hypothesis that CSR compromises microvascular function. CSR not only diminished endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelin1, and glucose transporter expression in cerebral microvessels of the BBB, but it also decreased 2-deoxy-glucose uptake by the brain. The expression of several tight junction proteins also was decreased, whereas the level of cyclooxygenase-2 increased. This coincided with an increase of paracellular permeability of the BBB to the small tracers sodium fluorescein and biotin. CSR for 6 d was sufficient to impair BBB structure and function, although the increase of paracellular permeability returned to baseline after 24 h of recovery sleep. This merits attention not only in neuroscience research but also in public health policy and clinical practice. PMID:25355222

  15. Acrolein Impairs the Cholesterol Transport Functions of High Density Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Alexandra C.; Holme, Rebecca L.; Chen, Yiliang; Thomas, Michael J.; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.; Sahoo, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered athero-protective, primarily due to their role in reverse cholesterol transport, where they transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The current study was designed to determine the impact of HDL modification by acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde found in high abundance in cigarette smoke, on the cholesterol transport functions of HDL. HDL was chemically-modified with acrolein and immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed apolipoprotein crosslinking, as well as acrolein adducts on apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. The ability of acrolein-modified HDL (acro-HDL) to serve as an acceptor of free cholesterol (FC) from COS-7 cells transiently expressing SR-BI was significantly decreased. Further, in contrast to native HDL, acro-HDL promotes higher neutral lipid accumulation in murine macrophages as judged by Oil Red O staining. The ability of acro-HDL to mediate efficient selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE) into SR-BI-expressing cells was reduced compared to native HDL. Together, the findings from our studies suggest that acrolein modification of HDL produces a dysfunctional particle that may ultimately promote atherogenesis by impairing functions that are critical in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. PMID:25849485

  16. Sleep restriction impairs blood-brain barrier function.

    PubMed

    He, Junyun; Hsuchou, Hung; He, Yi; Kastin, Abba J; Wang, Yuping; Pan, Weihong

    2014-10-29

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a large regulatory and exchange interface between the brain and peripheral circulation. We propose that changes of the BBB contribute to many pathophysiological processes in the brain of subjects with chronic sleep restriction (CSR). To achieve CSR that mimics a common pattern of human sleep loss, we quantified a new procedure of sleep disruption in mice by a week of consecutive sleep recording. We then tested the hypothesis that CSR compromises microvascular function. CSR not only diminished endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelin1, and glucose transporter expression in cerebral microvessels of the BBB, but it also decreased 2-deoxy-glucose uptake by the brain. The expression of several tight junction proteins also was decreased, whereas the level of cyclooxygenase-2 increased. This coincided with an increase of paracellular permeability of the BBB to the small tracers sodium fluorescein and biotin. CSR for 6 d was sufficient to impair BBB structure and function, although the increase of paracellular permeability returned to baseline after 24 h of recovery sleep. This merits attention not only in neuroscience research but also in public health policy and clinical practice. PMID:25355222

  17. Does acute exposure to aldehydes impair pulmonary function and structure?

    PubMed

    Abreu, Mariana de; Neto, Alcendino Cândido; Carvalho, Giovanna; Casquillo, Natalia Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Niedja; Okuro, Renata; Ribeiro, Gabriel C Motta; Machado, Mariana; Cardozo, Aléxia; Silva, Aline Santos E; Barboza, Thiago; Vasconcellos, Luiz Ricardo; Rodrigues, Danielle Araujo; Camilo, Luciana; Carneiro, Leticia de A M; Jandre, Frederico; Pino, Alexandre V; Giannella-Neto, Antonio; Zin, Walter A; Corrêa, Leonardo Holanda Travassos; Souza, Marcio Nogueira de; Carvalho, Alysson R

    2016-07-15

    Mixtures of anhydrous ethyl alcohol and gasoline substituted for pure gasoline as a fuel in many Brazilian vehicles. Consequently, the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as ketones, other organic compounds, and particularly aldehydes increased in many Brazilian cities. The current study aims to investigate whether formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, or mixtures of both impair lung function, morphology, inflammatory and redox responses at environmentally relevant concentrations. For such purpose, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either medical compressed air or to 4 different mixtures of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Eight hours later animals were anesthetized, paralyzed and lung mechanics and morphology, inflammatory cells and IL-1β, KC, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, MCP-1 contents, superoxide dismutase and catalalase activities were determined. The extra pulmonary respiratory tract was also analyzed. No differences could be detected between any exposed and control groups. In conclusion, no morpho-functional alterations were detected in exposed mice in relation to the control group. PMID:27102012

  18. Immunomodulation of phloretin by impairing dendritic cell activation and function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Chen; Chu, Ching-Liang; Ng, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Yen; Chen, Der-Yuan; Pan, I-Hong; Huang, Kao-Jean

    2014-05-01

    Dietary compounds in fruits and vegetables have been shown to exert many biological activities. In addition to antioxidant effects, a number of flavonoids are able to modulate inflammatory responses. Here, we demonstrated that phloretin (PT), a natural dihydrochalcone found in many fruits, suppressed the activation and function of mouse dendritic cells (DCs). Phloretin disturbed the multiple intracellular signaling pathways in DCs induced by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), including ROS, MAPKs (ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK), and NF-κB, and thereby reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Phloretin also effectively suppressed the activation of DCs treated with different dosages of LPS or various TLR agonists. The LPS-induced DC maturation was attenuated by phloretin because the expression levels of the MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules were down-regulated, which then inhibited the LPS-stimulating DCs and the subsequent naïve T cell activation in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. Moreover, in vivo administration of phloretin suppressed the phenotypic maturation of the LPS-challenged splenic DCs and decreased the IFN-γ production from the activated CD4 T cells. Thus, we suggest that phloretin may potentially be an immunomodulator by impairing the activation and function of DCs and phloretin-contained fruits may be helpful in the improvement of inflammation and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24651121

  19. Improved effect of Pycnogenol on impaired spatial memory function in partial androgen deficiency rat model.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Noboru; Mochizuki, Miyako

    2009-06-01

    The improved effect of Pycnogenol on impaired spatial memory function was studied in orchidectomized rats. Endogenous testosterone levels were decreased by approximately one-half for 3 months after castration. In the radial arm maze, castration significantly impaired working and reference memory function without lowering motor function. Pycnogenol increased the NGF content in the hippocampus and cortex, and improved the spatial memory impairment. These observations confirmed that diagnostic accuracy can be improved by Pycnogenol in androgen-deficient rats. PMID:19142987

  20. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (ogg1) maintains the function of cardiac progenitor cells during heart formation in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Lifeng; Zhou, Yong; Yu, Shanhe; Ji, Guixiang; Liu, Wei; Gu, Aihua

    2013-11-15

    Genomic damage may devastate the potential of progenitor cells and consequently impair early organogenesis. We found that ogg1, a key enzyme initiating the base-excision repair, was enriched in the embryonic heart in zebrafish. So far, little is known about DNA repair in cardiogenesis. Here, we addressed the critical role of ogg1 in cardiogenesis for the first time. ogg1 mainly expressed in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM), the primary heart tube, and subsequently the embryonic myocardium by in situ hybridisation. Loss of ogg1 resulted in severe cardiac morphogenesis and functional abnormalities, including the short heart length, arrhythmia, decreased cardiomyocytes and nkx2.5{sup +} cardiac progenitor cells. Moreover, the increased apoptosis and repressed proliferation of progenitor cells caused by ogg1 deficiency might contribute to the heart phenotype. The microarray analysis showed that the expression of genes involved in embryonic heart tube morphogenesis and heart structure were significantly changed due to the lack of ogg1. Among those, foxh1 is an important partner of ogg1 in the cardiac development in response to DNA damage. Our work demonstrates the requirement of ogg1 in cardiac progenitors and heart development in zebrafish. These findings may be helpful for understanding the aetiology of congenital cardiac deficits. - Highlights: • A key DNA repair enzyme ogg1 is expressed in the embryonic heart in zebrafish. • We found that ogg1 is essential for normal cardiac morphogenesis in zebrafish. • The production of embryonic cardiomyocytes requires appropriate ogg1 expression. • Ogg1 critically regulated proliferation of cardiac progenitor cells in zebrafish. • foxh1 is a partner of ogg1 in the cardiac development in response to DNA damage.

  1. Fish Consumption, Sleep, Daily Functioning, and Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anita L.; Dahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Gina; Thornton, David; Graff, Ingvild E.; Frøyland, Livar; Thayer, Julian F.; Pallesen, Staale

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated the effects of fatty fish on sleep, daily functioning and biomarkers such as heart rate variability (HRV), vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cells. Moreover the relationship among sleep, daily functioning, HRV, vitamin D status, and levels of EPA+DHA was investigated. Methods: Ninety-five male forensic patients from a secure forensic inpatient facility in the USA were randomly assigned into a Fish or a Control group. The Fish group received Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February, and the Control group was provided an alternative meal (e.g., chicken, pork, beef), but with the same nutritional value as their habitual diet, three times per week during the same period. Sleep (sleep latency, sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, and actual wake time), self-perceived sleep quality and daily functioning, as well as vitamin D status, EPA+DHA, and HRV, were assessed pre- and post-intervention period. Results: There was a significant increase in sleep latency from pre- to post-test in the Control group. The Fish group reported better daily functioning than the Control group during post-test. Fish consumption throughout the wintertime had also an effect on resting HRV and EPA+DHA, but not on vitamin D status. However, at post-test, the vitamin D status in the Fish group was still closer to the level regarded as optimal compared to the Control group. Vitamin D status correlated negatively with actual wake time and positively with sleep efficiency during pre-test, as well as positively with daily functioning and sleep quality during post-test. Finally, HRV correlated negatively with sleep latency and positively with daily functioning. Conclusions: Fish consumption seemed to have a positive impact on sleep in general and also on daily functioning, which may be related to vitamin D status and HRV. Citation

  2. Effect of Renal Function on Prognosis in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Löffler, Adrián I.; Cappola, Thomas P.; Fang, James; Hetzel, Scott J.; Kadlec, Andrew; Astor, Brad; Sweitzer, Nancy K.

    2014-01-01

    Renal dysfunction (RD) is associated with increased mortality in heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to identify whether worsened or improved renal function during mid-term follow-up is associated with worsened outcomes in chronic HF patients. 892 participants from a multicenter cohort study of chronic HF were followed over 3.1±1.9 years of enrollment. Worsened and improved renal function were tested with multivariable models as independent predictors of HF hospitalization and mortality. While 12% of subjects experienced a ≥25% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 17% experienced a ≥25% increase in eGFR, and there was stability of kidney function observed in the cohort as a whole. The quartile with the worst RD at any point in time had increased risk of HF hospitalization and mortality. Worsened eGFR was associated with HF outcomes in the unadjusted (HR=1.71 (95%CI 1.04-2.81), p=0.035), but not the adjusted analysis. Improvement in eGFR was not associated with outcome (p=0.453). In chronic HF, the severity of RD predicts risk of poor outcome better than changes in renal function during mid-term follow-up. This suggests that in patients with appropriately treated chronic HF, worsening renal function in itself does not yield useful prognostic information and may not reflect poor outcome. PMID:25465925

  3. Dynamic heart-in-thorax phantom for functional SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Celler, A.; Lyster, D.; Farncombe, T.

    1996-12-31

    We have designed and built a dynamic heart-in-thorax phantom to be used as a primary tool during the experimental verification of the performance of the quantitative dynamic functional imaging method we are developing for standard rotating single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cameras. The phantom consists of two independent parts (i) a dynamic heart model with the possibility of mounting {open_quotes}defects{close_quotes} inside it and (ii) a non-uniform thorax model with lungs and spinal cord, and uses the fact that the washout of a tracer by dilution is governed by a linear first order equation, the same type of equation as is used to model time-activity distribution in myocardial viability studies. Tests of the dynamic performance of the phantom in planar scanning mode have confirmed the validity of these assumptions. Also the preliminary results obtained in SPECT mode show that the values of characteristic times could be experimentally determined and that these values agreed well with the values preset on the phantom. We consider that the phantom is ready for extensive use in studies into development of the dynamic SPECT method.

  4. Preserved Left Ventricular, Systolic Function in Clinical Congestive Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bang Hun; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Heon Kil; Lee, Chung Kyun

    1987-01-01

    Although clinical congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with significant left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, recently it has been recognized that LV diastolic dysfunction also may occur in the absence of abnormal systolic performance. A retrospective study evaluated 23 patients with myocardial infarction and CHF who had undergone multigated blood pool scintigraphy and were found to have normal LV ejection fraction (≥ 50%). Average rapid filling velocity (RFV) and slow filling velocity (SFV) were both significantly reduced in CHF patients (5.1 ± 1.3 unit/s, 2.2 ± 1.4 unit/s respectively) compared with normal control group (3.9 ± 1.2 unit/s, 1.3 ± 0.8 unit/s respectively). Rapid filling time and total diastolic time were also significantly prolonged in CHF patients (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively). There were no significant changes in heart rate and blood pressure between two groups. Thus, normal systolic LV function is encountered in patients with CHF and it appears to be prudent to evaluate diastolic performance as well for optimal therapeutic strategies for CHF patients. PMID:3154818

  5. Cardiac cytoarchitecture - why the "hardware" is important for heart function!

    PubMed

    Ehler, Elisabeth

    2016-07-01

    Cells that constitute fully differentiated tissues are characterised by an architecture that makes them perfectly suited for the job they have to do. This is especially obvious for cardiomyocytes, which have an extremely regular shape and display a paracrystalline arrangement of their cytoplasmic components. This article will focus on the two major cytoskeletal multiprotein complexes that are found in cardiomyocytes, the myofibrils, which are responsible for contraction and the intercalated disc, which mediates mechanical and electrochemical contact between individual cardiomyocytes. Recent studies have revealed that these two sites are also crucial in sensing excessive mechanical strain. Signalling processes will be triggered that## lead to changes in gene expression and eventually lead to an altered cardiac cytoarchitecture in the diseased heart, which results in a compromised function. Thus, understanding these changes and the signals that lead to them is crucial to design treatment strategies that can attenuate these processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. PMID:26577135

  6. Relationship between impaired chronotropic response, cardiac output during exercise, and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Samejima, Hisanori; Omiya, Kazuto; Uno, Masato; Inoue, Kohji; Tamura, Masachika; Itoh, Kae; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Atsushi; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Osada, Naohiko; Tanabe, Kazuhiko; Miyake, Fumihiko; Itoh, Haruki

    2003-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between the extent of impaired chronotropic response and cardiac output during exercise, and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic heart failure. The subjects consisted of 24 patients (mean 60.1 +/- 14.0 years) who had mild chronotropic incompetence. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed in all patients, and heart rate (HR), anaerobic threshold (AT), maximum oxygen uptake (peak VO2), slope of the regression line relating the ventilatory equivalent to carbon dioxide output (VE/VCO2 slope), and exercise time were measured. Cardiac output (CO) was measured by a thoracic bioimpedance method and cardiac index (CI) was calculated. Plasma norepinephrine (NE) was measured at rest and immediately after the exercise test. The changes in HR, NE, and CI from the resting state to immediately after exercise were calculated as deltaHR, deltaNE, and deltaCI, respectively. The deltaNE was converted to a logarithmic scale and deltaHR/log deltaNE was used as a parameter of HR response to sympathetic nerve stimulation. The results were as follows: HR and NE in the resting state had no correlation with AT and with peak VO2. DeltaHR/log deltaNE correlated positively with both AT and peak VO2, and negatively with the VE/CO2 slope. DeltaHR/log deltaNE correlated positively with peak CI, %deltaCI, and deltaCI/exercise time. The data suggest that one of the mechanisms of low exercise tolerance in chronic heart failure patients was due to an inadequate increase in CO response against exercise caused by an impaired HR response to increased NE. PMID:12906033

  7. Origin of Heart Rate Variability and Turbulence: An Appraisal of Autonomic Modulation of Cardiovascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Federico; Stein, Phyllis K.

    2011-01-01

    Heart period constantly changes on a beat to beat basis, due to autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, and changes can be quantified as heart rate variability (HRV). In addition, after a premature ventricular beat, there are reproducible variations in RR interval, also due to baroreflex mediated autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, that can be measured as heart rate turbulence (HRT). Impaired autonomic function as measured by HRV and HRT has proven to predict adverse outcomes in clinical settings. The ability of reduced HRV and HRT to predict adverse outcomes has been explained by their dependency on vagal mechanisms that could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node, thus favoring cardiac electrical instability. Analysis of non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilized to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective in identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. Despite the clinical validity of these measures, it has also been evident that the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness is extremely complex and variable in different clinical conditions. Thus, abnormal HRV or HRT on a clinical Holter recordings may reflect non-neural as well as autonomic mechanisms, and this also needs to be taken into account when interpreting any findings. However, under controlled conditions, the computation of the low and high frequency components of HRV and of their normalized powers or ratio seems capable of providing valid information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects, as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function. Thus, analysis of HRV does provide a unique tool to specifically assess autonomic control mechanisms in association with various perturbations. In conclusion, HRV measures are of substantial utility to identify patients with an increased cardiac mortality and to evaluate autonomic control mechanisms, but

  8. Origin of heart rate variability and turbulence: an appraisal of autonomic modulation of cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Federico; Stein, Phyllis K

    2011-01-01

    Heart period constantly changes on a beat to beat basis, due to autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, and changes can be quantified as heart rate variability (HRV). In addition, after a premature ventricular beat, there are reproducible variations in RR interval, also due to baroreflex mediated autonomic influences on the sinoatrial node, that can be measured as heart rate turbulence (HRT). Impaired autonomic function as measured by HRV and HRT has proven to predict adverse outcomes in clinical settings. The ability of reduced HRV and HRT to predict adverse outcomes has been explained by their dependency on vagal mechanisms that could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node, thus favoring cardiac electrical instability. Analysis of non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilized to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective in identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. Despite the clinical validity of these measures, it has also been evident that the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness is extremely complex and variable in different clinical conditions. Thus, abnormal HRV or HRT on a clinical Holter recordings may reflect non-neural as well as autonomic mechanisms, and this also needs to be taken into account when interpreting any findings. However, under controlled conditions, the computation of the low and high frequency components of HRV and of their normalized powers or ratio seems capable of providing valid information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects, as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function. Thus, analysis of HRV does provide a unique tool to specifically assess autonomic control mechanisms in association with various perturbations. In conclusion, HRV measures are of substantial utility to identify patients with an increased cardiac mortality and to evaluate autonomic control mechanisms, but

  9. Recompensation of heart and kidney function after treatment with peritoneal dialysis in a case of congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kihm, Lars P; Hankel, Vinzent; Zugck, Christian; Remppis, Andrew; Schwenger, Vedat

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 57-year-old woman suffering from congestive heart failure. Due to refractory congestions despite optimised medical treatment, the patient was listed for heart transplantation and peritoneal dialysis was initiated. Peritoneal dialysis led to a significant weight loss, reduction of hyperhydration and extracellular water obtained by bioimpedance measurement, and a significant improvement in clinical and echocardiographic examination. Furthermore, residual kidney function increased during the long-term followup, and subsequently peritoneal dialysis was ceased. Pulmonary artery pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction remained stable and the patient did well. This case demonstrates the possibility of treating hyperhydration due to congestive heart failure with peritoneal dialysis resulting in recompensation of both heart and kidney functions. PMID:22162698

  10. Microbubbles shunting via a patent foramen ovale impair endothelial function

    PubMed Central

    Fok, Henry; Jiang, Benyu; Chowienczyk, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Exposure to intravascular microbubbles after diving and during medical procedures alters endothelial function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a patent foramen ovale altered forearm endothelial function by facilitating microbubbles transfer. Design Patients attended on two separate visits, at least seven days apart receiving agitated saline or no active intervention in random order. On both days, flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery was measured using vascular ultrasound. On the intervention visit, agitated saline was injected and the passage of microbubbles into the arterial circulation was confirmed by echocardiography. Serial flow-mediated dilatation measurements were made after agitated saline and at the same time points after no intervention. Setting St Thomas’ Hospital in London. Participants Patients with a patent foramen ovale (PFO+n = 14, 9 male, mean ± SD age 42.2 ± 10.5 years) and patients without a patent foramen ovale (PFO− n = 10, 7 male, mean ± SD age 49.4 ± 18.4 years) were recruited. Main outcome measures Change in brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation. Results In patent foramen ovale + patients, flow-mediated dilatation did not change significantly on the control day but after agitated saline reduced by 2.3 ± 0.3%, 20 minutes after bubble injection (P < 0.005 vs. corresponding change in flow-mediated dilatation during control study). There was no significant change in flow-mediated dilatation for patent foramen ovale− patients at either visit. Conclusion These results suggest that the presence of a patent foramen ovale facilitated impairment of endothelial function acutely by the transfer of microbubbles into the arterial circulation. As a patent foramen ovale is a common condition, this may be relevant to microbubbles exposure in medical procedures and in decompression illness. PMID:26668739

  11. Reconstructive procedures for impaired upper airway function: laryngeal respiration

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    The larynx is the "bottleneck" of the human airway. For this reason, the effects of stenosing laryngeal pathologies on the vital factor respiratory gas exchange are particularly critical. Internal stabilization is a prerequisite for recovery of the laryngeal respiratory function in severe forms of inspiratory collapse (laryngomalacia). Effective laser surgery techniques have been developed to this end in recent years. Glottis-dilating surgery in cases of bilateral vocal cord motion impairment is now moving in the direction of endoscopic laser cordotomy or cordectomy, whereas arytenoidectomy and open surgical procedures are now used only rarely due to higher secondary morbidity rates. In individual cases, in particular if functional recovery is expected, temporary laterofixation of a vocal cord using an endoscopic suturing technique can be a helpful approach. Extensive laryngeal defects can be covered by means of composite grafts with mucosal lining, a supporting skeleton and their own vascularization. Autologous transplantation of the larynx, with its complex surgical and immunological problems, has become a manageable procedure. The problems of post-transplantation reinnervation and risk assessment of immunosuppression-induced recurrence of the tumor are still under consideration. Reanimation of the bilaterally paralyzed larynx by means of neurorrhaphy (neurosuture), neural grafting and, more recently, functional electrostimulation (pacemaker) represents a challenge for the coming years. In most cases of paralysis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, a part of the muscles is maintained by synkinetic reinnervation when therapy is carried out, which however also prevents effective vocal cord movement due to simultaneous activity of agonists and antagonists. Modulation of reinnervation by means of electrostimulation and modern genetic therapy approaches justify hopes of better outcomes in the future. PMID:22073057

  12. Aspects of studies on the functional impairment electrohypersensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Olle

    2010-04-01

    Persons, claiming to suffer from exposure to electromagnetic fields, have been described in the literature. In Sweden, electrohypersensitivity (EHS) is an officially fully recognized functional impairment (i.e., it is not regarded as a disease). Survey studies show that somewhere between 230,000 - 290,000 Swedish men and women - out of a population of 9,000,000 - report a variety of symptoms when being in contact with electromagnetic field (EMF) sources. Swedish electrohypersensitive people have their own handicap organization, The Swedish Association for the Electrohypersensitive, which has its own website in both Swedish and English. This organization is included in the Swedish Disability Federation (Handikappförbundens SamarbetsOrgan; HSO). One aim of our studies has been to investigate possible alterations, in the cellular and neuronal systems of these persons' skin. In summary, it is evident from our preliminary data that various alterations are present in the electrohypersensitive persons' skin that are not indicated in the skin of normal healthy volunteers.

  13. Dexamethasone impairs hypoxia-inducible factor-1 function

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, A.E.; Huck, G.; Stiehl, D.P.; Jelkmann, W.; Hellwig-Buergel, T.

    2008-07-25

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription-factor composed of {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits. HIF-1 is not only necessary for the cellular adaptation to hypoxia, but it is also involved in inflammatory processes and wound healing. Glucocorticoids (GC) are therapeutically used to suppress inflammatory responses. Herein, we investigated whether GC modulate HIF-1 function using GC receptor (GR) possessing (HepG2) and GR deficient (Hep3B) human hepatoma cell cultures as model systems. Dexamethasone (DEX) treatment increased HIF-1{alpha} levels in the cytosol of HepG2 cells, while nuclear HIF-1{alpha} levels and HIF-1 DNA-binding was reduced. In addition, DEX dose-dependently lowered the hypoxia-induced luciferase activity in a reporter gene system. DEX suppressed the hypoxic stimulation of the expression of the HIF-1 target gene VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) in HepG2 cultures. DEX did not reduce hypoxically induced luciferase activity in HRB5 cells, a Hep3B derivative lacking GR. Transient expression of the GR in HRB5 cells restored the susceptibility to DEX. Our study discloses the inhibitory action of GC on HIF-1 dependent gene expression, which may be important with respect to the impaired wound healing in DEX-treated patients.

  14. Monocyte function is severely impaired by the fluorochrome calcein acetomethylester

    SciTech Connect

    Czepluch, Frauke S.; Olieslagers, Serve J.F.; Waltenberger, Johannes . E-mail: j.waltenberger@cardio.azm.nl

    2007-09-21

    For rapid chemotaxis quantification, cell prelabelling is often performed with the fluorochrome calcein acetomethylester (calcein AM). We investigated whether calcein AM-prelabelling is reliable for monocyte migration analysis. Human monocytes were either preexposed to calcein AM or unlabelled. Monocyte migration towards the potent chemoattractants transforming growth factor-{beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) and N-formyl-Methionin-Leucin-Phenylalanin (fMLP) was assessed using a 48-well micro-chemotaxis chamber. For quantification, cells were visualized by light microscopy and counted. Surprisingly, random migration of calcein AM-prelabelled cells was significantly impaired compared to the unlabelled control. Accordingly, monocyte chemotaxis towards either TGF-{beta}1 or fMLP dramatically declined. Adherence of calcein AM-labelled monocytes on plastic was also significantly decreased compared to control cells. As adhesion is regarded as an essential component of monocyte migration, the reduced migration observed in calcein AM-labelled monocytes might be explained by a fluorochrome-induced adhesion defect. Therefore, use of the fluorochrome calcein AM cannot be recommended for functional testing of monocytes.

  15. Impairments of neural circuit function in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Busche, Marc Aurel; Konnerth, Arthur

    2016-08-01

    An essential feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain, many years to decades before the onset of overt cognitive symptoms. We suggest that during this very extended early phase of the disease, soluble Aβ oligomers and amyloid plaques alter the function of local neuronal circuits and large-scale networks by disrupting the balance of synaptic excitation and inhibition (E/I balance) in the brain. The analysis of mouse models of AD revealed that an Aβ-induced change of the E/I balance caused hyperactivity in cortical and hippocampal neurons, a breakdown of slow-wave oscillations, as well as network hypersynchrony. Remarkably, hyperactivity of hippocampal neurons precedes amyloid plaque formation, suggesting that hyperactivity is one of the earliest dysfunctions in the pathophysiological cascade initiated by abnormal Aβ accumulation. Therapeutics that correct the E/I balance in early AD may prevent neuronal dysfunction, widespread cell loss and cognitive impairments associated with later stages of the disease.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377723

  16. Impairment of striatal mitochondrial function by acute paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed

    Czerniczyniec, Analía; Lanza, E M; Karadayian, A G; Bustamante, J; Lores-Arnaiz, S

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondria are essential for survival. Their primary function is to support aerobic respiration and to provide energy for intracellular metabolic pathways. Paraquat is a redox cycling agent capable of generating reactive oxygen species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in cortical and striatal mitochondrial function in an experimental model of acute paraquat toxicity and to compare if the brain areas and the molecular mechanisms involved were similar to those observed after chronic exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats received paraquat (25 mg/Kg i.p.) or saline and were sacrificed after 24 h. Paraquat treatment decreased complex I and IV activity by 37 and 21 % respectively in striatal mitochondria. Paraquat inhibited striatal state 4 and state 3 KCN-sensitive respiration by 80 % and 62 % respectively, indicating a direct effect on respiratory chain. An increase of 2.2 fold in state 4 and 2.3 fold in state 3 in KCN-insensitive respiration was observed in striatal mitochondria from paraquat animals, suggesting that paraquat redox cycling also consumed oxygen. Paraquat treatment increased hydrogen peroxide production (150 %), TBARS production (42 %) and cardiolipin oxidation/depletion (12 %) in striatal mitochondria. Also, changes in mitochondrial polarization was induced after paraquat treatment. However, no changes were observed in any of these parameters in cortical mitochondria from paraquat treated-animals. These results suggest that paraquat treatment induced a clear striatal mitochondrial dysfunction due to both paraquat redox cycling reactions and impairment of the mitochondrial electron transport, causing oxidative damage. As a consequence, mitochondrial dysfunction could probably lead to alterations in cellular bioenergetics. PMID:26350412

  17. Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in

  18. Capture-related stressors impair immune system function in sablefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lupes, S.C.; Davis, M.W.; Olla, B.L.; Schreck, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    The sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria is a valuable North Pacific Ocean species that, when not targeted in various commercial fisheries, is often a part of discarded bycatch. Predictions of the survival of discarded fish are dependent on understanding how a fish responds to stressful conditions. Our objective was to describe the immunological health of sablefish exposed to capture stressors. In laboratory experiments designed to simulate the capture process, we subjected sablefish to various stressors that might influence survival: towing in a net, hooking, elevated seawater and air temperatures, and air exposure time. After stress was imposed, the in vitro mitogen-stimulated proliferation of sablefish leukocytes was used to evaluate the function of the immune system in an assay we validated for this species. The results demonstrated that regardless of fishing gear type, exposure to elevated seawater temperature, or time in air, the leukocytes from stressed sablefish exhibited significantly diminished proliferative responses to the T-cell mitogen, concanavalin A, or the B-cell mitogen, lipopolysaccharide. There was no difference in the immunological responses associated with seawater or air temperature. The duration and severity of the capture stressors applied in our study were harsh enough to induce significantly elevated levels of plasma cortisol and glucose, but there was no difference in the magnitude of levels among stressor treatments. These data suggest that immunological suppression occurs in sablefish subjected to capture-related stressors. The functional impairment of the immune system after capture presents a potential reason why delayed mortality is possible in discarded sablefish. Further studies are needed to determine whether delayed mortality in discarded sablefish can be caused by increased susceptibility to infectious agents resulting from stressor-mediated immunosuppression.

  19. Functional representation of olfactory impairment in early Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Förster, Stefan; Vaitl, Andreas; Teipel, Stefan J; Yakushev, Igor; Mustafa, Mona; la Fougère, Christian; Rominger, Axel; Cumming, Paul; Bartenstein, Peter; Hampel, Harald; Hummel, Thomas; Buerger, Katharina; Hundt, Walter; Steinbach, Silke

    2010-01-01

    We used [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET analysis to determine performance in different olfactory domains of patients with early AD compared to cognitively healthy subjects, and to map the functional metabolic representation of olfactory impairment in the patient sample. A cohort of patients with early AD (n=24), consisting of 6 subjects with incipient AD and 18 subjects with mild AD, and a control group of 28 age-matched non-demented individuals were assembled. Patients and controls were tested for olfactory performance using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery [odor identification (ID), discrimination (DIS) and threshold (THR)], while patients additionally underwent resting state FDG-PET. Voxel-wise PET results in the patients were correlated with olfaction scores using the general linear model in SPM5. Patients with early AD showed significantly reduced function in all three olfactory subdomains compared to controls. After controlling for effects due to patients' age, gender, cognitive status, and treating scores in the two other olfactory subdomains as nuisance variables, ID scores correlated with normalized FDG uptake in clusters with peaks in the right superior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and precuneus, while DIS scores correlated with a single cluster in the left postcentral cortex, and THR scores correlated with clusters in the right thalamus and cerebellum. The subtests employed in the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery are complementary indicators of different aspects of olfactory dysfunction in early AD, and support the theory of a parallel organized olfactory system, revealed by FDG-PET correlation analysis. PMID:20847402

  20. Effect of in vivo heart irradiation on the development of antioxidant defenses and cardiac functions in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Benderitter, M.; Assem, M.; Maupoil, V.

    1995-10-01

    During radiotherapy of thoracic tumors, the heart is often included in the primary treatment volume, and chronic impairment of myocardial function occurs. The cellular biomolecules are altered directly by radiation or damaged indirectly by free radical production. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the biochemical and functional response of the rat heart to a single high dose of radiation. The effect of 20 Gy local X irradiation was determined in the heart of Wistar rats under general anesthesia. Mechanical performances were measured in vitro using an isolated perfused working heart model, and cardiac antioxidant defenses were also evaluated. Hearts were studied at 1 and 4 months after irradiation. This single dose of radiation induced a marked drop in the mechanical activity of the rat heart: aortic output was significantly reduced (18% less than control values) at 1 month postirradiation and remained depressed for the rest of the experimental period (21% less than control 4 months after treatment). This suggests the development of myocardial failure after irradiation. The decline of functional parameters was associated with changes in antioxidant defenses. The decrease in cardiac levels of vitamin E (-30%) was associated with an increase in the levels of Mn-SOD and glustathione peroxidase (+45.5% and +32%, respectively, at 4 months postirradiation). However, cardiac vitamin C and catalase levels remained constant. Since these antioxidant defenses were activated relatively long after irradiation, it is suggested that this was probable due to the production of free radical species associated with the development of inflammation. 49 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Sex Differences in Patients With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Insights From the Heart Function Assessment Registry Trial in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    AlFaleh, Hussam F; Thalib, Lukman; Kashour, Tarek; Hersi, Ahmad; Mimish, Layth; Elasfar, Abdelfatah A; Almasood, Ali; Al Ghamdi, Saleh; Ghabashi, Abdullah; Malik, Asif; Hussein, Gamal A; Al-Murayeh, Mushabab; Abuosa, Ahmed; Al Habeeb, Waleed; Al Habib, Khalid F

    2016-08-01

    We assessed sex-specific differences in clinical features and outcomes of patients with acute heart failure (AHF). The Heart function Assessment Registry Trial in Saudi Arabia (HEARTS), a prospective registry, enrolled 2609 patients with AHF (34.2% women) between 2009 and 2010. Women were older and more likely to have risk factors for atherosclerosis, history of heart failure (HF), and rheumatic heart and valve disease. Ischemic heart disease was the prime cause for HF in men and women but more so in men (P < .001). Women had higher rates of hypertensive heart disease and primary valve disease (P < .001, for both comparisons). Men were more likely to have severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. On discharge, a higher use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β-blockers, and aldosterone inhibitors was observed in men (P < .001 for all comparisons). Apart from higher atrial fibrillation in women and higher ventricular arrhythmias in men, no differences were observed in hospital outcomes. The overall survival did not differ between men and women (hazard ratio: 1.0, 95% confidence interval: 0.8-1.2, P = .981). Men and women with AHF differ significantly in baseline clinical characteristics and management but not in adverse outcomes. PMID:26438635

  2. Impaired Error Monitoring and Correction Function in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Sokhadze, Estate; Baruth, Joshua; El-Baz, Ayman; Horrell, Timothy; Sokhadze, Guela; Carroll, Thomas; Tasman, Allan; Sears, Lonnie; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2010-01-01

    result in reduced error awareness and failure in adjustment when dealing with situations where erroneous responses may occur. This deficit might be manifested in the perseverative behaviors often seen in individuals with ASD. The results are discussed in terms of a general impairment in self-monitoring and other executive functions underlying behavioral and social disturbances in ASD. PMID:20523752

  3. Impairment and disability in persons with MS: do functional performance or functional limitations matter?

    PubMed

    Klaren, Rachel E; Pilutti, Lara A; Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) often demonstrate impairment in cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal systems that may be associated with functional performance, functional limitations, and disability limitations. This study examined such relationships in persons with MS using Nagi's disablement model and its subsequent conceptual modifications. The sample included 63 persons with MS (75% relapsing-remitting MS, median EDSS = 4.0, and mean MS duration = 13.1 years) who underwent measurements of aerobic fitness and muscular strength (i.e. impairment), functional performance, functional limitations, and disability limitations. The data were primarily examined using path analysis in Mplus 7.0. Our final model provided an excellent fit for the data (χ² = 0.67, df = 3, p = 0.88, SRMR = 0.01, and CFI = 1.00). The final model indicated that aerobic fitness and muscular strength were indirectly associated with disability limitations in persons with MS through a pathway that included functional limitations (indirect path coefficients of 0.29 and 0.20, respectively), but not functional performance. Aerobic fitness and muscular strength may be the important targets of exercise training interventions for improving perceived functional limitations and disability limitations in persons with MS. PMID:25815752

  4. Can pain intensity in osteoarthritis joint be indicator of the impairment of endothelial function?

    PubMed

    Laskarin, Gordana; Persic, Viktor; Kukic, Sandra Rusac; Massari, Drazen; Legovic, Anita; Boban, Marko; Miskulin, Rajko; Rogoznica, Marija; Kehler, Tatjana

    2016-09-01

    We propose that pathological remodeling in joint tissues of osteoarthritis (OA) patients persistently stimulates local secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators, which overflow into the blood, activating leukocytes that impair endothelial function and accelerate the atherosclerotic process. During periods of pain, endothelial dysfunction progresses more aggressively due to elevated secretion of these pro-inflammatory mediators, which are involved in both atherosclerosis and the sensation of pain. Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and their antagonists, activating and decoy receptors of the broad interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-17 families, IL-15, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 should be measured in peripheral blood samples of OA patients and compared with (I) OA clinical severity; (II) subclinical parameters of atherosclerosis; (III) ischemic heart disease risk factors; (IV) soluble factors indicating endothelial dysfunction; (V) degree of bone destruction; and (VI) results of a six-minute walk test. Arthroscopy and joint replacement surgery provide an opportunity to estimate mRNA and protein expression of inflammatory mediators in specimens of synovial fluid, synovial membrane, cartilage, and/or subarticular bone. A range of methods, including questionnaires, X-ray, computed tomography, ultrasound, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistology, immunofluorescence, and reverse transcription and in situ polymerase chain reaction are available. Understanding the inflammatory and immune mechanisms underlying OA may allow the early identification of patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease, independently of classical coronary risk factors. Pain may constitute an extrinsic indicator of currently worsening endothelial function. PMID:27515191

  5. Effects of Functional Impairment on Internalizing Symptom Trajectories in Adolescence: A Longitudinal, Growth Curve Modelling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleverley, Kristin; Bennett, Kathryn; Duku, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that psychosocial and functional impairment has long been acknowledged as an important aspect of psychiatric diagnosis and treatment, relatively little is known about the longitudinal relationship between psychiatric symptoms and functional impairment. This is particularly true in childhood and adolescence. Understanding how…

  6. Obesity's Effects on the Onset of Functional Impairment among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Kristi Rahrig

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study has two purposes. First, it determines if there is a relationship between body weight and the onset of functional impairment across time among this sample of older adults. More specifically, it examines if obese older adults are more likely to experience the onset of functional impairment. Second, it explores how health…

  7. Dynamic heart phantom with functional mitral and aortic valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannelli, Claire; Moore, John; McLeod, Jonathan; Ceh, Dennis; Peters, Terry

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac valvular stenosis, prolapse and regurgitation are increasingly common conditions, particularly in an elderly population with limited potential for on-pump cardiac surgery. NeoChord©, MitraClipand numerous stent-based transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) devices provide an alternative to intrusive cardiac operations; performed while the heart is beating, these procedures require surgeons and cardiologists to learn new image-guidance based techniques. Developing these visual aids and protocols is a challenging task that benefits from sophisticated simulators. Existing models lack features needed to simulate off-pump valvular procedures: functional, dynamic valves, apical and vascular access, and user flexibility for different activation patterns such as variable heart rates and rapid pacing. We present a left ventricle phantom with these characteristics. The phantom can be used to simulate valvular repair and replacement procedures with magnetic tracking, augmented reality, fluoroscopy and ultrasound guidance. This tool serves as a platform to develop image-guidance and image processing techniques required for a range of minimally invasive cardiac interventions. The phantom mimics in vivo mitral and aortic valve motion, permitting realistic ultrasound images of these components to be acquired. It also has a physiological realistic left ventricular ejection fraction of 50%. Given its realistic imaging properties and non-biodegradable composition—silicone for tissue, water for blood—the system promises to reduce the number of animal trials required to develop image guidance applications for valvular repair and replacement. The phantom has been used in validation studies for both TAVI image-guidance techniques1, and image-based mitral valve tracking algorithms2.

  8. American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7: Avoiding Heart Failure and Preserving Cardiac Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, Aaron R.; Shah, Amil M.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Roetker, Nicholas S.; Alonso, Alvaro; Avery, Christy L.; Miedema, Michael D.; Konety, Suma; Chang, Patricia P.; Solomon, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many people may underappreciate the role of lifestyle in avoiding heart failure. We estimated whether greater adherence in middle age to American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7 guidelines -- on smoking, body mass, physical activity, diet, cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose -- is associated with lower lifetime risk of heart failure and greater preservation of cardiac structure and function in old age. METHODS We studied the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort of 13,462 adults aged 45-64 years in 1987-89. From the 1987-89 risk factor measurements, we created a Life’s Simple 7 score (range 0-14, giving 2 points for ideal, 1 point for intermediate, and 0 points for poor components). We identified 2,218 incident heart failure events using surveillance of hospital discharge and death codes through 2011. In addition, in 4,855 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease in 2011-13, we performed echocardiography from which we quantified left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. RESULTS One in four participants (25.5%) developed heart failure through age 85. Yet, this lifetime heart failure risk was 14.4% for those with a middle-age Life’s Simple 7 score of 10-14 (optimal), 26.8% for a score of 5-9 (average), and 48.6% for a score of 0-4 (inadequate). Among those with no clinical cardiovascular event, the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in late life was approximately 40% as common, and diastolic dysfunction was approximately 60% as common, among those with an optimal middle-age Life’s Simple 7 score compared with an inadequate score. CONCLUSIONS Greater achievement of American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7 in middle-age is associated with a lower lifetime occurrence of heart failure and greater preservation of cardiac structure and function. PMID:25908393

  9. Hyperglycemia impairs left-right axis formation and thereby disturbs heart morphogenesis in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Hachisuga, Masahiro; Oki, Shinya; Kitajima, Keiko; Ikuta, Satomi; Sumi, Tomoyuki; Kato, Kiyoko; Wake, Norio; Meno, Chikara

    2015-09-22

    Congenital heart defects with heterotaxia are associated with pregestational diabetes mellitus. To provide insight into the mechanisms underlying such diabetes-related heart defects, we examined the effects of high-glucose concentrations on formation of the left-right axis in mouse embryos. Expression of Pitx2, which plays a key role in left-right asymmetric morphogenesis and cardiac development, was lost in the left lateral plate mesoderm of embryos of diabetic dams. Embryos exposed to high-glucose concentrations in culture also failed to express Nodal and Pitx2 in the left lateral plate mesoderm. The distribution of phosphorylated Smad2 revealed that Nodal activity in the node was attenuated, accounting for the failure of left-right axis formation. Consistent with this notion, Notch signal-dependent expression of Nodal-related genes in the node was also down-regulated in association with a reduced level of Notch signaling, suggesting that high-glucose concentrations impede Notch signaling and thereby hinder establishment of the left-right axis required for heart morphogenesis. PMID:26351675

  10. Hyperglycemia impairs left–right axis formation and thereby disturbs heart morphogenesis in mouse embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hachisuga, Masahiro; Oki, Shinya; Kitajima, Keiko; Ikuta, Satomi; Sumi, Tomoyuki; Kato, Kiyoko; Wake, Norio; Meno, Chikara

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects with heterotaxia are associated with pregestational diabetes mellitus. To provide insight into the mechanisms underlying such diabetes-related heart defects, we examined the effects of high-glucose concentrations on formation of the left–right axis in mouse embryos. Expression of Pitx2, which plays a key role in left–right asymmetric morphogenesis and cardiac development, was lost in the left lateral plate mesoderm of embryos of diabetic dams. Embryos exposed to high-glucose concentrations in culture also failed to express Nodal and Pitx2 in the left lateral plate mesoderm. The distribution of phosphorylated Smad2 revealed that Nodal activity in the node was attenuated, accounting for the failure of left–right axis formation. Consistent with this notion, Notch signal-dependent expression of Nodal-related genes in the node was also down-regulated in association with a reduced level of Notch signaling, suggesting that high-glucose concentrations impede Notch signaling and thereby hinder establishment of the left–right axis required for heart morphogenesis. PMID:26351675

  11. [Structure and function of the heart according to body weight in men of working age].

    PubMed

    Dudar, L V; Honcharenko, L I; Ovdiĭ, M O

    2014-01-01

    The scientific structure and function heart in 65 working age men according to weight and body composition. The shown that the excess body weight observed a significant increase in the size and volume left ventricle of the heart and myocardial mass. The percentage of muscle mass in the body of the patients positively correlated with systolic function of the heart, while the percentage of body fat had a negative correlation with this index. The shown that the individualization of health exercise should take into account the percentage of the active body weight and fat mass in the body, since the high content of fat intense exercise can lead to heart and remodeling worsening left ventricular systolic function heart, while increasing BMI due to muscle does not contribute to the structural and functional reorganization of the heart. PMID:24908966

  12. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Anne M.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Wu, Wen-Chih; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Kamalesh, Masoor; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of left and pulmonary vascular function in African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS): left ventricular ejection fraction, E-wave velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, left atrial diameter index, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. We examined these associations using multivariable linear or logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 4866 participants at study enrollment, 106 lived <150 m, 159 lived 150–299 m, 1161 lived 300–999 m, and 3440 lived ≥1000 m from a major roadway. We did not observe any associations between residential distance to major roads and these markers of cardiac function. Results were similar with additional adjustment for diabetes and hypertension, when considering varying definitions of major roadways, or when limiting analyses to those free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. Overall, we observed little evidence that residential proximity to major roads was associated with cardiac function among African Americans. PMID:27304962

  13. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Anne M; Wellenius, Gregory A; Wu, Wen-Chih; Hickson, DeMarc A; Kamalesh, Masoor; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of left and pulmonary vascular function in African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS): left ventricular ejection fraction, E-wave velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, left atrial diameter index, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. We examined these associations using multivariable linear or logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 4866 participants at study enrollment, 106 lived <150 m, 159 lived 150-299 m, 1161 lived 300-999 m, and 3440 lived ≥1000 m from a major roadway. We did not observe any associations between residential distance to major roads and these markers of cardiac function. Results were similar with additional adjustment for diabetes and hypertension, when considering varying definitions of major roadways, or when limiting analyses to those free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. Overall, we observed little evidence that residential proximity to major roads was associated with cardiac function among African Americans. PMID:27304962

  14. Miniature implantable instrument measures and transmits heart function data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Heart diameter is derived from measured transit time of 2.25 MHz ultrasonic pulse between two piezoelectric crystals attached to diametrically opposite heart surfaces. Miniature instrument implanted in chest telemeters information to external receiver-converter. System permits continual dimensional data recording taken from awake animals during long-term experiments.

  15. Aerobic Exercise as an Adjunct Therapy for Improving Cognitive Function in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Gary, Rebecca A.; Brunn, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Persons with heart failure (HF) are typically older and are at a much higher risk for developing cognitive impairment (CI) than persons without HF. Increasingly, CI is recognized as a significant, independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes, more frequent hospital readmissions, and higher mortality rates in persons with HF. CI can have devastating effects on ability to carry out HF effective self-care behaviors. If CI occurs, however, there are currently no evidence based guidelines on how to manage or improve cognitive function in this population. Improvement in cognition has been reported following some therapies in HF and is thought to be the consequence of enhanced cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, suggesting that CI may be amenable to intervention. Because there is substantial neuronal loss with dementia and no effective restorative therapies, interventions that slow, reverse, or prevent cognitive decline are essential. Aerobic exercise is documented to increase cerebral perfusion and oxygenation by promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis and, in turn, cognitive functioning. Few studies have examined exercise as a potential adjunct therapy for attenuating or alleviating cognitive decline in HF. In this review, the potential benefit of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in HF is presented along with future research directions. PMID:25105053

  16. Novel heart rate parameters for the assessment of autonomic nervous system function in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, M; Fifer, W P; Sahni, R; Signorini, M G

    2016-09-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance is a key factor in homeostatic control of cardiac activity, breathing and certain reflex reactions such as coughing, sneezing and swallowing and thus plays a crucial role for survival. ANS impairment has been related to many neonatal pathologies, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Moreover, some conditions have been identified as risk factors for SIDS, such as prone sleep position. There is an urgent need for timely and non-invasive assessment of ANS function in at-risk infants. Systematic measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) offers an optimal approach to access indirectly both sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on ANS functioning. In this paper, data from premature infants collected in a sleep physiology laboratory in the NICU are presented: traditional and novel approaches to HRV analyses are applied and compared in order to evaluate their relative merits in the assessment of ANS activity and the influence of sleep position. Indices from time domain and nonlinear approaches contributed as markers of physiological development in premature infants. Moreover, significant differences were observed as a function of sleep position. PMID:27480495

  17. Displacement as a predictor of functional impairment in tsunami-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher; Du, Ye Beverly; Christina, Desy; Palfrey, Judith; O'Rourke, Edward; Belfer, Myron

    2015-01-01

    Thirty months after the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, thousands of families in Aceh Province, Indonesia, remained in temporary barracks while sanitation conditions and non-governmental organisation support deteriorated. This study sought to determine the factors associated with functional impairment in a sample of 138 displaced and non-displaced Acehnese children. Using multivariate linear regression models, it was found that displacement distance was a consistent predictor of impairment using the Brief Impairment Scale. Exposure to tsunami-related trauma markers was not significantly linked with impairment in the model. Paternal employment was a consistent protective factor for child functioning. These findings suggest that post-disaster displacement and the subsequent familial economic disruption are significant predictors of impaired functioning in children's daily activities. Post-disaster interventions should consider the disruption of familiar environments for families and children when relocating vulnerable populations to avoid deleterious impacts on children's functioning. PMID:25231556

  18. Cognitive and motor function of neurologically impaired extremely low birth weight children

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Janine; Friedman, Harriet; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Wilson-Costello, Deanne; Hack, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rates of neurological impairment among extremely low birth weight children (ELBW [<1 kg]) have decreased since 2000; however, their functioning is unexamined. OBJECTIVE: To compare motor and cognitive functioning of ELBW children with neurological impairment, including cerebral palsy and severe hypotonia/hypertonia, between two periods: 1990 to 1999 (n=83) and 2000 to 2005 (n=34). METHODS: Measures of function at 20 months corrected age included the Mental and Psychomotor Developmental Indexes of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Gross Motor Functional Classification System as primary outcomes and individual motor function items as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Analysis failed to reveal significant differences for the primary outcomes, although during 2000 to 2005, sitting significantly improved in children with neurological impairment (P=0.003). CONCLUSION: Decreases in rates of neurological impairment among ELBW children have been accompanied by a suggestion of improved motor function, although cognitive function has not changed. PMID:26435676

  19. ACUTE ELEVATION OF BLOOD CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN TO 6% IMPAIRS EXERCISE PERFORMANCE AND AGGRAVATES SYMPTOMS IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute exposure to carbon monoxide has the potential to impair exercise capacity in patients with ischemic heart disease. We studied the effect of inhalation of this compound sufficient to gradually produce a level of 6% carboxyhemoglobin in 30 non-smoking patients with obstructiv...

  20. Hemodynamics of a functional centrifugal-flow total artificial heart with functional atrial contraction in goats.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Takuya; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Sano, Kyosuke; Taira, Yasunori; Tsuboko, Yusuke; Yamada, Akihiro; Miura, Hidekazu; Katahira, Shintaro; Akiyama, Masatoshi; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2016-03-01

    Implantation of a total artificial heart (TAH) is one of the therapeutic options for the treatment of patients with end-stage biventricular heart failure. There is no report on the hemodynamics of the functional centrifugal-flow TAH with functional atrial contraction (fCFTAH). We evaluated the effects of pulsatile flow by atrial contraction in acute animal models. The goats received fCFTAH that we created from two centrifugal-flow ventricular assist devices. Some hemodynamic parameters maintained acceptable levels: heart rate 115.5 ± 26.3 bpm, aortic pressure 83.5 ± 10.1 mmHg, left atrial pressure 18.0 ± 5.9 mmHg, pulmonary pressure 28.5 ± 9.7 mmHg, right atrial pressure 13.6 ± 5.2 mmHg, pump flow 4.0 ± 1.1 L/min (left) 3.9 ± 1.1 L/min (right), and cardiac index 2.13 ± 0.14 L/min/m(2). fCFTAH with atrial contraction was able to maintain the TAH circulation by forming a pulsatile flow in acute animal experiments. Taking the left and right flow rate balance using the low internal pressure loss of the VAD pumps may be easier than by other pumps having considerable internal pressure loss. We showed that the remnant atrial contraction effected the flow rate change of the centrifugal pump, and the atrial contraction waves reflected the heart rate. These results indicate that remnant atria had the possibility to preserve autonomic function in fCFTAH. We may control fCFTAH by reflecting the autonomic function, which is estimated with the flow rate change of the centrifugal pump. PMID:26198448

  1. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activation in heart failure restores mitochondrial function and improves ventricular function and remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Katia M.S.; Campos, Juliane C.; Bechara, Luiz R.G.; Queliconi, Bruno; Lima, Vanessa M.; Disatnik, Marie-Helene; Magno, Paulo; Chen, Che-Hong; Brum, Patricia C.; Kowaltowski, Alicia J.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Ferreira, Julio C.B.

    2014-01-01

    Aims We previously demonstrated that pharmacological activation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) protects the heart against acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Here, we determined the benefits of chronic activation of ALDH2 on the progression of heart failure (HF) using a post-myocardial infarction model. Methods and results We showed that a 6-week treatment of myocardial infarction-induced HF rats with a selective ALDH2 activator (Alda-1), starting 4 weeks after myocardial infarction at a time when ventricular remodelling and cardiac dysfunction were present, improved cardiomyocyte shortening, cardiac function, left ventricular compliance and diastolic function under basal conditions, and after isoproterenol stimulation. Importantly, sustained Alda-1 treatment showed no toxicity and promoted a cardiac anti-remodelling effect by suppressing myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis. Moreover, accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-protein adducts and protein carbonyls seen in HF was not observed in Alda-1-treated rats, suggesting that increasing the activity of ALDH2 contributes to the reduction of aldehydic load in failing hearts. ALDH2 activation was associated with improved mitochondrial function, including elevated mitochondrial respiratory control ratios and reduced H2O2 release. Importantly, selective ALDH2 activation decreased mitochondrial Ca2+-induced permeability transition and cytochrome c release in failing hearts. Further supporting a mitochondrial mechanism for ALDH2, Alda-1 treatment preserved mitochondrial function upon in vitro aldehydic load. Conclusions Selective activation of mitochondrial ALDH2 is sufficient to improve the HF outcome by reducing the toxic effects of aldehydic overload on mitochondrial bioenergetics and reactive oxygen species generation, suggesting that ALDH2 activators, such as Alda-1, have a potential therapeutic value for treating HF patients. PMID:24817685

  2. Heart-specific Rpd3 downregulation enhances cardiac function and longevity.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Zachary A; Hsieh, Jo-Lin; Li, Andrew; Wang, William; Bhatt, Dhelni T; Lee, Angela; Kim, Sae Yeon; Fan, David; Shah, Veevek; Siddiqui, Emaad; Ragam, Radhika; Park, Kristen; Ardeshna, Dev; Park, Kunwoo; Wu, Rachel; Parikh, Hardik; Parikh, Ayush; Lin, Yuh-Ru; Park, Yongkyu

    2015-09-01

    Downregulation of Rpd3, a homologue of mammalian Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), extends lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. Once revealed that long-lived fruit flies exhibit limited cardiac decline, we investigated whether Rpd3 downregulation would improve stress resistance and/or lifespan when targeted in the heart. Contested against three different stressors (oxidation, starvation and heat), heart-specific Rpd3 downregulation significantly enhanced stress resistance in flies. However, these higher levels of resistance were not observed when Rpd3 downregulation was targeted in other tissues or when other long-lived flies were tested in the heart-specific manner. Interestingly, the expressions of anti-aging genes such as sod2, foxo and Thor, were systemically increased as a consequence of heart-specific Rpd3 downregulation. Showing higher resistance to oxidative stress, the heart-specific Rpd3 downregulation concurrently exhibited improved cardiac functions, demonstrating an increased heart rate, decreased heart failure and accelerated heart recovery. Conversely, Rpd3 upregulation in cardiac tissue reduced systemic resistance against heat stress with decreased heart function, also specifying phosphorylated Rpd3 levels as a significant modulator. Continual downregulation of Rpd3 throughout aging increased lifespan, implicating that Rpd3 deacetylase in the heart plays a significant role in cardiac function and longevity to systemically modulate the fly's response to the environment. PMID:26399365

  3. Association between Functional Variables and Heart Failure after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Polegato, Bertha F.; Minicucci, Marcos F.; Azevedo, Paula S.; Gonçalves, Andréa F.; Lima, Aline F.; Martinez, Paula F.; Okoshi, Marina P.; Okoshi, Katashi; Paiva, Sergio A. R.; Zornoff, Leonardo A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart failure prediction after acute myocardial infarction may have important clinical implications. Objective To analyze the functional echocardiographic variables associated with heart failure in an infarction model in rats. Methods The animals were divided into two groups: control and infarction. Subsequently, the infarcted animals were divided into groups: with and without heart failure. The predictive values were assessed by logistic regression. The cutoff values predictive of heart failure were determined using ROC curves. Results Six months after surgery, 88 infarcted animals and 43 control animals were included in the study. Myocardial infarction increased left cavity diameters and the mass and wall thickness of the left ventricle. Additionally, myocardial infarction resulted in systolic and diastolic dysfunction, characterized by lower area variation fraction values, posterior wall shortening velocity, E-wave deceleration time, associated with higher values of E / A ratio and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate. Among the infarcted animals, 54 (61%) developed heart failure. Rats with heart failure have higher left cavity mass index and diameter, associated with worsening of functional variables. The area variation fraction, the E/A ratio, E-wave deceleration time and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate were functional variables predictors of heart failure. The cutoff values of functional variables associated with heart failure were: area variation fraction < 31.18%; E / A > 3.077; E-wave deceleration time < 42.11 and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate < 69.08. Conclusion In rats followed for 6 months after myocardial infarction, the area variation fraction, E/A ratio, E-wave deceleration time and isovolumic relaxation time adjusted by heart rate are predictors of heart failure onset. PMID:26815462

  4. The haemodynamic and metabolic effects of tolmesoxide with special reference to impaired myocardial function.

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, J. E.; Marshall, R. J.; Parratt, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The haemodynamic, metabolic and regional blood flow effects of the vasodilator, tolmesoxide (1 mg kg-1 min-1 for 20 min by intravenous infusion) were examined in two groups of greyhound dogs anaesthetized with alpha-chloralose and mechanically ventilated. One group of dogs was thoracotomized and subjected to acute coronary artery occlusion. In these dogs tolmesoxide was infused 2.5 h after occlusion when there was evidence of impaired myocardial function. Tolmesoxide administration resulted in marked systemic hypotension which was associated with myocardial stimulation (increase in heart rate and LVdP/dtmax). These effects were less marked in thoracotomized dogs subjected to coronary artery occlusion. Cardiac stimulation was attenuated by pretreatment with the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, atenolol. Peripheral resistance and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were reduced by tolmesoxide. In spite of the systemic hypotension, the marked reduction in LVEDP resulted in an enhanced subendocardial driving pressure and an increased blood flow to ischaemic regions of the left ventricular wall as measured with Xe133 clearance. Blood flow to normal regions of the left ventricular wall was also increased by tolmesoxide. A metabolic and respiratory acidosis may have contributed to the haemodynamic effects of tolmesoxide. Plasma renin levels were significantly elevated by the drug. Tolmesoxide administration thus resulted in cardiac stimulation, reduced both pre-load and after-load, yet maintained coronary and pulmonary perfusion. This haemodynamic profile of tolmesoxide would explain the beneficial effects obtained with this drug in the treatment of cardiac failure. PMID:3779213

  5. Clinical Assessment of Functional Movement in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Christopher T.; Horvat, Michael; Williams, Michael; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2007-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments have significantly more health risks than do sighted adults because of a number of factors, including the lower mineral density of their femoral neck bones, which is indicative of reduced weight-bearing exercise; their lesser maximal strength; and their higher rates of stroke, osteoporosis, depression, hypertension,…

  6. Acquired deficiency of tafazzin in the adult heart: Impact on mitochondrial function and response to cardiac injury.

    PubMed

    Szczepanek, Karol; Allegood, Jeremy; Aluri, Hema; Hu, Ying; Chen, Qun; Lesnefsky, Edward J

    2016-04-01

    The content and composition of cardiolipin (CL) is critical for preservation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and inner membrane integrity. Tafazzin (Taz) is an enzyme responsible for remodeling of immature CL containing mixed acyl groups into the mature tetralinoleyl form (C18:2)4-CL. We hypothesized that acquired defects in Taz in the mature heart would impact remodeling of CL and augment cardiac injury. The role of acquired Taz deficiency was studied using the inducible Taz knockdown (TazKD) mouse. Taz-specific shRNA is induced by doxycycline (DOX). One day of DOX intake decreased Taz mRNA in the heart to 20% vs. DOX-treated WT. Knockdown was initiated at an adult age and was stable during long term feeding. CL phenotype was assessed by (C18:2)4-CL content and was reduced 40% vs. WT at two months of DOX. TazKD showed increased production of reactive oxygen species and increased susceptibility to permeability transition pore opening at baseline. However, OXPHOS measured using the rate of oxygen consumption was unchanged in the setting of acquired Taz deficiency. Infarct size, measured in isolated buffer-perfused Langendorff hearts following 25min. Stop flow ischemia and 60min. Reperfusion was not altered in TazKD hearts. Thus, impaired Taz-function with onset at adult age does not enhance susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26692032

  7. Delayed Liver Function Impairment Secondary to Interferon β-1a Use in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ming-Feng; Yen, Su-Chen; Chun-Yen, Lin; Rong-Kuo, Lyu

    2013-01-01

    Interferon β-1a is a widely used immunomodulation treatment for multiple sclerosis. Liver function impairment is a common side effect and usually develops in the first 6 months after interferon use. Here, we describe 2 multiple sclerosis patients who developed delayed liver function impairment 5 years after receiving interferon β-1a treatment. Their liver function recovered after discontinuing interferon use, and further detailed hepatological evaluations excluded other etiologies of liver function impairment. Our case reports illustrate that liver function impairment induced by interferon β-1a can be delayed for 5 years after starting treatment and, probably, this is an idiosyncratic reaction. Regular liver function monitoring in multiple sclerosis patients who receive interferon β is necessary even after the first 6 months of treatment, especially in those patients with concomitant use of other liver-toxic medications. PMID:23904853

  8. Impairment of endothelial progenitor cell function and vascularization capacity by aldosterone in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Thum, Thomas; Schmitter, Kerstin; Fleissner, Felix; Wiebking, Volker; Dietrich, Bernd; Widder, Julian D.; Jazbutyte, Virginija; Hahner, Stefanie; Ertl, Georg; Bauersachs, Johann

    2011-01-01

    Aims Hyperaldosteronism is associated with vascular injury and increased cardiovascular events. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in endothelial repair and vascular homeostasis. We hypothesized that hyperaldosteronism impairs EPC function and vascularization capacity in mice and humans. Methods and results We characterized the effects of aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockade on EPC number and function as well as vascularization capacity and endothelial function. Treatment of human EPC with aldosterone induced translocation of the MR and impaired multiple cellular functions of EPC, such as differentiation, migration, and proliferation in vitro. Impaired EPC function was rescued by pharmacological blockade or genetic ablation of the MR. Aldosterone protein kinase A (PKA) dependently increased reactive oxygen species formation in EPC. Aldosterone infusion in mice impaired EPC function, EPC homing to vascular structures and vascularization capacity in a MR-dependent but blood pressure-independent manner. Endothelial progenitor cells from patients with primary hyperaldosteronism compared with controls of similar age displayed reduced migratory potential. Impaired EPC function was associated with endothelial dysfunction. MR blockade in patients with hyperaldosteronism improved EPC function and arterial stiffness. Conclusion Endothelial progenitor cells express a MR that mediates functional impairment by PKA-dependent increase of reactive oxygen species. Normalization of EPC function may represent a novel mechanism contributing to the beneficial effects of MR blockade in cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment. PMID:20926363

  9. Effect of Angiotensin(1-7) on Heart Function in an Experimental Rat Model of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Blanke, Katja; Schlegel, Franziska; Raasch, Walter; Bader, Michael; Dähnert, Ingo; Dhein, Stefan; Salameh, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Obesity is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Recently it was shown that overexpression of the Mas-receptor antagonist angiotensin(1-7) could prevent from diet-induced obesity. However, it remained unclear whether diet-induced obesity and angiotensin(1-7) overexpression might also have effects on the cardiovascular system in these rats. Methods:Twenty three male Sprague Dawley rats were fed with standard chow (SD+chow, n = 5) or a cafeteria diet (SD+CD, n = 6) for 5 months. To investigate the effect of angiotensin(1-7) transgenic rats, expressing an angiotensin(1-7)-producing fusion protein in testis were used. These transgenic rats also received a 5 month's feeding period with either chow (TGR+chow, n = 6) or cafeteria diet (TGR+CD, n = 6), respectively. Hemodynamic measurements (pressure-volume loops) were carried out to assess cardiac function and blood pressure. Subsequently, hearts were explanted and investigated according to the Langendorff technique. Furthermore, cardiac remodeling in these animals was investigated histologically. Results:After 5 months cafeteria diet feeding rats showed a significantly increased body weight, which could be prevented in transgenic rats. However, there was no effect on cardiac performance after cafeteria diet in non-transgenic and transgenic rats. Moreover, overexpression of angiotensin(1-7) deteriorated cardiac contractility as indicated by impaired dp/dt. Furthermore, histological analysis revealed that cafeteria diet led to myocardial fibrosis in both, control and transgenic rats and this was not inhibited by an overproduction of angiotensin(1-7). Conclusion:These results indicate that an overexpression of circulating angiotensin(1-7) prevents a cafeteria diet-induced increase in body weight, but does not affect cardiac performance in this experimental rat model of obesity. Furthermore, overexpression of angiotensin(1-7) alone resulted in an impairment of cardiac function. PMID:26733884

  10. Parent and Self-Ratings of Executive Function in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Deanna M.; Turkstra, Lyn S.; Wulfeck, Beverly B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is accumulating evidence that adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) have impairments in domains beyond formal language that may affect academic and social outcomes. The findings of previous studies as well as parent reports of behavioural concerns suggest that they lag behind peers in functions such as…

  11. Distinct Patterns of Brain Function in Children with Isolated Spelling Impairment: New Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebauer, Daniela; Enzinger, Christian; Kronbichler, Martin; Schurz, Matthias; Reishofer, Gernot; Koschutnig, Karl; Kargl, Reinhard; Purgstaller, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Fink, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Studies investigating reading and spelling difficulties heavily focused on the neural correlates of reading impairments, whereas spelling impairments have been largely neglected so far. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate brain structure and function of children with isolated spelling difficulties. Therefore, 31 children, aged…

  12. Impaired Executive Functions in Subjects with Frequent Nightmares as Reflected by Performance in Different Neuropsychological Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simor, Peter; Pajkossy, Peter; Horvath, Klara; Bodizs, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Nightmare disorder is a prevalent parasomnia characterized by vivid and highly unpleasant dream experiences during night time sleep. The neural background of disturbed dreaming was proposed to be associated with impaired prefrontal and fronto-limbic functioning during REM sleep. We hypothesized that the impaired prefrontal and fronto-limbic…

  13. IDH2 deficiency impairs mitochondrial function in endothelial cells and endothelium-dependent vasomotor function.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Bum; Nagar, Harsha; Choi, Sujeong; Jung, Saet-Byel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Shin Kwang; Lee, Jun Wan; Lee, Jin Hyup; Park, Jeen-Woo; Irani, Kaikobad; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Song, Hee-Jung; Kim, Cuk-Seong

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2) plays an essential role protecting cells against oxidative stress-induced damage. A deficiency in IDH2 leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiomyocytes and cancer cells. However, the function of IDH2 in vascular endothelial cells is mostly unknown. In this study the effects of IDH2 deficiency on mitochondrial and vascular function were investigated in endothelial cells. IDH2 knockdown decreased the expression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes I, II and III, which lead to increased mitochondrial superoxide. In addition, the levels of fission and fusion proteins (Mfn-1, OPA-1, and Drp-1) were significantly altered and MnSOD expression also was decreased by IDH2 knockdown. Furthermore, knockdown of IDH2 decreased eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO) concentration in endothelial cells. Interestingly, treatment with Mito-TEMPO, a mitochondrial-specific superoxide scavenger, recovered mitochondrial fission-fusion imbalance and blunted mitochondrial superoxide production, and reduced the IDH2 knockdown-induced decrease in MnSOD expression, eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in endothelial cells. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation was impaired, and the concentration of bioavailable NO decreased in the aortic ring in IDH2 knockout mice. These findings suggest that IDH2 deficiency induces endothelial dysfunction through the induction of dynamic mitochondrial changes and impairment in vascular function. PMID:26898144

  14. Impaired functional differentiation for categories of objects in the ventral visual stream: A case of developmental visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Martinaud, Olivier; Pouliquen, Dorothée; Parain, Dominique; Goldenberg, Alice; Gérardin, Emmanuel; Hannequin, Didier; Altarelli, Irène; Ramus, Franck; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Cohen, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    We report the case of a 14-year-old girl suffering from severe developmental visual impairment along with delayed language and cognitive development, and featuring a clear-cut dissociation between spared dorsal and impaired ventral visual pathways. Visual recognition of objects, including faces and printed words, was affected. In contrast, movement perception and visually guided motor control were preserved. Structural MRI was normal on inspection, but Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) revealed reduced grey matter density in the mesial occipital and ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Functional MRI during the perception of line drawings uncovered impaired differentiation which is normally observed at even younger ages: no local category preferences could be identified within the occipito-temporal cortex for faces, houses, words or tools. In contrast, movement-related activations appeared to be normal. Finally, those abnormalities evolved on the background of chronic bilateral occipital epileptic activity, including continuous spike-wave discharges during sleep, which may be considered as the primary cause of non-specific intellectual disability and visual impairment. PMID:26272240

  15. Multiple impairments of cutaneous nociceptor function induced by cardiotoxic doses of Adriamycin in the rat.

    PubMed

    Boros, Krisztina; Jancsó, Gábor; Dux, Mária; Fekécs, Zoltán; Bencsik, Péter; Oszlács, Orsolya; Katona, Márta; Ferdinandy, Péter; Nógrádi, Antal; Sántha, Péter

    2016-09-01

    Besides their deleterious action on cardiac muscle, anthracycline-type cytostatic agents exert significant neurotoxic effects on primary sensory neurons. Since cardiac sensory nerves confer protective effects on heart muscle and share common traits with cutaneous chemosensitive nerves, this study examined the effects of cardiotoxic doses of adriamycin on the function and morphology of epidermal nerves. Sensory neurogenic vasodilatation, plasma extravasation, and the neural CGRP release evoked by TRPV1 and TRPA1 agonists in vitro were examined by using laser Doppler flowmetry, the Evans blue technique, and ELISA, respectively. Carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia was assessed with the Hargreaves method. Immunohistochemistry was utilized to study cutaneous innervation. Adriamycin treatment resulted in profound reductions in the cutaneous neurogenic sensory vasodilatation and plasma extravasation evoked by the TRPV1 and TRPA1 agonists capsaicin and mustard oil, respectively. The in vitro capsaicin-, but not high potassium-evoked neural release of the major sensory neuropeptide, CGRP, was markedly attenuated after adriamycin treatment. Carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia was largely abolished following the administration of adriamycin. Immunohistochemistry revealed a substantial loss of epidermal TRPV1-expressing nociceptive nerves and a marked thinning of the epidermis. These findings indicate impairments in the functions of TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors expressed on cutaneous chemosensitive nociceptive nerves and the loss of epidermal axons following the administration of cardiotoxic doses of adriamycin. Monitoring of the cutaneous nociceptor function in the course of adriamycin therapy may well be of predictive value for early detection of the deterioration of cardiac nerves which confer protection against the deleterious effects of the drug. PMID:27342418

  16. Musical tasks targeting preserved and impaired functions in two dementias

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Andrea R; Golden, Hannah L; Magdalinou, Nadia; Witoonpanich, Pirada; Warren, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    Studies of musical abilities in dementia have for the most part been rather general assessments of abilities, for instance, assessing retention of music learned premorbidly. Here, we studied patients with dementias with contrasting cognitive profiles to explore specific aspects of music cognition under challenge. Patients suffered from Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which a primary impairment is in forming new declarative memories, or Lewy body disease (PD/LBD), a type of parkinsonism in which executive impairments are prominent. In the AD patients, we examined musical imagery. Behavioral and neural evidence confirms involvement of perceptual networks in imagery, and these are relatively spared in early stages of the illness. Thus, we expected patients to have relatively intact imagery in a mental pitch comparison task. For the LBD patients, we tested whether executive dysfunction would extend to music. We probed inhibitory skills by asking for a speeded pitch or timbre judgment when the irrelevant dimension was held constant or also changed. Preliminary results show that AD patients score similarly to controls in the imagery tasks, but PD/LBD patients are impaired relative to controls in suppressing some irrelevant musical dimensions, particularly when the required judgment varies from trial to trial. PMID:25773640

  17. Musical tasks targeting preserved and impaired functions in two dementias.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Andrea R; Golden, Hannah L; Magdalinou, Nadia; Witoonpanich, Pirada; Warren, Jason D

    2015-03-01

    Studies of musical abilities in dementia have for the most part been rather general assessments of abilities, for instance, assessing retention of music learned premorbidly. Here, we studied patients with dementias with contrasting cognitive profiles to explore specific aspects of music cognition under challenge. Patients suffered from Alzheimer's disease (AD), in which a primary impairment is in forming new declarative memories, or Lewy body disease (PD/LBD), a type of parkinsonism in which executive impairments are prominent. In the AD patients, we examined musical imagery. Behavioral and neural evidence confirms involvement of perceptual networks in imagery, and these are relatively spared in early stages of the illness. Thus, we expected patients to have relatively intact imagery in a mental pitch comparison task. For the LBD patients, we tested whether executive dysfunction would extend to music. We probed inhibitory skills by asking for a speeded pitch or timbre judgment when the irrelevant dimension was held constant or also changed. Preliminary results show that AD patients score similarly to controls in the imagery tasks, but PD/LBD patients are impaired relative to controls in suppressing some irrelevant musical dimensions, particularly when the required judgment varies from trial to trial. PMID:25773640

  18. Brain Injury Impairs Working Memory and Prefrontal Circuit Function

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Colin J.; Xiong, Guoxiang; Elkind, Jaclynn A.; Putnam, Brendan; Cohen, Akiva S.

    2015-01-01

    More than 2.5 million Americans suffer a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year. Even mild to moderate TBI causes long-lasting neurological effects. Despite its prevalence, no therapy currently exists to treat the underlying cause of cognitive impairment suffered by TBI patients. Following lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI), the most widely used experimental model of TBI, we investigated alterations in working memory and excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance in the prefrontal cortex. LFPI impaired working memory as assessed with a T-maze behavioral task. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials recorded in the prefrontal cortex were reduced in slices derived from brain-injured mice. Spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents onto layer 2/3 neurons were more frequent in slices derived from LFPI mice, while inhibitory currents onto layer 2/3 neurons were smaller after LFPI. Additionally, an increase in action potential threshold and concomitant decrease in firing rate was observed in layer 2/3 neurons in slices from injured animals. Conversely, no differences in excitatory or inhibitory synaptic transmission onto layer 5 neurons were observed; however, layer 5 neurons demonstrated a decrease in input resistance and action potential duration after LFPI. These results demonstrate synaptic and intrinsic alterations in prefrontal circuitry that may underlie working memory impairment caused by TBI. PMID:26617569

  19. Recycling Energy to Restore Impaired Ankle Function during Human Walking

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Steven H.; Kuo, Arthur D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Humans normally dissipate significant energy during walking, largely at the transitions between steps. The ankle then acts to restore energy during push-off, which may be the reason that ankle impairment nearly always leads to poorer walking economy. The replacement of lost energy is necessary for steady gait, in which mechanical energy is constant on average, external dissipation is negligible, and no net work is performed over a stride. However, dissipation and replacement by muscles might not be necessary if energy were instead captured and reused by an assistive device. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed a microprocessor-controlled artificial foot that captures some of the energy that is normally dissipated by the leg and “recycles” it as positive ankle work. In tests on subjects walking with an artificially-impaired ankle, a conventional prosthesis reduced ankle push-off work and increased net metabolic energy expenditure by 23% compared to normal walking. Energy recycling restored ankle push-off to normal and reduced the net metabolic energy penalty to 14%. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that reduced ankle push-off contributes to the increased metabolic energy expenditure accompanying ankle impairments, and demonstrate that energy recycling can be used to reduce such cost. PMID:20174659

  20. Assessment of systolic and diastolic function in heart failure using ambulatory monitoring with acoustic cardiography.

    PubMed

    Dillier, Roger; Zuber, Michel; Arand, Patricia; Erne, Susanne; Erne, Paul

    2011-08-01

    INTRODUCTION. The circadian variation of heart function and heart sounds in patients with and without heart failure (HF) is poorly understood. We hypothesized HF patients would exhibit less circadian variation with worsened cardiac function and sleep apnea. METHODS. We studied 67 HF patients (age 67.4 ± 8.2 years; 42% acute HF) and 63 asymptomatic control subjects with no history of HF (age 61.6 ± 7.7 years). Subjects wore a heart sound/ECG/respiratory monitor. The data were analyzed for sleep apnea, diastolic heart sounds, and systolic time intervals. RESULTS. The HF group had significantly greater prevalence of the third heart sound and prolongation of electro-mechanical activation time, while the control group had an age-related increase in the prevalence of the fourth heart sound. The control group showed more circadian variation in cardiac function. The HF subjects had more sleep apnea and higher occurrence of heart rate non-dipping. CONCLUSIONS. The control subjects demonstrated an increasing incidence of diastolic dysfunction with age, while systolic function was mostly unchanged with aging. Parameters related to systolic function were significantly worse in the HF group with little diurnal variation, indicating a constant stimulation of sympathetic tone in HF and reduction of diurnal regulation. PMID:21361859

  1. Cognitive Function in Heart Failure is Associated with Nonsomatic Symptoms of Depression but Not Somatic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Misty A. W.; Dolansky, Mary A.; Schaefer, Julie T.; Fulcher, Michael J.; Gunstad, John; Redle, Joseph D.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with heart failure (HF) have high rates of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms have been associated with greater cognitive impairments in HF; however, it is not known whether particular clusters of depressive symptoms are more detrimental to cognition than others. Objective To identify whether somatic and/or nonsomatic depressive symptom clusters were associated with cognitive function in persons with HF. Methods Participants were 326 HF patients (40.5% female, 26.7% race-ethnicity, aged 68.6±9.7 years). Depressive symptoms were measured using a depression questionnaire commonly used in medical populations: the Patient Health Questionnatire-9 (PHQ-9). Somatic and Nonsomatic subscales scores were created using previous factor analytic results. A neuropsychological battery tested attention, executive function, and memory. Composites were created using averages of age-adjusted scaled scores. Regressions adjusting for demographic and clinical factors were conducted. Results Regressions revealed that PHQ-9 Total was associated with Attention (β=−.14, p=.008) and Executive Function (β=−.17, p=.001). When analyzed separately, the Nonsomatic subscale – but not the Somatic symptoms subscale (ps ≥.092) – was associated with Attention scores (β=−.15, p=.004) and Memory (β=−.11, p=.044). Both Nonsomatic (β=−.18, p<.001) and Somatic symptoms (β=−.11, p=.048) were related to Executive Function. When included together, only the Nonsomatic symptom cluster was associated with Attention (β=−.15, p=.020) and Executive Function (β=−.19, p=.003). Conclusions Greater overall depressive symptom severity was associated with poorer performance on multiple cognitive domains, an effect driven primarily by the nonsomatic symptoms of depression. Clinical Implications These findings suggest that screening explicitly for nonsomatic depressive symptoms may be warranted and that the mechanisms underlying the

  2. Cardiac Rehabilitation is Associated with Lasting Improvements in Cognitive Function in Older Adults with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective Heart failure (HF) is a known risk factor for cognitive impairment. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) may attenuate poor neurocognitive outcomes in HF via improved physical fitness—a significant promoter of cognitive function. However, no study has examined the possible acute and lasting benefits of CR on cognitive function in persons with HF. Methods and Results 52 patients with HF completed a 12-week Phase II CR program. All participants were administered neuropsychological testing and completed a brief physical fitness assessment at baseline, completion of CR (i.e. 12-weeks), and 12-month follow-up. Repeated measures analyses showed a significant time effect for both attention/executive function and memory (p < 0.05). Attention/executive function performance increased from baseline to 12-weeks and these gains remained up to 12-months; memory was unchanged from baseline to 12-weeks, but then improved between the 12-week and 12-month time points. Physical fitness improved from baseline to 12-weeks and these benefits were maintained 12-months later. Changes in physical fitness and cognitive function over time did not reach a statistically significant association, though poorer physical fitness was associated with decreased cognitive performance at the baseline and 12-month time points. Conclusions CR is associated with both acute and lasting cognitive benefits in patients with HF. Prospective studies with extended follow-ups are needed to clarify the mechanisms that underpin cognitive improvements following CR (e.g., improved cerebral perfusion) and whether CR can ultimately reduce risk for cognitive decline and conditions like Alzheimer’s disease in HF. PMID:25181916

  3. Comorbidity between reading disability and math disability: Concurrent psychopathology, functional impairment, and neuropsychological functioning

    PubMed Central

    Willcutt, Erik G.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Wu, Sarah; Boada, Richard; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2013-01-01

    Reading disability (RD) and Math Disability (MD) frequently co-occur, but the etiology of this comorbidity is not well understood. Groups with RD only (N = 241), MD only (N = 183), RD+MD (N = 188), and a control group with neither disorder (N = 411) completed a battery of measures of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social and academic functioning, and ten neuropsychological processes. Groups with RD only, MD only, and RD+MD were significantly impaired versus the control group on nearly all measures, and the group with RD+MD was more impaired than the groups with MD and RD alone on measures of internalizing psychopathology, academic functioning, and seven of ten neuropsychological constructs. Multiple regression analyses of the neuropsychological measures indicated that deficits in reading and math were associated with shared weaknesses in working memory, processing speed, and verbal comprehension. In contrast, reading difficulties were uniquely associated with weaknesses in phoneme awareness and naming speed, and math deficits were uniquely associated with weaknesses in set shifting. These results support multiple-deficit neuropsychological models of RD and MD, and suggest that RD and MD are distinct but related disorders that co-occur due to shared neuropsychological weaknesses in working memory, processing speed, and verbal comprehension. PMID:23449727

  4. Characterization of mitochondrial function in cells with impaired cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function.

    PubMed

    Atlante, Anna; Favia, Maria; Bobba, Antonella; Guerra, Lorenzo; Casavola, Valeria; Reshkin, Stephan Joel

    2016-06-01

    Evidence supporting the occurrence of oxidative stress in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is well established and the literature suggests that oxidative stress is inseparably linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we have characterized mitochondrial function, in particular as it regards the steps of oxidative phosphorylation and ROS production, in airway cells either homozygous for the F508del-CFTR allele or stably expressing wt-CFTR. We find that oxygen consumption, ΔΨ generation, adenine nucleotide translocator-dependent ADP/ATP exchange and both mitochondrial Complex I and IV activities are impaired in CF cells, while both mitochondrial ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation increase. Importantly, treatment of CF cells with the small molecules VX-809 and 4,6,4'-trimethylangelicin, which act as "correctors" for F508del CFTR by rescuing the F508del CFTR-dependent chloride secretion, while having no effect per sè on mitochondrial function in wt-CFTR cells, significantly improved all the above mitochondrial parameters towards values found in the airway cells expressing wt-CFTR. This novel study on mitochondrial bioenergetics provides a springboard for future research to further understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for the involvement of mitochondria in CF and identify the proteins primarily responsible for the F508del-CFTR-dependent mitochondrial impairment and thus reveal potential novel targets for CF therapy. PMID:27146408

  5. Comorbidity between reading disability and math disability: concurrent psychopathology, functional impairment, and neuropsychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Willcutt, Erik G; Petrill, Stephen A; Wu, Sarah; Boada, Richard; Defries, John C; Olson, Richard K; Pennington, Bruce F

    2013-01-01

    Reading disability (RD) and math disability (MD) frequently co-occur, but the etiology of this comorbidity is not well understood. Groups with RD only (N = 241), MD only (N = 183), and RD + MD (N = 188) and a control group with neither disorder (N = 411) completed a battery of measures of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, social and academic functioning, and 10 neuropsychological processes. Groups with RD only, MD only, and RD + MD were significantly impaired versus the control group on nearly all measures, and the group with RD + MD was more impaired than the groups with MD and RD alone on measures of internalizing psychopathology, academic functioning, and 7 of 10 neuropsychological constructs. Multiple regression analyses of the neuropsychological measures indicated that deficits in reading and math were associated with shared weaknesses in working memory, processing speed, and verbal comprehension. In contrast, reading difficulties were uniquely associated with weaknesses in phoneme awareness and naming speed, and math deficits were uniquely associated with weaknesses in set shifting. These results support multiple-deficit neuropsychological models of RD and MD and suggest that RD and MD are distinct but related disorders that co-occur because of shared neuropsychological weaknesses in working memory, processing speed, and verbal comprehension. PMID:23449727

  6. [The effect of argan oil on heart function during ischemia and reperfusion].

    PubMed

    Benajiba, N; Morel, S; De Leiris, J; Boucher, F; Charrouf, Z; Mokhtar, N; Aguenaou, H

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organ oil on isolated heart function before and after ischemia and on the activity of cardiac antioxidant enzymes. 16 Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups; control group and treated group receiving 5 mL/kg/day of organ oil. After 8 weeks of treatment, hearts were perfused and subjected to a global ischemia followed by reperfusion. Activity of cardiac antioxidant enzymes was assessed in freeze-clamped hearts at the end of reperfusion. Results showed that organ oil induces: 1--damage to heart function during the preischemic period, 2--decreased functional recovery during reperfusion and 3--significant increase in catalase activity. It seems that, in our experimental conditions, organ oil increases heart sensitivity to ischemia and reperfusion. However, the mechanism involved has yet to be understood. PMID:12422535

  7. Visual impairment, visual functioning, and quality of life assessments in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, R K

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To determine the relation between visual impairment, visual functioning, and the global quality of life in patients with glaucoma. METHODS: Visual impairment, defined with the American Medical Association Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment; visual functioning, measured with the VF-14 and the Field Test Version of the National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ); and the global quality of life, assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), were determined in 147 consecutive patients with glaucoma. RESULTS: None of the SF-36 domains demonstrated more than a weak correlation with visual impairment. The VF-14 scores were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual field impairment; vision specific social functioning, near activities, vision specific role difficulties, general vision, vision specific mental health, color vision, and driving were modestly correlated; visual pain was weakly correlated; and two were not significantly correlated. Correcting for visual actuity weakened the strength of the correlation coefficients. CONCLUSIONS: The SF-36 is unlikely to be useful in determining visual impairment in patients with glaucoma. Based on the moderate correlation between visual field impairment and the VF-14 score, this questionnaire may be generalizable to patients with glaucoma. Several of the NEI-VFQ scales correlate with visual field impairment scores in patients with a wide range of glaucomatous damage. PMID:8981717

  8. Suppression of cerebral hemodynamics is associated with reduced functional capacity in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Wang, Chao-Hung; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Huang, Shu-Chun

    2011-01-01

    This investigation elucidated the underlying mechanisms of functional impairments in patients with heart failure (HF) by simultaneously comparing cardiac-cerebral-muscle hemodynamic and ventilatory responses to exercise among HF patients with various functional capacities. One hundred one patients with HF [New York Heart Association HF functional class II (HF-II, n = 53) and functional class III (HF-III, n = 48) patients] and 71 normal subjects [older control (O-C, n = 39) and younger control (Y-C, n = 32) adults] performed an incremental exercise test using a bicycle ergometer. A recently developed noninvasive bioreactance device was adopted to measure cardiac hemodynamics, and near-infrared spectroscopy was employed to assess perfusions in the frontal cerebral lobe (Δ[THb]FC) and vastus lateralis muscle (Δ[THb]VL). The results demonstrated that the Y-C group had higher levels of cardiac output, Δ[THb]FC, and Δ[THb]VL during exercise than the O-C group. Moreover, these cardiac/peripheral hemodynamic responses to exercise in HF-III group were smaller than those in both HF-II and O-C groups. Although the change of cardiac output caused by exercise was normalized, the amounts of blood distributed to frontal cerebral lobe and vastus lateralis muscle in the HF-III group significantly declined during exercise. The HF-III patients had lower oxygen-uptake efficiency slopes (OUES) and greater V̇e-V̇o2 slopes than the HF-II patients and age-matched controls. However, neither hemodynamic nor ventilatory response to exercise differed significantly between the HF-II and O-C groups. Cardiac output, Δ[THb]FC, and Δ[THb]VL during exercise were directly related to the OUES and V̇o2peak and inversely related to the V̇e-V̇co2 slope. Moreover, cardiac output or Δ[THb]FC was an effect modifier, which modulated the correlation status between Δ[THb]VL and V̇e-V̇co2 slope. We concluded that the suppression of cerebral/muscle hemodynamics during exercise is associated with

  9. Preserved otolith organ function in caspase-3 deficient mice with impaired horizontal semicircular canal function

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Patrick A; Wood, Scott J; Shimizu, Naoki; Kuster, Kael; Perachio, Adrian; Makishima, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered mice are valuable models for elucidation of auditory and vestibular pathology. Our goal was to establish a comprehensive vestibular function testing system in mice using: 1) horizontal angular vestibular-ocular reflex (hVOR) to evaluate semicircular canal function, and 2) otolith-ocular reflex (OOR) to evaluate otolith organ function, and to validate the system by characterizing mice with vestibular dysfunction. We used pseudo-off vertical axis rotation (pOVAR) to induce an otolith-only stimulus using a custom-made centrifuge. For the OOR, horizontal slow phase eye velocity (HEV) and vertical eye position (VEP) was evaluated as a function of acceleration. Using this system, we characterized hVOR and OOR in the caspase-3 (Casp3) mutant mice. Casp3 −/− mice had severely impaired hVOR gain, while Casp3 +/− mice had an intermediate response compared to WT mice. Evaluation of OOR revealed that at low to mid frequencies and stimulus intensity, Casp3 mutants and WT mice had similar responses. At higher frequencies and stimulus intensity, the Casp3 mutants displayed mildly reduced otolith organ related responses. These findings suggest that the Casp3 gene is important for the proper function of the semicircular canals but less important for the otolith organ function. PMID:25827332

  10. Functional impairment of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism during knee extension exercise after bed rest

    PubMed Central

    Salvadego, Desy; Lazzer, Stefano; Marzorati, Mauro; Porcelli, Simone; Rejc, Enrico; Šimunič, Bostjan; Pišot, Rado; di Prampero, Pietro Enrico

    2011-01-01

    A functional evaluation of skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism during dynamic knee extension (KE) incremental exercises was carried out following a 35-day bed rest (BR) (Valdoltra 2008 BR campaign). Nine young male volunteers (age: 23.5 ± 2.2 yr; mean ± SD) were evaluated. Pulmonary gas exchange, heart rate and cardiac output (by impedance cardiography), skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) fractional O2 extraction, and brain (frontal cortex) oxygenation (by near-infrared spectroscopy) were determined during incremental KE. Values at exhaustion were considered “peak”. Peak heart rate (147 ± 18 beats/min before vs. 146 ± 17 beats/min after BR) and peak cardiac output (17.8 ± 3.3 l/min before vs. 16.1 ± 1.8 l/min after BR) were unaffected by BR. As expected, brain oxygenation did not decrease during KE. Peak O2 uptake was lower after vs. before BR, both when expressed as liters per minute (0.99 ± 0.17 vs. 1.26 ± 0.27) and when normalized per unit of quadriceps muscle mass (46.5 ± 6.4 vs. 56.9 ± 11.0 ml·min−1·100 g−1). Skeletal muscle peak fractional O2 extraction, expressed as a percentage of the maximal values obtained during a transient limb ischemia, was lower after (46.3 ± 12.1%) vs. before BR (66.5 ± 11.2%). After elimination, by the adopted exercise protocol, of constraints related to cardiovascular O2 delivery, a decrease in peak O2 uptake and muscle peak capacity of fractional O2 extraction was found after 35 days of BR. These findings suggest a substantial impairment of oxidative function at the muscle level, “downstream” with respect to bulk blood flow to the exercising muscles, that is possibly at the level of blood flow distribution/O2 utilization inside the muscle, peripheral O2 diffusion, and intracellular oxidative metabolism. PMID:21921243

  11. Impaired neural structure and function contributing to autonomic symptoms in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ronald M.; Kumar, Rajesh; Macey, Paul M.; Harper, Rebecca K.; Ogren, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) patients show major autonomic alterations in addition to their better-known breathing deficiencies. The processes underlying CCHS, mutations in the PHOX2B gene, target autonomic neuronal development, with frame shift extent contributing to symptom severity. Many autonomic characteristics, such as impaired pupillary constriction and poor temperature regulation, reflect parasympathetic alterations, and can include disturbed alimentary processes, with malabsorption and intestinal motility dyscontrol. The sympathetic nervous system changes can exert life-threatening outcomes, with dysregulation of sympathetic outflow leading to high blood pressure, time-altered and dampened heart rate and breathing responses to challenges, cardiac arrhythmia, profuse sweating, and poor fluid regulation. The central mechanisms contributing to failed autonomic processes are readily apparent from structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, which reveal substantial cortical thinning, tissue injury, and disrupted functional responses in hypothalamic, hippocampal, posterior thalamic, and basal ganglia sites and their descending projections, as well as insular, cingulate, and medial frontal cortices, which influence subcortical autonomic structures. Midbrain structures are also compromised, including the raphe system and its projections to cerebellar and medullary sites, the locus coeruleus, and medullary reflex integrating sites, including the dorsal and ventrolateral medullary nuclei. The damage to rostral autonomic sites overlaps metabolic, affective and cognitive regulatory regions, leading to hormonal disruption, anxiety, depression, behavioral control, and sudden death concerns. The injuries suggest that interventions for mitigating hypoxic exposure and nutrient loss may provide cellular protection, in the same fashion as interventions in other conditions with similar malabsorption, fluid turnover, or hypoxic exposure

  12. Gait analysis in chronic heart failure: The calf as a locus of impaired walking capacity.

    PubMed

    Panizzolo, Fausto A; Maiorana, Andrew J; Naylor, Louise H; Dembo, Lawrence; Lloyd, David G; Green, Daniel J; Rubenson, Jonas

    2014-11-28

    Reduced walking capacity, a hallmark of chronic heart failure (CHF), is strongly correlated with hospitalization and morbidity. The aim of this work was to perform a detailed biomechanical gait analysis to better identify mechanisms underlying reduced walking capacity in CHF. Inverse dynamic analyses were conducted in CHF patients and age- and exercise level-matched control subjects on an instrumented treadmill at self-selected treadmill walking speeds and at speeds representing +20% and -20% of the subjects' preferred speed. Surprisingly, no difference in preferred speed was observed between groups, possibly explained by an optimization of the mechanical cost of transport in both groups (the mechanical cost to travel a given distance; J/kg/m). The majority of limb kinematics and kinetics were also similar between groups, with the exception of greater ankle dorsiflexion angles during stance in CHF. Nevertheless, over two times greater ankle plantarflexion work during stance and per distance traveled is required for a given triceps surae muscle volume in CHF patients. This, together with a greater reliance on the ankle compared to the hip to power walking in CHF patients, especially at faster speeds, may contribute to the earlier onset of fatigue in CHF patients. This observation also helps explain the high correlation between triceps surae muscle volume and exercise capacity that has previously been reported in CHF. Considering the key role played by the plantarflexors in powering walking and their association with exercise capacity, our findings strongly suggest that exercise-based rehabilitation in CHF should not omit the ankle muscle group. PMID:25307437

  13. Impaired matching of perfusion and ventilation in heart failure detected by 133xenon.

    PubMed

    Lewis, N P; Banning, A P; Cooper, J P; Sundar, A S; Facey, P E; Evans, W D; Henderson, A H

    1996-01-01

    In severe chronic heart failure (CHF) the ventilatory cost of CO2 elimination during exercise (VE/VCO2) is increased, suggesting ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatch. The relationship of exercise VE/VCO2 regression slope m to deadspace ventilation was studied in 15 patients with CHF who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and arterial blood gas monitoring. Regional lung ventilation and perfusion was studied, using 133xenon, at rest and peak exercise in a further group of 10 CHF patients and in five normal subjects. VE/VCO2 slope m correlated well with deadspace ventilation at peak exercise in the 15 patients with CHF. We therefore used exercise VE/VCO2 slope m to categorize CHF patients undergoing 133xenon imaging into groups with increased (slope m > 36) or normal (slope m < 36) exercise deadspace ventilation. In normals, resting V/Q determined by 133xenon showed a gravitational gradient, which improved on exercise as a result of relative increases and of relative reductions in regional perfusion; no significant changes in regional ventilation distribution were detected. In patients with CHF who had normal slope m (n = 5), rest and exercise V/Q were similar to the normal subjects. In CHF patients with increased slope m (n = 5) however, the resting gravitational gradient of V/Q was lost, and there were no significant changes in relative perfusion distribution on exercise. These findings suggest that the increased ventilatory cost of CO2 elimination found in certain patients with CHF is related to inability to coordinate and optimise the relative distribution of lung perfusion with respect to ventilation during exercise. PMID:8896743

  14. The effect of negative affect on cognition: Anxiety, not anger, impairs executive function.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Moons, Wesley G; Tewell, Carl A; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    It is often assumed that negative affect impairs the executive functions that underlie our ability to control and focus our thoughts. However, support for this claim has been mixed. Recent work has suggested that different negative affective states like anxiety and anger may reflect physiologically separable states with distinct effects on cognition. However, the effects of these 2 affective states on executive function have never been assessed. As such, we induced anxiety or anger in participants and examined the effects on executive function. We found that anger did not impair executive function relative to a neutral mood, whereas anxiety did. In addition, self-reports of induced anxiety, but not anger, predicted impairments in executive function. These results support functional models of affect and cognition, and highlight the need to consider differences between anxiety and anger when investigating the influence of negative affect on fundamental cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27100367

  15. Avoidance of Profound Hypothermia During Initial Reperfusion Improves the Functional Recovery of Hearts Donated After Circulatory Death.

    PubMed

    White, C W; Ambrose, E; Müller, A; Li, Y; Le, H; Thliveris, J; Arora, R C; Lee, T W; Dixon, I M C; Tian, G; Nagendran, J; Hryshko, L V; Freed, D H

    2016-03-01

    The resuscitation of hearts donated after circulatory death (DCD) is gaining widespread interest; however, the method of initial reperfusion (IR) that optimizes functional recovery has not been elucidated. We sought to determine the impact of IR temperature on the recovery of myocardial function during ex vivo heart perfusion (EVHP). Eighteen pigs were anesthetized, mechanical ventilation was discontinued, and cardiac arrest ensued. A 15-min standoff period was observed and then hearts were reperfused for 3 min at three different temperatures (5°C; N = 6, 25°C; N = 5, and 35°C; N = 7) with a normokalemic adenosine-lidocaine crystalloid cardioplegia. Hearts then underwent normothermic EVHP for 6 h during which time myocardial function was assessed in a working mode. We found that IR coronary blood flow differed among treatment groups (5°C = 483 ± 53, 25°C = 722 ± 60, 35°C = 906 ± 36 mL/min, p < 0.01). During subsequent EVHP, less myocardial injury (troponin I: 5°C = 91 ± 6, 25°C = 64 ± 16, 35°C = 57 ± 7 pg/mL/g, p = 0.04) and greater preservation of endothelial cell integrity (electron microscopy injury score: 5°C = 3.2 ± 0.5, 25°C = 1.8 ± 0.2, 35°C = 1.7 ± 0.3, p = 0.01) were evident in hearts initially reperfused at warmer temperatures. IR under profoundly hypothermic conditions impaired the recovery of myocardial function (cardiac index: 5°C = 3.9 ± 0.8, 25°C = 6.2 ± 0.4, 35°C = 6.5 ± 0.6 mL/minute/g, p = 0.03) during EVHP. We conclude that the avoidance of profound hypothermia during IR minimizes injury and improves the functional recovery of DCD hearts. PMID:26780159

  16. Hypertension-associated C825T polymorphism impairs the function of Gβ3 to target GRK2 ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Zhengyu; Han, Xiao-Ran; Smith, Matthew D; Lei, Qun-Ying; Guan, Kun-Liang; Xiong, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Population-based and case–control studies in different ethnicities have linked a polymorphism, C825T, in exon 10 of GNB3 gene to hypertension and several additional diseases. The 825T allele is associated with alternative splicing and results in a shortened Gβ3 protein, referred to as Gβ3s, which loses 41 amino acids encompassing one WD40 repeat domain. The mechanism of how Gβ3 C825T polymorphism is associated with hypertension has remained unclear, but an impairment of its canonical function in G-protein-coupled receptor signaling has been ruled out. Here, we report that Gβ3, like other Gβ proteins, binds to DDB1 and assembles a DDB1-CUL4A-ROC1 E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4AGβ3) to target GRK2 ubiquitination. The loss of the 41 amino-acid residues disrupts the Gβ3-DDB1 binding and impairs the function of Gβ3s to ubiquitinate GRK2. GRK2 ubiquitination levels were decreased and protein levels were accumulated in the blood samples of Gβ3 825T allele carriers. Deletion of Cul4a in mice resulted in systolic pressure increased and weakened heart function in male mice that can be partially rescued by the deletion of one Grk2 allele. These results reveal a mechanism explaining the link between Gβ3 C825T polymorphism and hypertension. PMID:27462452

  17. Levomilnacipran Extended-Release Treatment in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: Improvements in Functional Impairment Categories

    PubMed Central

    Gommoll, Carl P.; Chen, Changzheng; Greenberg, William M.; Ruth, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this post hoc analysis, improvement in functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) treated with levomilnacipran extended release (ER) was evaluated by assessing shifts from more severe to less severe functional impairment categories on individual Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) subscales. Method: SDS data were pooled from 5 phase II/III studies conducted between December 2006 and March 2012 of levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in adult patients with MDD (DSM-IV-TR criteria). Proportions of patients shifting from moderate-extreme baseline impairment (score ≥ 4) to mild-no impairment (score ≤ 3) at end of treatment were assessed for each SDS subscale. Proportions of patients shifting from marked-extreme (score ≥ 7) baseline impairment to moderate-no (score ≤ 6) or mild-no impairment (score ≤ 3) at end of treatment, and shifts in which patients worsened from moderate-no to marked-extreme impairment, were also evaluated. Results: A significantly higher proportion of patients treated with levomilnacipran ER than placebo-treated patients improved from more severe categories of functional impairment at baseline to less severe impairment categories across all SDS subscales: work/school, social life, and family life/home responsibilities (P < .01). Depending on the SDS subscale, 48%–55% of levomilnacipran ER–treated patients with moderate-extreme impairment at baseline improved to mild or no impairment, compared with no more than 40% of placebo patients on any subscale. Almost half (42%–47%) of levomilnacipran ER–treated patients versus only about one-third (29%–34%) of placebo patients improved from marked-extreme to mild or no impairment across functional domains. Conclusions: These results suggest that functional improvement was observed across the SDS functional domains. To our knowledge, this is the first such categorical analysis of functional improvement, as measured by the SDS, for an antidepressant. Trial

  18. Cognitive and functional impairment in Chinese elderly with late-onset depression.

    PubMed

    Tam, C W C; Lam, L C W

    2012-03-01

    OBJECTIVES. To investigate cognitive and functional impairment in Chinese elderly subjects with late-onset depression. METHODS. Subjects with late-onset depression and who were clinically non-demented were recruited. Their cognitive and functional scores were compared with those of cognitively normal elderly controls and elderly persons with mild cognitive impairment. Functional ability was assessed by the Disability Assessment for Dementia score. Various cognitive domains were assessed including global cognitive function, delayed episodic memory, working memory, and categorical verbal fluency test. RESULTS. A total of 105 depressed subjects and 324 non-depressed controls (149 normal elderly controls and 175 with mild cognitive impairment) were recruited. The depression group had significantly poorer performance in all cognitive assessments compared to the normal elderly control group. The depression group had a similar cognitive profile to those with mild cognitive impairment, except that its subjects had slightly better performance in the Categorical Verbal Fluency Test, delayed recall testing, and the Chinese version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale test. Depressed subjects had significantly lower functional scores in instrumental activities of daily living than the non-depressed, normal elderly controls, and those with mild cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS. Our results demonstrate that Chinese elderly with late-onset depression had cognitive impairments in multiple domains similar to those encountered in the age- and sex-matched non-depressed controls with mild cognitive impairment. However, their functional performance was significantly poorer than that in these controls. This study provided extensive characterisation of the range and depth of cognitive and functional impairments in elderly patients with late-onset depression. PMID:22447802

  19. The Role of Mitochondrial Functional Proteins in ROS Production in Ischemic Heart Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Haifeng; Yang, Yi; Zhao, Heng; Li, Xiuchuan; Yang, Dachun; Li, De; Yang, Yongjian

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic heart diseases (IHD) have become the leading cause of death around the world, killing more than 7 million people annually. In IHD, the blockage of coronary vessels will cause irreversible cell injury and even death. As the “powerhouse” and “apoptosis center” in cardiomyocytes, mitochondria play critical roles in IHD. Ischemia insult can reduce myocardial ATP content, resulting in energy stress and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Thus, mitochondrial abnormality has been identified as a hallmark of multiple cardiovascular disorders. To date, many studies have suggested that these mitochondrial proteins, such as electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, uncoupling proteins (UCPs), mitochondrial dynamic proteins, translocases of outer membrane (Tom) complex, and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), can directly or indirectly influence mitochondria-originated ROS production, consequently determining the degree of mitochondrial dysfunction and myocardial impairment. Here, the focus of this review is to summarize the present understanding of the relationship between some mitochondrial functional proteins and ROS production in IHD. PMID:27119006

  20. ASSESSMENT OF UPPER EXTREMITY IMPAIRMENT, FUNCTION, AND ACTIVITY FOLLOWING STROKE: FOUNDATIONS FOR CLINICAL DECISION MAKING

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Catherine E.; Bland, Marghuretta D.; Bailey, Ryan R.; Schaefer, Sydney Y.; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive approach for assessing the upper extremity (UE) after stroke. First, common upper extremity impairments and how to assess them are briefly discussed. While multiple UE impairments are typically present after stroke, the severity of one impairment, paresis, is the primary determinant of UE functional loss. Second, UE function is operationally defined and a number of clinical measures are discussed. It is important to consider how impairment and loss of function affect UE activity outside of the clinical environment. Thus, this review also identifies accelerometry as an objective method for assessing UE activity in daily life. Finally, the role that each of these levels of assessment should play in clinical decision making is discussed in order to optimize the provision of stroke rehabilitation services. PMID:22975740

  1. Anxiety symptoms and functional impairment: A systematic review of the correlation between the two measures.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Patrick E; Monfort, Samuel S; Kashdan, Todd B; Blalock, Dan V; Calton, Jenna M

    2016-04-01

    Researchers and clinicians assume a strong, positive correlation between anxiety symptoms and functional impairment. That assumption may be well-justified since diagnostic criteria typically include functional impairment. Still, the relationship remains largely unavailable in any systematic review. Our aim with this paper was to provide empirical evidence for this assumed relationship and to document the observed correlations between anxiety symptom measures and functional impairment measures. Correlations existed for symptoms of six anxiety disorders (Panic Disorder, Agoraphobia, Social Anxiety Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) across four functional domains (global, social, occupational, and physical). Overall, the mean of 497 correlations across all disorders and functional domains was modest (r=.34); since the variability between disorders and functional domains tended to be rather large, we explored these correlations further. We presented these results and the potential explanations for unexpected findings along with the clinical and research implications. PMID:26953005

  2. The aftermath of terrorism: posttraumatic stress and functional impairment after the 2011 Oslo bombing

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Øivind; Blix, Ines; Heir, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the present study we wanted to investigate the link between exposure, posttraumatic stress symptomatology, and functional impairment in the aftermath of terrorism. Method: Posttraumatic stress symptomatology and functional impairment related to the Oslo bombing 22nd of July, 2011, in directly and indirectly exposed individuals (N = 1927) were assessed together with demographics, exposure, peri-traumatic reactions, and event centrality approximately 1 year after the attack. Results: Directly and indirectly exposed individuals qualifying for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reported similar peri-traumatic reactions, event centrality, and functional impairment. However, clusters within the PTSD symptomatology were differentially associated with impairment as a function of their exposure. In the directly exposed group, all clusters within the PTSD symptomatology were associated with impairment in function, while only emotional numbing was associated with impairment within the indirectly exposed group. Conclusion: Considering that terror attacks frequently involve directly exposed individuals and a larger population of indirectly exposed individuals, this finding is of importance, especially in the design of intervention programs and the development of treatment policies. PMID:26300833

  3. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  4. Expert system for heart function based on artificial neural networks and fuzzy theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Li, Xiaoying; Yu, Daoyin; Mao, Yi; Hua, Qi

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, a computer-aided diagnosis system for heart function based on artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic is introduced. Typical parameters reflecting heart function, provided by echocardiography, were used as input of neural networks and their corresponding heart functions as output. To obtain an analytic and discrimination model closer to brain, we combined fuzzy theory with neural network technology, and input parameters are fuzzily treated. During distinguishing morbid style, we used fuzzy interval, fuzzy number and its related possibility distribution concepts, and selected appropriate operator, and so get its corresponding membership, meanwhile membership was put out of interval of linguistic to consist with language expression. The network selected was BP, and back- propagation algorithm was used to train the network. After studying the result evaluated by expert, the neural network was used to appreciate 150 testees' heart function, of which 90.7% was consistent with experts' diagnosis.

  5. Impaired executive functioning after left anterior insular stroke: a case report.

    PubMed

    Markostamou, Ioanna; Rudolf, Jobst; Tsiptsios, Iakovos; Kosmidis, Mary H

    2015-01-01

    Given the insular's anatomic complexity and functional interconnectivity, acute lesions may result in varied clinical presentations, including autonomic, somatosensory, perceptual, motor, affective, and cognitive deficits. Although functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated its role in executive functions, no clinical manifestations have been reported to date. We present the case of a woman with an acute left anterior insular infarction leading to executive (i.e., word and design fluency, mental flexibility, sustained attention, inhibitory control), but not language, visuoperceptual, or memory impairment. This case confirms the left anterior insula's involvement in executive functioning and suggests that an infarction may result in executive impairment. PMID:25537237

  6. Metrics of High-Density Lipoprotein Function and Hospital Mortality in Acute Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Potočnjak, Ines; Degoricija, Vesna; Trbušić, Matias; Terešak, Sanda Dokoza; Radulović, Bojana; Pregartner, Gudrun; Berghold, Andrea; Tiran, Beate; Marsche, Gunther; Frank, Saša

    2016-01-01

    Objective The functionality of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is impaired in chronic ischaemic heart failure (HF). However, the relationship between HDL functionality and outcomes in acute HF (AHF) has not been studied. The present study investigates whether the metrics of HDL functionality, including HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-associated paraoxonase (PON)-1 arylesterase (AE) activity are associated with hospital mortality in AHF patients. Methods and Results The study was performed as a prospective, single-centre, observational research on 152 patients, defined and categorised according to the ESC and ACCF/AHA Guidelines for HF by time of onset, final clinical presentation and ejection fraction. The mean age of the included patients (52% female) was 75.2 years (SD 10.3) and hospital mortality was 14.5%. HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was examined by measuring the capacity of apoB depleted serum to remove tritium-labelled cholesterol from cultured macrophages. The AE activity of the HDL fraction was examined by a photometric assay. In a univariable regression analysis, low cholesterol efflux, but not AE activity, was significantly associated with hospital mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64–0.96, p = 0.019]. In multivariable analysis progressively adjusting for important clinical and laboratory parameters the association obtained for cholesterol efflux capacity and hospital mortality by univariable analysis, despite a stable OR, did not stay significant (p = 0.179). Conclusion Our results suggest that HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (but not AE activity) contributes to, but is not an independent risk factor for, hospital mortality in AHF patients. Larger studies are needed to draw firm conclusions. PMID:27304214

  7. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms, Functional Impairment, and Depression: The Role of Appearance-Based Teasing.

    PubMed

    Weingarden, Hilary; Renshaw, Keith D

    2016-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is associated with elevated social and occupational impairment and comorbid depression, but research on risk factors for body dysmorphic symptoms and associated outcomes is limited. Appearance-based teasing may be a potential risk factor. To examine the specificity of this factor, the authors assessed self-reported appearance-based teasing, body dysmorphic, and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, functional impairment (i.e., social, occupational, family impairment), and depression in a nonclinical sample of undergraduates. As hypothesized, appearance-based teasing was positively correlated with body dysmorphic symptoms. The correlation between teasing and body dysmorphic symptoms was stronger than that between teasing and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity. Last, body dysmorphic symptom severity and appearance-based teasing interacted in predicting functional impairment and depression. Specifically, appearance-based teasing was positively associated with depression and functional impairment only in those with elevated body dysmorphic symptoms. When a similar moderation was tested with obsessive-compulsive, in place of body dysmorphic, symptom severity, the interaction was nonsignificant. Findings support theory that appearance-based teasing is a specific risk factor for body dysmorphic symptoms and associated functional impairment. PMID:25706778

  8. [Respiratory functional impairment in patients with liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Siemieniako, Andrzej; Łapiński, Tadeusz Wojciech; Flisiak, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Liver pathologies have negative influence on numerous organs including pulmonary system. Liver failure, which often results from cirrhosis, may lead to the hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension. The hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized by increased alveolar-capillary oxygen gradient, presence of intrapulmonary leak and diminished retention of the carbon dioxide from arterial blood. Two types of the hepatopulmonary syndrome are distinguished: the type 1 connected with pre-capillary and capillaries extension, what shortens the time of the blood flow by the pulmonary vessels. The type 2 hepatopulmonary syndrome results from the formation of arteriovenous anastomoses and anatomical "shunt" connections. Most patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome demonstrate both types. Patients with liver failure may develop portopulmonary hypertension, independently from hepatopulmonary syndrome. If not treated, hypertension might lead to the death of 50 to 90% patients in the 5-year follow up. The patients with the serious damage of the liver have hiperdynamic circulation with the increased heart capacity and lowered systemic vascular resistance. The hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized by the growth of the pulmonary artery pressure and the presence of portal hypertension. The mechanism how the portal hypertension leads to the pulmonary hypertension is not clear. PMID:20491346

  9. Lightning and the Heart: Fractal Behavior in Cardiac Function

    PubMed Central

    BASSINGTHWAIGHTE, JAMES B.; van BEEK, J. H. G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Physical systems, from galactic clusters to diffusing molecules, often show fractal behavior. Likewise, living systems might often be well described by fractal algorithms. Such fractal descriptions in space and time imply that there is order in chaos, or put the other way around, chaotic dynamical systems in biology are more constrained and orderly than seen at first glance. The vascular network, the syncytium of cells, the processes of diffusion and transmembrane transport might be fractal features of the heart. These fractal features provide a basis which enables one to understand certain aspects of more global behavior such as atrial or ventricular fibrillation and perfusion heterogeneity. The heart might be regarded as a prototypical organ from these points of view. A particular example of the use of fractal geometry is in explaining myocardial flow heterogeneity via delivery of blood through an asymmetrical fractal branching network. PMID:21938081

  10. Continuous renal replacement therapy versus furosemide for management of kidney impairment in heart transplant recipients with volume overload

    PubMed Central

    Mirhosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Fakhri, Mohammad; Asadollahi, Shadi; Ahmadi, Zargham Hossein; Rashid Farokhi, Farin; Boloursaz, Mohammad Reza; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES It is unknown whether continuous renal replacement therapy or furosemide therapy is superior in heart transplant recipients who are in postoperative kidney insufficiency and volume overload. This prospective non-randomized, controlled trial investigated the efficacy of the two methods after transplantation. METHODS We assigned heart transplant recipients 18 years of age or older who were oliguric (urine output < 400 ml/day); had volume overload and estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 of body surface area calculated with the use of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, to designed initiation of intervention. We followed 30 patients for up to 30 days. The primary outcome was estimated glomerular filtration rate status after intervention. RESULTS Between January 2010 and April 2012, a total of 30 adults (mean age: 37 years; 18 men and 12 women) were assessed for entry in this trial. Continuous renal replacement therapy, when compared with furosemide, was associated with a significant increase in estimated glomerular filtration rate of patients after intervention 61 ± 4.5 vs 55 ± 8.5l ml/min/1.73 m2 (P = 0.02). Moreover, the mean glomerular filtration rate at discharge time for the continuous renal replacement therapy group was 72 ± 7.3 and 58 ± 7.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 for the furosemide group (P < 0.001). During the follow-up period, 6 of 15 patients in the continuous renal replacement therapy group (40%) and 4 of 15 in the furosemide group (26.6%) died (P = 0.43). CONCLUSIONS In this study, continuous renal replacement therapy in heart transplant recipients with reduced kidney function was associated with an improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate status in comparison with furosemide. PMID:23223674

  11. Rumination prospectively predicts executive functioning impairments in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Samantha L.; Wagner, Clara A.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives The current study tested the resource allocation hypothesis, examining whether baseline rumination or depressive symptom levels prospectively predicted deficits in executive functioning in an adolescent sample. The alternative to this hypothesis was also evaluated by testing whether lower initial levels of executive functioning predicted increases in rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. Methods A community sample of 200 adolescents (ages 12–13) completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, and executive functioning at baseline and at a follow-up session approximately 15 months later. Results Adolescents with higher levels of baseline rumination displayed decreases in selective attention and attentional switching at follow-up. Rumination did not predict changes in working memory or sustained and divided attention. Depressive symptoms were not found to predict significant changes in executive functioning scores at follow-up. Baseline executive functioning was not associated with change in rumination or depression over time. Conclusions Findings partially support the resource allocation hypothesis that engaging in ruminative thoughts consumes cognitive resources that would otherwise be allocated towards difficult tests of executive functioning. Support was not found for the alternative hypothesis that lower levels of initial executive functioning would predict increased rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our study is the first to find support for the resource allocation hypothesis using a longitudinal design and an adolescent sample. Findings highlight the potentially detrimental effects of rumination on executive functioning during early adolescence. PMID:23978629

  12. Functional imaging correlates of impaired distractor suppression following sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kong, Danyang; Soon, Chun Siong; Chee, Michael W L

    2012-05-15

    Sleep deprivation (SD) has been shown to affect selective attention but it is not known how two of its component processes: target enhancement and distractor suppression, are affected. To investigate, young volunteers either attended to houses or were obliged to ignore them (when attending to faces) while viewing superimposed face-house pictures. MR signal enhancement and suppression in the parahippocampal place area (PPA) were determined relative to a passive viewing control condition. Sleep deprivation was associated with lower PPA activation across conditions. Critically SD specifically impaired distractor suppression in selective attention, leaving target enhancement relatively preserved. These findings parallel some observations in cognitive aging. Additionally, following SD, attended houses were not significantly better recognized than ignored houses in a post-experiment test of recognition memory contrasting with the finding of superior recognition of attended houses in the well-rested state. These results provide evidence for co-encoding of distracting information with targets into memory when one is sleep deprived. PMID:22426349

  13. Spectral transfer function analysis of respiratory hemodynamic fluctuations predicts end-diastolic stiffness in preserved ejection fraction heart failure.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Mahmoud; Leite, Sara; Alaa, Mohamed; Oliveira-Pinto, José; Tavares-Silva, Marta; Fontoura, Dulce; Falcão-Pires, Inês; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Lourenço, André P

    2016-01-01

    Preserved ejection fraction heart failure (HFpEF) diagnosis remains controversial, and invasive left ventricular (LV) hemodynamic evaluation and/or exercise testing is advocated by many. The stiffer HFpEF myocardium may show impaired stroke volume (SV) variation induced by fluctuating LV filling pressure during ventilation. Our aim was to investigate spectral transfer function (STF) gain from end-diastolic pressure (EDP) to indexed SV (SVi) in experimental HFpEF. Eighteen-week-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and ZSF1 lean (ZSF1 Ln) and obese rats (ZSF1 Ob) randomly underwent LV open-chest (OC, n = 8 each group) or closed-chest hemodynamic evaluation (CC, n = 6 each group) under halogenate anesthesia and positive-pressure ventilation at constant inspiratory pressure. Beat-to-beat fluctuations in hemodynamic parameters during ventilation were assessed by STF. End-diastolic stiffness (βi) and end-systolic elastance (Eesi) for indexed volumes were obtained by inferior vena cava occlusion in OC (multibeat) or single-beat method estimates in CC. ZSF1 Ob showed higher EDP spectrum (P < 0.001), higher STF gain between end-diastolic volume and EDP, and impaired STF gain between EDP and SVi compared with both hypertensive ZSF1 Ln and normotensive WKY controls (P < 0.001). Likewise βi was only higher in ZSF1 Ob while Eesi was raised in both ZSF1 groups. On multivariate analysis βi and not Eesi correlated with impaired STF gain from EDP to SVi (P < 0.001), and receiver-operating characteristics analysis showed an area under curve of 0.89 for higher βi prediction (P < 0.001). Results support further clinical testing of STF analysis from right heart catheterization-derived EDP surrogates to noninvasively determined SV as screening/diagnostic tool to assess myocardial stiffness in HFpEF. PMID:26475584

  14. [The heart pumping function and the systemic regulation of blood circulation in groups of heart surgery patients].

    PubMed

    Knyshov, H V; Palets', B L; Nastenko, Ie A; Maksymenko, V B

    1996-01-01

    General properties of cardiovascular system functioning in the groups of postoperative patients in the cardiac surgery clinic were studied using the information technology (IT), combined the methods of cluster and nonlinear regression analysis and computer simulation. It was shown, that in all five separated groups of observations (clusters) the direct dependency of cardiac (CI) and stroke (SI) indexes on central venous pressure (CVP) was determined by the variations of total peripheral resistance and reactions of venous tone (u), contractility (E) and heart rate (HR), oriented on the stabilisation of mean aortic pressure (AP) on approximately the same level. Significant differences between the characteristics CI(CVP), SI(CVP) in the groups were determined by the level of E (especially of the right ventricle) and diastolic tone of the heart. Correlation of the cardiac (E,HR) and vascular (u) components of Ap regulation changed correspondingly the heart functional state. Proposed approach and IT may be used in such clinical and experimental research where considerable volume of observations is combined with the great variation of data and, correspondingly, a poor definition level of system behavior. PMID:9044808

  15. Beyond ejection fraction: an integrative approach for assessment of cardiac structure and function in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Cikes, Maja; Solomon, Scott D

    2016-06-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has been the central parameter used for diagnosis and management in patients with heart failure. A good predictor of adverse outcomes in heart failure when below ∼45%, LVEF is less useful as a marker of risk as it approaches normal. As a measure of cardiac function, ejection fraction has several important limitations. Calculated as the stroke volume divided by end-diastolic volume, the estimation of ejection fraction is generally based on geometric assumptions that allow for assessment of volumes based on linear or two-dimensional measurements. Left ventricular ejection fraction is both preload- and afterload-dependent, can change substantially based on loading conditions, is only moderately reproducible, and represents only a single measure of risk in patients with heart failure. Moreover, the relationship between ejection fraction and risk in patients with heart failure is modified by factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and renal function. A more complete evaluation and understanding of left ventricular function in patients with heart failure requires a more comprehensive assessment: we conceptualize an integrative approach that incorporates measures of left and right ventricular function, left ventricular geometry, left atrial size, and valvular function, as well as non-imaging factors (such as clinical parameters and biomarkers), providing a comprehensive and accurate prediction of risk in heart failure. PMID:26417058

  16. Extrarenal citrulline disposal in mice with impaired renal function

    PubMed Central

    Didelija, Inka C.; Fiorotto, Marta L.

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous synthesis of arginine, a semiessential amino acid, relies on the production of citrulline by the gut and its conversion into arginine by the kidney in what has been called the “intestinal-renal axis” for arginine synthesis. Although the kidney is the main site for citrulline disposal, it only accounts for ∼60–70% of the citrulline produced. Because the only known fate for citrulline is arginine synthesis and the enzymes that catalyze this reaction are widespread among body tissues, we hypothesized that citrulline can be utilized directly by tissues to meet, at least partially, their arginine needs. To test this hypothesis, we used stable and radioactive tracers in conscious, partially nephrectomized (½ and ⅚) and anesthetized acutely kidney-ligated mouse models. Nephrectomy increased plasma citrulline concentration but did not affect citrulline synthesis rates, thus reducing its clearance. Nephrectomy (⅚) reduced the amount of citrulline accounted for as plasma arginine from 88 to 42%. Acute kidney ligation increased the half-life and mean retention time of citrulline. Whereas the rate of citrulline conversion into plasma arginine was reduced, it was not eliminated. In addition, we observed direct utilization of citrulline for arginine synthesis and further incorporation into tissue protein in kidney-ligated mice. These observations indicate that a fraction of the citrulline produced is utilized directly by multiple tissues to meet their arginine needs and that extrarenal sites contribute to plasma arginine. Furthermore, when the interorgan synthesis of arginine is impaired, these extrarenal sites are able to increase their rate of citrulline utilization. PMID:25056350

  17. The Ways of the Hand: A Study of Hand Function among Blind, Visually Impaired and Visually Impaired Multi-Handicapped Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogow, Sally M.

    1987-01-01

    The manual development of 148 blind, visually impaired, and visually impaired multi-handicapped students, aged 3-19, was studied. Results indicated a significant relationship between object manipulation and speech, and an inverse relationship between object manipulation and stereotypic hand mannerisms. Optimal development of manual functions and…

  18. Differential Item Functioning Comparisons on a Performance-Based Alternate Assessment for Students with Severe Cognitive Impairments, Autism and Orthopedic Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laitusis, Cara Cahalan; Maneckshana, Behroz; Monfils, Lora; Ahlgrim-Delzell, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by disability groups on an on-demand performance assessment for students with severe cognitive impairments. Researchers examined the presence of DIF for two comparisons. One comparison involved students with severe cognitive impairments who served as the reference group…

  19. High signal intensity in dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images in three patients with impaired renal function and vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Sebastiano; Schroeder, Christophe; Froehlich, Johannes M; Pasch, Andreas; Thoeny, Harriet C

    2016-05-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (primarily those with linear chelates) are associated with a dose-dependent signal hyperintensity in the dentate nucleus and the globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted MRI following administration to selected patients with normal renal function. The accumulation of gadolinium has also been reported in the skin, heart, liver, lung, and kidney of patients with impaired renal function suffering from nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Here we report on three patients with impaired renal function and vascular calcification (two with confirmed NSF) whose unenhanced T1-weighted MRIs showed conspicuous high signal intensity in the dentate nucleus and the globus pallidus after they had been exposed to relatively low doses of linear gadolinium-based contrast agents (0.27, 0.45, and 0.68 mmol/kg). Signal ratios between dentate nucleus and pons and between globus pallidus and thalamus were comparable with previously reported measurements in subjects without renal impairment. Of note, all three analysed patients suffered from transient signs of neurological disorders of undetermined cause. In conclusion, the exposure to 0.27-0.68 mmol/kg of linear gadolinium-based contrast agent was associated with probable gadolinium accumulation in the brain of three patients suffering from impaired renal function and vascular calcification. © 2016 The Authors. Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26929131

  20. Altered Intranetwork and Internetwork Functional Connectivity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With and Without Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Qi; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Xiong, Ying; Zhan, Ya-Feng; Guo, Lin-Ying; Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Ri-Feng; Yao, Yi-Hao; Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wen-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment. We investigated whether alterations of intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity with T2DM progression exist, by using resting-state functional MRI. MRI data were analysed from 19 T2DM patients with normal cognition (DMCN) and 19 T2DM patients with cognitive impairment (DMCI), 19 healthy controls (HC). Functional connectivity among 36 previously well-defined brain regions which consisted of 5 resting-state network (RSN) systems [default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), control network (CON), salience network (SAL) and sensorimotor network (SMN)] was investigated at 3 levels (integrity, network and connectivity). Impaired intranetwork and internetwork connectivity were found in T2DM, especially in DMCI, on the basis of the three levels of analysis. The bilateral posterior cerebellum, the right insula, the DMN and the CON were mainly involved in these changes. The functional connectivity strength of specific brain architectures in T2DM was found to be associated with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), cognitive score and illness duration. These network alterations in intergroup differences, which were associated with brain functional impairment due to T2DM, indicate that network organizations might be potential biomarkers for predicting the clinical progression, evaluating the cognitive impairment, and further understanding the pathophysiology of T2DM. PMID:27622870

  1. The aged nonhematopoietic environment impairs natural killer cell maturation and function

    PubMed Central

    Shehata, Hesham M; Hoebe, Kasper; Chougnet, Claire A

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are critical in eliminating tumors and viral infections, both of which occur at a high incidence in the elderly. Previous studies showed that aged NK cells are less cytotoxic and exhibit impaired maturation compared to young NK cells. We evaluated whether extrinsic or intrinsic factors were responsible for the impaired maturation and function of NK cells in aging and whether impaired maturation correlated with functional hyporesponsiveness. We confirmed that aged mice have a significant decrease in the frequency of mature NK cells in all lymphoid organs. Impaired NK cell maturation in aged mice correlated with a reduced capacity to eliminate allogeneic and B16 tumor targets in vivo. This could be explained by impaired degranulation, particularly by mature NK cells of aged mice. Consistent with impaired aged NK cell maturation, expression of T-bet and Eomes, which regulate NK cell functional maturation, was significantly decreased in aged bone marrow (BM) NK cells. Mixed BM chimeras revealed that the nonhematopoietic environment was a key determinant of NK cell maturation and T-bet and Eomes expression. In mixed BM chimeras, NK cells derived from both young or aged BM cells adopted an ‘aged’ phenotype in an aged host, that is, were hyporesponsive to stimuli in vitro, while adopting a ‘young’ phenotype following transfer in young hosts. Overall, our data suggest that the aged nonhematopoietic environment is responsible for the impaired maturation and function of NK cells. Defining these nonhematopoietic factors could have important implications for improving NK cell function in the elderly. PMID:25677698

  2. Tallying Reference Errors in Narratives: Integrative Language Function, Impairment, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, John C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the construct validity of a new measure of Integrative Language functioning, "Tallying Reference Errors In Narratives" (TREIN), by examining the association between previously existing CNS impairment and Expressive Language functioning and elevated outcomes on the TREIN measure "rate of Nominal Reference Errors" (rNRE). The…

  3. Specific Language Impairment and Executive Functioning: Parent and Teacher Ratings of Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittke, Kacie; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Schechtman, Calli J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The current study used the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003), a rating scale designed to investigate executive behaviors in everyday activities, to examine the executive functioning of preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) relative to their…

  4. Family Functioning, Social Impairment, and Symptoms Among Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Peris, Tara; Axelson, David; Kowatch, Robert A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Impaired social functioning is common among youth with bipolar disorder (BD), emerges in multiple settings, and persists over time. However, little is known about factors associated with poor peer and family functioning in the early-onset form of BD. Using a sample of adolescents with BD I or II, we examined which symptoms of BD,…

  5. Hemodialysis does not impair ventricular functions over 2 years.

    PubMed

    Duran, Mustafa; Unal, Aydin; Inanc, Mehmet Tugrul; Kocyigit, Ismail; Oguz, Fatih; Ocak, Ayse; Ozdogru, İbrahim; Kasapkara, Ahmet; Karakaya, Ekrem; Oymak, Oktay

    2011-07-01

    We aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of hemodialysis (HD) treatment on left and right ventricular (LV and RV) functions in patients with end-stage renal disease. The study population consisted of 22 patients with newly diagnosed end-stage renal disease. Before an arteriovenous fistula was surgically created for HD, the patients were evaluated by echocardiography for systolic and diastolic functions. After the first HD session (mean 24.22 ± 2.14 months), the second echocardiographic evaluations were performed. Left ventricular and RV functions before and after long-term HD treatment were compared. The mean age was 55 ± 13 years and 10 (45%) of the patients were female. After long-term HD treatment, the isovolumic relaxation time was significantly decreased; however, the peak early (E) and late (A) diastolic mitral inflow velocities, E/A ratio, and deceleration time of E wave were not significantly different from the baseline measurements. Also, there was no significantly change in the early diastolic velocity (Ea) of the lateral mitral anulus and the E/Ea ratio. Pulmonary vein peak diastolic velocity, peak atrial reversal velocity, and peak atrial reversal velocity duration remained almost unchanged even though the pulmonary vein peak systolic velocity and the pulmonary vein peak systolic velocity/pulmonary vein peak diastolic velocity ratio were significantly lower after long-term HD treatment. In addition, LV systolic functions, LV diameters, LV mass index, left atrium size, and RV diastolic functions were not statistically different after long-term HD treatment. The myocardium is exposed to hemodynamic, metabolic, and neuro-humoral abnormalities during HD treatment; however, the long-term effects of HD on ventricular functions are not clearly known. The present study showed that the long-term effects of HD on LV and RV functions were insignificant in patients with end-stage renal disease. We have demonstrated that the LV and RV functions did not change

  6. Relationship of depressive symptoms to functional status in women with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eun Kyeung; Moser, Debra K.; Lennie, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Among patients with heart failure, women have worse functional status than do men, but little research has focused on determining factors that influence functional status in either sex. Objectives To compare factors that influence functional status in men and women with heart failure and to test whether depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between physical symptoms and functional status. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study design was used. A total of 231 patients, 133 men and 98 women, were recruited from an inpatient heart failure clinic in South Korea. Functional status (the Korean Activity Scale/Index), physical symptoms (the Symptom Status Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (the Beck Depression Inventory), and situational factors (living status, socioeconomic status) were measured. Hierarchical multiple regression and mediation analysis were used for data analysis. Results Women (mean score, 24.5; SD, 17.3) had worse functional status than did men (mean score, 31.9; SD, 20.1; P=.004). Dyspnea on exertion (β = −0.16), ankle swelling (β = −0.19), fatigue (β = −0.20), and depressive symptoms (β = −0.19) were independently associated with functional status in women, whereas only dyspnea on exertion (β = −0.30) influenced functional status of men in hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Mediation analysis indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between physical symptoms and functional status in women with heart failure, but not in men. Conclusions Distinct physical and psychological symptoms influence functional status in women with heart failure. A systematic multidimensional intervention may be required to target depressive symptoms to improve functional status in women with heart failure. PMID:19556413

  7. Vinculin network–mediated cytoskeletal remodeling regulates contractile function in the aging heart

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Spenlehauer, Alice; Sessions, Ayla O.; Trujillo, Adriana S.; Fuhrmann, Alexander; Fu, Zongming; Venkatraman, Vidya; Pohl, Danielle; Tuler, Jeremy; Wang, Mingyi; Lakatta, Edward G.; Ocorr, Karen; Bodmer, Rolf; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Cammarato, Anthony; Engler, Adam J.

    2015-01-01

    The human heart is capable of functioning for decades despite minimal cell turnover or regeneration, suggesting that molecular alterations help sustain heart function with age. However, identification of compensatory remodeling events in the aging heart remains elusive. We present the cardiac proteomes of young and old rhesus monkeys and rats, from which we show that certain age-associated remodeling events within the cardiomyocyte cytoskeleton are highly conserved and beneficial rather than deleterious. Targeted transcriptomic analysis in Drosophila confirmed conservation and implicated vinculin as a unique molecular regulator of cardiac function during aging. Cardiac-restricted vinculin overexpression reinforced the cortical cytoskeleton and enhanced myofilament organization, leading to improved contractility and hemodynamic stress tolerance in healthy and myosin-deficient fly hearts. Moreover, cardiac-specific vinculin overexpression increased median life span by more than 150% in flies. A broad array of potential therapeutic targets and regulators of age-associated modifications, specifically for vinculin, are presented. These findings suggest that the heart has molecular mechanisms to sustain performance and promote longevity, which may be assisted by therapeutic intervention to ameliorate the decline of function in aging patient hearts. PMID:26084806

  8. Longitudinal renal function in pediatric heart transplant recipients: 20-years experience.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Punkaj; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Gardner, Megan; Bryant, Janet C; Noel, Tommy R; Knecht, Kenneth R

    2015-03-01

    This study was initiated to assess the temporal trends of renal function, and define risk factors associated with worsening renal function in pediatric heart transplant recipients in the immediate post-operative period. We performed a single-center retrospective study in children ≤18 yr receiving OHT (1993-2012). The AKIN's validated, three-tiered AKI staging system was used to categorize the degree of WRF. One hundred sixty-four patients qualified for inclusion. Forty-seven patients (28%) were classified as having WRF after OHT. Nineteen patients (11%) required dialysis after heart transplantation. There was a sustained and steady improvement in renal function in children following heart transplantation in all age groups, irrespective of underlying disease process. The significant factors associated with risk of WRF included body surface area (OR: 1.89 for 0.5 unit increase, 95% CI: 1.29-2.76, p = 0.001) and use of ECMO prior to and/or after heart transplantation (OR: 3.50, 95% CI: 1.51-8.13, p = 0.004). Use of VAD prior to heart transplantation was not associated with WRF (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.17-1.51, p = 0.22). On the basis of these data, we demonstrate that worsening renal function improves early after orthotopic heart transplantation. PMID:25484128

  9. Toad heart utilizes exclusively slow skeletal muscle troponin T: an evolutionary adaptation with potential functional benefits.

    PubMed

    Feng, Han-Zhong; Chen, Xuequn; Hossain, M Moazzem; Jin, Jian-Ping

    2012-08-24

    The three isoforms of vertebrate troponin T (TnT) are normally expressed in a muscle type-specific manner. Here we report an exception that the cardiac muscle of toad (Bufo) expresses exclusively slow skeletal muscle TnT (ssTnT) together with cardiac forms of troponin I and myosin as determined using immunoblotting, cDNA cloning, and/or LC-MS/MS. Using RT-PCR and 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends on toad cardiac mRNA, we cloned full-length cDNAs encoding two alternatively spliced variants of ssTnT. Expression of the cloned cDNAs in Escherichia coli confirmed that the toad cardiac muscle expresses solely ssTnT, predominantly the low molecular weight variant with the exon 5-encoded NH(2)-terminal segment spliced out. Functional studies were performed in ex vivo working toad hearts and compared with the frog (Rana) hearts. The results showed that toad hearts had higher contractile and relaxation velocities and were able to work against a significantly higher afterload than that of frog hearts. Therefore, the unique evolutionary adaptation of utilizing exclusively ssTnT in toad cardiac muscle corresponded to a fitness value from improving systolic function of the heart. The data demonstrated a physiological importance of the functional diversity of TnT isoforms. The structure-function relationship of TnT may be explored for the development of new treatment of heart failure. PMID:22778265

  10. Impaired T cell function in argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tarasenko, Tatyana N.; Gomez-Rodriguez, Julio; McGuire, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    ASS1 is a cytosolic enzyme that plays a role in the conversion of citrulline to arginine. In human and mouse tissues, ASS1 protein is found in several components of the immune system, including the thymus and T cells. However, the role of ASS1 in these tissues remains to be defined. Considerable attention has been focused recently on the role of metabolism in T cell differentiation and function. Based on the expression of ASS1 in the immune system, we hypothesized that ASS1 deficiency would result in T cell defects. To evaluate this question, we characterized immune function in hypomorphic fold/fold mice. Analysis of splenic T cells by flow cytometry showed a marked reduction in T cell numbers with normal expression of activation surface markers. Gene therapy correction of liver ASS1 to enhance survival resulted in a partial recovery of splenic T cells for characterization. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated the persistence of the ASS1 enzyme defect in T cells and abnormal T cell differentiation and function. Overall, our work suggests that ASS1 plays a role in T cell function, and deficiency produces primary immune dysfunction. In addition, these data suggest that patients with ASS1 deficiency (citrullinemia type I) may have T cell dysfunction. PMID:25492936

  11. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is related to both reduced contractile function and incomplete relaxation: an electromechanically detailed biophysical modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Adeniran, Ismail; MacIver, David H.; Hancox, Jules C.; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) accounts for about 50% of heart failure cases. It has features of incomplete relaxation and increased stiffness of the left ventricle. Studies from clinical electrophysiology and animal experiments have found that HFpEF is associated with impaired calcium homeostasis, ion channel remodeling and concentric left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH). However, it is still unclear how the abnormal calcium homeostasis, ion channel and structural remodeling affect the electro-mechanical dynamics of the ventricles. In this study we have developed multiscale models of the human left ventricle from single cells to the 3D organ, which take into consideration HFpEF-induced changes in calcium handling, ion channel remodeling and concentric LVH. Our simulation results suggest that at the cellular level, HFpEF reduces the systolic calcium level resulting in a reduced systolic contractile force, but elevates the diastolic calcium level resulting in an abnormal residual diastolic force. In our simulations, these abnormal electro-mechanical features of the ventricular cells became more pronounced with the increase of the heart rate. However, at the 3D organ level, the ejection fraction of the left ventricle was maintained due to the concentric LVH. The simulation results of this study mirror clinically observed features of HFpEF and provide new insights toward the understanding of the cellular bases of impaired cardiac electromechanical functions in heart failure. PMID:25852567

  12. [Effect of exogenously administered ATP on heart function and energy status].

    PubMed

    Chernikov, V S; Darbinian, T M; Bakuleva, N P

    1993-01-01

    It has been shown that ATP (24.10(-6) M) administered once into the circulating solution improved strength and speed characteristics of aerobically perfused hearts. The increasing demands of the hearts in oxygen and energy substrates were satisfied due to coronary vessels dilatation without harming the energy status of the myocardium. When the functional parameters of the hearts in the test and control groups did not differ, an exogenously administered ATP was included into the energy metabolism and increased considerably ATP and CP tissue levels, the sum of high-energy phosphates and ATP/ADP ratio. Artificial supplementation of tissue energy resources was accompanied by a decrease in energy-dependent end-diastolic pressure and diastolic left ventricular elasticity and by increased extensibility of the heart muscle, which may improve functional parameters. PMID:8185075

  13. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is associated with broad impairments in executive function: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Kaiser, Roselinde H.; Warren, Stacie L.; Heller, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious and often chronically disabling condition. The current dominant model of OCD focuses on abnormalities in prefrontal-striatal circuits that support executive function (EF). While there is growing evidence for EF impairments associated with OCD, results have been inconsistent, making the nature and magnitude of these impairments controversial. The current meta-analysis uses random-effects models to synthesize 110 previous studies that compared participants with OCD to healthy control participants on at least one neuropsychological measure of EF. The results indicate that individuals with OCD are impaired on tasks measuring most aspects of EF, consistent with broad impairment in EF. EF deficits were not explained by general motor slowness or depression. Effect sizes were largely stable across variation in demographic and clinical characteristics of samples, although medication use, age, and gender moderated some effects. PMID:25755918

  14. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Aboitiz, Francisco; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26904302

  15. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

    PubMed

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Aboitiz, Francisco; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26904302

  16. Acidosis and alkalosis impair brain functions through weakening spike encoding at cortical GABAergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Song, Rongrong; Zhang, Liming; Yang, Zichao; Tian, Xiaoyan

    2011-05-15

    Acidosis and alkalosis, associated with metabolic disorders, lead to the pathological changes of cognition and behaviors in clinical practices of neurology and psychology. Cellular mechanisms for these functional disorders in the central nervous system remain unclear. We have investigated the influences of acidosis and alkalosis on the functions of cortical GABAergic neurons. Both acidosis and alkalosis impair the ability of encoding sequential spikes at these GABAergic neurons. The impairments of their spiking are associated with the increases of refractory periods, threshold potential and afterhyperpolarization. Our studies reveal that acidosis and alkalosis impair cortical GABAergic neurons and in turn deteriorate brain functions, in which their final targets may be voltage-gated channels of sodium and potassium. PMID:21353681

  17. Pulmonary functional impairment from years of arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.; Warshaw, R.H.

    1989-07-01

    The adverse effects of arc welding on pulmonary function have been previously documented. However, in many of these studies, the effects of welding exposure and smoking were not separated. Also, some studies did not adjust for or ignored the effects of asbestosis on pulmonary function. We assessed the long-term effects of welding on pulmonary function in welders who had no evidence of asbestosis on chest radiographs, and adjusted each individual value for height, age, and years of cigarette smoking. The study consisted of 226 male construction welders who had never worked in shipyards. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and flows were measured by spirometry, chest radiographs were obtained and examined for evidence of asbestosis using, and thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined by planimetry. The subjects were also administered an occupational and respiratory questionnaire. Data on workers with asbestosis (ILO profusion 1/0 or greater) and pleural abnormalities were excluded. The mean age for the 226 subjects without asbestosis was 45 years, mean height was 175.7 cm, and mean duration of welding was 21.3 years. Pulmonary function measurements are presented as mean percentage of predicted (pop) and adjusted for height, age, and years of smoking. In 151 current cigarette smokers, mean midflows and terminal flows were decreased, FEF25-75 to 93.2 pop and FEF75-85 to 91.2 pop, but FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and TGV were normal. The 43 nonsmokers also had reductions in flows but normal FVC and TGV. Flows in both groups were significantly (p less than 0.05) below those of the referent group. The regression coefficient was -0.0031 for years of welding and FVC pop, -0.0035 for FEV1 pop, and -0.0080 for midflow pop (FEF25-75) (all significant at p less than 0.05), but the coefficient for FEF75-85 pop was not significant.

  18. Impaired Right Ventricular-Pulmonary Vascular Function in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Emir C.; Park, Margaret M.; Tang, W.H. Wilson; Thomas, James D.; Asosingh, Kewal; Kalaycio, Matt; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Farha, Samar

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased bone marrow hemangioblast numbers, alterations in erythroid/myeloid lineages, increased reticulin, and greater circulating bone marrow progenitor cells are present in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The data suggest that myeloid progenitors contribute to the pathogenesis of PAH, but there is little data on prevalence of pulmonary vascular disease among different forms of myeloid diseases. We hypothesized that there would be a higher prevalence of pulmonary vascular disease in myeloproliferative neoplasms that have high circulating progenitor cells, such as myelofibrosis and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), as compared to those with low circulating progenitors, as in aplastic anemia. Methods Patients with myelofibrosis, CML and aplastic anemia who underwent echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac function in preparation for bone marrow transplantation at the Cleveland Clinic between 1997–2012 were identified using electronic medical records for demographic data, blood cell counts, and pulmonary function tests. All echocardiograms were uniformly analyzed in a blinded fashion by an advanced sonographer and cardiologist for measures of right and left ventricular function and estimation of pulmonary vascular disease. Results Gender and race distribution between disease groups were similar. Myelofibrosis [N=19] and aplastic anemia [N=30] had increased right ventricle (RV) wall thickness compared to CML [N=82] [RV Thickness (cm): aplastic anemia 0.7 ± 0.1, CML 0.5 ± 0.1 and myelofibrosis 0.7 ± 0.1; p = 0.02]. Patients with myelofibrosis had higher levels of estimated RV systolic pressure as compared to the other groups [RVSP (mmHg): aplastic anemia 29.9 ± 1.5, CML 26.2 ± 1.1 and myelofibrosis 36.7 ± 3.7; p < 0.01]. Conclusion The findings suggest an important role for myeloid progenitors in maintenance of pulmonary-vascular health, in which abnormal myeloproliferative progenitors are associated with right ventricle

  19. Exposure to low mercury concentration in vivo impairs myocardial contractile function

    SciTech Connect

    Furieri, Lorena Barros; Fioresi, Mirian; Junior, Rogerio Faustino Ribeiro; Bartolome, Maria Visitacion; Fernandes, Aurelia Araujo; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente; Salaices, Mercedes; Stefanon, Ivanita; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2011-09-01

    Increased cardiovascular risk after mercury exposure has been described but cardiac effects resulting from controlled chronic treatment are not yet well explored. We analyzed the effects of chronic exposure to low mercury concentrations on hemodynamic and ventricular function of isolated hearts. Wistar rats were treated with HgCl{sub 2} (1st dose 4.6 {mu}g/kg, subsequent dose 0.07 {mu}g/kg/day, im, 30 days) or vehicle. Mercury treatment did not affect blood pressure (BP) nor produced cardiac hypertrophy or changes of myocyte morphometry and collagen content. This treatment: 1) in vivo increased left ventricle end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) without changing left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) and heart rate; 2) in isolated hearts reduced LV isovolumic systolic pressure and time derivatives, and {beta}-adrenergic response; 3) increased myosin ATPase activity; 4) reduced Na{sup +}-K{sup +} ATPase (NKA) activity; 5) reduced protein expression of SERCA and phosphorylated phospholamban on serine 16 while phospholamban expression increased; as a consequence SERCA/phospholamban ratio reduced; 6) reduced sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) protein expression and {alpha}-1 isoform of NKA, whereas {alpha}-2 isoform of NKA did not change. Chronic exposure for 30 days to low concentrations of mercury does not change BP, heart rate or LVSP but produces small but significant increase of LVEDP. However, in isolated hearts mercury treatment promoted contractility dysfunction as a result of the decreased NKA activity, reduction of NCX and SERCA and increased PLB protein expression. These findings offer further evidence that mercury chronic exposure, even at small concentrations, is an environmental risk factor affecting heart function. - Highlights: > Unchanges blood pressure, heart rate, systolic pressure. > Increases end diastolic pressure. > Promotes cardiac contractility dysfunction. > Decreases NKA activity, NCX and SERCA, increases PLB protein expression. > Small

  20. Impaired mitochondrial function in human placenta with increased maternal adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Mele, James; Muralimanoharan, Sribalasubashini; Maloyan, Alina

    2014-01-01

    The placenta plays a key role in regulation of fetal growth and development and in mediating in utero developmental programming. Obesity, which is associated with chronic inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in many tissues, exerts a programming effect in pregnancy. We determined the effect of increasing maternal adiposity and of fetal sex on placental ATP generation, mitochondrial biogenesis, expression of electron transport chain subunits, and mitochondrial function in isolated trophoblasts. Placental tissue was collected from women with prepregnancy BMI ranging from 18.5 to 45 following C-section at term with no labor. Increasing maternal adiposity was associated with excessive production of reactive oxygen species and a significant reduction in placental ATP levels in placentae with male and female fetuses. To explore the potential mechanism of placental mitochondrial dysfunction, levels of transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in electron transport and mitochondrial biogenesis were measured. Our in vitro studies showed significant reduction in mitochondrial respiration in cultured primary trophoblasts with increasing maternal obesity along with an abnormal metabolic flexibility of these cells. This reduction in placental mitochondrial respiration in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity could compromise placental function and potentially underlie the increased susceptibility of these pregnancies to fetal demise in late gestation and to developmental programming. PMID:25028397

  1. Major Depressive Disorder Is Associated with Broad Impairments on Neuropsychological Measures of Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis and Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Hannah R.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are now widely acknowledged as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD), and it has been proposed that executive function (EF) may be particularly impaired in patients with MDD. However, the existence and nature of EF impairments associated with depression remain strongly debated. Although many studies have…

  2. White Matter Damage Disorganizes Brain Functional Networks in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Garcés, Pilar; López, María Eugenia; Aurtenetxe, Sara; Cuesta, Pablo; Marcos, Alberto; Montejo, Pedro; Yus, Miguel; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; del Pozo, Francisco; Becker, James T.; Maestú, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Although progressive functional brain network disruption has been one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease, little is known about the origin of this functional impairment that underlies cognitive symptoms. We investigated how the loss of white matter (WM) integrity disrupts the organization of the functional networks at different frequency bands. The analyses were performed in a sample of healthy elders and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects. Spontaneous brain magnetic activity (measured with magnetoencephalography) was characterized with phase synchronization analysis, and graph theory was applied to the functional networks. We identified WM areas (using diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging) that showed a statistical dependence between the fractional anisotropy and the graph metrics. These regions are part of an episodic memory network and were also related to cognitive functions. Our data support the hypothesis that disruption of the anatomical networks influences the organization at the functional level resulting in the prodromal dementia syndrome of MCI. PMID:24617580

  3. Structural and Functional Brain Correlates of Cognitive Impairment in Euthymic Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goikolea, José M.; Bonnin, Caterina M.; Sarró, Salvador; Segura, Barbara; Amann, Benedikt L.; Monté, Gemma C.; Moro, Noemi; Fernandez-Corcuera, Paloma; Maristany, Teresa; Salvador, Raymond; Vieta, Eduard; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; McKenna, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase is a well-established finding in bipolar disorder. However, its brain structural and/or functional correlates are uncertain. Methods Thirty-three euthymic bipolar patients with preserved memory and executive function and 28 euthymic bipolar patients with significant memory and/or executive impairment, as defined using two test batteries, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) and the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS), plus 28 healthy controls underwent structural MRI using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Twenty-seven of the cognitively preserved patients, 23 of the cognitively impaired patients and 28 controls also underwent fMRI during performance of the n-back working memory task. Results No clusters of grey or white matter volume difference were found between the two patient groups. During n-back performance, the cognitively impaired patients showed hypoactivation compared to the cognitively preserved patients in a circumscribed region in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Both patient groups showed failure of de-activation in the medial frontal cortex compared to the healthy controls. Conclusions Cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar patients appears from this study to be unrelated to structural brain abnormality, but there was some evidence for an association with altered prefrontal function. PMID:27448153

  4. Arginylation regulates myofibrils to maintain heart function and prevent dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kurosaka, Satoshi; Leu, N. Adrian; Pavlov, Ivan; Han, Xuemei; Ribeiro, Paula Aver Bretanha; Xu, Tao; Bunte, Ralph; Saha, Sougata; Wang, Junling; Cornachione, Anabelle; Mai, Wilfried; Yates, John R; Rassier, Dilson E.; Kashina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Protein arginylation mediated by arginyltransferase (ATE1) is essential for heart formation during embryogenesis, however its cell-autonomous role in cardiomyocytes and the differentiated heart muscle has never been investigated. To address this question, we generated cardiac muscle-specific Ate1 knockout mice, in which Ate1 deletion was driven by α-myosin heavy chain promoter (αMHC-Ate1 mouse). These mice were initially viable, but developed severe cardiac contractility defects, dilated cardiomyopathy, and thrombosis over time, resulting in high rates of lethality after 6 months of age. These symptoms were accompanied by severe ultrastructural defects in cardiac myofibrils, seen in the newborns and far preceding the onset of cardiomyopathy, suggesting that these defects were primary and likely underlay the development of the future heart defects. Several major sarcomeric proteins were arginylated in vivo. Moreover, Ate1 deletion in the hearts resulted in a significant reduction of active and passive myofibril forces, suggesting that arginylation is critical for both myofibril structural integrity and contractility. Thus, arginylation is essential for maintaining the heart function by regulation of the major myofibril proteins and myofibril forces, and its absence in the heart muscle leads to progressive heart failure through cardiomyocyte-specific defects. PMID:22626847

  5. The Impact of Family Functioning on Caregiver Burden among Caregivers of Veterans with Congestive Heart Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Crystal Dea

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 76 family caregivers of older veterans with congestive heart failure utilized the McMaster model of family functioning to examine the impact of family functioning variables (problem solving, communication, roles, affective responsiveness, and affective involvement) on caregiver burden dimensions (relationship burden,…

  6. The profile of executive functioning in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: disproportionate deficits in inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Johns, Erin K; Phillips, Natalie A; Belleville, Sylvie; Goupil, Diane; Babins, Lennie; Kelner, Nora; Ska, Bernadette; Gilbert, Brigitte; Massoud, Fadi; de Boysson, Chloé; Duncan, Hilary D; Chertkow, Howard

    2012-05-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) represents a group of individuals who are highly likely to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although aMCI is typically conceptualized as involving predominantly deficits in episodic memory, recent studies have demonstrated that deficits in executive functioning may also be present, and thorough categorization of cognitive functioning in MCI may improve early diagnosis and treatment of AD. We first provide an extensive review of neuropsychology studies that examined executive functioning in MCI. We then present data on executive functioning across multiple sub-domains (divided attention, working memory, inhibitory control, verbal fluency, and planning) in 40 aMCI patients (single or multiple domain) and 32 normal elderly controls (NECs). MCI patients performed significantly worse than NECs in all 5 sub-domains, and there was impairment (>1.0 SD below the mean of NECs) in all sub-domains. Impairment on each test was frequent, with 100% of MCI patients exhibiting a deficit in at least one sub-domain of executive functioning. Inhibitory control was the most frequently and severely impaired. These results indicate that executive dysfunction in multiple sub-domains is common in aMCI and highlights the importance of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation for fully characterizing the nature and extent of cognitive deficits in MCI. PMID:22370245

  7. Cardiac Structure and Function Across the Glycemic Spectrum in Elderly Men and Women Free of Prevalent Heart Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk In the Community (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Skali, Hicham; Shah, Amil; Gupta, Deepak K.; Cheng, Susan; Claggett, Brian; Liu, Jiankang; Bello, Natalie; Aguilar, David; Vardeny, Orly; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Selvin, Elizabeth; Solomon, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes are at particularly high risk of incident heart failure or death, even after accounting for known confounders. Nevertheless, the extent of impairments in cardiac structure and function in elderly individuals with diabetes and pre-diabetes is not well known. We aimed to assess the relationship between echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function and dysglycemia Methods and Results We assessed measures of cardiac structure and function in 4419 participants without prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure who attended the ARIC Visit 5 examination (2011-2013) and underwent transthoracic echocardiography (age 75±6 years; 61% female, 23% African-American). Subjects were grouped across the dysglycemia spectrum as normal (39%), pre-diabetes (31%), or diabetes (30%) based on medical history, antidiabetic medication use, and HbA1c levels. Glycemic status was related to measures of cardiac structure and function. Worsening dysglycemia was associated with increased LV mass, worse diastolic function, and subtle reduction in left ventricular systolic function (p ≤ 0.01 for all). For every 1% higher HbA1c, LV mass was higher by 3.0 grams (95% CI: 1.5-4.6 grams), E/E’ by 0.5 (95% CI: 0.4-0.7), and global longitudinal strain by 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.4) in multivariable analyses. Conclusions In a large contemporary bi-racial cohort of elderly subjects without prevalent cardiovascular disease or heart failure, dysglycemia was associated with subtle and subclinical alterations of cardiac structure, and left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. It remains unclear whether these are sufficient to explain the heightened risk of heart failure in individuals with diabetes. PMID:25759458

  8. Functional limitations in older adults who have cognitive impairment without dementia

    PubMed Central

    Gure, Tanya Ruff; Langa, Kenneth M.; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Piette, John D.; Plassman, Brenda L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Characterize the prevalence of functional limitations among older adults with cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND). METHODS Secondary data analysis was performed using the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS) dataset. 856 individuals ≥ 71 years old were assigned to 3 diagnostic cognitive categories. A questionnaire was completed by a proxy informant regarding functional limitations for 744 of 856 respondents. RESULTS Of the 744 subjects, 263 (13.9%) had dementia, 201 (21.3%) had CIND, and 280 (64.8%) had normal cognition. Informants reported ≥ 1 IADL limitation in 45% of subjects with CIND compared to 13% of subjects with normal cognition and 85% of subjects with dementia (p < .001). The ADL impairments among individuals with CIND were primarily attributed to physical health problems (n=41; 40%). CONCLUSIONS Many individuals with CIND have impairment in a range of complex and basic daily activities, largely due to physical health problems. PMID:23559664

  9. Genetically encoded impairment of neuronal KCC2 cotransporter function in human idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Kristopher T; Merner, Nancy D; Friedel, Perrine; Silayeva, Liliya; Liang, Bo; Khanna, Arjun; Shang, Yuze; Lachance-Touchette, Pamela; Bourassa, Cynthia; Levert, Annie; Dion, Patrick A; Walcott, Brian; Spiegelman, Dan; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Hodgkinson, Alan; Awadalla, Philip; Nikbakht, Hamid; Majewski, Jacek; Cossette, Patrick; Deeb, Tarek Z; Moss, Stephen J; Medina, Igor; Rouleau, Guy A

    2014-01-01

    The KCC2 cotransporter establishes the low neuronal Cl− levels required for GABAA and glycine (Gly) receptor-mediated inhibition, and KCC2 deficiency in model organisms results in network hyperexcitability. However, no mutations in KCC2 have been documented in human disease. Here, we report two non-synonymous functional variants in human KCC2, R952H and R1049C, exhibiting clear statistical association with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). These variants reside in conserved residues in the KCC2 cytoplasmic C-terminus, exhibit significantly impaired Cl−-extrusion capacities resulting in less hyperpolarized Gly equilibrium potentials (EGly), and impair KCC2 stimulatory phosphorylation at serine 940, a key regulatory site. These data describe a novel KCC2 variant significantly associated with a human disease and suggest genetically encoded impairment of KCC2 functional regulation may be a risk factor for the development of human IGE. PMID:24928908

  10. Calcineurin proteolysis in astrocytes: Implications for impaired synaptic function.

    PubMed

    Pleiss, Melanie M; Sompol, Pradoldej; Kraner, Susan D; Abdul, Hafiz Mohmmad; Furman, Jennifer L; Guttmann, Rodney P; Wilcock, Donna M; Nelson, Peter T; Norris, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that astrocyte activation, found in most forms of neural injury and disease, is linked to the hyperactivation of the protein phosphatase calcineurin. In many tissues and cell types, calcineurin hyperactivity is the direct result of limited proteolysis. However, little is known about the proteolytic status of calcineurin in activated astrocytes. Here, we developed a polyclonal antibody to a high activity calcineurin proteolytic fragment in the 45-48kDa range (ΔCN) for use in immunohistochemical applications. When applied to postmortem human brain sections, the ΔCN antibody intensely labeled cell clusters in close juxtaposition to amyloid deposits and microinfarcts. Many of these cells exhibited clear activated astrocyte morphology. The expression of ΔCN in astrocytes near areas of pathology was further confirmed using confocal microscopy. Multiple NeuN-positive cells, particularly those within microinfarct core regions, also labeled positively for ΔCN. This observation suggests that calcineurin proteolysis can also occur within damaged or dying neurons, as reported in other studies. When a similar ΔCN fragment was selectively expressed in hippocampal astrocytes of intact rats (using adeno-associated virus), we observed a significant reduction in the strength of CA3-CA1 excitatory synapses, indicating that the hyperactivation of astrocytic calcineurin is sufficient for disrupting synaptic function. Together, these results suggest that proteolytic activation of calcineurin in activated astrocytes may be a central mechanism for driving and/or exacerbating neural dysfunction during neurodegenerative disease and injury. PMID:27212416

  11. Reduced mitochondrial Ca2+ loading and improved functional recovery after ischemia-reperfusion injury in old vs. young guinea pig hearts

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Amadou K. S.; Heisner, James S.; Riess, Matthias L.; Aldakkak, Mohammed; Stowe, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage and impaired cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyto) handling are associated with mitochondrial [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]mito) overload and depressed functional recovery after cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We hypothesized that hearts from old guinea pigs would demonstrate impaired [Ca2+]mito handling, poor functional recovery, and a more oxidized state after I/R injury compared with hearts from young guinea pigs. Hearts from young (∼4 wk) and old (>52 wk) guinea pigs were isolated and perfused with Krebs-Ringer solution (2.1 mM Ca2+ concentration at 37°C). Left ventricular pressure (LVP, mmHg) was measured with a balloon, and NADH, [Ca2+]mito (nM), and [Ca2+]cyto (nM) were measured by fluorescence with a fiber optic probe placed against the left ventricular free wall. After baseline (BL) measurements, hearts were subjected to 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion (REP). In old vs. young hearts we found: 1) percent infarct size was lower (27 ± 9 vs. 57 ± 2); 2) developed LVP (systolic-diastolic) was higher at 10 min (57 ± 11 vs. 29 ± 2) and 60 min (55 ± 10 vs. 32 ± 2) REP; 3) diastolic LVP was lower at 10 and 60 min REP (6 ± 3 vs. 29 ± 4 and 3 ± 3 vs. 21 ± 4 mmHg); 4) mean [Ca2+]cyto was higher during ischemia (837 ± 39 vs. 541 ± 39), but [Ca2+]mito was lower (545 ± 62 vs. 975 ± 38); 5) [Ca2+]mito was lower at 10 and 60 min REP (129 ± 2 vs. 293 ± 23 and 122 ± 2 vs. 234 ± 15); 6) reduced inotropic responses to dopamine and digoxin; and 7) NADH was elevated during ischemia in both groups and lower than BL during REP. Contrary to our stated hypotheses, old hearts showed reduced [Ca2+]mito, decreased infarction, and improved basal mechanical function after I/R injury compared with young hearts; no differences were noted in redox state due to age. In this model, aging-associated protection may be linked to limited [Ca2+]mito loading after I/R injury despite higher [Ca2+]cyto load during ischemia in old vs. young hearts

  12. Functional impairment of endothelial cells by the antimycotic amphotericin B.

    PubMed

    Pelzmann, Brigitte; Di Giuro, Cristiana M L; Zorn-Pauly, Klaus; Rossmann, Christine; Hallström, Seth; Groschner, Klaus; Fameli, Nicola

    2016-03-25

    We set out to determine the membrane potential (Vm) of the endothelial cell line EA.hy926 and its sensitivity to the antimycotic amphotericin B (AmB), a commonly used antifungal component in cell culture media. We measured the endothelial Vm under various experimental conditions by patch clamp technique and found that Vm of AmB-treated cells is (-12.1 ± 9.3) mV, while in AmB-untreated (control) cells it is (-57.1 ± 4.1) mV. In AmB-free extracellular solutions, Vm recovered toward control levels and this gain in Vm rapidly dissipated upon re-addition of AmB, demonstrating a rapid and reversible effect of AmB on endothelial Vm. The consequences of AmB dependent alterations in endothelial transmembrane potential were tested at the levels of Ca(2+) signaling, of nucleotide concentrations, and energy metabolism. In AmB-treated cells we found substantially reduced Ca(2+) entry (to about 60% of that in control cells) in response to histamine induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) depletion, and diminished the ATP-to-ADP ratio (by >30%). Our data demonstrate a marked and experimentally relevant dependence of basic functional parameters of cultured endothelial cells on the presence of the ionophoric antimycotic AmB. The profound and reversible effects of the widely used culture media component AmB need careful consideration when interpreting experimental data obtained under respective culture conditions. PMID:26902113

  13. Erythropoietin ameliorates the motor and cognitive function impairments in a rat model of hepatic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Iraj; Nazeri, Masoud; Shabani, Mohammad; Mossavinasab, Marziehsadat; Mirhosseini, Fatemeh Khaleghi; Nayebpour, Mohsen; Dalili, Afshin

    2015-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious consequence of hepatic cirrhosis (HC). Previous studies have demonstrated cognitive impairments in both clinical and animal experiments of HC. Some potential therapeutic agents have been used to alleviate the cognitive symptoms in the animal models of HC. In the current study, the possible effect of erythropoietin (ERY) as a potent neuroprotective agent on motor and cognitive impairments induced by HC has been studied. Male Wistar rats (180-200 g) underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham surgery. Administration of ERY (5,000 IU/kg, i.p., daily for three days) was initiated 2 weeks after surgery and lasted for the next 28 days. Open field, rotarod, Morris water maze and passive avoidance learning was used to evaluate the motor and cognitive function of the animals. ANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze the data. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. BDL rats had an increased level of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin. Impairment of balance function by BDL was reversed by ERY. Spatial and passive avoidance learning impairments observed in BDL rats were also reversed by chronic administration of ERY. ERY can be offered as a potential neuroprotective agent in the treatment of patients with HC that manifest mental dysfunctions. Though further studies are needed to clarify the exact mechanisms, the neuroprotective properties of ERY against BDL impairments were demonstrated in the current study. PMID:25115607

  14. How to interpret liver function tests in heart failure patients?

    PubMed

    Çağlı, Kumral; Başar, Fatma Nurcan; Tok, Derya; Turak, Osman; Başar, Ömer

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac hepatopathy has generally been used to describe any liver damage caused by cardiac disorders in the absence of other possible causes of liver damage. Although there is no consensus on the terminology used, cardiac hepatopathy can be examined as congestive hepatopathy (CH) and acute cardiogenic liver injury (ACLI). CH is caused by passive venous congestion of the liver that generally occurs in the setting of chronic cardiac conditions such as chronic HF, constrictive pericarditis, tricuspid regurgitation, or right-sided heart failure (HF) of any cause, and ACLI is most commonly associated with acute cardiocirculatory failure resulting from acute myocardial infarction, acute decompensated HF, or myocarditis. Histologically, CH is characterized by sinusoidal dilation, replacement of hepatocytes with red blood cells extravasating from the sinusoids, and necrosis/apoptosis of zone 3 of the Rappaport acinus, and it could progress to cirrhosis in advanced cases. In ACLI, however, massive necrosis of zone 3 is the main histological finding. Primary laboratory findings of CH are elevated serum cholestasis markers including bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase levels, whereas those of ACLI are a striking elevation in transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase levels. Both CH and ACLI have a prognostic value for identifying cardiovascular events and mortality and have some special implications in the management of patients undergoing ventricular assist device implantation or cardiac transplantation. There is no specific treatment for CH or ACLI other than treatment of the underlying cardiac disorder. PMID:26006191

  15. Heart rate variability and cognitive function: effects of physical effort.

    PubMed

    Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Takase, Emílio; Darby, David

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive performance before and after physical effort, for 30 high-level track and field athletes (23 males and 7 females). Interbeat intervals were assessed at the baseline and during each task of a CogState cognitive battery (simple reaction time, choice reaction time, working memory, short-term memory and sustained attention). Time and frequency domain measures of HRV were compared between conditions and between tasks. The results indicated differences in HRV between executive and non-executive tasks. There was a significant increase in sympathetic-modulation-related indices after physical effort. The differences between executive and non-executive tasks were the same in post-test. Correlations were found between HRV and cognitive performance, which differed by speed and accuracy. We conclude that HRV is related to cognitive demand and that the correlation between HRV and cognitive performance seems to be stronger after physical exercise. The results raise questions about the psychophysiological meaning of different HRV signals and this has implications for future research about the relationship between HRV and cognition. PMID:19632295

  16. FUNCTIONAL IMPAIRMENT IN ADULTS WITH PAST POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: FINDINGS FROM PRIMARY CARE

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Maren; Olfson, Mark; Gameroff, Marc J.; Wickramaratne, Priya; Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Neugebauer, Richard; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Neria, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Background Although many patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience a reduction in posttraumatic symptoms over time, little is currently known about the extent of their residual functional impairment. This study examines functional impairment in primary care patients with a history of PTSD as compared to patients with current PTSD, and those who never developed PTSD following exposure to trauma. Methods The sample consisted of 321 trauma-exposed low-income, predominantly Hispanic adults attending a large urban primary care practice. PTSD was assessed with the Lifetime Composite International Diagnostic Interview and other psychiatric disorders with the SCID-I. Physical and mental health-related quality of life was assessed with the Medical Outcome Health Survey (SF-12), and functional impairment with items from the Sheehan Disability Scale and Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report. Results Logistic regression analyses controlling for gender, psychiatric comorbidity, and interpersonal traumas showed that although patients with past PTSD function significantly better than patients with current PTSD, they experience persisting deficits in mental health-related quality of life compared to trauma-exposed patients who never developed PTSD. Overall, results revealed a continuum of severity in psychiatric comorbidity, functioning, and quality of life, with current PTSD associated with the most impairment, never having met criteria for PTSD with the least impairment, and history of PTSD falling in between. Conclusions In this primary care sample, adults with a history of past PTSD but no current PTSD continued to report enduring functional deficits, suggesting a need for ongoing clinical attention. PMID:21681868

  17. Autonomic Dysfunction in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Evidence from Power Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability in a Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nicolini, Paola; Ciulla, Michele M.; Malfatto, Gabriella; Abbate, Carlo; Mari, Daniela; Rossi, Paolo D.; Pettenuzzo, Emanuela; Magrini, Fabio; Consonni, Dario; Lombardi, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is set to become a major health problem with the exponential ageing of the world's population. The association between MCI and autonomic dysfunction, supported by indirect evidence and rich with clinical implications in terms of progression to dementia and increased risk of mortality and falls, has never been specifically demonstrated. Aim To conduct a comprehensive assessment of autonomic function in subjects with MCI by means of power spectral analysis (PSA) of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and during provocative manoeuvres. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 80 older outpatients (aged ≥65) consecutively referred to a geriatric unit and diagnosed with MCI or normal cognition (controls) based on neuropsychological testing. PSA was performed on 5-minute electrocardiographic recordings under three conditions—supine rest with free breathing (baseline), supine rest with paced breathing at 12 breaths/minute (parasympathetic stimulation), and active standing (orthosympathetic stimulation)—with particular focus on the changes from baseline to stimulation of indices of sympathovagal balance: normalized low frequency (LFn) and high frequency (HFn) powers and the LF/HF ratio. Blood pressure (BP) was measured at baseline and during standing. Given its exploratory nature in a clinical population the study included subjects on medications with a potential to affect HRV. Results There were no significant differences in HRV indices between the two groups at baseline. MCI subjects exhibited smaller physiological changes in all three HRV indices during active standing, consistently with a dysfunction of the orthosympathetic system. Systolic BP after 10 minutes of standing was lower in MCI subjects, suggesting dysautonomia-related orthostatic BP dysregulation. Conclusions Our study is novel in providing evidence of autonomic dysfunction in MCI. This is associated with orthostatic BP dysregulation and the ongoing

  18. Degree of Exposure to Domestic Violence, Psychopathology, and Functional Impairment in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Eduard Bayarri; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Domenech, Josep Maria

    2011-01-01

    There are discrepancies about whether children who witness and suffer domestic violence (DV) have similar outcomes in terms of psychopathology. This work examines the relationship between different types of exposure to DV and child psychopathology and functional impairment. One hundred and forty-four Spanish children aged from 4 to 17 years and…

  19. Defeatist Beliefs as a Mediator of Cognitive Impairment, Negative Symptoms, and Functioning in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Paul M.; Beck, Aaron T.

    2009-01-01

    Poor social and vocational outcomes have long been observed in schizophrenia. Two of the most consistent predictors are negative symptoms and cognitive impairment. We investigate the hypothesis that cognitive content—defeatist beliefs regarding performance—provides a link between cognitive impairment, negative symptoms, and poor functioning in schizophrenia. A total of 77 individuals (55 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 22 healthy controls) participated in a cross-sectional study of psychopathology. Tests of memory, abstraction, attention, and processing speed, as well as current psychopathology, functioning, and endorsement of defeatist beliefs, were employed. Greater neurocognitive impairment was associated with elevated defeatist belief endorsement, higher negative symptom levels, and worse social and vocational functioning. Notably, statistical modeling indicated that defeatist belief endorsements were mediators in the relationship between cognitive impairment and both negative symptoms and functioning. These effects were independent of depression and positive symptom levels. The results add to the emerging biopsychosocial understanding of negative symptoms and introduce defeatist beliefs as a new psychotherapeutic target. PMID:18308717

  20. Self-Regulation of Emotion, Functional Impairment, and Comorbidity among Children with AD/HD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Smith, Taylor F.; Garrett, Melanie E.; Morrissey-Kane, Erin; Schatz, Nicole K.; Sommer, Jennifer L.; Kollins, Scott H.; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of self-regulation of emotion in relation to functional impairment and comorbidity among children with and without AD/HD. Method: A total of 358 probands and their siblings participated in the study, with 74% of the sample participants affected by AD/HD. Parent-rated levels of emotional lability served…

  1. Does Change in Functional Performance Affect Quality of Life in Persons with Orthopaedic Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostir, Glenn V.; Berges, Ivonne-Marie; Smith, Pamela M.; Smith, David; Rice, Janida L.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Examine the association between change in functional status and quality of life for individuals with orthopaedic impairments approximately 90 days after discharge from in-patient medical rehabilitation. Methods: A retrospective study from 2001 to 2002 using information from the IT HealthTrack database. The study included…

  2. Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

  3. Assessing ADHD Symptomatic Behaviors and Functional Impairment in School Settings: Impact of Student and Teacher Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Reid, Robert; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Power, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine (a) the teacher-reported prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and associated impairment in a nationally representative sample of children and adolescents and (b) the degree to which prevalence varied as a function of student and teacher characteristics.…

  4. Distinguishing Sluggish Cognitive Tempo from ADHD in Children and Adolescents: Executive Functioning, Impairment, and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    Controversy continues as to whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is a subtype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or a distinct disorder. This study examined differences between these disorders in demographics, executive functioning (EF), impairment, and prior professional diagnoses to address the issue. There were 1,800 children…

  5. Working Memory Functioning in Children with Learning Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Bockmann, Ann-Katrin; Bornemann, Galina; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of Baddeley's working memory model (1986), we examined working memory functioning in children with learning disorders with and without specific language impairment (SLI). We pursued the question whether children with learning disorders exhibit similar working memory deficits as children with additional SLI. Method: In…

  6. Aberrant Topologies and Reconfiguration Pattern of Functional Brain Network in Children with Second Language Reading Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lanfang; Li, Hehui; Zhang, Manli; Wang, Zhengke; Wei, Na; Liu, Li; Meng, Xiangzhi; Ding, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Prior work has extensively studied neural deficits in children with reading impairment (RI) in their native language but has rarely examined those of RI children in their second language (L2). A recent study revealed that the function of the local brain regions was disrupted in children with RI in L2, but it is not clear whether the disruption…

  7. Cerebral Visual Impairment in Children: A Longitudinal Case Study of Functional Outcomes beyond the Visual Acuities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Fook Chang; Lovett, Fiona; Dutton, Gordon N.

    2010-01-01

    Damage to the areas of the brain that are responsible for higher visual processing can lead to severe cerebral visual impairment (CVI). The prognosis for higher cognitive visual functions in children with CVI is not well described. We therefore present our six-year follow-up of a boy with CVI and highlight intervention approaches that have proved…

  8. Reading Problems, Psychiatric Disorders, and Functional Impairment from Mid- To Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldston, David B.; Walsh, Adam; Mayfield Arnold, Elizabeth; Reboussin, Beth; Sergent Daniel, Stephanie; Erkanli, Alaattin; Nutter, Dennis; Hickman, Enith; Palmes, Guy; Snider, Erica; Wood, Frank B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine psychiatric morbidity and functional impairment of adolescents with and without poor reading skills during mid- to late adolescence. Method: The sample consisted of 188 adolescents, 94 with poor reading skills and 94 with typical reading skills, screened from a larger sample in the public schools at age 15. To assess…

  9. Developmental Language Impairment through the Lens of the ICF: An Integrated Account of Children's Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lynn; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The conceptual framework of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) has the potential to advance understanding of developmental language impairment (LI) and enhance clinical practice. The framework provides a systematic way of unifying numerous lines of research, which have linked a…

  10. 15 CFR 265.38 - Intoxication or other impairment of function.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intoxication or other impairment of function. 265.38 Section 265.38 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REGULATIONS GOVERNING TRAFFIC AND CONDUCT REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  11. A Conceptual Model of the Functioning of Married Persons with Impaired Partners: Spouses of Alcoholic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, John W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presents a conceptual framework of potentially broad applicability in the study of spouses of persons suffering from impairments. The model integrates previous research in the alcoholism field and provides a more comprehensive account of spouse functioning than is afforded by focusing only on partner drinking behavior. (Author/RC)

  12. Young People with Specific Language Impairment: A Review of Social and Emotional Functioning in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of research into the social and emotional functioning of adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI). In particular, we focus on peer relations, peer friendships, bullying, emotional difficulties and psychiatric difficulties. As a group, adolescents with SLI tend to be more vulnerable to problems in these…

  13. Brief Report: Biochemical Correlates of Clinical Impairment in High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance…

  14. Reconceptualizing Treatment Goals from Language Impairment to Functional Limitations: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This case study of a preadolescent boy with severe expressive and receptive language impairments illustrates treatment focused on the functional limitations on the child's daily academic activities and social participation. Treatment goals incorporated language comprehension objectives into the student's reading program and language use objectives…

  15. A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation of Verbal Working Memory in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismer, Susan Ellis; Plante, Elena; Jones, Maura; Tomblin, Bruce J.

    2005-01-01

    This study used neuroimaging and behavioral techniques to examine the claim that processing capacity limitations underlie specific language impairment (SLI). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate verbal working memory in adolescents with SLI and normal language (NL) controls. The experimental task involved a modified…

  16. Visuo-Spatial Processing and Executive Functions in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Klara

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individual differences in complex working memory tasks reflect simultaneous processing, executive functions, and attention control. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show a deficit in verbal working memory tasks that involve simultaneous processing of information. Aims: The purpose of the study was to examine executive…

  17. Cognitive Function in Ambulatory Patients with Systolic Heart Failure: Insights from the Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction (WARCEF) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Susan; Ye, Siqin; Qian, Min; Sanford, Alexandra R.; Di Tullio, Marco R.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Mann, Douglas L.; Levin, Bruce; Pullicino, Patrick M.; Freudenberger, Ronald S.; Teerlink, John R.; Mohr, J. P.; Labovitz, Arthur J.; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Estol, Conrado J.; Lok, Dirk J.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D.; Thompson, John L. P.; Homma, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine whether cognitive function in stable outpatients with heart failure (HF) is affected by HF severity. A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from 2, 043 outpatients with systolic HF and without prior stroke enrolled in the Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction (WARCEF) Trial. Multivariable regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between cognitive function measured using the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and markers of HF severity (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF], New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class, and 6-minute walk distance). The mean (SD) for the MMSE was 28.6 (2.0), with 64 (3.1%) of the 2,043 patients meeting the cut-off of MMSE <24 that indicates need for further evaluation of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for demographic and clinical covariates, 6-minute walk distance (β-coefficient 0.002, p<0.0001), but not LVEF or NYHA functional class, was independently associated with the MMSE as a continuous measure. Age, education, smoking status, body mass index, and hemoglobin level were also independently associated with the MMSE. In conclusion, six-minute walk distance, but not LVEF or NYHA functional class, was an important predictor of cognitive function in ambulatory patients with systolic heart failure. PMID:25426862

  18. Cognitive function in ambulatory patients with systolic heart failure: insights from the warfarin versus aspirin in reduced cardiac ejection fraction (WARCEF) trial.

    PubMed

    Graham, Susan; Ye, Siqin; Qian, Min; Sanford, Alexandra R; Di Tullio, Marco R; Sacco, Ralph L; Mann, Douglas L; Levin, Bruce; Pullicino, Patrick M; Freudenberger, Ronald S; Teerlink, John R; Mohr, J P; Labovitz, Arthur J; Lip, Gregory Y H; Estol, Conrado J; Lok, Dirk J; Ponikowski, Piotr; Anker, Stefan D; Thompson, John L P; Homma, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine whether cognitive function in stable outpatients with heart failure (HF) is affected by HF severity. A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from 2, 043 outpatients with systolic HF and without prior stroke enrolled in the Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction (WARCEF) Trial. Multivariable regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between cognitive function measured using the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and markers of HF severity (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF], New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class, and 6-minute walk distance). The mean (SD) for the MMSE was 28.6 (2.0), with 64 (3.1%) of the 2,043 patients meeting the cut-off of MMSE <24 that indicates need for further evaluation of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for demographic and clinical covariates, 6-minute walk distance (β-coefficient 0.002, p<0.0001), but not LVEF or NYHA functional class, was independently associated with the MMSE as a continuous measure. Age, education, smoking status, body mass index, and hemoglobin level were also independently associated with the MMSE. In conclusion, six-minute walk distance, but not LVEF or NYHA functional class, was an important predictor of cognitive function in ambulatory patients with systolic heart failure. PMID:25426862

  19. The role of executive functions in social impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Leung, Rachel C; Vogan, Vanessa M; Powell, Tamara L; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Taylor, Margot J

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by socio-communicative impairments. Executive dysfunction may explain some key characteristics of ASD, both social and nonsocial hallmarks. Limited research exists exploring the relations between executive function and social impairment in ASD and few studies have used a comparison control group. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the relations between executive functioning using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF), social impairment as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and overall autistic symptomology as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in children and adolescents with and without ASD. Seventy children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD and 71 typically developing controls were included in this study. Findings showed that behavioral regulation executive processes (i.e., inhibition, shifting, and emotional control) predicted social function in all children. However, metacognitive executive processes (i.e., initiation, working memory, planning, organization, and monitoring) predicted social function only in children with ASD and not in typically developing children. Our findings suggest a distinct metacognitive executive function-social symptom link in ASD that is not present in the typical population. Understanding components of executive functioning that contribute to the autistic symptomology, particularly in the socio-communicative domain, is crucial for developing effective interventions that target key executive processes as well as underlying behavioral symptoms. PMID:25731979

  20. Downstream of homeotic genes: in the heart of Hox function.

    PubMed

    Monier, Bruno; Tevy, Maria Florencia; Perrin, Laurent; Capovilla, Maria; Sémériva, Michel

    2007-01-01

    A functional organ is constituted of diverse cell types. Each one occupies a distinct position and is associated to specific morphological and physiological functions. The identification of the genetic programs controlling these elaborated and highly precise features of organogenesis is crucial to understand how a mature organ works under normal conditions, and how pathologies can develop. Recently, a number of studies have reported a critical role for Hox genes in one example of organogenesis: cardiogenesis in Drosophila. Beyond the interest in understanding the molecular basis of functional cardiogenesis, this system might provide a model for proposing new paradigms of how Hox genes achieve their action throughout development. PMID:18820463

  1. Elevation of serum sphingosine-1-phosphate attenuates impaired cardiac function in experimental sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Coldewey, Sina M.; Benetti, Elisa; Collino, Massimo; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Sponholz, Christoph; Bauer, Michael; Huwiler, Andrea; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Serum levels of the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are reduced in septic patients and are inversely associated with disease severity. We show that serum S1P is reduced in human sepsis and in murine models of sepsis. We then investigated whether pharmacological or genetic approaches that alter serum S1P may attenuate cardiac dysfunction and whether S1P signaling might serve as a novel theragnostic tool in sepsis. Mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan (LPS/PepG). LPS/PepG resulted in an impaired systolic contractility and reduced serum S1P. Administration of the immunomodulator FTY720 increased serum S1P, improved impaired systolic contractility and activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-pathway in the heart. Cardioprotective effects of FTY720 were abolished following administration of a S1P receptor 2 (S1P2) antagonist or a PI3K inhibitor. Sphingosine kinase-2 deficient mice had higher endogenous S1P levels and the LPS/PepG-induced impaired systolic contractility was attenuated in comparison with wild-type mice. Cardioprotective effects of FTY720 were confirmed in polymicrobial sepsis. We show here for the first time that the impaired left ventricular systolic contractility in experimental sepsis is attenuated by FTY720. Mechanistically, our results indicate that activation of S1P2 by increased serum S1P and the subsequent activation of the PI3K-Akt survival pathway significantly contributes to the observed cardioprotective effect of FTY720. PMID:27277195

  2. Elevation of serum sphingosine-1-phosphate attenuates impaired cardiac function in experimental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Coldewey, Sina M; Benetti, Elisa; Collino, Massimo; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Sponholz, Christoph; Bauer, Michael; Huwiler, Andrea; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Serum levels of the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are reduced in septic patients and are inversely associated with disease severity. We show that serum S1P is reduced in human sepsis and in murine models of sepsis. We then investigated whether pharmacological or genetic approaches that alter serum S1P may attenuate cardiac dysfunction and whether S1P signaling might serve as a novel theragnostic tool in sepsis. Mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan (LPS/PepG). LPS/PepG resulted in an impaired systolic contractility and reduced serum S1P. Administration of the immunomodulator FTY720 increased serum S1P, improved impaired systolic contractility and activated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-pathway in the heart. Cardioprotective effects of FTY720 were abolished following administration of a S1P receptor 2 (S1P2) antagonist or a PI3K inhibitor. Sphingosine kinase-2 deficient mice had higher endogenous S1P levels and the LPS/PepG-induced impaired systolic contractility was attenuated in comparison with wild-type mice. Cardioprotective effects of FTY720 were confirmed in polymicrobial sepsis. We show here for the first time that the impaired left ventricular systolic contractility in experimental sepsis is attenuated by FTY720. Mechanistically, our results indicate that activation of S1P2 by increased serum S1P and the subsequent activation of the PI3K-Akt survival pathway significantly contributes to the observed cardioprotective effect of FTY720. PMID:27277195

  3. Functional impairment of activated protein C in breast cancer - relationship to survival outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Roselli, Mario; Ferroni, Patrizia; Riondino, Silvia; Mariotti, Sabrina; Portarena, Ilaria; Alessandroni, Jhessica; Ialongo, Cristiano; Massoud, Renato; Costarelli, Leopoldo; Cavaliere, Francesco; Bernardini, Sergio; Guadagni, Fiorella

    2016-01-01

    An impairment of the activated protein C (APC) system has been occasionally reported in breast cancer (BC). However, the clinical significance and prognostic value of an impaired APC functionality in BC patients is still poorly understood. Thus, the present study was aimed at investigating the prognostic value of altered APC functionality for progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in a cohort study of BC patients. APC functionality was retrospectively analyzed by a coagulation inhibition assay (ThromboPath) in 290 consecutive patients with primary (n=246) or relapsing/recurrent (n=44) BC. All patients were prospectively followed for a median time of 3.5 years (14% recurrence rate). As control group, 145 age-matched healthy women were also investigated. The results obtained demonstrated that APC function was impaired in roughly 20% of all BC at baseline. BC women with stage I/II had a significantly lower rate of APC impairment (13%) than women with stage III (22%) or distant metastases (44%, p=0.001). At univariate analyses, an impairment of APC function had a negative prognostic impact in terms of PFS (5-year PFS rates 53% vs. 70%; HR=2.5; p<0.001) and OS (5-year OS rates 79% vs. 93%; HR=3.9; p=0.005). However, prognostic significance was retained in multivariate models only for PFS (HR=2.0; p=0.017). We may, thus, conclude that BC patients are in a prothrombotic condition, which could play a role in the progression of the disease. Monitoring coagulation changes in BC women could provide important prognostic information especially in patients with advanced stages. PMID:27429857

  4. Gross and fine motor function and accompanying impairments in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Himmelmann, K; Beckung, E; Hagberg, G; Uvebrant, P

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and analyze gross and fine motor function and accompanying neurological impairments in children with cerebral palsy (CP) born between 1991 and 1998 in western Sweden. A population-based study comprised 411 children with a diagnosis of CP ascertained at 4 to 8 years of age. Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels were documented in 367 children (205 males, 162 females). Bimanual Fine Motor Function (BFMF) classification levels of 345 of the children and information on learning disability, epilepsy, visual and hearing impairments, and hydrocephalus from 353 children were obtained. For spastic CP, a new classification according to the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe of uni- and bilateral spastic CP was applied. GMFCS was distributed at Level I in 32%, Level II in 29%, Level III in 8%, Level IV in 15%, and Level V in 16%. The corresponding percentages for BFMF were 30.7%, 31.6%, 12.2%, 11.9%, and 13.6% respectively. Learning disability was present in 40%, epilepsy in 33%, and severe visual impairment in 19% of the children. Motor function differed between CP types. More severe GMFCS levels correlated with larger proportions of accompanying impairments and, in children born at term, to the presence of adverse peri/neonatal events in the form of intracranial haemorrhage/stroke, cerebral infection, and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. GMFCS Level I correlated positively to increasing gestational age. We conclude that the classification of CP should be based on CP type and motor function, as the two combine to produce an indicator of total impairment load. PMID:16700930

  5. Impaired renal function impacts negatively on vascular stiffness in patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are independently associated with increased vascular stiffness. We examined whether renal function contributes to vascular stiffness independently of CAD status. Methods We studied 160 patients with CAD and 169 subjects without CAD. The 4-variable MDRD formula was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); impaired renal function was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with the SphygmoCor® device. Circulating biomarkers were assessed in plasma using xMAP® multiplexing technology. Results Patients with CAD and impaired renal function had greater PWV compared to those with CAD and normal renal function (10.2 [9.1;11.2] vs 7.3 [6.9;7.7] m/s; P < 0.001). In all patients, PWV was a function of eGFR (β = −0.293; P < 0.001) even after adjustment for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and presence or absence of CAD. Patients with CAD and impaired renal function had higher levels of adhesion and inflammatory molecules including E-selectin and osteopontin (all P < 0.05) compared to those with CAD alone, but had similar levels of markers of oxidative stress. Conclusions Renal function is a determinant of vascular stiffness even in patients with severe atherosclerotic disease. This was paralleled by differences in markers of cell adhesion and inflammation. Increased vascular stiffness may therefore be linked to inflammatory remodeling of the vasculature in people with impaired renal function, irrespective of concomitant atherosclerotic disease. PMID:23937620

  6. Impaired long distance functional connectivity and weighted network architecture in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Xinqing; Liu, Jieqiong; Duan, Yunyun; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron F; Liu, Bing; Jiang, Tianzi; Bullmore, Ed

    2014-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasingly recognized as a disconnection syndrome, which leads to cognitive impairment due to the disruption of functional activity across large networks or systems of interconnected brain regions. We explored abnormal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state dynamics, functional connectivity, and weighted functional networks, in a sample of patients with severe AD (N = 18) and age-matched healthy volunteers (N = 21). We found that patients had reduced amplitude and regional homogeneity of low-frequency fMRI oscillations, and reduced the strength of functional connectivity, in several regions previously described as components of the default mode network, for example, medial posterior parietal cortex and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. In patients with severe AD, functional connectivity was particularly attenuated between regions that were separated by a greater physical distance; and loss of long distance connectivity was associated with less efficient global and nodal network topology. This profile of functional abnormality in severe AD was consistent with the results of a comparable analysis of data on 2 additional groups of patients with mild AD (N = 17) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N = 18). A greater degree of cognitive impairment, measured by the mini-mental state examination across all patient groups, was correlated with greater attenuation of functional connectivity, particularly over long connection distances, for example, between anterior and posterior components of the default mode network, and greater reduction of global and nodal network efficiency. These results indicate that neurodegenerative disruption of fMRI oscillations and connectivity in AD affects long-distance connections to hub nodes, with the consequent loss of network efficiency. This profile was evident also to a lesser degree in the patients with less severe cognitive impairment, indicating that the potential of resting

  7. Arachidonic acid-derived signaling lipids and functions in impaired healing

    PubMed Central

    Dhall, Sandeep; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan Shanaka; Karim, Zubair A.; Castro, Anthony; Vemana, Hari Priya; Khasawneh, Fadi T.; Chalfant, Charles E.; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Very little is known about lipid function during wound healing, and much less during impaired healing. Such understanding will help identify what roles lipid signaling plays in the development of impaired/chronic wounds. We took a lipidomics approach to study the alterations in lipid profile in the LIGHT−/− mouse model of impaired healing which has characteristics that resemble those of impaired/chronic wounds in humans, including high levels of oxidative stress, excess inflammation, increased extracellular matrix degradation and blood vessels with fibrin cuffs. The latter suggests excess coagulation and potentially increased platelet aggregation. We show here that in these impaired wounds there is an imbalance in the arachidonic acid (AA) derived eicosonoids that mediate or modulate inflammatory reactions and platelet aggregation. In the LIGHT−/− impaired wounds there is a significant increase in enzymatically derived breakdown products of AA. We found that early after injury there was a significant increase in the eicosanoids 11-, 12-, and 15-hydroxyeicosa-tetranoic acid, and the proinflammatory leukotrienes (LTD4 and LTE) and prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGF2α). Some of these eicosanoids also promote platelet aggregation. This led us to examine the levels of other eicosanoids known to be involved in the latter process. We found that thromboxane (TXA2/B2), and prostacyclins 6kPGF1α are elevated shortly after wounding and in some cases during healing. To determine whether they have an impact in platelet aggregation and hemostasis, we tested LIGHT−/− mouse wounds for these two parameters and found that, indeed, platelet aggregation and hemostasis are enhanced in these mice when compared with the control C57BL/6 mice. Understanding lipid signaling in impaired wounds can potentially lead to development of new therapeutics or in using existing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents to help correct the course of healing. PMID:26135854

  8. Arachidonic acid-derived signaling lipids and functions in impaired healing.

    PubMed

    Dhall, Sandeep; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan Shanaka; Karim, Zubair A; Castro, Anthony; Vemana, Hari Priya; Khasawneh, Fadi T; Chalfant, Charles E; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    Very little is known about lipid function during wound healing, and much less during impaired healing. Such understanding will help identify what roles lipid signaling plays in the development of impaired/chronic wounds. We took a lipidomics approach to study the alterations in lipid profile in the LIGHT(-/-) mouse model of impaired healing which has characteristics that resemble those of impaired/chronic wounds in humans, including high levels of oxidative stress, excess inflammation, increased extracellular matrix degradation and blood vessels with fibrin cuffs. The latter suggests excess coagulation and potentially increased platelet aggregation. We show here that in these impaired wounds there is an imbalance in the arachidonic acid (AA) derived eicosonoids that mediate or modulate inflammatory reactions and platelet aggregation. In the LIGHT(-/-) impaired wounds there is a significant increase in enzymatically derived breakdown products of AA. We found that early after injury there was a significant increase in the eicosanoids 11-, 12-, and 15-hydroxyeicosa-tetranoic acid, and the proinflammatory leukotrienes (LTD4 and LTE) and prostaglandins (PGE2 and PGF2α ). Some of these eicosanoids also promote platelet aggregation. This led us to examine the levels of other eicosanoids known to be involved in the latter process. We found that thromboxane (TXA2 /B2 ), and prostacyclins 6kPGF1α are elevated shortly after wounding and in some cases during healing. To determine whether they have an impact in platelet aggregation and hemostasis, we tested LIGHT(-/-) mouse wounds for these two parameters and found that, indeed, platelet aggregation and hemostasis are enhanced in these mice when compared with the control C57BL/6 mice. Understanding lipid signaling in impaired wounds can potentially lead to development of new therapeutics or in using existing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents to help correct the course of healing. PMID:26135854

  9. Neuropsychological substrates and everyday functioning implications of prospective memory impairment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Twamley, Elizabeth W; Woods, Steven Paul; Zurhellen, Cynthia H; Vertinski, Mary; Narvaez, Jenille M; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Jeste, Dilip V

    2008-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate impairment in prospective memory (ProM), which describes the multifaceted ability to execute a future intention. Despite its clear implications for everyday functioning, the neuropsychological substrates and functional correlates of ProM impairment in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In this study, the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST), a standardized measure of ProM, was administered to 72 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychiatric research evaluation. Results showed that ProM was positively correlated with standard clinical tests of attention, working memory, processing speed, learning, and executive functioning, but not delayed recall. In the context of multiple neuropsychological predictors, learning ability was the only domain that independently contributed to ProM. Importantly, better ProM was predictive of higher functional capacity (as measured by the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief Version), above and beyond the variability explained by demographic and disease factors. Analysis of component processes revealed that event-based ProM, as well as no response (i.e., omission) and task substitution errors were the strongest predictors of everyday functioning. Overall, these findings suggest that ProM impairment in schizophrenia is associated with multiple cognitive substrates, particularly episodic learning deficits, and plays an important role in everyday living skills. Studies regarding the potential effectiveness of ProM-based remediation strategies to improve functional outcomes in schizophrenia are indicated. PMID:18055178

  10. Relationship Between Lung Function Impairment and Health-Related Quality of Life in COPD and Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Cristine E.; Drummond, M. Bradley; Han, MeiLan K.; Li, Daner; Fuller, Cathy; Limper, Andrew H.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Schwarz, Marvin I.; Sciurba, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) measures have been correlated with lung function in patients with COPD and interstitial lung disease (ILD). However, different pathophysiologic mechanisms may influence how these distinct diseases affect HRQL, resulting in differing HRQL by pulmonary diagnosis among patients with similar severity of ventilatory impairment. Methods: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Lung Tissue Research Consortium provided data on well-characterized participants with COPD (n = 576) and ILD (n = 405) at four clinical sites. Using multiple linear regression, we examined the effects of FEV1 (% predicted) and diagnosis (ILD vs COPD) on HRQL scores, including total St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores and Short Form-12 (SF-12) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. Results: Participants with ILD had, on average, higher SGRQ scores (15.33 points; 95% CI, 12.46-18.19; P <.001) and lower SF-12 PCS scores ( − 4.73 points; 95% CI, − 6.31 to − 3.14; P <.001) compared with patients with COPD with similar FEV1 % predicted values, indicating worse HRQL. The specific diagnosis also modified the effect of FEV1 on the total SGRQ score (P = .003) and the SF-12 PCS score (P = .03). There was no relationship between lung function and SF-12 MCS scores. Conclusions: HRQL scores were worse for patients with ILD compared with patients with COPD with similar degrees of ventilatory impairment. Differences in dyspnea mechanism or in the rate of disease progression may account for these differences in HRQL. PMID:22576634

  11. Colour atlas of first pass functional imaging of the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Schad, N.; Andrews, E.J.; Fleming, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 21 chapters. Some of the titles are: Functional imaging; Fist pass radionuclide studies in evaluation of mitral valve replacement in chronic insufficiency using Bjork-Shiley tilting disc valves; First pass radionuclide studies in evaluation of left and right ventricular function in patients with bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement after 9-11 years; and First pass radionuclide studies in the evaluation of long term (up to about 15 years) follow up of aortic valve replacement using Starr-Edwards ball prosthesis.

  12. Sleep impairment, mood symptoms, and psychosocial functioning in adolescent bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Few empirical studies have investigated the role of sleep impairment in the course of adolescent bipolar spectrum disorders (BSD). The present study examined the longitudinal associations between sleep disruption, mood symptom severity, and psychosocial functioning in a 2-year follow-up of patients with adolescent BSD. Fifty-three adolescents with BSD (mean [SD] age: 14.6 [1.6]) participated in a two-site randomized trial of family focused treatment for adolescents (FFT-A) or enhanced care, a briefer psychoeducational treatment; both treatments were administered with pharmacotherapy. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the Adolescent Sleep Habits Questionnaire (ASHQ) filled out by patients every 6 weeks in the first study year and every 3 months in the second year. Main outcomes included clinician-rated measures of mania, depression and psychosocial impairment over 2 years. Sleep impairment was significantly associated with mania and depression severity scores and psychosocial impairment ratings across the 2-year follow-up. Despite its efficaciousness in reducing mood symptoms, FFT-A was not more effective than enhanced care in improving sleep habits. Sleep impairment may play a substantial role in the course of adolescent BSD. Youth with BSDs may benefit from targeted psychosocial interventions that emphasize sleep regularity. PMID:22884306

  13. Impact of cold ischemia on mitochondrial function in porcine hearts and blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Dominik; Schachner, Thomas; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Dorn, Melissa; Andreas, Martin; Kocher, Alfred; Kuznetsov, Andrey V

    2013-01-01

    The effects of cold storage using Custodiol® (Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate, HTK) or isotonic saline solution on mitochondrial function in hearts (left and rights ventricles) and various blood vessels of pigs were investigated. Hearts, saphenous veins, internal-mammary-arteries and aortas of male landrace pigs were harvested and exposed to cold ischemia in either saline or Custodiol-HTK solution. Mitochondrial function was measured in situ in permeabilized fibers by high-resolution respirometry. Mitochondrial respiratory capacities (maximal respiration rates) were similar in the right and left ventricle in controls and after 14 h of cold storage were significantly better preserved in Custodiol-HTK than in saline solution. Mitochondrial respiration rates in various blood vessels including aorta, arteries and veins were less than 5% of myocardium rates. In contrast to the pig heart, in some blood vessels, like veins, mitochondrial function remained stable even after 24 h of cold ischemia. HTK-Custodiol protection of mitochondrial function after prolonged cold ischemia was observed in the myocardium but not in blood vessels. HTK-Custodiol solution thus offers significant protection of myocardial mitochondria against cold ischemic injury and can be used as efficient preservation solution in organ transplantation but probably has no benefit for blood vessels preservation. Analysis of mitochondrial function can be used as a valuable approach for the assessment of cold ischemic injury in various tissues including pig heart and various blood vessels. PMID:24213604

  14. Impact of Cold Ischemia on Mitochondrial Function in Porcine Hearts and Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemann, Dominik; Schachner, Thomas; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Dorn, Melissa; Andreas, Martin; Kocher, Alfred; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of cold storage using Custodiol® (Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate, HTK) or isotonic saline solution on mitochondrial function in hearts (left and rights ventricles) and various blood vessels of pigs were investigated. Hearts, saphenous veins, internal-mammary-arteries and aortas of male landrace pigs were harvested and exposed to cold ischemia in either saline or Custodiol-HTK solution. Mitochondrial function was measured in situ in permeabilized fibers by high-resolution respirometry. Mitochondrial respiratory capacities (maximal respiration rates) were similar in the right and left ventricle in controls and after 14 h of cold storage were significantly better preserved in Custodiol-HTK than in saline solution. Mitochondrial respiration rates in various blood vessels including aorta, arteries and veins were less than 5% of myocardium rates. In contrast to the pig heart, in some blood vessels, like veins, mitochondrial function remained stable even after 24 h of cold ischemia. HTK-Custodiol protection of mitochondrial function after prolonged cold ischemia was observed in the myocardium but not in blood vessels. HTK-Custodiol solution thus offers significant protection of myocardial mitochondria against cold ischemic injury and can be used as efficient preservation solution in organ transplantation but probably has no benefit for blood vessels preservation. Analysis of mitochondrial function can be used as a valuable approach for the assessment of cold ischemic injury in various tissues including pig heart and various blood vessels. PMID:24213604

  15. Impaired language function in generalized epilepsy: inadequate suppression of the default mode network.

    PubMed

    Gauffin, Helena; van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Ulrici, Daniel; McAllister, Anita; Karlsson, Thomas; Engström, Maria

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to study the effect of a potential default mode network (DMN) dysfunction on language performance in epilepsy. Language dysfunction in focal epilepsy has previously been connected to brain damage in language-associated cortical areas. In this work, we studied generalized epilepsy (GE) without focal brain damage to see if the language function was impaired. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate if the DMN was involved. Eleven persons with GE and 28 healthy controls were examined with fMRI during a sentence-reading task. We demonstrated impaired language function, reduced suppression of DMN, and, specifically, an inadequate suppression of activation in the left anterior temporal lobe and the posterior cingulate cortex, as well as an aberrant activation in the right hippocampal formation. Our results highlight the presence of language decline in people with epilepsy of not only focal but also generalized origin. PMID:23648277

  16. Expression, Regulation and Putative Nutrient-Sensing Function of Taste GPCRs in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Simon R.; Porrello, Enzo R.; Purdue, Brooke; Chan, Hsiu-Wen; Voigt, Anja; Frenzel, Sabine; Hannan, Ross D.; Moritz, Karen M.; Simmons, David G.; Molenaar, Peter; Roura, Eugeni; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Thomas, Walter G.

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are critical for cardiovascular physiology. Cardiac cells express >100 nonchemosensory GPCRs, indicating that important physiological and potential therapeutic targets remain to be discovered. Moreover, there is a growing appreciation that members of the large, distinct taste and odorant GPCR families have specific functions in tissues beyond the oronasal cavity, including in the brain, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. To date, these chemosensory GPCRs have not been systematically studied in the heart. We performed RT-qPCR taste receptor screens in rodent and human heart tissues that revealed discrete subsets of type 2 taste receptors (TAS2/Tas2) as well as Tas1r1 and Tas1r3 (comprising the umami receptor) are expressed. These taste GPCRs are present in cultured cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts, and by in situ hybridization can be visualized across the myocardium in isolated cardiac cells. Tas1r1 gene-targeted mice (Tas1r1Cre/Rosa26tdRFP) strikingly recapitulated these data. In vivo taste receptor expression levels were developmentally regulated in the postnatal period. Intriguingly, several Tas2rs were upregulated in cultured rat myocytes and in mouse heart in vivo following starvation. The discovery of taste GPCRs in the heart opens an exciting new field of cardiac research. We predict that these taste receptors may function as nutrient sensors in the heart. PMID:23696900

  17. A specific impairment in cognitive control in individuals with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Barbalat, Guillaume; Leboyer, Marion; Zalla, Tiziana

    2014-11-01

    Although it is largely demonstrated that Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are characterized by executive dysfunctions, little is known about the fine-grained levels of this impairment. Here, we investigated the hierarchical architecture of control modules in autism using an experimental paradigm based upon a multistage model of executive functions. This model postulates that executive functions are hierarchically organized as a cascade of three different control processes, which are implemented according to information conveyed by sensory signals (sensory control), the immediate perceptual context (contextual control), and the temporal episode in which stimuli occur (episodic control). Sixteen high-functioning adults with autism or Asperger Syndrome (HFA/AS) and sixteen matched comparison participants took part in two distinct visuo-motor association experiments designed to separately vary the demands of sensory and episodic controls (first experiment) and contextual and episodic controls (second experiment). Participants with HFA/AS demonstrated no significant differences in performances with comparison participants when they had to control sensory or contextual information. However, they showed decreased accuracy when having to control information related to episodic signals. Remarkably, performances in episodic control were associated to the autism spectrum quotient in both groups, suggesting that this episodic control impairment might be at the core of ASDs. Those results plead for a specific, rather than generalised, deficit in executive functions in autism. Our study contributes to a better understanding of the impaired cognitive processes that are unique to autism and warrants confirmation using other models of executive functions. PMID:25106070

  18. Exercise reveals impairments in left ventricular systolic function in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Sara B.; Reger, Brian L.; Donley, David A.; Bonner, Daniel E.; Warden, Bradford E.; Gharib, Wissam; Failinger, Conard F.; Olfert, Melissa D.; Frisbee, Jefferson C.; Olfert, I. Mark; Chantler, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    MetS is the manifestation of a cluster of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and is associated with a three-fold increase risk of CV morbidity and mortality, which is suggested to be mediated, in part, by resting left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. However, to what extent resting LV systolic function is impaired in MetS is controversial, and there are no data indicating whether LV systolic function is impaired during exercise. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to comprehensively examine LV and arterial responses to exercise in MetS individuals without diabetes and/or overt CVD compared to a healthy control population. CV function was characterized using Doppler echocardiography and gas exchange in MetS (n=27) vs. healthy controls (n=20) at rest and during peak exercise. At rest, MetS individuals displayed normal LV systolic function but reduced LV diastolic function vs. healthy controls. During peak exercise, individuals with MetS had impaired contractility; pump performance, and vasodilator reserve capacity vs. controls. A blunted contractile reserve response resulted in diminished arterial-ventricular coupling reserve and limited aerobic capacity in MetS vs. controls. These findings possess clinical importance as they provide insight to the pathophysiological changes in MetS that may predispose this population of individuals to an increased risk of CV morbidity and mortality. PMID:24036595

  19. Capturing structure and function in an embryonic heart with biophotonic tools

    PubMed Central

    Karunamuni, Ganga H.; Gu, Shi; Ford, Matthew R.; Peterson, Lindsy M.; Ma, Pei; Wang, Yves T.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko

    2014-01-01

    Disturbed cardiac function at an early stage of development has been shown to correlate with cellular/molecular, structural as well as functional cardiac anomalies at later stages culminating in the congenital heart defects (CHDs) that present at birth. While our knowledge of cellular and molecular steps in cardiac development is growing rapidly, our understanding of the role of cardiovascular function in the embryo is still in an early phase. One reason for the scanty information in this area is that the tools to study early cardiac function are limited. Recently developed and adapted biophotonic tools may overcome some of the challenges of studying the tiny fragile beating heart. In this chapter, we describe and discuss our experience in developing and implementing biophotonic tools to study the role of function in heart development with emphasis on optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT can be used for detailed structural and functional studies of the tubular and looping embryo heart under physiological conditions. The same heart can be rapidly and quantitatively phenotyped at early and again at later stages using OCT. When combined with other tools such as optical mapping (OM) and optical pacing (OP), OCT has the potential to reveal in spatial and temporal detail the biophysical changes that can impact mechanotransduction pathways. This information may provide better explanations for the etiology of the CHDs when interwoven with our understanding of morphogenesis and the molecular pathways that have been described to be involved. Future directions for advances in the creation and use of biophotonic tools are discussed. PMID:25309451

  20. Capturing structure and function in an embryonic heart with biophotonic tools.

    PubMed

    Karunamuni, Ganga H; Gu, Shi; Ford, Matthew R; Peterson, Lindsy M; Ma, Pei; Wang, Yves T; Rollins, Andrew M; Jenkins, Michael W; Watanabe, Michiko

    2014-01-01

    Disturbed cardiac function at an early stage of development has been shown to correlate with cellular/molecular, structural as well as functional cardiac anomalies at later stages culminating in the congenital heart defects (CHDs) that present at birth. While our knowledge of cellular and molecular steps in cardiac development is growing rapidly, our understanding of the role of cardiovascular function in the embryo is still in an early phase. One reason for the scanty information in this area is that the tools to study early cardiac function are limited. Recently developed and adapted biophotonic tools may overcome some of the challenges of studying the tiny fragile beating heart. In this chapter, we describe and discuss our experience in developing and implementing biophotonic tools to study the role of function in heart development with emphasis on optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT can be used for detailed structural and functional studies of the tubular and looping embryo heart under physiological conditions. The same heart can be rapidly and quantitatively phenotyped at early and again at later stages using OCT. When combined with other tools such as optical mapping (OM) and optical pacing (OP), OCT has the potential to reveal in spatial and temporal detail the biophysical changes that can impact mechanotransduction pathways. This information may provide better explanations for the etiology of the CHDs when interwoven with our understanding of morphogenesis and the molecular pathways that have been described to be involved. Future directions for advances in the creation and use of biophotonic tools are discussed. PMID:25309451

  1. High fat fed heart failure animals have enhanced mitochondrial function and acyl-coa dehydrogenase activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously shown that administration of high fat in heart failure (HF) increased mitochondrial respiration and did not alter left ventricular (LV) function. PPARalpha is a nuclear transcription factor that activates expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and utilization. We hypoth...

  2. The contribution of executive functions deficits to impaired episodic memory in individuals with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Noël, Xavier; Van der Linden, Martial; Brevers, Damien; Campanella, Salvatore; Hanak, Catherine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul

    2012-06-30

    Individuals with alcoholism commonly exhibit impaired performance on episodic memory tasks. However, the contribution of their impaired executive functioning to poor episodic memory remains to be clarified. Thirty-six recently detoxified and sober asymptomatic alcoholic men and 36 matched non-alcoholic participants were tested for processing speed, prepotent response inhibition, mental flexibility, coordination of dual-task and a verbal episodic memory task. Compared with non-alcoholic individuals, the alcoholic patients showed impaired executive functions combined with below normal performance on both free and delayed recall. In contrast, processing speed, cued recall and recognition were preserved. Regression analyses revealed that 47% of alcoholics' episodic memory's free recall performance was predicted by mental flexibility and that 49% of their delayed recall performance was predicted by mental flexibility, manipulation of dual-task and prepotent response inhibition. Regarding participants' executive predictors of episodic memory performance, the slopes of β coefficients were significantly different between the two groups, with alcoholics requiring more their executive system than non-alcoholics. Once detoxified, alcoholic patients showed episodic memory deficits mainly characterized by impaired effortful (executive) processes. Compared with controls, patients used effortful learning strategies, which are nonetheless less efficient. PMID:22377577

  3. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and associated functional impairments in mentally disordered offenders.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan; Gudjonsson, Gisli; O'Rourke, Linda; Woodhouse, Emma; Ashwood, Karen; Murphy, Declan; Asherson, Philip

    2015-12-15

    This study examines the rate of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and associated functional impairments in mentally disordered offenders (MDOs). One hundred and thirty-one male MDOs with a primary diagnosis of either severe mental illness (SMI) or personality disorder (PD) completed screening questionnaires for ADHD. If positive, they were invited for a comprehensive diagnostic interview. Additional data pertaining to self-rated impairments, and objective records of critical incidents and episodes of seclusion were obtained from patient records. Twenty-six patients screened positive (7 with SMI, 19 with PD). On further assessment, no SMI patients met criteria for ADHD. Four PD patients met criteria for persistent 'syndromatic' ADHD, whereas six met 'symptomatic' ADHD criteria, giving overall prevalence estimates of 8.6% and 12.9% respectively. Greater functional impairments were self-reported by the PD+ADHD screener positive group, compared with screener negative peers, with large effect sizes. A significant but small effect was found for spending longer in seclusion. Compared with population norms, a high rate of ADHD and associated impairments are present in MDO's with a primary diagnosis of PD. These individuals have complex needs and both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are required for their rehabilitation. PMID:26410772

  4. Characterization of Static and Dynamic Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Patients With Heart Failure With a Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Anand; Hastings, Jeffrey L.; Shibata, Shigeki; Popovic, Zoran B.; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Bhella, Paul S.; Okazaki, Kazunobu; Fu, Qi; Berk, Martin; Palmer, Dean; Greenberg, Neil L.; Garcia, Mario J.; Thomas, James D.; Levine, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Congestive heart failure in the setting of a preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction is increasing in prevalence among the senior population. The underlying pathophysiologic abnormalities in ventricular function and structure remain unclear for this disorder. We hypothesized that patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) would have marked abnormalities in LV diastolic function with increased static diastolic stiffness and slowed myocardial relaxation compared with age-matched healthy controls. Methods and Results Eleven highly screened patients (4 men, 7 women) aged 73±7 years with HFPEF were recruited to participate in this study. Thirteen sedentary healthy controls (7 men, 6 women) aged 70±4 years also were recruited. All subjects underwent pulmonary artery catheterization with measurement of cardiac output, end-diastolic volumes, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures at baseline; cardiac unloading (lower-body negative pressure or upright tilt); and cardiac loading (rapid saline infusion). The data were used to define the Frank-Starling and LV end-diastolic pressure-volume relationships. Doppler echocardiographic data (tissue Doppler velocities, isovolumic relaxation time, propagation velocity of early mitral inflow , E/A-wave ratio) were obtained at each level of cardiac preload. Compared with healthy controls, patients with HFPEF had similar LV contractile function and static LV compliance but reduced LV chamber distensibility with elevated filling pressures and slower myocardial relaxation as assessed by tissue Doppler imaging. Conclusions In this small, highly screened patient population with hemodynamically confirmed HFPEF, increased end-diastolic static ventricular stiffness relative to age-matched controls was not a universal finding. Nevertheless, patients with HFPEF, even when well compensated, had elevated filling pressures, reduced distensibility, and increased diastolic wall stress compared with

  5. Impaired Exercise Performance and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Rats with Secondary Carnitine Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bouitbir, Jamal; Haegler, Patrizia; Singh, François; Joerin, Lorenz; Felser, Andrea; Duthaler, Urs; Krähenbühl, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of carnitine depletion upon exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function remain largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effect of N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP), a carnitine analog inhibiting carnitine biosynthesis and renal carnitine reabsorption, on physical performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats. Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated daily with water (control rats; n = 12) or with 20 mg/100 g body weight THP (n = 12) via oral gavage for 3 weeks. Following treatment, half of the animals of each group performed an exercise test until exhaustion. Results: Distance covered and exercise performance were lower in THP-treated compared to control rats. In the oxidative soleus muscle, carnitine depletion caused atrophy (–24%) and impaired function of complex II and IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The free radical leak (ROS production relative to oxygen consumption) was increased and the cellular glutathione pool decreased. Moreover, mRNA expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA were decreased in THP-treated compared to control rats. In comparison, in the glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, carnitine depletion was associated with impaired function of complex IV and increased free radical leak, whilst muscle weight and cellular glutathione pool were maintained. Markers of mitochondrial proliferation and mitochondrial DNA were unaffected. Conclusions: Carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired exercise capacity in rats treated with THP. THP-induced carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired function of the electron transport chain in oxidative and glycolytic muscle as well as with atrophy and decreased mitochondrial DNA in oxidative muscle. PMID:27559315

  6. Multi-walled carbon nanotube instillation impairs pulmonary function in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are widely used in many disciplines due to their unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, some concerns about the possible human health and environmental impacts of manufactured MWCNTs are rising. We hypothesized that instillation of MWCNTs impairs pulmonary function in C57BL/6 mice due to development of lung inflammation and fibrosis. Methods MWCNTs were administered to C57BL/6 mice by oropharyngeal aspiration (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg) and we assessed lung inflammation and fibrosis by inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen content, and histological assessment. Pulmonary function was assessed using a FlexiVent system and levels of Ccl3, Ccl11, Mmp13 and IL-33 were measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. Results Mice administered MWCNTs exhibited increased inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen deposition and granuloma formation in lung tissue, which correlated with impaired pulmonary function as assessed by increased resistance, tissue damping, and decreased lung compliance. Pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs induced an inflammatory signature marked by cytokine (IL-33), chemokine (Ccl3 and Ccl11), and protease production (Mmp13) that promoted the inflammatory and fibrotic changes observed within the lung. Conclusions These results further highlight the potential adverse health effects that may occur following MWCNT exposure and therefore we suggest these materials may pose a significant risk leading to impaired lung function following environmental and occupational exposures. PMID:21851604

  7. Age-associated Pro-inflammatory Remodeling and Functional Phenotype in the Heart and Large Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyi; Shah, Ajay M

    2015-01-01

    The aging population is increasing dramatically. Aging–associated stress simultaneously drives proinflammatory remodeling, involving angiotensin II and other factors, in both the heart and large arteries. The structural remodeling and functional changes that occur with aging include cardiac and vascular wall stiffening, systolic hypertension and suboptimal ventricular-arterial coupling, features that are often clinically silent and thus termed a silent syndrome. These age-related effects are the result of responses initiated by cardiovascular proinflammatory cells. Local proinflammatory signals are coupled between the heart and arteries due to common mechanical and humoral messengers within a closed circulating system. Thus, targeting proinflammatory signaling molecules would be a promising approach to improve age-associated suboptimal ventricular-arterial coupling, a major predisposing factor for the pathogenesis of clinical cardiovascular events such as heart failure. PMID:25665458

  8. Galnt1 Is Required for Normal Heart Valve Development and Cardiac Function

    PubMed Central

    Tian, E; Stevens, Sharon R.; Guan, Yu; Springer, Danielle A.; Anderson, Stasia A.; Starost, Matthew F.; Patel, Vyomesh; Ten Hagen, Kelly G.; Tabak, Lawrence A.

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart valve defects in humans occur in approximately 2% of live births and are a major source of compromised cardiac function. In this study we demonstrate that normal heart valve development and cardiac function are dependent upon Galnt1, the gene that encodes a member of the family of glycosyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) responsible for the initiation of mucin-type O-glycosylation. In the adult mouse, compromised cardiac function that mimics human congenital heart disease, including aortic and pulmonary valve stenosis and regurgitation; altered ejection fraction; and cardiac dilation, was observed in Galnt1 null animals. The underlying phenotype is aberrant valve formation caused by increased cell proliferation within the outflow tract cushion of developing hearts, which is first detected at developmental stage E11.5. Developing valves from Galnt1 deficient animals displayed reduced levels of the proteases ADAMTS1 and ADAMTS5, decreased cleavage of the proteoglycan versican and increased levels of other extracellular matrix proteins. We also observed increased BMP and MAPK signaling. Taken together, the ablation of Galnt1 appears to disrupt the formation/remodeling of the extracellular matrix and alters conserved signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation. Our study provides insight into the role of this conserved protein modification in cardiac valve development and may represent a new model for idiopathic valve disease. PMID:25615642

  9. Alterations in left ventricular diastolic function in conscious dogs with pacing-induced heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komamura, K.; Shannon, R. P.; Pasipoularides, A.; Ihara, T.; Lader, A. S.; Patrick, T. A.; Bishop, S. P.; Vatner, S. F.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated in conscious dogs (a) the effects of heart failure induced by chronic rapid ventricular pacing on the sequence of development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic versus systolic dysfunction and (b) whether the changes were load dependent or secondary to alterations in structure. LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction were evident within 24 h after initiation of pacing and occurred in parallel over 3 wk. LV systolic function was reduced at 3 wk, i.e., peak LV dP/dt fell by -1,327 +/- 105 mmHg/s and ejection fraction by -22 +/- 2%. LV diastolic dysfunction also progressed over 3 wk of pacing, i.e., tau increased by +14.0 +/- 2.8 ms and the myocardial stiffness constant by +6.5 +/- 1.4, whereas LV chamber stiffness did not change. These alterations were associated with increases in LV end-systolic (+28.6 +/- 5.7 g/cm2) and LV end-diastolic stresses (+40.4 +/- 5.3 g/cm2). When stresses and heart rate were matched at the same levels in the control and failure states, the increases in tau and myocardial stiffness were no longer observed, whereas LV systolic function remained depressed. There were no increases in connective tissue content in heart failure. Thus, pacing-induced heart failure in conscious dogs is characterized by major alterations in diastolic function which are reversible with normalization of increased loading condition.

  10. Cognitive and behavioral functioning of children listed for heart and/or lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wray, J; Radley-Smith, R

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to assess cognitive function and behavior in a group of children listed for heart and/or lung transplantation. Ninety-nine children (3.7-16.8 years) listed for heart and/or lung transplant for congenital heart disease (CHD), cardiomyopathy (CM), cystic fibrosis (CF) or primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) were evaluated with standardized measures of cognitive function, academic ability and behavior. Results were compared with a historical cohort of healthy children and comparisons were made between the four diagnostic subgroups. Mean subtest scores, overall IQ and achievement scores were within the normal range for the total group but were significantly lower than those of the healthy group. Although there were few significant differences between the diagnostic subgroups children with CHD or CF tended to perform at a lower level than those with CM or PPH. There were some significant issues with behavior for all diagnostic subgroups, particularly in the domain of social competence. Patients with end-stage heart or lung disease are at increased risk for cognitive and/or behavioral problems, particularly those with CHD. Follow-up of these patients after transplant is important to determine the role that psychological functioning prior to surgery has in the longer term after surgery. PMID:20977644

  11. Alterations in left ventricular diastolic function in conscious dogs with pacing-induced heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Komamura, K; Shannon, R P; Pasipoularides, A; Ihara, T; Lader, A S; Patrick, T A; Bishop, S P; Vatner, S F

    1992-01-01

    We investigated in conscious dogs (a) the effects of heart failure induced by chronic rapid ventricular pacing on the sequence of development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic versus systolic dysfunction and (b) whether the changes were load dependent or secondary to alterations in structure. LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction were evident within 24 h after initiation of pacing and occurred in parallel over 3 wk. LV systolic function was reduced at 3 wk, i.e., peak LV dP/dt fell by -1,327 +/- 105 mmHg/s and ejection fraction by -22 +/- 2%. LV diastolic dysfunction also progressed over 3 wk of pacing, i.e., tau increased by +14.0 +/- 2.8 ms and the myocardial stiffness constant by +6.5 +/- 1.4, whereas LV chamber stiffness did not change. These alterations were associated with increases in LV end-systolic (+28.6 +/- 5.7 g/cm2) and LV end-diastolic stresses (+40.4 +/- 5.3 g/cm2). When stresses and heart rate were matched at the same levels in the control and failure states, the increases in tau and myocardial stiffness were no longer observed, whereas LV systolic function remained depressed. There were no increases in connective tissue content in heart failure. Thus, pacing-induced heart failure in conscious dogs is characterized by major alterations in diastolic function which are reversible with normalization of increased loading condition. Images PMID:1601992

  12. Neurocognitive Function in HIV-Infected Patients: Comparison of Two Methods to Define Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Arenas-Pinto, Alejandro; Winston, Alan; Stöhr, Wolfgang; Day, John; Wiggins, Rebecca; Quah, Say Pheng; Ainsworth, Jonathan; Fleck, Sue; Dunn, David; Accoroni, Alex; Paton, Nicholas I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare two definitions of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in a large clinical trial of effectively-treated HIV-infected adults at baseline. Methods Hopkins Verbal Learning test-Revised (HVLT-R), Colour Trail (CTT) and Grooved Pegboard (GPT) tests were applied exploring five cognitive domains. Raw scores were transformed into Z-scores and NCI defined as summary NPZ-5 score one standard deviation below the mean of the normative dataset (i.e. <−1SD) or Z-scores <−1SD in at least two individual domains (categorical scale). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to explore the contribution of individual tests to the total variance. Results Mean NPZ-5 score was −0.72 (SD 0.98) and 178/548 (32%) participants had NPZ-5 scores <−1SD. When impairment was defined as <−1SD in at least two individual tests, 283 (52%) patients were impaired. Strong correlations between the two components of the HVLT-R test (learning/recall) (r = 0.73), and the CTT and (attention/executive functioning) (r = 0.66) were observed. PCA showed a clustering with three components accounting for 88% of the total variance. When patients who scored <−1SD only in two correlated tests were considered as not impaired, prevalence of NCI was 43%. When correlated test scores were averaged, 36% of participants had NPZ-3 scores <−1SD and 32% underperformed in at least two individual tests. Conclusion Controlling for differential contribution of individual test-scores on the overall performance and the level of correlation between components of the test battery used appear to be important when testing cognitive function. These two factors are likely to affect both summary scores and categorical scales in defining cognitive impairment. Trial registration EUDRACT: 2007-006448-23 and ISRCTN04857074. PMID:25078406

  13. Effect of anemia on cardiac function, microvascular structure, and capillary hematocrit in rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Rakusan, K; Cicutti, N; Kolar, F

    2001-03-01

    The effect of anemia on the coronary microcirculation was studied in young male rats. Chronic anemia resulted in increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and decreased functional reserve. Cardiac mass in anemic animals increased by 25%. Capillary and arteriolar densities in these hearts remained unchanged, indicating angiogenesis in this experimental situation (estimated aggregate capillary length in the left ventricle of anemic hearts was 3.06 km compared with 2.35 km in control hearts). Capillary hematocrit was decreased in chronic anemia less than systemic hematocrit: from 25 to 18% in anemia versus 45 to 28% in controls. Capillary hematocrit and red blood cell spacing were also studied after acute blood withdrawal. Here, capillary hematocrit was preserved even more: 22 versus 24% in systemic hematocrit. Finally, the same was studied in isolated hearts perfused with solutions of various hematocrits. After perfusion with low-hematocrit solution (14%), the capillary hematocrit (24%) was even higher than the perfusate hematocrit! In conclusion, we found evidence of angiogenesis in cardiomegaly induced by chronic anemia. Microvascular growth was accompanied by advantageous regulation of red blood cell spacing within these vessels. This was even more pronounced during acute hemodilution and in isolated perfused hearts. PMID:11179091

  14. The stretch-activation response may be critical to the proper functioning of the mammalian heart

    PubMed Central

    Vemuri, Ramesh; Lankford, Edward B.; Poetter, Karl; Hassanzadeh, Shahin; Takeda, Kazuyo; Yu, Zu-Xi; Ferrans, Victor J.; Epstein, Neal D.

    1999-01-01

    The “stretch-activation” response is essential to the generation of the oscillatory power required for the beating of insect wings. It has been conjectured but not previously shown that a stretch-activation response contributes to the performance of a beating heart. Here, we generated transgenic mice that express a human mutant myosin essential light chain derived from a family with an inherited cardiac hypertrophy. These mice faithfully replicate the cardiac disease of the patients with this mutant allele. They provide the opportunity to study the stretch-activation response before the hearts are distorted by the hypertrophic process. Studies disclose a mismatch between the physiologic heart rate and resonant frequency of the cardiac papillary muscles expressing the mutant essential light chain. This discordance reduces oscillatory power at frequencies that correspond to physiologic heart-rates and is followed by subsequent hypertrophy. It appears, therefore, that the stretch-activation response, first described in insect flight muscle, may play a role in the mammalian heart, and its further study may suggest a new way to modulate human cardiac function. PMID:9927691

  15. Cardiosphere-derived cell sheet primed with hypoxia improves left ventricular function of chronically infarcted heart

    PubMed Central

    Hosoyama, Tohru; Samura, Makoto; Kudo, Tomoaki; Nishimoto, Arata; Ueno, Koji; Murata, Tomoaki; Ohama, Takashi; Sato, Koichi; Mikamo, Akihito; Yoshimura, Koichi; Li, Tao-Sheng; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2015-01-01

    Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) isolated from postnatal heart tissue are a convenient and efficientresource for the treatment of myocardial infarction. However, poor retention of CDCs in infarcted hearts often causes less than ideal therapeutic outcomes. Cell sheet technology has been developed as a means of permitting longer retention of graft cells, and this therapeutic strategy has opened new avenues of cell-based therapy for severe ischemic diseases. However, there is still scope for improvement before this treatment can be routinely applied in clinical settings. In this study, we investigated whether hypoxic preconditioning enhances the therapeutic efficacy of CDC monolayer sheets. To induce hypoxia priming, CDC monolayer sheets were placed in an incubator adjusted to 2% oxygen for 24 hours, and then preconditioned mouse CDC sheets were implanted into the infarcted heart of old myocardial infarction mouse models. Hypoxic preconditioning of CDC sheets remarkably increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor through the PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Implantation of preconditioned CDC sheets improved left ventricular function inchronically infarcted hearts and reduced fibrosis. The therapeutic efficacy of preconditioned CDC sheets was higher than the CDC sheets that were cultured under normaxia condition. These results suggest that hypoxic preconditioning augments the therapeutic angiogenic and anti-fibrotic activity of CDC sheets. A combination of cell sheets and hypoxic preconditioning offers an attractive therapeutic protocol for CDC transplantation into chronically infarcted hearts. PMID:26885271

  16. Cardiosphere-derived cell sheet primed with hypoxia improves left ventricular function of chronically infarcted heart.

    PubMed

    Hosoyama, Tohru; Samura, Makoto; Kudo, Tomoaki; Nishimoto, Arata; Ueno, Koji; Murata, Tomoaki; Ohama, Takashi; Sato, Koichi; Mikamo, Akihito; Yoshimura, Koichi; Li, Tao-Sheng; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2015-01-01

    Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) isolated from postnatal heart tissue are a convenient and efficientresource for the treatment of myocardial infarction. However, poor retention of CDCs in infarcted hearts often causes less than ideal therapeutic outcomes. Cell sheet technology has been developed as a means of permitting longer retention of graft cells, and this therapeutic strategy has opened new avenues of cell-based therapy for severe ischemic diseases. However, there is still scope for improvement before this treatment can be routinely applied in clinical settings. In this study, we investigated whether hypoxic preconditioning enhances the therapeutic efficacy of CDC monolayer sheets. To induce hypoxia priming, CDC monolayer sheets were placed in an incubator adjusted to 2% oxygen for 24 hours, and then preconditioned mouse CDC sheets were implanted into the infarcted heart of old myocardial infarction mouse models. Hypoxic preconditioning of CDC sheets remarkably increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor through the PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Implantation of preconditioned CDC sheets improved left ventricular function inchronically infarcted hearts and reduced fibrosis. The therapeutic efficacy of preconditioned CDC sheets was higher than the CDC sheets that were cultured under normaxia condition. These results suggest that hypoxic preconditioning augments the therapeutic angiogenic and anti-fibrotic activity of CDC sheets. A combination of cell sheets and hypoxic preconditioning offers an attractive therapeutic protocol for CDC transplantation into chronically infarcted hearts. PMID:26885271

  17. An Autonomic Link Between Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Impaired Cardiac Performance: Insight From Treadmill and Dobutamine Challenges in Heart Failure–Prone Rats

    PubMed Central

    Farraj, Aimen K.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac disease exacerbation is associated with short-term exposure to vehicular emissions. Diesel exhaust (DE) might impair cardiac performance in part through perturbing efferent sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (ANS) input to the heart. We hypothesized that acute changes in ANS balance mediate decreased cardiac performance upon DE inhalation. Young adult heart failure–prone rats were implanted with radiotelemeters to measure heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), core body temperature, and pre-ejection period (PEP, a contractility index). Animals pretreated with sympathetic antagonist (atenolol), parasympathetic antagonist (atropine), or saline were exposed to DE (500 µg/m3 fine particulate matter, 4h) or filtered air and then treadmill exercise challenged. At 1 day postexposure, separate rats were catheterized for left ventricular pressure (LVP), contractility, and lusitropy and assessed for autonomic influence using the sympathoagonist dobutamine and surgical vagotomy. During DE exposure, atenolol inhibited increases in HR, BP, and contractility, but not body temperature, suggesting a role for sympathetic dominance. During treadmill recovery at 4h post-DE exposure, HR and HRV indicated parasympathetic dominance in saline- and atenolol-pretreated groups that atropine inhibited. Conversely, at treadmill recovery 21h post-DE exposure, HRV and PEP indicated sympathetic dominance and subsequently diminished contractility that only atenolol inhibited. LVP at 1 day postexposure indicated that DE impaired contractility and lusitropy while abolishing parasympathetic-regulated cardiac responses to dobutamine. This is the first evidence that air pollutant inhalation both causes time-dependent oscillations between sympathetic and parasympathetic dominance and decreases cardiac performance via aberrant sympathetic dominance. PMID:23872579

  18. Discussion: 'Congenital hypogonadisms impair quality of life and sexual function,' by Ros et al.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Camaryn Chrisman; Wolfe, Morgan; Squires, Kathryn; Jungheim, Emily; Weiner, Linda

    2013-06-01

    In the roundtable that follows, clinicians discuss a study published in this issue of the Journal in light of its methodology, relevance to practice, and implications for future research. Article discussed: Ros C, Alobid I, Balasch J, et al. Turner's syndrome and other forms of congenital hypogonadism impair quality of life and sexual function. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013;208:484.e1-6. PMID:23571134

  19. Specific cognitive deficits and differential domains of social functioning impairment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alex S; Forbes, Courtney B; Mann, Monica C; Blanchard, Jack J

    2006-01-31

    There is considerable inconsistency in findings regarding the relationship between specific cognitive deficits and social impairment in patients with schizophrenia. This inconsistency may relate to variability across studies in how social functioning is measured and preliminary evidence suggests that different indices of social functioning (e.g., laboratory test, community assessment) may have different cognitive correlates. The present study examined this issue by evaluating the relationships between cognitive deficits (including social cognitive deficits), role-play test performance, and community social functioning in 28 inpatients with schizophrenia. We expected the two measures of social functioning to have only modest convergence with each other. Moreover, informed by the literature on cognitive functioning in schizophrenia, we identified specific cognitive processes that were hypothesized to be associated with role-play performance (delayed verbal memory and attentional vigilance) and social functioning in the community (delayed verbal memory and executive functioning). As expected, the two measures of social functioning were modestly correlated with each other. Community social functioning was associated with a relatively constrained pattern of cognitive deficits and received a significant contribution (Deltar2=0.24) from specific cognitive processes beyond that of general cognitive functioning and symptom severity. In contrast to our hypotheses, role-play test performance was associated with a wide range of cognitive impairments and received little contribution from the specific cognitive processes beyond the effects of general cognitive functioning. Community social functioning, but not role-play test performance, was significantly associated with social cognition. These findings highlight the importance of conceptualizing social functioning as a multidimensional construct for schizophrenia research. PMID:16260120

  20. Inefficient DMN Suppression in Schizophrenia Patients with Impaired Cognitive Function but not Patients with Preserved Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Pu, Weidan; Wang, Jingjuan; Liu, Haihong; Wu, Guowei; Liu, Chang; Mwansisya, Tumbwene E.; Tao, Haojuan; Chen, Xudong; Huang, Xiaojun; Lv, Dongsheng; Xue, Zhimin; Shan, Baoci; Liu, Zhening

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have observed reduced suppression of the default mode network (DMN) during cognitive tasks in schizophrenia, suggesting inefficient DMN suppression is critical for the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Cognitive function in schizophrenia patients, however, varies from relatively intact to severely impaired. This study, which compared the DMN suppression patterns between first-episode schizophrenia patients with (SZ-Imp) and without (SZ-Pre) impaired cognitive function, may provide further insight into the role of DMN dysfunction in cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to resting-state fMRI data to identify the DMN in each subject, and then general linear modeling based on the task-fMRI data was used to examine the different DMN activation patterns between groups. We observed that the SZ-Imp group, but not the SZ-Pre group, showed reduced suppression in the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulated cortex when compared to the healthy controls (HC) group. Moreover, less DMN suppression was associated with poorer task performance in both HC and patient groups. Our findings provide the first direct evidence that disrupted DMN activity only exists in schizophrenia patients with impaired cognitive function, supporting the specific neuro-pathological role of inefficient DMN suppression in cognitive deficits of first-episode schizophrenia. PMID:26882844

  1. Inefficient DMN Suppression in Schizophrenia Patients with Impaired Cognitive Function but not Patients with Preserved Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Pu, Weidan; Wang, Jingjuan; Liu, Haihong; Wu, Guowei; Liu, Chang; Mwansisya, Tumbwene E; Tao, Haojuan; Chen, Xudong; Huang, Xiaojun; Lv, Dongsheng; Xue, Zhimin; Shan, Baoci; Liu, Zhening

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have observed reduced suppression of the default mode network (DMN) during cognitive tasks in schizophrenia, suggesting inefficient DMN suppression is critical for the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Cognitive function in schizophrenia patients, however, varies from relatively intact to severely impaired. This study, which compared the DMN suppression patterns between first-episode schizophrenia patients with (SZ-Imp) and without (SZ-Pre) impaired cognitive function, may provide further insight into the role of DMN dysfunction in cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to resting-state fMRI data to identify the DMN in each subject, and then general linear modeling based on the task-fMRI data was used to examine the different DMN activation patterns between groups. We observed that the SZ-Imp group, but not the SZ-Pre group, showed reduced suppression in the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulated cortex when compared to the healthy controls (HC) group. Moreover, less DMN suppression was associated with poorer task performance in both HC and patient groups. Our findings provide the first direct evidence that disrupted DMN activity only exists in schizophrenia patients with impaired cognitive function, supporting the specific neuro-pathological role of inefficient DMN suppression in cognitive deficits of first-episode schizophrenia. PMID:26882844

  2. Correlations between color perception and motor function impairment in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to evaluate color perception thresholds and relate them to the degree of motor impairment in children with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP). Methods Binocular and monocular chromaticity discrimination thresholds were estimated for the protan, deutan, and tritan color confusion axes in 43 SCP children aged 6–15 years who were classified as tetraplegic (n = 12), diplegic (n = 16), and hemiplegic (n = 15) without ophthalmological complaints. Motor impairment was rated according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) in five levels of severity. Results Analysis of variance showed significantly reduced discrimination in tetraplegic children (p < 0.001) compared with the diplegic, hemiplegic, and control groups. We also found a positive correlation between chromaticity discrimination thresholds and GMFCS ratings in all of the groups. Discussion Chromaticity discrimination thresholds measured psychophysically were reduced for all three color confusion axis in tetraplegic children compared with normal children. Diplegic and hemiplegic children had similar results as normal children. The finding of a correlation between quantified motor impairment and color discrimination losses in SCP patients is a new observation that might help elucidate the causes of color perception loss in these patients. Visual information is essential for the rehabilitation of CP children. Knowledge of the degree of correlation between vision and motor impairment is valuable when planning a rehabilitation program. PMID:24961924

  3. The association between cognitive function and objective adherence to dietary sodium guidelines in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Dolansky, Mary A; Schaefer, Julie T; Hawkins, Misty AW; Gunstad, John; Basuray, Anup; Redle, Joseph D; Fang, James C; Josephson, Richard A; Moore, Shirley M; Hughes, Joel W

    2016-01-01

    Background Although cognitive impairment is common in heart failure (HF) patients, its effects on sodium adherence recommendations are unknown. Purpose Our aim is to examine if cognitive function is associated with patient sodium adherence. Methods Sodium collection/excretion and cognitive function were assessed for 339 HF patients over a 5–8-week period. Neuropsychological testing was performed at baseline (Visit 1), whereas two 24-hour urine samples were collected within 7 weeks postbaseline. The ability to collect two 24-hour urine samples and the estimation of sodium excretion levels from these samples were used to estimate sodium adherence recommendations. Results Nearly half (47%) of the study participants (n=159) were unable to give two valid 24-hour urine samples. Participants who were unable to adhere to two valid 24-hour urine samples had significantly poorer attention and global cognition tests (P<0.044), with a trend for poorer executive function (P=0.064). Among those with valid samples, urine sodium level was not associated with global cognitive function, attention, executive function, or memory after adjusting for covariates. Female sex was associated with lower sodium excretion (all P<0.01); individuals with knowledge of sodium guidelines had less intake of sodium, resulting in excretion of less sodium (all P≤0.03). Conversely, higher socioeconomic status (SES) and body mass index (BMI) were associated with greater sodium (all P≤0.02 and P≤0.01). Conclusion Adherence to urine sodium collection was poor, especially among those with poorer cognitive function. Sodium consumption exceeded recommended amounts and was unrelated to cognitive function. Interventions for improving sodium adherence should focus on at-risk groups (high SES and BMI) and at improving knowledge of recommended salt intake. PMID:27042017

  4. Environmental Exposure to Cadmium: Health Risk Assessment and its Associations with Hypertension and Impaired Kidney Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haiyun; Liao, Qilin; Chillrud, Steven N.; Yang, Qiang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Yan, Beizhan

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal. This study was aimed to estimate the potential health risks in a Cd-polluted district in China, and examine the relationship between urinary cadmium(UCd) and hypertension and impaired kidney function at low exposure levels (UCd: GM 1.3 μg/g creatinine). Blood pressure measurement, questionnaires, and collection of urinary samples were conducted from 217 residents. Environmental samples, food, and cigarette samples were collected and detected to estimate the risks posed by Cd and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact pathways to these risks. A logistic regression model was used in examining associations between exposure and hypertension and impaired kidney function. Results show that this population is at high risk. For non-smokers, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) are 1.74E-04 and 2.96, and for smokers, they are 1.07E-03 and 52.5, respectively. Among all exposure pathways, smoking and foods cause the major increases in ILCR and HQ. UCd is significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 1.468 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.104, 1.953; P = 0.008) and impaired kidney function (OR = 1.902, 95% CI: 1.054, 3.432; P = 0.033). The results demonstrate that Cd can potentially lead to adverse health effects.

  5. Are dieting-related cognitive impairments a function of iron status?

    PubMed

    Green, Michael W; Elliman, Nicola A

    2013-01-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the impairments in cognitive function observed in unsupported dieting are related to compromised Fe status. During a non-clinical intervention, overweight participants (age: 18-45 years, BMI: 25-30 kg/m²) either participated in a commercially available weight-loss regimen (n 14), dieted without support (n 17) or acted as a non-dieting control group (n 14) for a period of 8 weeks. Measurements of cognitive function and blood chemistry were taken at a pre-diet baseline, after 1 week and 8 weeks of dieting. After 1 week, unsupported dieters displayed impaired verbal memory, executive function and slower reaction speeds than the other two groups, this difference disappearing by the end of the study. There were no significant group-related changes in blood chemistry over the course of the study, although there were group-related changes in a number of self-reported food-related cognitions. In conclusion, impaired cognition among unsupported dieters is not due to compromised Fe status and is most likely to result from psychological variables. PMID:22414889

  6. Environmental Exposure to Cadmium: Health Risk Assessment and its Associations with Hypertension and Impaired Kidney Function.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyun; Liao, Qilin; Chillrud, Steven N; Yang, Qiang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Yan, Beizhan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal. This study was aimed to estimate the potential health risks in a Cd-polluted district in China, and examine the relationship between urinary cadmium(UCd) and hypertension and impaired kidney function at low exposure levels (UCd: GM 1.3 μg/g creatinine). Blood pressure measurement, questionnaires, and collection of urinary samples were conducted from 217 residents. Environmental samples, food, and cigarette samples were collected and detected to estimate the risks posed by Cd and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact pathways to these risks. A logistic regression model was used in examining associations between exposure and hypertension and impaired kidney function. Results show that this population is at high risk. For non-smokers, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) are 1.74E-04 and 2.96, and for smokers, they are 1.07E-03 and 52.5, respectively. Among all exposure pathways, smoking and foods cause the major increases in ILCR and HQ. UCd is significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 1.468; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.104, 1.953; P = 0.008) and impaired kidney function (OR = 1.902, 95% CI: 1.054, 3.432; P = 0.033). The results demonstrate that Cd can potentially lead to adverse health effects. PMID:27411493

  7. Environmental Exposure to Cadmium: Health Risk Assessment and its Associations with Hypertension and Impaired Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haiyun; Liao, Qilin; Chillrud, Steven N.; Yang, Qiang; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun; Yan, Beizhan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal. This study was aimed to estimate the potential health risks in a Cd-polluted district in China, and examine the relationship between urinary cadmium(UCd) and hypertension and impaired kidney function at low exposure levels (UCd: GM 1.3 μg/g creatinine). Blood pressure measurement, questionnaires, and collection of urinary samples were conducted from 217 residents. Environmental samples, food, and cigarette samples were collected and detected to estimate the risks posed by Cd and the contribution of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact pathways to these risks. A logistic regression model was used in examining associations between exposure and hypertension and impaired kidney function. Results show that this population is at high risk. For non-smokers, incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) and hazard quotient (HQ) are 1.74E-04 and 2.96, and for smokers, they are 1.07E-03 and 52.5, respectively. Among all exposure pathways, smoking and foods cause the major increases in ILCR and HQ. UCd is significantly associated with hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 1.468; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.104, 1.953; P = 0.008) and impaired kidney function (OR = 1.902, 95% CI: 1.054, 3.432; P = 0.033). The results demonstrate that Cd can potentially lead to adverse health effects. PMID:27411493

  8. Cardiosphere Derived Cells from Pediatric End-Stage Heart Failure Patients Have Enhanced Functional Activity due to the Heat Shock Response Regulating the Secretome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sudhish; Mishra, Rachana; Simpson, David; Wehman, Brody; Colletti, Evan J.; Deshmukh, Savitha; Datla, Srinivasa Raju; Balachandran, Keerti; Guo, Yin; Chen, Ling; Siddiqui, Osama T.; Kaushal, Shalesh; Kaushal, Sunjay

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated that human neonatal cardiosphere derived cells (CDCs) derived from the young are more regenerative due to their robust secretome. However, it is unclear how the decompensated pediatric heart impacts the functional activity of their CDCs. Our aim was to characterize the potency of pediatric CDCs derived from normal functioning myocardium of control heart disease (CHD) patients to those generated from age matched end stage heart failure (ESHF) patients and determine the mechanisms involved. ESHF derived CDCs contained a higher number of c-kit+, Islet-1+, and Sca-1+ cells. When transplanted into an infarcted rodent model, ESHF derived CDCs significantly demonstrated higher restoration of ventricular function, prevented adverse remodeling, and enhanced angiogenesis when compared to CHD patients. The superior functional recovery of the ESHF derived CDCs was mediated in part by increased SDF-1α and VEGF-A secretion resulting in augmented recruitment of endogenous stem cells and proliferation of cardiomyocytes. We determined the mechanism is due to the secretome directed by the heat shock response (HSR), which is supported by three lines of evidence. Firstly, gain of function studies demonstrated that increased HSR induced the lower functioning CHD derived CDCs to significantly restore myocardial function. Secondly, loss-of function studies targeting the HSR impaired the ability of the ESHF derived CDCs to functionally recover the injured myocardium. Finally, the native ESHF myocardium had an increased number of c-kit+ CSCs. These findings suggest that the HSR enhances the functional activity of ESHF derived CDCs by increasing their secretome activity, notably SDF-1α and VEGF-A. PMID:25752510

  9. The relation between cardiac output kinetics and skeletal muscle oxygenation during moderate exercise in moderately impaired patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Spee, Ruud F; Niemeijer, Victor M; Schoots, Thijs; Wijn, Pieter F; Doevendans, Pieter A; Kemps, Hareld M

    2016-07-01

    Oxygen uptake (V̇o2) kinetics are prolonged in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). This may be caused by impaired oxygen delivery or skeletal muscle derangements. We investigated whether impaired cardiac output (Q̇) kinetics limit skeletal muscle oxygen delivery relative to the metabolic demands at submaximal exercise in CHF patients by evaluating the relation between Q̇ kinetics and skeletal muscle deoxygenation. Forty-three CHF patients, NYHA II-III, performed a constant-load exercise test at 80% of the ventilatory aerobic threshold (VAT) to assess V̇o2 kinetics (τV̇o2). Q̇ kinetics (τQ̇) were assessed by a radial artery pulse contour analysis method. Skeletal muscle deoxygenation was assessed by near infrared spectroscopy at the m. vastus lateralis, using the minimal value of the tissue saturation index during onset of exercise (TSImin). Patients were categorized in slow and normal Q̇ responders relative to metabolic demands (τQ̇/V̇o2 ≥1 and τQ̇/V̇o2 <1, respectively), τQ̇ (62 ± 29 s), and τV̇o2 (60 ± 21 s) were significantly related (r = 0.66, P = 0.001). There was a significant correlation between τQ̇ and TSImin in the slow Q̇ responders [rs= -0.57, P = 0.005, n = 22 (51%)]. In conclusion, in moderately impaired CHF patients with relatively slow Q̇ kinetics, central hemodynamics may limit skeletal muscle oxygenation during moderate-intensity exercise. PMID:27283909

  10. Measuring changes in functional status among patients with schizophrenia: the link with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Matza, Louis S; Buchanan, Robert; Purdon, Scot; Brewster-Jordan, Jessica; Zhao, Yang; Revicki, Dennis A

    2006-10-01

    Cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) includes neuropsychological deficits in attention, working memory, verbal learning, and problem solving. These deficits have been shown to be linked to impairment in functional status (eg, social behavior, work performance, and activities of daily living) among patients with schizophrenia in cross-sectional studies. Less is known about the relationship between cognitive and functional change over time, such as potential functional implications of treatment-related improvement in CIAS. The purpose of this review is to summarize research on the association between change in CIAS and change in functional status, to discuss responsiveness of functional outcomes measures, and to provide recommendations for future research and measure development. Nine longitudinal studies were located on the link between CIAS and functional status, and 8 functional outcomes measures were used across these studies. The 9 studies offer initial support for a link between change in cognitive function and change in functional status. However, inconsistent findings across studies indicate that available research is preliminary, and substantial questions remain unanswered. Shortcomings of functional status measures are noted: most instruments were not developed for the target population, and none have demonstrated responsiveness to cognitive change among schizophrenic patients. It is recommended that new functional outcome measures be developed that are specifically designed to be responsive to change in cognition, with domains previously shown to be related to cognitive ability. When creating new functional outcomes measures for assessment of patients with schizophrenia, responsiveness to change in CIAS should be evaluated as part of the development and validation process. PMID:16829550

  11. How should we measure function in patients with chronic heart and lung disease?

    PubMed

    Guyatt, G H; Thompson, P J; Berman, L B; Sullivan, M J; Townsend, M; Jones, N L; Pugsley, S O

    1985-01-01

    To elucidate the characteristics of measures of function in patients with chronic heart failure and chronic lung disease we administered four functional status questionnaires, a 6-min walk test and a cycle ergometer exercise test, to 43 patients limited in their day to day activities as a result of their underlying heart or lung disease. Correlations between these measures were calculated using Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient. The walk test correlated well with the cycle ergometer (r = 0.579), and almost as well with the four functional status questionnaires (r = 0.473-0.590) as the questionnaires did with one another (0.423-0.729). On the other hand, correlations between cycle ergometer results and the questionnaires was in each case 0.295 or lower, and none of these correlations reached statistical significance. These results suggest that exercise capacity in the laboratory can be differentiated from functional exercise capacity (the ability to undertake physically demanding activities of daily living) and that the walk test provides a good measure of function in patients with heart and lung disease. PMID:4008592

  12. Acute heart inflammation: ultrastructural and functional aspects of macrophages elicited by Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Rossana C N

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The heart is the main target organ of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas' disease, a significant public health issue and still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America. During the acute disease, tissue damage in the heart is related to the intense myocardium parasitism. To control parasite multiplication, cells of the monocytic lineage are highly mobilized. In response to inflammatory and immune stimulation, an intense migration and extravasation of monocytes occurs from the bloodstream into heart. Monocyte differentiation leads to the formation of tissue phagocytosing macrophages, which are strongly activated and direct host defence. Newly elicited monocyte-derived macrophages both undergo profound physiological changes and display morphological heterogeneity that greatly differs from originally non-inflammatory macrophages, and underlie their functional activities as potent inflammatory cells. Thus, activated macrophages play a critical role in the outcome of parasite infection. This review covers functional and ultrastructural aspects of heart inflammatory macrophages triggered by the acute Chagas' disease, including recent discoveries on morphologically distinct, inflammation-related organelles, termed lipid bodies, which are actively formed in vivo within macrophages in response to T. cruzi infection. These findings are defining a broader role for lipid bodies as key markers of macrophage activation during innate immune responses to infectious diseases and attractive targets for novel anti-inflammatory therapies. Modulation of macrophage activation may be central in providing therapeutic benefits for Chagas' disease control. PMID:18624767

  13. MELAS syndrome and cardiomyopathy: linking mitochondrial function to heart failure pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ying-Han R; Yogasundaram, Haran; Parajuli, Nirmal; Valtuille, Lucas; Sergi, Consolato; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure remains an important clinical burden, and mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in its pathogenesis. The heart has a high metabolic demand, and mitochondrial function is a key determinant of myocardial performance. In mitochondrial disorders, hypertrophic remodeling is the early pattern of cardiomyopathy with progression to dilated cardiomyopathy, conduction defects and ventricular pre-excitation occurring in a significant proportion of patients. Cardiac dysfunction occurs in approximately a third of patients with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, a stereotypical example of a mitochondrial disorder leading to a cardiomyopathy. We performed unique comparative ultrastructural and gene expression in a MELAS heart compared with non-failing controls. Our results showed a remarkable increase in mitochondrial inclusions and increased abnormal mitochondria in MELAS cardiomyopathy coupled with variable sarcomere thickening, heterogeneous distribution of affected cardiomyocytes and a greater elevation in the expression of disease markers. Investigation and management of patients with mitochondrial cardiomyopathy should follow the well-described contemporary heart failure clinical practice guidelines and include an important role of medical and device therapies. Directed metabolic therapy is lacking, but current research strategies are dedicated toward improving mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial disorders. PMID:26712328

  14. Cyclin D2 rescues size and function of GATA4 haplo-insufficient hearts

    PubMed Central

    Yamak, Abir; Temsah, Rana; Maharsy, Wael; Caron, Sophie; Paradis, Pierre; Aries, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Transcription factor GATA4 is a key regulator of cardiomyocyte growth, and differentiation and 50% reduction in GATA4 levels results in hypoplastic hearts. Search for GATA4 targets/effectors revealed cyclin D2 (CD2), a member of the D-type cyclins (D1, D2, and D3) that play a vital role in cell growth and differentiation as a direct transcriptional target and a mediator of GATA4 growth in postnatal cardiomyocytes. GATA4 associates with the CD2 promoter in cardiomyocytes and is sufficient to induce endogenous CD2 transcription and to dose-dependently activate the CD2 promoter in heterologous cells. Cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of CD2 results in enhanced postnatal cardiac growth because of increased cardiomyocyte proliferation. When these transgenic mice are crossed with Gata4 heterozygote mice, they rescue the hypoplastic cardiac phenotype of Gata4+/− mice and enhance cardiomyocyte survival and heart function. The data uncover a role for CD2 in the postnatal heart as an effector of GATA4 in myocyte growth and survival. The finding that postnatal upregulation of a cell-cycle gene in GATA4 haplo-insufficient hearts may be protective opens new avenues for maintaining or restoring cardiac function in GATA4-dependent cardiac disease. PMID:22923619

  15. Therapeutic Inhibition of miR-208a Improves Cardiac Function and Survival During Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Rusty L.; Hullinger, Thomas G.; Semus, Hillary M.; Dickinson, Brent A.; Seto, Anita G.; Lynch, Joshua M.; Stack, Christianna; Latimer, Paul A.; Olson, Eric N.; van Rooij, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Background Diastolic dysfunction in response to hypertrophy is a major clinical syndrome with few therapeutic options. MicroRNAs act as negative regulators of gene expression by inhibiting translation or promoting degradation of target mRNAs. Previously, we reported that genetic deletion of the cardiac-specific miR-208a prevents pathological cardiac remodeling and upregulation of Myh7 in response to pressure overload. Whether this miRNA might contribute to diastolic dysfunction or other forms of heart disease is currently unknown. Methods and Results Here, we show that systemic delivery of an antisense oligonucleotide induces potent and sustained silencing of miR-208a in the heart. Therapeutic inhibition of miR-208a by subcutaneous delivery of antimiR-208a during hypertension-induced heart failure in Dahl hypertensive rats dose-dependently prevents pathological myosin switching and cardiac remodeling while improving cardiac function, overall health, and survival. Transcriptional profiling indicates that antimiR-208a evokes prominent effects on cardiac gene expression; plasma analysis indicates significant changes in circulating levels of miRNAs on antimiR-208a treatment. Conclusions These studies indicate the potential of oligonucleotide-based therapies for modulating cardiac miRNAs and validate miR-208 as a potent therapeutic target for the modulation of cardiac function and remodeling during heart disease progression. PMID:21900086

  16. Proteasome function is not impaired in healthy aging of the lung.

    PubMed

    Caniard, Anne; Ballweg, Korbinian; Lukas, Christina; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-10-01

    Aging is the progressive loss of cellular function which inevitably leads to death. Failure of proteostasis including the decrease in proteasome function is one hallmark of aging. In the lung, proteasome activity was shown to be impaired in age-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known on proteasome function during healthy aging. Here, we comprehensively analyzed healthy lung aging and proteasome function in wildtype, proteasome reporter and immunoproteasome knockout mice. Wildtype mice spontaneously developed senile lung emphysema while expression and activity of proteasome complexes and turnover of ubiquitinated substrates was not grossly altered in lungs of aged mice. Immunoproteasome subunits were specifically upregulated in the aged lung and the caspase-like proteasome activity concomitantly decreased. Aged knockout mice for the LMP2 or LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits showed no alteration in proteasome activities but exhibited typical lung aging phenotypes suggesting that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for physiological lung aging in mice. Our results indicate that healthy aging of the lung does not involve impairment of proteasome function. Apparently, the reserve capacity of the proteostasis systems in the lung is sufficient to avoid severe proteostasis imbalance during healthy aging. PMID:26540298

  17. Proteasome function is not impaired in healthy aging of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, Christina; Yildirim, Ali Ö.; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the progressive loss of cellular function which inevitably leads to death. Failure of proteostasis including the decrease in proteasome function is one hallmark of aging. In the lung, proteasome activity was shown to be impaired in age‐related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known on proteasome function during healthy aging. Here, we comprehensively analyzed healthy lung aging and proteasome function in wildtype, proteasome reporter and immunoproteasome knockout mice. Wildtype mice spontaneously developed senile lung emphysema while expression and activity of proteasome complexes and turnover of ubiquitinated substrates was not grossly altered in lungs of aged mice. Immunoproteasome subunits were specifically upregulated in the aged lung and the caspase‐like proteasome activity concomitantly decreased. Aged knockout mice for the LMP2 or LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits showed no alteration in proteasome activities but exhibited typical lung aging phenotypes suggesting that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for physiological lung aging in mice. Our results indicate that healthy aging of the lung does not involve impairment of proteasome function. Apparently, the reserve capacity of the proteostasis systems in the lung is sufficient to avoid severe proteostasis imbalance during healthy aging. PMID:26540298

  18. Pharmacokinetics and safety of olodaterol administered with the Respimat Soft Mist inhaler in subjects with impaired hepatic or renal function

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Christina; Luedtke, Doreen; Unseld, Anna; Hamilton, Alan; Halabi, Atef; Wein, Martina; Formella, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In two trials, the influences of hepatic and renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of olodaterol, a novel long-acting inhaled β2-agonist for treatment of COPD, were investigated. Subjects and methods The first trial included eight subjects with mild hepatic function impairment (Child–Pugh A), eight subjects with moderate impairment (Child–Pugh B), and 16 matched healthy subjects with normal hepatic function. The second trial included eight subjects with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL·min−1) and 14 matched healthy subjects with normal renal function. Subjects received single doses of 20 or 30 μg olodaterol administered with the Respimat Soft Mist inhaler. Results Olodaterol was well tolerated in all subjects. The geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals of dose-normalized area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to 4 hours (AUC0–4) for subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment compared to healthy subjects were 97% (75%–125%) and 105% (79%–140%), respectively. Corresponding values for dose-normalized maximum concentration (Cmax) were 112% (84%–151%) (mild impairment) and 99% (73%–135%) (moderate impairment). The geometric mean ratio (90% confidence interval) of AUC0–4 for subjects with severe renal impairment compared to healthy subjects was 135% (94%–195%), and for Cmax was 137% (84%–222%). There was no significant relationship between creatinine clearance and AUC0–4 or Cmax. Renal clearance of olodaterol was reduced to 20% of normal in severe renal impairment. Conclusion Mild to moderate hepatic function impairment or severe renal function impairment did not result in a clinically relevant increase of olodaterol systemic exposure after a single inhaled dose. PMID:27051282

  19. Di-(2-Ethylhexyl)-Phthalate (DEHP) Causes Impaired Adipocyte Function and Alters Serum Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Klöting, Nora; Hesselbarth, Nico; Gericke, Martin; Kunath, Anne; Biemann, Ronald; Chakaroun, Rima; Kosacka, Joanna; Kovacs, Peter; Kern, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Fischer, Bernd; Rolle-Kampczyk, Ulrike; Feltens, Ralph; Otto, Wolfgang; Wissenbach, Dirk K.; von Bergen, Martin; Blüher, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), an ubiquitous environmental contaminant, has been shown to cause adverse effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in epidemiological studies, but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that chronic DEHP exposure causes impaired insulin sensitivity, affects body weight, adipose tissue (AT) function and circulating metabolic parameters of obesity resistant 129S6 mice in vivo. An obesity-resistant mouse model was chosen to reduce a potential obesity bias of DEHP effects on metabolic parameters and AT function. The metabolic effects of 10-weeks exposure to DEHP were tested by insulin tolerance tests and quantitative assessment of 183 metabolites in mice. Furthermore, 3T3-L1 cells were cultured with DEHP for two days, differentiated into mature adipocytes in which the effects on insulin stimulated glucose and palmitate uptake, lipid content as well as on mRNA/protein expression of key adipocyte genes were investigated. We observed in female mice that DEHP treatment causes enhanced weight gain, fat mass, impaired insulin tolerance, changes in circulating adiponectin and adipose tissue Pparg, adiponectin and estrogen expression. Serum metabolomics indicated a general increase in phospholipid and carnitine concentrations. In vitro, DEHP treatment increases the proliferation rate and alters glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, DEHP has significant effects on adipose tissue (AT) function and alters specific serum metabolites. Although, DEHP treatment led to significantly impaired insulin tolerance, it did not affect glucose tolerance, HOMA-IR, fasting glucose, insulin or triglyceride serum concentrations. This may suggest that DEHP treatment does not cause impaired glucose metabolism at the whole body level. PMID:26630026

  20. Heme oxygenase-2 deletion impairs macrophage function: implication in wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Bellner, Lars; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; van Rooijen, Nico; Dunn, Michael W.; Abraham, Nader G.; Schwartzman, Michal L.

    2015-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-2 deficiency impairs wound healing and exacerbates inflammation following injury. We examine the impact of HO-2 deficiency on macrophage function and the contribution of macrophage HO-2 to inflammatory and repair responses to injury. Corneal epithelial debridement was performed in control and macrophage-depleted HO-2−/− and wild-type (WT) mice and in bone marrow chimeras. Peritoneal macrophages were collected for determination of phagocytic activity and classically activated macrophage (M1)-alternatively activated macrophage (M2) polarization. Depletion of macrophages delayed corneal healing (13.2%) and increased neutrophil infiltration (54.1%) by day 4 in WT mice, whereas in HO-2−/− mice, it did not worsen the already impaired wound healing and exacerbated inflammation. HO-2−/− macrophages displayed an altered M1 phenotype with no significant expression of M2 or M2-like activated cells and a 31.3% reduction in phagocytic capacity that was restored by inducing HO-1 activity or supplementing biliverdin. Macrophage depletion had no effect, whereas adoptive transfer of WT bone marrow improved wound healing (34% on day 4) but did not resolve the exaggerated inflammatory response in HO-2−/− mice. These findings indicate that HO-2–deficient macrophages are dysfunctional and that macrophage HO-2 is required for proper macrophage function but is insufficient to correct the impaired healing of the HO-2−/− cornea, suggesting that corneal epithelial expression of HO-2 is a key to resolution and repair in wound healing.—Bellner, L., Marrazzo, G., van Rooijen, N., Dunn, M. W., Abraham, N. G., Schwartzman, M. L. Heme oxygenase-2 deletion impairs macrophage function: implication in wound healing. PMID:25342128

  1. Ceramide-Mediated Insulin Resistance and Impairment of Cognitive-Motor Functions

    PubMed Central

    de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Tong, Ming; Nguyen, VanAnh; Setshedi, Mashiko; Longato, Lisa; Wands, Jack R.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are associated with cognitive impairment, brain insulin resistance, and neurodegeneration. Recent studies linked these effects to increased pro-ceramide gene expression in liver and increased ceramide levels in serum. Since ceramides are neurotoxic and cause insulin resistance, we directly examined the role of ceramides as mediators of impaired signaling and central nervous system function using an in vivo model. Long Evans rat pups were administered C2Cer:N-acetylsphinganine or its inactive dihydroceramide analog (C2DCer) by i.p. injection. Rats were subjected to rotarod and Morris water maze tests of motor and cognitive function, and livers and brains were examined for histopathology and integrity of insulin/IGF signaling. C2Cer treatment caused hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and mild steatohepatitis, reduced brain lipid content, and increased ceramide levels in liver, brain, and serum. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed significant alterations in expression of several genes needed for insulin and IGF-I signaling, and multiplex ELISAs demonstrated inhibition of signaling through the insulin or IGF-1 receptors, IRS-1, and Akt in both liver and brain. Ultimately, the toxic ceramides generated in peripheral sources such as liver or adipose tissue caused sustained impairments in neuro-cognitive function and insulin/IGF signaling needed for neuronal survival, plasticity, and myelin maintenance in the brain. These findings support our hypothesis that a liver/peripheral tissue-brain axis of neurodegeneration, effectuated by increased toxic lipid/ceramide production and transport across the blood-brain barrier, could mediate cognitive impairment in T2DM and NASH. PMID:20693650

  2. Quality of life and cardiorespiratory function in chronic heart failure: effects of 12 months' aerobic training.

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, T.; Myers, M. G.; Baigrie, R. S.; Mertens, D. J.; Sawyer, P.; Shephard, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term benefits and safety of aerobic training in patients with chronic heart failure. DESIGN: Non-randomised control trial with 52 weeks follow up. SETTING: Outpatient cardiac rehabilitation referral centre. PATIENTS: Patients with compensated chronic heart failure (mean (SD) age 62 (6) years, New York Heart Association stage III, initial resting ejection fraction 22 (7)%). Experimental group of 17 men, 4 women; control group 8 men, 1 woman. INTERVENTIONS: Experimental group: progressive, supervised aerobic walking programme for 52 weeks. Control group: standard medical treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Six-minute walk distance, progressive cycle ergometer test to subjective exhaustion, disease-specific quality of life questionnaire, and standard gamble test, all measured at entry, 4, 8, 12, 16, 26, and 52 weeks. RESULTS: Control data showed no changes except a small trend to improved emotional function (P = 0.02 at 12 weeks only). Fifteen of the 21 patients completed all 52 weeks of aerobic training; two withdrew for non-cardiac reasons (16, 52 weeks). Three were withdrawn because of worsening cardiac failure unrelated to their exercise participation (4, 4, 8 weeks), and one had a non-fatal cardiac arrest while shopping (16 weeks). Gains of cardiorespiratory function plateaued at 16-26 weeks, with 10-15% improvement in six-minute walk, peak power output, and peak oxygen intake linked to gains in oxygen pulse and ventilatory threshold and reductions in resting heart rate. Marked improvements in quality of life followed a parallel course. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic training is safe and beneficial in compensated chronic heart failure. Gains in aerobic function and quality of life persisted over a programme lasting 52 weeks. PMID:8774326

  3. Impaired resting myocardial annular velocities are independently associated with mental-stress induced ischemia in patients with coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Ersboll, Mads; Enezi, Fawaz Al; Samad, Zainab; Sedberry, Brenda; Boyle, Stephen H.; O’Connor, Christopher; Jiang, Wei; Velazquez, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objectives To investigate the association between resting myocardial function as assessed by tissue Doppler myocardial velocities (TDI) and the propensity for developing mental stress induced ischemia (MSIMI). Background Tissue Doppler myocardial velocities detect preclinical cardiac dysfunction and clinical outcome in a range of conditions. However, little is known about the interrelationship between myocardial velocities and the propensity for developing MSIMI versus exercise stress induced myocardial ischemia (ESIMI). Methods Resting annular myocardial TDI velocities were obtained in 225 patients with known coronary heart disease who were subjected to both conventional exercise stress test as well as a battery of 3 mental stress tests. Diastolic early (e′) and late (a′) as well as systolic (s′) velocities were obtained and eas-index, an integrated measure of myocardial velocities, was calculated as e′/(a′ x s′). MSIMI was defined as 1) development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality, 2) reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction ≥ 8%, and/or 3) ischemic ST-segment changes during one or more of the three mental stress tests. Results A total of 98 (43.7%) out of 225 patients exhibited MSIMI. Patients developing MSIMI had significantly lower s′ (7.0±1.7 vs 7.5±1.2, p=0.016) and a′ (8.9±1.8 vs 10.0±1.9, p<0.001) at baseline whereas e′ did not differ (6.5±1.7 vs. 6.5±1.8, p=0.85). Furthermore, the eas-index was significantly higher (0.11±0.04 vs. 0.09±0.03, p<0.0001).The eas-index remained significantly associated with the propensity for developing MSIMI (Odds ratio per 0.05 unit increase: 1.85; 95%CI: 1.21–2.82, p=0.004) after adjustment of resting LVEF, resting wall motion index score, gender and social circumstances of living. There was no association between resting eas-index and ESIMI. Conclusion MSIMI but not ESIMI is independently associated with resting abnormalities in myocardial systolic

  4. Impaired High-Density Lipoprotein Anti-Oxidant Function Predicts Poor Outcome in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schrutka, Lore; Goliasch, Georg; Meyer, Brigitte; Wurm, Raphael; Koller, Lorenz; Kriechbaumer, Lukas; Heinz, Gottfried; Pacher, Richard; Lang, Irene M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress affects clinical outcome in critically ill patients. Although high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles generally possess anti-oxidant capacities, deleterious properties of HDL have been described in acutely ill patients. The impact of anti-oxidant HDL capacities on clinical outcome in critically ill patients is unknown. We therefore analyzed the predictive value of anti-oxidant HDL function on mortality in an unselected cohort of critically ill patients. Method We prospectively enrolled 270 consecutive patients admitted to a university-affiliated intensive care unit (ICU) and determined anti-oxidant HDL function using the HDL oxidant index (HOI). Based on their HOI, the study population was stratified into patients with impaired anti-oxidant HDL function and the residual study population. Results During a median follow-up time of 9.8 years (IQR: 9.2 to 10.0), 69% of patients died. Cox regression analysis revealed a significant and independent association between impaired anti-oxidant HDL function and short-term mortality with an adjusted HR of 1.65 (95% CI 1.22–2.24; p = 0.001) as well as 10-year mortality with an adj. HR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.02–1.40; p = 0.032) when compared to the residual study population. Anti-oxidant HDL function correlated with the amount of oxidative stress as determined by Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (r = 0.38; p<0.001). Conclusion Impaired anti-oxidant HDL function represents a strong and independent predictor of 30-day mortality as well as long-term mortality in critically ill patients. PMID:26978526

  5. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion in Rats Alters Lung Metabolism, Promotes Lipid Accumulation, and Impairs Alveolar Macrophage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Freddy; Shah, Dilip; Duong, Michelle; Stafstrom, William; Hoek, Jan B.; Kallen, Caleb B.; Lang, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism impairs pulmonary immune homeostasis and predisposes to inflammatory lung diseases, including infectious pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although alcoholism has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism, leading to lipid accumulation, hepatitis, and, eventually, cirrhosis, the effects of alcohol on pulmonary metabolism remain largely unknown. Because both the lung and the liver actively engage in lipid synthesis, we hypothesized that chronic alcoholism would impair pulmonary metabolic homeostasis in ways similar to its effects in the liver. We reasoned that perturbations in lipid metabolism might contribute to the impaired pulmonary immunity observed in people who chronically consume alcohol. We studied the metabolic consequences of chronic alcohol consumption in rat lungs in vivo and in alveolar epithelial type II cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs) in vitro. We found that chronic alcohol ingestion significantly alters lung metabolic homeostasis, inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase, increasing lipid synthesis, and suppressing the expression of genes essential to metabolizing fatty acids (FAs). Furthermore, we show that these metabolic alterations promoted a lung phenotype that is reminiscent of alcoholic fatty liver and is characterized by marked accumulation of triglycerides and free FAs within distal airspaces, AMs, and, to a lesser extent, alveolar epithelial type II cells. We provide evidence that the metabolic alterations in alcohol-exposed rats are mechanistically linked to immune impairments in the alcoholic lung: the elevations in FAs alter AM phenotypes and suppress both phagocytic functions and agonist-induced inflammatory responses. In summary, our work demonstrates that chronic alcohol ingestion impairs lung metabolic homeostasis and promotes pulmonary immune dysfunction. These findings suggest that therapies aimed at reversing alcohol-related metabolic alterations might be effective for preventing and

  6. Executive functions in mono- and bilingual children with language impairment - issues for speech-language pathology.

    PubMed

    Sandgren, Olof; Holmström, Ketty

    2015-01-01

    The clinical assessment of language impairment (LI) in bilingual children imposes challenges for speech-language pathology services. Assessment tools standardized for monolingual populations increase the risk of misinterpreting bilingualism as LI. This Perspective article summarizes recent studies on the assessment of bilingual LI and presents new results on including non-linguistic measures of executive functions in the diagnostic assessment. Executive functions shows clinical utility as less subjected to language use and exposure than linguistic measures. A possible bilingual advantage, and consequences for speech-language pathology practices and future research are discussed. PMID:26283999

  7. Impaired Transcriptional Response of the Murine Heart to Cigarette Smoke in the Setting of High Fat Diet and Obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, Susan C.; Karin, Norman J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Lee, K. M.; Corley, Richard A.; Pounds, Joel G.; Bigelow, Diana J.

    2013-07-01

    Smoking and obesity are each well-established risk factors for cardiovascular heart disease, which together impose earlier onset and greater severity of disease. To identify early signaling events in the response of the heart to cigarette smoke exposure within the setting of obesity, we exposed normal weight and high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6 mice to repeated inhaled doses of mainstream (MS) or sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke administered over a two week period, monitoring effects on both cardiac and pulmonary transcriptomes. MS smoke (250 μg wet total particulate matter (WTPM)/L, 5 h/day) exposures elicited robust cellular and molecular inflammatory responses in the lung with 1466 differentially expressed pulmonary genes (p < 0.01) in normal weight animals and a much-attenuated response (463 genes) in the hearts of the same animals. In contrast, exposures to SS smoke (85 μg WTPM/L) with a CO concentration equivalent to that of MS smoke (250 CO ppm) induced a weak pulmonary response (328 genes) but an extensive cardiac response (1590 genes). SS smoke and to a lesser extent MS smoke preferentially elicited hypoxia- and stress-responsive genes as well as genes predicting early changes of vascular smooth muscle and endothelium, precursors of cardiovascular disease. The most sensitive smoke-induced cardiac transcriptional changes of normal weight mice were largely absent in DIO mice after smoke exposure, while genes involved in fatty acid utilization were unaffected. At the same time, smoke exposure suppressed multiple proteome maintenance genes induced in the hearts of DIO mice. Together, these results underscore the sensitivity of the heart to SS smoke and reveal adaptive responses in healthy individuals that are absent in the setting of high fat diet and obesity.

  8. The Relationship of Metabolic Syndrome with Stress, Coronary Heart Disease and Pulmonary Function - An Occupational Cohort-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Nowobilski, Roman; Dropinski, Jerzy; Kotula-Horowitz, Katarzyna; Laskowicz, Bartosz; Stanisz, Andrzej; Lelakowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Higher levels of stress impact the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and coronary heart disease. The association between MetS, impaired pulmonary function and low level of physical activity is still pending assessment in the subjects exposed to stress. The study aimed to examine whether higher levels of stress might be related to MetS and the plaque presence, as well as whether MetS might affect pulmonary function. Design and Methods The study embraced 235 police officers (mean age 40.97 years) from the south of Poland. The anthropometrics and biochemical variables were measured; MetS was diagnosed using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Computed tomography coronary angiography of coronary arteries, exercise ECG, measurements of brachial flow-mediated dilation, and carotid artery intima-media thickness were completed. In order to measure the self-perception of stress, 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) was applied. Pulmonary function and physical activity levels were also addressed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to determine the relationships between: 1/ incidence of coronary plaque and MetS per se, MetS components and the number of classical cardiovascular risk factors, 2/ perceived stress and MetS, 3/ MetS and pulmonary function parameters. Results Coronary artery atherosclerosis was less associated with MetS (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.24–5.52; p = 0.011) than with a co-existence of classical cardiovascular risk factors (OR = 5.67, 95% CI 1.07–29.85, p = 0.03; for 3 risk factors and OR = 9.05; 95% CI 1.24–66.23, p = 0.02; for 6 risk factors, respectively). Perceived stress increased MetS prevalence (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03–1.13; p = 0.03), and impacted coronary plaque prevalence (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.001–1.10; p = 0.04). Leisure-time physical activity reduced the chances of developing MetS (OR = 0.98 95% CI 0.96–0.99; p = 0.02). MetS subjects had significantly lower values of certain

  9. Relationship of structural to functional impairment during alveolar-capillary membrane development.

    PubMed

    Ahlfeld, Shawn K; Gao, Yong; Conway, Simon J; Tepper, Robert S

    2015-04-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a chronic lung disease of extreme preterm infants and results in impaired gas exchange. Although bronchopulmonary dysplasia is characterized histologically by alveolar-capillary simplification in animal models, it is clinically defined by impaired gas diffusion. With the use of a developmentally relevant model, we correlated alveolar-capillary structural simplification with reduced functional gas exchange as measured by the diffusing factor for carbon monoxide (DFCO). Neonatal mouse pups were exposed to >90% hyperoxia or room air during postnatal days 0 to 7, and then all pups were returned to room air from days 7 to 56. At day 56, DFCO was measured as the ratio of carbon monoxide uptake to neon dilution, and lungs were fixed for histologic assessment of alveolar-capillary development. Neonatal hyperoxia exposure inhibited alveolar-capillary septal development as evidenced by significantly increased mean linear intercept, increased airspace-to-septal ratio, decreased nodal density, and decreased pulmonary microvasculature. Importantly, alveolar-capillary structural deficits in hyperoxia-exposed pups were accompanied by a significant 28% decrease in DFCO (0.555 versus 0.400; P < 0.0001). In addition, DFCO was highly and significantly correlated with structural measures of reduced alveolar-capillary growth. Simplification of alveolar-capillary structure is highly correlated with impaired gas exchange function. Current mechanistic and therapeutic animal models of inhibited alveolar development may benefit from application of DFCO as an alternative physiologic indicator of alveolar-capillary development. PMID:25661110

  10. The Effectiveness of a Multidisciplinary Group Rehabilitation Program on the Psychosocial Functioning of Elderly People Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alma, Manna A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Suurmeijer, Theo P. B. M.; van der Mei, Sijrike F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The pilot study reported here determined the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary group rehabilitation program, Visually Impaired Elderly Persons Participating (VIPP), on psychosocial functioning. Methods: The single-group pretest-posttest pilot study included 29 persons with visual impairments (aged 55 and older) who were referred…

  11. Congenital heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital heart disease is a problem with the heart's structure and function that is present at birth. ... Congenital heart disease (CHD) can describe a number of different problems affecting the heart. It is the most common ...

  12. Trbp regulates heart function through miRNA-mediated Sox6 repression

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jian; Chen, Jinghai; Wang, Yanqun; Kataoka, Masaharu; Ma, Lixin; Zhou, Pingzhu; Hu, Xiaoyun; Lin, Zhiqiang; Nie, Mao; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Pu, William T; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is associated with altered expression of genes encoding contractile proteins. Here we show that Trbp (Tarbp2), an RNA binding protein, is required for normal heart function. Cardiac-specific inactivation of Trbp (TrbpcKO) caused progressive cardiomyopathy and lethal heart failure. Trbp loss of function resulted in upregulation of Sox6, repression of genes encoding normal cardiac slow-twitch myofiber proteins, and pathologically increased expression of skeletal fast-twitch myofiber genes. Remarkably, knockdown of Sox6 fully rescued the Trbp mutant phenotype, whereas Sox6 overexpression phenocopied the TrbpcKO phenotype. Trbp inactivation was mechanistically linked to Sox6 upregulation through altered processing of miR-208a, which is a direct inhibitor of Sox6. Transgenic overexpression of miR-208a sufficiently repressed Sox6, restored the balance of fast- and slow- twitch myofiber gene expression, and rescued cardiac function in TrbpcKO mice. Together, our studies reveal a novel Trbp-mediated microRNA processing mechanism in regulating a linear genetic cascade essential for normal heart function. PMID:26029872

  13. Cognition and motor control as a function of Delta9-THC concentration in serum and oral fluid: limits of impairment.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, J G; Moeller, M R; van Ruitenbeek, P; Theunissen, E L; Schneider, E; Kauert, G

    2006-11-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with increased risk of becoming involved in traffic accidents; however, the relation between THC concentration and driver impairment is relatively obscure. The present study was designed to define performance impairment as a function of THC in serum and oral fluid in order to provide a scientific framework to the development of per se limits for driving under the influence of cannabis. Twenty recreational users of cannabis participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over study. Subjects were administered single doses of 0, 250 and 500 microg/kg THC by smoking. Performance tests measuring skills related to driving were conducted at regular intervals between 15 min and 6h post smoking and included measures of perceptual-motor control (Critical tracking task), motor impulsivity (Stop signal task) and cognitive function (Tower of London). Blood and oral fluid were collected throughout testing. Results showed a strong and linear relation between THC in serum and oral fluid. Linear relations between magnitude of performance impairment and THC in oral fluid and serum, however, were low. A more promising way to define threshold levels of impairment was found by comparing the proportion of observations showing impairment or no impairment as a function of THC concentration. The proportion of observations showing impairment progressively increased as a function of serum THC in every task. Binomial tests showed an initial and significant shift toward impairment in the Critical tracking task for serum THC concentrations between 2 and 5 ng/ml. At concentrations between 5 and 10 ng/ml approximately 75-90% of the observations were indicative of significant impairment in every performance test. At THC concentrations >30 ng/ml the proportion of observations indicative of significant impairment increased to a full 100% in every performance tests. It is concluded that serum THC concentrations between 2 and 5 ng/ml establish the

  14. A Circadian Clock Gene, Cry, Affects Heart Morphogenesis and Function in Drosophila as Revealed by Optical Coherence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xianxu; Tate, Rebecca E.; McKee, Mary L.; Capen, Diane E.; Zhang, Zhan; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous, entrainable oscillations of physical, mental and behavioural processes in response to local environmental cues such as daylight, which are present in the living beings, including humans. Circadian rhythms have been related to cardiovascular function and pathology. However, the role that circadian clock genes play in heart development and function in a whole animal in vivo are poorly understood. The Drosophila cryptochrome (dCry) is a circadian clock gene that encodes a major component of the circadian clock negative feedback loop. Compared to the embryonic stage, the relative expression levels of dCry showed a significant increase (>100-fold) in Drosophila during the pupa and adult stages. In this study, we utilized an ultrahigh resolution optical coherence microscopy (OCM) system to perform non-invasive and longitudinal analysis of functional and morphological changes in the Drosophila heart throughout its post-embryonic lifecycle for the first time. The Drosophila heart exhibited major morphological and functional alterations during its development. Notably, heart rate (HR) and cardiac activity period (CAP) of Drosophila showed significant variations during the pupa stage, when heart remodeling took place. From the M-mode (2D + time) OCM images, cardiac structural and functional parameters of Drosophila at different developmental stages were quantitatively determined. In order to study the functional role of dCry on Drosophila heart development, we silenced dCry by RNAi in the Drosophila heart and mesoderm, and quantitatively measured heart morphology and function in those flies throughout its development. Silencing of dCry resulted in slower HR, reduced CAP, smaller heart chamber size, pupal lethality and disrupted posterior segmentation that was related to increased expression of a posterior compartment protein, wingless. Collectively, our studies provided novel evidence that the circadian clock gene, dCry, plays an essential

  15. A Circadian Clock Gene, Cry, Affects Heart Morphogenesis and Function in Drosophila as Revealed by Optical Coherence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Zeng, Xianxu; Tate, Rebecca E; McKee, Mary L; Capen, Diane E; Zhang, Zhan; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Zhou, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are endogenous, entrainable oscillations of physical, mental and behavioural processes in response to local environmental cues such as daylight, which are present in the living beings, including humans. Circadian rhythms have been related to cardiovascular function and pathology. However, the role that circadian clock genes play in heart development and function in a whole animal in vivo are poorly understood. The Drosophila cryptochrome (dCry) is a circadian clock gene that encodes a major component of the circadian clock negative feedback loop. Compared to the embryonic stage, the relative expression levels of dCry showed a significant increase (>100-fold) in Drosophila during the pupa and adult stages. In this study, we utilized an ultrahigh resolution optical coherence microscopy (OCM) system to perform non-invasive and longitudinal analysis of functional and morphological changes in the Drosophila heart throughout its post-embryonic lifecycle for the first time. The Drosophila heart exhibited major morphological and functional alterations during its development. Notably, heart rate (HR) and cardiac activity period (CAP) of Drosophila showed significant variations during the pupa stage, when heart remodeling took place. From the M-mode (2D + time) OCM images, cardiac structural and functional parameters of Drosophila at different developmental stages were quantitatively determined. In order to study the functional role of dCry on Drosophila heart development, we silenced dCry by RNAi in the Drosophila heart and mesoderm, and quantitatively measured heart morphology and function in those flies throughout its development. Silencing of dCry resulted in slower HR, reduced CAP, smaller heart chamber size, pupal lethality and disrupted posterior segmentation that was related to increased expression of a posterior compartment protein, wingless. Collectively, our studies provided novel evidence that the circadian clock gene, dCry, plays an essential

  16. Computer/gaming station use in youth: Correlations among use, addiction and functional impairment

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Susan; Saran, Kelly; Green, David A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Computer/gaming station use is ubiquitous in the lives of youth today. Overuse is a concern, but it remains unclear whether problems arise from addictive patterns of use or simply excessive time spent on use. The goal of the present study was to evaluate computer/gaming station use in youth and to examine the relationship between amounts of use, addictive features of use and functional impairment. METHOD: A total of 110 subjects (11 to 17 years of age) from local schools participated. Time spent on television, video gaming and non-gaming recreational computer activities was measured. Addictive features of computer/gaming station use were ascertained, along with emotional/behavioural functioning. Multiple linear regressions were used to understand how youth functioning varied with time of use and addictive features of use. RESULTS: Mean (± SD) total screen time was 4.5±2.4 h/day. Addictive features of use were consistently correlated with functional impairment across multiple measures and informants, whereas time of use, after controlling for addiction, was not. CONCLUSIONS: Youth are spending many hours each day in front of screens. In the absence of addictive features of computer/gaming station use, time spent is not correlated with problems; however, youth with addictive features of use show evidence of poor emotional/ behavioural functioning. PMID:24082802

  17. In normal subjects bracing impairs the function of the inspiratory muscles.

    PubMed

    Prandi, E; Couture, J; Bellemare, F

    1999-05-01

    Normal subjects can increase their capacity to sustain hyperpnoea by bracing their arms on fixed objects, a procedure which is also known to reduce dyspnoea in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the present study, it was tested whether bracing per se could improve the function of the diaphragm. The effect of bracing on diaphragm function was studied in six normal subjects by recording changes in oesophageal (delta Poes) and transdiaphragmatic (delta Pdi) pressure during inspiratory capacity (IC) manoeuvres in the seated and upright postures, and in the seated posture, also during bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation (BPNS) at functional residual capacity (FRC). The pattern of ribcage motion and deformation associated with bracing and with diaphragm contraction was also evaluated using inductance plethysmography and magnetometers. Bracing increased FRC by >300 mL and reduced IC by approximately 200 mL, in both postures. Delta Pdi during BPNS decreased on average by 15% indicating an impaired diaphragmatic function. The ribcage was deformed with bracing and was more distortable during BPNS. In conclusion, in normal subjects, bracing impairs the function of the inspiratory muscles and reduces ribcage stability. These negative effects cannot explain the improved capacity to sustain hyperpnoea when the arms are braced. PMID:10414407

  18. When words lead to solutions: executive function deficits in preschool children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Roello, Mara; Ferretti, Maria Letizia; Colonnello, Valentina; Levi, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    Several studies indicate that school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulties with tasks that rely on executive functions. Whether executive function deficits in children with SLI emerge during preschool age remains unclear. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating executive function performances in two age groups of preschoolers with and without SLI. Children with SLI (N=60; young: 53.6±5.3 months; old: 65.4±3.8 months) and age-matched control children (N=58) were tested for problem-representation ability, using the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST), rule-use skills, using a Stroop-like Day-Night test (D/N), and planning skills, using the Tower of London test (TOL). Older children performed better than younger children did across tasks. Children with SLI had poorer performance, compared to typically developing children, on measures of problem representation, planning skills, and use of rules. Our results clearly indicate that executive function impairment is evident during the preschool period. Although old children with SLI performed better than young children with SLI, their performances were still poor, compared to those of control peers. These findings suggest that children with SLI have altered executive functioning at 53.6 months. PMID:25528081

  19. Why do interracial interactions impair executive function? A resource depletion account.

    PubMed

    Richeson, Jennifer A; Trawalter, Sophie

    2005-06-01

    Three studies investigated the veracity of a resource depletion account of the impairment of inhibitory task performance after interracial contact. White individuals engaged in either an interracial or same-race interaction, then completed an ostensibly unrelated Stroop color-naming test. In each study, the self-regulatory demands of the interaction were either increased (Study 1) or decreased (Studies 2 and 3). Results revealed that increasing the self-regulatory demands of an interracial interaction led to greater Stroop interference compared with control, whereas reducing self-regulatory demands led to less Stroop interference. Manipulating self-regulatory demands did not affect Stroop performance after same-race interactions. Taken together, the present studies point to resource depletion as the likely mechanism underlying the impairment of cognitive functioning after interracial dyadic interactions. PMID:15982114

  20. Advancing understanding of executive function impairments and psychopathology: bridging the gap between clinical and cognitive approaches.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Hannah R; Miyake, Akira; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is essential for successfully navigating nearly all of our daily activities. Of critical importance for clinical psychological science, EF impairments are associated with most forms of psychopathology. However, despite the proliferation of research on EF in clinical populations, with notable exceptions clinical and cognitive approaches to EF have remained largely independent, leading to failures to apply theoretical and methodological advances in one field to the other field and hindering progress. First, we review the current state of knowledge of EF impairments associated with psychopathology and limitations to the previous research in light of recent advances in understanding and measuring EF. Next, we offer concrete suggestions for improving EF assessment. Last, we suggest future directions, including integrating modern models of EF with state of the art, hierarchical models of dimensional psychopathology as well as translational implications of EF-informed research on clinical science. PMID:25859234

  1. Aldioxa improves delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance, pathophysiologic mechanisms of functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Teita; Aida, Shuji; Suemasu, Shintaro; Tahara, Kayoko; Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Mizushima, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation (decreased gastric compliance) play important roles in functional dyspepsia (FD). Here we screen for a clinically used drug with an ability to improve delayed gastric emptying in rats. Oral administration of aldioxa (dihydroxyaluminum allantoinate) partially improved clonidine- or restraint stress-induced delayed gastric emptying. Administration of allantoin, but not aluminium hydroxide, restored the gastric emptying. Both aldioxa and allantoin inhibited clonidine binding to the α-2 adrenergic receptor, suggesting that antagonistic activity of the allantoin moiety of aldioxa on this receptor is involved in the restoration of gastric emptying activity. Aldioxa or aluminium hydroxide but not allantoin restored gastric compliance with restraint stress, suggesting that aluminium hydroxide moiety is involved in this restoration. We propose that aldioxa is a candidate drug for FD, because its safety in humans has already been confirmed and its ameliorating effect on both of delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric compliance are confirmed here. PMID:26620883

  2. Advancing understanding of executive function impairments and psychopathology: bridging the gap between clinical and cognitive approaches

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Miyake, Akira; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) is essential for successfully navigating nearly all of our daily activities. Of critical importance for clinical psychological science, EF impairments are associated with most forms of psychopathology. However, despite the proliferation of research on EF in clinical populations, with notable exceptions clinical and cognitive approaches to EF have remained largely independent, leading to failures to apply theoretical and methodological advances in one field to the other field and hindering progress. First, we review the current state of knowledge of EF impairments associated with psychopathology and limitations to the previous research in light of recent advances in understanding and measuring EF. Next, we offer concrete suggestions for improving EF assessment. Last, we suggest future directions, including integrating modern models of EF with state of the art, hierarchical models of dimensional psychopathology as well as translational implications of EF-informed research on clinical science. PMID:25859234

  3. Age-related changes in tissue macrophages precede cardiac functional impairment.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Alexander R; Godwin, James W; Chandran, Anjana; Hersey, Lucy; Ilinykh, Alexei; Debuque, Ryan; Wang, Lina; Rosenthal, Nadia A

    2014-05-01

    Cardiac tissue macrophages (cTMs) are abundant in the murine heart but the extent to which the cTM phenotype changes with age is unknown. This study characterizes aging-dependent phenotypic changes in cTM subsets. Using theCx3cr1(GFP/+) mouse reporter line where GFP marks cTMs, and the tissue macrophage marker Mrc1, we show that two major cardiac tissue macrophage subsets, Mrc1-GFP(hi) and Mrc1+GFP(hi) cTMs, are present in the young (<10 week old) mouse heart, and a third subset, Mrc1+GFP(lo), comprises ~50% of total Mrc1+ cTMs from 30 weeks of age. Immunostaining and functional assays show that Mrc1+ cTMs are the principal myeloid sentinels in the mouse heart and that they retain proliferative capacity throughout life. Gene expression profiles of the two Mrc1+ subsets also reveal that Mrc1+GFP(lo) cTMs have a decreased number of immune response genes (Cx3cr1, Lpar6, CD9, Cxcr4, Itga6 and Tgfβr1), and an increased number of fibrogenic genes (Ltc4s, Retnla, Fgfr1, Mmp9 and Ccl24), consistent with a potential role for cTMs in cardiac fibrosis. These findings identify early age-dependent gene expression changes in cTMs, with significant implications for cardiac tissue injury responses and aging-associated cardiac fibrosis. PMID:24861132

  4. Hyperbaric oxygenation enhances transplanted cell graft and functional recovery in the infarct heart

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mahmood; Meduru, Sarath; Mohan, Iyyapu K.; Kuppusamy, M. Lakshmi; Wisel, Sheik; Kulkarni, Aditi; Rivera, Brian K.; Hamlin, Robert L.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2009-01-01

    A major limitation to the application of stem-cell therapy to repair ischemic heart damage is the low survival of transplanted cells in the heart, possibly due to poor oxygenation. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) can be used as an adjuvant treatment to augment stem-cell therapy. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of HBO on the engraftment of rat bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplanted in infarct rat hearts. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in Fisher-344 rats by permanently ligating the left-anterior-descending coronary artery. MSCs, labeled with fluorescent superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles, were transplanted in the infarct and peri-infarct regions of the MI hearts. HBO (100% oxygen at 2 ATA for 90 min) was administered daily for 2 weeks. Four MI groups were used: untreated (MI); HBO; MSC; MSC+HBO. Echocardiography, electro-vectorcardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging were used for functional evaluations. The engraftment of transplanted MSCs in the heart was confirmed by SPIO fluorescence and Prussian-blue staining. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify key cellular and molecular markers including CD29, troponin-T, connexin-43, VEGF, α-smooth-muscle actin, and von-Willebrand factor in the tissue. Compared to MI and MSC groups, the MSC+HBO group showed a significantly increased recovery of cardiac function including left-ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, fraction-shortening, LV wall-thickness, and QRS vector. Further, HBO treatment significantly increased the engraftment of CD29-positive cells, expression of connexin-43, troponin-T and VEGF, and angiogenesis in the infarct tissue. Thus, HBO appears to be a potential and clinically-viable adjuvant treatment for myocardial stem-cell therapy. PMID:19376124

  5. New York Heart Association functional class predicts exercise parameters in the current era

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Stuart D.; Saval, Matthew A.; Robbins, Jennifer L.; Ellestad, Myrvin H.; Gottlieb, Stephen S.; Handberg, Eileen M.; Zhou, Yi; Chandler, Bleakley

    2009-01-01

    The New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class is a subjective estimate of a patient's functional ability based on symptoms that does not always correlate with the objective estimate of functional capacity, peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2). Additionally, relationships between these two measurements have not been examined in the current medical era when patients are using beta blockers, aldosterone antagonists, and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Using baseline data from the HF-ACTION (Heart Failure and A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise TraiNing) study, we examined this relationship. Methods 1758 patients underwent a symptom limited metabolic stress test and stopped exercise due to dyspnea or fatigue. The relationship between NYHA functional class and peak VO2 was examined. Additionally, the effects of beta blockers, aldosterone antagonists, and CRT therapy on these relationships were compared. Results NYHA II patients have a significantly higher peak VO2 (16.1 ± 4.6 vs. 13.0 ± 4.2 ml/kg/min), a lower Ve/VCO2 slope (32.8 ± 7.7 versus 36.8 ± 10.4), and a longer duration of exercise (11.0 ± 3.9 versus 8.0 ± 3.4 minutes) than NYHA III/IV patients. Within each functional class, there is no difference in any of the exercise parameters between patients on or off of beta blockers, aldosterone antagonists, or CRT therapy. Finally, with increasing age a significant difference in peak VO2, Ve/VCO2 slope, and exercise time was found. Conclusion For patients being treated with current medical therapy, there still is a difference in true functional capacity between NYHA functional class II and III/IV patients. However, within each NYHA functional class, the presence or absence or contemporary heart failure therapies does not alter exercise parameters. PMID:19782785

  6. Impaired mitochondrial biogenesis is a common feature to myocardial hypertrophy and end-stage ischemic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Annalinda; Cerbelli, Bruna; Perli, Elena; Pelullo, Maria; Bargelli, Valentina; Preziuso, Carmela; Mancini, Massimiliano; He, Langping; Bates, Matthew GD; Lucena, Joaquin R; Della Monica, Paola Lilla; Familiari, Giuseppe; Petrozza, Vincenzo; Nediani, Chiara; Taylor, Robert W; d’Amati, Giulia; Giordano, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA depletion and oxidative mtDNA damage have been implicated in the process of pathological cardiac remodeling. Whether these features are present in the early phase of maladaptive cardiac remodeling, that is, during compensated cardiac hypertrophy, is still unknown. We compared the morphologic and molecular features of mt biogenesis and markers of oxidative stress in human heart from adult subjects with compensated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and heart failure. We have shown that mtDNA depletion is a constant feature of both conditions. A quantitative loss of mtDNA content was associated with significant down-regulation of selected modulators of mt biogenesis and decreased expression of proteins involved in mtDNA maintenance. Interestingly, mtDNA depletion characterized also the end-stage phase of cardiomyopathies due to a primary mtDNA defect. Oxidative stress damage was detected only in failing myocardium. PMID:26764143

  7. [The effect of transvenous laser therapy on lipid peroxidation function in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Vakhliaev, V D; Smirnova, I E; Uchaĭkina, L V; Barsel', V A; Aksiutina, M S; Matveeva, S A; Paramonova, M A; Shchedrina, I S; Syrkin, A L

    1992-07-01

    The papers deals with changes in the levels of lipid peroxidation products in patients with stable angina of effort, which occurred with intravenous helium-neon blood irradiation. The therapy was highly effective in patients with lower functional classes and persons with normal circulation, resulting in a reduction in lipid peroxidation intensity. Predictors are recommended to determine the efficiency and expediency of laser therapy in patients with coronary heart disease. PMID:1487878

  8. Co-localisation of abnormal brain structure and function in specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V.M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior frontal cortex and decreased in the right caudate nucleus and superior temporal cortex bilaterally. The unaffected siblings also showed reduced grey matter in the caudate nucleus relative to controls. In an auditory covert naming task, the SLI group showed reduced activation in the left inferior frontal cortex, right putamen, and in the superior temporal cortex bilaterally. Despite spatially coincident structural and functional abnormalities in frontal and temporal areas, the relationships between structure and function in these regions were different. These findings suggest multiple structural and functional abnormalities in SLI that are differently associated with receptive and expressive language processing. PMID:22137677

  9. Glucose uptake and lipid metabolism are impaired in epicardial adipose tissue from heart failure patients with or without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Burgeiro, Ana; Fuhrmann, Amelia; Cherian, Sam; Espinoza, Daniel; Jarak, Ivana; Carvalho, Rui A; Loureiro, Marisa; Patrício, Miguel; Antunes, Manuel; Carvalho, Eugénia

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disease, and cardiovascular disease is a leading complication of diabetes. Epicardial adipose tissue surrounding the heart displays biochemical, thermogenic, and cardioprotective properties. However, the metabolic cross-talk between epicardial fat and the myocardium is largely unknown. This study sought to understand epicardial adipose tissue metabolism from heart failure patients with or without diabetes. We aimed to unravel possible differences in glucose and lipid metabolism between human epicardial and subcutaneous adipocytes and elucidate the potential underlying mechanisms involved in heart failure. Insulin-stimulated [(14)C]glucose uptake and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis were measured in isolated epicardial and subcutaneous adipocytes. The expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in adipocytes. In addition, epicardial and subcutaneous fatty acid composition was analyzed by high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The difference between basal and insulin conditions in glucose uptake was significantly decreased (P= 0.006) in epicardial compared with subcutaneous adipocytes. Moreover, a significant (P< 0.001) decrease in the isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis was also observed when the two fat depots were compared, and it was strongly correlated with lipolysis, lipid storage, and inflammation-related gene expression. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of these tissues was significantly altered by diabetes. These results emphasize potential metabolic differences between both fat depots in the presence of heart failure and highlight epicardial fat as a possible therapeutic target in situ in the cardiac microenvironment. PMID:26814014

  10. Effects of Exercise Training on Autonomic Function in Chronic Heart Failure: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chung-Yin; Hsieh, Ping-Lun; Hsiao, Shu-Fang; Chien, Meng-Yueh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Cardiac autonomic imbalance accompanies the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). It is unclear whether exercise training could modulate autonomic control in CHF. This study aimed to review systematically the effects of exercise training on heart rate recovery (HRR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with CHF. Methods. Literatures were systematically searched in electronic databases and relevant references. Only published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on exercise training for CHF were eligible for inclusion. Outcome measurements included HRR and HRV parameters. Results. Eight RCTs were eligible for inclusion and provided data on 280 participants (186 men). The participants were 52–70 years of age with New York Heart Association functional class II-III of CHF. Each study examined either aerobic or resistance exercise. Two trials addressed outcome of HRR and six HRV among these studies. Two RCTs showed that moderate aerobic exercise could improve HRR at 2 minutes after exercise training in CHF. Five of six RCTs demonstrated positive effects of exercise training on HRV which revealed the increments in high frequency (HF) and decrements in LF (low frequency)/HF ratio after training. Conclusion. Participation in an exercise training program has positive effects on cardiac autonomic balance in patients with CHF. PMID:26543861

  11. Treadmill performance and cardiac function in selected patients with coronary heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    McKirnan, M.D.; Sullivan, M.; Jensen, D.; Froelicher, V.F.

    1984-02-01

    To investigate the cardiac determinants of treadmill performance in patients able to exercise to volitional fatigue, 88 patients with coronary heart disease free of angina pectoris were tested. The exercise tests included supine bicycle radionuclide ventriculography, thallium scintigraphy and treadmill testing with expired gas analysis. The number of abnormal Q wave locations, ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, cardiac output, exercise-induced ST segment depression and thallium scar and ischemia scores were the cardiac variables considered. Rest and exercise ejection fractions were highly correlated to thallium scar score (r . -0.72 to -0.75, p less than 0.001), but not to maximal oxygen consumption (r . 0.19 to 0.25, p less than 0.05). Fifty-five percent of the variability in predicting treadmill time or estimated maximal oxygen consumption was explained by treadmill test-induced change in heart rate (39%), thallium ischemia score (12%) and cardiac output at rest (4%). The change in heart rate induced by the treadmill test explained only 27% of the variability in measured maximal oxygen consumption. Myocardial damage predicted ejection fraction at rest and the ability to increase heart rate with treadmill exercise appeared as an essential component of exercise capacity. Exercise capacity was only minimally affected by asymptomatic ischemia and was relatively independent of ventricular function.

  12. SRC-2 Coactivator Deficiency Decreases Functional Reserve in Response to Pressure Overload of Mouse Heart

    PubMed Central

    Reineke, Erin L.; York, Brian; Stashi, Erin; Chen, Xian; Tsimelzon, Anna; Xu, Jianming; Newgard, Christopher B.; Taffet, George E.; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Entman, Mark L.; O’Malley, Bert W.

    2012-01-01

    A major component of the cardiac stress response is the simultaneous activation of several gene regulatory networks. Interestingly, the transcriptional regulator steroid receptor coactivator-2, SRC-2 is often decreased during cardiac failure in humans. We postulated that SRC-2 suppression plays a mechanistic role in the stress response and that SRC-2 activity is an important regulator of the adult heart gene expression profile. Genome-wide microarray analysis, confirmed with targeted gene expression analyses revealed that genetic ablation of SRC-2 activates the “fetal gene program” in adult mice as manifested by shifts in expression of a) metabolic and b) sarcomeric genes, as well as associated modulating transcription factors. While these gene expression changes were not accompanied by changes in left ventricular weight or cardiac function, imposition of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) predisposed SRC-2 knockout (KO) mice to stress-induced cardiac dysfunction. In addition, SRC-2 KO mice lacked the normal ventricular hypertrophic response as indicated through heart weight, left ventricular wall thickness, and blunted molecular signaling known to activate hypertrophy. Our results indicate that SRC-2 is involved in maintenance of the steady-state adult heart transcriptional profile, with its ablation inducing transcriptional changes that mimic a stressed heart. These results further suggest that SRC-2 deletion interferes with the timing and integration needed to respond efficiently to stress through disruption of metabolic and sarcomeric gene expression and hypertrophic signaling, the three key stress responsive pathways. PMID:23300926

  13. Reduction of homocysteine in elderly with heart failure improved vascular function and blood pressure control but did not affect inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Sven E; Edvinsson, Marie-Louise; Edvinsson, Lars

    2005-11-01

    We have previously shown that hyperhomocysteinaemia is common in elderly heart failure patients, and is associated with endothelial dysfunction, impaired vasodilatory capacity and a low-grade inflammation. In the present study we examined if supplementation with B6, B12 and folate could normalize the hyperhomocysteinaemia and if so, in turn, would improve the associated parameters. This was an open study without placebo control on heart failure patients with plasma homocysteine > 15 microM. Measurements of cutaneous vascular reactivity, blood pressure, inflammatory activity and endothelial function were performed before and after intervention with intra-individual comparisons. The treatment reduced homocysteine to near normal values and enhanced the hyperaemic response to acetylcholine related to the response to heat. The mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate was reduced. There was no effect on inflammatory activity, plasma levels of von Willebrand factor, subjective health quality or the hyperaemic responses to sodium nitroprusside or local warming. Hyperhomocysteinaemia in heart failure patients is multifactorial in origin. Folate deficiency, inflammatory activity and reduced renal function could be contributing. It is suggested that supplementation with B-vitamins can improve the vasodilatory capacity and reduce the blood pressure but additional studies are required to confirm this. PMID:16236143

  14. Altered functional connectivity networks in acallosal and socially impaired BTBR mice.

    PubMed

    Sforazzini, Francesco; Bertero, Alice; Dodero, Luca; David, Gergely; Galbusera, Alberto; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Pasqualetti, Massimo; Gozzi, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) is a congenital condition associated with wide-ranging emotional and social impairments often overlapping with the diagnostic criteria for autism. Mapping functional connectivity in the acallosal brain can help identify neural correlates of the deficits associated with this condition, and elucidate how congenital white matter alterations shape the topology of large-scale functional networks. By using resting-state BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), here we show that acallosal BTBR T+tpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice, an idiopathic model of autism, exhibit impaired intra-hemispheric connectivity in fronto-cortical, but not in posterior sensory cortical areas. We also document profoundly altered subcortical and intra-hemispheric connectivity networks, with evidence of marked fronto-thalamic and striatal disconnectivity, along with aberrant spatial extension and strength of ipsilateral and local connectivity. Importantly, inter-hemispheric tracing of monosynaptic connections in the primary visual cortex using recombinant rabies virus confirmed the absence of direct homotopic pathways between posterior cortical areas of BTBR mice, suggesting a polysynaptic origin for the synchronous rsfMRI signal observed in these regions. Collectively, the observed long-range connectivity impairments recapitulate hallmark neuroimaging findings in autism, and are consistent with the behavioral phenotype of BTBR mice. In contrast to recent rsfMRI studies in high functioning AgCC individuals, the profound fronto-cortical and subcortical disconnectivity mapped suggest that compensatory mechanism may not necessarily restore the full connectional topology of the brain, resulting in residual connectivity alterations that serve as plausible substrates for the cognitive and emotional deficits often associated with AgCC. PMID:25445840

  15. The impact of behavioral