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1

PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT?  

E-print Network

PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT? Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet, Michele Miozzo dyslexia. In languages like English or French, in which orthog- raphy allows only an imperfect realisation of phonology, patients with surface dyslexia fail more frequently with words that have an irregular orthography

2

Impaired letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia: what visual-to-phonology code mapping disorder?  

PubMed

Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In particular, report of poor letter/digit-string processing but preserved symbol-string processing was viewed as evidence of poor visual-to-phonology code mapping, in line with the phonological theory of developmental dyslexia. We assessed here the visual-to-phonological-code mapping disorder hypothesis. In Experiment 1, letter-string, digit-string and colour-string processing was assessed to disentangle a phonological versus visual familiarity account of the letter/digit versus symbol dissociation. Against a visual-to-phonological-code mapping disorder but in support of a familiarity account, results showed poor letter/digit-string processing but preserved colour-string processing in dyslexic children. In Experiment 2, two tasks of letter-string report were used, one of which was performed simultaneously to a high-taxing phonological task. Results show that dyslexic children are similarly impaired in letter-string report whether a concurrent phonological task is simultaneously performed or not. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence against a phonological account of poor letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia. PMID:22434589

Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

2012-05-01

3

The Selective Impairment of Phonological Processing in Speech Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the naming performance of a patient (DM) with a fluent progressive aphasia who made phonological errors in all language production tasks. The pattern of errors in naming was strikingly clear: DM made very many phonological errors that resulted almost always in nonword responses. The complete absence of semantic errors and the very low ratio of formal errors relative

Alfonso Caramazza; Costanza Papagno; Wheeler Ruml

2000-01-01

4

Phonological Processing Deficits in Specific Reading Disability and Specific Language Impairment: Same or Different?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine if phonological processing deficits in specific reading disability (SRD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are the same or different. In four separate analyses, a different combination of reading and spoken language measures was used to divide 73 children into three subgroups: poor readers with average…

McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne

2013-01-01

5

Phonological Awareness Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children with Mild to Moderate Phonological Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized and nonstandardized assessments of phonological awareness skills were administered to two groups of 6-year-old children. Group 1 passed a language screening but exhibited mild or moderate phonological impairments on the "Assessment of Phonological Processes--Revised." Group 2 passed a language screening and exhibited no phonological

Gernand, Keri Leigh; Moran, Michael J.

2007-01-01

6

Phonological, temporal and spectral processing in vowel length discrimination is impaired in German primary school children with developmental dyslexia.  

PubMed

It is still unclear whether phonological processing deficits are the underlying cause of developmental dyslexia, or rather a consequence of basic auditory processing impairments. To avoid methodological confounds, in the current study the same task and stimuli of comparable complexity were used to investigate both phonological and basic auditory (temporal and spectral) processing in dyslexia. German dyslexic children (Grades 3 and 4) were compared to age- and grade-matched controls in a vowel length discrimination task with three experimental conditions: In a phonological condition, natural vowels were used, differing both with respect to temporal and spectral information (in German, vowel length is phonemic, and vowel length differences are characterized by both temporal and spectral information). In a temporal condition, spectral information differentiating between the two vowels of a pair was eliminated, whereas in a spectral condition, temporal differences were removed. As performance measure, the sensitivity index d' was computed. At the group level, dyslexic children's performance was inferior to that of controls for phonological as well as temporal and spectral vowel length discrimination. At an individual level, nearly half of the dyslexic sample was characterized by deficits in all three conditions, but there were also some children showing no deficits at all. These results reveal on the one hand that phonological processing deficits in dyslexia may stem from impairments in processing temporal and spectral information in the speech signal. On the other hand they indicate, however, that not all dyslexic children might be characterized by phonological or auditory processing deficits. PMID:25128788

Steinbrink, Claudia; Klatte, Maria; Lachmann, Thomas

2014-11-01

7

Impairments in phonological processing and nonverbal intellectual function in parents of children with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language difficulties have been implicated to be a part of the broad autism phenotype in first-degree relatives of individuals with autism. Phonological processing difficulties in particular have been reported by some, but not all groups studying parents or siblings of probands with autism. In the present study, we examined a broad battery of language tasks and general cognitive abilities in

Gwen L. Schmidt; Lila K. Kimel; Erin Winterrowd; Bruce F. Pennington; Susan L. Hepburn; Donald C. Rojas

2008-01-01

8

"Non-Vocalization": A Phonological Error Process in the Speech of Severely and Profoundly Hearing Impaired Adults, from the Point of View of the Theory of Phonology as Human Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Non-vocalization" (N-V) is a newly described phonological error process in hearing impaired speakers. In N-V the hearing impaired person actually articulates the phoneme but without producing a voice. The result is an error process looking as if it is produced but sounding as if it is omitted. N-V was discovered by video recording the speech of…

Halpern, Orly; Tobin, Yishai

2008-01-01

9

Impaired phonological reading in primary degenerative dementia.  

PubMed

This case study reports the profile of preserved and impaired capacities in a left-handed patient suffering from primary degenerative dementia of unknown aetiology. She was remarkable because her relatively preserved object naming and semantic categorization abilities contrasted with severe deficits in speech fluency, oral reading, inability to execute spoken and written commands, and severely impaired auditory-verbal short-term memory. Her reading disorder could be characterized as a disturbance of assembled phonology. She had great difficulty reading pronounceable nonwords, but she could correctly read irregular words. She showed effects of word imageability or concreteness (more than word frequency). She also showed effects of part-of-speech, where nouns and adjectives were read more easily than inflected verbs. She had difficulty reading function words. The syntactic category effects could be proven (by hierarchical log-linear analysis) not to be an artefact of imageability differences between verbs, adjectives and nouns. In reading aloud she made visual and morphological errors, but no semantic errors. This interesting pattern of preserved semantic information and disrupted phonological processing is unusual in dementia and contrasts with the severe dysnomia of patients with surface dyslexia who are able to read by the indirect, assembly-of-phonology route and show better reading of nonwords than irregular words. Her reading by a direct visual-semantic route appeared to be associated with relatively intact object naming, concrete word reading, and irregular word reading. This selective impairment of phonological reading in the context of partly preserved semantic abilities was interpreted as confirmation of the dissociability of language functions in primary degenerative dementia. PMID:1884170

Diesfeldt, H F

1991-08-01

10

Phonological processing in Parkinson's disease: a neuropsychological assessment.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have cognitive deficits that cause functional impairments across several domains, including language. There is experimental evidence that basal ganglia and frontostriatal circuits are implicated in phonological processing, which leads to the hypothesis that a dysfunction of these circuits could be expressed behaviorally as phonological deficiencies in patients with PD. Using neuropsychological assessments, the present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities of patients in the initial stages of PD while controlling for other cognitive processes. The results showed lower scores in patients with PD on phonological tests with respect to a control group and these differences were independent of processes such as attention/working memory, long-term memory, thinking, and verbal language comprehension. However, there was an association between phonological skills and reading comprehension abilities. This finding implies a specific phonological deficit in terms of word reading. PMID:23963326

Elorriaga-Santiago, Sergio; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Carrasco-Vargas, Humberto

2013-10-23

11

Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing  

PubMed Central

We compared three phonological processing components (phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and phonological memory), verbal working memory, and attention control in terms of how well they predict the various aspects of reading: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8–12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley’s model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081

Kibby, Michelle Y.; Lee, Sylvia E.; Dyer, Sarah M.

2014-01-01

12

Exploring the nature of the phonological deficit in dyslexia: are phonological representations impaired  

E-print Network

Developmental dyslexia is widely believed to be caused either mainly or in part by an impairment of phonological representations. Although this hypothesis predicts that individuals with dyslexia should show deficits in ...

Dickie, Catherine Elizabeth

2009-07-03

13

Development of Young Readers' Phonological Processing Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a cross-sectional study of 95 kindergartners and 89 second graders, confirmatory factor analysis of a battery of phonological and control tasks was used to compare models of young readers' phonological processing abilities. Results suggest that phonological abilities are best conceptualized as relatively stable and coherent individual…

Wagner, Richard K.; And Others

1993-01-01

14

Written Language Impairments in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Reflection of Damage to Central Semantic and Phonological Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connectionist theories of language propose that written language deficits arise as a result of damage to semantic and phonological systems that also support spoken language production and comprehension, a view referred to as the "primary systems" hypothesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the primary systems account in a mixed…

Henry, Maya L.; Beeson, Pelagie M.; Alexander, Gene E.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

2012-01-01

15

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes  

MedlinePLUS

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech sound disorders ? Can adults have speech sound disorders ? What ... individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as they ...

16

Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…

Lee, Su-Yeon

2011-01-01

17

Revealing and Quantifying the Impaired Phonological Analysis Underpinning Impaired Comprehension in Wernicke's Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wernicke's aphasia is a condition which results in severely disrupted language comprehension following a lesion to the left temporo-parietal region. A phonological analysis deficit has traditionally been held to be at the root of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke's aphasia, a view consistent with current functional neuroimaging which finds…

Robson, Holly; Keidel, James L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Sage, Karen

2012-01-01

18

Phonological processing in Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.  

PubMed

Although there is an emerging consensus that both musical and linguistic pitch processing can be problematic for individuals with a developmental disorder termed congenital amusia, the nature of such a pitch-processing deficit, especially that demonstrated in a speech setting, remains unclear. Therefore, this study tested the performance of native Mandarin speakers, both with and without amusia, on discrimination and imitation tasks for Cantonese level tones, aiming to shed light on this issue. Results suggest that the impact of the phonological deficit, coupled with that of the domain-general pitch deficit, could provide a more comprehensive interpretation of Mandarin amusics' speech impairment. Specifically, when there was a high demand for pitch sensitivity, as in fine-grained pitch discriminations, the operation of the pitch-processing deficit played the more predominant role in modulating amusics' speech performance. But when the demand was low, as in discriminating naturally produced Cantonese level tones, the impact of the phonological deficit was more pronounced compared to that of the pitch-processing deficit. However, despite their perceptual deficits, Mandarin amusics' imitation abilities were comparable to controls'. Such selective impairment in tonal perception suggests that the phonological deficit more severely implicates amusics' input pathways. PMID:25480080

Wang, Xiao; Peng, Gang

2014-12-01

19

Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children with Language and Reading Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…

Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne

2012-01-01

20

Density pervades: An analysis of phonological neighbourhood density effects in aphasic speakers with different types of naming impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of phonological neighbourhood density (PND) on the performance of aphasic speakers whose naming impairments differentially implicate phonological or semantic stages of lexical access. A word comes from a dense phonological neighbourhood if many words sound like it. Limited evidence suggests that higher density facilitates naming in aphasic speakers, as it does in healthy speakers. Using well-controlled

Erica L. Middleton; Myrna F. Schwartz

2010-01-01

21

Phonological Deficits in Specific Language Impairment and Developmental Dyslexia: Towards a Multidimensional Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At…

Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

2013-01-01

22

Patterns of Impairments in AOS and Mechanisms of Interaction between Phonological and Phonetic Encoding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: One reason why the diagnosis of apraxia of speech (AOS) and its underlying impairment are often debated may lie in the fact that most patients do not display pure patterns of AOS. Mixed patterns are clearly acknowledged at other levels of impairment (e.g., lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological), and they have contributed to debate…

Laganaro, Marina

2012-01-01

23

Revisiting the Phonological Deficit in Dyslexia: Are Implicit Nonorthographic Representations Impaired?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether developmental dyslexia involves an impairment in implicit phonological representations, as distinct from orthographic representations and metaphonological skills. A group of adults with dyslexia was matched with a group with no history of speech/language/literacy impairment. Tasks varied in the demands made on…

Dickie, Catherine; Ota, Mitsuhiko; Clark, Ann

2013-01-01

24

What Is the deficit in Phonological Processing Deficits: Auditory Sensitivity, Masking, or Category Formation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although children with language impairments, including those associated with reading, usually demonstrate deficits in phonological processing, there is minimal agreement as to the source of those deficits. This study examined two problems hypothesized to be possible sources: either poor auditory sensitivity to speech-relevant acoustic properties,…

Nittrouer, Susan; Shune, Samantha; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

2011-01-01

25

Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2012-01-01

26

How Do Children with Phonological Impairment Respond to Requests for Clarification Containing Polysyllables?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accurate production of polysyllables (words of three or more syllables) can be challenging for children with phonological impairment. Research with typically developing children has suggested that children can improve their polysyllable productions in response to requests for clarification containing an incorrect model of a target word (Gozzard et…

Masso, Sarah; McCabe, Patricia; Baker, Elise

2014-01-01

27

Past-Tense Morphology and Phonological Deficits in Children with Dyslexia and Children with Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated past-tense morphology problems in children with dyslexia compared to those classically observed in children with oral language impairment (LI). Children were tested on a past-tense elicitation task involving regulars ("look-looked"), irregulars ("take-took"), and nonwords ("murn-murned"). Phonological skills were also…

Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Desroches, Amy S.; Terry, Alexandra

2013-01-01

28

Differential Effects of Orthographic and Phonological Consistency in Cortex for Children with and without Reading Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the central challenges in mastering English is becoming sensitive to consistency from spelling to sound (i.e. phonological consistency) and from sound to spelling (i.e. orthographic consistency). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of consistency in 9-15-year-old Normal and Impaired Readers…

Bolger, Donald J.; Minas, Jennifer; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

2008-01-01

29

Children's Recognition of Their Own Recorded Voice: Influence of Age and Phonological Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with phonological impairment (PI) often have difficulties perceiving insufficiencies in their own speech. The use of recordings has been suggested as a way of directing the child's attention toward his/her own speech, despite a lack of evidence that children actually recognize their recorded voice as their own. We present two studies of…

Strombergsson, Sofia

2013-01-01

30

Segregating Semantic from Phonological Processes during Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of previous functional neuroimaging studies have linked activation of the left inferior frontal gyms with semantic processing, yet damage to the frontal lobes does not critically impair semantic knowledge. This study distinguishes between semantic knowledge and the strategic processes required to make verbal decisions. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we identify the neural correlates of semantic knowledge by

C. J. Price; C. J. Moore; G. W. Humphreys; R. J. S. Wise

1997-01-01

31

The Structure of Phonological Processing and Its Relationship to Basic Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated various structural models of phonological processing and the relationship of phonological processing abilities to basic reading. Data were collected on 116 kindergarten and first grade students. The specific ability model, which included phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming as separate…

Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will; Denis, Daniel

2012-01-01

32

Electrophysiological Evidence for Impaired Attentional Engagement with Phonologically Acceptable Misspellings in Developmental Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Event-related potential (ERP) studies of word recognition have provided fundamental insights into the time-course and stages of visual and auditory word form processing in reading. Here, we used ERPs to track the time-course of phonological processing in dyslexic adults and matched controls. Participants engaged in semantic judgments of visually presented high-cloze probability sentences ending either with (a) their best completion word, (b) a homophone of the best completion, (c) a pseudohomophone of the best completion, or (d) an unrelated word, to examine the interplay of phonological and orthographic processing in reading and the stage(s) of processing affected in developmental dyslexia. Early ERP peaks (N1, P2, N2) were modulated in amplitude similarly in the two groups of participants. However, dyslexic readers failed to show the P3a modulation seen in control participants for unexpected homophones and pseudohomophones (i.e., sentence completions that are acceptable phonologically but are misspelt). Furthermore, P3a amplitudes significantly correlated with reaction times in each experimental condition. Our results showed no sign of a deficit in accessing phonological representations during reading, since sentence primes yielded phonological priming effects that did not differ between participant groups in the early phases of processing. On the other hand, we report new evidence for a deficient attentional engagement with orthographically unexpected but phonologically expected words in dyslexia, irrespective of task focus on orthography or phonology. In our view, this result is consistent with deficiency in reading occurring from the point at which attention is oriented to phonological analysis, which may underlie broader difficulties in sublexical decoding. PMID:21734903

Savill, Nicola J.; Thierry, Guillaume

2011-01-01

33

Phonological Processing and Emergent Literacy in Spanish-speaking Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness (PA), phonological memory (PM), and phonological access to lexical storage (also known as RAN), play important roles in acquiring literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological processing abilities (PPAs) in 147 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children whose native language was…

Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M., McDonald, Renee; Corbitt-Shindler, Deborah , Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.

2006-01-01

34

Phonological Processing and Emergent Literacy in Younger and Older Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness, phonological memory, and phonological access to lexical storage play important roles in acquiring literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological processing abilities (PPA) in 389 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of each…

Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; McDonald, Renee; Francis, David J.

2007-01-01

35

Reading Impairments in Schizophrenia Relate to Individual Differences in Phonological Processing and Oculomotor Control: Evidence from a Gaze-Contingent Moving Window Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language and oculomotor disturbances are 2 of the best replicated findings in schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined skilled reading in schizophrenia (e.g., Arnott, Sali, Copland, 2011; Hayes & O'Grady, 2003; Revheim et al., 2006; E. O. Roberts et al., 2012), and none have examined the contribution of cognitive and motor processes that…

Whitford, Veronica; O'Driscoll, Gillian A.; Pack, Christopher C.; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok; Titone, Debra

2013-01-01

36

Developmental dyslexia and phonological processing in European portuguese orthography.  

PubMed

This study analysed the performance of phonological processing, the diagnostic accuracy and the influence on reading in children who were native speakers of an orthography of intermediate depth. Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia (DD; N?=?24; aged 10-12?years), chronological age (CA)-matched controls (N?=?24; aged 10-12?years) and reading level (RL)-matched controls (N?=?24; aged 7-9?years) were tested on measures of phonological processing (phonological awareness, naming speed and verbal short-term memory) and reading. The results indicated that the children with DD performed significantly poorer in all measures compared with the CA and RL. Phonological awareness and naming speed showed a high accuracy (receiver operating characteristics curve analysis) for discriminating the children with DD from the CA and RL, whereas the presence of abnormally low scores in phonological awareness and naming speed was more frequent in the DD group than in the controls and the normative population. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that phonological awareness was the most important predictor of all reading accuracy measures, whereas naming speed was particularly related to text reading fluency. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25530196

Moura, Octávio; Moreno, Joana; Pereira, Marcelino; Simões, Mário R

2015-02-01

37

The interface between morphology and phonology: exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production.  

PubMed

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment-these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-05-01

38

The interface between morphology and phonology: Exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production  

PubMed Central

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment—these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

39

Consequences of a phonological coding deficit on sentence processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sentence processing abilities of EA, a conduction aphasic with a documented phonological coding deficit, were investigated in tests of sentence comprehension, production, and repetition. EA showed a syntactic comprehension deficit, relying heavily on word order information to make grammatical role assignments. Production tests revealed a generally intact ability to generate a variety of sentence constructions, although there were frequent

Frances J. Friedrich; Randi Martin; Susan J. Kemper

1985-01-01

40

Phonological Processes in Kannada-Speaking Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some…

Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R.; Velleman, Shelley L.

2010-01-01

41

Neural Correlates of Sublexical Processing in Phonological Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural…

McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; Eisner, Frank; Marshall, Chloe R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Scott, Sophie K.

2011-01-01

42

Phonological Processing in Adults with Deficits in Musical Pitch Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We identified individuals with deficits in musical pitch recognition by screening a large random population using the Distorted Tunes Test (DTT), and enrolled individuals who had DTT scores in the lowest 10th percentile, classified as tune deaf. We examined phonological processing abilities in 35 tune deaf and 34 normal control individuals. Eight…

Jones, Jennifer L.; Lucker, Jay; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis

2009-01-01

43

Evidence for a Preserved Sensitivity to Orthographic Redundancy and an Impaired Access to Phonological Syllables in French Developmental Dyslexics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To evaluate the orthographic and phonological processing skills of developmental dyslexics, we (a) examined their abilities to exploit properties of orthographic redundancy and (b) tested whether their phonological deficit extends to spelling-to-sound connections for large-grain size units such as syllables. To assess the processing skills in…

Doignon-Camus, Nadège; Seigneuric, Alix; Perrier, Emeline; Sisti, Aurélie; Zagar, Daniel

2013-01-01

44

Speech Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory Capacity in Language Impairment: Preliminary Evidence from Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The cognitive bases of language impairment in specific language impairment (SLI) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated in a novel non-word comparison task which manipulated phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and speech perception, both implicated in poor non-word repetition. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the…

Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick Greatorex; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Baird, Gillian

2010-01-01

45

Implicit Phonological and Semantic Processing in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dyslexia is characterized by a core phonological deficit, although recent studies indicate that semantic impairment also contributes to this condition. In this study, event-related potentials (ERP) were used to examine whether the N400 wave in dyslexic children is modulated by phonological or semantic priming, similarly to age-matched controls.…

Jednorog, K.; Marchewka, A.; Tacikowski, P.; Grabowska, A.

2010-01-01

46

Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

2013-01-01

47

What is the deficit in phonological processing deficits: Auditory sensitivity, masking, or category formation?  

PubMed Central

Although children with language impairments, including those associated with reading, usually demonstrate deficits in phonological processing, there is minimal agreement as to the source of those deficits. This study examined two problems hypothesized to be possible sources: either poor auditory sensitivity to speech-relevant acoustic properties, mainly formant transitions, or enhanced masking of those properties. Adults and 8-year-olds with and without phonological processing deficits (PPD) participated. Children with PPD demonstrated weaker abilities than children with typical language development (TLD) in reading, sentence recall, and phonological awareness. Dependent measures were: 1) word recognition; 2) discrimination of spectral glides; and 3) phonetic judgments based on spectral and temporal cues. All tasks were conducted in quiet and in noise. Children with PPD showed neither poorer auditory sensitivity nor greater masking than adults and children with TLD, but did demonstrate an unanticipated deficit in category formation for non-speech sounds. These results suggest that these children may have an underlying deficit in perceptually organizing sensory information to form coherent categories. PMID:21109251

Nittrouer, Susan; Shune, Samantha; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

2012-01-01

48

The Relationship between Phonological Memory, Receptive Vocabulary, and Fast Mapping in Young Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study assessed the fast mapping performance of children with specific language impairment (SLI) across the preschool to kindergarten age span in relation to their phonological memory and vocabulary development. Method: Fifty-three children diagnosed with SLI and 53 children with normal language (NL) matched for age and gender (30…

Gray, Shelley

2006-01-01

49

Influence of Phonology on Morpho-Syntax in Romance Languages in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The profiles of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ greatly according to the language they speak. The Surface Hypothesis attempts to explain these differences through the theory that children with SLI will incorrectly produce elements in their language with low phonological weights or that are produced in a…

Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Serra-Raventos, Miquel

2007-01-01

50

A Model of Phonological Processing, Language, and Reading for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-aged children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using structural equation modeling. Phonological processing consisted of two distinct but correlated latent abilities: phonological awareness and naming speed. Phonological awareness had strong relationships with expressive and receptive language and reading skills. Naming speed had moderate relationships with these variables. Results suggest that children with ID bring the same skills to the task of learning to read as children with typical development, highlighting that phonologically based reading instruction should be considered a viable approach. PMID:24245730

Barker, R. Michael; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn

2013-01-01

51

An Investigation into Semantic and Phonological Processing in Individuals with Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The current study examined semantic and phonological processing in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Previous research in language processing in individuals with WS suggests a complex linguistic system characterized by "deviant" semantic organization and differential phonological processing. Method: Two experiments…

Lee, Cheryl S.; Binder, Katherine S.

2014-01-01

52

Response Inhibition and Its Relationship to Phonological Processing in Children with and without Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates response inhibition and its relationship to phonological processing in third-graders with and without dyslexia. Children with dyslexia (n = 20) and children without dyslexia (n = 16) were administered a stop signal task and a digit span forwards task. Initial analyses revealed phonological processing deficits in terms of a…

Schmid, Johanna M.; Labuhn, Andju S.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

2011-01-01

53

Atypical Neural Functions Underlying Phonological Processing and Silent Rehearsal in Children Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological processing was examined in school-age children who stutter (CWS) by assessing their performance and recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in a visual rhyming task. CWS had lower accuracy on rhyming judgments, but the cognitive processes that mediate the comparisons of the phonological representations of words, as indexed by…

Weber-Fox, Christine; Spruill, John E.; Spencer, Rebecca; Smith, Anne

2008-01-01

54

The Relations between Phonological Processing Abilities and Emerging Individual Differences in Mathematical Computation Skills: A Longitudinal Study from Second to Fifth Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relations between phonological processing and emerging individual differences in math computation skills. Found that phonological memory, access rate to phonological codes in memory, and phonological awareness were uniquely associated with growth in number of computation procedures mastered from 92.5 to 134.8 months. Phonological

Hecht, Steven A.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Wagner, Richard K.; Rashotte, Carol A.

2001-01-01

55

Impaired learning of phonetic consistency and generalized neural adaptation deficits in dyslexia .  

E-print Network

??Developmental dyslexia is a neurological condition that specifically impairs the development of expert reading ability. Phonological processing deficits  – impaired representation of, or access to,… (more)

Perrachione, Tyler K. (Tyler Kent)

2012-01-01

56

Phonological Typicality Influences Sentence Processing in Predictive Contexts: Reply to Staub, Grant, Clifton, and Rayner (2009)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2 separate self-paced reading experiments, Farmer, Christiansen, and Monaghan (2006) found that the degree to which a word's phonology is typical of other words in its lexical category influences online processing of nouns and verbs in predictive contexts. Staub, Grant, Clifton, and Rayner (2009) failed to find an effect of phonological

Farmer, Thomas A.; Monaghan, Padraic; Misyak, Jennifer B.; Christiansen, Morten H.

2011-01-01

57

Efficacy of temporal processing training to improve phonological awareness among dyslexic and normal reading students.  

PubMed

One of the leading theories for dyslexia suggests that it is the result of a difficulty in auditory temporal processing (ATP). This theory, as well as others, is supported by studies showing group differences and correlation between phonological awareness and ATP. However, these studies do not provide causal relationship. In the current study the authors aimed to test causal relationship between ATP and phonological awareness by comparing the performance of dyslexic and normal reader students in phonological awareness tasks before and after a short-term (5-day) training in either temporal processing (dichotic temporal order judgment; TOJ), nontemporal processing (intensity discrimination), or no training. TOJ training resulted in significant reduction of TOJ threshold and increase in phonological awareness tasks' scores. Intensity discrimination training resulted in a decrease of intensity discrimination threshold, but with no change in phonological awareness tasks. Those who had no training, had no change in TOJ and intensity discrimination thresholds, as well as in the phonological awareness tasks. These results show that (a) a short-term training in temporal processing with no other perceptual cues for adult dyslexic and normal readers can be efficient in improving their phonological awareness; and (b) phonological awareness (dis) ability has causal relationship to ATP. PMID:25089573

Fostick, Leah; Eshcoly, Reut; Shtibelman, Hila; Nehemia, Revital; Levi, Hadas

2014-10-01

58

Cerebral Asymmetries in Early Orthographic and Phonological Reading Processes: Evidence from Backward Masking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lateralized backward masking paradigm was used to examine hemisphere differences in orthographic and phonological processes at an early time course of word recognition. Targets (e.g., bowl) were presented and backward masked by either pseudohomophones of the target word (orthographically and phonologically similar, e.g., BOAL), orthographically…

Halderman, Laura K.; Chiarello, Christine

2005-01-01

59

Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (p<0.05) than normal-reading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

2006-02-01

60

Rate of Acquiring and Processing L2 Color Words in Relation to L1 Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of first language (L1) phonological awareness on the rate of learning new second language (L2) color terms and the rate of processing old color terms. Two groups of 37 children participated; they differed on L1 phonological awareness measured at Grade 3. At Grade 5, over multiple trials, the children learned new L2…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2008-01-01

61

Phonological universals constrain the processing of nonspeech stimuli.  

PubMed

Domain-specific systems are hypothetically specialized with respect to the outputs they compute and the inputs they allow (Fodor, 1983). Here, we examine whether these 2 conditions for specialization are dissociable. An initial experiment suggests that English speakers could extend a putatively universal phonological restriction to inputs identified as nonspeech. A subsequent comparison of English and Russian participants indicates that the processing of nonspeech inputs is modulated by linguistic experience. Striking, qualitative differences between English and Russian participants suggest that they rely on linguistic principles, both universal and language-particular, rather than generic auditory processing strategies. Thus, the computation of idiosyncratic linguistic outputs is apparently not restricted to speech inputs. This conclusion presents various challenges to both domain-specific and domain-general accounts of cognition. PMID:20677893

Berent, Iris; Balaban, Evan; Lennertz, Tracy; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

2010-08-01

62

Phonological profile of Spanish-Catalan children with specific language impairment at age 4: are there any changes over time?  

PubMed

The phonology of a group of Spanish-Catalan children with specific language impairment (SLI, n = 5), who had been analysed at age 3;10, is now analysed at age 4;09 and compared with two control groups: an age-matched control (n = 5) and a language level control (measured using the mean length of utterance by words; n = 5). The children with SLI continue to show a delay in the acquisition of segments, syllabic structures and in the use of the simplification processes, but not in word structures, compared with their age-matched controls. Children with SLI also display significant differences compared with their language level controls, but not in the same areas as observed at age 3: the differences are now in nasals and liquids at the segmental level, and in CCV, CVC and other complex structures at the syllabic level. There are also some simplification processes that seem to be more prevalent in these children than in their language level controls: absence of trill, cluster reductions and consonant deletions. The results enable us to interpret SLI as more than a delayed development and to show the differences in the profiles over time. PMID:17108698

Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Serra-Raventós, Miquel

2006-01-01

63

Temporal Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children with Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes  

PubMed Central

The aim of this research was to analyze temporal auditory processing and phonological awareness in school-age children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Patient group (GI) consisted of 13 children diagnosed with BECTS. Control group (GII) consisted of 17 healthy children. After neurological and peripheral audiological assessment, children underwent a behavioral auditory evaluation and phonological awareness assessment. The procedures applied were: Gaps-in-Noise test (GIN), Duration Pattern test, and Phonological Awareness test (PCF). Results were compared between the groups and a correlation analysis was performed between temporal tasks and phonological awareness performance. GII performed significantly better than the children with BECTS (GI) in both GIN and Duration Pattern test (P < 0.001). GI performed significantly worse in all of the 4 categories of phonological awareness assessed: syllabic (P = 0.001), phonemic (P = 0.006), rhyme (P = 0.015) and alliteration (P = 0.010). Statistical analysis showed a significant positive correlation between the phonological awareness assessment and Duration Pattern test (P < 0.001). From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that children with BECTS may have difficulties in temporal resolution, temporal ordering, and phonological awareness skills. A correlation was observed between auditory temporal processing and phonological awareness in the suited sample.

Amaral, M. I. R.; Casali, R. L.; Boscariol, M.; Lunardi, L. L.; Guerreiro, M. M.; Colella-Santos, M. F.

2015-01-01

64

Impact of phonological processing skills on written language acquisition in illiterate adults.  

PubMed

Illiteracy remains a world-wide problem not only for children but also for adults. Phonological processing has been defined as a crucial factor for the acquisition of written language, which usually occurs in childhood. However, it is unclear to what extent phonological processing is necessary in order for adults to acquire written language skills. We tested 47 illiterate adults before and after a one-year alphabetization course in several cognitive domains relevant to phonological processing and compared their results to 41 matched controls who did not take part in the alphabetization course. Phonological awareness in the narrower sense (e.g., phoneme association) was a stronger predictor of alphabetization outcome than demographic variables such as years of education. In addition, despite improvement of illiterate individuals in phonological awareness, short-term memory, and visual attention from before to after the alphabetization course, they did not reach the phonological processing level of literate controls. Our results confirm that the alphabetization of adults requires and enhances phonological processes similar to those of children. Nevertheless, specific aspects, such as improvements in short-term memory or visual attention, need to be considered in order to improve and optimize alphabetization programs for adults. PMID:22682902

Landgraf, Steffen; Beyer, Reinhard; Hild, Isabella; Schneider, Nancy; Horn, Eleanor; Schaadt, Gesa; Foth, Manja; Pannekamp, Ann; van der Meer, Elke

2012-02-15

65

Relations between the Neural Bases of Dynamic Auditory Processing and Phonological Processing: Evidence from fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine how the brain responds to temporal compression of speech and to determine whether the same regions are also involved in phonological processes associated with reading. Recorded speech was temporally compressed to varying degrees and presented in a sentence verification task. Regions involved in phonological processing were identified in a separate scan

Russell A. Poldrack; Elise Temple; Athanassios Protopapas; Srikantan Nagarajan; Paula Tallal; Michael Merzenich; John D. E. Gabrieli

2001-01-01

66

Processing voiceless vowels in Japanese: Effects of language-specific phonological knowledge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been little research on processing allophonic variation in the field of psycholinguistics. This study focuses on processing the voiced/voiceless allophonic alternation of high vowels in Japanese. Three perception experiments were conducted to explore how listeners parse out vowels with the voicing alternation from other segments in the speech stream and how the different voicing statuses of the vowel affect listeners' word recognition process. The results from the three experiments show that listeners use phonological knowledge of their native language for phoneme processing and for word recognition. However, interactions of the phonological and acoustic effects are observed to be different in each process. The facilitatory phonological effect and the inhibitory acoustic effect cancel out one another in phoneme processing; while in word recognition, the facilitatory phonological effect overrides the inhibitory acoustic effect.

Ogasawara, Naomi

2005-04-01

67

Semantic, syntactic, and phonological processing of written words in adult developmental dyslexic readers: an event-related brain potential study  

PubMed Central

Background The present study used event-related brain potentials to investigate semantic, phonological and syntactic processes in adult German dyslexic and normal readers in a word reading task. Pairs of German words were presented one word at a time. Subjects had to perform a semantic judgment task (house – window; are they semantically related?), a rhyme judgment task (house – mouse; do they rhyme?) and a gender judgment task (das – Haus [the – house]; is the gender correct? [in German, house has a neutral gender: das Haus]). Results Normal readers responded faster compared to dyslexic readers in all three tasks. Onset latencies of the N400 component were delayed in dyslexic readers in the rhyme judgment and in the gender judgment task, but not in the semantic judgment task. N400 and the anterior negativity peak amplitudes did not differ between the two groups. However, the N400 persisted longer in the dyslexic group in the rhyme judgment and in the semantic judgment tasks. Conclusion These findings indicate that dyslexics are phonologically impaired (delayed N400 in the rhyme judgment task) but that they also have difficulties in other, non-phonological aspects of reading (longer response times, longer persistence of the N400). Specifically, semantic and syntactic integration seem to require more effort for dyslexic readers and take longer irrespective of the reading task that has to be performed. PMID:17640332

Rüsseler, Jascha; Becker, Petra; Johannes, Sönke; Münte, Thomas F

2007-01-01

68

They played with the trade: MEG investigation of the processing of past tense verbs and their phonological twins  

PubMed Central

How regular and irregular verbs are processed remains a matter of debate. Some English-speaking patients with nonfluent aphasia are especially impaired on regular past-tense forms like played, whether the task requires production, comprehension or even the judgement that “play” and “played” sound different. Within a dual-mechanism account of inflectional morphology, these deficits reflect disruption to the rule-based process that adds (or strips) the suffix -ed to regular verb stems; but the fact that the patients are also impaired at detecting the difference between word pairs like “tray” and “trade” (the latter being a phonological but not a morphological twin to “played”) suggests an important role for phonological characteristics of the regular past tense. The present study examined MEG brain responses in healthy participants evoked by spoken regular past-tense forms and phonological twin words (plus twin pseudowords and a non-speech control) presented in a passive oddball paradigm. Deviant forms (played, trade, kwade/kwayed) relative to their standards (play, tray, kway) elicited a pronounced neuromagnetic response at approximately 130 ms after the onset of the affix; this response was maximal at sensors over temporal areas of both hemispheres but stronger on the left, especially for played and kwayed. Relative to the same standards, a different set of deviants ending in /t/?—plate, trait and kwate—?produced stronger difference responses especially over the right hemisphere. Results are discussed with regard to dual- and single-mechanism theories of past tense processing and the need to consider neurobiological evidence in attempts to understand inflectional morphology. PMID:23103839

Holland, Rachel; Brindley, Lisa; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Patterson, Karalyn

2012-01-01

69

Phonological Processing of Words in Right- and Left-Handers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is commonly accepted that phonology is the exclusive domain of the left hemisphere. However, this pattern of lateralization, which posits a right visual field advantage, has been questioned by several studies. In fact, certain factors such as characteristics of the stimuli and subjects' handedness can modulate the right visual field advantage.…

Tremblay, Tania; Monetta, Laura; Joanette, Yves

2004-01-01

70

Remediation of Common Phonological Processes: Four Case Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An approach incorporating conceptualization training, short sessions of "auditory bombardment," and a phonemic contrast method proved effective in reducing the frequency of targeted speech problems in four kindergarteners with moderate/severe phonological disorders. Generalization was noted in untrained words. (CL)

Monahan, Dana

1986-01-01

71

Phonologic Processing in Adults Who Stutter: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), judgment accuracy, and reaction times (RTs) were obtained for 11 adults who stutter and 11 normally fluent speakers as they performed a rhyme judgment task of visually presented word pairs. Half of the word pairs (i.e., prime and target) were phonologically and orthographically congruent across words. That…

Weber-Fox, Christine; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Spruill, John E., III; Smith, Anne

2004-01-01

72

Phonological Universals Constrain the Processing of Nonspeech Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Domain-specific systems are hypothetically specialized with respect to the outputs they compute and the inputs they allow (Fodor, 1983). Here, we examine whether these 2 conditions for specialization are dissociable. An initial experiment suggests that English speakers could extend a putatively universal phonological restriction to inputs…

Berent, Iris; Balaban, Evan; Lennertz, Tracy; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

2010-01-01

73

The processing of English regular inflections: Phonological cues to morphological structure.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest that different neural and functional mechanisms are involved in the analysis of irregular (caught) and regular (filled) past tense forms in English. In particular, the comprehension and production of regular forms is argued to require processes of morpho-phonological assembly and disassembly, analysing these forms into a stem plus an inflectional affix (e.g., {fill}+{-ed}), as opposed to irregular forms, which do not have an overt stem+affix structure and must be analysed as full forms [Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Tyler, L. K. (1997). Dissociating types of mental computation. Nature, 387, 592-594; Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Tyler, L. K. (1998). Rules, representations, and the English past tense. Trends in Cognitive Science, 2, 428-435]. On this account, any incoming string that shows the critical diagnostic properties of an inflected form - a final coronal consonant (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/) that agrees in voicing with the preceding segment as in filled, mild, or nilled - will automatically trigger an attempt at segmentation. We report an auditory speeded judgment experiment which explored the contribution of these critical morpho-phonological properties (labelled as the English inflectional rhyme pattern) to the processing of English regular inflections. The results show that any stimulus that can be interpreted as ending in a regular inflection, whether it is a real inflection (filled-fill), a pseudo-inflection (mild-mile) or a phonologically matched nonword (nilled-nill), is responded to more slowly than an unambiguously monomorphemic stimulus pair (e.g., belt-bell). This morpho-phonological effect was independent of phonological effects of voicing and syllabicity. The findings are interpreted as evidence for a basic morpho-phonological parsing process that applies to all items with the criterial phonological properties. PMID:18834584

Post, Brechtje; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K

2008-10-01

74

Deficits in phonology and past-tense morphology: Whats the connection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological dissociations between regular and irregular past tense verb processing have been explained in two ways: (a) separate mechanisms of a rule-governed process for regular verbs and a lexical-associative process for irregular verbs; (b) a single system drawing on phonological and semantic knowledge. The latter account invokes phonological impairment as the basis of poorer performance for regular than irregular past

Helen Bird; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph; Mark S. Seidenberg; James L. McClelland; Karalyn Pattersona

75

Phonological and semantic influences on auditory word perception in children with and without reading impairments using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG)  

E-print Network

Children with dyslexia struggle with learning to read despite adequate intelligence, motivation, and schooling. Over the years, there has been a growing consensus about the role of phonological processing in reading ...

Wehner, Daniel T

2007-01-01

76

Mutation of Dcdc2 in mice leads to impairments in auditory processing and memory ability.  

PubMed

Dyslexia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reading ability despite normal intellect, and is associated with specific difficulties in phonological and rapid auditory processing (RAP), visual attention and working memory. Genetic variants in Doublecortin domain-containing protein 2 (DCDC2) have been associated with dyslexia, impairments in phonological processing and in short-term/working memory. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sensory and behavioral impairments can result directly from mutation of the Dcdc2 gene in mice. Several behavioral tasks, including a modified pre-pulse inhibition paradigm (to examine auditory processing), a 4/8 radial arm maze (to assess/dissociate working vs. reference memory) and rotarod (to examine sensorimotor ability and motor learning), were used to assess the effects of Dcdc2 mutation. Behavioral results revealed deficits in RAP, working memory and reference memory in Dcdc2(del2/del2) mice when compared with matched wild types. Current findings parallel clinical research linking genetic variants of DCDC2 with specific impairments of phonological processing and memory ability. PMID:25130614

Truong, D T; Che, A; Rendall, A R; Szalkowski, C E; LoTurco, J J; Galaburda, A M; Holly Fitch, R

2014-11-01

77

A Comparison of Phonological Processing Skills of Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Children with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999), the researchers compared strengths and weaknesses in phonological processing skills in three groups: 21 children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), 29 children with dyslexia, and 30 age-matched controls. The MSNH group showed…

Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J.

2012-01-01

78

Improving the Early Literacy Skills of Children with Behavioral Disorders and Phonological Processing Deficits at School Entry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving the reading outcomes of children with concomitant emotional and behavior disorders (BD) and phonological processing deficits represents one of the greatest challenges facing educators today. For example, the results from a meta-analysis indicated that problem behavior (Z[sub r]=.46) was as important as phonological processing skills in…

Nelson, J. Ron; Benner, Gregory J.

2005-01-01

79

Orthographic and Phonological Preview Benefits: Parafoveal Processing in Skilled and Less-skilled Deaf Readers  

PubMed Central

Many deaf individuals do not develop the high-level reading skills that will allow them to fully take part into society. To attempt to explain this widespread difficulty in the deaf population, much research has honed in on the use of phonological codes during reading. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers, though not well supported, still lingers in the literature. We investigated skilled and less-skilled adult deaf readers’ processing of orthographic and phonological codes in parafoveal vision during reading by monitoring their eye movements and using the boundary paradigm. Orthographic preview benefits were found in early measures of reading for skilled hearing, skilled deaf, and less-skilled deaf readers, but only skilled hearing readers processed phonological codes in parafoveal vision. Crucially, skilled and less-skilled deaf readers showed a very similar pattern of preview benefits during reading. These results support the notion that reading difficulties in deaf adults are not linked to their failure to activate phonological codes during reading. PMID:23768045

Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Rayner, Keith

2013-01-01

80

Time course of brain activation during graphemic/phonologic processing in reading: an ERP study.  

PubMed

The present study sought to investigate the time course of brain activation during grapheme-to-phoneme conversion and phonologic processing of legal Italian syllables. To this goal, we monitored a group of right-handed native Italian volunteers performing a phonologic decision task (same/different judgments). ERPs were recorded from 28 scalp sites during silent reading. Analysis of ERP latency showed faster responses to same syllables than to different ones as early as 105 ms at left temporal electrode site and 160 ms at frontal sites. The first effect of phonologic/graphemic incongruity on the amplitude of ERPs was observed at lateral occipital/posterior temporal sites (N185), where physiologic responses were enhanced to incongruous syllables. PMID:14642543

Proverbio, Alice Mado; Zani, Alberto

2003-12-01

81

Interaction of Phonological Awareness and "Magnocellular" Processing during Normal and Dyslexic Reading: Behavioural and fMRI Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether phonological deficits are a consequence of magnocellular processing deficits in dyslexic and control children. In Experiment 1, children were tested for reading ability, phonological awareness, visuo-magnocellular motion perception, and attention shifting (sometimes considered as magnocellular function). A two-step cluster…

Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen, Muna; Meffert, Elisabeth; Grabowska, Anna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

2010-01-01

82

The Relationships between Phonological Sensitivity, Syntactic Processing, and Verbal Working Memory in the Reading Performance of Third-Grade Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of 112 third-grade children was examined on tasks assessing phonological sensitivity, working memory, and syntactic processing. The children were also administered several measures of word recognition, pseudoword reading, and reading comprehension. A series of hierarchical regression analyses and commonality analyses indicated that phonological sensitivity remained a strong predictor of reading performance after variance in working memory and syntactic

Alexandra Gottardo; Keith E. Stanovich; Linda S. Siegel

1996-01-01

83

Functional Connectivity in an fMRI Study of Semantic and Phonological Processes and the Effect of L-Dopa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe an fMRI experiment examining the functional connectivity (FC) between regions of the brain associated with semantic and phonological processing. We wished to explore whether L-Dopa administration affects the interaction between language network components in semantic and phonological categorization tasks, as revealed by FC. We…

Tivarus, Madalina E.; Hillier, Ashleigh; Schmalbrock, Petra; Beversdorf, David Q.

2008-01-01

84

Communication, Listening, Cognitive and Speech Perception Skills in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Parental reports of communication, listening, and behavior in children receiving a clinical diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) or auditory processing disorder (APD) were compared with direct tests of intelligence, memory, language, phonology, literacy, and speech intelligibility. The primary aim was to identify whether there…

Ferguson, Melanie A.; Hall, Rebecca L.; Riley, Alison; Moore, David R.

2011-01-01

85

On the role of the supramarginal gyrus in phonological processing and verbal working memory: evidence from rTMS studies.  

PubMed

The supramarginal gyrus (SMG) is activated for phonological processing during both language and verbal working memory tasks. Using rTMS, we investigated whether the contribution of the SMG to phonological processing is domain specific (specific to phonology) or more domain general (specific to verbal working memory). A measure of phonological complexity was developed based on sonority differences and subjects were tested after low frequency rTMS on a same/different judgment task and an n-back verbal memory task. It was reasoned that if the phonological processing in the SMG is more domain general, i.e., related to verbal working memory demands, performance would be more affected by the rTMS during the n-back task than during the same/different judgment task. Two auditory experiments were conducted. The first experiment demonstrated that under conditions where working memory demands are minimized (i.e. same/different judgment), repetitive stimulation had no effect on performance although performance varied as a function of phonological complexity. The second experiment demonstrated that during a verbal working memory task (n-back task), where phonological complexity was also manipulated, subjects were less accurate and slower at performing the task after stimulation but the effect of phonology was not affected. The results confirm that the SMG is involved in verbal working memory but not in the encoding of sonority differences. PMID:24184438

Deschamps, Isabelle; Baum, Shari R; Gracco, Vincent L

2014-01-01

86

Phonological Priming in Young Children Who Stutter: Holistic versus Incremental Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the holistic versus incremental phonological encoding processes of young children who stutter (CWS; N = 26) and age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter (CWNS; N = 26) via a picture-naming auditory priming paradigm. Method: Children named pictures during 3 auditory priming conditions: neutral, holistic, and…

Byrd, Courtney T.; Conture, Edward G.; Ohde, Ralph N.

2007-01-01

87

General Auditory Processing, Speech Perception and Phonological Awareness Skills in Chinese-English Biliteracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on the associations of general auditory processing, speech perception, phonological awareness and word reading in Cantonese-speaking children from Hong Kong learning to read both Chinese (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). Children in Grades 2--4 ("N" = 133) participated and were administered measures of…

Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Wong, Simpson W. L.

2013-01-01

88

How Is Phonological Processing Related to Individual Differences in Children's Arithmetic Skills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there is evidence for an association between the development of reading and arithmetic, the precise locus of this relationship remains to be determined. Findings from cognitive neuroscience research that point to shared neural correlates for phonological processing and arithmetic as well as recent behavioral evidence led to the present…

De Smedt, Bert; Taylor, Jessica; Archibald, Lisa; Ansari, Daniel

2010-01-01

89

Contributions of phonological and orthographic processing to reading comprehension in second through fourth graders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined various component skills of reading in second through fourth graders to determine which underlying skills were most related to reading comprehension at these grade levels. While much research has been done in the areas of orthographic and phonological processing, this study sought to further decompose these skills into accuracy and speed components and to answer the question

Julie Adriana Mayring

2002-01-01

90

The Effects of Concurrent Cognitive Load on Phonological Processing in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine whether phonological processing in adults who stutter (AWS) is disrupted by increased amounts of cognitive load in a concurrent attention-demanding task. Method: Nine AWS and 9 adults who do not stutter (AWNS) participated. Using a dual-task paradigm, the authors presented word pairs for rhyme judgments and, concurrently,…

Jones, Robin M.; Fox, Robert A.; Jacewicz, Ewa

2012-01-01

91

The Processing of English Regular Inflections: Phonological Cues to Morphological Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies suggest that different neural and functional mechanisms are involved in the analysis of irregular ("caught") and regular ("filled") past tense forms in English. In particular, the comprehension and production of regular forms is argued to require processes of morpho-phonological assembly and disassembly, analysing these forms into…

Post, Brechtje; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K.

2008-01-01

92

A Closer Look at Phonology as a Predictor of Spoken Sentence Processing and Word Reading.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N [Formula: see text] 377) completed standardized tests of pA ('Elision') and pSTM ('Nonword Repetition') from the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing. Concepts and Following Directions (CFD) and Formulated Sentences (FS) were taken from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition, as measures of sentence comprehension and production, respectively. Children also completed the Word Identification (Word Id) and Word Attack (Word Att) subtests of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Third Edition. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for age and nonverbal IQ revealed that Elision was the only significant predictor of CFD and FS. While Elision was the strongest predictor of Word Id and Word Att, Nonword Repetition accounted for additional variance in both reading measures. These results emphasize the usefulness of breaking down phonological processing into multiple components and they also have implications language and reading disordered populations. PMID:24627225

Myers, Suzanne; K Robertson, Erin

2014-03-14

93

The time course of phonological and orthographic processing of acronyms in reading: evidence from eye movements.  

PubMed

The present experiment presented acronyms preceded by either a or an in a sentence. The key stimuli were acronyms that begin with a consonant such as F, whose letter name begins with a vowel sound, or with the vowel U, whose letter name begins with a consonant sound. The durations of first fixations were influenced solely by phonology: For example, a FBI caused as much disruption (relative to an FBI) as did an CIA (relative to a CIA). Somewhat later processing (most notably go-past time and total time) was influenced by orthography as well, as combinations such as an FBI had longer processing times than did combinations such as a CIA. Although the initial coding of visual stimuli must proceed from an orthographic code to a phonological one, these data indicate that the phonological representation of the acronym is the primary initial code that makes contact with the article that precedes it and suggest that the initial contact with the sentence context is phonological. PMID:17048723

Slattery, Timothy J; Pollatsek, Alexander; Rayner, Keith

2006-06-01

94

Neural Correlates of Phonological Processing in Speech Sound Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Speech sound disorders (SSD) are the largest group of communication disorders observed in children. One explanation for these disorders is that children with SSD fail to form stable phonological representations when acquiring the speech sound system of their language due to poor phonological memory (PM). The goal of this study was to examine PM in individuals with histories of SSD employing functional MR imaging (fMRI). Participants were 6 right-handed adolescents with a history of early childhood SSD and 7 right-handed matched controls with no history of speech and language disorders. We performed an fMRI study using an overt non-word repetition (NWR). Right lateralized hypoactivation in the inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus was observed. The former suggests a deficit in the phonological processing loop supporting PM, while the later may indicate a deficit in speech perception. Both are cognitive processes involved in speech production. Bilateral hyperactivation observed in the pre and supplementary motor cortex, inferior parietal, supramarginal gyrus and cerebellum raised the possibility of compensatory increases in cognitive effort or reliance on the other components of the articulatory rehearsal network and phonologic store. These findings may be interpreted to support the hypothesis that individuals with SSD may have a deficit in PM and to suggest the involvement of compensatory mechanisms to counteract dysfunction of the normal network. PMID:21458852

Tkach, Jean A.; Chen, Xu; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Holland, Scott K.; Lewis, Barbara A.

2011-01-01

95

Impairment: The Case of Phonotactic Probability and Nonword Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to explore the relationship between lexical and phonological knowledge in children with primary language impairment (PLI) through the application of a developmental methodology. Specifically, they tested whether there is evidence for an impairment in the process of phonological abstraction in this group of…

McKean, Cristina; Letts, Carolyn; Howard, David

2013-01-01

96

Dynamic causal modeling of spatiotemporal integration of phonological and semantic processes: an electroencephalographic study  

PubMed Central

Integration of phonological and lexico-semantic processes is essential for visual word recognition. Here we used dynamic causal modeling of event-related potentials, combined with group source reconstruction, to estimate how those processes translate into context-dependent modulation of effective connectivity within the temporal-frontal language network. Fifteen healthy human subjects performed a phoneme detection task in pseudo-words and a semantic categorization task in words. Cortical current densities revealed the sequential activation of temporal regions, from the occipital-temporal junction towards the anterior temporal lobe, before reaching the inferior frontal gyrus. A difference of activation between phonology and semantics was identified in the anterior temporal lobe, within the 240–300 ms peristimulus time-window. Dynamic causal modeling indicated this increase of activation of the anterior temporal lobe in the semantic condition as a consequence of an increase of forward connectivity from the posterior inferior temporal lobe to the anterior temporal lobe. In addition, fast activation of the inferior frontal region, that allowed a feedback control of frontal regions on the superior temporal and posterior inferior temporal cortices, was found to be likely. Our results precisely describe spatio-temporal network mechanisms occurring during integration of phonological and semantic processes. In particular, they support the hypothesis of multiple pathways within the temporal lobe for language processing, where frontal regions would exert a top-down control on temporal regions in the recruitment of the anterior temporal lobe for semantic processing. PMID:22442091

Yvert, Gaëtan; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Baciu, Monica; David, Olivier

2012-01-01

97

Phonological and Articulation Treatment Approaches in Portuguese Children with Speech and Language Impairments: A Randomized Controlled Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In Portugal, the routine clinical practice of speech and language therapists (SLTs) in treating children with all types of speech sound disorder (SSD) continues to be articulation therapy (AT). There is limited use of phonological therapy (PT) or phonological awareness training in Portugal. Additionally, at an international level there…

Lousada, M.; Jesus, Luis M. T.; Capelas, S.; Margaca, C.; Simoes, D.; Valente, A.; Hall, A.; Joffe, V. L.

2013-01-01

98

Phonological facilitation of object naming in agrammatic and logopenic primary progressive aphasia (PPA)  

PubMed Central

Phonological processing deficits are characteristic of both the agrammatic and logopenic subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L). However, it is an open question which substages of phonological processing (i.e., phonological word form retrieval, phonological encoding) are impaired in these subtypes of PPA, as well as how phonological processing deficits contribute to anomia. In the present study, participants with PPA-G (n=7), PPA-L (n=7), and unimpaired controls (n=17) named objects as interfering written words (phonologically related/unrelated) were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 0, +100, +300, and +500 ms. Phonological facilitation (PF) effects (faster naming times with phonologically related interfering words) were found for the controls and PPA-L group only at SOA=0 and +100 ms. However, the PPA-G group exhibited protracted PF effects (PF at SOA=0, +100, and +300 ms). These results may reflect deficits in phonological encoding in PPA-G, but not in PPA-L, supporting the neuropsychological reality of this substage of phonological processing and the distinction between these two PPA subtypes. PMID:24070176

Mack, Jennifer E.; Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Kloet, James D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2013-01-01

99

Phonological Representations Are Unconsciously Used when Processing Complex, Non-Speech Signals  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging studies of speech processing increasingly rely on artificial speech-like sounds whose perceptual status as speech or non-speech is assigned by simple subjective judgments; brain activation patterns are interpreted according to these status assignments. The naïve perceptual status of one such stimulus, spectrally-rotated speech (not consciously perceived as speech by naïve subjects), was evaluated in discrimination and forced identification experiments. Discrimination of variation in spectrally-rotated syllables in one group of naïve subjects was strongly related to the pattern of similarities in phonological identification of the same stimuli provided by a second, independent group of naïve subjects, suggesting either that (1) naïve rotated syllable perception involves phonetic-like processing, or (2) that perception is solely based on physical acoustic similarity, and similar sounds are provided with similar phonetic identities. Analysis of acoustic (Euclidean distances of center frequency values of formants) and phonetic similarities in the perception of the vowel portions of the rotated syllables revealed that discrimination was significantly and independently influenced by both acoustic and phonological information. We conclude that simple subjective assessments of artificial speech-like sounds can be misleading, as perception of such sounds may initially and unconsciously utilize speech-like, phonological processing. PMID:18414663

Azadpour, Mahan; Balaban, Evan

2008-01-01

100

The roles of family history of dyslexia, language, speech production and phonological processing in predicting literacy progress.  

PubMed

It is well established that speech, language and phonological skills are closely associated with literacy, and that children with a family risk of dyslexia (FRD) tend to show deficits in each of these areas in the preschool years. This paper examines what the relationships are between FRD and these skills, and whether deficits in speech, language and phonological processing fully account for the increased risk of dyslexia in children with FRD. One hundred and fifty-three 4-6-year-old children, 44 of whom had FRD, completed a battery of speech, language, phonology and literacy tasks. Word reading and spelling were retested 6 months later, and text reading accuracy and reading comprehension were tested 3 years later. The children with FRD were at increased risk of developing difficulties in reading accuracy, but not reading comprehension. Four groups were compared: good and poor readers with and without FRD. In most cases good readers outperformed poor readers regardless of family history, but there was an effect of family history on naming and nonword repetition regardless of literacy outcome, suggesting a role for speech production skills as an endophenotype of dyslexia. Phonological processing predicted spelling, while language predicted text reading accuracy and comprehension. FRD was a significant additional predictor of reading and spelling after controlling for speech production, language and phonological processing, suggesting that children with FRD show additional difficulties in literacy that cannot be fully explained in terms of their language and phonological skills. PMID:24581037

Carroll, Julia M; Mundy, Ian R; Cunningham, Anna J

2014-09-01

101

Differences between Patterns of Brain Activity Associated with Semantics and Those Linked with Phonological Processing Diminish with Age  

PubMed Central

It is widely believed that language function tends to show little age-related performance decline. Indeed, some older individuals seem to use compensatory mechanisms to maintain a high level of performance when submitted to lexical tasks. However, how these mechanisms affect cortical and subcortical activity during semantic and phonological processing has not been extensively explored. The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of healthy aging on cortico-subcortical routes related to semantic and phonological processing using a lexical analogue of the Wisconsin Cart-Sorting Task. Our results indicate that while young adults tend to show increased activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the fusiform gyrus, the ventral temporal lobe and the caudate nucleus during semantic decisions and in the posterior Broca's area (area 44), the temporal lobe (area 37), the temporoparietal junction (area 40) and the motor cortical regions during phonological decisions, older individuals showed increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and motor cortical regions during both semantic and phonological decisions. Furthermore, when semantic and phonological decisions were contrasted with each other, younger individuals showed significant brain activity differences in several regions while older individuals did not. Therefore, in older individuals, the semantic and phonological routes seem to merge into a single pathway. These findings represent most probably neural reserve/compensation mechanisms, characterized by a decrease in specificity, on which the elderly rely to maintain an adequate level of performance. PMID:24972020

Martins, Ruben; Simard, France; Monchi, Oury

2014-01-01

102

Effects of Phonological Contrast on Auditory Word Discrimination in Children with and without Reading Disability: A Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor readers perform worse than their normal reading peers on a variety of speech perception tasks, which may be linked to their phonological processing abilities. The purpose of the study was to compare the brain activation patterns of normal and impaired readers on speech perception to better understand the phonological basis in reading…

Wehner, Daniel T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Mody, Maria

2007-01-01

103

Phonological and orthographic cues enhance the processing of inflectional morphology. ERP evidence from L1 and L2 French  

PubMed Central

We report the results of two event-related potential (ERP) experiments in which Spanish learners of French and native French controls show graded sensitivity to verbal inflectional errors as a function of the presence of orthographic and/or phonological cues when reading silently in French. In both experiments, verbal agreement was manipulated in sentential context such that subject verb agreement was either correct, ill-formed and orally realized, involving both orthographic and phonological cues, or ill-formed and silent which involved only orthographic cues. The results of both experiments revealed more robust ERP responses to orally realized than to silent inflectional errors. This was true for L2 learners as well as native controls, although the effect in the learner group was reduced in comparison to the native group. In addition, the combined influence of phonological and orthographic cues led to the largest differences between syntactic/phonological conditions. Overall, the results suggest that the presence of phonological cues may enhance L2 readers’ sensitivity to morphology but that such may appear in L2 processing only when sufficient proficiency is attained. Moreover, both orthographic and phonological cues are used when available. PMID:25165460

Carrasco-Ortiz, Haydee; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

2014-01-01

104

Rhythmic Priming Enhances the Phonological Processing of Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While natural speech does not possess the same degree of temporal regularity found in music, there is recent evidence to suggest that temporal regularity enhances speech processing. The aim of this experiment was to examine whether speech processing would be enhanced by the prior presentation of a rhythmical prime. We recorded electrophysiological…

Cason, Nia; Schon, Daniele

2012-01-01

105

Phonological iconicity  

PubMed Central

The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062

Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2014-01-01

106

Spatiotemporal distribution of cortical processing of first and second languages in bilinguals. II. Effects of phonologic and semantic priming.  

PubMed

This study determined the effects of phonology and semantics on the distribution of cortical activity to the second of a pair of words in first and second language (mixed pairs). The effects of relative proficiency in the two languages and linguistic setting (monolinguistic or mixed) are reported in a companion paper. Ten early bilinguals and 14 late bilinguals listened to mixed pairs of words in Arabic (L1) and Hebrew (L2) and indicated whether both words in the pair had the same or different meanings. The spatio-temporal distribution of current densities of event-related potentials were estimated for each language and according to semantic and phonologic relationship (same or different) compared with the first word in the pair. During early processing (<300 ms), brain activity in temporal and temporoparietal auditory areas was enhanced by phonologic incongruence between words in the pair and in Wernicke's area by both phonologic and semantic priming. In contrast, brain activities during late processing (>300 ms) were enhanced by semantic incongruence between the two words, particularly in temporal areas and in left hemisphere Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The latter differences were greater when words were in L2. Surprisingly, no significant effects of relative proficiency on processing the second word in the pair were found. These results indicate that the distribution of brain activity to the second of two words presented bilingually is affected differently during early and late processing by both semantic and phonologic priming by- and incongruence with the immediately preceding word. PMID:22696304

Pratt, Hillel; Abbasi, Dalal Abu-Amneh; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi; Starr, Arnold

2013-11-01

107

The relationship between phonological and auditory processing and brain organization in beginning readers  

PubMed Central

We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of skill-correlated regions, including left hemisphere temporoparietal and occipitotemporal sites, as well as inferior frontal, visual, visual attention, and subcortical components. For speech-related activation, shared variance among reading skill measures was most prominently correlated with activation in left hemisphere inferior frontal gyrus and precuneus. Implications for brain-based models of literacy acquisition are discussed. PMID:22572517

PUGH, Kenneth R.; LANDI, Nicole; PRESTON, Jonathan L.; MENCL, W. Einar; AUSTIN, Alison C.; SIBLEY, Daragh; FULBRIGHT, Robert K.; SEIDENBERG, Mark S.; GRIGORENKO, Elena L.; CONSTABLE, R. Todd; MOLFESE, Peter; FROST, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

108

Phonological coding during reading.  

PubMed

The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679

Leinenger, Mallorie

2014-11-01

109

White matter pathway supporting phonological encoding in speech production: a multi-modal imaging study of brain damage patients.  

PubMed

In speech production, an important step before motor programming is the retrieval and encoding of the phonological elements of target words. It has been proposed that phonological encoding is supported by multiple regions in the left frontal, temporal and parietal regions and their underlying white matter, especially the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) or superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). It is unclear, however, whether the effects of AF/SLF are indeed related to phonological encoding for output and whether there are other white matter tracts that also contribute to this process. We comprehensively investigated the anatomical connectivity supporting phonological encoding in production by studying the relationship between the integrity of all major white matter tracts across the entire brain and phonological encoding deficits in a group of 69 patients with brain damage. The integrity of each white matter tract was measured both by the percentage of damaged voxels (structural imaging) and the mean fractional anisotropy value (diffusion tensor imaging). The phonological encoding deficits were assessed by various measures in two oral production tasks that involve phonological encoding: the percentage of nonword (phonological) errors in oral picture naming and the accuracy of word reading aloud with word comprehension ability regressed out. We found that the integrity of the left SLF in both the structural and diffusion tensor imaging measures consistently predicted the severity of phonological encoding impairment in the two phonological production tasks. Such effects of the left SLF on phonological production remained significant when a range of potential confounding factors were considered through partial correlation, including total lesion volume, demographic factors, lesions on phonological-relevant grey matter regions, or effects originating from the phonological perception or semantic processes. Our results therefore conclusively demonstrate the central role of the left SLF in phonological encoding in speech production. PMID:25359657

Han, Zaizhu; Ma, Yujun; Gong, Gaolang; Huang, Ruiwang; Song, Luping; Bi, Yanchao

2014-10-31

110

Auditory Temporal Information Processing in Preschool Children at Family Risk for Dyslexia: Relations with Phonological Abilities and Developing Literacy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this project, the hypothesis of an auditory temporal processing deficit in dyslexia was tested by examining auditory processing in relation to phonological skills in two contrasting groups of five-year-old preschool children, a familial high risk and a familial low risk group. Participants were individually matched for gender, age, non-verbal…

Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquiere, Pol

2006-01-01

111

Brain activation during phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters in deaf signers.  

PubMed

Previous studies found altered brain function in deaf individuals reading alphabetic orthographies. However, it is not known whether similar alterations of brain function are characteristic of non-alphabetic writing systems and whether alterations are specific to certain kinds of lexical tasks. Here we examined differences in brain activation between Chinese congenitally deaf individuals (CD) and hearing controls (HC) during character reading tasks requiring phonological and semantic judgments. For both tasks, we found that CD showed less activation than HC in left inferior frontal gyrus, but greater activation in several right hemisphere regions including inferior frontal gyrus, angular gyrus, and inferior temporal gyrus. Although many group differences were similar across tasks, greater activation in right middle frontal gyrus was more pronounced for the rhyming compared to the meaning task. Finally, within the deaf individuals better performance on the rhyming task was associated with less activation in right inferior parietal lobule and angular gyrus. Our results in Chinese CD are broadly consistent with previous studies in alphabetic languages suggesting greater engagement of inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal cortex for reading that is largely independent of task, with the exception of right middle frontal gyrus for phonological processing. The brain behavior correlations potentially indicate that CD that more efficiently use the right hemisphere are better readers. PMID:24795593

Li, Yanyan; Peng, Danling; Liu, Li; Booth, James R; Ding, Guosheng

2014-01-01

112

Changing Relations between Phonological Processing Abilities and Word-Level Reading as Children Develop from Beginning to Skilled Readers: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's phonological processing abilities, reading skills, and vocabulary were assessed annually from kindergarten through grade four. Found that individual differences in phonological awareness were related to subsequent differences in word-level reading, and that individual differences in letter-name knowledge were related to subsequent…

Wagner, Richard K.; And Others

1997-01-01

113

Effects of Phonological and Orthographic Shifts on Children's Processing of Written Morphology: A Time-Course Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report two experiments that investigated whether phonological and/or orthographic shifts in a base word interfere with morphological processing by French 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders and adults (as a control group) along the time course of visual word recognition. In both experiments, prime-target pairs shared four possible relationships:…

Quémart, Pauline; Casalis, Séverine

2014-01-01

114

Processing of Phonological Variation in Children with Hearing Loss: Compensation for English Place Assimilation in Connected Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors explored phonological processing in connected speech in children with hearing loss. Specifically, the authors investigated these children's sensitivity to English place assimilation, by which alveolar consonants like t and n can adapt to following sounds (e.g., the word ten can be realized as tem in the…

Skoruppa, Katrin; Rosen, Stuart

2014-01-01

115

Relationships among Rapid Digit Naming, Phonological Processing, Motor Automaticity, and Speech Perception in Poor, Average, and Good Readers and Spellers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we explore the relationship between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and other cognitive processes among below-average, average, and above-average readers and spellers. Nonsense word reading, phonological awareness, RAN, automaticity of balance, speech perception, and verbal short-term and working memory were measured. Factor…

Savage, Robert S.; Frederickson, Norah; Goodwin, Roz; Patni, Ulla; Smith, Nicola; Tuersley, Louise

2005-01-01

116

Relationships Among Linguistic Processing Speed, Phonological Working Memory, and Attention in Children Who Stutter  

PubMed Central

Relatively recently, experimental studies of linguistic processing speed in children who stutter (CWS) have emerged, some of which suggest differences in performance among CWS compared to children who do not stutter (CWNS). What is not yet well understood is the extent to which underlying cognitive skills may impact performance on timed tasks of linguistic performance. The purpose of this study was to explore possible relationships between measures of linguistic processing speed and two aspects of cognition: phonological working memory and attention. Participants were 9 CWS and 14 CWNS between the ages of 3;6 and 5;2. Children participated in a computerized picture naming task (an index of linguistic processing speed) and a nonword repetition task (an index of phonological working memory). Parents completed a temperament behavior questionnaire, from which information about the children’s attentional skills was collected. Findings revealed that the groups did not differ from each other on speed of picture naming or attention; however, the CWS performed significantly worse in nonword repetition. In addition, after partialling out the effects of age, (a) for CWS only, there was a significant negative relationship between picture naming speed and nonword repetition; (b) there were no significant relationships for either group between aspects of attention and picture naming speed; and (c) only the CWNS showed a significant relationship between nonword repetition and focused attentional skills. These results underscore the need to consider the underlying skills associated with lexically-related aspects of language production when examining the task performances of CWS and CWNS. PMID:20831969

Anderson, Julie D.; Wagovich, Stacy A.

2010-01-01

117

Computing the Meanings of Words in Reading: Cooperative Division of Labor Between Visual and Phonological Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are words read visually (by means of a direct mapping from orthography to semantics) or phonologically (by mapping from orthography to phonology to semantics)? The authors addressed this long-standing debate by examining how a large-scale computational model based on connectionist principles would solve the problem and comparing the model's…

Harm, Michael W.; Seidenberg, Mark S.

2004-01-01

118

An Investigation to Validate the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) Test to Identify Children with Specific Language Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe extraordinarily high incidence of grammatical language impairments in developmental disorders suggests that this uniquely human cognitive function is “fragile”. Yet our understanding of the neurobiology of grammatical impairments is limited. Furthermore, there is no “gold-standard” to identify grammatical impairments and routine screening is not undertaken. An accurate screening test to identify grammatical abilities would serve the research, health and

Heather K. J. van der Lely; Elisabeth Payne; Alastair McClelland

2011-01-01

119

An fMRI study of multimodal semantic and phonological processing in reading disabled adolescents  

E-print Network

2009 /Accepted: 11 September 2009 # The International Dyslexia Association 2009 Abstract Using Dyslexia . fMRI . Performance . Phonology. Reading disability. Semantics Introduction The neurobiology of reading disability An increasing body of research suggests that the core deficit in developmental dyslexia

120

Differences on morphological and phonological processing between typically developing children and children with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

It is widely acknowledged that people with Down syndrome (Ds) have less highly developed morphosyntactic abilities than typically developing (TD) children. However, little is known about the morphological processing of this population. In this paper we carry out two experiments in which the morphological Base Frequency (BF) effect is explored in both groups. The aim of the experiments is to carry out an in-depth exploration of morphological processing in children with Ds and TD children. In the first experiment children performed a definition task; in the second children had to provide a plural form for singular words. The results show a significant BF effect in only the first experiment. In the second experiment this morphological variable does not reach significance, but the variable we called Ending phoneme (a phonological variable that refers to the last phoneme of the bases prior to the addition of plural morphemes) does. The results also show that children with Ds score significantly below the two control groups in both experiments, with no significant differences between control groups. We go on to discuss morphological processing in children with and without Ds, the role of the two tasks carried out (paying special attention to the role played by working memory), and the possible relationship between our results and morphosyntactic deficits described in the literature. PMID:23643760

Lázaro, Miguel; Garayzábal, Elena; Moraleda, Esther

2013-07-01

121

Raspberry, not a car: context predictability and a phonological advantage in early and late learners’ processing of speech in noise  

PubMed Central

Second language learners perform worse than native speakers under adverse listening conditions, such as speech in noise (SPIN). No data are available on heritage language speakers’ (early naturalistic interrupted learners’) ability to perceive SPIN. The current study fills this gap and investigates the perception of Russian speech in multi-talker babble noise by the matched groups of high- and low-proficiency heritage speakers (HSs) and late second language learners of Russian who were native speakers of English. The study includes a control group of Russian native speakers. It manipulates the noise level (high and low), and context cloze probability (high and low). The results of the SPIN task are compared to the tasks testing the control of phonology, AXB discrimination and picture-word discrimination, and lexical knowledge, a word translation task, in the same participants. The increased phonological sensitivity of HSs interacted with their ability to rely on top–down processing in sentence integration, use contextual cues, and build expectancies in the high-noise/high-context condition in a bootstrapping fashion. HSs outperformed oral proficiency-matched late second language learners on SPIN task and two tests of phonological sensitivity. The outcomes of the SPIN experiment support both the early naturalistic advantage and the role of proficiency in HSs. HSs’ ability to take advantage of the high-predictability context in the high-noise condition was mitigated by their level of proficiency. Only high-proficiency HSs, but not any other non-native group, took advantage of the high-predictability context that became available with better phonological processing skills in high-noise. The study thus confirms high-proficiency (but not low-proficiency) HSs’ nativelike ability to combine bottom–up and top–down cues in processing SPIN. PMID:25566130

Gor, Kira

2014-01-01

122

Directional Effects between Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Deficient rapid auditory processing (RAP) has been associated with early language impairment and dyslexia. Using an auditory masking paradigm, children with language disabilities perform selectively worse than controls at detecting a tone in a backward masking (BM) condition (tone followed by white noise) compared to a forward masking…

Johnson, Erin Phinney; Pennington, Bruce F.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Boada, Richard

2009-01-01

123

Left Dorsal Speech Stream Components and Their Contribution to Phonological Processing  

PubMed Central

Models propose an auditory-motor mapping via a left-hemispheric dorsal speech-processing stream, yet its detailed contributions to speech perception and production are unclear. Using fMRI-navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we virtually lesioned left dorsal stream components in healthy human subjects and probed the consequences on speech-related facilitation of articulatory motor cortex (M1) excitability, as indexed by increases in motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude of a lip muscle, and on speech processing performance in phonological tests. Speech-related MEP facilitation was disrupted by rTMS of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), the sylvian parieto-temporal region (SPT), and by double-knock-out but not individual lesioning of pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), and not by rTMS of the ventral speech-processing stream or an occipital control site. RTMS of the dorsal stream but not of the ventral stream or the occipital control site caused deficits specifically in the processing of fast transients of the acoustic speech signal. Performance of syllable and pseudoword repetition correlated with speech-related MEP facilitation, and this relation was abolished with rTMS of pSTS, SPT, and pIFG. Findings provide direct evidence that auditory-motor mapping in the left dorsal stream causes reliable and specific speech-related MEP facilitation in left articulatory M1. The left dorsal stream targets the articulatory M1 through pSTS and SPT constituting essential posterior input regions and parallel via frontal pathways through pIFG and dPMC. Finally, engagement of the left dorsal stream is necessary for processing of fast transients in the auditory signal. PMID:25632119

Murakami, Takenobu; Kell, Christian A.; Restle, Julia; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

2015-01-01

124

Left dorsal speech stream components and their contribution to phonological processing.  

PubMed

Models propose an auditory-motor mapping via a left-hemispheric dorsal speech-processing stream, yet its detailed contributions to speech perception and production are unclear. Using fMRI-navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we virtually lesioned left dorsal stream components in healthy human subjects and probed the consequences on speech-related facilitation of articulatory motor cortex (M1) excitability, as indexed by increases in motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude of a lip muscle, and on speech processing performance in phonological tests. Speech-related MEP facilitation was disrupted by rTMS of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), the sylvian parieto-temporal region (SPT), and by double-knock-out but not individual lesioning of pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), and not by rTMS of the ventral speech-processing stream or an occipital control site. RTMS of the dorsal stream but not of the ventral stream or the occipital control site caused deficits specifically in the processing of fast transients of the acoustic speech signal. Performance of syllable and pseudoword repetition correlated with speech-related MEP facilitation, and this relation was abolished with rTMS of pSTS, SPT, and pIFG. Findings provide direct evidence that auditory-motor mapping in the left dorsal stream causes reliable and specific speech-related MEP facilitation in left articulatory M1. The left dorsal stream targets the articulatory M1 through pSTS and SPT constituting essential posterior input regions and parallel via frontal pathways through pIFG and dPMC. Finally, engagement of the left dorsal stream is necessary for processing of fast transients in the auditory signal. PMID:25632119

Murakami, Takenobu; Kell, Christian A; Restle, Julia; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Ziemann, Ulf

2015-01-28

125

Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere.  

PubMed

Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by manipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data-driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater recruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings suggest a key role for selective attention in on-line phonological computations. Furthermore, these findings motivate future research on the role that neural mechanisms of attention may play in phonological awareness impairments thought to underlie developmental reading disabilities. PMID:24746955

Yoncheva, Yuliya; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D; McCandliss, Bruce D

2014-08-15

126

Semantic and Phonological Task-Set Priming and Stimulus Processing Investigated Using Magnetoencephalography (MEG)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study the neural substrates of semantic and phonological task priming and task performance were investigated using single word task-primes. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were analysed using Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry (SAM) to determine the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of cortical responses. Comparisons were made…

McNab, F.; Rippon, G.; Hillebrand, A.; Singh, K. D.; Swithenby, S. J.

2007-01-01

127

Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number naming…

Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

2012-01-01

128

A Dynamic Look at L2 Phonological Learning: Seeking Processing Explanations for Implicational Phenomena  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether second language (L2) phonological learning can be characterized as a gradual and systematically patterned replacement of nonnative segments by native segments in learners' speech, conforming to a two-stage implicational scale. We adopt a dynamic approach to language variation based on Gatbonton's (1975, 1978)…

Trofimovich, Pavel; Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Segalowitz, Norman

2007-01-01

129

Trajectories Emerging from Discrete versus Continuous Processing Models in Phonological Competitor Tasks: A Commentary on Spivey, Grosjean, and Knoblich (2005)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

M. J. Spivey, M. Grosjean, and G. Knoblich (2005) showed that in a phonological competitor task, participants' mouse cursor movements showed more curvature toward the competitor item when the competitor and target were phonologically similar than when the competitor and target were phonologically dissimilar. Spivey et al. interpreted this result…

Van Der Wel, Robrecht P. R. D.; Eder, Jeffrey R.; Mitchel, Aaron D.; Walsh, Matthew M.; Rosenbaum, David A.

2009-01-01

130

Demonstrating the effects of phonological similarity and frequency on item and order memory in Down syndrome using process dissociation.  

PubMed

It is important to distinguish between memory for item information and memory for order information when considering the nature of verbal short-term memory (vSTM) performance. Although other researchers have attempted to make this distinction between item and order memory in children, none has done so using process dissociation. This study shows that such an approach can be particularly useful and informative. Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to experience a vSTM deficit. These two experiments explored whether phonological similarity (Experiment 1) and item frequency (Experiment 2) affected vSTM for item and order information in a group of individuals with DS compared with typically developing (TD) vocabulary-matched children. Process dissociation was used to obtain measures of item and order memory via Nairne and Kelley's procedure (Journal of Memory and Language, 50 (2004) 113-133). Those with DS were poorer than the matched TD group for recall of both item and order information. However, in both populations, phonologically similar items reduced order memory but enhanced item memory, whereas high-frequency items resulted in improvements in both item and order memory-effects that are in line with previous research in the adult literature. These results indicate that, despite poorer vSTM performance in DS, individuals experience phonological coding of verbal input and a contribution of long-term memory knowledge to recall. These findings inform routes for interventions for those with DS, highlighting the need to enhance both item and order memory. Moreover, this work demonstrates that process dissociation is applicable and informative for studying special populations and children. PMID:25089885

Smith, Elizabeth; Jarrold, Christopher

2014-12-01

131

A tractography study in dyslexia: neuroanatomic correlates of orthographic, phonological and speech processing.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging tractography is a structural magnetic resonance imaging technique allowing reconstruction and assessment of the integrity of three dimensional white matter tracts, as indexed by their fractional anisotropy. It is assumed that the left arcuate fasciculus plays a crucial role for reading development, as it connects two regions of the reading network, the left temporoparietal region and the left inferior frontal gyrus, for which atypical functional activation and lower fractional anisotropy values have been reported in dyslexic readers. In addition, we explored the potential role of the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, which might connect a third region of the reading network, the left ventral occipitotemporal region with the left inferior frontal gyrus. In the present study, 20 adults with dyslexia and 20 typical reading adults were scanned using diffusion tensor imaging, and the bilateral arcuate fasciculus and the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were delineated. Group comparisons show a significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in the left arcuate fasciculus of adults with dyslexia, in particular in the segment that directly connects posterior temporal and frontal areas. This fractional anisotropy reduction might reflect a lower degree of myelination in the dyslexic sample, as it co-occurred with a group difference in radial diffusivity. In contrast, no significant group differences in fractional anisotropy were found in the right arcuate fasciculus or in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Correlational analyses (controlled for reading status) demonstrated a specific relation between performance on phoneme awareness and speech perception and the integrity of left arcuate fasciculus as indexed by fractional anisotropy, and between orthographic processing and fractional anisotropy values in left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. The present study reveals structural anomalies in the left arcuate fasciculus in adults with dyslexia. This finding corroborates current hypotheses of dyslexia as a disorder of network connections. In addition, our study demonstrates a correlational double dissociation, which might reflect neuroanatomical correlates of the dual route reading model: the left arcuate fasciculus seems to sustain the dorsal phonological route underlying grapheme-phoneme decoding, while the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus seems to sustain the ventral orthographic route underlying reading by direct word access. PMID:22327793

Vandermosten, Maaike; Boets, Bart; Poelmans, Hanne; Sunaert, Stefan; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

2012-03-01

132

The neural basis of inhibitory effects of semantic and phonological neighbors in spoken word production  

PubMed Central

Theories of word production and word recognition generally agree that multiple word candidates are activated during processing. The facilitative and inhibitory effects of these “lexical neighbors” have been studied extensively using behavioral methods and have spurred theoretical development in psycholinguistics, but relatively little is known about the neural basis of these effects and how lesions may affect them. The present study used voxel-wise lesion overlap subtraction to examine semantic and phonological neighbor effects in spoken word production following left hemisphere stroke. Increased inhibitory effects of near semantic neighbors were associated with inferior frontal lobe lesions, suggesting impaired selection among strongly activated semantically-related candidates. Increased inhibitory effects of phonological neighbors were associated with posterior superior temporal and inferior parietal lobe lesions. In combination with previous studies, these results suggest that such lesions cause phonological-to-lexical feedback to more strongly activate phonologically-related lexical candidates. The comparison of semantic and phonological neighbor effects and how they are affected by left hemisphere lesions provides new insights into the cognitive dynamics and neural basis of phonological, semantic, and cognitive control processes in spoken word production. PMID:23647518

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

2014-01-01

133

Tonguetwisting and dyslexia: Investigating the phonological deficit hypothesis   

E-print Network

There is growing agreement that people with dyslexia have difficulty processing speech sounds. Proponents of the phonological deficit hypothesis argue that the core difficulty in dyslexia lies with phonological processing itself, either in encoding...

Fraser, Catriona

2012-06-27

134

Phonological Codes as Early Sources of Constraint in Chinese Word Identification: A Review of Current Discoveries and Theoretical Accounts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers specific aspects of phonological and orthographic processing in Chinese that may differ from those in English. Emphasizes that early phonological processes and phonological mediation are two different questions in the identification-with-phonology hypothesis. Shows that "mediation" and "prelexical phonology," two very important concepts…

Perfetti, Charles A.; Tan, Li-Hai

1998-01-01

135

What Aspects of Face Processing Are Impaired in Developmental Prosopagnosia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a severe impairment in identifying faces that is present from early in life and that occurs despite no apparent brain damage and intact visual and intellectual function. Here, we investigated what aspects of face processing are impaired/spared in developmental prosopagnosia by examining a relatively large group…

Le Grand, Richard; Cooper, Philip A.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Sagiv, Noam; de Gelder, Beatrice; Maurer, Daphne

2006-01-01

136

Do Phonological and Executive Processes in English Learners at Risk for Reading Disabilities in Grade 1 Predict Performance in Grade 2?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined the degree to which the phonological and executive components of memory reflect language-specific capacities in reading achievement. We tested whether the memory processes in a sample of English-language learners that played a major role in predicting second-language acquisition and risk for reading disability (RD) in Grade 1…

Lee Swanson, H.; Sez, Leilani; Gerber, Michael

2004-01-01

137

A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Verbal Short-Term Memory and Phonological Processing in 8-Year-Olds with a History of Repetitive Otitis Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…

Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial

2005-01-01

138

BRAIN AND LANGUAGE 18, 128-174 (1983) The Selective Impairment of Phonological Processing  

E-print Network

Fort Hm.urd Veterans' Administration Medic,crl Center A case study is reported of an aphasic patient of written sentences. the commission of spelling errors in writing, and the production of literal paraphasias

Caramazza, Alfonso

139

The Role of Orthographic and Phonological Processing Skills in the Reading and Spelling of Monolingual Persian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of phonological and orthographic skills to Persian reading and spelling. The Persian language is of interest because it has very consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences, but somewhat inconsistent phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences. Reading, spelling, phonological, and…

Rahbari, Noriyeh; Senechal, Monique; Arab-Moghaddam, Narges

2007-01-01

140

What aspects of face processing are impaired in developmental prosopagnosia?  

PubMed

Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a severe impairment in identifying faces that is present from early in life and that occurs despite no apparent brain damage and intact visual and intellectual function. Here, we investigated what aspects of face processing are impaired/spared in developmental prosopagnosia by examining a relatively large group of individuals with DP (n = 8) using an extensive battery of well-established tasks. The tasks included measures of sensitivity to global motion and to global form, detection that a stimulus is a face, determination of its sex, holistic face processing, processing of face identity based on features, contour, and the spacing of features, and judgments of attractiveness. The DP cases showed normal sensitivity to global motion and global form and performed normally on our tests of face detection and holistic processing. On the other tasks, many DP cases were impaired but there was no systematic pattern. At least half showed deficits in processing of facial identity based on either the outer contour or spacing of the internal features, and/or on judgments of attractiveness. Three of the eight were impaired in processing facial identify based on the shape of internal features. The results show that DP is a heterogeneous condition and that impairment in recognizing faces cannot be predicted by poor performance on any one measure of face processing. PMID:16466839

Le Grand, Richard; Cooper, Philip A; Mondloch, Catherine J; Lewis, Terri L; Sagiv, Noam; de Gelder, Beatrice; Maurer, Daphne

2006-07-01

141

Strategic processing and episodic memory impairment in obsessive compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

There is evidence that nonverbal memory problems in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are mediated by impaired strategic processing. Although many studies have found verbal memory to be normal in OCD, these studies did not use tests designed to stress organizational strategies. This study examined verbal and nonverbal memory performance in 33 OCD patients and 30 normal control participants with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and the California Verbal Learning Test. OCD patients were impaired on verbal and nonverbal measures of organizational strategy and free recall. Multiple regression modeling indicated that free recall problems in OCD were mediated by impaired organizational strategies used during learning trials. Therefore, verbal and nonverbal episodic memory deficits in OCD are affected by impaired strategic processing. Results are consistent with neurobiological models proposing frontal-striatal system dysfunction in OCD. PMID:10674806

Savage, C R; Deckersbach, T; Wilhelm, S; Rauch, S L; Baer, L; Reid, T; Jenike, M A

2000-01-01

142

Orthographic vs. Phonologic Syllables in Handwriting Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

French children program the words they write syllable by syllable. We examined whether the syllable the children use to segment words is determined phonologically (i.e., is derived from speech production processes) or orthographically. Third, 4th and 5th graders wrote on a digitiser words that were mono-syllables phonologically (e.g. "barque" =…

Kandel, Sonia; Herault, Lucie; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Lambert, Eric; Fayol, Michel

2009-01-01

143

Is Processing Speed Related to Severity of Language Impairment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a study on lexical processing involving 66 children (mean age 6 years 9 months) with specific language impairments and 66 typically developing children. No significant correlations were found between response times on a series of tasks and language test scores. Results suggest that there is no linear relation between speed of processing

Lahey, Margaret; Edwards, Jan; Munson, Benjamin

2001-01-01

144

Prevalence and Profile of Phonological and Surface Subgroups in College Students With a History of Reading Disability.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to identify and characterize surface and phonological subgroups of readers among college students with a prior diagnosis of developmental reading disability (RD). Using a speeded naming task derived from Castles and Coltheart's subtyping study, we identified subgroups of readers from among college students with RD and then compared them on a number of component reading tasks. Most of our adults with RD showed a discrepancy in lexical versus sublexical reading skills. The majority of classified individuals were in the phonological dyslexia group, and this group's performance was worse than that of other groups on a range of reading-related tasks. Specifically, being relatively less skilled at reading nonwords compared to irregular words was associated with deficits in both sublexical and lexical tasks, and with unique deficits compared to the surface dyslexia group not only in an independent measure of phonological coding but also in spelling, rapid automatized naming, and speeded oral reading. The surface dyslexia group was small, and the pattern of results for these readers was not consistent with the predicted profile of a specific deficit in lexical and automatized reading processes. Our surface group did not show reduced skill in lexical mechanisms specifically, nor any unique deficit compared to the phonological group. These results seem more supportive of models of reading that place phonological processing impairments at the core of RD, with all other impairments being clearly subsidiary. PMID:25297383

Birch, Stacy L

2014-10-01

145

Phonological Processing of Second Language Phonemes: A Selective Deficit in a Bilingual Aphasic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A case study of a Russian-Hebrew bilingual woman with transcortical sensory aphasia showed that overall, aphasic symptoms were similar in the two languages, with Hebrew somewhat more impaired. The woman revealed a difference in her ability to perceive phonemes in the context of Hebrew words that depended on whether they were presented in a Russian…

Eviatar, Zohar; Leikin, Mark; Ibrahim, Raphiq

1999-01-01

146

The role of phonological awareness in mediating between reading and listening to speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown that phonological awareness correlates with children's reading aloud and also adults' literacy experience. More recent research has further suggested that phonological awareness is associated with the processing of spoken language, which is a correlate of reading comprehension. In this paper, I argue that phonological awareness, reading, and spoken language are intercorrelated because phonological awareness mediates between

Him Cheung

2007-01-01

147

The Word Complexity Measure: Description and Application to Developmental Phonology and Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miccio's work included a number of articles on the assessment of phonology in children with phonological disorders, typically using measures of correct articulation, using the PCC, or analyses of errors, using the framework of phonological processes. This paper introduces an approach to assessing phonology by examining the phonetic complexity of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2010-01-01

148

Speed of Processing, Working Memory, and Language Impairment in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Children with language impairment (LI) often perform below the level of typically developing peers on measures of both processing speed and working memory. This study examined the relationship between these 2 types of measures and attempted to determine whether such measures can account for the LI itself. Method: Fourteen-year-old…

Leonard, Laurence B.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Miller, Carol A.; Francis, David J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Kail, Robert V.

2007-01-01

149

Impaired Visuospatial Processing in Young Adult Female Fragile X  

E-print Network

Impaired Visuospatial Processing in Young Adult Female Fragile X Premutation Carriers and Emerging Tassone, Susan Rivera, Tony J. Simon 13th International Fragile X Conference, Miami 2012 July 26, 2012 #12 ·Prevalence of premutation: ·1 in 113-259 females ·1 in 260-813 males #12;How do female fragile X premutation

Nguyen, Danh

150

Strategic Processing and Episodic Memory Impairment in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that nonverbal memory problems in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are mediated by impaired strategic processing. Although many studies have found verbal memory to be normal in OCD, these studies did not use tests designed to stress organizational strategies. This study examined verbal and nonverbal memory performance in 33 OCD patients and 30 normal control participants with the

Cary R. Savage; Thilo Deckersbach; Sabine Wilhelm; Scott L. Rauch; Lee Baer; Tracey Reid; Michael A. Jenike

2000-01-01

151

Research Article Phonological Dyslexia  

E-print Network

Research Article Phonological Dyslexia A Test Case for Reading Models Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet,1 words, a type of deficit referred to as phonological dyslexia. We report on 2 individuals with Alzheimer's disease who show phonological dyslexia. Although highly accurate in reading familiar words aloud (even

152

Developmental Dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment: Same or Different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment (SLI) were for many years treated as distinct disorders but are now often regarded as different manifestations of the same underlying problem, differing only in severity or developmental stage. The merging of these categories has been motivated by the reconceptualization of dyslexia as a language disorder in which phonological processing is deficient. The authors

Dorothy V. M. Bishop; Margaret J. Snowling

2004-01-01

153

Grammatical constraints on phonological encoding in speech production.  

PubMed

To better understand the influence of grammatical encoding on the retrieval and encoding of phonological word-form information during speech production, we examine how grammatical class constraints influence the activation of phonological neighbors (words phonologically related to the target--e.g., MOON, TWO for target TUNE). Specifically, we compare how neighbors that share a target's grammatical category (here, nouns) influence its planning and retrieval, assessed by picture naming latencies, and phonetic encoding, assessed by word productions in picture names, when grammatical constraints are strong (in sentence contexts) versus weak (bare naming). Within-category (noun) neighbors influenced planning time and phonetic encoding more strongly in sentence contexts. This suggests that grammatical encoding constrains phonological processing; the influence of phonological neighbors is grammatically dependent. Moreover, effects on planning times could not fully account for phonetic effects, suggesting that phonological interaction affects articulation after speech onset. These results support production theories integrating grammatical, phonological, and phonetic processes. PMID:24687733

Heller, Jordana R; Goldrick, Matthew

2014-12-01

154

Impairment in Non-Word Repetition: A Marker for Language Impairment or Reading Impairment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: A deficit in non-word repetition (NWR), a measure of short-term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment. We evaluated the strength of association between language impairment and reading impairment in children with current, past, and no language…

Baird, Gillian; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily; Dworzynski, Katharina

2011-01-01

155

Is Phonology Going Haywire in Dying Languages? Phonological Variations in Chipewyan and Sarcee.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of phonological data from two Athapaskan languages demonstrated that underlying the apparent degeneration of their phonological systems was an orderly progression which could be viewed as a retarded process of language acquisition, indicating that dying languages mirror the successive stages of ontogenesis. (35 references) (Author/CB)

Cook, Eung-Do

1989-01-01

156

The Roles of Family History of Dyslexia, Language, Speech Production and Phonological Processing in Predicting Literacy Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that speech, language and phonological skills are closely associated with literacy, and that children with a family risk of dyslexia (FRD) tend to show deficits in each of these areas in the preschool years. This paper examines what the relationships are between FRD and these skills, and whether deficits in speech, language…

Carroll, Julia M.; Mundy, Ian R.; Cunningham, Anna J.

2014-01-01

157

Auditory processing efficiency deficits in children with developmental language impairments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.

Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.

2002-12-01

158

Word and pseudoword reading in children with specific speech and language impairment.  

PubMed

Children with specific language impairment frequently encounter difficulties in learning to read and in particular, in word recognition. The present study set out to determine the precise impact of language impairment on word reading skills. We investigated single-word reading in 27 French children with specific speech and language impairment (2SLI). Precise quantification of reading levels in the 2SLI group showed an average delay of 3.5 years. Approximately 90% of these children were affected by a reading disorder, whereas for the remaining 10%, reading performance was within normal limits. Word reading procedures are analyzed using the so-called 'dual route model', which proposes that reading is achieved through two processes, the phonological and the orthographic procedures. Group comparison analyses of 27 reading level-matched control children, revealed an increased lexicality effect in the 2SLI group, indicating a specific deficit in the phonological procedure. Moreover, multiple case analyses revealed interindividual differences among the children with 2SLI, with four reading subtypes. Approximately 60% of these children reached the standard levels expected of younger children with identical reading levels (delayed reading profile) in both procedures. Twenty percent displayed qualitatively different reading mechanisms, with a greater deficit in the phonological procedure (phonological profile). These children showed a severe impairment in language production at the phonological level. Ten percent exhibited a greater orthographic deficit (surface profile) and 10% had normal reading skills (normal profile). Further research is required to improve our understanding of the relationships between 2SLI or specific language impairment and reading acquisition. The present results suggest that in clinical practice, both reading procedures should be exercised, with emphasis on the phonological procedure for children with more severe deficits in phonological production. PMID:25187097

Macchi, Lucie; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne; Casalis, Séverine

2014-12-01

159

Re-Evaluating the Time Course of Gender and Phonological Encoding during Silent Monitoring Tasks Estimated by ERP: Serial or Parallel Processing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neurolinguistic and psycholinguistic studies suggest that grammatical (gender) and phonological information are retrieved independently and that gender can be accessed before phonological information. This study investigated the relative time courses of gender and phonological encoding using topographic evoked potentials mapping methods.…

Camen, Christian; Morand, Stephanie; Laganaro, Marina

2010-01-01

160

Relationships among Linguistic Processing Speed, Phonological Working Memory, and Attention in Children Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relatively recently, experimental studies of linguistic processing speed in children who stutter (CWS) have emerged, some of which suggest differences in performance among CWS compared to children who do not stutter (CWNS). What is not yet well understood is the extent to which underlying cognitive skills may impact performance on timed tasks of…

Anderson, Julie D.; Wagovich, Stacy A.

2010-01-01

161

A Comparison of Phonological Processes Identified through Word and Sentence Imitation Tasks of the PPA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study involving 18 four year old children was designed to determine whether or not similar processes would be identified when responses obtained through a delayed word imitation task were compared to those obtained through a delayed sentence imitation task. (SB)

Bankson, Nicholas W.; Bernthal, John E.

1982-01-01

162

Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

2013-01-01

163

Reading and Phonological Skills in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome.  

PubMed

Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in standardized assessments of reading and phonological skills. Phonological skills were impaired in FXS, while reading was on-par with that of controls. Phonological awareness predicted reading ability and ASD severity predicted poorer phonological abilities in FXS. Boys with FXS are capable of attaining reading skills that are commensurate with developmental level and phonological awareness skills may play a critical role in reading achievement in FXS. PMID:25448919

Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W; Mirrett, Penny L; Hatton, Deborah D; Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Jane E; Bailey, Donald B

2014-12-01

164

Letter-by-letter processing in the phonological conversion of multiletter graphemes: searching for sounds in printed pseudowords.  

PubMed

Current models of word reading differ in their descriptions of how print-to-sound conversion is performed. Whereas a parallel procedure is generally assumed, the dual-route cascaded model developed by Coltheart and colleagues (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, and Ziegler, 2001) holds that the nonlexical conversion operates letter by letter, serially from left to right. An interesting aspect of the hypothesized serial procedure is that only the first letter of two-letter graphemes is thought to cause activation of its corresponding phonological code, the second letter of multiletter graphemes being directly merged with the preceding letter to form a complex grapheme. This hypothesis was examined in a task in which participants had to detect target phonemes in visually presented pseudowords. The data suggest that phonological codes associated with all the letters of the multiletter graphemes are activated. PMID:16724766

Peereman, Ronald; Brand, Muriele; Rey, Arnaud

2006-02-01

165

Dynamic auditory processing, musical experience and language development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with language-learning impairments (LLI) form a heterogeneous population with the majority having both spoken and written language deficits as well as sensorimotor deficits, specifically those related to dynamic processing. Research has focused on whether or not sensorimotor deficits, specifically auditory spec- trotemporal processing deficits, cause phonological deficit, leading to language and reading impairments. New trends aimed at resolving this

Paula Tallal; Nadine Gaab

2006-01-01

166

Impaired tactile processing in children with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Impaired responses to tactile stimulation are a commonly reported symptom among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Furthermore, impairments in filtering or habituation to tactile input have been described in ASD. This study measured different aspects of tactile processing to investigate atypical touch sensitivity in children with ASD, methodology that has not been previously used in this population. Sixty-seven typically developing children (TDC) and 32 children with ASD (ages 8-12) completed vibrotactile tasks assessing: reaction time (RT); static and dynamic detection threshold (DT); amplitude discrimination with and without single-site adaptation; frequency discrimination; and temporal order judgment (TOJ) with and without concurrent stimulation. Children with ASD showed raised static detection thresholds and an absence of the effect of a dynamically increasing subthreshold stimulus on static detection threshold. Children with ASD also showed poorer amplitude discrimination than TDC, as well as decreased adaptation. There were no significant differences in frequency discrimination or TOJ performance between the groups. Differences in the effect of dynamic stimulation on detection threshold suggest impaired feed-forward inhibition in autism, which may be linked to poor sensory filtering. Increased baseline amplitude discrimination thresholds in ASD suggest that lateral inhibitory connections are weaker in ASD, and an absence of the effect of adaptation suggests impaired modulation of lateral inhibitory connections in ASD, which may relate to aberrant habituation. These results suggest a functional deficit in the somatosensory inhibitory system in autism. Understanding the specific mechanisms underlying sensory symptoms in autism may allow for more specific therapeutic or drug targeting in the near future. PMID:24523518

Puts, Nicolaas A J; Wodka, Ericka L; Tommerdahl, Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Edden, Richard A E

2014-05-01

167

Phonological development and prosodic units: evidence from metathesis errors.  

PubMed

There is general agreement in the literature that the ability to recognize that words are made up of "smaller phonological units" within the phonological hierarchy is a prerequisite for reading, however, there is still much debate as to which specific units are important. Many studies dealing with Japanese phonological development have been conducted, but most deal mainly with the mora unit, and few actually focus on other prosodic levels. In this paper, we will focus on the prosodic development of Japanese, with particular attention to the relationship of the different prosodic levels, namely, that of the foot, syllable and mora. The result of the reversal tasks seems to imply that the relationship between the foot and syllable units plays a role in the phonological processing of Japanese, implying the importance of focusing on phonological units other than the mora in order to correctly assess a child's phonological processing ability. PMID:24093159

Miyakoda, Haruko

2014-04-01

168

Altered neuronal response during rapid auditory processing and its relation to phonological processing in prereading children at familial risk for dyslexia.  

PubMed

Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a learning disability affecting 5-17% of children. Although researchers agree that DD is characterized by deficient phonological processing (PP), its cause is debated. It has been suggested that altered rapid auditory processing (RAP) may lead to deficient PP in DD and studies have shown deficient RAP in individuals with DD. Functional neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have implicated hypoactivations in left prefrontal brain regions during RAP in individuals with DD. When and how these neuronal alterations evolve remains unknown. In this article, we investigate functional networks during RAP in 28 children with (n = 14) and without (n = 14) a familial risk for DD before reading onset (mean: 5.6 years). Results reveal functional alterations in left-hemispheric prefrontal regions during RAP in prereading children at risk for DD, similar to findings in individuals with DD. Furthermore, activation during RAP in left prefrontal regions positively correlates with prereading measures of PP and with neuronal activation during PP in posterior dorsal and ventral brain areas. Our results suggest that neuronal differences during RAP predate reading instruction and thus are not due to experience-dependent brain changes resulting from DD itself and that there is a functional relationship between neuronal networks for RAP and PP within the prereading brain. PMID:23599167

Raschle, Nora M; Stering, Patrice L; Meissner, Sarah N; Gaab, Nadine

2014-09-01

169

Language Deficits in Dyslexic Children: Speech Perception, Phonology, and Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between dyslexia and three aspects of language: speech perception, phonology, and morphology. Reading and language tasks were administered to dyslexics aged 8–9 years and to two normal reader groups (age-matched and reading-level matched). Three dyslexic groups were identified: phonological dyslexics (PD), developmentally language impaired (LI), and globally delayed (delay-type dyslexics). The LI and PD groups exhibited

Marc F. Joanisse; Franklin R. Manis; Patricia Keating; Mark S. Seidenberg

2000-01-01

170

Gradient Weight in Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

Ryan, Kevin Michael

2011-01-01

171

Neglect Impairs Explicit Processing of the Mental Number Line  

PubMed Central

Converging evidence suggests that visuospatial attention plays a pivotal role in numerical processing, especially when the task involves the manipulation of numerical magnitudes. Visuospatial neglect impairs contralesional attentional orienting not only in perceptual but also in numerical space. Indeed, patients with left neglect show a bias toward larger numbers when mentally bisecting a numerical interval, as if they were neglecting its leftmost part. In contrast, their performance in parity judgments is unbiased, suggesting a dissociation between explicit and implicit processing of numerical magnitude. Here we further investigate the consequences of these visuospatial attention impairments on numerical processing and their interaction with task demands. Patients with right hemisphere damage, with and without left neglect, were administered both a number comparison and a parity judgment task that had identical stimuli and response requirements. Neglect patients’ performance was normal in the parity task, when processing of numerical magnitude was implicit, whereas they showed characteristic biases in the number comparison task, when access to numerical magnitude was explicit. Compared to patients without neglect, they showed an asymmetric distance effect, with slowing of the number immediately smaller than (i.e., to the left of) the reference and a stronger SNARC effect, particularly for large numbers. The latter might index an exaggerated effect of number-space compatibility after ipsilesional (i.e., rightward) orienting in number space. Thus, the effect of neglect on the explicit processing of numerical magnitude can be understood in terms of both a failure to orient to smaller (i.e., contralesional) magnitudes and a difficulty to disengage from larger (i.e., ipsilesional) magnitudes on the number line, which resembles the disrupted pattern of attention orienting in visual space. PMID:22661935

Zorzi, Marco; Bonato, Mario; Treccani, Barbara; Scalambrin, Giovanni; Marenzi, Roberto; Priftis, Konstantinos

2012-01-01

172

Neglect impairs explicit processing of the mental number line.  

PubMed

Converging evidence suggests that visuospatial attention plays a pivotal role in numerical processing, especially when the task involves the manipulation of numerical magnitudes. Visuospatial neglect impairs contralesional attentional orienting not only in perceptual but also in numerical space. Indeed, patients with left neglect show a bias toward larger numbers when mentally bisecting a numerical interval, as if they were neglecting its leftmost part. In contrast, their performance in parity judgments is unbiased, suggesting a dissociation between explicit and implicit processing of numerical magnitude. Here we further investigate the consequences of these visuospatial attention impairments on numerical processing and their interaction with task demands. Patients with right hemisphere damage, with and without left neglect, were administered both a number comparison and a parity judgment task that had identical stimuli and response requirements. Neglect patients' performance was normal in the parity task, when processing of numerical magnitude was implicit, whereas they showed characteristic biases in the number comparison task, when access to numerical magnitude was explicit. Compared to patients without neglect, they showed an asymmetric distance effect, with slowing of the number immediately smaller than (i.e., to the left of) the reference and a stronger SNARC effect, particularly for large numbers. The latter might index an exaggerated effect of number-space compatibility after ipsilesional (i.e., rightward) orienting in number space. Thus, the effect of neglect on the explicit processing of numerical magnitude can be understood in terms of both a failure to orient to smaller (i.e., contralesional) magnitudes and a difficulty to disengage from larger (i.e., ipsilesional) magnitudes on the number line, which resembles the disrupted pattern of attention orienting in visual space. PMID:22661935

Zorzi, Marco; Bonato, Mario; Treccani, Barbara; Scalambrin, Giovanni; Marenzi, Roberto; Priftis, Konstantinos

2012-01-01

173

Community structure in the phonological network.  

PubMed

Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language. PMID:23986735

Siew, Cynthia S Q

2013-01-01

174

Community structure in the phonological network  

PubMed Central

Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language. PMID:23986735

Siew, Cynthia S. Q.

2013-01-01

175

Parental phonological memory contributes to prediction of outcome of late talkers from 20 months to 4 years: a longitudinal study of precursors of specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Many children who are late talkers go on to develop normal language, but others go on to have longer-term language difficulties. In this study, we considered which factors were predictive of persistent problems in late talkers. Methods Parental report of expressive vocabulary at 18 months of age was used to select 26 late talkers and 70 average talkers, who were assessed for language and cognitive ability at 20 months of age. Follow-up at 4 years of age was carried out for 24 late and 58 average talkers. A psychometric test battery was used to categorize children in terms of language status (unimpaired or impaired) and nonverbal ability (normal range or more than 1 SD below average). The vocabulary and non-word repetition skills of the accompanying parent were also assessed. Results Among the late talkers, seven (29%) met our criteria for specific language impairment (SLI) at 4 years of age, and a further two (8%) had low nonverbal ability. In the group of average talkers, eight (14%) met the criteria for SLI at 4 years, and five other children (8%) had low nonverbal ability. Family history of language problems was slightly better than late-talker status as a predictor of SLI.. The best predictors of SLI at 20 months of age were score on the receptive language scale of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the parent's performance on a non-word repetition task. Maternal education was not a significant predictor of outcome. Conclusions In this study, around three-quarters of late talkers did not have any language difficulties at 4 years of age, provided there was no family history of language impairment. A family history of language-literacy problems was found to be a significant predictor for persisting problems. Nevertheless, there are children with SLI for whom prediction is difficult because they did not have early language delay. PMID:22958373

2012-01-01

176

Alcohol impairs speed of information processing and simple and choice reaction time and differentially impairs higher-order cognitive abilities.  

PubMed

Previous research has demonstrated that alcohol impairs information processing. However, it is unknown whether this impairment is on all stages of information processing, or on the early, rather than on the later, stages of information processing. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of orally administered alcohol on both the early and the later stages of information processing. The present study assessed inspection time (IT), simple reaction time, choice reaction time and cognitive ability (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Revised) in 16 adult participants in both alcohol and placebo conditions. IT (a measure of the early stages of information processing) was used as a predictor variable in a linear regression to examine whether a disruption of the early stages of information processing accounted for changes in total information processing after alcohol administration. Results indicated that alcohol significantly slowed total information processing, independently of the early stages of information processing. PMID:10787397

Tzambazis, K; Stough, C

2000-01-01

177

Immediate memory for pseudowords and phonological awareness are associated in adults and pre-reading children  

E-print Network

storage system, arguably a part of the human specialization for language, which is geared toward retention developing children and those with language-related impairments. Keywords: phonological memory, phonological-Shalom, 1990). As a short-term workspace, it provides for retention of a word's phonolo- gical representation

178

Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia—a developmental analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper presents data from seven developmental dyslexics who exhibit the profile of abilities which can be described as “phonological” dyslexia. Three of the cases, all children, were of low reading age; four cases, one of which was an adult, had reading ages above ten years. Tests of reading, spelling and auditory processing revealed a range of phonological deficits

Maggie Snowling; Joy Stackhouse; John Rack

1986-01-01

179

The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process, but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic, and phonological abilities. The present article reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of…

Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer

2011-01-01

180

A review of reward processing and motivational impairment in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This article reviews and synthesizes research on reward processing in schizophrenia, which has begun to provide important insights into the cognitive and neural mechanisms associated with motivational impairments. Aberrant cortical-striatal interactions may be involved with multiple reward processing abnormalities, including: (1) dopamine-mediated basal ganglia systems that support reinforcement learning and the ability to predict cues that lead to rewarding outcomes; (2) orbitofrontal cortex-driven deficits in generating, updating, and maintaining value representations; (3) aberrant effort-value computations, which may be mediated by disrupted anterior cingulate cortex and midbrain dopamine functioning; and (4) altered activation of the prefrontal cortex, which is important for generating exploratory behaviors in environments where reward outcomes are uncertain. It will be important for psychosocial interventions targeting negative symptoms to account for abnormalities in each of these reward processes, which may also have important interactions; suggestions for novel behavioral intervention strategies that make use of external cues, reinforcers, and mobile technology are discussed. PMID:24375459

Strauss, Gregory P; Waltz, James A; Gold, James M

2014-03-01

181

Auditory Sensitivity, Speech Perception, and Reading Development and Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the importance of phonological sensitivity for understanding reading acquisition and impairment across orthographies\\u000a is well documented, what underlies deficits in phonological sensitivity is not well understood. Some researchers have argued\\u000a that speech perception underlies variability in phonological representations. Others have investigated the role of more general\\u000a auditory sensitivity for reading development and reading difficulties, arguing that poor phonological representations

Juan Zhang; Catherine McBride-Chang

2010-01-01

182

Differentiating Word Learning Processes May Yield New Insights--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stoel-Gammon (this issue) states that "from birth to age 2 ; 6, the developing phonological system affects lexical acquisition to a greater degree than lexical factors affect phonological development" (this issue). This conclusion is based on a wealth of data; however, the available data are somewhat limited in scope, focusing on rather holistic…

Storkel, Holly L.

2011-01-01

183

Phonological awareness of Cantonese-speaking pre-school children with cochlear implants.  

PubMed

The study investigated the phonological awareness abilities of Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. Participants were 15 Cantonese-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) aged 3.08-6.10, chronological-age-matched with 15 children with normal hearing. Each participant performed 10 tasks evaluating different levels of phonological awareness abilities and phonological knowledge. The results showed that pre-schoolers with cochlear implants and their normal hearing peers had similar levels of syllable awareness, phoneme awareness and rhyme awareness. However, cochlear implant users showed significantly poorer performance on tone awareness and phonological knowledge tasks than their normal hearing peers. Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants were able to develop phonological awareness. However, the cochlear implants might not provide enough tonal information for children with hearing impairment for tonal lexical comprehension. Incomplete speech and language stimulation may affect phonological knowledge development in Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. PMID:22257071

Tse, Wing Ting; So, Lydia K H

2012-02-01

184

Poorer results of mice with latent toxoplasmosis in learning tests: impaired learning processes or the  

E-print Network

Poorer results of mice with latent toxoplasmosis in learning tests: impaired learning processes for Toxoplasmosis, National Institute of Public Health, S roba´rova 48, Prague 10042, Czech Republic (Received 13 the observed impairment of learning processes was a result of acute or latent toxoplasmosis, i.e. whether

Flegr, Jaroslav

185

Inferring Gender From Name Phonology  

Microsoft Academic Search

English male and female names have different phonological properties. This article examines 3 questions about this phenomenon: How informative is phonology about gender? Have English speakers learned this information? Does this knowledge affect name usage? Results from a connectionist model indicate that English phonology predicts name gender quite well. Experiments found that English speakers have learned these cues. For example,

Kimberly Wright Cassidy; Michael H. Kelly; Lee'at J. Sharoni

1999-01-01

186

The Structure of Phonological Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…

Samuels, Bridget D.

2009-01-01

187

Cognitive procedural learning in early Alzheimer's disease: impaired processes and compensatory mechanisms  

E-print Network

Cognitive procedural learning in early Alzheimer's disease: impaired processes and compensatory-order cognitive processes (i.e., compensatory mechanisms) to perform the procedural task. Keywords: procedural neurologie, Caen, France Short title: Cognitive procedural learning in Alzheimer's disease. Corresponding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

188

Exploring Hypotheses about Phonological Awareness, Memory, and Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading-related skills were tested in adults with and without reading disabilities (RD) or with profound hearing impairment (PHI). Both RD and PHI groups demonstrated low levels of phonological awareness but the RD group also exhibited deficits in verbal short-term memory, morphological awareness, speeded written naming, reading comprehension, and…

Tractenberg, Rochelle E.

2002-01-01

189

A longitudinal case study of developmental phonological dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a four-year follow-up study of JM, a developmental phonological dyslexic previously described by Snowling, Stackhouse, and Rack (1986). JM has made some progress in reading and spelling although these skills remain severely impaired. His reading and spelling skills are consistent with arrest in the logographic phase of literacy development as described by Frith (1985); reading errors are primarily

Maggie Snowling; Charles Hulme

1989-01-01

190

Language evolution: syntax before phonology?  

PubMed Central

Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364

Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P.; Manser, Marta B.; Townsend, Simon W.

2014-01-01

191

Phonological Awareness for American Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…

Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

2014-01-01

192

Impaired Students: Applying the Therapeutic Process Model to Graduate Training Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article updates and adds to the literature on graduate trainee impairment provided by L. Forrest, N. Elman, S. Gizara, and T. Vacha-Haase (1999) in their comprehensive literature review. Based on recommendations by Forrest et al., a program model for dealing with impaired trainees is proposed. The 5-step therapeutic process model includes (a)…

Wilkerson, Kevin

2006-01-01

193

A dual-route perspective on poor reading in a regular orthography: Evidence from phonological and orthographic lexical decisions  

PubMed Central

Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit. PMID:18642138

Bergmann, Jürgen; Wimmer, Heinz

2010-01-01

194

Hearing Loss Severity: Impaired Processing of Formant Transition Duration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Normal hearing listeners exploit the formant transition (FT) detection to identify place of articulation for stop consonants. Neuro-imaging studies revealed that short FT induced less cortical activation than long FT. To determine the ability of hearing impaired listeners to distinguish short and long formant transitions (FT) from vowels of the…

Coez, A.; Belin, P.; Bizaguet, E.; Ferrary, E.; Zilbovicius, M.; Samson, Y.

2010-01-01

195

Phonetics and Phonology. Occasional Papers, No. 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is devoted to phonetics and phonology. It consists of the following papers: (1) "Generative Phonology, Dependency Phonology and Southern French," by J. Durand, which discusses aspects of a regional pronunciation of French, the status of syllables in generative phonology, and concepts of dependency phonology; (2) "On the Role of…

Essex Univ., Colchester (England). Dept. of Language and Linguistics.

196

Electrophysiological Indices of Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A range of studies have shown difficulties in perceiving acoustic and phonetic information in dyslexia; however, much less is known about how such difficulties relate to the perception of individual words. The authors present data from event-related potentials (ERPs) examining the hypothesis that children with dyslexia have difficulties…

Desroches, Amy S.; Newman, Randy Lynn; Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.

2013-01-01

197

Learning Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…

Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris

2009-01-01

198

Research report Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia: Cognitive  

E-print Network

Research report Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia: Cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates Jordan Grafman Published online 5 June 2008 Keywords: Phonological dyslexia/dysgraphia Perisylvian cortex the neuropsychological mechanisms and lesion correlates of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia, we studied written

199

Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

200

Children with Specific Language Impairment Also Show Impairment of Music-syntactic Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both language and music consist of sequences that are structured according to syntactic regularities. We used two specific event-related brain potential (ERP) components to investigate music-syntactic processing in children: the ERAN (early right anterior negativity) and the N5. The neural resources underlying these processes have been posited to overlap with those involved in the processing of linguistic syntax. Thus, we

Sebastian Jentschke; Stefan Koelsch; Stephan Sallat; Angela D. Friederici

2008-01-01

201

Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

2012-01-01

202

Phonological Distance Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Phonological distance can be measured computationally using formally specified algorithms. This work investigates two such measures, one developed by Nerbonne and Heeringa (1997) based on Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1965) and the other an adaptation of Dunning’s (1994) language classifier that uses maximum,likelihood distance. These two measures are compared against na¨?ve transcriptions of the speech of pediatric cochlear implant users.

Nathan C. Sanders; Steven B. Chin

2009-01-01

203

Effects of Onset Density in Preschool Children: Implications for Development of Phonological Awareness and Phonological Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neighborhood density influences adult performance on several word processing tasks. Some studies show age-related effects of density on children's performance, reflecting a developmental restructuring of the mental lexicon from holistic into segmental representations that may play a role in phonological awareness. To further investigate density…

Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia A.

2009-01-01

204

Understanding Phonological Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Dissociation of Short-Term Storage and Articulatory Rehearsal Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study dissociated and examined the two primary components of the phonological working memory subsystem--the short-term store and articulatory rehearsal mechanism--in boys with ADHD (n = 18) relative to typically developing boys (n = 15). Word lists of increasing length (2, 4, and 6 words per trial) were presented to and recalled by…

Bolden, Jennifer; Rapport, Mark D.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

2012-01-01

205

Prefrontal cortex activity during response selection predicts processing speed impairment in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Processing speed is the most impaired neuropsychological domain in schizophrenia and a robust predictor of functional outcome. Determining the specific cognitive operations underlying processing speed dysfunction and indentifying their neural correlates may assist in developing pro-cognitive interventions. Response selection, the process of mapping stimuli onto motor responses, correlates with neuropsychological tests of processing speed and may contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. This study investigated the relationship between behavioral and neural measures of response selection, and a neuropsychological index of processing speed in schizophrenia. 26 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning during performance of 2 and 4-choice-reaction time (RT) tasks and completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS) Processing Speed Index (PSI). Response selection, defined as RT slowing between 2 and 4-choice RT, was impaired in schizophrenia and correlated with psychometric processing speed. Greater activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) was observed in schizophrenia and correlated with poorer WAIS PSI scores. Deficient response selection and abnormal recruitment of the dorsolateral PFC during response selection contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. Interventions that improve response selection and normalize dorsolateral PFC function may improve processing speed in schizophrenia. PMID:23816240

Woodward, Neil D.; Duffy-Alberto, Brittney; Karbasforoushan, Haleh

2014-01-01

206

Prefrontal cortex activity during response selection predicts processing speed impairment in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Processing speed is the most impaired neuropsychological domain in schizophrenia and a robust predictor of functional outcome. Determining the specific cognitive operations underlying processing speed dysfunction and identifying their neural correlates may assist in developing pro-cognitive interventions. Response selection, the process of mapping stimuli onto motor responses, correlates with neuropsychological tests of processing speed and may contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. This study investigated the relationship between behavioral and neural measures of response selection, and a neuropsychological index of processing speed in schizophrenia. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning during performance of two- and four-choice reaction time (RT) tasks and completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS) Processing Speed Index (PSI). Response selection, defined as RT slowing between two- and four-choice RT, was impaired in schizophrenia and correlated with psychometric processing speed. Greater activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) was observed in schizophrenia and correlated with poorer WAIS PSI scores. Deficient response selection and abnormal recruitment of the dorsolateral PFC during response selection contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. Interventions that improve response selection and normalize dorsolateral PFC function may improve processing speed in schizophrenia. PMID:23816240

Woodward, Neil D; Duffy, Brittney; Karbasforoushan, Haleh

2013-08-01

207

Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

Davidson, Lisa

2005-01-01

208

Profiles of impaired, spared, and recovered neuropsychologic processes in alcoholism.  

PubMed

Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychologic profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across research studies, variability among subjects is substantial and contributes to characteristics associated with differential treatment outcomes after detoxification. In order to refine our understanding of alcoholism-related impaired, spared, and recovered abilities, we focus on five specific functional domains: (1) memory; (2) executive functions; (3) emotion and psychosocial skills; (4) visuospatial cognition; and (5) psychomotor abilities. Although the entire brain might be vulnerable in uncomplicated alcoholism, the brain systems that are considered to be most at risk are the frontocerebellar and mesocorticolimbic circuitries. Over time, with abstinence from alcohol, the brain appears to become reorganized to provide compensation for structural and behavioral deficits. By relying on a combination of clinical and scientific approaches, future research will help to refine the compensatory roles of healthy brain systems, the degree to which abstinence and treatment facilitate the reversal of brain atrophy and dysfunction, and the importance of individual differences to outcome. PMID:25307576

Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B; Gravitz, Zoe R

2014-01-01

209

Bilateral hemispheric processing of words and faces: evidence from word impairments in prosopagnosia and face impairments in pure alexia.  

PubMed

Considerable research has supported the view that faces and words are subserved by independent neural mechanisms located in the ventral visual cortex in opposite hemispheres. On this view, right hemisphere ventral lesions that impair face recognition (prosopagnosia) should leave word recognition unaffected, and left hemisphere ventral lesions that impair word recognition (pure alexia) should leave face recognition unaffected. The current study shows that neither of these predictions was upheld. A series of experiments characterizing speed and accuracy of word and face recognition were conducted in 7 patients (4 pure alexic, 3 prosopagnosic) and matched controls. Prosopagnosic patients revealed mild but reliable word recognition deficits, and pure alexic patients demonstrated mild but reliable face recognition deficits. The apparent comingling of face and word mechanisms is unexpected from a domain-specific perspective, but follows naturally as a consequence of an interactive, learning-based account in which neural processes for both faces and words are the result of an optimization procedure embodying specific computational principles and constraints. PMID:23250954

Behrmann, Marlene; Plaut, David C

2014-04-01

210

Gesture and the Nature of Semantic Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…

Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.

2009-01-01

211

Word processing in Parkinson's Disease is impaired for action verbs but not for concrete nouns  

E-print Network

1 Word processing in Parkinson's Disease is impaired for action verbs but not for concrete nouns Lyon I, INSERM U864, Lyon, France. Running Title: Action word processing in Parkinson's Disease by examining the impact of Parkinson's Disease (PD) on lexical decision performance for action words, relative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

212

Ophthalmological, Cognitive, Electrophysiological and MRI Assessment of Visual Processing in Preterm Children without Major Neuromotor Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies report chronic deficits in visual processing in children born preterm. We investigated whether functional abnormalities in visual processing exist in children born preterm but without major neuromotor impairment (i.e. cerebral palsy). Twelve such children (less than 33 weeks gestation or birthweight less than 1000 g) without major…

O'Reilly, Michelle; Vollmer, Brigitte; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Neville, Brian; Connelly, Alan; Wyatt, John; Timms, Chris; De Haan, Michelle

2010-01-01

213

Electrophysiological Correlates of Rapid Auditory and Linguistic Processing in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief tonal stimuli and spoken sentences were utilized to examine whether adolescents (aged 14;3-18;1) with specific language impairments (SLI) exhibit atypical neural activity for rapid auditory processing of non-linguistic stimuli and linguistic processing of verb-agreement and semantic constraints. Further, we examined whether the behavioral…

Weber-Fox, Christine; Leonard, Laurence B.; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2010-01-01

214

The locus of impairment in English developmental letter position dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Many children with reading difficulties display phonological deficits and struggle to acquire non-lexical reading skills. However, not all children with reading difficulties have these problems, such as children with selective letter position dyslexia (LPD), who make excessive migration errors (such as reading slime as “smile”). Previous research has explored three possible loci for the deficit – the phonological output buffer, the orthographic input lexicon, and the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. While there is compelling evidence against a phonological output buffer and orthographic input lexicon deficit account of English LPD, the evidence in support of an orthographic-visual analysis deficit is currently limited. In this multiple single-case study with three English-speaking children with developmental LPD, we aimed to both replicate and extend previous findings regarding the locus of impairment in English LPD. First, we ruled out a phonological output buffer and an orthographic input lexicon deficit by administering tasks that directly assess phonological processing and lexical guessing. We then went on to directly assess whether or not children with LPD have an orthographic-visual analysis deficit by modifying two tasks that have previously been used to localize processing at this level: a same-different decision task and a non-word reading task. The results from these tasks indicate that LPD is most likely caused by a deficit specific to the coding of letter positions at the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. These findings provide further evidence for the heterogeneity of dyslexia and its underlying causes. PMID:24917802

Kezilas, Yvette; Kohnen, Saskia; McKague, Meredith; Castles, Anne

2014-01-01

215

The locus of impairment in English developmental letter position dyslexia.  

PubMed

Many children with reading difficulties display phonological deficits and struggle to acquire non-lexical reading skills. However, not all children with reading difficulties have these problems, such as children with selective letter position dyslexia (LPD), who make excessive migration errors (such as reading slime as "smile"). Previous research has explored three possible loci for the deficit - the phonological output buffer, the orthographic input lexicon, and the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. While there is compelling evidence against a phonological output buffer and orthographic input lexicon deficit account of English LPD, the evidence in support of an orthographic-visual analysis deficit is currently limited. In this multiple single-case study with three English-speaking children with developmental LPD, we aimed to both replicate and extend previous findings regarding the locus of impairment in English LPD. First, we ruled out a phonological output buffer and an orthographic input lexicon deficit by administering tasks that directly assess phonological processing and lexical guessing. We then went on to directly assess whether or not children with LPD have an orthographic-visual analysis deficit by modifying two tasks that have previously been used to localize processing at this level: a same-different decision task and a non-word reading task. The results from these tasks indicate that LPD is most likely caused by a deficit specific to the coding of letter positions at the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. These findings provide further evidence for the heterogeneity of dyslexia and its underlying causes. PMID:24917802

Kezilas, Yvette; Kohnen, Saskia; McKague, Meredith; Castles, Anne

2014-01-01

216

Phonological Distance Measures.  

PubMed

Phonological distance can be measured computationally using formally specified algorithms. This work investigates two such measures, one developed by Nerbonne and Heeringa (1997) based on Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1965) and the other an adaptation of Dunning's (1994) language classifier that uses maximum likelihood distance. These two measures are compared against naïve transcriptions of the speech of pediatric cochlear implant users. The new measure, maximum likelihood distance, correlates highly with Levenshtein distance and naïve transcriptions; results from this corpus are easier to obtain since cochlear implant speech has a lower intelligibility than the usually high intelligibility of the speech of a different dialect. PMID:20407614

Sanders, Nathan C; Chin, Steven B

2009-02-01

217

Processing load impairs coordinate integration for the localization of touch.  

PubMed

To perform an action toward a touch, the tactile spatial representation must be transformed from a skin-based, anatomical reference frame into an external reference frame. Evidence suggests that, after transformation, both anatomical and external coordinates are integrated for the location estimate. The present study investigated whether the calculation and integration of external coordinates are automatic processes. Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs) of two tactile stimuli, one applied to each hand, in crossed and uncrossed postures. The influence of the external coordinates of touch was indicated by the performance difference between crossed and uncrossed postures, referred to as the crossing effect. To assess automaticity, the TOJ task was combined with a working memory task that varied in difficulty (size of the working memory set) and quality (verbal vs. spatial). In two studies, the crossing effect was consistently reduced under processing load. When the load level was adaptively adjusted to individual performance (Study 2), the crossing effect additionally varied as a function of the difficulty of the secondary task. These modulatory effects of processing load on the crossing effect were independent of the type of working memory. The sensitivity of the crossing effect to processing load suggests that coordinate integration for touch localization is not fully automatic. To reconcile the present results with previous findings, we suggest that the genuine remapping process-that is, the transformation of anatomical into external coordinates-proceeds automatically, whereas their integration in service of a combined location estimate is subject to top-down control. PMID:24550040

Badde, Stephanie; Heed, Tobias; Röder, Brigitte

2014-05-01

218

Childhood apraxia of speech and multiple phonological disorders in Cairo-Egyptian Arabic speaking children: Language, speech, and oro-motor differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood apraxia of speech is a neurological childhood speech-sound disorder in which the precision and consistency of movements underlying speech are impaired in the absence of neuromuscular deficits. Children with childhood apraxia of speech and those with multiple phonological disorder share some common phonological errors that can be misleading in diagnosis. This study posed a question about a possible significant

Azza Adel Aziz; Sahar Shohdi; Dalia Mostafa Osman; Emad Iskander Habib

2010-01-01

219

Neural Changes after Phonological Treatment for Anomia: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural processing characteristics associated with word retrieval abilities after a phonologically-based treatment for anomia in two stroke patients with aphasia. Neural activity associated with a phonological and a semantic task was compared before and after treatment with…

Rochon, Elizabeth; Leonard, Carol; Burianova, Hana; Laird, Laura; Soros, Peter; Graham, Simon; Grady, Cheryl

2010-01-01

220

Learning orthographic and phonological representations in models of monosyllabic and bisyllabic naming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current models of word naming are restricted to processing monosyllabic words and pseudowords. This limitation stems from difficulties in representing the orthographic and phonological codes for words varying substantially in length. Sibley, Kello, Plaut, and Elman (2008) described an extension of the simple recurrent network architecture, called the sequence encoder, that learned orthographic and phonological representations of variable-length words.

Daragh E. Sibley; Christopher T. Kello; Mark S. Seidenberg

2010-01-01

221

Reading and Spelling Acquisition in French: The Role of Phonological Mediation and Orthographic Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to study the development of reading and spelling in French. The two main hypotheses were that (1) phonological mediation is the primary process in the acquisition of these skills and that (2) the use of phonological mediation may allow the construction of the orthographic lexicon. In January and June, first graders (n= 57) were

Liliane Sprenger-Charolles; Linda S. Siegel; Philippe Bonnet

1998-01-01

222

Phonology and Language Development in Italian Children: An Analysis of Production and Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The principal aims of this study were to detect phonetic measures (consonant inventory, intelligibility, frequency, and types of phonological errors) associated with lexical and morphosyntactic ability and to analyze the types of phonological processes in children with different language skills. Method: The sample was composed of 30…

Zanobini, Mirella; Viterbori, Paola; Saraceno, Francesca

2012-01-01

223

Maintenance and Generalization Effects of Semantic and Phonological Treatments of Anomia: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anomia is one of the most frequent manifestations in aphasia. Model-based treatments for anomia usually focus on semantic and/or phonological levels of processing. This study reports treatment of anomia in an individual with chronic aphasia. After baseline testing, she received a training program in which semantic and phonological treatments were…

Macoir, Joel; Routhier, Sonia; Simard, Anne; Picard, Josee

2012-01-01

224

The Recognition of Phonologically Assimilated Words Does Not Depend on Specific Language Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of 5 experiments, we investigated whether the processing of phonologically assimilated utterances is influenced by language learning. Previous experiments had shown that phonological assimilations, such as /lean#bacon/ [right arrow] [leam bacon], are compensated for in perception. In this article, we investigated whether compensation…

Mitterer, Holger; Csepe, Valeria; Honbolygo, Ferenc; Blomert, Leo

2006-01-01

225

Phonological Patterns in the Conversational Speech of Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this descriptive, longitudinal study, phonological patterns (i.e., natural phonological processes) were examined in a set of conversational speech samples obtained from six young children fitted with cochlear implants. Both developmental and non-developmental patterns were observed. This is consistent with findings from previous studies of the…

Flipsen, Peter, Jr.; Parker, Rhonda G.

2008-01-01

226

Cross-Language Phonological Activation of Meaning: Evidence from Category Verification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated phonological processing in bilingual reading for meaning. English-French and French-English bilinguals performed a category verification task in either their first or second language. Interlingual homophones (words that share phonology across languages but not orthography or meaning) and single language control words served…

Friesen, Deanna C.; Jared, Debra

2012-01-01

227

Phonological Awareness: Curricular and Instructional Implications for Diverse Learners. Technical Report No. 22.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review focuses on areas of converging evidence concerning the importance of phonological awareness and the corresponding curricular and instructional implications for diverse learners. Five areas of converging evidence are identified: (1) phonological processing ability explains significant differences between good and poor readers; (2)…

Smith, Sylvia Barrus; And Others

228

Using Compressed Speech to Measure Simultaneous Processing in Persons with and without Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the use of compressed speech as a modality for assessment of the simultaneous processing function for participants with visual impairment. A 24-item compressed speech test was created using a sound editing program to randomly remove sound elements from aural stimuli, holding pitch constant, with the objective to emulate the…

Marks, William J.; Jones, W. Paul; Loe, Scott A.

2013-01-01

229

Processing and Linguistic Markers in Young Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-two 5-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 32 chronological age (CA) controls completed 4 tasks that were considered potential positive markers for SLI. Children's performance on 2 linguistic tasks (past tense and noun plurals task) and 2 processing tasks (nonword repetition and digit recall) were examined. This…

Conti-Ramsden, Gina

2003-01-01

230

Brainstem Correlates of Temporal Auditory Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deficits in identification and discrimination of sounds with short inter-stimulus intervals or short formant transitions in children with specific language impairment (SLI) have been taken to reflect an underlying temporal auditory processing deficit. Using the sustained frequency following response (FFR) and the onset auditory brainstem responses…

Basu, Madhavi; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Weber-Fox, Christine

2010-01-01

231

Preserved subliminal processing and1 impaired conscious access in Schizophrenia.3  

E-print Network

Preserved subliminal processing and1 2 impaired conscious access in Schizophrenia.3 4 5 6 7 Authors threshold in schizophrenia. This finding has frequently been interpreted as indicating a low-36 level visual the hypothesis that the backward masking deficit in schizophrenia41 corresponds to a deficit in the late stages

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

Fall 2012 Phonetics and Phonology  

E-print Network

80282 Fall 2012 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will learn to make phonetic transcriptions of raw data from unfamiliar

Spirtes, Peter

233

Aspects of the Phonology-Syntax Interface in Akan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the phonology-syntax interface in Akan, a language spoken in Ghana and the Cote d'Ivoire, describing a medium of exchange between phonology and syntax. Studies in lexical phonology have distinguished two levels in phonology--lexical and post-lexical--based on how and where phonological rules apply, although some phonological

Marfo, Charles Ofosu

234

Central processing energetic factors mediate impaired motor control in ADHD combined subtype but not in ADHD inattentive subtype.  

PubMed

Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I) subtype. The present study analyzes performance on the Visual Motor Integration Test relative to less effortful motor tests as well as on measures of energetics. Both ADHD groups showed evidence of impaired motor function on both visual-motor integration (VMI) and the less effortful motor tests. The ADHD-C group performed below the ADHD-I group on VMI, but their performance correlated highly with the measures of the energetic pools of arousal and effort. Different mechanisms may underlie impaired fine motor skills in ADHD. Central processing deficits contribute significantly to the deficit of ADHD-C but do not explain the motor impairment in ADHD-I. PMID:21685345

Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

2012-01-01

235

Impaired self-referential processing in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: a functional MRI study.  

PubMed

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) presents typical symptoms of cognitive impairments and mental disorders, which is presumed to be related to impairment of self-referential processing. This study aims to investigate the alterations of self-reference in mTLE using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifty patients with unilateral mTLE (26 left- and 24 right-sided mTLE) were recruited in the present study. Traditional task paradigm of internally-cued condition vs. externally-cued condition was employed to induce self-referential activation. FMRI activation in each group of patients was compared with that of 30 healthy controls. Moreover, fMRI responses in the dorsal mesial prefrontal cortex were specifically addressed by correlating with behavioral data of reaction times and clinical data of epilepsy duration, respectively. Compared with the healthy controls, both two groups of patients showed decreased behavioral performance (reaction times) and decreased fMRI activation of self-reference in the anterior and posterior cortical midline structures. Moreover, fMRI activation was found to be negatively correlated with behavioral performance and epilepsy duration. The present findings implicate functional impairment of self-reference caused by epilepsy in mTLE. This study provided imaging evidence for functional impairments of self-referential processing and brain default-mode function in mTLE. PMID:24090819

Yuan, Cuiping; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Zhengge; Liao, Wei; Chen, Guanghui; Northoff, Georg; Lu, Guangming

2013-10-25

236

Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological  

E-print Network

Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological evidence from Tashlhiyt Berber* Rachid Ridouane syllables do exist in Tashlhiyt, both at the phonetic and phonological levels. Acoustic, fibrescopic due to subject consultants for their participation to the phonetic experiments. Any errors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

237

Patients with impaired verb-tense processing: do they know that yesterday is past?  

PubMed

This paper begins with a focus on the task of stem inflection, where participants are given a verb stem and asked to produce the verb's past-tense form, which can produce a neuropsychological double dissociation with respect to regular versus irregular verbs. Two differing theoretical interpretations are outlined: one is based on specifically morphological and separate brain mechanisms for processing regular versus irregular verbs; the other argues that the two sides of the dissociation can arise from one procedure, which is not specifically morphological, and which relies to differing extents on phonological versus semantic information for regular versus irregular verbs. We then present data from a different version of the task, in which patients were given past-tense forms and asked to produce the present-tense or stem forms (talked ? talk and ate ? eat). This change yielded a very different pattern of performance in four non-fluent aphasic patients as a function of the regular-irregular manipulation, an outcome which is argued to be more compatible with the single- than the dual-mechanism account. Finally, we present a small amount of data from a task in which the patient was asked to judge whether spoken regular and irregular verb stems and past-tense forms indicated actions occurring today or yesterday. This task produced an even more different and intriguing pattern of performance suggesting a deficit in morpho-syntactic knowledge: not how to produce past-tense forms but what such forms mean and how that understanding interacts with verb regularity. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the research field of acquired disorders of tense processing might advance as a result of new approaches, in particular those informed by studies of developmental disorders. PMID:24324243

Patterson, Karalyn; Holland, Rachel

2014-01-01

238

Patients with impaired verb-tense processing: do they know that yesterday is past?  

PubMed Central

This paper begins with a focus on the task of stem inflection, where participants are given a verb stem and asked to produce the verb's past-tense form, which can produce a neuropsychological double dissociation with respect to regular versus irregular verbs. Two differing theoretical interpretations are outlined: one is based on specifically morphological and separate brain mechanisms for processing regular versus irregular verbs; the other argues that the two sides of the dissociation can arise from one procedure, which is not specifically morphological, and which relies to differing extents on phonological versus semantic information for regular versus irregular verbs. We then present data from a different version of the task, in which patients were given past-tense forms and asked to produce the present-tense or stem forms (talked ? talk and ate ? eat). This change yielded a very different pattern of performance in four non-fluent aphasic patients as a function of the regular–irregular manipulation, an outcome which is argued to be more compatible with the single- than the dual-mechanism account. Finally, we present a small amount of data from a task in which the patient was asked to judge whether spoken regular and irregular verb stems and past-tense forms indicated actions occurring today or yesterday. This task produced an even more different and intriguing pattern of performance suggesting a deficit in morpho-syntactic knowledge: not how to produce past-tense forms but what such forms mean and how that understanding interacts with verb regularity. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the research field of acquired disorders of tense processing might advance as a result of new approaches, in particular those informed by studies of developmental disorders. PMID:24324243

Patterson, Karalyn; Holland, Rachel

2014-01-01

239

Auditory Deficit as a Consequence Rather than Endophenotype of Specific Language Impairment: Electrophysiological Evidence  

PubMed Central

Background Are developmental language disorders caused by poor auditory discrimination? This is a popular theory, but behavioural evidence has been inconclusive. Here we studied children with specific language impairment, measuring the brain’s electrophysiological response to sounds in a passive paradigm. We focused on the T-complex, an event-related peak that has different origins and developmental course from the well-known vertex response. Methods We analysed auditory event-related potentials to tones and syllables from 16 children and 16 adolescents with specific language impairment who were compared with 32 typically-developing controls, matched for gender, IQ and age. Results We replicated prior findings of significant reduction in Ta amplitude for both children and adolescents with specific language impairment, which was particularly marked for syllables. The topography of the T-complex to syllables indicated a less focal response in those with language impairments. To distinguish causal models, we considered correlations between size of the Ta response and measures of language and literacy in parents as well as children. The best-fitting model was one in which auditory deficit was a consequence rather than a cause of difficulties in phonological processing. Conclusions The T-complex to syllables has abnormal size and topography in children with specific language impairment, but this is more likely to be a consequence rather than a cause of difficulties in phonological processing. PMID:22662112

Bishop, D. V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.

2012-01-01

240

Decision-making process of family caregivers regarding placement of a cognitively impaired elderly relative.  

PubMed

Grounded theory served to develop a model of the family caregiver decision-making process regarding placement of a cognitively impaired elderly relative. Eighteen caregivers were interviewed every 6 months over an average 20 months. Results show the process is activated when the caregiver or a health care professional introduces the possibility of placement. The caregiver's assessment of the pros and cons of placement is modulated primarily by interactions with the formal and informal social network. Three types of longitudinal trajectory emerged from the data suggesting avenues of intervention to support caregivers during this painful process. PMID:22974081

Ducharme, Francine; Couture, Mélanie; Lamontagne, Julie

2012-01-01

241

Impairment of inhibitory control processing related to acute psychotomimetic effects of cannabis.  

PubMed

Cannabis use can induce acute psychotic symptoms and increase the risk of schizophrenia. Impairments in inhibitory control and processing are known to occur both under the influence of cannabis and in schizophrenia. Whether cannabis-induced impairment in inhibitory processing is related to the acute induction of psychotic symptoms under its influence is unclear. We investigated the effects of acute oral administration of 10mg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, on inhibitory control and regional brain activation during inhibitory processing in humans and examined whether these effects are related to the induction of psychotic symptoms under its influence using a repeated-measures, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subject design. We studied thirty-six healthy, English-speaking, right-handed men with minimal previous exposure to cannabis and other illicit drugs twice using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they performed a response inhibition (Go/No-Go) task. Relative to placebo, delta-9-THC caused transient psychotic symptoms, anxiety, intoxication and sedation, inhibition errors and impaired inhibition efficiency. Severity of psychotic symptoms was directly correlated with inhibition error frequency and inversely with inhibition efficiency under the influence of delta-9-THC. Delta-9-THC attenuated left inferior frontal activation which was inversely correlated with the frequency of inhibition errors and severity of psychotic symptoms and positively with inhibition efficiency under its influence. These results provide experimental evidence that impairments in cognitive processes involved in the inhibitory control of thoughts and actions and inferior frontal function under the influence of cannabis may have a role in the emergence of transient psychotic symptoms under its influence. PMID:25532865

Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Atakan, Z; Martin-Santos, R; Crippa, J A; Kambeitz, J; Malhi, S; Giampietro, V; Williams, S; Brammer, M; Rubia, K; Collier, D A; McGuire, P K

2015-01-01

242

The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural.  

PubMed

The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic and phonological abilities. The present paper reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of plural forms for both production and comprehension. In Experiments 1 and 2 plural productions were elicited from eighty two-year-old children for nouns with codas with varying phonological properties. The results provide evidence that production of the plural morpheme is partly governed by the complexity of the coda and its sonority. Experiments 3 and 4 show that these constraints on codas also hold for comprehension as well, suggesting this effect is not simply articulatory, but also impacts the morphophonology of the plural. PMID:22544999

Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer

2011-09-01

243

The Search for the Phonological Store: From Loop to Convolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract & The phonological,loop system,of Baddeley and colleagues’ Working,Memory,model,is a major,accomplishment,of the modern,era of cognitive psychology. It was,one,of the first information,processing models,to make,an explicit attempt,to accommodate,both traditional behavioral data and the results of neuropsychological case studies in an integrated theoretical framework. In the early and middle 1990s, the purview of the phonological,loop was expanded,to include the emerging,field of functional brain

Bradley R. Buchsbaum; Mark D'esposito

2008-01-01

244

Acute Alcohol Consumption Impairs Controlled but Not Automatic Processes in a Psychophysical Pointing Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Such studies have shown that alcohol impairs performance on tasks requiring conscious, intentional control, while leaving automatic performance relatively intact. Here, we sought to extend these findings to aspects of visuomotor control by investigating the effects of alcohol in a visuomotor pointing paradigm that allowed us to separate the influence of controlled and automatic processes. Six male participants were assigned to an experimental “correction” condition in which they were instructed to point at a visual target as quickly and accurately as possible. On a small percentage of trials, the target “jumped” to a new location. On these trials, the participants’ task was to amend their movement such that they pointed to the new target location. A second group of 6 participants were assigned to a “countermanding” condition, in which they were instructed to terminate their movements upon detection of target “jumps”. In both the correction and countermanding conditions, participants served as their own controls, taking part in alcohol and no-alcohol conditions on separate days. Alcohol had no effect on participants’ ability to correct movements “in flight”, but impaired the ability to withhold such automatic corrections. Our data support the notion that alcohol selectively impairs controlled processes in the visuomotor domain. PMID:23861934

Johnston, Kevin; Timney, Brian; Goodale, Melvyn A.

2013-01-01

245

Impaired Visual Object Processing Across an Occipital- Frontal-Hippocampal Brain Network in Schizophrenia: An integrated neuroimaging study  

PubMed Central

Background Perceptual closure refers to the ability to identify objects with partial information. Deficits in schizophrenia are indexed by impaired generation of the closure-related negativity (NCL) from ventral stream visual cortex (lateral occipital complex, LOC), as part of a network of brain regions that also includes dorsal stream visual regions, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. This study evaluates network-level interactions during perceptual closure in schizophrenia using parallel ERP, fMRI and neuropsychological assessment. Methods ERP were obtained from 24 patients and 20 healthy volunteers in response to fragmented (closeable) and control scrambled (noncloseable) line drawings. fMRI were obtained from 11 patients and 12 controls. Patterns of between group differences for predefined ERP components and fMRI regions of interest were determined using both analysis of variance and structural equation modeling. Global neuropsychological performance was assessed using elements of the WAIS-III, WMS-III and MATRICS batteries. Results Patients showed impaired visual P1 generation, reflecting dorsal stream dysfunction, along with impaired generation of NCL components over PFC and LOC. In fMRI, patients showed impaired activation of dorsal and ventral visual regions, PFC and hippocampus. Impaired activation of dorsal stream visual regions contributed significantly to impaired PFC activation. Impaired PFC activation contributed significantly to impaired activation of hippocampus and LOC. Impaired LOC and hippocampal activation contributed significantly to deficits on WAIS-III Perceptual Organization Index (POI) and other tests of impaired perceptual processing in schizophrenia. Conclusion Schizophrenia is associated with severe activation deficits across a distributed network of sensory and higher order cognitive regions. Deficit in early visual processing within the dorsal visual stream contributes significantly to impaired frontal activation which, in turn, leads to dysregulation of hippocampus and ventral visual stream. Dysfunction within this network underlies impairment in more traditional measures of neurocognitive dysfunction such as POI, supporting distributed models of brain dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:20679585

Sehatpour, Pejman; Dias, Elisa C.; Butler, Pamela D.; Revheim, Nadine; Guilfoyle, David N.; Foxe, John J.; Javitt, Daniel C.

2013-01-01

246

Modeling Phonological Core Deficits Within a Working Memory Architecture in Children and Adults With Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent theoretical advances in working memory guided analyses of cognitive measures in 122 children with dyslexia and their 200 affected biological parents in families with a multigenerational history of dyslexia. Both children and adults were most severely impaired, on average, in three working memory components- phonological word-form storage,…

Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Thomson, Jennifer; Wagner, Richard; Swanson, H. Lee; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Raskind, Wendy

2006-01-01

247

Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children with SLI: Semantic, Phonological, and Repetition Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current understanding of how children with specific language impairment (SLI) organize their mental lexicons. The study examined semantic and phonological priming in children with and without SLI. Method: Thirteen children (7;0-11;3 [years;months]) with SLI and 13 age-matched children…

Velez, Melinda; Schwartz, Richard G.

2010-01-01

248

Children with speech sound disorder: comparing a non-linguistic auditory approach with a phonological intervention approach to improve phonological skills  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder (SSD). A total of 17 children, aged 7–12 years, with SSD were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2) or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2). The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills) and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production, and phonological awareness skills). The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (e.g., backward masking and frequency discrimination), whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (e.g., phonological organization and awareness). Both interventions consisted of 12 45-min sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of 9 h. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills.

Murphy, Cristina F. B.; Pagan-Neves, Luciana O.; Wertzner, Haydée F.; Schochat, Eliane

2015-01-01

249

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate improves processing speed and memory in cognitively impaired MS patients: a phase II study.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes cognitive impairment including slowed processing speed and problems with learning and memory. Stimulants are attractive candidates for improving mental speed but carry risk of addiction and other adverse behavioral effects. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a D-amphetamine prodrug currently approved for attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder with the potential to be better tolerated due to its prolonged clinical effect. This phase II placebo-controlled, double-blind study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of LDX in cognitively impaired MS patients. Subjects were patients with clinically definite MS, aged 18-56 years, and impaired on either of two primary outcomes: the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) or the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Both SDMT and PASAT are measures of cognitive processing speed. Of 174 MS patients screened, 63 were randomized to 30 mg of LDX or placebo in a 2:1 fashion; the dose was increased as tolerated to 70 mg over 4 weeks and then maintained for another 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes were the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised (BVMTR), the California Verbal Learning Test 2nd edition (CVLT2), both measures of episodic memory, and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function for adults (BRIEF-A), a self-report measure of executive function. Fatigue and depression were also evaluated. There was significant improvement in the SDMT score (+4.6 vs. +1.3) and CVLT2 score (+4.7 vs. -0.9) in the LDX group compared with the placebo group among the 49 completers. There was no change on the other outcomes. A high proportion of both LDX-treated and placebo-treated subjects reported adverse events (73.5 % vs. 68.4 %). However, there were no serious adverse events noted in the study. These preliminary data indicate that LDX has the potential to be an efficacious treatment for MS patients with cognitive impairment. PMID:23001556

Morrow, Sarah A; Smerbeck, Audrey; Patrick, Kara; Cookfair, Diane; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B

2013-02-01

250

Effects of irrelevant sounds on phonological coding in reading comprehension and short-term memory.  

PubMed

The effects of irrelevant sounds on reading comprehension and short-term memory were studied in two experiments. In Experiment 1, adults judged the acceptability of written sentences during irrelevant speech, accompanied and unaccompanied singing, instrumental music, and in silence. Sentences varied in syntactic complexity: Simple sentences contained a right-branching relative clause (The applause pleased the woman that gave the speech) and syntactically complex sentences included a centre-embedded relative clause (The hay that the farmer stored fed the hungry animals). Unacceptable sentences either sounded acceptable (The dog chased the cat that eight up all his food) or did not (The man praised the child that sight up his spinach). Decision accuracy was impaired by syntactic complexity but not by irrelevant sounds. Phonological coding was indicated by increased errors on unacceptable sentences that sounded correct. These errors rates were unaffected by irrelevant sounds. Experiment 2 examined effects of irrelevant sounds on ordered recall of phonologically similar and dissimilar word lists. Phonological similarity impaired recall. Irrelevant speech reduced recall but did not interact with phonological similarity. The results of these experiments question assumptions about the relationship between speech input and phonological coding in reading and the short-term store. PMID:8685391

Boyle, R; Coltheart, V

1996-05-01

251

Cocaine Users Manifest Impaired Prosodic and Cross-Modal Emotion Processing  

PubMed Central

Background: A small number of previous studies have provided evidence that cocaine users (CU) exhibit impairments in complex social cognition tasks, while the more basic facial emotion recognition is widely unaffected. However, prosody and cross-modal emotion processing has not been systematically investigated in CU so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess complex multisensory emotion processing in CU in comparison to controls and to examine a potential association with drug use patterns. Method: The abbreviated version of the comprehensive affect testing system (CATS-A) was used to measure emotion perception across the three channels of facial affect, prosody, and semantic content in 58 CU and 48 healthy control (HC) subjects who were matched for age, sex, verbal intelligence, and years of education. Results: CU had significantly lower scores than controls in the quotient scales of “emotion recognition” and “prosody recognition” and the subtests “conflicting prosody/meaning – attend to prosody” and “match emotional prosody to emotional face” either requiring to attend to prosody or to integrate cross-modal information. In contrast, no group difference emerged for the “affect recognition quotient.” Cumulative cocaine doses and duration of cocaine use correlated negatively with emotion processing. Conclusion: CU show impaired cross-modal integration of different emotion processing channels particularly with regard to prosody, whereas more basic aspects of emotion processing such as facial affect perception are comparable to the performance of HC. PMID:24046750

Hulka, Lea M.; Preller, Katrin H.; Vonmoos, Matthias; Broicher, Sarah D.; Quednow, Boris B.

2013-01-01

252

Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Phonological Awareness Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning. Phonological awareness is a precursor to reading. "Phonological Awareness Training" can involve various…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

253

Phonology, reading acquisition, and dyslexia: Insights from connectionist models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of reading skill and bases of developmental dyslexia were explored using con- nectionist models. Four issues were examined: the acquisition of phonological knowledge prior to reading, how this knowledge facilitates learning to read, phonological and non phonological bases of dyslexia, and effects of literacy on phonological representation. Compared with simple feedforward networks, representing phonological knowledge in an attractor

Michael W. Harm; Mark S. Seidenberg

1999-01-01

254

Variability in Speed of Information Processing: A New Measure of Cognitive Impairment in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis  

E-print Network

Cognitive slowing has been firmly established as one of the few primary cognitive deficits associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Numerous studies have documented impairments in speed of information processing for MS patients relative to healthy...

Bodling, Angela Michelle

2010-06-14

255

Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

2013-01-01

256

Phonetics and Phonology Course goals  

E-print Network

80282 Fall 2013 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course picks up where Nature of Language leaves off in the investigation of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will practice reading and producing phonetic transcriptions of data from natural languages

Spirtes, Peter

257

Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…

Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

2012-01-01

258

GENERATIVE RULES FOR ITALIAN PHONOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TWO MODELS OF DESCRIPTION, GENERATIVE AND NONGENERATIVE, ARE APPLIED TO THE PHONOLOGY OF ITALIAN TO DETERMINE WHICH OF THE TWO OFFERS A SIMPLER YET MORE COMPREHENSIVE STATEMENT. THE NONGENERATIVE MODEL IS GIVEN IN A LISTING OF PHONEMES AND A BRIEF STATEMENT OF THE PHONOTACTICS AND ALLOPHONICS. THE GENERATIVE MODEL STATES THE FACTS IN 11 REWRITE…

DI PIETRO, ROBERT J.

259

Confronting Professional Impairment During the Internship: Identification, Due Process, and Remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although increasing efforts have been made in recent years to address impairment in practicing psychologists, little regarding how to deal with impairment early in the professional career has been reported. The predoctoral internship is a pivotal training experience, which makes it a critical stage at which to assess and deal with impairment. We identify criteria of impairment, suggest components to

Douglas H. Lamb; Nan R. Presser; Karen S. Pfost; Michael C. Baum; Vivian R. Jackson; Paul A. Jarvis

1987-01-01

260

Electrophysiological Correlates of Rapid Auditory and Linguistic Processing in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Brief tonal stimuli and spoken sentences were utilized to examine whether adolescents (aged 14;3-18;1) with specific language impairments (SLI) exhibit atypical neural activity for rapid auditory processing of non-linguistic stimuli and linguistic processing of verb-agreement and semantic constraints. Further, we examined whether the behavioral and electrophysiological indices for rapid auditory processing were correlated with those for linguistic processing. Fifteen adolescents with SLI and 15 adolescents with normal language met strict criteria for displaying consistent diagnoses from kindergarten through the eighth grade. The findings provide evidence that auditory processing for non-linguistic stimuli is atypical in a significant number of adolescents with SLI compared to peers with normal language and indicate that reduced efficiency in auditory processing in SLI is more vulnerable to rapid rates (200 ms ISI) of stimuli presentation (indexed by reduced accuracy, a tendency for longer RTs, reduced N100 over right anterior sites, and reduced amplitude P300). Many adolescents with SLI displayed reduced behavioral accuracy for detecting verb-agreement violations and semantic anomalies, along with less robust P600s elicited by verb-agreement violations. The results indicate that ERPs elicited by morphosyntactic aspects of language processing are atypical in many adolescents with SLI. Additionally, correlational analyses between behavioral and electrophysiological indices of processing non-linguistic stimuli and verb-agreement violations suggest that the integrity of neural functions for auditory processing may only account for a small proportion of the variance in morphosyntactic processing in some adolescents. PMID:20889197

Weber-Fox, Christine; Leonard, Laurence B.; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2010-01-01

261

Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired childrenameliorated by training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with language-based learning impairments (LLIs) have major\\u000a\\u0009deficits in their recognition of some rapidly successive phonetic\\u000a\\u0009elements and nonspeech sound stimuli. In the current study, LLI children\\u000a\\u0009were engaged in adaptive training exercises mounted as computer ''games''\\u000a\\u0009designed to drive improvements in their ''temporal processing'' skills.\\u000a\\u0009With 8 to 16 hours of training during a 20-day period, LLI children

Michael M. Merzenich; W. M. Jenkins; Paul Johnston; Christoph Schreiner; S. L. Miller; Paula Tallal; Peter R. Schreiner

1996-01-01

262

Phonological effects in handwriting production: evidence from the implicit priming paradigm.  

PubMed

In the present article, we report 3 experiments using the odd-man-out variant of the implicit priming paradigm, aimed at determining the role played by phonological information during the handwriting process. Participants were asked to write a small set of words learned in response to prompts. Within each block, response words could share initial segments (constant homogeneous) or not (heterogeneous). Also, 2 variable homogeneous blocks were created by including a response word that did not share orthographic onset with the other response (odd-man-out). This odd-man-out could be phonologically related to the targets or not. Experiment 1 showed a preparation effect in the constant homogeneous condition, which disappeared (spoil effect) in the variable condition not phonologically related. However, no spoil effect was found when the odd-man-out shared the phonological initial segment with the targets. In Experiment 2, we obtained a spoil effect in the variable phonologically related condition, but it was significantly smaller than in the variable not phonologically related condition. The effects observed in Experiment 2 vanished in Experiment 3 under articulatory suppression, suggesting that they originated at a sublexical level. These findings suggest that phonological sublexical information is used during handwriting and provide evidence that the implicit priming paradigm (and the odd-man-out version of this) is a suitable tool for handwriting production research. PMID:21767055

Afonso, Olivia; Álvarez, Carlos J

2011-11-01

263

Gist-based conceptual processing of pictures remains intact in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Objective The picture superiority effect, better memory for pictures compared to words, has been found in young adults, healthy older adults, and, most recently, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. Although the picture superiority effect is widely found, there is still debate over what drives this effect. One main question is whether it is enhanced perceptual or conceptual information that leads to the advantage for pictures over words. In this experiment, we examined the picture superiority effect in healthy older adults and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to better understand the role of gist-based conceptual processing. Method We had participants study three exemplars of categories as either words or pictures. In the test phase, participants were again shown pictures or words and were asked to determine whether the item was in the same category as something they had studied earlier or whether it was from a new category. Results We found that all participants demonstrated a robust picture superiority effect, better performance for pictures than for words. Conclusions These results suggest that the gist-based conceptual processing of pictures is preserved in patients with MCI. While in healthy older adults preserved recollection for pictures could lead to the picture superiority effect, in patients with MCI it is most likely that the picture superiority effect is a result of spared conceptually-based familiarity for pictures, perhaps combined with their intact ability to extract and use gist information. PMID:22229341

Deason, Rebecca G.; Hussey, Erin P.; Budson, Andrew E.; Ally, Brandon A.

2012-01-01

264

Ophthalmological, cognitive, electrophysiological and MRI assessment of visual processing in preterm children without major neuromotor impairment.  

PubMed

Many studies report chronic deficits in visual processing in children born preterm. We investigated whether functional abnormalities in visual processing exist in children born preterm but without major neuromotor impairment (i.e. cerebral palsy). Twelve such children (< 33 weeks gestation or birthweight < 1000 g) without major neuromotor impairment and 12 born full-term controls were assessed at 8-12 years of age by means of ophthalmological assessment (visual acuity, colour vision, stereopsis, stereoacuity, visual fields, ocular motility, motor fusion), cognitive tests of visual-motor, visual-perceptual and visual-spatial skills and pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (PR-VEPs). All participants also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and neuromotor assessments. No significant differences were found between the groups on the ophthalmological, visual cognitive, neurological, neuromotor or MRI measures. The P100 component of the PR-VEP showed a significantly shorter latency in the preterm compared with the full-term participants. Whilst this P100 finding suggests that subtle abnormalities may exist at the neurophysiological level, we conclude that visual dysfunction is not systematically associated with preterm birth in the context of normal neurological status. PMID:20712735

O'Reilly, Michelle; Vollmer, Brigitte; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Neville, Brian; Connelly, Alan; Wyatt, John; Timms, Chris; de Haan, Michelle

2010-09-01

265

Impact of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior in children with hearing impairment  

PubMed Central

In order to explore verbal–nonverbal integration, we investigated the influence of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior during spoken language conversation between children with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment (HI) and normal-hearing (NH) peers. Ten HI–NH and 10 NH-NH dyads performed a referential communication task requiring description of faces. During task performance, eye movements and speech were tracked. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model associations between performance on cognitive and linguistic tasks and the probability of gaze to the conversational partner’s face. Analyses compare the listeners in each dyad (HI: n = 10, mean age = 12; 6 years, SD = 2; 0, mean better ear pure-tone average 33.0 dB HL, SD = 7.8; NH: n = 10, mean age = 13; 7 years, SD = 1; 11). Group differences in gaze behavior – with HI gazing more to the conversational partner than NH – remained significant despite adjustment for ability on receptive grammar, expressive vocabulary, and complex working memory. Adjustment for phonological short term memory, as measured by non-word repetition, removed group differences, revealing an interaction between group membership and non-word repetition ability. Stratified analysis showed a twofold increase of the probability of gaze-to-partner for HI with low phonological short term memory capacity, and a decreased probability for HI with high capacity, as compared to NH peers. The results revealed differences in gaze behavior attributable to performance on a phonological short term memory task. Participants with HI and low phonological short term memory capacity showed a doubled probability of gaze to the conversational partner, indicative of a visual bias. The results stress the need to look beyond the HI in diagnostics and intervention. Acknowledgment of the finding requires clinical assessment of children with HI to be supported by tasks tapping phonological processing. PMID:24302915

Sandgren, Olof; Andersson, Richard; van de Weijer, Joost; Hansson, Kristina; Sahlén, Birgitta

2013-01-01

266

Contrast Responsivity in MT+ Correlates with Phonological Awareness and Reading Measures in Children  

PubMed Central

There are several independent sets of findings concerning the neural basis of reading. One set demonstrates a powerful relationship between phonological processing and reading skills. Another set reveals a relationship between visual responses in the motion pathways and reading skills. It is widely assumed that these two findings are unrelated. We tested the hypothesis that phonological awareness is related to motion responsivity in children’s MT+. We measured BOLD signals to drifting gratings as a function of contrast. Subjects were 35 children ages 7–12y with a wide range of reading skills. Contrast responsivity in MT+, but not V1, was correlated with phonological awareness and to a lesser extent with two other measures of reading. No correlation was found between MT+ signals and rapid naming, age or general IQ measures. These results establish an important link between visual and phonological processing in children and suggest that MT+ responsivity is a marker for healthy reading development. PMID:17689981

Ben-Shachar, Michal; Dougherty, Robert F.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Wandell, Brian A.

2007-01-01

267

Phonological Awareness Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia and the Phonological Representations Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The claim that the well-documented difficulties shown by dyslexic children in phonological awareness tasks may arise from deficits in the accuracy and the segmental organization of the phonological representations of words in their mental lexicons is receiving increasing interest from researchers. In this experiment, two versions of the phonological representations hypothesis were investigated by using a picture naming task and

Denise Swan; Usha Goswami

1997-01-01

268

English phonology and linguistic theory: an introduction to issues, and to ‘Issues in English Phonology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the phonology of English has been crucial in the development of phonological and sociophonological theory throughout its recent past. If we had not had English to investigate, we claim, with both its unique and its widely-shared phonological phenomena, linguistic theory might have developed quite differently. In this article, we document some of the ways in which particular English

Philip Carr; Patrick Honeybone

2007-01-01

269

Treating Children with Expressive Phonological Disorders: Does Phonological Awareness Therapy Work in the Clinic?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent research has shown that phonological awareness therapy can improve speech production in children with expressive phonological disorders. This approach may be appealing to clinicians as the therapy may also benefit the children's general phonological abilities and lead to gains in their literacy skills. Aims: To examine the…

Denne, M.; Langdown, N.; Pring, T.; Roy, P.

2005-01-01

270

Acute neuroinflammation impairs context discrimination memory and disrupts pattern separation processes in hippocampus.  

PubMed

Although it is known that immune system activation can impair cognition, no study to date has linked cognitive deficits during acute neuroinflammation to dysregulation of task-relevant neuronal ensemble activity. Here, we assessed both neural circuit activity and context discrimination memory retrieval, in a within-subjects design, of male rats given systemic administration of saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were exposed over several days to two similar contexts: one of which was paired with weak foot shock and the other was not. After reaching criteria for discriminative freezing, rats were given systemic LPS or saline injection and tested for retrieval of context discrimination 6 h later. Importantly, LPS administration produced an acute neuroinflammatory response in dorsal hippocampus at this time (as assessed by elevation of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels) and abolished retrieval of the previously acquired discrimination. The impact of neuroinflammation on hippocampal CA3 and CA1 neural circuit activity was assessed using the Arc/Homer1a cellular analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization imaging method. Whereas the saline-treated subjects discriminated and had low overlap of hippocampal ensembles activated in the two contexts, LPS-treated subjects did not discriminate and had greater ensemble overlap (i.e., reduced orthogonalization). Additionally, retrieval of standard contextual fear conditioning, which does not require context discrimination, was not affected by pretesting LPS administration. Together, the behavioral and circuit analyses data provide compelling evidence that LPS administration impairs context discrimination memory by disrupting cellular pattern separation processes within the hippocampus, thus linking acute neuroinflammation to disruption of specific neural circuit functions and cognitive impairment. PMID:25209285

Czerniawski, Jennifer; Guzowski, John F

2014-09-10

271

Testing the attentional boundary conditions of subliminal semantic priming: the influence of semantic and phonological task sets  

PubMed Central

Recent studies challenged the classical notion of automaticity and indicated that even unconscious automatic semantic processing is under attentional control to some extent. In line with our attentional sensitization model, these data suggest that a sensitization of semantic pathways by a semantic task set is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to occur while non-semantic task sets attenuate priming. In the present study, we tested whether masked semantic priming is also reduced by phonological task sets using the previously developed induction task paradigm. This would substantiate the notion that attention to semantics is necessary for eliciting unconscious semantic priming. Participants first performed semantic and phonological induction tasks that should either activate a semantic or a phonological task set. Subsequent to the induction task, a masked prime word, either associated or non-associated with the following lexical decision target word, was presented. Across two experiments, we varied the nature of the phonological induction task (word phonology vs. letter phonology) to assess whether the attentional focus on the entire word vs. single letters modulates subsequent masked semantic priming. In both experiments, subliminal semantic priming was only found subsequent to the semantic induction task, but was attenuated following either phonological induction task. These results indicate that attention to phonology attenuates subsequent semantic processing of unconsciously presented primes whether or not attention is directed to the entire word or to single letters. The present findings therefore substantiate earlier evidence that an attentional orientation toward semantics is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to be elicited. PMID:22952461

Adams, Sarah C.; Kiefer, Markus

2012-01-01

272

Increased Prolactin Levels Are Associated with Impaired Processing Speed in Subjects with Early Psychosis  

PubMed Central

Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with <3 years of illness, 23 high-risk subjects). Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery, and prolactin levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines) recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population. PMID:24586772

Montalvo, Itziar; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Monseny, Rosa; Ortega, Laura; Franch, Joan; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

2014-01-01

273

The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception, and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia  

PubMed Central

This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception, and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading. We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e., rapid automatic naming, verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise time (RT); an intensity discrimination task (ID) was included as a non-dynamic control task. Speech perception was assessed by means of sentences and words-in-noise tasks. Group analyses revealed significant group differences in auditory tasks (i.e., RT and ID) and in phonological processing measures, yet no differences were found for speech perception. In addition, performance on RT discrimination correlated with reading but this relation was mediated by phonological processing and not by speech-in-noise. Finally, inspection of the individual scores revealed that the dyslexic readers showed an increased proportion of deviant subjects on the slow-dynamic auditory and phonological tasks, yet each individual dyslexic reader does not display a clear pattern of deficiencies across the processing skills. Although our results support phonological and slow-rate dynamic auditory deficits which relate to literacy, they suggest that at the individual level, problems in reading and writing cannot be explained by the cascading auditory theory. Instead, dyslexic adults seem to vary considerably in the extent to which each of the auditory and phonological factors are expressed and interact with environmental and higher-order cognitive influences. PMID:25071512

Law, Jeremy M.; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquiere, Pol; Wouters, Jan

2014-01-01

274

Theory of mind and decision-making processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Prefrontal cortex plays a vital role in the theory of mind (ToM) and decision making, as shown in functional brain imaging and lesion studies. Considering the primary neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the frontal lobe system, patients with PD are expected to exhibit deficits in ToM and social decision making. The aim of this study was to investigate affective ToM and decision making in patients with PD and healthy controls (HC) in a task assessing affective ToM (Reading the Mind in the Eyes, RME) and two decision-making tasks (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT; Game of Dice Task, GDT). Consistent with previous findings, patients with PD were impaired in the affective ToM task, and when making decisions under ambiguity and in risk situations. The score of emotion recognition in the RME task was negatively correlated with the severity of the disease and positively correlated with the total number of advantageous cards chosen in the IGT. However, the final capital in the GDT was correlated with memory impairment. The present study implies that affective ToM and decision making under ambiguity may share similar neural mechanisms, while decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk may involve processing within different neural networks. PMID:25435317

Xi, Chunhua; Zhu, Youling; Mu, Yanfang; Chen, Bing; Dong, Bin; Cheng, Huaidong; Hu, Panpan; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Kai

2015-02-15

275

Histamine H1 receptor blockade predominantly impairs sensory processes in human sensorimotor performance  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Centrally active antihistamines impair cognitive performance, particularly sensorimotor performance. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the scarcely studied subprocesses involved in sensorimotor performance, which may be affected by H1 receptor blockade. Better knowledge about the cognitive deficits associated with histamine dysfunction can contribute to better treatment of clinical disorders in which histamine hypofunction may be a contributing factor, such as in schizophrenia. Experimental approach: Interactions of dexchlorpheniramine with specific task manipulations in a choice reaction time task were studied. Task demands were increased at the level of sensory subprocesses by decreasing stimulus quality, and at the level of motor subprocesses by increasing response complexity. A total of 18 healthy volunteers (9 female) aged between 18 and 45 years participated in a three-way, double-blind, crossover design. Treatments were single oral doses of 4 mg dexchlorpheniramine, 1 mg lorazepam and placebo. Behavioural effects were assessed by measuring reaction times and effects on brain activity by event-related potentials. Key results: Dexchlorpheniramine significantly slowed reaction times, but did not significantly interact with task manipulations. However, it did significantly interact with stimulus quality, as measured by event-related potentials. Lorazepam slowed reaction times and interacted with perceptual manipulations, as shown by effects on reaction times. Conclusions and implications: The results confirm that the histamine system is involved in sensory information processing and show that H1 blockade does not affect motoric information processing. Histamine hypofunction in clinical disorders may cause impaired sensory processing, which may be a drug target. PMID:19220286

van Ruitenbeek, P; Vermeeren, A; Smulders, FTY; Sambeth, A; Riedel, WJ

2009-01-01

276

Impaired Cross-Talk between Mesolimbic Food Reward Processing and Metabolic Signaling Predicts Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

The anticipation of the pleasure derived from food intake drives the motivation to eat, and hence facilitate overconsumption of food, which ultimately results in obesity. Brain imaging studies provide evidence that mesolimbic brain regions underlie both general as well as food-related anticipatory reward processing. In light of this knowledge, the present study examined the neural responsiveness of the ventral striatum (VS) in participants with a broad BMI spectrum. The study differentiated between general (i.e., monetary) and food-related anticipatory reward processing. We recruited a sample of volunteers with greatly varying body weights, ranging from a low BMI (below 20?kg/m2) over a normal (20–25?kg/m2) and overweight (25–30?kg/m2) BMI, to class I (30–35?kg/m2) and class II (35–40?kg/m2) obesity. A total of 24 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing both a food and monetary incentive delay task, which allows to measure neural activation during the anticipation of rewards. After the presentation of a cue indicating the amount of food or money to be won, participants had to react correctly in order to earn “snack points” or “money coins,” which could then be exchanged for real food or money, respectively, at the end of the experiment. During the anticipation of both types of rewards, participants displayed activity in the VS, a region that plays a pivotal role in the anticipation of rewards. Additionally, we observed that specifically anticipatory food reward processing predicted the individual BMI (current and maximum lifetime). This relation was found to be mediated by impaired hormonal satiety signaling, i.e., increased leptin levels and insulin resistance. These findings suggest that heightened food reward motivation contributes to obesity through impaired metabolic signaling. PMID:25368558

Simon, Joe J.; Skunde, Mandy; Hamze Sinno, Maria; Brockmeyer, Timo; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Bendszus, Martin; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

2014-01-01

277

The effectiveness of phonological intervention in preschool children: a single-subject design study.  

PubMed

The purpose was to investigate an intervention model for treating preschool children with phonological processes. Six children, three girls and three boys, between 4y 1m and 5y 7m, with similar developmental phonological disorder (PD) received an individually adjusted intervention including articulatory, phonological, and meta-phonological approaches. A single-subject multiple-baseline design with /f/ and /s/ as target phonemes and velar plosives and /r/ as control phonemes was used. An improved production of the treated phonemes was found in five of the children, while one girl established /f/ but not /s/. The control phonemes remained unchanged for all children. Six to 18 therapy sessions were needed to reach the intervention goal. The study highlights the importance of considering heterogeneity in children with PD. PMID:23190080

Palle, Nanna; Berntsson, Agneta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Persson, Christina

2014-04-01

278

Steps towards understanding the phonological output buffer and its role in the production of numbers, morphemes, and function words.  

PubMed

The Stimulus Type Effect on Phonological and Semantic errors (STEPS) describes the phenomenon in which a person, following brain damage, produces words with phonological errors (fine ? fige), but number words with semantic errors (five ? eight). To track the origins of this phenomenon and find out whether it is limited to numbers, we assessed the speech production of six individuals with conduction aphasia following a damage in the left hemisphere, who made phonological errors in words. STEPS was found in all six participants, and was not limited to number words - several other word categories were also produced with semantic rather than phonological errors: function words, English letter names, and morphological affixes were substituted with other words within their category. This supports the building blocks hypothesis: when phonological sequences serve as building blocks in a productive process, they end up having pre-assembled phonological representations, ready for articulation. STEPS reflects a deficit that causes substitutions of one phonological unit with another. In the case of plain content words, this causes substitutions of one phoneme with another, but in the case of pre-assembled phonological units, this causes substitutions of number words with other number words, function words with function words, and morphological affixes with other affixes. An analysis of the participants' functional locus of deficit revealed that they all had a deficit in the phonological output buffer, and this was their only common deficit. We therefore concluded that the pre-assembled phonological units are stored in dedicated mini-stores in the phonological output buffer, which processes not only phonemes but also whole number words, function words, and morphemes. We also found that STEPS depends on the word's role: number words were produced with semantic errors only when they appeared in numeric context, and function words triggered semantic errors only in grammatical context. This suggests that the phonological representation of a word can be obtained either from the phonological output lexicon or from a store of pre-assembled representations in the phonological output buffer, depending on the word's role. PMID:25460497

Dotan, Dror; Friedmann, Naama

2015-02-01

279

Impaired autophagy and APP processing in Alzheimer's disease: The potential role of Beclin 1 interactome.  

PubMed

The accumulation of amyloid-?-containing neuritic plaques and intracellular tau protein tangles are key histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This type of pathology clearly indicates that the mechanisms of neuronal housekeeping and protein quality control are compromised in AD. There is mounting evidence that the autophagosome-lysosomal degradation is impaired, which could disturb the processing of APP and provoke AD pathology. Beclin 1 is a molecular platform assembling an interactome with stimulating and suppressive components which regulate the initiation of the autophagosome formation. Recent studies have indicated that the expression Beclin 1 is reduced in AD brain. Moreover, the deficiency of Beclin 1 in cultured neurons and transgenic mice provokes the deposition of amyloid-? peptides whereas its overexpression reduces the accumulation of amyloid-?. There are several potential mechanisms, which could inhibit the function of Beclin 1 interactome and thus impair autophagy and promote AD pathology. The mechanisms include (i) reduction of Beclin 1 expression or its increased proteolytic cleavage by caspases, (ii) sequestration of Beclin 1 to non-functional locations, such as tau tangles, (iii) formation of inhibitory complexes between Beclin 1 and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins or inflammasomes, (iv) interaction of Beclin 1 with inhibitory neurovirulent proteins, e.g. herpex simplex ICP34.5, or (v) inhibition of the Beclin 1/Vps34 complex through the activation of CDK1 and CDK5. We will shortly introduce the function of Beclin 1 interactome in autophagy and phagocytosis, review the recent evidence indicating that Beclin 1 regulates autophagy and APP processing in AD, and finally examine the potential mechanisms through which Beclin 1 dysfunction could be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:23827971

Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu; Ojala, Johanna; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Soininen, Hilkka; Hiltunen, Mikko

2013-01-01

280

Spectral vs. temporal auditory processing in Specific Language Impairment: A developmental ERP study  

PubMed Central

Pre-linguistic sensory deficits, especially in “temporal” processing, have been implicated in developmental Language Impairment (LI). However, recent evidence has been equivocal with data suggesting problems in the spectral domain. The present study examined event-related potential (ERP) measures of auditory sensory temporal and spectral processing, and their interaction, in typical children and those with LI (7–17 years; n=25 per group). The stimuli were 3 CV syllables and 3 consonant-to-vowel transitions (spectral sweeps) isolated from the syllables. Each of these 6 stimuli appeared in 3 durations (transitions: 20, 50, and 80 ms; syllables: 120, 150, and 180 ms). Behaviorally, the group with LIs showed inferior syllable discrimination both with long and short stimuli. In ERPs, trends were observed in the group with LI for diminished long-latency negativities (the N2-N4 peaks) and a developmentally transient enhancement of the P2 peak. Some, but not all, ERP indices of spectral processing also showed trends to be diminished in the group with LI specifically in responses to syllables. Importantly, measures of the transition N2-N4 peaks correlated with expressive language abilities in the LI children. None of the group differences depended on stimulus duration. Therefore, sound brevity did not account for the diminished spectral resolution in these LI children. Rather, the results suggest a deficit in acoustic feature integration at higher levels of auditory sensory processing. The observed maturational trajectory suggests a non-linear developmental deviance rather than simple delay. PMID:19457549

?eponien?, R.; Cummings, A.; Wulfeck, B.; Ballantyne, A.; Townsend, J.

2009-01-01

281

The Proximate Phonological Unit of Chinese-English Bilinguals: Proficiency Matters  

PubMed Central

An essential step to create phonology according to the language production model by Levelt, Roelofs and Meyer is to assemble phonemes into a metrical frame. However, recently, it has been proposed that different languages may rely on different grain sizes of phonological units to construct phonology. For instance, it has been proposed that, instead of phonemes, Mandarin Chinese uses syllables and Japanese uses moras to fill the metrical frame. In this study, we used a masked priming-naming task to investigate how bilinguals assemble their phonology for each language when the two languages differ in grain size. Highly proficient Mandarin Chinese-English bilinguals showed a significant masked onset priming effect in English (L2), and a significant masked syllabic priming effect in Mandarin Chinese (L1). These results suggest that their proximate unit is phonemic in L2 (English), and that bilinguals may use different phonological units depending on the language that is being processed. Additionally, under some conditions, a significant sub-syllabic priming effect was observed even in Mandarin Chinese, which indicates that L2 phonology exerts influences on L1 target processing as a consequence of having a good command of English. PMID:23646107

Verdonschot, Rinus Gerardus; Nakayama, Mariko; Zhang, Qingfang; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Schiller, Niels Olaf

2013-01-01

282

Phonological awareness for american sign language.  

PubMed

This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers exposed to ASL from infancy perform better than deaf signers exposed to ASL later in life and that this relationship remains even after controlling for the number of years of experience with a signed language. For a subset of participants, we examine the relationship between PA for ASL and performance on a PA test of English and report a positive correlation between ASL PA and English PA in native signers. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to the development of reading skills in deaf children. PMID:25149961

Corina, David P; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

2014-10-01

283

Phonological Priming in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological

Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.

2012-01-01

284

Phonological Skills in English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the English phonological skills of English language learners (ELLs) over 5 time points. Method: Sound class accuracy, whole-word accuracy, percentage of occurrence of phonological patterns, and sociolinguistic correlational analyses were investigated in 19 ELLs ranging in age from 5;0…

Morrow, Alyse; Goldstein, Brian A.; Gilhool, Amanda; Paradis, Johanne

2014-01-01

285

Phonology in Language Learning and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims at absorbing the pronunciation teachers task and how much phonology should teachers know. Teachers and future teachers need a well-rounded concept of the phonology of the language they are going to teach and the native language of learners. Emphasis must be placed on the understanding of language as a system of rules and as a…

Jarrah, Ali Saleh

2012-01-01

286

Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

2013-01-01

287

Impaired holistic processing of left-right composite faces in congenital prosopagnosia  

PubMed Central

Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) refers to a lifelong impairment in face processing despite normal visual and intellectual skills. Many studies have suggested that the key underlying deficit in CP is one of a failure to engage holistic processing. Moreover, there has been some suggestion that, in normal observers, there may be greater involvement of the right than left hemisphere in holistic processing. To examine the proposed deficit in holistic processing and its potential hemispheric atypicality in CP, we compared the performance of 8 CP individuals with both matched controls and a large group of non-matched controls on a novel, vertical composite task. In this task, participants judged whether a cued half of a face (either left or right half) was the same or different at study and test, and the two face halves could be either aligned or misaligned. The standard index of holistic processing is one in which the unattended face half influences performance on the cued half and this influence is greater in the aligned than in the misaligned condition. Relative to controls, the CP participants, both at a group and at an individual level, did not show holistic processing in the vertical composite task. There was also no difference in performance as a function of hemifield of the cued face half in the CP individuals, and this was true in the control participants, as well. The findings clearly confirm the deficit in holistic processing in CP and reveal the useful application of this novel experimental paradigm to this population and potentially to others as well. PMID:25324755

Liu, Tina T.; Behrmann, Marlene

2014-01-01

288

Information Processing and Proactive Interference in Children With and Without Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Purpose Increasing evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a deficit in inhibition control, but research isolating specific abilities is scarce. The goal of this study was to examine whether children with SLI differ from their peers in resistance to proactive interference under different conditions. Method An information processing battery with manipulations in interference was administered to 66 children (SLI, age-matched peers, and language-matched controls). In Experiment 1, previously relevant targets were used as distractors to create conflict. Experiment 2 used item repetitions to examine how practice strengthens word representations and how the strength of a response impacts performance on the following item. Results Children with SLI performed similarly to their peers in the baseline condition but were more susceptible to proactive interference than the controls in both experimental conditions. Children with SLI demonstrated difficulty suppressing irrelevant information, made significantly more interference errors than their peers, and showed a slower rate of implicit learning. Conclusion Children with SLI show weaker resistance to proactive interference than their peers, and this deficit impacts their information processing abilities. The coordination of activation and inhibition is less efficient in these children, but future research is needed to further examine the interaction between these two processes. PMID:23900030

Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Eichorn, Naomi; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee

2014-01-01

289

Signal-Processing Strategy for Restoration of Cross-Channel Suppression in Hearing-Impaired Listeners  

PubMed Central

Because frequency components interact nonlinearly with each other inside the cochlea, the loudness growth of tones is relatively simple in comparison to the loudness growth of complex sounds. The term suppression refers to a reduction in the response growth of one tone in the presence of a second tone. Suppression is a salient feature of normal cochlear processing and contributes to psychophysical masking. Suppression is evident in many measurements of cochlear function in subjects with normal hearing, including distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Suppression is also evident, to a lesser extent, in subjects with mild-to-moderate hearing loss. This paper describes a hearing-aid signal-processing strategy that aims to restore both loudness growth and two-tone suppression in hearing-impaired listeners. The prescription of gain for this strategy is based on measurements of loudness by a method known as categorical loudness scaling. The proposed signal-processing strategy reproduces measured DPOAE suppression tuning curves and generalizes to any number of frequency components. The restoration of both normal suppression and normal loudness has the potential to improve hearing-aid performance and user satisfaction. PMID:23925364

Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Gorga, Michael P.; Neely, Stephen T.

2013-01-01

290

Effect of Phonological Training in French Children with SLI: Perspectives on Voicing Identification, Discrimination and Categorical Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of auditory training on voicing perception in French children with specific language impairment (SLI). We used an adaptive discrimination training that was centred across the French phonological boundary (0 ms voice onset time--VOT). One group of nine children with SLI attended eighteen…

Collet, G.; Colin, C.; Serniclaes, W.; Hoonhorst, I.; Markessis, E.; Deltenre, P.; Leybaert, J.

2012-01-01

291

Do Statistical Segmentation Abilities Predict Lexical-Phonological and Lexical-Semantic Abilities in Children with and without SLI?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the predictions of the procedural deficit hypothesis by investigating the relationship between sequential statistical learning and two aspects of lexical ability, lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic, in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Participants included forty children (ages 8;5-12;3), twenty…

Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

2014-01-01

292

Reading speed and phonological awareness deficits among arabic-speaking children with dyslexia.  

PubMed

Although reading accuracy of isolated words and phonological awareness represent the main criteria of subtyping developmental dyslexia, there is increasing evidence that reduced reading speed also represents a defining characteristic. In the present study, reading speed and accuracy were measured in Arabic-speaking phonological and mixed dyslexic children matched with controls of the same age. Participants in third and fourth grades, aged from 9-10 to 9-8 years, were given single frequent and infrequent word and pseudo-word reading and phonological awareness tasks. Results showed that the group with dyslexia scored significantly lower than controls in accuracy and speed in reading tasks. Phonological and mixed dyslexic subgroups differed in infrequent and frequent word reading accuracy, the latter being worse. In contrast, the subgroups were comparable in pseudo-word identification and phonological awareness. Delayed phonological and recognition processes of infrequent and frequent words, respectively, were placed in the context of the dual route model of reading and the specific orthographic features of the Arabic language. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25515022

Layes, Smail; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

2015-02-01

293

Cross-language phonological activation: evidence from masked onset priming and ERPs.  

PubMed

The goal of the present research was to provide direct evidence for the cross-language interaction of phonologies at the sub-lexical level by using the masked onset priming paradigm. More specifically, we investigated whether there is a cross-language masked onset priming effect (MOPE) with L2 (English) primes and L1 (Russian) targets and whether it is modulated by the orthographic similarity of primes and targets. Primes and targets had onsets that overlapped either only phonologically, only orthographically, both phonologically and orthographically, or did not have any overlap. Phonological overlap, but not orthographic overlap, between primes and targets led to faster naming latencies. In contrast, the ERP data provided evidence for effects of both phonological and orthographic overlap. Finally, the time-course of phonological and orthographic processing for our bilinguals mirrored the time-course previously reported for monolinguals in the ERP data. These results provide evidence for shared representations at the sub-lexical level for a bilingual's two languages. PMID:24814580

Jouravlev, Olessia; Lupker, Stephen J; Jared, Debra

2014-07-01

294

Dynamic Temporal Processing of Nonspeech Acoustic Information by Children with Specific Language Impairment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten children (ages 12-16) with specific language impairments (SLI) and controls matched for chronological or language age were tested with measures of complex sound localization involving the precedence effect phenomenon. SLI children exhibited tracking skills similar to language-age matched controls, indicating impairment in their ability to use…

Visto, Jane C.; And Others

1996-01-01

295

Auditory Processing Deficits in Children with Reading and Language Impairments: Can They (and Should They) Be Treated?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-five children with specific reading disability (SRD), 25 children with specific language impairment (SLI), and 37 age-matched controls were tested for their frequency discrimination, rapid auditory processing, vowel discrimination, and consonant-vowel discrimination. Subgroups of children with SRD or SLI produced abnormal frequency…

McArthur, G. M.; Ellis, D.; Atkinson, C. M.; Coltheart, M.

2008-01-01

296

Auditory Processing and Speech Perception in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Relations with Oral Language and Literacy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study investigated temporal auditory processing (frequency modulation and between-channel gap detection) and speech perception (speech-in-noise and categorical perception) in three groups of 6 years 3 months to 6 years 8 months-old children attending grade 1: (1) children with specific language impairment (SLI) and literacy delay…

Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

2012-01-01

297

Sensitivity and Specificity of French Language and Processing Measures for the Identification of Primary Language Impairment at Age 5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Research on the diagnostic accuracy of different language measures has focused primarily on English. This study examined the sensitivity and specificity of a range of measures of language knowledge and language processing for the identification of primary language impairment (PLI) in French-speaking children. Because of the lack of…

Thordardottir, Elin; Kehayia, Eva; Mazer, Barbara; Lessard, Nicole; Majnemer, Annette; Sutton, Ann; Trudeau, Natacha; Chilingaryan, Gevorg

2011-01-01

298

Characteristics and evolution of writing impairment in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Rapcsak et al. (Archs Neurol. 46, 65-67, 1989) proposed a hypothesis describing the evolution of agraphic impairments in dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT): lexico-semantic disturbances at the beginning of the disease, impairments becoming more and more phonological as the dementia becomes more severe. Our study was conducted in an attempt to prove this hypothesis on the basis of an analysis of the changes observed in the agraphia impairment of patients with DAT. A writing test from dictation was proposed to 22 patients twice, with an interval of 9-12 months between the tests. The results show that within 1 year there was little change in the errors made by the patients in the writing test. The changes observed however were all found to develop within the same logical progression (as demonstrated by Correspondence Analysis). These findings made it possible to develop a general hypothesis indicating that the agraphic impairment evolves through three phases in patients with DAT. The first one is a phase of mild impairment (with a few possible phonologically plausible errors). In the second phase non-phonological spelling errors predominate, phonologically plausible errors are fewer and the errors mostly involve irregular words and non-words. The last phase involves more extreme disorders that affect all types of words. We observe many alterations due to impaired graphic motor capacity. This work would tend to confirm the hypothesis proposed by Rapcsak et al. concerning the development of agraphia, and would emphasize the importance of peripheral impairments, especially grapho-motor impairments which come in addition to the lexical and phonological impairments. PMID:8107977

Platel, H; Lambert, J; Eustache, F; Cadet, B; Dary, M; Viader, F; Lechevalier, B

1993-11-01

299

Le mythe de la reordonnance des regles en phonologie (The Myth of Phonological Rule Reordering). Montreal Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to show that the theory of phonological rule reordering is not plausible, and that any argument which attempts to use reordering to refute the theory of intrinsic ordering is inadmissible. King's (1973) arguments against intrinsic ordering are based on the theory that two reordering rules operate in phonological processes.…

Picard, Marc

300

Gaze Position Reveals Impaired Attentional Shift during Visual Word Recognition in Dysfluent Readers  

PubMed Central

Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level. PMID:25268909

Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

2014-01-01

301

Phonological working memory and reading in students with dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To investigate parameters related to fluency, reading comprehension and phonological processing (operational and short-term memory) and identify potential correlation between the variables in Dyslexia and in the absence of reading difficulties. Method: One hundred and fifteen students from the third to eighth grade of elementary school were grouped into a Control Group (CG) and Group with Dyslexia (GDys). Reading of words, pseudowords and text (decoding); listening and reading comprehension; phonological short-term and working memory (repetition of pseudowords and Digit Span) were evaluated. Results: The comparison of the groups showed significant differences in decoding, phonological short-term memory (repetition of pseudowords) and answers to text-connecting questions (TC) on reading comprehension, with the worst performances identified for GDys. In this group there were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both on listening comprehension. No correlations were found between operational and short-term memory (Digit Span) and parameters of fluency and reading comprehension in dyslexia. For the sample without complaint, there were positive correlations between some parameters of reading fluency and repetition of pseudowords and also between answering literal questions in listening comprehension and repetition of digits on the direct and reverse order. There was no correlation with the parameters of reading comprehension. Conclusion: GDys and CG showed similar performance in listening comprehension and in understanding of explicit information and gap-filling inference on reading comprehension. Students of GDys showed worst performance in reading decoding, phonological short-term memory (pseudowords) and on inferences that depends on textual cohesion understanding in reading. There were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both in listening comprehension. PMID:25101021

de Carvalho, Carolina A. F.; Kida, Adriana de S. B.; Capellini, Simone A.; de Avila, Clara R. B.

2014-01-01

302

Pakistani English: Some Phonological and Phonetic Features.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the phonological and phonetic features of English as spoken in Pakistan and shows such distinctive patterns as anglicized, acrolectal, mesolectal, and basilectal varieties of Pakistani English. (45 references) (CB)

Rahman, Tariq

1991-01-01

303

Speech synthesis by phonological structure matching.   

E-print Network

This paper presents a new technique for speech synthesis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonological trees, and using a selection algorithm which ...

Taylor, Paul; Black, Alan W

1999-01-01

304

The Consequences of Progressive Phonological Impairment for Reading Aloud  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "primary systems" view of reading disorders proposes that there are no neural regions devoted exclusively to reading, and therefore that acquired dyslexias should reliably co-occur with deficits in more general underlying capacities. This perspective predicted that surface dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading aloud "exception" words (those…

Woollams, Anna M.; Patterson, Karalyn

2012-01-01

305

A case for the involvement of phonological loop in sentence comprehension  

PubMed Central

The specific role of the phonological loop in sentence comprehension is still a matter of debate. We tested the behavioural consequences of activity disruption in left BA 40 and BA 44, key regions of the phonological loop, on language comprehension using 1 Hz rTMS. Comprehension was assessed by means of two tasks: a sentence-to-picture matching task, with sentences varying in length and syntactic complexity (Experiment 1), and a sentence verification task (Experiment 2). rTMS over left BA40 significantly reduced accuracy for syntactically complex sentences and long, but syntactically simpler sentences, while rTMS over left BA 44 significantly reduced accuracy only for syntactically complex sentences. rTMS applied over left BA40 also impaired performance on sentences in which word order was crucial. We suggest that the neural correlates of the phonological loop, left BA40 and BA44, are both involved in the comprehension of syntactically complex sentences, while only left BA40, corresponding to the short-term store, is recruited for the comprehension of long but syntactically simple sentences. Therefore, in contrast with the dominant view, we showed that sentence comprehension is a function of the phonological loop. PMID:20969883

Romero Lauro, Leonor J.; Reis, Janine; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Cecchetto, Carlo; Papagno, Costanza

2010-01-01

306

Auditory evoked potentials: predicting speech therapy outcomes in children with phonological disorders  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether neurophysiologic responses (auditory evoked potentials) differ between typically developed children and children with phonological disorders and whether these responses are modified in children with phonological disorders after speech therapy. METHODS: The participants included 24 typically developing children (Control Group, mean age: eight years and ten months) and 23 children clinically diagnosed with phonological disorders (Study Group, mean age: eight years and eleven months). Additionally, 12 study group children were enrolled in speech therapy (Study Group 1), and 11 were not enrolled in speech therapy (Study Group 2). The subjects were submitted to the following procedures: conventional audiological, auditory brainstem response, auditory middle-latency response, and P300 assessments. All participants presented with normal hearing thresholds. The study group 1 subjects were reassessed after 12 speech therapy sessions, and the study group 2 subjects were reassessed 3 months after the initial assessment. Electrophysiological results were compared between the groups. RESULTS: Latency differences were observed between the groups (the control and study groups) regarding the auditory brainstem response and the P300 tests. Additionally, the P300 responses improved in the study group 1 children after speech therapy. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that children with phonological disorders have impaired auditory brainstem and cortical region pathways that may benefit from speech therapy. PMID:24626949

Leite, Renata Aparecida; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein; Gonçalves, Isabela Crivellaro; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Matas, Carla Gentile

2014-01-01

307

tDCS to temporoparietal cortex during familiarisation enhances the subsequent phonological coherence of nonwords in immediate serial recall.  

PubMed

Research has shown that direct current stimulation (tDCS) over left temporoparietal cortex - a region implicated in phonological processing - aids new word learning. The locus of this effect remains unclear since (i) experiments have not empirically separated the acquisition of phonological forms from lexical-semantic links and (ii) outcome measures have focused on learnt associations with a referent rather than phonological stability. We tested the hypothesis that left temporoparietal tDCS would strengthen the acquisition of phonological forms, even in the absence of the opportunity to acquire lexical-semantic associations. Participants were familiarised with nonwords paired with (i) photographs of concrete referents or (ii) blurred images where no clear features were visible. Nonword familiarisation proceeded under conditions of anodal tDCS and sham stimulation in different sessions. We examined the impact of these manipulations on the stability of the phonological trace in an immediate serial recall (ISR) task the following day, ensuring that any effects were due to the influence of tDCS on long-term learning and not a direct consequence of short-term changes in neural excitability. We found that only a few exposures to the phonological forms of nonwords were sufficient to enhance nonword ISR overall compared to entirely novel items. Anodal tDCS during familiarisation further enhanced the acquisition of phonological forms, producing a specific reduction in the frequency of phoneme migrations when sequences of nonwords were maintained in verbal short-term memory. More of the phonemes that were recalled were bound together as a whole correct nonword following tDCS. These data show that tDCS to left temporoparietal cortex can facilitate word learning by strengthening the acquisition of long-term phonological forms, irrespective of the availability of a concrete referent, and that the consequences of this learning can be seen beyond the learning task as strengthened phonological coherence in verbal short-term memory. PMID:25282052

Savill, Nicola; Ashton, Jennifer; Gugliuzza, Jessica; Poole, Courtney; Sim, Zhihui; Ellis, Andrew W; Jefferies, Elizabeth

2015-02-01

308

The representation of lexical-syntactic information: evidence from syntactic and lexical retrieval impairments in aphasia.  

PubMed

This study explored lexical-syntactic information - syntactic information that is stored in the lexicon - and its relation to syntactic and lexical impairments in aphasia. We focused on two types of lexical-syntactic information: predicate argument structure (PAS) of verbs (the number and types of arguments the verb selects) and grammatical gender of nouns. The participants were 17 Hebrew-speaking individuals with aphasia who had a syntactic deficit (agrammatism) or a lexical retrieval deficit (anomia) located at the semantic lexicon, the phonological output lexicon, or the phonological output buffer. After testing the participants' syntactic and lexical retrieval abilities and establishing the functional loci of their deficits, we assessed their PAS and grammatical gender knowledge. This assessment included sentence completion, sentence production, sentence repetition, and grammaticality judgment tasks. The participants' performance on these tests yielded several important dissociations. Three agrammatic participants had impaired syntax but unimpaired PAS knowledge. Three agrammatic participants had impaired syntax but unimpaired grammatical gender knowledge. This indicates that lexical-syntactic information is represented separately from syntax, and can be spared even when syntax at the sentence level, such as embedding and movement are impaired. All 5 individuals with phonological output buffer impairment and all 3 individuals with phonological output lexicon impairment had preserved lexical-syntactic knowledge. These selective impairments indicate that lexical-syntactic information is represented at a lexical stage prior to the phonological lexicon and the phonological buffer. Three participants with impaired PAS (aPASia) and impaired grammatical gender who showed intact lexical-semantic knowledge indicate that the lexical-syntactic information is represented separately from the semantic lexicon. This led us to conclude that lexical-syntactic information is stored in a separate syntactic lexicon. A double dissociation between PAS and grammatical gender impairments indicated that different types of lexical-syntactic information are represented separately in this syntactic lexicon. PMID:21798529

Biran, Michal; Friedmann, Naama

2012-10-01

309

Spared and Impaired Spoken Discourse Processing in Schizophrenia: Effects of Local and Global Language Context  

PubMed Central

Individuals with schizophrenia are impaired in a broad range of cognitive functions, including impairments in the controlled maintenance of context-relevant information. In this study, we used ERPs in human subjects to examine whether impairments in the controlled maintenance of spoken discourse context in schizophrenia lead to overreliance on local associations among the meanings of individual words. Healthy controls (n = 22) and patients (n = 22) listened to short stories in which we manipulated global discourse congruence and local priming. The target word in the last sentence of each story was globally congruent or incongruent and locally associated or unassociated. ERP local association effects did not significantly differ between control participants and schizophrenia patients. However, in contrast to controls, patients only showed effects of discourse congruence when targets were primed by a word in the local context. When patients had to use discourse context in the absence of local priming, they showed impaired brain responses to the target. Our findings indicate that schizophrenia patients are impaired during discourse comprehension when demands on controlled maintenance of context are high. We further found that ERP measures of increased reliance on local priming predicted reduced social functioning, suggesting that alterations in the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension have functional consequences in the illness. PMID:24068824

Boudewyn, Megan A.; Long, Debra L.; Luck, Steve J.; Kring, Ann M.; Ragland, J. Daniel; Ranganath, Charan; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Solomon, Marjorie; Mangun, George R.; Carter, Cameron S.

2013-01-01

310

Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Rapid Automated Naming, toward Decoding Ability in Students with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual…

Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

2013-01-01

311

Neural Processing of Acoustic Duration and Phonological German Vowel Length: Time Courses of Evoked Fields in Response to Speech and Nonspeech Signals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent experiments showed that the perception of vowel length by German listeners exhibits the characteristics of categorical perception. The present study sought to find the neural activity reflecting categorical vowel length and the short-long boundary by examining the processing of non-contrastive durations and categorical length using MEG.…

Tomaschek, Fabian; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Hertrich, Ingo

2013-01-01

312

A Mouse with a Roof? Effects of Phonological Neighbors on Processing of Words in Sentences in a Non-Native Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The architecture of the language processing system for speakers of more than one language remains an intriguing topic of research. A common finding is that speakers of multiple languages are slower at responding to language stimuli in their non-native language (L2) than monolingual speakers. This may simply reflect participants' unfamiliarity with…

Ruschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Nojack, Agnes; Limbach, Maxi

2008-01-01

313

The Use of Phonological and Orthographic Information by Normal and Poor Readers of Dutch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares matched groups of normal and poor readers of Dutch. Assesses the way normal and poor readers automatically process phonological and orthographic incongruencies when comparing singular and plural of nouns. Investigates the automatized processing of uppercase-lowercase letter incongruencies. Concludes that poor readers not only have…

Assink, Egbert M. H.; Kattenberg, Goran P. A.

1995-01-01

314

The Acquisition of Consonant Feature Sequences: Harmony, Metathesis, and Deletion Patterns in Phonological Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines three processes affecting consonants in child speech: harmony (long-distance assimilation) involving major place features as in "coat" [kouk]; long-distance metathesis as in "cup" [p[wedge]k]; and initial consonant deletion as in "fish" [is]. These processes are unattested in adult phonology, leading to proposals for…

Gerlach, Sharon Ruth

2010-01-01

315

Phonological mediation in visual masked priming: Evidence from phonotactic repair  

E-print Network

). Another line of evidence for phonological code activation from presumably subliminal print is provided" the letter that matches best with the word's phonological code. Importantly, subliminal primes and/or targets

Boyer, Edmond

316

Detection of Phonological Features in Continuous Speech using Neural Networks   

E-print Network

We report work on the first component of a two stage speech recognition architecture based on phonological features rather than phones. The paper reports experimentson three phonological feature systems: 1) the Sound Pattern ...

King, Simon; Taylor, Paul

317

Information Processing and Proactive Interference in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a deficit in inhibition control, but research isolating specific abilities is scarce. The goal of this study was to examine whether children with SLI differ from their peers in resistance to proactive interference under different conditions. Method: An…

Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Eichorn, Naomi; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee

2014-01-01

318

A Tale of Two Studies on Auditory Training in Children: A Response to the Claim that ‘Discrimination Training of Phonemic Contrasts Enhances Phonological Processing in Mainstream School Children’ by Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (2005)  

PubMed Central

In a previous article, Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (Brain and Language, 2005, 94, 72-85) reported evidence for significant improvements in phonological awareness in mainstream children following 6 h of exposure to a commercially available phoneme discrimination training programme, but not in a control group. In a follow-up study, we failed to replicate this finding, despite using an almost identical training programme (Halliday, Taylor, Millward, & Moore, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2012, 55, 168-181). This paper directly compares the methods and the results of the two studies, in an effort to explain the discrepant findings. It reports that the trained group in Moore et al. (2005) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness following training than the trained group in Halliday et al. (2012). However, the control group in Halliday et al. (2012) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness than the control group in Moore et al. (2005). The paper concludes that differences in the randomization, blinding, experimenter familiarity and treatment of trained and control groups contributed to the different outcomes of the two studies. The results indicate that a plethora of factors can contribute to training effects and highlight the importance of well-designed randomized controlled trials in assessing the efficacy of a given intervention. © 2014 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24470350

Halliday, Lorna F

2014-01-01

319

A tale of two studies on auditory training in children: A response to the claim that 'discrimination training of phonemic contrasts enhances phonological processing in mainstream school children' by Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (2005).  

PubMed

In a previous article, Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (Brain and Language, 2005, 94, 72-85) reported evidence for significant improvements in phonological awareness in mainstream children following 6 h of exposure to a commercially available phoneme discrimination training programme, but not in a control group. In a follow-up study, we failed to replicate this finding, despite using an almost identical training programme (Halliday, Taylor, Millward, & Moore, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2012, 55, 168-181). This paper directly compares the methods and the results of the two studies, in an effort to explain the discrepant findings. It reports that the trained group in Moore et al. (2005) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness following training than the trained group in Halliday et al. (2012). However, the control group in Halliday et al. (2012) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness than the control group in Moore et al. (2005). The paper concludes that differences in the randomization, blinding, experimenter familiarity and treatment of trained and control groups contributed to the different outcomes of the two studies. The results indicate that a plethora of factors can contribute to training effects and highlight the importance of well-designed randomized controlled trials in assessing the efficacy of a given intervention. PMID:24470350

Halliday, Lorna F

2014-05-01

320

Adapting for Impaired Patrons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.…

Schuyler, Michael

1999-01-01

321

Assessment and Instruction in Phonological Awareness. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to help Florida teachers incorporate assessment and instruction of phonological awareness into their pre-reading and reading curriculum. The first section describes what phonological awareness is and how it is related to reading instruction. It summarizes research evidence on the role of phonological awareness in reading…

Torgesen, Joseph K.; Mathes, Patricia G.

322

Quality of Phonological Representations: A Window into the Lexicon?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a great deal of evidence to support the robust relationship between phonological awareness and literacy development. Researchers are beginning to understand the relationship between the accuracy and distinctiveness of stored phonological representations and performance on phonological awareness tasks. However, many of the…

Claessen, Mary; Heath, Steve; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John; Leitao, Suze

2009-01-01

323

Children's Phonological Neighborhoods: Half Empty of Half Full?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, phonological similarity neighborhood sizes were calculated for expressive lexicon derived from 2 vocabulary lists representative of children aged 1;3 to 3;0. Over 80% of the words in these early lexicons had at least one phonological neighbor; nearly 20% had six or more phonological neighbors. (Contains 29 references.)

Dollaghan, Christine A.

1994-01-01

324

Cognition, 42 (1992) 261-286 Disorders of phonological encoding*  

E-print Network

Cognition, 42 (1992) 261-286 Disorders of phonological encoding* Brian Butterworth Department. Disorders of phonological encoding. Cognition, 42: 261-286. Studies of phonological disturbances in aphasic vary from 1.6 errors per 1000words (Shallice & Butterworth, 1977) down to 62 (segment errors

Butterworth, Brian

325

Grammatical Morpheme Effects on Sentence Processing by School-Aged Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment.  

PubMed

Sixteen-year-olds with specific language impairment (SLI), nonspecific language impairment (NLI), and those showing typical language development (TD) responded to target words in sentences that were either grammatical or contained a grammatical error immediately before the target word. The TD participants showed the expected slower response times (RTs) when errors preceded the target word, regardless of error type. The SLI and NLI groups also showed the expected slowing, except when the error type involved the omission of a tense/agreement inflection. This response pattern mirrored an early developmental period of alternating between using and omitting tense/agreement inflections that is characteristic of SLI and NLI. The findings could not be readily attributed to factors such as insensitivity to omissions in general or insensitivity to the particular phonetic forms used to mark tense/agreement. The observed response pattern may represent continued difficulty with tense/agreement morphology that persists in subtle form into adolescence. PMID:19690626

Leonard, Laurence B; Miller, Carol A; Finneran, Denise A

2008-07-01

326

A self-teaching image processing and voice-recognition-based, intelligent and interactive system to educate visually impaired children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self teaching image processing and voice recognition based system is developed to educate visually impaired children, chiefly in their primary education. System comprises of a computer, a vision camera, an ear speaker and a microphone. Camera, attached with the computer system is mounted on the ceiling opposite (on the required angle) to the desk on which the book is placed. Sample images and voices in the form of instructions and commands of English, Urdu alphabets, Numeric Digits, Operators and Shapes are already stored in the database. A blind child first reads the embossed character (object) with the help of fingers than he speaks the answer, name of the character, shape etc into the microphone. With the voice command of a blind child received by the microphone, image is taken by the camera which is processed by MATLAB® program developed with the help of Image Acquisition and Image processing toolbox and generates a response or required set of instructions to child via ear speaker, resulting in self education of a visually impaired child. Speech recognition program is also developed in MATLAB® with the help of Data Acquisition and Signal Processing toolbox which records and process the command of the blind child.

Iqbal, Asim; Farooq, Umar; Mahmood, Hassan; Asad, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Akrama; Atiq, Hafiz Muhammad

2010-02-01

327

The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article challenges educators to rethink reading instruction practices for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The authors begin with a discussion of the role of phonology in reading, then summarize the evidence of phonological coding among skilled deaf readers and investigate alternative routes for acquiring phonologically related skills…

Wang, Ye; Trezek, Beverly J.; Luckner, John L.; Paul, Peter V.

2008-01-01

328

Inferential processing and story recall in children with communication problems: a comparison of speci?c language impairment, pragmatic language impairment and high-functioning autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation is reported into the story comprehension abilities of four groups of children: those with typical speci?c language impairment (SLI-T), those with pragmatic language impairments who were not autistic (PLI), those with high-functioning autism (HFA) and typically developing controls. The story comprehension task required children to answer questions about the literal content of the story, as well as questions

Courtenay Frazier Norbury; Dorothy V. M. Bishop

329

An Evaluation of the Written Texts of Children with SLI: The Contributions of Oral Language, Reading and Phonological Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we performed a fine grained analysis of writing by children with a specific language impairment (SLI) and examined the contribution of oral language, phonological short-term memory (STM), nonverbal ability, and word reading to three writing constructs (productivity, complexity and accuracy). Forty-six children with SLI were compared…

Mackie, Clare J.; Dockrell, Julie; Lindsay, Geoff

2013-01-01

330

Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-Term Memory--An Aggregate Analysis of Lesion and fMRI Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways,…

Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

2011-01-01

331

Bridging the gap between neurocognitive processing theory and performance validity assessment among the cognitively impaired: a review and methodological approach.  

PubMed

Bigler (2012) and Larrabee (2012) recently addressed the state of the science surrounding performance validity tests (PVTs) in a dialogue highlighting evidence for the valid and increased use of PVTs, but also for unresolved problems. Specifically, Bigler criticized the lack of guidance from neurocognitive processing theory in the PVT literature. For example, individual PVTs have applied the simultaneous forced-choice methodology using a variety of test characteristics (e.g., word vs. picture stimuli) with known neurocognitive processing implications (e.g., the "picture superiority effect"). However, the influence of such variations on classification accuracy has been inadequately evaluated, particularly among cognitively impaired individuals. The current review places the PVT literature in the context of neurocognitive processing theory, and identifies potential methodological factors to account for the significant variability we identified in classification accuracy across current PVTs. We subsequently evaluated the utility of a well-known cognitive manipulation to provide a Clinical Analogue Methodology (CAM), that is, to alter the PVT performance of healthy individuals to be similar to that of a cognitively impaired group. Initial support was found, suggesting the CAM may be useful alongside other approaches (analogue malingering methodology) for the systematic evaluation of PVTs, particularly the influence of specific neurocognitive processing components on performance. PMID:25383483

Leighton, Angela; Weinborn, Michael; Maybery, Murray

2014-10-01

332

Impairments in Episodic-Autobiographical Memory and Emotional and Social Information Processing in CADASIL during Mid-Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) – is the most common genetic source of vascular dementia in adults, being caused by a mutation in NOTCH3 gene. Spontaneous de novo mutations may occur, but their frequency is largely unknown. Ischemic strokes and cognitive impairments are the most frequent manifestations, but seizures affect up to 10% of the patients. Herein, we describe a 47-year-old male scholar with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of CADASIL (Arg133Cys mutation in the NOTCH3 gene) and a seemingly negative family history of CADASIL illness, who was investigated with a comprehensive neuropsychological testing battery and neuroimaging methods. The patient demonstrated on one hand severe and accelerated deteriorations in multiple cognitive domains such as concentration, long-term memory (including the episodic-autobiographical memory domain), problem solving, cognitive flexibility and planning, affect recognition, discrimination and matching, and social cognition (theory of mind). Some of these impairments were even captured by abbreviated instruments for investigating suspicion of dementia. On the other hand the patient still possessed high crystallized (verbal) intelligence and a capacity to put forth a façade of well-preserved intellectual functioning. Although no definite conclusions can be drawn from a single case study, our findings point to the presence of additional cognitive changes in CADASIL in middle adulthood, in particular to impairments in the episodic-autobiographical memory domain and social information processing (e.g., social cognition). Whether these identified impairments are related to the patient’s specific phenotype or to an ascertainment bias (e.g., a paucity of studies investigating these cognitive functions) requires elucidation by larger scale research. PMID:25009481

Staniloiu, Angelica; Woermann, Friedrich G.; Markowitsch, Hans J.

2014-01-01

333

Fine-Tuned: Phonology and Semantics Affect First- to Second-Language Zooming In  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate how L1 phonology and semantics affect processing of interlingual homographs by manipulating language context before, and auditory input during, a visual experiment in the L2. Three experiments contained German-English homograph primes ("gift" = German "poison") in English sentences and was performed by German (L1) learners of…

Elston-Guttler, Kerrie E.; Gunter, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

334

Phonological Recoding and Use of Spelling-Sound Rules in Reading of Sentences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on three experiments focusing on phonological recoding in fluent reading of meaningful sentences and asks whether spelling-sound rules play a role in this process. Results show that effects attributed to spelling-sound rule use--effects previously found in lexical decision tasks with single words--also emerge in sentence reading. (EKN)

Treiman, Rebecca; And Others

1983-01-01

335

Native Language Phonological Skills in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the link between low second language performance and difficulties with native language phonological processing. Participants were native Hebrew speakers, 19-31 years of age, who learned English as a second language in a school setting. Individuals with dyslexia performed below high-proficiency second language learners on…

Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

2014-01-01

336

Phonological and Sensory Short-Term Memory Are Correlates and Both Affected in Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether poor short-term memory (STM) in developmental dyslexia affects the processing of sensory stimulus sequences in addition to phonological material. STM for brief binary non-verbal stimuli (light flashes, tone bursts, finger touches, and their crossmodal combinations) was studied in 20 Finnish adults with dyslexia and 24…

Laasonen, Marja; Virsu, Veijo; Oinonen, Suvi; Sandbacka, Mirja; Salakari, Anita; Service, Elisabet

2012-01-01

337

Orthographic and phonological contributions to reading development: tracking developmental trajectories using masked priming.  

PubMed

The present study used a variant of masked priming to track the development of 2 marker effects of orthographic and phonological processing from Grade 1 through Grade 5 in a cross-sectional study. Pseudohomophone (PsH) priming served as a marker for phonological processing, whereas transposed-letter (TL) priming was a marker for coarse-grained orthographic processing. The results revealed a clear developmental picture. First, the PsH priming effect was significant and remained stable across development, suggesting that phonology not only plays an important role in early reading development but continues to exert a robust influence throughout reading development. This finding challenges the view that more advanced readers should rely less on phonological information than younger readers. Second, the TL priming effect increased monotonically with grade level and reading age, which suggests greater reliance on coarse-grained orthographic coding as children become better readers. Thus, TL priming effects seem to be a good marker effect for children's ability to use coarse-grained orthographic coding to speed up direct lexical access in alphabetic languages. The results were predicted by the dual-route model of orthographic processing, which suggests that direct orthographic access is achieved through coarse-grained orthographic coding that tolerates some degree of flexibility in letter order. PMID:24294878

Ziegler, Johannes C; Bertrand, Daisy; Lété, Bernard; Grainger, Jonathan

2014-04-01

338

Modeling the Length Effect: Specifying the Relation with Visual and Phonological Correlates of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning readers' reading latencies increase as words become longer. This length effect is believed to be a marker of a serial reading process. We examined the effects of visual and phonological skills on the length effect. Participants were 184 second-grade children who read 3- to 5-letter words and nonwords. Results indicated that reading…

van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F.; Haentjens-van Meeteren, Marleen M.

2013-01-01

339

Visual rapid naming and phonological abilities: Different subtypes in dyslexic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

One implication of the double-deficit hypothesis for dyslexia is that there should be subtypes of dyslexic readers that exhibit rapid naming deficits with or without concomitant phonological processing problems. In the current study, we investigated the validity of this hypothesis for Portuguese orthography, which is more consistent than English orthography, by exploring different cognitive profiles in a sample of dyslexic

Susana Araújo; Andreia Pacheco; Luís Faísca; Karl Magnus Petersson; Alexandra Reis

2010-01-01

340

Are coffee and toffee served in a cup? Ortho-phonologically mediated associative priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report three masked associative priming experiments with the lexical decision task that explore whether the initial activation flow of a visually presented word activates the semantic representations of that word's orthographic\\/phonological neighbours. The predictions of cascades and serial\\/modular models of lexical processing differ widely in this respect. Using a masked priming paradigm (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA = 50 ms), words

Jon Andoni Duñabeitia; Manuel Carreiras; Manuel Perea

2008-01-01

341

Early phonological awareness and reading skills in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, children with Down syndrome receive literacy instruction with the expectation of acquiring functional reading skills. Unfortunately, little is known about the processes underlying literacy skills in this special population. Phonological awareness contributes to literacy development in typically developing children, however, there is inconclusive evidence about these skills in younger children with Down syndrome. 9 children with Down syndrome (5;6

Esther J. Kennedy; Mark C. Flynn

2003-01-01

342

Event-Related Brain Potentials Elicited during Word Recognition by Adult Good and Poor Phonological Decoders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive processing of lexical and sub-lexical stimuli was compared for good and poor adult phonological decoders. Sixteen good decoders and 16 poor decoders, average age 19 years, silently read 150 randomly computer presented sentences ending in incongruous regular, irregular, or nonwords and 100 congruent filler sentences.…

Martin, Frances Heritage; Kaine, Alison; Kirby, Miriam

2006-01-01

343

Phonological Effects in Handwriting Production : Evidence from the Implicit Priming Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present article, we report 3 experiments using the odd-man-out variant of the implicit priming paradigm, aimed at determining the role played by phonological information during the handwriting process. Participants were asked to write a small set of words learned in response to prompts. Within each block, response words could share initial…

Afonso, Olivia; Alvarez, Carlos J.

2011-01-01

344

Phonological Planning during Sentence Production: Beyond the Verb  

PubMed Central

The current study addresses the extent of phonological planning during spontaneous sentence production. Previous work shows that at articulation, phonological encoding occurs for entire phrases, but encoding beyond the initial phrase may be due to the syntactic relevance of the verb in planning the utterance. I conducted three experiments to investigate whether phonological planning crosses multiple grammatical phrase boundaries (as defined by the number of lexical heads of phrase) within a single phonological phrase. Using the picture–word interference paradigm, I found in two separate experiments a significant phonological facilitation effect to both the verb and noun of sentences like “He opens the gate.” I also altered the frequency of the direct object and found longer utterance initiation times for sentences ending with a low-frequency vs. high-frequency object offering further support that the direct object was phonologically encoded at the time of utterance initiation. That phonological information for post-verbal elements was activated suggests that the grammatical importance of the verb does not restrict the extent of phonological planning. These results suggest that the phonological phrase is unit of planning, where all elements within a phonological phrase are encoded before articulation. Thus, consistent with other action sequencing behavior, there is significant phonological planning ahead in sentence production. PMID:22069396

Schnur, Tatiana T.

2011-01-01

345

Lexical learning and lexical processing in children with developmental language impairments  

PubMed Central

Lexical skills are a crucial component of language comprehension and production. This paper reviews evidence for lexical-level deficits in children and young people with developmental language impairment (LI). Across a range of tasks, LI is associated with reduced vocabulary knowledge in terms of both breadth and depth and difficulty with learning and retaining new words; evidence is emerging from on-line tasks to suggest that low levels of language skill are associated with differences in lexical competition in spoken word recognition. The role of lexical deficits in understanding the nature of LI is also discussed. PMID:24324231

Nation, Kate

2014-01-01

346

Infant information processing and family history of specific language impairment: converging evidence for RAP deficits from two paradigms  

PubMed Central

An infant’s ability to process auditory signals presented in rapid succession (i.e. rapid auditory processing abilities [RAP]) has been shown to predict differences in language outcomes in toddlers and preschool children. Early deficits in RAP abilities may serve as a behavioral marker for language-based learning disabilities. The purpose of this study is to determine if performance on infant information processing measures designed to tap RAP and global processing skills differ as a function of family history of specific language impairment (SLI) and/or the particular demand characteristics of the paradigm used. Seventeen 6- to 9-month-old infants from families with a history of specific language impairment (FH+) and 29 control infants (FH?) participated in this study. Infants’ performance on two different RAP paradigms (head-turn procedure [HT] and auditory-visual habituation/recognition memory [AVH/RM]) and on a global processing task (visual habituation/recognition memory [VH/RM]) was assessed at 6 and 9 months. Toddler language and cognitive skills were evaluated at 12 and 16 months. A number of significant group differences were seen: FH+ infants showed significantly poorer discrimination of fast rate stimuli on both RAP tasks, took longer to habituate on both habituation/recognition memory measures, and had lower novelty preference scores on the visual habituation/recognition memory task. Infants’ performance on the two RAP measures provided independent but converging contributions to outcome. Thus, different mechanisms appear to underlie performance on operantly conditioned tasks as compared to habituation/recognition memory paradigms. Further, infant RAP processing abilities predicted to 12- and 16-month language scores above and beyond family history of SLI. The results of this study provide additional support for the validity of infant RAP abilities as a behavioral marker for later language outcome. Finally, this is the first study to use a battery of infant tasks to demonstrate multi-modal processing deficits in infants at risk for SLI. PMID:17286846

Choudhury, Naseem; Leppanen, Paavo H.T.; Leevers, Hilary J.; Benasich, April A.

2007-01-01

347

Occipital hypoperfusion in Parkinson's disease without dementia: correlation to impaired cortical visual processing  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyse changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia. Methods: Twenty eight non-demented patients with PD and 17 age matched normal subjects underwent single photon emission computed tomography with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine to measure rCBF. The statistical parametric mapping 96 programme was used for statistical analysis. Results: The PD patients showed significantly reduced rCBF in the bilateral occipital and posterior parietal cortices (p<0.01, corrected for multiple comparison p<0.05), when compared with the control subjects. There was a strong positive correlation between the score of Raven's coloured progressive matrices (RCPM) and the rCBF in the right visual association area (p<0.01, corrected for multiple comparison p<0.05) among the PD patients. Conclusions: This study showed occipital and posterior parietal hypoperfusion in PD patients without dementia. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that occipital hypoperfusion is likely to underlie impairment of visual cognition according to the RCPM test, which is not related to motor impairment. PMID:12640053

Abe, Y; Kachi, T; Kato, T; Arahata, Y; Yamada, T; Washimi, Y; Iwai, K; Ito, K; Yanagisawa, N; Sobue, G

2003-01-01

348

Lead-Induced Impairments in the Neural Processes Related to Working Memory Function  

PubMed Central

Background It is well known that lead exposure induces neurotoxic effects, which can result in a variety of neurocognitive dysfunction. Especially, occupational lead exposures in adults are associated with decreases in cognitive performance including working memory. Despite recent advances in human neuroimaging techniques, the neural correlates of lead-exposed cognitive impairment remain unclear. Therefore, this study was aimed to compare the neural activations in relation to working memory function between the lead-exposed subjects and healthy controls. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-one lead-exposed subjects and 34 healthy subjects performed an n-back memory task during MRI scan. We performed fMRI using the 1-back and 2-back memory tasks differing in cognitive demand. Functional MRI data were analyzed using within- and between-group analysis. We found that the lead-exposed subjects showed poorer working memory performance during high memory loading task than the healthy subjects. In addition, between-group analyses revealed that the lead-exposed subjects showed reduced activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, pre supplementary motor areas, and inferior parietal cortex. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that functional abnormalities in the frontoparietal working memory network might contribute to impairments in maintenance and manipulation of working memory in the lead-exposed subjects. PMID:25141213

Jin, Seong-Uk; Park, Jang Woo; Kim, Yang-Tae; Ryeom, Hun-Kyu; Lee, Jongmin; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Suk Hwan; Park, Sin-Jae; Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Ham, Jung-O; Kim, Yangho; Chang, Yongmin

2014-01-01

349

Clinical implications of the effects of lexical aspect and phonology on children's production of the regular past tense  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of lexical aspect and phonology on regular past-tense production. Data are presented from a group of 31 children, mean age 33 months, with typical language development. A case study of a 50-month-old child with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is also presented. Children imitated sentence pairs that included an endpoint (accomplishments, e.g. she crawled into a

Bonnie W. Johnson; Sherrill R. Morris

2007-01-01

350

Impaired processing of brief, rapidly presented auditory cues in infants with a family history of autoimmune disorder.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that individuals with language disorders, such as developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment, exhibit impairments in the processing of brief, successive, or rapidly changing auditory information. It is also the case that a higher rate of autoimmune disorders have been identified in those with language-based learning disorders and, conversely, that individuals with autoimmune disorders show a higher incidence of language-related disorders. The rapid auditory processing (RAP) deficits described for older individuals with language impairments may also be used as a behavioral marker to identify infants at higher risk for language delays. Thus, we were interested in examining RAP abilities in a subset of infants with a positive family history of autoimmune disorders. Eleven infants from our ongoing prospective longitudinal studies were identified based on parental response to a question about the presence of a family history of autoimmune disease and compared to 11 matched controls. The RAP threshold of each infant was assessed at 6 and 9 months of age using a conditioned head-turn procedure (using tone pairs with brief interstimulus intervals) and an auditory-visual habituation-recognition memory task using computer-generated consonant-vowel syllables (/ba/ vs. /da/). A visual habituation-recognition memory task that did not require processing of brief temporal cues was also administered. Group differences emerged on the infant RAP tasks, and on language outcome measures at 12 and 16 months of age. Infants from families with a history of autoimmune disorder had significantly higher (i.e., poorer) RAP thresholds and lower language scores than did control infants, whereas visual discrimination scores did not differ between family history infants and controls. Moreover, when brief auditory cues were necessary for the discrimination of /ba/ vs. /da/, infants with a family history of autoimmune disorder performed significantly more poorly than did controls. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that a similar mechanism, perhaps a neural-immune interaction, may underlie the observed co-occurrence of autoimmune disorders and learning impairments. PMID:12405509

Benasich, April Ann

2002-01-01

351

Regular Models of Phonological Rule Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a set of mathematical and computational tools for manipulating and reasoning about regular languages and regular relations and argues that they provide a solid basis for computational phonology. It shows in detail how this framework applies to ordered sets of context-sensitive rewriting rules and also to grammars in Koskenniemi's two-level formalism. This analysis provides a common representation

Ronald M. Kaplan; Martin Kay

1994-01-01

352

Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2010-01-01

353

Stuttering, Cluttering, and Phonological Complexity: Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phonological complexity of dysfluencies in those who clutter and/or stutter may help us better understand phonetic factors in these two types of fluency disorders. In this preliminary investigation, cases were three 14-year-old males, diagnosed as a Stutterer, a Clutterer, and a Stutterer-Clutterer. Spontaneous speech samples were transcribed,…

LaSalle, Lisa R.; Wolk, Lesley

2011-01-01

354

Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

Rubrecht, August Weston

355

Rational Transductions for Phonetic Conversion and Phonology  

E-print Network

Rational Transductions for Phonetic Conversion and Phonology Eric Laporte Institut Gaspard-Monge France laporte@univ-mlv.fr August 1995 Abstract Phonetic conversion, and other conversion problems related to phonetics, can be performed by nite-state tools. We present a nite-state conversion system, Bi

Boyer, Edmond

356

The Phonology and Phonetics of Tone Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…

Ramadoss, Deepti

2012-01-01

357

Topics in Mocho' Phonology and Morphology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation is a grammatical description of several features of the morphology and phonology of the Mocho' language. Mocho' (Motozintleco) is a moribund Mayan language spoken in the Chiapas region of Mexico near the border of Guatemala. This dissertation, based on data collected during several field trips and supplemented with unpublished…

Palosaari, Naomi Elizabeth

2011-01-01

358

A Comparative Sketch of Pueblo Languages: Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an attempt to determine some of the shared phonological traits among Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest, this paper compares the sound systems of Pueblo languages. The languages within the scope of this research are Zuni, Keresan (Acoma and Santa Ana), and Tanoan (Sandia, Taos, Jemez, and Santa Clara). It is noted that Pueblo Indians have…

Yumitani, Yukihiro

359

Speech synthesis by phonological structure matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new technique for speech synthe- sis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonolog- ical trees, and using a selection algorithm which finds the largest parts of trees in the database which match parts of the target tree. The technique avoids many of the errors made by

Paul Taylor; Alan W. Black

1999-01-01

360

Dysregulated Striatal Neuronal Processing and Impaired Motor Behavior in Mice Lacking Huntingtin Interacting Protein 14 (HIP14)  

PubMed Central

Palmitoyl acyl transferases (PATs) play a critical role in protein trafficking and function. Huntingtin interacting protein 14 (HIP14) is a PAT that acts on proteins associated with neuronal transmission, suggesting that deficient protein palmitoylation by HIP14, which occurs in the YAC128 model of Huntington’s disease (HD), might have deleterious effects on neurobehavioral processing. HIP14 knockout mice show biochemical and neuropathological changes in the striatum, a forebrain region affected by HD that guides behavioral choice and motor flexibility. Thus, we evaluated the performance of these mice in two tests of motor ability: nest-building and plus maze turning behavior. Relative to wild-type controls, HIP14 knockout mice show impaired nest building and decreased turning in the plus maze. When we recorded the activity of striatal neurons during plus-maze performance, we found faster firing rates and dysregulated spike bursting in HIP14 knockouts compared to wild-type. There was also less correlated firing between simultaneously recorded neuronal pairs in the HIP14 knockouts. Overall, our results indicate that HIP14 is critically involved in behavioral modulation of striatal processing. In the absence of HIP14, striatal neurons become dysfunctional, leading to impaired motor behavior. PMID:24376823

Estrada-Sánchez, Ana María; Barton, Scott J.; Burroughs, Courtney L.; Doyle, Amanda R.; Rebec, George V.

2013-01-01

361

Neural correlates reveal sub-lexical orthography and phonology during reading aloud: a review  

PubMed Central

The sub-lexical conversion of graphemes-to-phonemes (GPC) during reading has been investigated extensively with behavioral measures, as well as event-related potentials (ERPs). Most research utilizes silent reading (e.g., lexical decision task) for which phonological activation is not a necessity. However, recent research employed reading aloud to capture sub-lexical GPC. The masked priming paradigm avoids strategic processing and is therefore well suitable for capturing sub-lexical processing instead of lexical effects. By employing ERPs, the on-line time course of sub-lexical GPC can be observed before the overt response. ERPs have revealed that besides phonological activation, as revealed by behavioral studies, there is also early orthographic activation. This review describes studies in one’s native language, in one’s second language, and in a cross-language situation. We discuss the implications the ERP results have on different (computational) models. First, the ERP results show that computational models should assume an early locus of the GPC. Second, cross-language studies reveal that the phonological representations from both languages of a bilingual become activated automatically and the phonology belonging to the context is selected rapidly. Therefore, it is important to extend the scope of computational models of reading (aloud) to multiple lexicons. PMID:25232343

Timmer, Kalinka; Schiller, Niels O.

2014-01-01

362

Neural correlates reveal sub-lexical orthography and phonology during reading aloud: a review.  

PubMed

The sub-lexical conversion of graphemes-to-phonemes (GPC) during reading has been investigated extensively with behavioral measures, as well as event-related potentials (ERPs). Most research utilizes silent reading (e.g., lexical decision task) for which phonological activation is not a necessity. However, recent research employed reading aloud to capture sub-lexical GPC. The masked priming paradigm avoids strategic processing and is therefore well suitable for capturing sub-lexical processing instead of lexical effects. By employing ERPs, the on-line time course of sub-lexical GPC can be observed before the overt response. ERPs have revealed that besides phonological activation, as revealed by behavioral studies, there is also early orthographic activation. This review describes studies in one's native language, in one's second language, and in a cross-language situation. We discuss the implications the ERP results have on different (computational) models. First, the ERP results show that computational models should assume an early locus of the GPC. Second, cross-language studies reveal that the phonological representations from both languages of a bilingual become activated automatically and the phonology belonging to the context is selected rapidly. Therefore, it is important to extend the scope of computational models of reading (aloud) to multiple lexicons. PMID:25232343

Timmer, Kalinka; Schiller, Niels O

2014-01-01

363

Auditory temporal processing skills in musicians with dyslexia.  

PubMed

The core cognitive difficulty in developmental dyslexia involves phonological processing, but adults and children with dyslexia also have sensory impairments. Impairments in basic auditory processing show particular links with phonological impairments, and recent studies with dyslexic children across languages reveal a relationship between auditory temporal processing and sensitivity to rhythmic timing and speech rhythm. As rhythm is explicit in music, musical training might have a beneficial effect on the auditory perception of acoustic cues to rhythm in dyslexia. Here we took advantage of the presence of musicians with and without dyslexia in musical conservatoires, comparing their auditory temporal processing abilities with those of dyslexic non-musicians matched for cognitive ability. Musicians with dyslexia showed equivalent auditory sensitivity to musicians without dyslexia and also showed equivalent rhythm perception. The data support the view that extensive rhythmic experience initiated during childhood (here in the form of music training) can affect basic auditory processing skills which are found to be deficient in individuals with dyslexia. PMID:25044949

Bishop-Liebler, Paula; Welch, Graham; Huss, Martina; Thomson, Jennifer M; Goswami, Usha

2014-08-01

364

Attentional Blink Is Hierarchically Modulated by Phonological, Morphological, Semantic and Lexical Connections between Two Chinese Characters  

PubMed Central

The ability to identify the second of two targets (T2) is impaired if that target is presented less than ?500 ms after the first (T1). This transient deficit is known as attentional blink (AB). Previous studies have suggested that the magnitude of the AB effect can be modulated by manipulating the allocation of attentional resources to T1 or T2. However, few experiments have used Chinese characters and words to explore this phenomenon. The existence of lexical, semantic, phonological and morphological connections between Chinese characters has been well established, and understanding these connections may improve our knowledge of reading Chinese. In this study, we employed varying connections between T1 and T2 and examined how these connections modulate the AB effect. We found that the strongest AB was observed when the two Chinese characters were completely unrelated, while the AB was reduced when T1 and T2 were phonologically, orthographically or semantically related and was almost completely eliminated when T1 and T2 were united in a lexical phrase. The order of activation between Chinese characters was identified as follows: (a) lexical phrases, (b) semantic connection, (c) morphological connection, (d) phonological connection and (e) unrelated words. PMID:25101959

Cao, Hong-Wen; Jin, Kai-Bin; Li, Chao-Yi; Yan, Hong-Mei

2014-01-01

365

Basic Auditory Processing and Developmental Dyslexia in Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores the relationship between basic auditory processing of sound rise time, frequency, duration and intensity, phonological skills (onset-rime and tone awareness, sound blending, RAN, and phonological memory) and reading disability in Chinese. A series of psychometric, literacy, phonological, auditory, and character…

Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Huss, Martina; Hamalainen, Jarmo A.; Goswami, Usha

2012-01-01

366

The Rhymes that the Reader Perused Confused the Meaning: Phonological Effects during On-line Sentence Comprehension  

PubMed Central

Research on written language comprehension has generally assumed that the phonological properties of a word have little effect on sentence comprehension beyond the processes of word recognition. Two experiments investigated this assumption. Participants silently read relative clauses in which two pairs of words either did or did not have a high degree of phonological overlap. Participants were slower reading and less accurate comprehending the overlap sentences compared to the non-overlapping controls, even though sentences were matched for plausibility and differed by only two words across overlap conditions. A comparison across experiments showed that the overlap effects were larger in the more difficult object relative than in subject relative sentences. The reading patterns showed that phonological representations affect not only memory for recently encountered sentences but also the developing sentence interpretation during on-line processing. Implications for theories of sentence processing and memory are discussed. PMID:21743771

Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2011-01-01

367

CLEARPOND: Cross-Linguistic Easy-Access Resource for Phonological and Orthographic Neighborhood Densities  

PubMed Central

Past research has demonstrated cross-linguistic, cross-modal, and task-dependent differences in neighborhood density effects, indicating a need to control for neighborhood variables when developing and interpreting research on language processing. The goals of the present paper are two-fold: (1) to introduce CLEARPOND (Cross-Linguistic Easy-Access Resource for Phonological and Orthographic Neighborhood Densities), a centralized database of phonological and orthographic neighborhood information, both within and between languages, for five commonly-studied languages: Dutch, English, French, German, and Spanish; and (2) to show how CLEARPOND can be used to compare general properties of phonological and orthographic neighborhoods across languages. CLEARPOND allows researchers to input a word or list of words and obtain phonological and orthographic neighbors, neighborhood densities, mean neighborhood frequencies, word lengths by number of phonemes and graphemes, and spoken-word frequencies. Neighbors can be defined by substitution, deletion, and/or addition, and the database can be queried separately along each metric or summed across all three. Neighborhood values can be obtained both within and across languages, and outputs can optionally be restricted to neighbors of higher frequency. To enable researchers to more quickly and easily develop stimuli, CLEARPOND can also be searched by features, generating lists of words that meet precise criteria, such as a specific range of neighborhood sizes, lexical frequencies, and/or word lengths. CLEARPOND is freely-available to researchers and the public as a searchable, online database and for download at http://clearpond.northwestern.edu. PMID:22916227

Marian, Viorica; Bartolotti, James; Chabal, Sarah; Shook, Anthony

2012-01-01

368

Reading acquisition reorganizes the phonological awareness network only in alphabetic writing systems.  

PubMed

It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8-12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. PMID:22815229

Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R

2013-12-01

369

fMRI evidence for the interaction between orthography and phonology in reading Chinese compound words  

PubMed Central

Compound words make up a major part of modern Chinese vocabulary. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that access to lexical semantics of compound words is driven by the interaction between orthographic and phonological information. However, little is known about the neural underpinnings of compound word processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we asked participants to perform lexical decisions to pseudohomophones, which were constructed by replacing one or both constituents of two-character compound words with orthographically dissimilar homophonic characters. Mixed pseudohomophones, which shared the first constituent with the base words, were more difficult to reject than non-pseudohomophone non-words. This effect was accompanied by the increased activation of bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and left angular gyrus. The pure pseudohomophones, which shared no constituent with their base words, were rejected as quickly as non-word controls and did not elicit any significant neural activation. The effective connectivity of a phonological pathway from left IPL to left IFG was enhanced for the mixed pseudohomophones but not for pure pseudohomophones. These findings demonstrated that phonological activation alone, as in the case of the pure pseudohomophones, is not sufficient to drive access to lexical representations of compound words, and that orthographic information interacts with phonology, playing a gating role in the recognition of Chinese compound words. PMID:24319418

Zhan, Jiayu; Yu, Hongbo; Zhou, Xiaolin

2013-01-01

370

Trichotomous Processes in Early Memory Development, Aging, and Neurocognitive Impairment: A Unified Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most extensively investigated topics in the adult memory literature, dual memory processes, has had virtually no impact on the study of early memory development. The authors remove the key obstacles to such research by formulating a trichotomous theory of recall that combines the traditional dual processes of recollection and…

Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Howe, M. L.

2009-01-01

371

Arch Gen Psychiatry . Author manuscript Preserved subliminal processing and impaired conscious access in  

E-print Network

backward masking have frequently revealed an elevated masking threshold in schizophrenia. This finding has that masking may also involve late and higher-level integrative processes, while leaving intact early bottom-up visual processing." " Objectives We tested the hypothesis that the backward masking deficit

Boyer, Edmond

372

Phonological Defici~ncies: Effective Predictors of Future  

E-print Network

, rather than "phonologically deviant." In many different countries, certain spoken language skills. They have examined children's reading behavior (Mann, 1984: Shankweiler & Libennan, 1972) and spelling

373

Reading and visual processing in Greek dyslexic children: an eye-movement study.  

PubMed

We examined the impact of the effects of dyslexia on various processing and cognitive components (e.g., reading speed and accuracy) in a language with high phonological and orthographic consistency. Greek dyslexic children were compared with a chronological age-matched group on tasks that tested participants' phonological and orthographic awareness during reading and spelling, as well as their efficiency to detect a specific target-letter during a sequential visual search task. Dyslexic children showed impaired reading and spelling that was reflected in slow reading speed and error-prone performance, especially for non-words. Eye movement measures of text reading also provided supporting evidence for a reading deficit, with dyslexic participants producing more fixations and longer fixation duration as opposed to non-dyslexic participants. The results of the visual search task showed similar performance between the two groups, but when they were compared with the results of text reading, dyslexic participants were found to be able to process fewer stimuli (i.e., letters) at each fixation than non-dyslexics. Our findings further suggest that, although Greek dyslexics have the advantage of a consistent orthographic system which facilitates acquisition of reading and phonological awareness, they demonstrate more impaired access to orthographic forms than dyslexics of other transparent orthographies. PMID:20799263

Hatzidaki, Anna; Gianneli, Maria; Petrakis, Eftichis; Makaronas, Nikolaos; Aslanides, Ioannis M

2011-02-01

374

THE PHONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF SIGN LANGUAGES  

PubMed Central

Visually perceivable and movable parts of the body – the hands, facial features, head, and upper body – are the articulators of sign language. It is through these articulators that that words are formed, constrained, and contrasted with one another, and that prosody is conveyed. This article provides an overview of the way in which phonology is organized in the alternative modality of sign language. PMID:23539295

SANDLER, WENDY

2013-01-01

375

Emotional Face Processing in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Functional Impairments in the Fusiform Gyrus  

PubMed Central

Objective Pediatric bipolar disorder involves poor social functioning, but the neural mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Previous neuroimaging studies have found deficits in emotional face processing localized to emotional brain regions. However, few studies have examined dysfunction in other regions of the face processing circuit. This study assessed hypoactivation in key face processing regions of the brain in pediatric bipolar disorder. Method Youth with a bipolar spectrum diagnosis (n=20) were matched to a nonbipolar clinical group (n=20), with similar demographics and comorbid diagnoses, and a healthy control group (n=20). Youth participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning which employed a task-irrelevant emotion processing design in which processing of facial emotions was not germane to task performance. Results Hypoactivation, isolated to the fusiform gyrus, was found when viewing animated, emerging facial expressions of happiness, sadness, fearfulness, and especially anger in pediatric bipolar participants relative to matched clinical and healthy control groups. Conclusions The results of the study imply that differences exist in visual regions of the brain’s face processing system and are not solely isolated to emotional brain regions, such as the amygdala. Findings are discussed in relation to facial emotion recognition and fusiform gyrus deficits previously reported in the autism literature. Behavioral interventions targeting attention to facial stimuli might be explored as possible treatments for bipolar disorder in youth. PMID:24290464

Perlman, Susan B.; Fournier, Jay C.; Bebko, Genna; Bertocci, Michele A.; Hinze, Amanda K.; Bonar, Lisa; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Versace, Amelia; Schirda, Claudiu; Travis, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Demeter, Christine; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Sunshine, Jeffrey L.; Holland, Scott K.; Kowatch, Robert. A.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Fristad, Mary. A; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Phillips, Mary L.

2013-01-01

376

Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule  

PubMed Central

Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X?XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal. PMID:24959158

Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

2014-01-01

377

Impaired configural body processing in anorexia nervosa: evidence from the body inversion effect.  

PubMed

Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) suffer from severe disturbances of body perception. It is unclear, however, whether such disturbances are linked to specific alterations in the processing of body configurations with respect to the local processing of body part details. Here, we compared a consecutive sample of 12 AN patients with a group of 12 age-, gender- and education-matched controls using an inversion effect paradigm requiring the visual discrimination of upright and inverted pictures of whole bodies, faces and objects. The AN patients presented selective deficits in the discrimination of upright body stimuli, which requires configural processing. Conversely, patients and controls showed comparable abilities in the discrimination of inverted bodies, which involves only detail-based processing, and in the discrimination of both upright and inverted faces and objects. Importantly, the body inversion effect negatively correlated with the persistence scores at the Temperament and Character Inventory, which evaluates increased tendency to convert a signal of punishment into a signal of reinforcement. These results suggest that the deficits of configural processing in AN patients may be associated with their obsessive worries about body appearance and to the excessive attention to details that characterizes their general perceptual style. PMID:24206365

Urgesi, Cosimo; Fornasari, Livia; Canalaz, Francesca; Perini, Laura; Cremaschi, Silvana; Faleschini, Laura; Thyrion, Erica Zappoli; Zuliani, Martina; Balestrieri, Matteo; Fabbro, Franco; Brambilla, Paolo

2014-11-01

378

Frontal Lobe Damage Impairs Process and Content in Semantic Memory: Evidence from Category Specific Effects in Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Portions of left inferior frontal cortex have been linked to semantic memory both in terms of the content of conceptual representation (e.g., motor aspects in an embodied semantics framework) and the cognitive processes used to access these representations (e.g., response selection). Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia (PNFA) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive atrophy of left inferior frontal cortex. PNFA can, therefore, provide a lesion model for examining the impact of frontal lobe damage on semantic processing and content. In the current study we examined picture naming in a cohort of PNFA patients across a variety of semantic categories. An embodied approach to semantic memory holds that sensorimotor features such as self-initiated action may assume differential importance for the representation of manufactured artifacts (e.g., naming hand tools). Embodiment theories might therefore predict that patients with frontal damage would be differentially impaired on manufactured artifacts relative to natural kinds, and this prediction was borne out. We also examined patterns of naming errors across a wide range of semantic categories and found that naming error distributions were heterogeneous. Although PNFA patients performed worse overall on naming manufactured artifacts, there was no reliable relationship between anomia and manipulability across semantic categories. These results add to a growing body of research arguing against a purely sensorimotor account of semantic memory, suggesting instead a more nuanced balance of process and content in how the brain represents conceptual knowledge. PMID:20576258

Reilly, Jamie; Rodriguez, Amy D.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Grossman, Murray

2010-01-01

379

Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata with Steamed and Fermented Process on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.  

PubMed

Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) traditionally have been used as a tonic and to treat patients with lung abscesses. Recently, it was proposed that the extract and some compounds isolated from C. lanceolata reversed scopolamine-induced memory and learning deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the improvement of cognitive enhancing effect of C. lanceolata by steam and fermentation process in scopolamine-induced memory impairment mice models by passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. The extract of C. lanceolata or the extract of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFCE) was orally administered to male mice at the doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight. As a result, mice treated with steamed and fermented C. lanceolata extract (SFCE) (300 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) showed shorter escape latencies than those with C. lanceolata extract or the scopolamine-administered group in Morris water maze test. Also, it exerted longer step-through latency time than scopolamine treated group in passive avoidance test. Furthermore, neuroprotective effect of SFCE on glutamate-induced cytotoxicity was assessed in HT22 cells. Only SFCE-treated cells showed significant protection at 500 ?g/ml. Interestingly, steamed C. lanceolata with fermentation contained more phenolic acid including gallic acid and vanillic acid than original C. lanceolata. Collectively, these results suggest that steam and fermentation process of C. lanceolata increased cognitive enhancing activity related to the memory processes and neuroprotective effect than original C. lanceolata. PMID:24244829

Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hee-Chul; Chung, Jae Youn; Ma, Choong Je

2013-09-30

380

Defective Number Module or Impaired Access? Numerical Magnitude Processing in First Graders with Mathematical Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined numerical magnitude processing in first graders with severe and mild forms of mathematical difficulties, children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) and children with low achievement (LA) in mathematics, respectively. In total, 20 children with MLD, 21 children with LA, and 41 regular achievers completed a numerical…

De Smedt, Bert; Gilmore, Camilla K.

2011-01-01

381

Spontaneous but Not Explicit Processing of Positive Sentences Impaired in Asperger's Syndrome: Pupillometric Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional prosody provides important cues for understanding the emotions of others in every day communication. Asperger's syndrome (AS) is a developmental disorder characterised by pronounced deficits in socio-emotional communication, including difficulties in the domain of prosody processing. We measured pupillary responses as an index of…

Kuchinke, Lars; Schneider, Dana; Kotz, Sonja A.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2011-01-01

382

Impairment in local and global processing and set-shifting in body dysmorphic disorder.  

PubMed

Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by distressing and often debilitating preoccupations with misperceived defects in appearance. Research suggests that aberrant visual processing may contribute to these misperceptions. This study used two tasks to probe global and local visual processing as well as set-shifting in individuals with BDD. Eighteen unmedicated individuals with BDD and 17 non-clinical controls completed two global-local tasks. The embedded figures task requires participants to determine which of three complex figures contains a simpler figure embedded within it. The Navon task utilizes incongruent stimuli comprised of a large letter (global level) made up of smaller letters (local level). The outcome measures were response time and accuracy rate. On the embedded figures task, BDD individuals were slower and less accurate than controls. On the Navon task, BDD individuals processed both global and local stimuli slower and less accurately than controls, and there was a further decrement in performance when shifting attention between the different levels of stimuli. Worse insight correlated with poorer performance on both tasks. Taken together, these results suggest abnormal global and local processing for non-appearance related stimuli among BDD individuals, in addition to evidence of poor set-shifting abilities. Moreover, these abnormalities appear to relate to the important clinical variable of poor insight. Further research is needed to explore these abnormalities and elucidate their possible role in the development and/or persistence of BDD symptoms. PMID:24972487

Kerwin, Lauren; Hovav, Sarit; Hellemann, Gerhard; Feusner, Jamie D

2014-10-01

383

Altered Evoked Gamma-Band Responses Reveal Impaired Early Visual Processing in ADHD Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neurophysiological studies yield contrary results whether attentional problems of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to early visual processing deficits or not. Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs), being among the first cortical responses occurring as early as 90 ms after visual stimulation in human EEG, have…

Lenz, Daniel; Krauel, Kerstin; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Schadow, Jeanette; Hinrichs, Hermann; Herrmann, Christoph S.

2010-01-01

384

Auditory speech processing in the left temporal lobe: an electrical interference study.  

PubMed

Auditory syllable discrimination, identification, and comprehension were investigated by direct cortical electrical interference in three patients with indwelling subdural electrode arrays. Without electrical interference, patients performed similarly to matched normal subjects. With electrical interference, selective deficits were observed in the posterior superior temporal (PST) lobes of all three patients. At specific PST sites, only comprehension was impaired, while at proximal sites comprehension and identification were impaired, but discrimination remained intact. At a single PST site, all three auditory speech functions were impaired. These findings suggest that lower-level auditory speech functions can operate independent of higher-level processes, as claimed by traditional hierarchical models. However, analysis of discrimination errors revealed lexical-semantic and phonological effects, suggesting that higher-level functions also influence lower-level processing. These data can be explained by a bidirectional processing model, with differentially weighted connections. PMID:8564472

Boatman, D; Lesser, R P; Gordon, B

1995-11-01

385

Phonological development of first language isiXhosa-speaking children aged 3;0-6;0 years: a descriptive cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

Standardized assessments of children's isiXhosa phonology have not yet been developed and there is limited information about developmental norms in this language. This article reports on the phonological development of 24 typically developing first language isiXhosa-speaking children aged 3;0-6;0 years, in Cape Town, South Africa. The order and age of acquisition of isiXhosa phonemes, emergence and elimination of phonological processes and percentage consonants and vowels correct are described. A set of culturally and linguistically appropriate pictures was used to elicit single word responses that were recorded and transcribed. The study found that children had acquired most isiXhosa phonemes by 3;0 years although aspirated plosives, affricates, fricatives and clicks were still developing. In particular, the affricates and aspirated plosives were still developing in the 5-year-old children in this sample, suggesting that these may be the latest acquired segments. Children were able to produce basic word shapes by 3;0 years, but some of the words of 4-6 syllables were still being mastered by the 4- and 5-year-old children. Phonological processes that have been well documented for other languages were used by children in this sample (e.g. deaffrication, stopping and gliding of liquids). Findings presented for this pre-school-aged sample are related to theories of phonological acquisition to provide normative data on phonological development in isiXhosa-speaking children. PMID:24456520

Maphalala, Zinhle; Pascoe, Michelle; Smouse, Mantoa Rose

2014-03-01

386

Phonology in syntax: The Somali optional agreement rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would

Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum

1983-01-01

387

Phonological Mediation in Visual Masked Priming: Evidence from Phonotactic Repair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of 4 experiments, the authors show that phonological repair mechanisms, known to operate in the auditory modality, are directly translated in the visual modality. This holds with the provision that printed stimuli are presented for a very brief duration and that the effect of phonological repair is tested after a delay of some 100 ms…

Halle, Pierre A.; Dominguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; Segui, Juan

2008-01-01

388

Phonological Typicality Does Not Influence Fixation Durations in Normal Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a word-by-word self-paced reading paradigm, T. A. Farmer, M. H. Christiansen, and P. Monaghan (2006) reported faster reading times for words that are phonologically typical for their syntactic category (i.e., noun or verb) than for words that are phonologically atypical. This result has been taken to suggest that language users are sensitive…

Staub, Adrian; Grant, Margaret; Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Rayner, Keith

2009-01-01

389

Integration of Phonological Information in Obstruent Consonant Identification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech perception requires the integration of information from multiple phonetic and phonological dimensions. Numerous studies have investigated the mapping between multiple acoustic-phonetic dimensions and single phonological dimensions (e.g., spectral and temporal properties of stop consonants in voicing contrasts). Many fewer studies have…

Silbert, Noah H.

2009-01-01

390

Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

Proctor, Michael Ian

2009-01-01

391

Learning Morphological and Phonological Spelling Rules: An Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We looked at the effects of teaching 7- and 8-year-old children morphological and phonological distinctions. Some of those given morphological training and some of those given phonological training were also taught how to represent these distinctions in writing. All 4 intervention groups did better than the control group in a standardized test of…

Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Olsson, Jenny

2003-01-01

392

Hyphenation can improve reading in acquired phonological dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We describe JD, a person with severe phonological dyslexia. JD is good at reading words yet is extremely poor at reading nonwords. She shows no effect of word regularity on her reading performance. However, she has only a very mild general phonological deficit. Although it is known that teaching grapheme–phoneme correspondence rules and learning bigraph syllables can improve dyslexic

Trevor A. Harley; David A. OMara

2006-01-01

393

Speech Perception Deficits by Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…

Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang

2009-01-01

394

Phonological and Surface Subtypes among University Students with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological

Wolff, Ulrika

2009-01-01

395

Disfluency Patterns and Phonological Skills Near Stuttering Onset  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are…

Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

2012-01-01

396

PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IN THE LAST 50 YEARS Peter Ladefoged  

E-print Network

1 PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IN THE LAST 50 YEARS Peter Ladefoged Dept. Linguistics, UCLA, Los Angeles Communication, MIT, 11-13 June 2004.] ABSTRACT In the last 50 years there have been steady gains in phonetic knowledge and punctuated equilibrium in phononological theories. Phonetics and phonology meet most obviously

Port, Robert

397

THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE*  

E-print Network

THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE* SÃ?NIA FROTA1 , MARIAPAOLA D, 5 Universidade do Minho Abstract This paper examines the phonetics and phonology of intonational rise (H) and sustained pitch (!H). A detailed analysis of the phonetics of the H boundary tone, which

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

398

Assessment of Phonological Awareness in Low-Progress Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assessment of phonological awareness (PA) can serve several purposes, including providing a useful diagnostic function in the management of low-progress readers. This paper discusses various aspects of phonological awareness that have implications for literacy teaching at three different points in children's school career: the point of school…

Neilson, Roslyn

2009-01-01

399

Quantifying Phonological Representation Abilities in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed three important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

Anthony, Jason L.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Solari, Emily J.; Dunkelberger, Martha J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Liang, Lan

2011-01-01

400

Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

2012-01-01

401

Semantic and Phonological Activation in First and Second Language Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

No consensus has been reached on whether phonological information is activated in reading Chinese. Further, semantic activation has not been well-studied in the context of orthographic depth. To contribute to these issues, this dissertation investigated semantic and phonological activation in reading Chinese and English. This dissertation also…

Cheng, Hui-Wen

2012-01-01

402

On Rejecting Emotional Lures Created by Phonological Neighborhood Activation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors conducted 2 experiments to assess how phonologically related lures are rejected in a false memory paradigm. Some phonological lures were emotional (i.e., taboo) words, and others were not. The authors manipulated the presence of taboo items on the study list and reduced the ability to use controlled rejection strategies by dividing…

Starns, Jeffrey J.; Cook, Gabriel I.; Hicks, Jason L.; Marsh, Richard L.

2006-01-01

403

Delivering Phonological and Phonics Training within Whole-Class Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Early, intensive phonological awareness and phonics training is widely held to be beneficial for children with poor phonological awareness. However, most studies have delivered this training separately from children's normal whole-class reading lessons. Aims: We examined whether integrating this training into whole class, mixed-ability…

Shapiro, Laura R.; Solity, Jonathan

2008-01-01

404

Phonological and Orthographic Cues in Reading Disabled Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Besides phonological information, printed words also contain visual, semantic, orthographic and often also syntactic cues. Skilled readers have acquired the command of this variety of cues incidentally, as a consequence of language development. Two naming task experiments assessed the effect of congruent versus incongruent phonological or…

Assink, Egbert; Kattenberg, Goran

405

Phonological Awareness and Reading Proficiency in Adults with Profound Deafness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated differences in the phonological knowledge and reading skill of deaf adults using three experimental conditions that tested sensitivity to syllables, rhyme, and phonemes. Analysis of response latencies and accuracy in the three awareness tasks demonstrated that skilled deaf readers had superior phonological awareness skill…

Furlonger, Brett; Holmes, Virginia M.; Rickards, Field W.

2014-01-01

406

The Effect of Phonological Neighborhood Density on Vowel Articulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent literature suggests that phonological neighborhood density and word frequency can affect speech production, in addition to the well-documented effects that they have on speech perception. This article describes 2 experiments that examined how phonological neighborhood density influences the durations and formant frequencies of adults'…

Munson, Benjamin; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

2004-01-01

407

The relationship between motor control and phonology in dyslexic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the automaticity\\/cerebellar theory of dyslexia. We tested phonological skills and cerebellar function in a group of dyslexic 8-12 year old children and their matched controls. Tests administered included the Phonological Assessment Battery, postural stability, bead threading, finger to thumb and time estimation. Results: Dyslexic children were found to be significantly poorer

Franck Ramus; Elizabeth Pidgeon; Uta Frith

2003-01-01

408

Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

2014-01-01

409

Detection of phonological features in continuous speech using neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report work on the first component of a two stage speech recognition architecture based on phonological features rather than phones. The paper reports experiments on three phonological feature systems: 1) the Sound Pattern of English (SPE) system which uses binary features, 2) a multi valued (MV) feature system which uses tradi- tional phonetic categories such as manner, place etc,

Simon King; Paul Taylor

2000-01-01

410

Phonological Similarity, Markedness, and Rate of L2 Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the interrelationship of several factors--phonological similarity between L1 and L2, transfer, and markedness as they relate to the acquisition of two English vowel phonemes by native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Phonetic and phonological similarity between L1 and L2 appear to be important factors. (LMO)

Major, Roy C.

1987-01-01

411

Is the comprehension of idiomatic sentences indeed impaired in paranoid Schizophrenia? A window into semantic processing deficits  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia patients have been reported to be more impaired in comprehending non-literal than literal language since early studies on proverbs. Preference for literal rather than figurative interpretations continues to be documented. The main aim of this study was to establish whether patients are indeed able to use combinatorial semantic processing to comprehend literal sentences and both combinatorial analysis, and retrieval of pre-stored meanings to comprehend idiomatic sentences. The study employed a sentence continuation task in which subjects were asked to decide whether a target word was a sensible continuation of a previous sentence fragment to investigate idiomatic and literal sentence comprehension in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Patients and healthy controls were faster in accepting sensible continuations than in rejecting non-sensible ones in both literal and idiomatic sentences. Patients were as accurate as controls in comprehending literal and idiomatic sentences, but they were overall slower than controls in all conditions. Once the contribution of cognitive covariates was partialled out, the response times (RTs) to sensible idiomatic continuations of patients did not significantly differ from those of controls. This suggests that the state of residual schizophrenia did not contribute to slower processing of sensible idioms above and beyond the cognitive deficits that are typically associated with schizophrenia. PMID:25346676

Pesciarelli, Francesca; Gamberoni, Tania; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Lo Russo, Leo; Pedrazzi, Francesca; Melati, Ermanno; Cacciari, Cristina

2014-01-01

412

Deoxycholic acid impairs glycosylation and fucosylation processes in esophageal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that esophageal adenocarcinoma arises from a Barrett's metaplastic lesion. Altered glycoprotein expression has been demonstrated in tissue from patients with Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer but the mechanisms regarding such changes are unknown. The bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) alters many cell signaling pathways and is implicated in esophageal cancer progression. We have demonstrated that DCA disrupts Golgi structure and affects protein secretion and glycosylation processes in cell lines derived from normal squamous epithelium (HET-1A) and Barrett's metaplastic epithelium (QH). Cell surface expression of glycans was identified using carbohydrate-specific probes (wheat germ agglutinate, conconavalin A, peanut agglutinin, lithocholic acid and Ulex europaeus agglutinin) that monitored N-glycosylation, O-glycosylation and core fucosylation in resting and DCA-treated cells. DCA altered intracellular localization and reduced cell surface expression of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, ?-methyl-mannopyranoside (Man/Glc) and fucose in both cell lines. Furthermore, DCA reduced the expression of epithelial growth factor receptor and E-cadherin in a manner analogous to treatment of cells with the N-glycan biosynthesis inhibitor tunicamycin. This is the first study to identify an altered Golgi structure and glycomic profile in response to DCA in esophageal epithelial cells, a process which could potentially contribute to metaplasia, dysplasia and cancer of the esophagus. PMID:22223758

Byrne, Anne-Marie; Sharma, Ruchika; Duggan, Gina; Kelleher, Dermot; Long, Aideen

2012-05-01

413

Use of Adaptive Digital Signal Processing to Improve Speech Communication for Normally Hearing aand Hearing-Impaired Subjects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-microphone adaptive digital noise cancellation technique improved word-recognition ability for 20 normal and 12 hearing-impaired adults by reducing multitalker speech babble and speech spectrum noise 18-22 dB. Word recognition improvements averaged 37-50 percent for normal and 27-40 percent for hearing-impaired subjects. Improvement was best…

Harris, Richard W.; And Others

1988-01-01

414

Impairments in fine-motor coordination and speed of information processing predict declines in everyday functioning in hepatitis C infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research increasingly supports the neurovirulence of chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). For example, HCV infection has been associated with neuropsychological impairment in several ability areas, including psychomotor skills. This study aimed to examine whether HCV-associated neuropsychological impairment is predictive of declines in the independent performance of physical (PADLs) and instrumental (IADLs) activities of daily living. A total

Ofilio Vigil; Carolina Posada; Steven Paul Woods; J. Hampton Atkinson; Robert K. Heaton; William Perry; Tarek I. Hassanein; Igor Grant; Scott L. Letendre

2008-01-01

415

Rhyme priming in aphasia: the role of phonology in lexical access.  

PubMed

The present experiment was conducted to explore the facilitory effects of rhyme in lexical processing in brain-damaged individuals. Normal subjects and non-fluent and fluent aphasic subjects performed auditory lexical decision and rhyme judgement tasks, in which prime-target pairs were phonologically related (either identical or rhyming) or unrelated. Results revealed rhyme facilitation of lexical decisions to real-word targets for normal and non-fluent aphasic subjects; for fluent aphasic subjects, results were equivocal. In the rhyme judgement task, facilitory effects of rhyme were found for all three groups with real-word targets. None of the groups showed clear rhyme facilitation effects with non-word targets in either task. Findings are discussed with reference to the role of phonology in lexical processing in normal and aphasic populations. PMID:7859058

Gordon, J K; Baum, S R

1994-11-01

416

Visual phonology: the effects of orthographic consistency on different auditory word recognition tasks.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated orthographic influences on spoken word recognition. The degree of spelling inconsistency was manipulated while rime phonology was held constant. Inconsistent words with subdominant spellings were processed more slowly than inconsistent words with dominant spellings. This graded consistency effect was obtained in three experiments. However, the effect was strongest in lexical decision, intermediate in rime detection, and weakest in auditory naming. We conclude that (1) orthographic consistency effects are not artifacts of phonological, phonetic, or phonotactic properties of the stimulus material; (2) orthographic effects can be found even when the error rate is extremely low, which rules out the possibility that they result from strategies used to reduce task difficulty; and (3) orthographic effects are not restricted to lexical decision. However, they are stronger in lexical decision than in other tasks. Overall, the study shows that learning about orthography alters the way we process spoken language. PMID:15552350

Ziegler, Johannes C; Ferrand, Ludovic; Montant, Marie

2004-07-01

417

Morphological awareness: Just “more phonological”? The roles of morphological and phonological awareness in reading development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the morphophonemic nature of the English orthography, surprisingly few studies have examined the roles of morphological and phonological awareness in reading. This 4-year longitudinal study (Grades 2-5) compared these two factors in three aspects of reading development: pseudoword reading, reading comprehension, and single word reading. Morphological awareness contributed significantly to pseudoword reading and reading comprehension, after controlling prior measures

S. HÉLÈNE DEACON; JOHN R. KIRBY

2004-01-01

418

Influences of the Aging Process on Acute Perioperative Pain Management in Elderly and Cognitively Impaired Patients  

PubMed Central

Background The aging process results in physiological deterioration and compromise along with a reduction in the reserve capacity of the human body. Because of the reduced reserves of mammalian organ systems, perioperative stressors may result in compromise of physiologic function or clinical evidence of organ insult secondary to surgery and anesthesia. The purpose of this review is to present evidence-based indications and best practice techniques for perioperative pain management in elderly surgical patients. Results In addition to pain, cognitive dysfunction in elderly surgical patients is a common occurrence that can often be attenuated with appropriate drug therapy. Modalities for pain management must be synthesized with intraoperative anesthesia and the type of surgical intervention and not simply considered a separate entity. Conclusions Pain in elderly surgical patients continues to challenge physicians and healthcare providers. Current studies show improved surgical outcomes for geriatric patients who receive multimodal therapy for pain control. PMID:23789010

Halaszynski, Thomas

2013-01-01

419

Missing the Big Picture: Impaired Development of Global Shape Processing in Autism  

PubMed Central

Individuals with autism exhibit hypersensitivity to local elements of the input, which may interfere with the ability to group visual elements perceptually. We investigated the development of perceptual grouping abilities in high-functioning individuals with autism (HFA) across a wide age range (8–30 years) using a classic compound letter global/ local (GL) task and a more fine-grained microgenetic prime paradigm (MPP), including both few- and many-element hierarchical displays. In the GL task, contrary to the typically developing (TD) controls, HFA participants did not develop an increasing sensitivity to the global information with age. In the MPP, like the TD controls, individuals with autism at all three age groups evinced a bias to individuate the few-element displays. However, contrary to the TD controls, the HFA group failed to show age-related improvements in the ability to encode the global shape of the many-element displays. In fact, across the age range, the HFA group was consistently faster than the TD controls at perceiving the local elements in these displays. These results indicate that in autism the full process of garnering shape information from perceptual grouping, which is essential for the ability to do fast and efficient object recognition and identification, never matures, and this is especially evident in adolescence when this ability begins to improve in TD individuals. The atypical development of these perceptual organizational abilities may disrupt processing of visually presented objects, which may, in turn, fundamentally impede the development of major aspects of the social and emotional behaviors in individuals with autism. PMID:19360658

Scherf, K. Suzanne; Luna, Beatriz; Kimchi, Ruth; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene

2009-01-01

420

Probing ERP correlates of verbal semantic processing in patients with impaired consciousness.  

PubMed

Our ability to identify covert cognitive abilities in non-communicating patients is of prime importance to improve diagnosis, to guide therapeutic decisions and to better predict their cognitive outcome. In the present study, we used a basic and rigorous paradigm contrasting pairs of words orthogonally. This paradigm enables the probing of semantic processing by comparing neural activity elicited by similar words delivered in various combinations. We describe the respective timing, topography and estimated cortical sources of two successive event-related potentials (ERP) components (N400 and late positive component (LPC)) using high-density EEG in conscious controls (N=20) and in minimally conscious (MCS; N=15) and vegetative states (VS; N=15) patients recorded at bedside. Whereas N400-like ERP components could be observed in the VS, MCS and conscious groups, only MCS and conscious groups showed a LPC response, suggesting that this late effect could be a potential specific marker of conscious semantic processing. This result is coherent with recent findings disentangling early and local non-conscious responses (e.g.: MMN in odd-ball paradigms, N400 in semantic violation paradigms) from late, distributed and conscious responses (e.g.: P3b to auditory rule violation) in controls and in patients with disorders of consciousness. However, N400 and LPC responses were not easily observed at the individual level, - even in conscious controls - , with standard ERP analyses, which is a limiting factor for its clinical use. Of potential interest, the only 3 patients presenting both significant N400 and LPC effects were MCS, and 2 of them regained consciousness and functional language abilities. PMID:25447058

Rohaut, Benjamin; Faugeras, Frédéric; Chausson, Nicolas; King, Jean-Rémi; Karoui, Imen El; Cohen, Laurent; Naccache, Lionel

2015-01-01

421

Contrast reversal of the eyes impairs infants' face processing: a near-infrared spectroscopic study.  

PubMed

Human can easily detect other's eyes and gaze from early in life. Such sensitivity is supported by the contrast polarity of human eyes, which have a white sclera contrasting with the darker colored iris (Kobayashi & Kohshima, (1997). Nature, 387, 767-768; Kobayashi & Kohshima, (2001). Journal of Human Evolution, 40, 419-435). Recent studies suggest that the contrast polarity around the eyes plays an important role in infants' face processing. Newborns preferred upright face images to inverted ones in contrast-preserved faces, but not in contrast-reversed faces (Farroni et al., (2005). Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, p. 17245-17250). Seven- to 8-month-old infants failed to discriminate between faces when the contrast polarity of eyes was reversed (Otsuka et al., (2013). Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 115, 598-606). Neuroimaging study with adults revealed that full-negative faces induced less activation in the right fusiform gyrus than either full-positive faces or negative faces with contrast-preserved eyes (Gilad et al., (2009). Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, p. 5353-5358). In the present study, we investigated whether contrast-reversed eyes diminish infants' brain activity related to face processing. We measured hemodynamic responses in the bilateral temporal area of 5- to 6-month-old infants. Their hemodynamic responses to faces with positive eyes and those with negative eyes were compared against the baseline activation during the presentation of object images. We found that the presentation of faces with positive eyes increased the concentration of oxy-Hb in the right temporal area and those of total-Hb in the bilateral temporal areas. No such change occurred for faces with negative eyes. Our results suggest the importance of contrast polarity of the eyes in the face-selective neural responses from early development. PMID:24012650

Ichikawa, Hiroko; Otsuka, Yumiko; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kakigi, Ryusuke

2013-11-01

422

Role of Auditory Attention in the Real-Time Processing of Simple Grammar by Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Preliminary Investigation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study investigates the effects of two dimensions of attentional functioning, sustained focus of attention and resource capacity/allocation, on the real-time processing of simple sentences by children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children matched for age. Methods & Procedures: Thirty-six…

Montgomery, James W.

2008-01-01

423

Sensory Processing of Backward-Masking Signals in Children with Language-Learning Impairment as Assessed with the Auditory Brainstem Response.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the possible contribution of sensory mechanisms to an auditory processing deficit shown by some children with language-learning impairment (LLI). Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were measured from 2 groups of school-aged (8-10 years) children. One group consisted of 10 children with LLI, and the other…

Marler, Jeffrey A.; Champlin, Craig A.

2005-01-01

424

A test of central coherence theory: linguistic processing in high-functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome: is local coherence impaired?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central coherence theory (Frith, U., 1989. Autism: Explaining the Enigma. Blackwell, Oxford.) is addressed by exploring linguistic processing in normally intelligent adults with either autism or Asperger syndrome, to test whether local coherence is impaired. Local coherence is the ability to make contextually meaningful connections between linguistic information in short-term or working memory. Experiment 1 demonstrated that individuals with an

Therese Jolliffe; Simon Baron-Cohen

1999-01-01

425

From Sound to Syntax: Phonological Constraints on Children's Lexical Categorization of New Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies examined the role of phonological cues in the lexical categorization of new words when children could also rely on learning by exclusion and whether the role of phonology depends on extensive experience with a language. Phonological cues were assessed via phonological typicality--an aggregate measure of the relationship between the…

Fitneva, Stanka A.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Monaghan, Padraic

2009-01-01

426

The Effects of Embedded Phonological Awareness Training on the Reading and Spelling Skills of Kindergarten Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness is the ability to attend to and recognize the sound structure of a language. This skill is known to be important for learning to spell and read and a lack of phonological awareness skills is linked with reading difficulties. Previous research has shown phonological awareness training improves phonological awareness skills,…

Robinson, Sarah

2010-01-01

427

Phonological Segmentation Assessment Is Not Enough: A Comparison of Three Phonological Awareness Tests with First and Second Graders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite extensive research on phonological awareness and reading, there has been little effort to study practical questions that would assist practitioners regarding the choice and interpretation of the phonological awareness tests available to them. This study examined the relationship between decoding (real and pseudowords) and three…

Kilpatrick, David A.

2012-01-01

428

Impairment of hepatic transport processes in perfused rat liver by the specific CCK receptor antagonist loxiglumide.  

PubMed

The specific cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonist loxiglumide has been used in several human and animal studies to investigate the role of CCK in gastrointestinal physiology. In the present study, the interference of this CCK receptor antagonist with hepatic transport processes was characterized in the perfused rat liver. Indocyanine green, an organic dye which is secreted into bile without being metabolized, was taken up in control experiments at a rate of 68.1 +/- 7.7%. The CCK receptor antagonist lowered the extraction to 0.5 +/- 2.6% (P < 0.001). The compound diminished the hepatic extraction of CCK-8 from 90.95 +/- 2.60% to 4.90 +/- 1.95% (P < 0.001) and of gastrin from 22.2 +/- 1.1% to 8.2 +/- 1.9% (P < 0.001). The hepatic extraction of lidocaine, which is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system, was only slightly altered. For leukotrienes and taurocholate, the rate-limiting step for transport into bile is secretion across the canalicular membrane; the hepatic extraction of leukotriene D4 was markedly diminished by loxiglumide whereas the transport of taurocholate was only slightly inhibited. The present study demonstrates that the specific CCK receptor antagonist loxiglumide diminished the hepatic extraction of various substances, including peptides and organic anions. It did not interfere with the cytochrome P450 system. The pronounced reduction of hepatic uptake of indocyanine green and leukotriene may be due to an interference with the transport system of these substances in the liver. PMID:9406280

Beckh, K; Dirks, A; Koop, I; Koop, H; Adler, G

1997-01-01

429

Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) reproduction is impaired in aged oil sands process-affected waters.  

PubMed

Large volumes of fluid tailings are generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. As part of their reclamation plan, oil sands operators in Alberta propose to transfer these fluid tailings to end pit lakes and, over time, these are expected to develop lake habitats with productive capabilities comparable to natural lakes in the region. This study evaluates the potential impact of various oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) on the reproduction of adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) under laboratory conditions. Two separate assays with aged OPSW (>15 years) from the experimental ponds at Syncrude Canada Ltd. showed that water containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs; >25 mg/l) and elevated conductivity (>2000 ?S/cm) completely inhibited spawning of fathead minnows and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics. Measurement of plasma sex steroid levels showed that male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone whereas females had lower concentrations of 17?-estradiol. In a third assay, fathead minnows were first acclimated to the higher salinity conditions typical of OSPW for several weeks and then exposed to aged OSPW from Suncor Energy Inc. (NAs ?40 mg/l and conductivity ?2000 ?S/cm). Spawning was significantly reduced in fathead minnows held in this effluent and male fathead minnows had lower concentrations of testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that aged OSPW has the potential to negatively affect the reproductive physiology of fathead minnows and suggest that aquatic habitats with high NAs concentrations (>25 mg/l) and conductivities (>2000 ?S/cm) would not be conducive for successful fish reproduction. PMID:20980067

Kavanagh, Richard J; Frank, Richard A; Oakes, Ken D; Servos, Mark R; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Mike D; Solomon, Keith R; Dixon, D George; Van Der Kraak, Glen

2011-01-17

430

Impaired hepatic handling and processing of lysophosphatidylcholine in rats with liver cirrhosis  

SciTech Connect

Lysophosphatidylcholine is a major metabolic product in the plasma and cellular turnover of phospholipids, with well-known membrane-toxic and proinflammatory properties. Because the liver plays a key role in plasma lysophosphatidylcholine removal and biotransformation and because virtually nothing is known of these processes in a diseased organ, the hepatobiliary metabolism of lysophosphatidylcholine was investigated in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver cirrhosis. Twelve adult male Wistar rats with histologically confirmed cirrhosis and 8 control animals were fitted with jugular and biliary catheters and allowed to recover. The animals were kept under constant IV infusion of taurocholate (1 mumol/min). Two microcuries of sn-1{sup 14}Cpalmitoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine was administered as a single bolus. The fate of the injected radioactivity, including removal from plasma, uptake, and subcellular location in the liver and molecular and aggregative forms, was studied by combined chromatographic and radiochemical methods. Major findings were (a) that lysophosphatidylcholine has a prolonged permanence in plasma of cirrhotic rats, due both to decreased hepatic clearance and to depressed conversion into phosphatidylcholine; (b) that the rate of lysophosphatidylcholine acylation is much slower in the cirrhotic than in the normal liver, both at the microsomal and at the cytosolic level; (c) that cytosolic lysophosphatidylcholine in the cirrhotic liver, but not in the normal liver, is predominantly non-protein bound; (d) that the strict molecular selectivity of lysophosphatidylcholine acylation observed in controls is partially lost in cirrhosis; and (e) that a consistent fraction of lysophosphatidylcholine is converted into triacylglycerols in cirrhotics but not in controls.

Angelico, M.; Alvaro, D.; Cantafora, A.; Masella, R.; Gaudio, E.; Gandin, C.; Ginanni Corradini, S.; Ariosto, F.; Riggio, O.; Capocaccia, L. (II Division of Gastroenterology, University of Rome La Sapienza (Italy))

1991-07-01

431

Impaired Luminal Processing of Human Defensin-5 in Crohn’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Human defensin (HD)-5 is an antimicrobial peptide expressed in small intestinal Paneth cells, and alterations in HD-5 expression may be important in Crohn’s disease (CD) pathogenesis. Levels of HD-5 in Paneth cells and ileostomy fluid from control and CD patients were studied by quantitative immunodot analysis, immunohistochemistry, acid urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis Western blotting, reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography, N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and ES-QToF mass spectrometry. In both control and CD patients, HD-5 in Paneth cell extracts was present almost exclusively in the precursor form. HD-5 levels in ileostomy fluid were lower in CD patients (n = 51) than in controls (n = 20): median (range), 7.9 (5.5 to 35.0) ?g/ml versus 10.5 (6.0 to 30.4) ?g/ml; P = 0.05; this difference was most marked in CD patients with homozygous/compound heterozygous mutations in NOD2 (P = 0.03). In control ileostomy fluid, HD-5 was present in the mature form only. In contrast, CD patient ileostomy fluid contained both precursor and mature forms of HD-5, with the majority present in a complex with trypsin, chymotrypsinogen/chymotrypsin, and ?1-anti-trypsin. Pro-HD-5 was not associated with trypsin or chymotrypsinogen in Paneth cell extracts. In conclusion, pro-HD-5 in the intestinal lumen is processed by trypsin in a complex in which chymotrypsinogen is also cleaved for activation. The persistence of this complex in CD may be attributable to increased luminal levels of proteinase inhibitors such as ?1-anti-trypsin. PMID:18258845

Elphick, David; Liddell, Susan; Mahida, Yashwant R.

2008-01-01

432

mir-30d Regulates multiple genes in the autophagy pathway and impairs autophagy process in human cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? Gene set enrichment analysis indicated mir-30d might regulate the autophagy pathway. ? mir-30d represses the expression of BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5 and ATG2. ? BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5 and ATG2 are direct targets of mir-30d. ? mir-30d inhibits autophagosome formation and LC3B-I conversion to LC3B-II. ? mir-30d regulates the autophagy process. -- Abstract: In human epithelial cancers, the microRNA (miRNA) mir-30d is amplified with high frequency and serves as a critical oncomir by regulating metastasis, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Autophagy, a degradation pathway for long-lived protein and organelles, regulates the survival and death of many cell types. Increasing evidence suggests that autophagy plays an important function in epithelial tumor initiation and progression. Using a combined bioinformatics approach, gene set enrichment analysis, and miRNA target prediction, we found that mir-30d might regulate multiple genes in the autophagy pathway including BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5, and ATG2. Our further functional experiments demonstrated that the expression of these core proteins in the autophagy pathway was directly suppressed by mir-30d in cancer cells. Finally, we showed that mir-30d regulated the autophagy process by inhibiting autophagosome formation and LC3B-I conversion to LC3B-II. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the oncomir mir-30d impairs the autophagy process by targeting multiple genes in the autophagy pathway. This result will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of mir-30d in tumorigenesis and developing novel cancer therapy strategy.

Yang, Xiaojun [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States) [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of General Surgery, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu 710000 (China); Zhong, Xiaomin [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States) [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200011 (China); Tanyi, Janos L.; Shen, Jianfeng [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)] [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Xu, Congjian [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200011 (China)] [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200011 (China); Gao, Peng [Department of General Surgery, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu 710000 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu 710000 (China); Zheng, Tim M. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)] [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); DeMichele, Angela [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)] [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zhang, Lin, E-mail: linzhang@mail.med.upenn.edu [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)] [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

2013-02-15

433

Setting the Tone: An ERP Investigation of the Influences of Phonological Similarity on Spoken Word Recognition in Mandarin Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the influences of phonological similarity on the time course of spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese. Event related potentials were recorded while adult native speakers of Mandarin ("N" = 19) judged whether auditory words matched or mismatched visually presented pictures. Mismatching words were of the following nature:…

Malins, Jeffrey G.; Joanisse, Marc F.

2012-01-01

434

Phonetic and phonological imitation of intonation in two varieties of Italian  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to test whether both phonetic and phonological representations of intonation can be rapidly modified when imitating utterances belonging to a different regional variety of the same language. Our main hypothesis was that tonal alignment, just as other phonetic features of speech, would be rapidly modified by Italian speakers when imitating pitch accents of a different (Southern) variety of Italian. In particular, we tested whether Bari Italian (BI) speakers would produce later peaks for their native rising L + H* (question pitch accent) in the process of imitating Neapolitan Italian (NI) rising L* + H accents. Also, we tested whether BI speakers are able to modify other phonetic properties (pitch level) as well as phonological characteristics (changes in tonal composition) of the same contour. In a follow-up study, we tested if the reverse was also true, i.e., whether NI speakers would produce earlier peaks within the L* + H accent in the process of imitating the L + H* of BI questions, despite the presence of a contrast between two rising accents in this variety. Our results show that phonetic detail of tonal alignment can be successfully modified by both BI and NI speakers when imitating a model speaker of the other variety. The hypothesis of a selective imitation process preventing alignment modifications in NI was hence not supported. Moreover the effect was significantly stronger for low frequency words. Participants were also able to imitate other phonetic cues, in that they modified global utterance pitch level. Concerning phonological convergence, speakers modified the tonal specification of the edge tones in order to resemble that of the other variety by either suppressing or increasing the presence of a final H%. Hence, our data show that intonation imitation leads to fast modification of both phonetic and phonological intonation representations including detail of tonal alignment and pitch scaling. PMID:25408676

D’Imperio, Mariapaola; Cavone, Rossana; Petrone, Caterina

2014-01-01

435

ERPs reveal atypical processing of subject versus object Wh-questions in children with specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular difficulty comprehending and producing object (Who did the bear follow?) relative to subject (Who followed the tiger?) wh-questions. Aims To determine if school-age children with SLI, relative to children with typical development (TD), show a more distinct unevenness, or asymmetry, in the comprehension of these questions. In addition, this study examined whether the sustained left-anterior negativity (LAN) in event-related potentials (ERP) could be used as a marker for atypical processing of these questions in children with SLI. The LAN effect signals the greater working memory processes for maintaining in memory the dislocated object in object wh-questions and reflects working memory capacity in adults. It was predicted that the amplitude of the LAN would be greater in children with SLI, reflecting the characteristic low working memory capacity in this population. The concomitance of these behavioural and electrophysiological effects would suggest that the subject–object asymmetry in SLI should be investigated in relation to poor working memory skills. Methods & Procedures Groups including 13 children with SLI, 17 same-age TD children and 18 normal adults completed an auditory sentence comprehension task requiring button responses while continuous electroencephalography (EEG) was collected. Accuracy for subject and object questions was calculated. The mean amplitude values of the ERP data for the wh-questions were examined to identify differential processing of subject and object questions. Outcomes & Results TD children demonstrated asymmetrical comprehension of subject and object wh-questions, whereas children with SLI comprehended both question types poorly and adults did not show subject–object asymmetry. ERP waveforms spanning the wh-dependency revealed a large and widespread sustained anterior positivity for object relative to subject questions in the TD group, indicating differential processing of these questions. This effect was attenuated and non-significant in the SLI group. The adults’ grand average waveforms showed the expected LAN effect, which was opposite in polarity relative to the children, although it only approached significance. Conclusions & Implications The finding of less differential processing of subject and object wh-questions in SLI relative to TD children suggests inefficient maintenance of sentential information in working memory for object questions in SLI. Whereas behavioural methods did not identify subject–object asymmetry in SLI, the more fine-grained method of ERPs elucidated this effect. Further analysis of working memory as the basis for the subject–object asymmetry in SLI is critical for identifying appropriate intervention targets for this population. PMID:23889832

Epstein, Baila; Hestvik, Arild; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.

2013-01-01

436

Effects of phonological awareness and naming speed on mathematics skills in children with mild intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: Both phonological awareness (PA) and naming speed have been identified as two skills related to the development of mathematics skills for children with and without learning disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between PA and colour naming speed for 265 elementary school students with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). Methods: Participants were assessed using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes and the KeyMath Revised Diagnostic Inventory of Essential Mathematics. Results: Hierarchical regression analyses accounting for the effects of age indicated that children with MID rely on both PA and naming speed when solving mathematics problems, although PA was the more robust indicator of the two. Conclusion: As a whole, these results suggest that children with intellectual disabilities evidence the same types of reading and math relationships as shown for other populations of children. PMID:24564185

Foster, Matthew E; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, Maryann; Morris, Robin D

2014-02-24

437

Complex Sentence Comprehension and Working Memory in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated the association of 2 mechanisms of working memory (phonological short-term memory [PSTM], attentional resource capacity/allocation) with the sentence comprehension of school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 2 groups of control children. Method: Twenty-four children with SLI, 18 age-matched…

Montgomery, James W.; Evans, Julia L.

2009-01-01

438

Effect of Onset and Rhyme Primes in Preschoolers with Typical Development and Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors used cued shadowing to examine children's phonological word-form representations by studying the effects of onset and rhyme primes on lexical access. Method: Twenty-five preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI; hereafter known as the SLI group), 24 age- and gender-matched children (AM group), and 20…

Gray, Shelley; Reiser, Mark; Brinkley, Shara

2012-01-01

439

Accurately Predicting Future Reading Difficulty for Bilingual Latino Children at Risk for Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-three bilingual Latino children who were at risk for language impairment were administered reading-related measures in English and Spanish (letter identification, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and sentence repetition) and descriptive measures including English language proficiency (ELP), language ability (LA),…

Petersen, Douglas B.; Gillam, Ronald B.

2013-01-01

440

Facilitating Phoneme Awareness Development in 3- and 4-Year-Old Children with Speech Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated the phonological awareness and early literacy development of 12 children who presented at 3 years of age with moderate or severe speech impairment. The children's response to early intervention that included specific activities to facilitate phoneme awareness and letter knowledge, in addition to improving speech…

Gillon, Gail T.

2005-01-01

441

Cerebellar-parietal connections underpin phonological storage.  

PubMed

Previous research has accumulated convincing evidence to show that the human cerebellum contributes to the short-term storage of verbal information, but its specific role in brain networks involved in phonological storage remains uncertain. In a randomized, crossover and sham-controlled design, we here combined transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), applied to the right cerebellum, with fMRI to investigate systematically the contribution of the human cerebellum to encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of verbal information. After anodal, but not cathodal, tDCS, we found a reduced item recognition capacity together with an attenuated neural signal from the right cerebellar lobule VIIb, specifically during the late encoding phase. Within this phase, tDCS furthermore affected task-associated functional connections between right cerebellar lobule VIIb and the posterior parietal cortex. These findings suggest that the right cerebellar lobule VIIb interacts with the posterior parietal cortex, specifically during the late stages of verbal encoding, when verbal information enters phonological storage. PMID:24695720

Macher, Katja; Böhringer, Andreas; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

2014-04-01

442

The Development of Multisensory Integration in High-Functioning Autism: High-Density Electrical Mapping and Psychophysical Measures Reveal Impairments in the Processing of Audiovisual Inputs  

PubMed Central

Successful integration of auditory and visual inputs is crucial for both basic perceptual functions and for higher-order processes related to social cognition. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social cognition and are associated with abnormalities in sensory and perceptual processes. Several groups have reported that individuals with ASD are impaired in their ability to integrate socially relevant audiovisual (AV) information, and it has been suggested that this contributes to the higher-order social and cognitive deficits observed in ASD. However, successful integration of auditory and visual inputs also influences detection and perception of nonsocial stimuli, and integration deficits may impair earlier stages of information processing, with cascading downstream effects. To assess the integrity of basic AV integration, we recorded high-density electrophysiology from a cohort of high-functioning children with ASD (7–16 years) while they performed a simple AV reaction time task. Children with ASD showed considerably less behavioral facilitation to multisensory inputs, deficits that were paralleled by less effective neural integration. Evidence for processing differences relative to typically developing children was seen as early as 100 ms poststimulation, and topographic analysis suggested that children with ASD relied on different cortical networks during this early multisensory processing stage. PMID:22628458

Brandwein, Alice B.; Foxe, John J.; Butler, John S.; Russo, Natalie N.; Altschuler, Ted S.; Gomes, Hilary; Molholm, Sophie

2013-01-01

443

Atypical Right Hemisphere Specialization for Object Representations in an Adolescent with Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Individuals with a diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) show abnormal spoken language occurring alongside normal non-verbal abilities. Behaviorally, people with SLI exhibit diverse profiles of impairment involving phonological, grammatical, syntactic, and semantic aspects of language. In this study, we used a multimodal neuroimaging technique called anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) to measure the dynamic functional brain organization of an adolescent with SLI. Using single-subject statistical maps of cortical activity, we compared this patient to a sibling and to a cohort of typically developing subjects during the performance of tasks designed to evoke semantic representations of concrete objects. Localized patterns of brain activity within the language impaired patient showed marked differences from the typical functional organization, with significant engagement of right hemisphere heteromodal cortical regions generally homotopic to the left hemisphere areas that usually show the greatest activity for such tasks. Functional neuroanatomical differences were evident at early sensoriperceptual processing stages and continued through later cognitive stages, observed specifically at latencies typically associated with semantic encoding operations. Our findings show with real-time temporal specificity evidence for an atypical right hemisphere specialization for the representation of concrete entities, independent of verbal motor demands. More broadly, our results demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of using aMEG to characterize individual patient differences in the dynamic functional organization of the brain. PMID:24592231

Brown, Timothy T.; Erhart, Matthew; Avesar, Daniel; Dale, Anders M.; Halgren, Eric; Evans, Julia L.

2014-01-01

444

Learning to read as the formation of a dynamic system: evidence for dynamic stability in phonological recoding  

PubMed Central

Two aspects of dynamic systems approaches that are pertinent to developmental models of reading are the emergence of a system with self-organizing characteristics, and its evolution over time to a stable state that is not easily modified or perturbed. The effects of dynamic stability may be seen in the differences obtained in the processing of print by beginner readers taught by different approaches to reading (phonics and text-centered), and more long-term effects on adults, consistent with these differences. However, there is little direct evidence collected over time for the same participants. In this study, lexicalized (implicit) phonological processing, and explicit phonological and letter-sound skills are further examined in a precocious reader whose early development at 3 and 5 years has been extensively described (Cognition, 2000, 2004). At ages 10 and 14 years, comparisons were made with these earlier reports and skilled adult readers, using the same tasks for evidence of changes in reading processes. The results showed that along with an increase of reading accuracy and speed, her pattern of lexicalized phonological responses for reading did not change over time. Neither did her pattern of explicit phonological and letter-sound skills, aspects of which were inferior to her lexicalized phonological processing, and word reading. These results suggest dynamic stability of the word reading system. The early emergence of this system with minimal explicit skill development calls into question developmental reading theories that require such skills for learning to read. Currently, only the Knowledge Sources theory of reading acquisition can account for such findings. Consideration of these aspects of dynamic systems raise theoretical issues that could result in a paradigm shift with regard to best practice and intervention. PMID:25071635

Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M.

2014-01-01

445

p53 Interacts with RNA Polymerase II through Its Core Domain and Impairs Pol II Processivity In Vivo  

PubMed Central

The tumor suppressor p53 principally functions as a gene-specific transcription factor. p53 triggers a variety of anti-proliferative programs by activating or repressing the transcription of effector genes in response to genotoxic stress. To date, much effort has been placed on understanding p53's ability to affect transcription in the context of its DNA-binding activity. How p53 regulates transcriptional output independent of DNA binding is less well understood. Here we provide evidence that human p53 can physically interact with the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) both in in vitro interaction assays and in whole cell extracts, and that this interaction is mediated (at least in part) through p53's core DNA-binding domain and the Ser5-phosphorylated CTD of Pol II. Ectopic expression of p53, combined with mutations in transcription elongation factors or exposure to drugs that inhibit Pol II elongation, elicit sickness or lethality in yeast cells. These phenotypes are suppressed by oncogenic point mutations within p53's core domain. The growth phenotypes raise the possibility that p53 impairs Pol II elongation. Consistent with this, a p53-dependent increase in Pol II density is seen at constitutively expressed genes without a concomitant increase in transcript accumulation. Additionally, p53-expressing yeast strains exhibit reduced transcriptional processivity at an episomal reporter gene; this inhibitory activity is abolished by a core domain point mutation. Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which p53 can regulate gene transcription, and a new biological function for its core domain that is susceptible to inactivation by oncogenic point mutations. PMID:21829606

Kim, Sunyoung; Balakrishnan, Sri Kripa; Gross, David S.

2011-01-01

446

Critical role of inflammatory cytokines in impairing biochemical processes for learning and memory after surgery in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with postoperative cognitive dysfunction have poor outcomes. Neuroinflammation may be the underlying pathophysiology for this dysfunction. We determined whether proinflammatory cytokines affect the trafficking of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors to the plasma membrane, a fundamental biochemical process for learning and memory. Methods Four-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were subjected to right carotid exposure under isoflurane anesthesia. Some rats received intravenous lidocaine infusion during anesthesia. Rats were tested two weeks later by Barnes maze. The hippocampus was harvested six hours after the surgery for western blotting of interleukin (IL)-1? or IL-6. Hippocampal slices were prepared from control rats or rats subjected to surgery two weeks previously. They were incubated with tetraethylammonium, an agent that can induce long term potentiation, for determining the trafficking of GluR1, an ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunit. Results Surgery or anesthesia increased the time to identify the target box during the Barnes maze test training sessions and one day after the training sessions. Surgery also prolonged the time to identify the target box eight days after the training sessions. Surgery increased IL-1? and IL-6 in the hippocampus. The tetraethylammonium–induced GluR1 phosphorylation and trafficking were abolished in the hippocampal slices of rats after surgery. These surgical effects were partly inhibited by lidocaine. The incubation of control hippocampal slices with IL-1? and IL-6 abolished tetraethylammonium–induced GluR1 trafficking and phosphorylation. Lidocaine minimally affected the effects of IL-1? on GluR1 trafficking. Conclusions Our results suggest that surgery increases proinflammatory cytokines that then inhibit GluR1 trafficking, leading to learning and memory impairment. PMID:24884762

2014-01-01

447

The interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure: evidence from Kera phonetics and phonology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis uses acoustic measurements as a basis for the phonological analysis of the interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure in Kera (a Chadic language). In both tone spreading and vowel harmony, the iambic foot acts as a domain for spreading. Further evidence for the foot comes from measurements of duration, intensity and vowel quality. Kera is unusual in combining a tone system with a partially independent metrical system based on iambs. In words containing more than one foot, the foot is the tone bearing unit (TBU), but in shorter words, the TBU is the syllable. In perception and production experiments, results show that Kera speakers, unlike English and French, use the fundamental frequency as the principle cue to 'Voicing" contrast. Voice onset time (VOT) has only a minor role. Historically, tones probably developed from voicing through a process of tonogenesis, but synchronically, the feature voice is no longer contrastive and VOT is used in an enhancing role. Some linguists have claimed that Kera is a key example for their controversial theory of long-distance voicing spread. But as voice is not part of Kera phonology, this thesis gives counter-evidence to the voice spreading claim. An important finding from the experiments is that the phonological grammars are different between village women, men moving to town and town men. These differences are attributed to French contact. The interaction between Kera tone and voicing and contact with French have produced changes from a 2-way voicing contrast, through a 3-way tonal contrast, to a 2-way voicing contrast plus another contrast with short VOT. These diachronic and synchronic tone/voicing facts are analysed using laryngeal features and Optimality Theory. This thesis provides a body of new data, detailed acoustic measurements, and an analysis incorporating current theoretical issues in phonology, which make it of interest to Africanists and theoreticians alike.

Pearce, Mary Dorothy

448

Modelling reading development through phonological decoding and self-teaching: implications for dyslexia  

PubMed Central

The most influential theory of learning to read is based on the idea that children rely on phonological decoding skills to learn novel words. According to the self-teaching hypothesis, each successful decoding encounter with an unfamiliar word provides an opportunity to acquire word-specific orthographic information that is the foundation of skilled word recognition. Therefore, phonological decoding acts as a self-teaching mechanism or ‘built-in teacher’. However, all previous connectionist models have learned the task of reading aloud through exposure to a very large corpus of spelling–sound pairs, where an ‘external’ teacher supplies the pronunciation of all words that should be learnt. Such a supervised training regimen is highly implausible. Here, we implement and test the developmentally plausible phonological decoding self-teaching hypothesis in the context of the connectionist dual process model. In a series of simulations, we provide a proof of concept that this mechanism works. The model was able to acquire word-specific orthographic representations for more than 25 000 words even though it started with only a small number of grapheme–phoneme correspondences. We then show how visual and phoneme deficits that are present at the outset of reading development can cause dyslexia in the course of reading development. PMID:24324240

Ziegler, Johannes C.; Perry, Conrad; Zorzi, Marco

2014-01-01

449

Phonological Awareness Development of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants  

E-print Network

minimum of 18 months (CI group) and 26 normal hearing peers (NH group) were enrolled in this study. Children's phonological awareness, speech perception, speech production, general language, receptive vocabulary, and print knowledge abilities were assessed...

Ambrose, Sophie Eva

2009-12-04

450

Does "reading" develop "phonological awareness" in Down's syndrome?  

E-print Network

casual relationship for alphabetic scripts. Results discussed in this paper do not support this view as far as reading ability and phonological awareness go in Down's syndrome. The present study compared a sample of children with Down's syndrome (N=10...

Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

2007-01-01

451

Learning General Phonological Rules From Distributional Information: A Computational Model.  

PubMed

Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony (Peperkamp, Le Calvez, Nadal, & Dupoux, 2006). This paper extends the model to account for learning of a broader set of phonological alternations and the formalization of these alternations as general rules. In Experiment 1, we apply the original model to new data in Dutch and demonstrate its limitations in learning nonallophonic rules. In Experiment 2, we extend the model to allow it to learn general rules for alternations that apply to a class of segments. In Experiment 3, the model is further extended to allow for generalization by context; we argue that this generalization must be constrained by linguistic principles. PMID:25227261

Calamaro, Shira; Jarosz, Gaja

2014-09-16

452

Brief Report: Atypical Social Cognition and Social Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Different Way of Processing Rather than an Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A central question to autism research is whether autism is largely the result of an impairment in social cognition and\\/or\\u000a motivation or the result of a more general processing difference. This review discusses problems with the “social deficit”\\u000a model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is suggested that superior attention to low-level perceptual information potentially\\u000a coupled with decreased attention to

Kate O’Connor; Ian Kirk

2008-01-01

453

Phonological and orthographic spelling in high-functioning adult dyslexics.  

PubMed

Despite a history of reading or spelling difficulties, some adults attain age-appropriate spelling skills and succeed at university. We compared the spelling of 29 such high-functioning dyslexics with that of 28 typical students, matched on general spelling ability, and controlling for vocabulary and non-verbal intelligence. Participants wrote derived real and pseudo words, whose spelling relationship to their base forms was categorized as phonologically simple (apt-aptly), orthographically simple (deceit-deceitful), phonologically complex (ash-ashen), or orthographically complex (plenty-plentiful). Dyslexic participants spelled all word and pseudoword categories more poorly than controls. Both groups spelled simple phonological words best. Dyslexics were particularly poor at spelling simple orthographic words, whose letter patterns and rules must likely be memorized. In contrast, dyslexics wrote more plausible spellings of orthographic than phonological pseudowords, but this might be an artefact of their more variable spelling attempts. These results suggest that high-functioning dyslexics make some use of phonological skills to spell familiar words, but they have difficulty in memorizing orthographic patterns, which makes it difficult to spell unfamiliar words consistently in the absence of sufficient phonological cues or orthographic rules. PMID:18489012

Kemp, Nenagh; Parrila, Rauno K; Kirby, John R

2009-05-01

454

Second language phonology influences first language word naming.  

PubMed

The Masked Onset Priming Effect (MOPE) has been reported in speakers' first languages (L1). The aims of the present study are to investigate whether second language (L2) phonology is active during L1 reading, and to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology in reading aloud. To this end, Dutch-English bilinguals read aloud L1 target words primed by L2 words, while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The onset of the primes was manipulated to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology (i.e. O+P+: kite - KUNST, 'art'; O+P-: knee - KUNST; O-P+: crime - KUNST; O-P-: mine - KUNST). Phonological but not orthographic overlap facilitated RTs. However, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed both orthographic and phonological priming starting 125 ms after target presentation. Taken together, we gained insights into the time course of cross-linguistic priming and demonstrated that L2 phonology is activated rapidly in an L1 environment. PMID:24735994

Timmer, Kalinka; Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Ceusters, Ilse; Schiller, Niels O

2014-06-01

455

CASE STUDY DEMONSTRATING THE STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION PROCESS THAT IDENTIFIES CAUSES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT IN THE NATION'S WATER BODIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The stressor identification program developed guidance for identifying the causes of biological impairments in the nation's waters: U.S. EPA. 2000. Stressor identification guidance document. EPA/822/B-00/025. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. The ...

456

ERPs Reveal Atypical Processing of Subject versus Object "Wh"-Questions in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular difficulty comprehending and producing object ("Who did the bear follow?") relative to subject ("Who followed the tiger?") "wh"-questions. Aims: To determine if school-age children with SLI, relative to children with typical development (TD),…

Epstein, Baila; Hestvik, Arild; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.

2013-01-01

457

Contribution of Temporal Preparation and Processing Speed to Simple Reaction Time in Persons with Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Temporal preparation was assessed in 15 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 20 persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 28 healthy older adults. Participants completed a simple reaction time task in which the preparatory interval duration varied randomly within two blocks (short versus long temporal window). Results indicated that AD and…

Sylvain-Roy, Stephanie; Bherer, Louis; Belleville, Sylvie

2010-01-01

458

Taste - impaired  

MedlinePLUS

... longer. Causes of impaired taste include: Bell's palsy Common cold Flu Nasal infection, nasal polyps , sinusitis Pharyngitis and ... your diet. For taste problems due to the common cold or flu, normal taste should return when the ...

459

Phonological changes during the transition from one-word to productive word combination.  

PubMed

We investigated developmental changes during the transition from one-word to two-word production, focusing on strategies to lengthen utterances phonologically and to control utterances suprasegmentally. We hypothesized that there is a period of reorganization at the onset of word combinations indicated by decreases in both filler syllables (Fillers) and final syllable lengthening (FSL). The data are from a visually impaired child (Seth) between 1; 6.21 and 1; 10.26. Seth produced many Fillers until 1; 9 when their number decreased for about two weeks after which they changed in nature. FSL was observed until 1; 8, but diminished at 1; 9. These two regressions coincide with the onset of word combination. PMID:19323858

Aoyama, Katsura; Peters, Ann M; Winchester, Kimberly S

2010-01-01

460

Basic auditory processing and developmental dyslexia in Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores the relationship between basic auditory processing of sound rise time, frequency, duration and\\u000a intensity, phonological skills (onset-rime and tone awareness, sound blending, RAN, and phonological memory) and reading disability\\u000a in Chinese. A series of psychometric, literacy, phonological, auditory, and character processing tasks were given to 73 native\\u000a speakers of Mandarin with an average age of 9.7 years.

Hsiao-Lan Sharon Wang; Martina Huss; Jarmo A. Hämäläinen; Usha Goswami

461

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Learning to Read: Print Tuning in Beginning Readers Related to Word-Reading Fluency and Semantics but Not Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During reading acquisition children learn to recognize orthographic stimuli and link them to phonology and semantics. The present study investigated neurocognitive processes of learning to read after one year of schooling. We aimed to elucidate the cognitive processes underlying neural tuning for print that has been shown to play an important role…

Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K.; Jost, Lea B.; Raith, Margit; Maurer, Urs

2015-01-01

462

Effectiveness of Computerised Spelling Training in Children with Language Impairments: A Comparison of Modified and Unmodified Speech Input  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated a computerised program for training spelling in 8- to 13-year-olds with receptive language impairments. The training program involved children typing words corresponding to pictured items whose names were spoken. If the child made an error or requested help, the program gave phonological and orthographic cues to build up the…

Bishop, Dorothy; Adams, Caroline; Lehtonen, Annukka; Rosen, Stuart

2005-01-01

463

Effectiveness of computerised spelling training in children with language impairments: a comparison of modified and unmodified speech input  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated a computerised program for training spelling in 8- to 13-year- olds with receptive language impairments. The training program involved children typing words corresponding to pictured items whose names were spoken. If the child made an error or requested help, the program gave phonological and orthographic cues to build up the word's spelling. Eleven children received this training

Dorothy Bishop; Caroline Adams; Annukka Lehtonen; Stuart Rosen

2005-01-01

464

The spread of the phonological neighborhood influences spoken word recognition  

PubMed Central

In three experiments, the processing of words that had the same overall number of neighbors but varied in the spread of the neighborhood (i.e., the number of individual phonemes that could be changed to form real words) was examined. In an auditory lexical decision task, a naming task, and a same–different task, words in which changes at only two phoneme positions formed neighbors were responded to more quickly than words in which changes at all three phoneme positions formed neighbors. Additional analyses ruled out an account based on the computationally derived uniqueness points of the words. Although previous studies (e.g., Luce & Pisoni, 1998) have shown that the number of phonological neighbors influences spoken word recognition, the present results show that the nature of the relationship of the neighbors to the target word—as measured by the spread of the neighborhood—also influences spoken word recognition. The implications of this result for models of spoken word recognition are discussed. PMID:17533890

Vitevitch, Michael S.

2008-01-01

465

Manifestation of speech and language disorders in children with hearing impairment compared with children with specific language disorders.  

PubMed

Children with hearing impairment (HI) often suffer from speech and language disorders. We wondered if the manifestation of these disorders resembled the ones in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Using matched pairs, we compared the manifestation of a speech and language disorder in 5- and 6-year-old chil