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Sample records for impaired phonological processing

  1. Phonological processing skills in specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Claessen, Mary; Leitão, Suze; Kane, Robert; Williams, Cori

    2013-10-01

    In order to provide effective intervention for children with specific language impairment (SLI), it is crucial that there is an understanding of the underlying deficit in SLI. This study utilized a battery of phonological processing tasks to compare the phonological processing skills of children with SLI to typically-developing peers matched for age or language. The children with SLI had significantly poorer performance than age-matched peers on measures of phonological representations, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, phonological short-term memory, and one measure of working memory. Of particular significance, the SLI group also demonstrated significantly weaker performance than language-matched peers on one measure of phonological representations, and one measure of working memory. The findings provide some support for a phonological processing account of SLI and highlight the utility of using tasks that draw on a comprehensive model of speech processing to profile and consider children's phonological processing skills in detail. PMID:23327452

  2. Phonological processing skills in speech and language impaired children.

    PubMed

    Leitão, S; Hogben, J; Fletcher, J

    1997-01-01

    Phonological processing has been shown by many researchers to be strongly related to the acquisition of reading and spelling skills. Children with speech and language impairment appear to be at increased risk for phonological processing problems and hence literary difficulties. However, not all children with speech and language impairment experience difficulties: the literature is not clear as to which groups of speech and language impaired children are most severely affected nor which aspects of phonological processing are most likely to be impaired. Rigorous subject selection was employed to compare the performance of four groups of 20 children, aged approximately 6 years: speech-impaired (Speech); language-impaired (Language); speech and language impaired (Mixed); and children with normally developing language (Normal), by use of a battery of phonological processing tasks. The results supported the research that has shown speech and language impaired children to have weaker phonological processing skills than the general population. All the subjects in this sample appeared to be at risk: the Mixed children demonstrated the most difficulty, followed by the Language group, with the Normal group performing the best. Whilst the Speech group as a whole performed significantly more poorly than the Normal group, it consisted of two levels of performance which, on post hoc analysis were shown to relate to the pattern of speech impairment exhibited by the child. PMID:9279429

  3. Impaired reading comprehension in schizophrenia: evidence for underlying phonological processing deficits.

    PubMed

    Arnott, Wendy; Sali, Lauren; Copland, David

    2011-05-15

    The present study examined reading ability in high functioning people with schizophrenia. To this end, 16 people with schizophrenia who were living in the community and 12 matched controls completed tests of passage reading (comprehension, accuracy, and rate), word recognition, and phonological processing (phonological awareness, phonological memory and rapid naming) and ratings of reading self-concept and practices. Performance of the participants with schizophrenia was impaired relative to control participants on reading comprehension and rapid naming and relative to the population norms on phonological awareness, and rapid naming. In addition, self-rating data revealed that participants with schizophrenia had poorer perceptions of their reading ability and engaged in reading activities less frequently than their control counterparts. Consistent with earlier research, significant correlations were found between phonological awareness and reading comprehension. These findings expand on previous research in the area to suggest that community-based individuals with schizophrenia experience problems with reading comprehension that may have a phonological basis. PMID:21185607

  4. Dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonology and Auditory Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Jill; Goswami, Usha; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    We explore potential similarities between developmental dyslexia (specific reading disability [SRD]) and specific language impairment (SLI) in terms of phonological skills, underlying auditory processing abilities, and nonphonological language skills. Children aged 9 to 11 years with reading and/or language difficulties were recruited and compared…

  5. BRAIN AND LANGUAGE 18, 128-174 (1983) The Selective Impairment of Phonological Processing

    E-print Network

    Caramazza, Alfonso

    1983-01-01

    is characterized by an auditory comprehension disorder coexisting with fluent speech that may be largely empty to their auditory disorder (Goodglass & Kaplan, 1972). The suggestion has been made that Wernicke's aphasia canBRAIN AND LANGUAGE 18, 128-174 (1983) The Selective Impairment of Phonological Processing: A Case

  6. The relatedness of phonological processes of a hearing-impaired child.

    PubMed

    Oller, D K; Jensen, H T; Lafayette, R H

    1978-04-01

    This is a study, in the generative framework, of the phonology of a 6-year-old, hard-of-hearing child. The study has two main results: (1) the phonological substitutions and delections of this hearing imparied child are basically the same in kind as those found in the speech of younger normals and (2) the phonological processes of the child's system fit into groups of processes, each group operationalizing some phonetic preference of the child. Implications for a general theory of phonologica acquistion are discussed. PMID:659659

  7. Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M.; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2014-01-01

    Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161

  8. Implementation processes associated with a home-based phonological awareness intervention for children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Skibbe, Lori E; Justice, Laura M; Bowles, Ryan P

    2011-04-01

    The implementation processes associated with a home-based phonological awareness intervention were observed for mothers and their 4-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI). Mother-child dyads (n = 13) read books four times per week over 12 weeks; each book contained nine embedded phonological awareness (PA) tasks. Four hundred and ninety-eight book reading sessions were coded for three variables of interest: maternal support of concept development, quantity of maternal instructional support, and accuracy of children's responses to the PA tasks. Using growth curve modelling, results indicate that maternal support of concept development decreased over the course of the 12-week program, and the quantity of maternal supports changed considerably reflecting intra-individual differences among mothers. Both support of concept development and quantity of support decreased over the course of a given week. In addition, children's responses to the phonological awareness tasks significantly increased over the 12-week intervention. Overall, mothers did not provide support that consistently supported children's learning over time, and the increases in children's correct responses, although significant, were less than anticipated given the length of the intervention. These findings indicate that mothers may need additional supports when implementing emergent literacy programs with their children. PMID:21480808

  9. Verbal Memory and Phonological Processing in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijms, Jurgen

    2004-01-01

    This study examines whether two frequently reported causes of dyslexia, phonological processing problems and verbal memory impairments, represent a double-deficit or whether they are two expressions of the same deficit. Two-hundred-and-sixty-seven Dutch children aged 10-14 with dyslexia completed a list-learning task and several phonological

  10. Phonological Processing in Primary Progressive Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Henry, Maya L; Wilson, Stephen M; Babiak, Miranda C; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Beeson, Pelagie M; Miller, Zachary A; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) show selective breakdown in regions within the proposed dorsal (articulatory-phonological) and ventral (lexical-semantic) pathways involved in language processing. Phonological STM impairment, which has been attributed to selective damage to dorsal pathway structures, is considered to be a distinctive feature of the logopenic variant of PPA. By contrast, phonological abilities are considered to be relatively spared in the semantic variant and are largely unexplored in the nonfluent/agrammatic variant. Comprehensive assessment of phonological ability in the three variants of PPA has not been undertaken. We investigated phonological processing skills in a group of participants with PPA as well as healthy controls, with the goal of identifying whether patterns of performance support the dorsal versus ventral functional-anatomical framework and to discern whether phonological ability differs among PPA subtypes. We also explored the neural bases of phonological performance using voxel-based morphometry. Phonological performance was impaired in patients with damage to dorsal pathway structures (nonfluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants), with logopenic participants demonstrating particular difficulty on tasks involving nonwords. Binary logistic regression revealed that select phonological tasks predicted diagnostic group membership in the less fluent variants of PPA with a high degree of accuracy, particularly in conjunction with a motor speech measure. Brain-behavior correlations indicated a significant association between the integrity of gray matter in frontal and temporoparietal regions of the left hemisphere and phonological skill. Findings confirm the critical role of dorsal stream structures in phonological processing and demonstrate unique patterns of impaired phonological processing in logopenic and nonfluent/agrammatic variants of PPA. PMID:26544920

  11. Cerebral Localization of Impaired Phonological Retrieval During Rhyme Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Sara B.; Stengel, Benjamin C.; Humphries, Colin; Book, Diane S.; Binder, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Computation of a pre-articulatory phonological representation (phonological access, or phonological retrieval) is an essential process in speech production whose neural localization is not clear. This study combined a specific behavioral measure of phonological access and multivariate voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) in a series of left hemisphere stroke patients to identify brain regions critical for this process. Methods Phonological access was assessed in 40 chronic ischemic stroke patients using a silent rhyming task to avoid confounds with motor planning and articulation deficits. Additional covariates were incorporated in the VLSM analysis to control for orthographic and working memory demands of the rhyming task, and for age, education, and total lesion volume. The resulting t-statistic maps were thresholded at voxel-wise p < .001 and cluster-corrected at a family-wise error of p < .05. Results Phonological access impairment was correlated with damage to a focal region of cortex and white matter caudal to the posterior sylvian fissure, which included the posterior supramarginal gyrus and adjacent anterior angular gyrus, planum temporale, and posterior superior temporal gyrus. No correlation was observed with Broca’s area, insula, or sensorimotor cortex. An additional VLSM showed no correlation between damage in this posterior perisylvian region and spoken word comprehension. Interpretation This is the first demonstration of a specific lesion correlate for phonological access impairment. Although this posterior perisylvian region overlaps with some versions of the classical Wernicke area, the present results demonstrate its involvement in pre-articulatory phonological production rather than speech perception or lexical-semantic processes. PMID:25164766

  12. Development of Phonological Processing Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment with and without Literacy Delay: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the development of phonological skills in children with specific language impairment (SLI) with and without literacy delay and to examine whether kindergarten phonological skills could discriminate these 2 groups. Method: In a longitudinal study, 8 children with SLI and literacy delay, 10 children with SLI and normal literacy,…

  13. Impaired Letter-String Processing in Developmental Dyslexia: What Visual-to-Phonology Code Mapping Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In…

  14. An fMRI study of multimodal semantic and phonological processing in reading disabled adolescents

    E-print Network

    An fMRI study of multimodal semantic and phonological processing in reading disabled adolescents (visual only) phonological processing in reading disabled (RD) adolescents and non-impaired (NI) control

  15. Exploring the nature of the phonological deficit in dyslexia: are phonological representations impaired

    E-print Network

    Dickie, Catherine Elizabeth

    2009-07-03

    Developmental dyslexia is widely believed to be caused either mainly or in part by an impairment of phonological representations. Although this hypothesis predicts that individuals with dyslexia should show deficits in ...

  16. Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing

    E-print Network

    Lee, Su-Yeon

    2011-08-31

    -form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to studies of monolingual phonological processing, phonotactic probability, the likelihood of occurrence of a sound sequence, influences both word recognition...

  17. Written Language Impairments in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Reflection of Damage to Central Semantic and Phonological Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Maya L.; Beeson, Pelagie M.; Alexander, Gene E.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

    2012-01-01

    Connectionist theories of language propose that written language deficits arise as a result of damage to semantic and phonological systems that also support spoken language production and comprehension, a view referred to as the "primary systems" hypothesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the primary systems account in a mixed…

  18. Voice onset time in Swedish children with phonological impairment.

    PubMed

    Lundeborg, Inger; Nordin, Elin; Zeipel-Stjerna, Marie; McAllister, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Mastering spatial and temporal co-ordination in speech production is a challenge for children. Voice onset time (VOT) reflects timing in speech. The objective was to study VOT in Swedish children with a diagnosed phonological impairment and compare results with normative data. Thus 38 children, aged 4-11 years, in three age-groups were audio-recorded when producing minimal pairs with the plosives /p b t d k g/. Waveforms and spectrograms were analysed. Results show that children with phonological impairment produced plosives with deviant VOT values and greater variability compared to normative data. No developmental trend was seen with increasing age. Also, no relationship was found between VOT values and degree of impairment measured by percentage phonemes correct. Furthermore no relation was found between number of errors on auditory discrimination of nine minimal pairs with the different plosives and number of deviant VOT. Findings were interpreted as displaying motor co-ordination difficulties. PMID:24992946

  19. Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... phonological disorders in children (article abstract) What do SLPs do when working with individuals with speech sound ... describe the typical clinical process followed by an SLP in these areas. Typical Speech and Language Development ...

  20. Reading impairments in schizophrenia relate to individual differences in phonological processing and oculomotor control: evidence from a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Veronica; O'Driscoll, Gillian A; Pack, Christopher C; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok; Titone, Debra

    2013-02-01

    Language and oculomotor disturbances are 2 of the best replicated findings in schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined skilled reading in schizophrenia (e.g., Arnott, Sali, Copland, 2011; Hayes & O'Grady, 2003; Revheim et al., 2006; E. O. Roberts et al., 2012), and none have examined the contribution of cognitive and motor processes that underlie reading performance. Thus, to evaluate the relationship of linguistic processes and oculomotor control to skilled reading in schizophrenia, 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 demographically matched controls were tested using a moving window paradigm (McConkie & Rayner, 1975). Linguistic skills supporting reading (phonological awareness) were assessed with the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (R. K. Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999). Eye movements were assessed during reading tasks and during nonlinguistic tasks tapping basic oculomotor control (prosaccades, smooth pursuit) and executive functions (predictive saccades, antisaccades). Compared with controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited robust oculomotor markers of reading difficulty (e.g., reduced forward saccade amplitude) and were less affected by reductions in window size, indicative of reduced perceptual span. Reduced perceptual span in schizophrenia was associated with deficits in phonological processing and reduced saccade amplitudes. Executive functioning (antisaccade errors) was not related to perceptual span but was related to reading comprehension. These findings suggest that deficits in language, oculomotor control, and cognitive control contribute to skilled reading deficits in schizophrenia. Given that both language and oculomotor dysfunction precede illness onset, reading may provide a sensitive window onto cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia vulnerability and be an important target for cognitive remediation. PMID:22506755

  1. Revealing and Quantifying the Impaired Phonological Analysis Underpinning Impaired Comprehension in Wernicke's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Holly; Keidel, James L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Sage, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia is a condition which results in severely disrupted language comprehension following a lesion to the left temporo-parietal region. A phonological analysis deficit has traditionally been held to be at the root of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke's aphasia, a view consistent with current functional neuroimaging which finds…

  2. Children's recognition of their own voice: influence of phonological impairment Sofia Strmbergsson

    E-print Network

    Boye, Johan

    Children's recognition of their own voice: influence of phonological impairment Sofia Strömbergsson the recorded voice as one's own, in three groups of children: one group of children with phonological impairment (PI) and two groups of children with typical speech and language development; 4-5 year-olds and 7

  3. Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su-Yeon

    2011-01-01

    In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…

  4. Phonological processing in Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Peng, Gang

    2014-12-01

    Although there is an emerging consensus that both musical and linguistic pitch processing can be problematic for individuals with a developmental disorder termed congenital amusia, the nature of such a pitch-processing deficit, especially that demonstrated in a speech setting, remains unclear. Therefore, this study tested the performance of native Mandarin speakers, both with and without amusia, on discrimination and imitation tasks for Cantonese level tones, aiming to shed light on this issue. Results suggest that the impact of the phonological deficit, coupled with that of the domain-general pitch deficit, could provide a more comprehensive interpretation of Mandarin amusics' speech impairment. Specifically, when there was a high demand for pitch sensitivity, as in fine-grained pitch discriminations, the operation of the pitch-processing deficit played the more predominant role in modulating amusics' speech performance. But when the demand was low, as in discriminating naturally produced Cantonese level tones, the impact of the phonological deficit was more pronounced compared to that of the pitch-processing deficit. However, despite their perceptual deficits, Mandarin amusics' imitation abilities were comparable to controls'. Such selective impairment in tonal perception suggests that the phonological deficit more severely implicates amusics' input pathways. PMID:25480080

  5. Explaining Lexical-Semantic Deficits in Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonological Similarity, Phonological Working Memory, and Lexical Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated potential explanations for sparse lexical-semantic representations in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers. The role of auditory perception, phonological working memory, and lexical competition were investigated. Method: Participants included 32 children…

  6. Working Memory Compensates for Hearing Related Phonological Processing Deficit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Ronnberg, Jerker

    2013-01-01

    Acquired hearing impairment is associated with gradually declining phonological representations. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model, poorly defined representations lead to mismatch in phonologically challenging tasks. To resolve the mismatch, reliance on working memory capacity (WMC) increases. This study investigated…

  7. Specific Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia Revealed by Eyetracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desroches, Amy S.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Robertson, Erin K.

    2006-01-01

    Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a…

  8. Phonological Deficits in Specific Language Impairment and Developmental Dyslexia: Towards a Multidimensional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

    2013-01-01

    An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At…

  9. Revisiting the Phonological Deficit in Dyslexia: Are Implicit Nonorthographic Representations Impaired?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickie, Catherine; Ota, Mitsuhiko; Clark, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether developmental dyslexia involves an impairment in implicit phonological representations, as distinct from orthographic representations and metaphonological skills. A group of adults with dyslexia was matched with a group with no history of speech/language/literacy impairment. Tasks varied in the demands made on…

  10. Patterns of Impairments in AOS and Mechanisms of Interaction between Phonological and Phonetic Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laganaro, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: One reason why the diagnosis of apraxia of speech (AOS) and its underlying impairment are often debated may lie in the fact that most patients do not display pure patterns of AOS. Mixed patterns are clearly acknowledged at other levels of impairment (e.g., lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological), and they have contributed to debate…

  11. An fMRI Study of Multimodal Semantic and Phonological Processing in Reading Disabled Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landi, Nicole; Mencl, W. Einar; Frost, Stephen J.; Sandak, Rebecca; Pugh, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated multimodal (visual and auditory) semantic and unimodal (visual only) phonological processing in reading disabled (RD) adolescents and non-impaired (NI) control participants. We found reduced activation for RD relative to NI in a number of left-hemisphere reading-related areas across all…

  12. Atypical neural responses to phonological detail in children with developmental language impairments.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Lisa M D; Joanisse, Marc F

    2012-01-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a developmental disorder affecting language learning across a number of domains. These difficulties are thought to be related to difficulties processing auditory speech, given findings of imperfect auditory processing across nonspeech tones, individual speech sounds and syllables. However the relationship of auditory difficulties to language development remains unclear. Perceiving connected speech involves resolving coarticulation, the imperceptible blending of speech movements across adjacent sounds, which gives rise to subtle variations in speech sounds. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine neural responses to coarticulation in school age children with and without SLI. Atypical neural responses were observed for the SLI group in ERP indices of prelexical-phonological but not lexical stages of processing. Specifically, incongruent coarticulatory information resulted in a modulation of the N100 in the SLI but not typically developing group while a Phonological Mapping Negativity was elicited in the typically developing but not SLI group, unless additional cues were present. Neural responses to unexpected lexical mismatches indexed by the N400 ERP component were the same for both groups. The results demonstrate a relative insensitivity to important subphonemic features in SLI. PMID:22682735

  13. Phonological Processing and Arithmetic Fact Retrieval: Evidence from Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact…

  14. Phonological Processing Skills of Adolescents with Residual Speech Sound Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Edwards, Mary Louise

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research has shown that young children with speech sound disorders may have weaknesses in phonological processing. However, such skills have not been thoroughly examined in adolescents with residual speech sound errors. Therefore, this study compared the phonological processing abilities of adolescents with residual speech sound errors to…

  15. Beyond decoding: phonological processing during silent reading in beginning readers.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Hazel I; Pagán, Ascensión; Dodd, Megan

    2015-07-01

    In this experiment, the extent to which beginning readers process phonology during lexical identification in silent sentence reading was investigated. The eye movements of children aged seven to nine years and adults were recorded as they read sentences containing either a correctly spelled target word (e.g., girl), a pseudohomophone (e.g., gerl), or a spelling control (e.g., garl). Both children and adults showed a benefit from the valid phonology of the pseudohomophone, compared to the spelling control during reading. This indicates that children as young as seven years old exhibit relatively skilled phonological processing during reading, despite having moved past the use of overt phonological decoding strategies. In addition, in comparison to adults, children's lexical processing was more disrupted by the presence of spelling errors, suggesting a developmental change in the relative dependence upon phonological and orthographic processing in lexical identification during silent sentence reading. PMID:25528096

  16. Past-Tense Morphology and Phonological Deficits in Children with Dyslexia and Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Desroches, Amy S.; Terry, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated past-tense morphology problems in children with dyslexia compared to those classically observed in children with oral language impairment (LI). Children were tested on a past-tense elicitation task involving regulars ("look-looked"), irregulars ("take-took"), and nonwords ("murn-murned"). Phonological skills were also…

  17. How Do Children with Phonological Impairment Respond to Requests for Clarification Containing Polysyllables?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masso, Sarah; McCabe, Patricia; Baker, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Accurate production of polysyllables (words of three or more syllables) can be challenging for children with phonological impairment. Research with typically developing children has suggested that children can improve their polysyllable productions in response to requests for clarification containing an incorrect model of a target word (Gozzard et…

  18. Children's Recognition of Their Own Recorded Voice: Influence of Age and Phonological Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strombergsson, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Children with phonological impairment (PI) often have difficulties perceiving insufficiencies in their own speech. The use of recordings has been suggested as a way of directing the child's attention toward his/her own speech, despite a lack of evidence that children actually recognize their recorded voice as their own. We present two studies of…

  19. Phonological Priming with Nonwords in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Patricia J.; Seiger-Gardner, Liat; Obeid, Rita; MacWhinney, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The cross-modal picture-word interference task is used to examine contextual effects on spoken-word production. Previous work has documented lexical-phonological interference in children with specific language impairment (SLI) when a related distractor (e.g., bell) occurs prior to a picture to be named (e.g., a bed). In the current study,…

  20. Differential Effects of Orthographic and Phonological Consistency in Cortex for Children with and without Reading Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Donald J.; Minas, Jennifer; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

    2008-01-01

    One of the central challenges in mastering English is becoming sensitive to consistency from spelling to sound (i.e. phonological consistency) and from sound to spelling (i.e. orthographic consistency). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of consistency in 9-15-year-old Normal and Impaired Readers…

  1. Lateralized frontal activity for Japanese phonological processing during child development

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Takaaki; Kita, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kota; Koike, Toshihide; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Phonological awareness is essential for reading, and is common to all language systems, including alphabetic languages and Japanese. This cognitive factor develops during childhood, and is thought to be associated with shifts in brain activity. However, the nature of this neurobiological developmental shift is unclear for speakers of Japanese, which is not an alphabetical language. The present study aimed to reveal a shift in brain functions for processing phonological information in native-born Japanese children. We conducted a phonological awareness task and examined hemodynamic activity in 103 children aged 7–12 years. While younger children made mistakes and needed more time to sort phonological information in reverse order, older children completed the task quickly and accurately. Additionally, younger children exhibited increased activity in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which may be evidence of immature phonological processing skills. Older children exhibited dominant activity in the left compared with the right DLPFC, suggesting that they had already acquired phonological processing skills. We also found significant effects of age and lateralized activity on behavioral performance. During earlier stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a smaller effect on behavioral performance. Conversely, in later stages of development, the degree of left lateralization appears to have a stronger influence on behavioral performance. These initial findings regarding a neurobiological developmental shift in Japanese speakers suggest that common brain regions play a critical role in the development of phonological processing skills among different languages systems, such as Japanese and alphabetical languages. PMID:26236223

  2. Electrophysiological Evidence for Impaired Attentional Engagement with Phonologically Acceptable Misspellings in Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Savill, Nicola J.; Thierry, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies of word recognition have provided fundamental insights into the time-course and stages of visual and auditory word form processing in reading. Here, we used ERPs to track the time-course of phonological processing in dyslexic adults and matched controls. Participants engaged in semantic judgments of visually presented high-cloze probability sentences ending either with (a) their best completion word, (b) a homophone of the best completion, (c) a pseudohomophone of the best completion, or (d) an unrelated word, to examine the interplay of phonological and orthographic processing in reading and the stage(s) of processing affected in developmental dyslexia. Early ERP peaks (N1, P2, N2) were modulated in amplitude similarly in the two groups of participants. However, dyslexic readers failed to show the P3a modulation seen in control participants for unexpected homophones and pseudohomophones (i.e., sentence completions that are acceptable phonologically but are misspelt). Furthermore, P3a amplitudes significantly correlated with reaction times in each experimental condition. Our results showed no sign of a deficit in accessing phonological representations during reading, since sentence primes yielded phonological priming effects that did not differ between participant groups in the early phases of processing. On the other hand, we report new evidence for a deficient attentional engagement with orthographically unexpected but phonologically expected words in dyslexia, irrespective of task focus on orthography or phonology. In our view, this result is consistent with deficiency in reading occurring from the point at which attention is oriented to phonological analysis, which may underlie broader difficulties in sublexical decoding. PMID:21734903

  3. Phonological working memory impairments in children with specific language impairment: where does the problem lie?

    PubMed Central

    Alt, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine which factors contribute to the lexical learning deficits of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Method Participants included 40 7-8-year old participants, half of whom were diagnosed with SLI and half of whom had normal language skills. We tested hypotheses about the contributions to word learning of the initial encoding of phonological information and the link to long-term memory. Children took part in a computer-based fast-mapping task which manipulated word length and phonotactic probability to address the hypotheses. The task had a recognition and a production component. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs with post-hoc testing. Results Results indicate that the main problem for children with SLI is with initial encoding, with implications for limited capacity. There was not strong evidence for specific deficits in the link to long term memory. Conclusions We were able to ascertain which aspects of lexical learning are most problematic for children with SLI in terms of fast-mapping. These findings may allow clinicians to focus intervention on known areas of weakness. Future directions include extending these findings to slow mapping scenarios. PMID:20943232

  4. Reading Impairments in Schizophrenia Relate to Individual Differences in Phonological Processing and Oculomotor Control: Evidence from a Gaze-Contingent Moving Window Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitford, Veronica; O'Driscoll, Gillian A.; Pack, Christopher C.; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok; Titone, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Language and oculomotor disturbances are 2 of the best replicated findings in schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined skilled reading in schizophrenia (e.g., Arnott, Sali, Copland, 2011; Hayes & O'Grady, 2003; Revheim et al., 2006; E. O. Roberts et al., 2012), and none have examined the contribution of cognitive and motor processes that…

  5. Performance of School Age Reading Disabled Students on the Phonological Awareness Subtests of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Dorothy; Christo, Catherine; Davis, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the performance of reading disabled children on the two Phonological Awareness Subtests of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). Participants performed significantly different on these two subtests with a poorer performance on the Elision subtest than Blending Words. In addition, the two subtests were not…

  6. The interface between morphology and phonology: exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

    2013-05-01

    Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment-these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

  7. Phonological Awareness of Young Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Deborah D.; Erickson, Karen A.; Lee, Donna Brostek

    2010-01-01

    The findings from a sample of 22 young children with visual impairments and no additional disabilities suggest that potential readers of braille or dual media had better syllable-segmentation, sound-isolation, and sound-segmentation skills than potential readers of print. Potential readers of print seemed to have slightly better…

  8. Speech Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory Capacity in Language Impairment: Preliminary Evidence from Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick Greatorex; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Baird, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Background: The cognitive bases of language impairment in specific language impairment (SLI) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated in a novel non-word comparison task which manipulated phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and speech perception, both implicated in poor non-word repetition. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the…

  9. Phonological Processing in Adults with Deficits in Musical Pitch Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer L.; Lucker, Jay; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We identified individuals with deficits in musical pitch recognition by screening a large random population using the Distorted Tunes Test (DTT), and enrolled individuals who had DTT scores in the lowest 10th percentile, classified as tune deaf. We examined phonological processing abilities in 35 tune deaf and 34 normal control individuals. Eight…

  10. Beyond Decoding: Phonological Processing during Silent Reading in Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Hazel I.; Pagán, Ascensión; Dodd, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In this experiment, the extent to which beginning readers process phonology during lexical identification in silent sentence reading was investigated. The eye movements of children aged seven to nine years and adults were recorded as they read sentences containing either a correctly spelled target word (e.g., girl), a pseudohomophone (e.g., gerl),…

  11. Phonological Processes in Kannada-Speaking Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R.; Velleman, Shelley L.

    2010-01-01

    Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some…

  12. Neural Correlates of Sublexical Processing in Phonological Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; Eisner, Frank; Marshall, Chloe R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Scott, Sophie K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural…

  13. Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

  14. Neural Dynamics of Phonological Processing in the Dorsal Auditory Stream

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A.; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali

    2013-01-01

    Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80–100 ms), consistent with a direct influence of articulatory somatomotor areas on phonemic perception. Left hemispheric lateralization was observed 250 ms earlier in IPL and vCS than pSTG, suggesting that functional specialization of somatomotor (and not auditory) areas determined lateralization in the dorsal auditory pathway. The temporal dynamics of the dorsal auditory pathway described here offer a new understanding of its functional organization and demonstrate that temporal information is essential to resolve neural circuits underlying complex behaviors. PMID:24068810

  15. Influence of Phonology on Morpho-Syntax in Romance Languages in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Serra-Raventos, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    Background: The profiles of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ greatly according to the language they speak. The Surface Hypothesis attempts to explain these differences through the theory that children with SLI will incorrectly produce elements in their language with low phonological weights or that are produced in a…

  16. Phonological processing in speech perception: What do sonority differences tell us?

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Isabelle; Baum, Shari R; Gracco, Vincent L

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has associated the inferior frontal and posterior temporal brain regions with a number of phonological processes. In order to identify how these specific brain regions contribute to phonological processing, we manipulated subsyllabic phonological complexity and stimulus modality during speech perception using fMRI. Subjects passively attended to visual or auditory pseudowords. Similar to previous studies, a bilateral network of cortical regions was recruited during the presentation of visual and auditory stimuli. Moreover, pseudowords recruited a similar network of regions as words and letters. Few regions in the whole-brain results revealed neural processing differences associated with phonological complexity independent of modality of presentation. In an ROI analysis, the only region sensitive to phonological complexity was the posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFGpo), with the complexity effect only present for print. In sum, the sensitivity of phonological brain areas depends on the modality of stimulus presentation and task demands. PMID:26186232

  17. Phonological Working Memory Impairments in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Where Does the Problem Lie?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which factors contribute to the lexical learning deficits of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Participants included 40 7-8-year old participants, half of whom were diagnosed with SLI and half of whom had normal language skills. We tested hypotheses about the contributions…

  18. An Investigation into Semantic and Phonological Processing in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheryl S.; Binder, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The current study examined semantic and phonological processing in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Previous research in language processing in individuals with WS suggests a complex linguistic system characterized by "deviant" semantic organization and differential phonological processing. Method: Two experiments…

  19. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

  20. Impaired learning of phonetic consistency and generalized neural adaptation deficits in dyslexia

    E-print Network

    Perrachione, Tyler K. (Tyler Kent)

    2012-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a neurological condition that specifically impairs the development of expert reading ability. Phonological processing deficits -- impaired representation of, or access to, the abstract units of ...

  1. A Model of Phonological Processing, Language, and Reading for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, R. Michael; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-age children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using…

  2. Response Inhibition and Its Relationship to Phonological Processing in Children with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Johanna M.; Labuhn, Andju S.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates response inhibition and its relationship to phonological processing in third-graders with and without dyslexia. Children with dyslexia (n = 20) and children without dyslexia (n = 16) were administered a stop signal task and a digit span forwards task. Initial analyses revealed phonological processing deficits in terms of a…

  3. Toddlers' Processing of Phonological Alternations: Early Compensation for Assimilation in English and French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoruppa, Katrin; Mani, Nivedita; Peperkamp, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Using a picture pointing task, this study examines toddlers' processing of phonological alternations that trigger sound changes in connected speech. Three experiments investigate whether 2;5- to 3-year-old children take into account assimilations--processes by which phonological features of one sound spread to adjacent sounds--for the purpose of…

  4. Processing of acoustic and phonological information of lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese revealed by mismatch negativity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Keke; Wang, Ruiming; Li, Li; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The accurate perception of lexical tones in tonal languages involves the processing of both acoustic information and phonological information carried by the tonal signal. In this study we evaluated the relative role of the two types of information in native Chinese speaker’s processing of tones at a preattentive stage with event-related potentials (ERPs), particularly the mismatch negativity (MNN). Specifically, we distinguished the acoustic from the phonological information by manipulating phonological category and acoustic interval of the stimulus materials. We found a significant main effect of phonological category for the peak latency of MMN, but a main effect of both phonological category and acoustic interval for the mean amplitude of MMN. The results indicated that the two types of information, acoustic and phonological, play different roles in the processing of Chinese lexical tones: acoustic information only impacts the extent of tonal processing, while phonological information affects both the extent and the time course of tonal processing. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of neurocognitive processes of phonological processing. PMID:25278863

  5. Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

    2006-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (p<0.05) than normal-reading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

  6. Event-Related Potentials Reflecting the Processing of Phonological Constraint Violations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domahs, Ulrike; Kehrein, Wolfgang; Knaus, Johannes; Wiese, Richard; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    How are violations of phonological constraints processed in word comprehension? The present article reports the results of an event-related potentials (ERP) study on a phonological constraint of German that disallows identical segments within a syllable or word (CC[subscript i]VC[subscript i]). We examined three types of monosyllabic CCVC words:…

  7. The Development and Treatment of Phonological Processes in Spanish Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian; Iglesias, Aquiles

    The Assessment of Phonological Disabilities measure was administered to 39 normally developing children and 10 speech-delayed children who were Spanish speaking, of Puerto Rican descent, and ranging in age from 3 to 4. Data were analyzed by comparing phonological processes against the "standard referent" and the "Puerto Rican referent." The…

  8. Cerebral Asymmetries in Early Orthographic and Phonological Reading Processes: Evidence from Backward Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halderman, Laura K.; Chiarello, Christine

    2005-01-01

    A lateralized backward masking paradigm was used to examine hemisphere differences in orthographic and phonological processes at an early time course of word recognition. Targets (e.g., bowl) were presented and backward masked by either pseudohomophones of the target word (orthographically and phonologically similar, e.g., BOAL), orthographically…

  9. The Importance of Phonological Processing Skills for Older Low-Progress Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogorzelski, Simmone; Wheldall, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    The important role of phonological awareness in learning to read has become widely accepted. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of phonological processing skills when attempting to assist older low-progress readers to develop literacy skills. While researchers generally agree that the key variables in reading acquisition (letter…

  10. Temporal Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children with Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, M. I. R.; Casali, R. L.; Boscariol, M.; Lunardi, L. L.; Guerreiro, M. M.; Colella-Santos, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze temporal auditory processing and phonological awareness in school-age children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Patient group (GI) consisted of 13 children diagnosed with BECTS. Control group (GII) consisted of 17 healthy children. After neurological and peripheral audiological assessment, children underwent a behavioral auditory evaluation and phonological awareness assessment. The procedures applied were: Gaps-in-Noise test (GIN), Duration Pattern test, and Phonological Awareness test (PCF). Results were compared between the groups and a correlation analysis was performed between temporal tasks and phonological awareness performance. GII performed significantly better than the children with BECTS (GI) in both GIN and Duration Pattern test (P < 0.001). GI performed significantly worse in all of the 4 categories of phonological awareness assessed: syllabic (P = 0.001), phonemic (P = 0.006), rhyme (P = 0.015) and alliteration (P = 0.010). Statistical analysis showed a significant positive correlation between the phonological awareness assessment and Duration Pattern test (P < 0.001). From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that children with BECTS may have difficulties in temporal resolution, temporal ordering, and phonological awareness skills. A correlation was observed between auditory temporal processing and phonological awareness in the suited sample. PMID:25685775

  11. How is phonological processing related to individual differences in children's arithmetic skills?

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Bert; Taylor, Jessica; Archibald, Lisa; Ansari, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    While there is evidence for an association between the development of reading and arithmetic, the precise locus of this relationship remains to be determined. Findings from cognitive neuroscience research that point to shared neural correlates for phonological processing and arithmetic as well as recent behavioral evidence led to the present hypothesis that there exists a highly specific association between phonological awareness and single-digit arithmetic with relatively small problem sizes. The present study examined this association in 37 typically developing fourth and fifth grade children. Regression analyses revealed that phonological awareness was specifically and uniquely related to arithmetic problems with a small but not large problem size. Further analysis indicated that problems with a high probability of being solved by retrieval, but not those typically associated with procedural problem-solving strategies, are correlated with phonological awareness. The specific association between phonological awareness and arithmetic problems with a small problem size and those for which a retrieval strategy is most common was maintained even after controlling for general reading ability and phonological short-term memory. The present findings indicate that the quality of children's long-term phonological representations mediates individual differences in single-digit arithmetic, suggesting that more distinct long-term phonological representations are related to more efficient arithmetic fact retrieval. PMID:20443971

  12. They played with the trade: MEG investigation of the processing of past tense verbs and their phonological twins

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Rachel; Brindley, Lisa; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Patterson, Karalyn

    2012-01-01

    How regular and irregular verbs are processed remains a matter of debate. Some English-speaking patients with nonfluent aphasia are especially impaired on regular past-tense forms like played, whether the task requires production, comprehension or even the judgement that “play” and “played” sound different. Within a dual-mechanism account of inflectional morphology, these deficits reflect disruption to the rule-based process that adds (or strips) the suffix -ed to regular verb stems; but the fact that the patients are also impaired at detecting the difference between word pairs like “tray” and “trade” (the latter being a phonological but not a morphological twin to “played”) suggests an important role for phonological characteristics of the regular past tense. The present study examined MEG brain responses in healthy participants evoked by spoken regular past-tense forms and phonological twin words (plus twin pseudowords and a non-speech control) presented in a passive oddball paradigm. Deviant forms (played, trade, kwade/kwayed) relative to their standards (play, tray, kway) elicited a pronounced neuromagnetic response at approximately 130 ms after the onset of the affix; this response was maximal at sensors over temporal areas of both hemispheres but stronger on the left, especially for played and kwayed. Relative to the same standards, a different set of deviants ending in /t/?—plate, trait and kwate—?produced stronger difference responses especially over the right hemisphere. Results are discussed with regard to dual- and single-mechanism theories of past tense processing and the need to consider neurobiological evidence in attempts to understand inflectional morphology. PMID:23103839

  13. Mutation of Dcdc2 in mice leads to impairments in auditory processing and memory ability

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Dongnhu T.; Che, Alicia; Rendall, Amanda R.; Szalkowski, Caitlin E.; LoTurco, Joseph J.; Galaburda, Albert M.; Fitch, R. Holly

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reading ability despite normal intellect, and is associated with specific difficulties in phonological and rapid auditory processing, visual attention, and working memory. Genetic variants in DCDC2 have been associated with dyslexia, impairments in phonological processing, and in short term/working memory. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sensory and behavioral impairments can result directly from mutation of the Dcdc2 gene in mice. Several behavioral tasks, including a modified pre-pulse inhibition paradigm (to examine auditory processing), a 4/8 radial arm maze (to assess/dissociate working versus reference memory), and rotarod (to examine sensorimotor ability and motor learning) were used to assess the effects of Dcdc2 mutation. Behavioral results revealed deficits in rapid auditory processing, working memory, and reference memory in Dcdc2del2/del2 mice as compared to matched wild types. Current findings parallel clinical research linking genetic variants of DCDC2 with specific impairments of phonological processing and memory ability. PMID:25130614

  14. Phonological Processing of Words in Right- and Left-Handers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Tania; Monetta, Laura; Joanette, Yves

    2004-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that phonology is the exclusive domain of the left hemisphere. However, this pattern of lateralization, which posits a right visual field advantage, has been questioned by several studies. In fact, certain factors such as characteristics of the stimuli and subjects' handedness can modulate the right visual field advantage.…

  15. Phonological and semantic influences on auditory word perception in children with and without reading impairments using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG)

    E-print Network

    Wehner, Daniel T

    2007-01-01

    Children with dyslexia struggle with learning to read despite adequate intelligence, motivation, and schooling. Over the years, there has been a growing consensus about the role of phonological processing in reading ...

  16. A Comparison of Phonological Processing Skills of Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999), the researchers compared strengths and weaknesses in phonological processing skills in three groups: 21 children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), 29 children with dyslexia, and 30 age-matched controls. The MSNH group showed…

  17. Process Dissociation of Sight Vocabulary and Phonetic Decoding in Reading: A New Perspective on Surface and Phonological Dyslexias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Patricia; Borowsky, Ron; MacKinnon, G. E.; Hymel, Shelley

    2005-01-01

    Recent research on developmental dyslexia has suggested a phonological core deficit hypothesis (e.g., Manis, Seidenberg, Doi, McBride-Chang, & Peterson, 1996; Stanovich, Siegel, & Gottardo, 1997) whereby pure cases of developmental phonological dyslexia (dysfunctional phonetic decoding processing but normal sight vocabulary processing) can exist,…

  18. The Relationship between Speech Impairment, Phonological Awareness and Early Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judy; Botting, Nicola; Myers, Lucy; Dodd, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Although children with speech impairment are at increased risk for impaired literacy, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. Around half the children with speech impairment have delayed acquisition, making errors typical of a normally developing younger child (e.g. reducing consonant clusters so that "spoon" is pronounced as "poon"). A…

  19. When semantics aids phonology: A processing advantage for iconic word forms in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Meteyard, Lotte; Stoppard, Emily; Snudden, Dee; Cappa, Stefano F; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2015-09-01

    Iconicity is the non-arbitrary relation between properties of a phonological form and semantic content (e.g. "moo", "splash"). It is a common feature of both spoken and signed languages, and recent evidence shows that iconic forms confer an advantage during word learning. We explored whether iconic forms conferred a processing advantage for 13 individuals with aphasia following left-hemisphere stroke. Iconic and control words were compared in four different tasks: repetition, reading aloud, auditory lexical decision and visual lexical decision. An advantage for iconic words was seen for some individuals in all tasks, with consistent group effects emerging in reading aloud and auditory lexical decision. Both these tasks rely on mapping between semantics and phonology. We conclude that iconicity aids spoken word processing for individuals with aphasia. This advantage is due to a stronger connection between semantic information and phonological forms. PMID:25637775

  20. Communication, Listening, Cognitive and Speech Perception Skills in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Melanie A.; Hall, Rebecca L.; Riley, Alison; Moore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Parental reports of communication, listening, and behavior in children receiving a clinical diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) or auditory processing disorder (APD) were compared with direct tests of intelligence, memory, language, phonology, literacy, and speech intelligibility. The primary aim was to identify whether there…

  1. Functional Connectivity in an fMRI Study of Semantic and Phonological Processes and the Effect of L-Dopa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivarus, Madalina E.; Hillier, Ashleigh; Schmalbrock, Petra; Beversdorf, David Q.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an fMRI experiment examining the functional connectivity (FC) between regions of the brain associated with semantic and phonological processing. We wished to explore whether L-Dopa administration affects the interaction between language network components in semantic and phonological categorization tasks, as revealed by FC. We…

  2. How Is Phonological Processing Related to Individual Differences in Children's Arithmetic Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Taylor, Jessica; Archibald, Lisa; Ansari, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    While there is evidence for an association between the development of reading and arithmetic, the precise locus of this relationship remains to be determined. Findings from cognitive neuroscience research that point to shared neural correlates for phonological processing and arithmetic as well as recent behavioral evidence led to the present…

  3. Letter Knowledge, Phonological Processing, and Print Knowledge: Skill Development in Nonreading Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Victoria J.; Modglin, Arlene A.; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Neamon, Jessica D.; Berg, Shelby A.; Berg, C. Jeffrey; Molnar, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Development of reading skills was examined in 4-year-old children from low-income homes attending a prekindergarten program. Fall to spring gains in letter identification were examined and compared with skills in phonological processing, rhyme detection, and environmental print, and with performance on a screening tool ("Get Ready to Read"). It…

  4. The Influence of Semantic Processing on Phonological Decisions in Children and Adults: A Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehner, Daniel T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Mody, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the behavioral effects and neural activation patterns associated with implicit semantic processing influences on phonological judgments during reading in children and adults. Method: Whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were obtained from 2 groups, children (9-13 years) and adults, performing a homophone judgment…

  5. General Auditory Processing, Speech Perception and Phonological Awareness Skills in Chinese-English Biliteracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the associations of general auditory processing, speech perception, phonological awareness and word reading in Cantonese-speaking children from Hong Kong learning to read both Chinese (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). Children in Grades 2--4 ("N" = 133) participated and were administered measures of…

  6. Modelling Relations between Sensory Processing, Speech Perception, Orthographic and Phonological Ability, and Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Smedt, Bert; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2008-01-01

    The general magnocellular theory postulates that dyslexia is the consequence of a multimodal deficit in the processing of transient and dynamic stimuli. In the auditory modality, this deficit has been hypothesized to interfere with accurate speech perception, and subsequently disrupt the development of phonological and later reading and spelling…

  7. Role of Visual Speech in Phonological Processing by Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerger, Susan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research assessed the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by children with hearing loss (HL). Method: Children with HL and children with normal hearing (NH) named pictures while attempting to ignore auditory or audiovisual speech distractors whose onsets relative to the pictures were either congruent, conflicting in…

  8. Project DyAdd: Phonological Processing, Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic in Adults with Dyslexia or ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Lehtinen, Maisa; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Difficulties in phonological processing and reading that characterize developmental dyslexia have been suggested also to affect those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it is not known to what extent various intervening factors, such as low intelligence quotient or age, explain the observed difficulties. In this study,…

  9. The Relationship between Phonological and Auditory Processing and Brain Organization in Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Kenneth R.; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L.; Mencl, W. Einar; Austin, Alison C.; Sibley, Daragh; Fulbright, Robert K.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Molfese, Peter; Frost, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of…

  10. The Effects of Concurrent Cognitive Load on Phonological Processing in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robin M.; Fox, Robert A.; Jacewicz, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether phonological processing in adults who stutter (AWS) is disrupted by increased amounts of cognitive load in a concurrent attention-demanding task. Method: Nine AWS and 9 adults who do not stutter (AWNS) participated. Using a dual-task paradigm, the authors presented word pairs for rhyme judgments and, concurrently,…

  11. Evaluating Phonological Processing Skills in Children with Prelingual Deafness Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Linda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the phonological processing skills of 29 children with prelingual, profound hearing loss with 4 years of cochlear implant experience. Results were group matched with regard to word-reading ability and mother's educational level with the performance of 29 hearing children. Results revealed that it is possible to obtain a…

  12. Working Memory Tasks in Relation to Phonological Processes of Arab Dyslexics in the State of Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-dyiar, Mosaad Abo; Salem, Ashraf Atta M. S.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between the working memory tasks and the phonological processes of Arab dyslexics in the primary stage in the State of Kuwait. The researchers used the descriptive research design. The sample of the study consists of 500 pupils (250 males and 250 females), their ages range from (9.05 ± 0.49) years…

  13. Processing interactions between phonology and melody: Vowels sing but consonants speak

    E-print Network

    was to determine if two dimensions of song, the phonological part of lyrics and the melodic part of tunes, the tune, and a linguistic dimension, the lyrics (e.g., Patel & Peretz, 1997). The aim of the present work was to examine whether lyrics and tunes in sung materials are processed independently or in an integrated way

  14. Evaluating Phonological Processing Skills in Children With Prelingual Deafness Who Use Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the phonological processing skills of 29 children with prelingual, profound hearing loss with 4 years of cochlear implant experience. Results were group matched with regard to word-reading ability and mother’s educational level with the performance of 29 hearing children. Results revealed that it is possible to obtain a valid measure of phonological processing (PP) skills in children using CIs. They could complete rhyming tasks and were able to complete sound-based tasks using standard test materials provided by a commercial test distributor. The CI children completed tasks measuring PP, but there were performance differences between the CI users and the hearing children. The process of learning phonological awareness (PA) for the children with CIs was characterized by a longer, more protracted learning phase than their counterparts with hearing. Tests of phonological memory skills indicated that when the tasks were controlled for presentation method and response modality, there were no differences between the performance of children with CIs and their counterparts with hearing. Tests of rapid naming revealed that there were no differences between rapid letter and number naming between the two groups. Results yielded a possible PP test battery for children with CI experience. PMID:18424771

  15. Evaluating phonological processing skills in children with prelingual deafness who use cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Linda J; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the phonological processing skills of 29 children with prelingual, profound hearing loss with 4 years of cochlear implant experience. Results were group matched with regard to word-reading ability and mother's educational level with the performance of 29 hearing children. Results revealed that it is possible to obtain a valid measure of phonological processing (PP) skills in children using CIs. They could complete rhyming tasks and were able to complete sound-based tasks using standard test materials provided by a commercial test distributor. The CI children completed tasks measuring PP, but there were performance differences between the CI users and the hearing children. The process of learning phonological awareness (PA) for the children with CIs was characterized by a longer, more protracted learning phase than their counterparts with hearing. Tests of phonological memory skills indicated that when the tasks were controlled for presentation method and response modality, there were no differences between the performance of children with CIs and their counterparts with hearing. Tests of rapid naming revealed that there were no differences between rapid letter and number naming between the two groups. Results yielded a possible PP test battery for children with CI experience. PMID:18424771

  16. Impairment: The Case of Phonotactic Probability and Nonword Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Cristina; Letts, Carolyn; Howard, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to explore the relationship between lexical and phonological knowledge in children with primary language impairment (PLI) through the application of a developmental methodology. Specifically, they tested whether there is evidence for an impairment in the process of phonological abstraction in this group of…

  17. A Closer Look at Phonology as a Predictor of Spoken Sentence Processing and Word Reading.

    PubMed

    Myers, Suzanne; Robertson, Erin K

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N = 377) completed standardized tests of pA ('Elision') and pSTM ('Nonword Repetition') from the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing. Concepts and Following Directions (CFD) and Formulated Sentences (FS) were taken from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition, as measures of sentence comprehension and production, respectively. Children also completed the Word Identification (Word Id) and Word Attack (Word Att) subtests of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Third Edition. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for age and nonverbal IQ revealed that Elision was the only significant predictor of CFD and FS. While Elision was the strongest predictor of Word Id and Word Att, Nonword Repetition accounted for additional variance in both reading measures. These results emphasize the usefulness of breaking down phonological processing into multiple components and they also have implications language and reading disordered populations. PMID:24627225

  18. Impaired Statistical Learning in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabay, Yafit; Thiessen, Erik D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Developmental dyslexia (DD) is commonly thought to arise from phonological impairments. However, an emerging perspective is that a more general procedural learning deficit, not specific to phonological processing, may underlie DD. The current study examined if individuals with DD are capable of extracting statistical regularities across…

  19. Phonological facilitation of object naming in agrammatic and logopenic primary progressive aphasia (PPA)

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Jennifer E.; Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Kloet, James D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2013-01-01

    Phonological processing deficits are characteristic of both the agrammatic and logopenic subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L). However, it is an open question which substages of phonological processing (i.e., phonological word form retrieval, phonological encoding) are impaired in these subtypes of PPA, as well as how phonological processing deficits contribute to anomia. In the present study, participants with PPA-G (n=7), PPA-L (n=7), and unimpaired controls (n=17) named objects as interfering written words (phonologically related/unrelated) were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 0, +100, +300, and +500 ms. Phonological facilitation (PF) effects (faster naming times with phonologically related interfering words) were found for the controls and PPA-L group only at SOA=0 and +100 ms. However, the PPA-G group exhibited protracted PF effects (PF at SOA=0, +100, and +300 ms). These results may reflect deficits in phonological encoding in PPA-G, but not in PPA-L, supporting the neuropsychological reality of this substage of phonological processing and the distinction between these two PPA subtypes. PMID:24070176

  20. Phonological Processes in the Speech of Jordanian Arabic Children with Cleft Lip and/or Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Tamimi, Feda Y.; Owais, Arwa I.; Khabour, Omar F.; Khamaiseh, Zaidan A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled and free speech of 15 Jordanian male and female children with cleft lip and/or palate was analyzed to account for the different phonological processes exhibited. Study participants were divided into three main age groups, 4 years 2 months to 4 years 7 months, 5 years 3 months to 5 years 6 months, and 6 years 4 months to 6 years 6…

  1. The locus of serial processing in reading aloud: orthography-to-phonology computation or speech planning?

    PubMed

    Mousikou, Petroula; Rastle, Kathleen; Besner, Derek; Coltheart, Max

    2015-07-01

    Dual-route theories of reading posit that a sublexical reading mechanism that operates serially and from left to right is involved in the orthography-to-phonology computation. These theories attribute the masked onset priming effect (MOPE) and the phonological Stroop effect (PSE) to the serial left-to-right operation of this mechanism. However, both effects may arise during speech planning, in the phonological encoding process, which also occurs serially and from left to right. In the present paper, we sought to determine the locus of serial processing in reading aloud by testing the contrasting predictions that the dual-route and speech planning accounts make in relation to the MOPE and the PSE. The results from three experiments that used the MOPE and the PSE paradigms in English are inconsistent with the idea that these effects arise during speech planning, and consistent with the claim that a sublexical serially operating reading mechanism is involved in the print-to-sound translation. Simulations of the empirical data on the MOPE with the dual route cascaded (DRC) and connectionist dual process (CDP++) models, which are computational implementations of the dual-route theory of reading, provide further support for the dual-route account. PMID:25528095

  2. The roles of family history of dyslexia, language, speech production and phonological processing in predicting literacy progress.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Julia M; Mundy, Ian R; Cunningham, Anna J

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that speech, language and phonological skills are closely associated with literacy, and that children with a family risk of dyslexia (FRD) tend to show deficits in each of these areas in the preschool years. This paper examines what the relationships are between FRD and these skills, and whether deficits in speech, language and phonological processing fully account for the increased risk of dyslexia in children with FRD. One hundred and fifty-three 4-6-year-old children, 44 of whom had FRD, completed a battery of speech, language, phonology and literacy tasks. Word reading and spelling were retested 6 months later, and text reading accuracy and reading comprehension were tested 3 years later. The children with FRD were at increased risk of developing difficulties in reading accuracy, but not reading comprehension. Four groups were compared: good and poor readers with and without FRD. In most cases good readers outperformed poor readers regardless of family history, but there was an effect of family history on naming and nonword repetition regardless of literacy outcome, suggesting a role for speech production skills as an endophenotype of dyslexia. Phonological processing predicted spelling, while language predicted text reading accuracy and comprehension. FRD was a significant additional predictor of reading and spelling after controlling for speech production, language and phonological processing, suggesting that children with FRD show additional difficulties in literacy that cannot be fully explained in terms of their language and phonological skills. PMID:24581037

  3. Effects of Phonological Contrast on Auditory Word Discrimination in Children with and without Reading Disability: A Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehner, Daniel T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Mody, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Poor readers perform worse than their normal reading peers on a variety of speech perception tasks, which may be linked to their phonological processing abilities. The purpose of the study was to compare the brain activation patterns of normal and impaired readers on speech perception to better understand the phonological basis in reading…

  4. Differences between Patterns of Brain Activity Associated with Semantics and Those Linked with Phonological Processing Diminish with Age

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ruben; Simard, France; Monchi, Oury

    2014-01-01

    It is widely believed that language function tends to show little age-related performance decline. Indeed, some older individuals seem to use compensatory mechanisms to maintain a high level of performance when submitted to lexical tasks. However, how these mechanisms affect cortical and subcortical activity during semantic and phonological processing has not been extensively explored. The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of healthy aging on cortico-subcortical routes related to semantic and phonological processing using a lexical analogue of the Wisconsin Cart-Sorting Task. Our results indicate that while young adults tend to show increased activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the fusiform gyrus, the ventral temporal lobe and the caudate nucleus during semantic decisions and in the posterior Broca's area (area 44), the temporal lobe (area 37), the temporoparietal junction (area 40) and the motor cortical regions during phonological decisions, older individuals showed increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and motor cortical regions during both semantic and phonological decisions. Furthermore, when semantic and phonological decisions were contrasted with each other, younger individuals showed significant brain activity differences in several regions while older individuals did not. Therefore, in older individuals, the semantic and phonological routes seem to merge into a single pathway. These findings represent most probably neural reserve/compensation mechanisms, characterized by a decrease in specificity, on which the elderly rely to maintain an adequate level of performance. PMID:24972020

  5. Rhythmic Priming Enhances the Phonological Processing of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cason, Nia; Schon, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    While natural speech does not possess the same degree of temporal regularity found in music, there is recent evidence to suggest that temporal regularity enhances speech processing. The aim of this experiment was to examine whether speech processing would be enhanced by the prior presentation of a rhythmical prime. We recorded electrophysiological…

  6. Phonological iconicity.

    PubMed

    Schmidtke, David S; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2014-01-01

    The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062

  7. Phonological iconicity

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2014-01-01

    The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062

  8. Relations among Musical Skills, Phonological Processing, and Early Reading Ability in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anvari, Sima H.; Trainor, Laurel J.; Woodside, Jennifer; Levy, Betty Ann

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations among phonological awareness, music perception skills, and early reading skills in 100 preschoolers. Found that music skills correlated significantly with both phonological awareness and reading development. Music perception skills contributed unique variance in predicting reading ability, even when variance due to phonological

  9. The Interface between Morphology and Phonology: Exploring a Morpho-Phonological Deficit in Spoken Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…

  10. The relationship between phonological and auditory processing and brain organization in beginning readers

    PubMed Central

    PUGH, Kenneth R.; LANDI, Nicole; PRESTON, Jonathan L.; MENCL, W. Einar; AUSTIN, Alison C.; SIBLEY, Daragh; FULBRIGHT, Robert K.; SEIDENBERG, Mark S.; GRIGORENKO, Elena L.; CONSTABLE, R. Todd; MOLFESE, Peter; FROST, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of skill-correlated regions, including left hemisphere temporoparietal and occipitotemporal sites, as well as inferior frontal, visual, visual attention, and subcortical components. For speech-related activation, shared variance among reading skill measures was most prominently correlated with activation in left hemisphere inferior frontal gyrus and precuneus. Implications for brain-based models of literacy acquisition are discussed. PMID:22572517

  11. Exploring the Phenotype of Phonological Reading Disability as a Function of the Phonological Deficit Severity: Evidence from the Error Analysis Paradigm in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Haitham; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Khateb, Asaid

    2014-01-01

    The dominant error types were investigated as a function of phonological processing (PP) deficit severity in four groups of impaired readers. For this aim, an error analysis paradigm distinguishing between four error types was used. The findings revealed that the different types of impaired readers were characterized by differing predominant error…

  12. Lexical and phonological processing in visual word recognition by stuttering children: evidence from Spanish.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Carlos J; Hernández-Jaramillo, Janeth; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have pointed out that stuttering-like disfluencies could be the result of failures in central and linguistic processing. The goal of the present paper is to analyze if stuttering implies deficits in the lexical and phonological processing in visual word recognition. This study compares the performance of 28 children with and without stuttering in a standard lexical decision task in a transparent orthography: Spanish. Word frequency and syllable frequency were manipulated in the experimental words. Stutterers were found to be considerably slower (in their correct responses) and produced more errors than the non- stutterers (?(1) = 36.63, p < .001, ?2 = .60). There was also a facilitation effect of syllable frequency, restricted to low frequency words and only in the stutterers group (t1(10) = 3.67, p < .005; t2(36) = 3.10, p < .001). These outcomes appear to suggest that the decoding process of stutterers exhibits a deficit in the interface between the phonological-syllabic level and the word level. PMID:26055643

  13. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  14. Role of Visual Speech in Phonological Processing by Children With Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Jerger, Susan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This research assessed the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by children with hearing loss (HL). Method Children with HL and children with normal hearing (NH) named pictures while attempting to ignore auditory or audiovisual speech distractors whose onsets relative to the pictures were either congruent, conflicting in place of articulation, or conflicting in voicing—for example, the picture “pizza” coupled with the distractors “peach,” “teacher,” or “beast,” respectively. Speed of picture naming was measured. Results The conflicting conditions slowed naming, and phonological processing by children with HL displayed the age-related shift in sensitivity to visual speech seen in children with NH, although with developmental delay. Younger children with HL exhibited a disproportionately large influence of visual speech and a negligible influence of auditory speech, whereas older children with HL showed a robust influence of auditory speech with no benefit to performance from adding visual speech. The congruent conditions did not speed naming in children with HL, nor did the addition of visual speech influence performance. Unexpectedly, the /?/-vowel congruent distractors slowed naming in children with HL and decreased articulatory proficiency. Conclusions Results for the conflicting conditions are consistent with the hypothesis that speech representations in children with HL (a) are initially disproportionally structured in terms of visual speech and (b) become better specified with age in terms of auditorily encoded information. PMID:19339701

  15. The articulatory basis of positional asymmetries in phonological acquisition

    E-print Network

    McAllister, Tara Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Child phonological processes that lack counterparts in adult phonological typology have long posed a problem for formal modeling of phonological acquisition. This dissertation investigates child-specific processes with a ...

  16. Phonological processing of ignored distractor pictures, an fMRI investigation

    PubMed Central

    Bles, Mart; Jansma, Bernadette M

    2008-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies of attention often focus on interactions between stimulus representations and top-down selection mechanisms in visual cortex. Less is known about the neural representation of distractor stimuli beyond visual areas, and the interactions between stimuli in linguistic processing areas. In the present study, participants viewed simultaneously presented line drawings at peripheral locations, while in the MRI scanner. The names of the objects depicted in these pictures were either phonologically related (i.e. shared the same consonant-vowel onset construction), or unrelated. Attention was directed either at the linguistic properties of one of these pictures, or at the fixation point (i.e. away from the pictures). Results Phonological representations of unattended pictures could be detected in the posterior superior temporal gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the insula. Conclusion Under some circumstances, the name of ignored distractor pictures is retrieved by linguistic areas. This implies that selective attention to a specific location does not completely filter out the representations of distractor stimuli at early perceptual stages. PMID:18267005

  17. Brain activation during phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters in deaf signers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Peng, Danling; Liu, Li; Booth, James R.; Ding, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies found altered brain function in deaf individuals reading alphabetic orthographies. However, it is not known whether similar alterations of brain function are characteristic of non-alphabetic writing systems and whether alterations are specific to certain kinds of lexical tasks. Here we examined differences in brain activation between Chinese congenitally deaf individuals (CD) and hearing controls (HC) during character reading tasks requiring phonological and semantic judgments. For both tasks, we found that CD showed less activation than HC in left inferior frontal gyrus, but greater activation in several right hemisphere regions including inferior frontal gyrus, angular gyrus, and inferior temporal gyrus. Although many group differences were similar across tasks, greater activation in right middle frontal gyrus was more pronounced for the rhyming compared to the meaning task. Finally, within the deaf individuals better performance on the rhyming task was associated with less activation in right inferior parietal lobule and angular gyrus. Our results in Chinese CD are broadly consistent with previous studies in alphabetic languages suggesting greater engagement of inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal cortex for reading that is largely independent of task, with the exception of right middle frontal gyrus for phonological processing. The brain behavior correlations potentially indicate that CD that more efficiently use the right hemisphere are better readers. PMID:24795593

  18. The relationship between phonological processing skills and word and nonword identification performance in children with mild intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wise, Justin C; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, Maryann; Morris, Robin D

    2010-01-01

    Word and nonword identification skills were examined in a sample of 80 elementary school age students with mild intellectual disabilities and mixed etiologies who were described as struggling to learn to read by their teachers. Performance on measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary, measures of phonological awareness, and measures of word and nonword identification were included for analyses. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for chronological age and vocabulary knowledge, phonological processing accounted for a large and significant amount of unique variance of both word and nonword identification. In addition, the pattern of results found in this study is similar to that obtained with typically developing learners. As with typically developing children, measures of phonological awareness were significantly correlated with measures of both reading achievement and vocabulary knowledge. PMID:20846821

  19. Relations among musical skills, phonological processing, and early reading ability in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Anvari, Sima H; Trainor, Laurel J; Woodside, Jennifer; Levy, Betty Ann

    2002-10-01

    We examined the relations among phonological awareness, music perception skills, and early reading skills in a population of 100 4- and 5-year-old children. Music skills were found to correlate significantly with both phonological awareness and reading development. Regression analyses indicated that music perception skills contributed unique variance in predicting reading ability, even when variance due to phonological awareness and other cognitive abilities (math, digit span, and vocabulary) had been accounted for. Thus, music perception appears to tap auditory mechanisms related to reading that only partially overlap with those related to phonological awareness, suggesting that both linguistic and nonlinguistic general auditory mechanisms are involved in reading. PMID:12408958

  20. Asynchrony of Visual-Orthographic and Auditory-Phonological Word Recognition Processes: An Underlying Factor in Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breznitz, Zvia

    2002-01-01

    Investigates whether asynchrony of speed of processing between visual-orthographic and auditory-phonological modalities can account for word recognition deficits among dyslexic readers. Indicates that dyslexic readers were slower than control readers in most of the experimental tasks. Proposes a theory suggesting that asynchrony between the…

  1. Effects of Phonological and Orthographic Shifts on Children's Processing of Written Morphology: A Time-Course Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quémart, Pauline; Casalis, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    We report two experiments that investigated whether phonological and/or orthographic shifts in a base word interfere with morphological processing by French 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders and adults (as a control group) along the time course of visual word recognition. In both experiments, prime-target pairs shared four possible relationships:…

  2. Processing of Phonological Variation in Children with Hearing Loss: Compensation for English Place Assimilation in Connected Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoruppa, Katrin; Rosen, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored phonological processing in connected speech in children with hearing loss. Specifically, the authors investigated these children's sensitivity to English place assimilation, by which alveolar consonants like t and n can adapt to following sounds (e.g., the word ten can be realized as tem in the…

  3. Sex Differences in Neurophysiological Activation Patterns During Phonological Input Processing: An Influencing Factor for Normative Data.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Annelies; van Mierlo, Pieter; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Santens, Patrick; De Letter, Miet

    2015-11-01

    In the context of neurophysiological normative data, it has been established that aging has a significant impact on neurophysiological correlates of auditory phonological input processes, such as phoneme discrimination (PD) and word recognition (WR). Besides age, sex is another demographic factor that influences several language processes. We aimed to disentangle whether sex has a similar effect on PD and WR. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 20 men and 24 women. During PD, three phonemic contrasts (place and manner of articulation and voicing) were compared using the attentive P300 and pre-attentive Mismatch Negativity. To investigate WR, real words were contrasted with pseudowords in a pre-attentive oddball task. Women demonstrated a larger sensitivity to spectrotemporal differences, as evidenced by larger P300 responses to the place of articulation (PoA) contrast and larger P300 and MMN responses than men in PoA-based PD. Men did not display such sensitivity. Attention played an important role, considering that women needed more attentional resources to differentiate between PoA and the other phonemic contrasts. During WR, pseudowords evoked larger amplitudes already 100 ms post-stimulus independent of sex. However, women had decreased P200 latencies, but longer N400 latencies in response to pseudowords, whereas men showed increased N400 latencies compared to women in response to real words. The current results demonstrate significant sex-related influences on phonological input processes. Therefore, existing neurophysiological normative data for age should be complemented for the factor sex. PMID:26014826

  4. A Closer Look at Phonology as a Predictor of Spoken Sentence Processing and Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Suzanne; Robertson, Erin K.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N = 377) completed standardized tests of pA ("Elision") and pSTM ("Nonword Repetition") from the…

  5. The Locus of Serial Processing in Reading Aloud: Orthography-to-Phonology Computation or Speech Planning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousikou, Petroula; Rastle, Kathleen; Besner, Derek; Coltheart, Max

    2015-01-01

    Dual-route theories of reading posit that a sublexical reading mechanism that operates serially and from left to right is involved in the orthography-to-phonology computation. These theories attribute the masked onset priming effect (MOPE) and the phonological Stroop effect (PSE) to the serial left-to-right operation of this mechanism. However,…

  6. Electrophysiological Indices of Spatial Attention during Global/Local Processing in Good and Poor Phonological Decoders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Allison Jane; Martin, Frances Heritage

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests a relationship between spatial attention and phonological decoding in developmental dyslexia. The aim of this study was to examine differences between good and poor phonological decoders in the allocation of spatial attention to global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli. A further aim was to investigate the…

  7. Neural Correlates of Phonological Processing in Speech Sound Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tkach, Jean A.; Chen, Xu; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Holland, Scott K.; Lewis, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Speech sound disorders (SSD) are the largest group of communication disorders observed in children. One explanation for these disorders is that children with SSD fail to form stable phonological representations when acquiring the speech sound system of their language due to poor phonological memory (PM). The goal of this study was to examine PM in…

  8. Literacy and Linguistic Development in Bilingual Deaf Children: Implications of the "and" for Phonological Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuarrie, Lynn; Parrila, Rauno

    2014-01-01

    Cumulating evidence suggests that the establishment of high-quality phonological representations is the "cognitive precursor" that facilitates the acquisition of language (spoken, signed, and written). The authors present two studies that contrast the nature of bilingual profoundly deaf children's phonological representations derived…

  9. Who Is at Risk for Dyslexia? Phonological Processing in Five-to Seven-Year-Old Dutch-Speaking Children with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2010-01-01

    A disproportionally high number of children with specific language impairment (SLI) develop dyslexia. Yet it is hard to predict which individual child is at risk. This article presents a longitudinal study of phonological and early literacy development of 18 Dutch-speaking children with SLI, compared to 18 typically developing controls over a…

  10. The phonological and visual basis of developmental dyslexia in Brazilian Portuguese reading children

    PubMed Central

    Germano, Giseli D.; Reilhac, Caroline; Capellini, Simone A.; Valdois, Sylviane

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from opaque languages suggests that visual attention processing abilities in addition to phonological skills may act as cognitive underpinnings of developmental dyslexia. We explored the role of these two cognitive abilities on reading fluency in Brazilian Portuguese, a more transparent orthography than French or English. Sixty-six children with developmental dyslexia and normal Brazilian Portuguese children participated. They were administered three tasks of phonological skills (phoneme identification, phoneme, and syllable blending) and three visual tasks (a letter global report task and two non-verbal tasks of visual closure and visual constancy). Results show that Brazilian Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia are impaired not only in phonological processing but further in visual processing. The phonological and visual processing abilities significantly and independently contribute to reading fluency in the whole population. Last, different cognitively homogeneous subtypes can be identified in the Brazilian Portuguese population of children with developmental dyslexia. Two subsets of children with developmental dyslexia were identified as having a single cognitive disorder, phonological or visual; another group exhibited a double deficit and a few children showed no visual or phonological disorder. Thus the current findings extend previous data from more opaque orthographies as French and English, in showing the importance of investigating visual processing skills in addition to phonological skills in children with developmental dyslexia whatever their language orthography transparency. PMID:25352822

  11. Phonological Representations and Early Literacy in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Joanna C.; Shum, Kathy Kar-Man; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2015-01-01

    Phonological processing skills predict early reading development, but what underlies developing phonological processing skills? Phonological representations of 140 native Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (age 4-10) were assessed with speech gating, mispronunciation detection, and nonword repetition tasks; their nonverbal IQ, reading, and…

  12. Phonological Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, W.L.

    1968-01-01

    The article discusses models of synchronic and diachronic phonology and suggests changes in them. The basic generative model of phonology is outlined with the author's reinterpretations. The systematic phonemic level is questioned in terms of its unreality with respect to linguistic performance and its lack of validity with respect to historical…

  13. Directional Effects between Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erin Phinney; Pennington, Bruce F.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Boada, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Deficient rapid auditory processing (RAP) has been associated with early language impairment and dyslexia. Using an auditory masking paradigm, children with language disabilities perform selectively worse than controls at detecting a tone in a backward masking (BM) condition (tone followed by white noise) compared to a forward masking…

  14. Raspberry, not a car: context predictability and a phonological advantage in early and late learners’ processing of speech in noise

    PubMed Central

    Gor, Kira

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners perform worse than native speakers under adverse listening conditions, such as speech in noise (SPIN). No data are available on heritage language speakers’ (early naturalistic interrupted learners’) ability to perceive SPIN. The current study fills this gap and investigates the perception of Russian speech in multi-talker babble noise by the matched groups of high- and low-proficiency heritage speakers (HSs) and late second language learners of Russian who were native speakers of English. The study includes a control group of Russian native speakers. It manipulates the noise level (high and low), and context cloze probability (high and low). The results of the SPIN task are compared to the tasks testing the control of phonology, AXB discrimination and picture-word discrimination, and lexical knowledge, a word translation task, in the same participants. The increased phonological sensitivity of HSs interacted with their ability to rely on top–down processing in sentence integration, use contextual cues, and build expectancies in the high-noise/high-context condition in a bootstrapping fashion. HSs outperformed oral proficiency-matched late second language learners on SPIN task and two tests of phonological sensitivity. The outcomes of the SPIN experiment support both the early naturalistic advantage and the role of proficiency in HSs. HSs’ ability to take advantage of the high-predictability context in the high-noise condition was mitigated by their level of proficiency. Only high-proficiency HSs, but not any other non-native group, took advantage of the high-predictability context that became available with better phonological processing skills in high-noise. The study thus confirms high-proficiency (but not low-proficiency) HSs’ nativelike ability to combine bottom–up and top–down cues in processing SPIN. PMID:25566130

  15. Raspberry, not a car: context predictability and a phonological advantage in early and late learners' processing of speech in noise.

    PubMed

    Gor, Kira

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners perform worse than native speakers under adverse listening conditions, such as speech in noise (SPIN). No data are available on heritage language speakers' (early naturalistic interrupted learners') ability to perceive SPIN. The current study fills this gap and investigates the perception of Russian speech in multi-talker babble noise by the matched groups of high- and low-proficiency heritage speakers (HSs) and late second language learners of Russian who were native speakers of English. The study includes a control group of Russian native speakers. It manipulates the noise level (high and low), and context cloze probability (high and low). The results of the SPIN task are compared to the tasks testing the control of phonology, AXB discrimination and picture-word discrimination, and lexical knowledge, a word translation task, in the same participants. The increased phonological sensitivity of HSs interacted with their ability to rely on top-down processing in sentence integration, use contextual cues, and build expectancies in the high-noise/high-context condition in a bootstrapping fashion. HSs outperformed oral proficiency-matched late second language learners on SPIN task and two tests of phonological sensitivity. The outcomes of the SPIN experiment support both the early naturalistic advantage and the role of proficiency in HSs. HSs' ability to take advantage of the high-predictability context in the high-noise condition was mitigated by their level of proficiency. Only high-proficiency HSs, but not any other non-native group, took advantage of the high-predictability context that became available with better phonological processing skills in high-noise. The study thus confirms high-proficiency (but not low-proficiency) HSs' nativelike ability to combine bottom-up and top-down cues in processing SPIN. PMID:25566130

  16. Basic auditory processing and sensitivity to prosodic structure in children with specific language impairments: a new look at a perceptual hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, Ruth; Wilson, Angela; Goswami, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific language impairments (SLIs) show impaired perception and production of spoken language, and can also present with motor, auditory, and phonological difficulties. Recent auditory studies have shown impaired sensitivity to amplitude rise time (ART) in children with SLIs, along with non-speech rhythmic timing difficulties. Linguistically, these perceptual impairments should affect sensitivity to speech prosody and syllable stress. Here we used two tasks requiring sensitivity to prosodic structure, the DeeDee task and a stress misperception task, to investigate this hypothesis. We also measured auditory processing of ART, rising pitch and sound duration, in both speech (“ba”) and non-speech (tone) stimuli. Participants were 45 children with SLI aged on average 9 years and 50 age-matched controls. We report data for all the SLI children (N = 45, IQ varying), as well as for two independent SLI subgroupings with intact IQ. One subgroup, “Pure SLI,” had intact phonology and reading (N = 16), the other, “SLI PPR” (N = 15), had impaired phonology and reading. Problems with syllable stress and prosodic structure were found for all the group comparisons. Both sub-groups with intact IQ showed reduced sensitivity to ART in speech stimuli, but the PPR subgroup also showed reduced sensitivity to sound duration in speech stimuli. Individual differences in processing syllable stress were associated with auditory processing. These data support a new hypothesis, the “prosodic phrasing” hypothesis, which proposes that grammatical difficulties in SLI may reflect perceptual difficulties with global prosodic structure related to auditory impairments in processing amplitude rise time and duration. PMID:26217286

  17. Left Dorsal Speech Stream Components and Their Contribution to Phonological Processing

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Takenobu; Kell, Christian A.; Restle, Julia; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Models propose an auditory-motor mapping via a left-hemispheric dorsal speech-processing stream, yet its detailed contributions to speech perception and production are unclear. Using fMRI-navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we virtually lesioned left dorsal stream components in healthy human subjects and probed the consequences on speech-related facilitation of articulatory motor cortex (M1) excitability, as indexed by increases in motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude of a lip muscle, and on speech processing performance in phonological tests. Speech-related MEP facilitation was disrupted by rTMS of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), the sylvian parieto-temporal region (SPT), and by double-knock-out but not individual lesioning of pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), and not by rTMS of the ventral speech-processing stream or an occipital control site. RTMS of the dorsal stream but not of the ventral stream or the occipital control site caused deficits specifically in the processing of fast transients of the acoustic speech signal. Performance of syllable and pseudoword repetition correlated with speech-related MEP facilitation, and this relation was abolished with rTMS of pSTS, SPT, and pIFG. Findings provide direct evidence that auditory-motor mapping in the left dorsal stream causes reliable and specific speech-related MEP facilitation in left articulatory M1. The left dorsal stream targets the articulatory M1 through pSTS and SPT constituting essential posterior input regions and parallel via frontal pathways through pIFG and dPMC. Finally, engagement of the left dorsal stream is necessary for processing of fast transients in the auditory signal. PMID:25632119

  18. Pedigree Analysis of Children with Phonology Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined 87 pedigrees of individuals with histories of preschool phonology disorders. Significantly more family members with dyslexia and learning disabilities, but not stuttering or hearing impairment, were found in pedigrees of individuals with phonology disorders than in pedigrees of nondisabled individuals. (Author/JDD)

  19. [Perception-production relations in substitution phonological processes in children with language disorders].

    PubMed

    Ygual-Fernández, Amparo; Cervera-Mérida, José Francisco

    2013-02-22

    It is generally agreed that the auditory perception skills of children with developmental language disorders are more limited than those of typically developing children. It is not easy to determine exactly how the capacity to discriminate and the capacity to pronounce phonemes influence each other in children with language disorders. For most authors, the inability to discriminate certain phonemes accurately causes a developmental delay in pronunciation, whereas others claim the influence is mutual. The aim of this study is to determine in which consonants perceptive difficulty is more likely to occur and in which cases there is a greater probability of difficulty when it comes to articulating them. The sample used in the study consisted of 86 children with a mean age of 4 years and 7 months. The phonological processes involved in simplifying speech were identified. Their errors were used as the basis on which to construct and apply a specific speech perception test. The relationship between the articulatory and perceptive skills of children with substitutive processes were analysed by means of two comparisons: first, in all the processes detected taken as a whole and, second, in the three most frequent substitutive processes. These analyses were carried out to determine whether the nature of the consonant implied a greater probability of perceptive difficulty. The findings provide information about a relation between the articulatory and perceptive skills, and about whether the nature of the consonant determines a higher probability of perceptive or articulatory difficulties. These results can be of value in the assessment, design and effectiveness of speech therapy programmes. PMID:23446715

  20. Building Vocabulary Knowledge and Phonological Awareness Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment through Hybrid Language Intervention: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Natalie; Lee, Kerrie; Baker, Elise

    2008-01-01

    Background & Aims: Preschool and early school-aged children with specific language impairment not only have spoken language difficulties, but also are at risk of future literacy problems. Effective interventions targeting both spoken language and emergent literacy skills for this population are limited. This paper reports a feasibility study of a…

  1. Phonological Priming and Irregular Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemberger, Joseph Paul

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that the processing of irregular past-tense forms is affected by phonological factors that are inherent in the relationship of the past-tense forms to other words in the lexicon (rhyming families of irregulars) or to their base forms (vowel dominance effects). This paper addresses more ephemeral phonological effects. In a…

  2. Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Yoncheva, Yuliya; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2014-08-15

    Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by manipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data-driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater recruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings suggest a key role for selective attention in on-line phonological computations. Furthermore, these findings motivate future research on the role that neural mechanisms of attention may play in phonological awareness impairments thought to underlie developmental reading disabilities. PMID:24746955

  3. Literacy and linguistic development in bilingual deaf children: implications of the "and" for phonological processing.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Lynn; Parrila, Rauno

    2014-01-01

    Cumulating evidence suggests that the establishment of high-quality phonological representations is the cognitive precursor that facilitates the acquisition of language (spoken, signed, and written). The authors present two studies that contrast the nature of bilingual profoundly deaf children's phonological representations derived from a spoken language and from a signed language using the framework of "functional equivalence" as outlined in McQuarrie and Parilla (2009). The authors argue further that a signed-language phonological system is suited in establishing the "functional" representational base that will support reading acquisition for bilingual deaf learners. They highlight rapidly developing empirical research on dual-language interactions between signed language and written language is highlighted, and discuss the need to take such data into account in any discussion of fundamental skills necessary to support reading achievement in bilingual profoundly deaf learners. PMID:25669019

  4. Preschool Impairments in Auditory Processing and Speech Perception Uniquely Predict Future Reading Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; Vandermosten, Maaike; Poelmans, Hanne; Luts, Heleen; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2011-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is characterized by severe reading and spelling difficulties that are persistent and resistant to the usual didactic measures and remedial efforts. It is well established that a major cause of these problems lies in poorly specified phonological representations. Many individuals with dyslexia also present impairments in…

  5. Predictive influence of phonological processing, morphological/syntactic skill, and naming speed on spelling performance.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Monique; Cohen, Henri

    2004-07-01

    This paper focuses on the predictive influence of phonological awareness, morphological/syntactic skill, and naming speed on spelling. The retrospective study correlated spelling performance in a group of 199 French-speaking children at the end of grade 2 with earlier capacities for phonemic manipulation, morphological/syntactic correction, and naming speed, assessed at the end of grade 1. The results are consistent with an integrative model that challenges the unitary phonological disorder hypothesis and confirmed that in French, as in other languages, naming speed is an independent predictor of reading performance. PMID:15177816

  6. Young Readers' Use of Phonological Information: Phonological Awareness, Memory, and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Audra; McCutchen, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we explored the relationship between beginning readers' phonological awareness and other aspects of phonological processing, specifically as manifested in short-term memory and comprehension tasks. The theoretical questions underlying the study were (a) what roles phonological processes play in children's beginning reading, from…

  7. Semantic and Phonological Task-Set Priming and Stimulus Processing Investigated Using Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, F.; Rippon, G.; Hillebrand, A.; Singh, K. D.; Swithenby, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the neural substrates of semantic and phonological task priming and task performance were investigated using single word task-primes. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were analysed using Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry (SAM) to determine the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of cortical responses. Comparisons were made…

  8. The Nature of the Phonological Processing in French Dyslexic Children: Evidence for the Phonological Syllable and Linguistic Features' Role in Silent Reading and Speech Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the status of phonological representations in French dyslexic children (DY) compared with reading level- (RL) and chronological age-matched (CA) controls. We focused on the syllable's role and on the impact of French linguistic features. In Experiment 1, we assessed oral discrimination abilities of pairs of syllables that…

  9. Incidental learning of sound categories is impaired in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Gabay, Yafit; Holt, Lori L

    2015-12-01

    Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed. PMID:26409017

  10. Auditory processing and speech perception in children with specific language impairment: relations with oral language and literacy skills.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquière, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated temporal auditory processing (frequency modulation and between-channel gap detection) and speech perception (speech-in-noise and categorical perception) in three groups of 6 years 3 months to 6 years 8 months-old children attending grade 1: (1) children with specific language impairment (SLI) and literacy delay (n = 8), (2) children with SLI and normal literacy (n = 10) and (3) typically developing children (n = 14). Moreover, the relations between these auditory processing and speech perception skills and oral language and literacy skills in grade 1 and grade 3 were analyzed. The SLI group with literacy delay scored significantly lower than both other groups on speech perception, but not on temporal auditory processing. Both normal reading groups did not differ in terms of speech perception or auditory processing. Speech perception was significantly related to reading and spelling in grades 1 and 3 and had a unique predictive contribution to reading growth in grade 3, even after controlling reading level, phonological ability, auditory processing and oral language skills in grade 1. These findings indicated that speech perception also had a unique direct impact upon reading development and not only through its relation with phonological awareness. Moreover, speech perception seemed to be more associated with the development of literacy skills and less with oral language ability. PMID:22155538

  11. Test Review: Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., & Pearson, N. A., "Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing-2nd Ed. (CTOPP-2)." Austin, Texas: Pro-Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Rachel H.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Tarar, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing-Second Edition (CTOPP-2; Wagner, Torgesen, Rashotte, & Pearson, 2013) is a norm-referenced test that measures phonological processing skills related to reading for individuals aged 4 to 24. According to its authors, the CTOPP-2 may be used to identify individuals who are markedly below their…

  12. What Aspects of Face Processing Are Impaired in Developmental Prosopagnosia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grand, Richard; Cooper, Philip A.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Sagiv, Noam; de Gelder, Beatrice; Maurer, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a severe impairment in identifying faces that is present from early in life and that occurs despite no apparent brain damage and intact visual and intellectual function. Here, we investigated what aspects of face processing are impaired/spared in developmental prosopagnosia by examining a relatively large group…

  13. The neural basis of inhibitory effects of semantic and phonological neighbors in spoken word production

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

    2014-01-01

    Theories of word production and word recognition generally agree that multiple word candidates are activated during processing. The facilitative and inhibitory effects of these “lexical neighbors” have been studied extensively using behavioral methods and have spurred theoretical development in psycholinguistics, but relatively little is known about the neural basis of these effects and how lesions may affect them. The present study used voxel-wise lesion overlap subtraction to examine semantic and phonological neighbor effects in spoken word production following left hemisphere stroke. Increased inhibitory effects of near semantic neighbors were associated with inferior frontal lobe lesions, suggesting impaired selection among strongly activated semantically-related candidates. Increased inhibitory effects of phonological neighbors were associated with posterior superior temporal and inferior parietal lobe lesions. In combination with previous studies, these results suggest that such lesions cause phonological-to-lexical feedback to more strongly activate phonologically-related lexical candidates. The comparison of semantic and phonological neighbor effects and how they are affected by left hemisphere lesions provides new insights into the cognitive dynamics and neural basis of phonological, semantic, and cognitive control processes in spoken word production. PMID:23647518

  14. Seriality of semantic and phonological processes during overt speech in Mandarin as revealed by event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuebing; Damian, Markus F; Zhang, Qingfang

    2015-05-01

    How is information transmitted across semantic and phonological levels in spoken word production? Recent evidence from speakers of Western languages such as English and Dutch suggests non-discrete transmission, but it is not clear whether this view can be generalized to other languages such as Mandarin, given potential differences in phonological encoding across languages. The present study used Mandarin speakers and combined a behavioral picture-word interference task with event-related potentials. The design factorially crossed semantic and phonological relatedness. Results showed semantic and phonological effects both in behavioral and electrophysiological measurements, with statistical additivity in latencies, and discrete time signatures (250-450 ms and 450-600 ms after picture onset for the semantic and phonological condition, respectively). Overall, results suggest that in Mandarin spoken production, information is transmitted from semantic to phonological levels in a sequential fashion. Hence, temporal signatures associated with spoken word production might differ depending on target language. PMID:25880902

  15. A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Verbal Short-Term Memory and Phonological Processing in 8-Year-Olds with a History of Repetitive Otitis Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…

  16. Orthographic and phonological neighborhood effects within a priming context

    E-print Network

    Fugett-Fuller, April

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were completed investigating orthographic neighborhood size in the context of phonological neighborhood size and priming, at various SOAs. Experiment 1 exhibited that words from larger phonological neighborhoods were processed more...

  17. Music Training Increases Phonological Awareness and Reading Skills in Developmental Dyslexia: A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Flaugnacco, Elena; Lopez, Luisa; Terribili, Chiara; Montico, Marcella; Zoia, Stefania; Schön, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence for a role of music training in boosting phonological awareness, word segmentation, working memory, as well as reading abilities in children with typical development. Poor performance in tasks requiring temporal processing, rhythm perception and sensorimotor synchronization seems to be a crucial factor underlying dyslexia in children. Interestingly, children with dyslexia show deficits in temporal processing, both in language and in music. Within this framework, we test the hypothesis that music training, by improving temporal processing and rhythm abilities, improves phonological awareness and reading skills in children with dyslexia. The study is a prospective, multicenter, open randomized controlled trial, consisting of test, rehabilitation and re-test (ID NCT02316873). After rehabilitation, the music group (N = 24) performed better than the control group (N = 22) in tasks assessing rhythmic abilities, phonological awareness and reading skills. This is the first randomized control trial testing the effect of music training in enhancing phonological and reading abilities in children with dyslexia. The findings show that music training can modify reading and phonological abilities even when these skills are severely impaired. Through the enhancement of temporal processing and rhythmic skills, music might become an important tool in both remediation and early intervention programs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02316873 PMID:26407242

  18. Phonological disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... structures work to create speech (such as from cerebral palsy ). ... intellectual disability ) Hearing impairment Neurological conditions (such as cerebral palsy) Physical problems (such as cleft palate) The health ...

  19. Modeling the Control of Phonological Encoding in Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…

  20. Orthographic vs. Phonologic Syllables in Handwriting Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Herault, Lucie; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Lambert, Eric; Fayol, Michel

    2009-01-01

    French children program the words they write syllable by syllable. We examined whether the syllable the children use to segment words is determined phonologically (i.e., is derived from speech production processes) or orthographically. Third, 4th and 5th graders wrote on a digitiser words that were mono-syllables phonologically (e.g. "barque" =…

  1. Phonologically Driven Variability: The Case of Determiners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bürki, Audrey; Laganaro, Marina; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Speakers usually produce words in connected speech. In such contexts, the form in which many words are uttered is influenced by the phonological properties of neighboring words. The current article examines the representations and processes underlying the production of phonologically constrained word form variations. For this purpose, we consider…

  2. Perception of Temporally Processed Speech by Listeners with Hearing Impairment

    E-print Network

    Carney, Laurel H.

    Perception of Temporally Processed Speech by Listeners with Hearing Impairment Lauren Calandruccio (SPC), for a group of listeners with varying degrees of sensorineural hearing loss. SPC is based with bilateral sensori- neural hearing loss and 3 with normal hearing, participated in this study. Listeners

  3. Sentence Processing Factors in Adults with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poll, Gerard H.

    2012-01-01

    Sentence imitation effectively discriminates between adults with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Little is known, however, about the factors that result in performance differences. This study evaluated the effects of working memory, processing speed, and argument status on sentence imitation. Working memory was measured by both a…

  4. The Word Complexity Measure: Description and Application to Developmental Phonology and Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Miccio's work included a number of articles on the assessment of phonology in children with phonological disorders, typically using measures of correct articulation, using the PCC, or analyses of errors, using the framework of phonological processes. This paper introduces an approach to assessing phonology by examining the phonetic complexity of…

  5. Apathy in Parkinson's disease: neurophysiological evidence of impaired incentive processing.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Horta, Saul; Riba, Jordi; de Bobadilla, Ramón Fernández; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Pascual-Sedano, Berta; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; García-Sanchez, Carmen; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2014-04-23

    Apathy is one of the most common and debilitating nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) and is characterized by diminished motivation, decreased goal-directed behavior, and flattened affect. Despite its high prevalence, its underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, having been associated with executive dysfunction, and impaired emotional processing and decision making. Apathy, as a syndrome, has recently been associated with reduced activation in the ventral striatum, suggesting that early- to middle-stage Parkinson's disease patients with this manifestation may have a compromised mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathway and impaired incentive processing. To test this hypothesis, we measured the amplitude of the feedback-related negativity, an event-related brain potential associated with performance outcome valence, following monetary gains and losses in human PD patients (12 women) and healthy controls (6 women) performing a gambling task. Early- to middle-stage PD patients presenting clinically meaningful symptoms of apathy were compared with nonapathetic PD patients and healthy controls. Patients with cognitive impairment, depression, and other psychiatric disturbances were excluded. Results showed that the amplitude of the feedback-related negativity, measured as the difference wave in the event-related brain potential between gains and losses, was significantly reduced in PD patients with apathy compared with nonapathetic patients and healthy controls. These findings indicate impaired incentive processing and suggest a compromised mesocorticolimbic pathway in cognitively intact PD patients with apathy. PMID:24760851

  6. Phonological Patterns in Puerto Rican Spanish-Speaking Children with Phonological Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the speech of 54 young Spanish-speaking (Puerto Rican dialect) children with phonological disorders. It described the mean percentage-of-occurrence and standard deviation of phonological processes and the number and type of nontargeted process errors. Specific patterns characterizing the speech of these children were…

  7. Imagery and spatial processes in blindness and visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Cornoldi, Cesare; Mammarella, Irene; Bonino, Daniela; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this review is to examine and evaluate recent findings on cognitive functioning (in particular imagery processes) in individuals with congenital visual impairments, including total blindness, low-vision and monocular vision. As one might expect, the performance of blind individuals in many behaviours and tasks requiring imagery can be inferior to that of sighted subjects; however, surprisingly often this is not the case. Interestingly, there is evidence that the blind often employ different cognitive mechanisms than sighted subjects, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms can overcome the limitations of sight loss. Taken together, these studies suggest that the nature of perceptual input on which we commonly rely strongly affects the organization of our mental processes. We also review recent neuroimaging studies on the neural correlates of sensory perception and mental imagery in visually impaired individuals that have cast light on the plastic functional reorganization mechanisms associated with visual deprivation. PMID:18571726

  8. Auditory processing efficiency deficits in children with developmental language impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.

    2002-12-01

    The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.

  9. Inefficient clearance of myelin debris by microglia impairs remyelinating processes

    PubMed Central

    Lampron, Antoine; Larochelle, Antoine; Laflamme, Nathalie; Préfontaine, Paul; Plante, Marie-Michèle; Sánchez, Maria Gabriela; Yong, V. Wee; Stys, Peter K.; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance between remyelinating and demyelinating rates underlies degenerative processes in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. An optimal therapeutic strategy would be to stimulate remyelination while limiting demyelination. Although accumulation of myelin debris impairs remyelination, the mechanisms regulating the clearance of such debris by mononuclear phagocytic cells are poorly understood. We demonstrate that after cuprizone intoxication, CCR2-dependent infiltration of mouse bone marrow–derived cells is abundant in demyelinating areas, but that these cells do not impact demyelination. However, in CX3CR1-deficient mice, the clearance of myelin debris by microglia was blocked greatly, affecting the integrity of the axon and myelin sheaths and thus preventing proper remyelination. These results highlight the crucial role played by CX3CR1 in myelin removal and show that there can be no efficient remyelination after a primary demyelinating insult if myelin clearance by microglia is impaired. PMID:25779633

  10. The Relationship between Phonological Processing Skills and Word and Nonword Identification Performance in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Justin C.; Sevcik, Rose A.; Romski, MaryAnn; Morris, Robin D.

    2010-01-01

    Word and nonword identification skills were examined in a sample of 80 elementary school age students with mild intellectual disabilities and mixed etiologies who were described as struggling to learn to read by their teachers. Performance on measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary, measures of phonological awareness, and measures of word…

  11. The Roles of Family History of Dyslexia, Language, Speech Production and Phonological Processing in Predicting Literacy Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Julia M.; Mundy, Ian R.; Cunningham, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that speech, language and phonological skills are closely associated with literacy, and that children with a family risk of dyslexia (FRD) tend to show deficits in each of these areas in the preschool years. This paper examines what the relationships are between FRD and these skills, and whether deficits in speech, language…

  12. The phonetics of metrical prominence and its consequences on segmental phonology

    E-print Network

    Giavazzi, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Only very few phonological processes are reported to be conditioned by stress. There are two major patterns of stress-sensitive processes: segments are lengthened under stress, and vowels become louder. Two other phonological ...

  13. Representing the Environments for Phonological Processes in an Accent-Independent Lexicon for Synthesis of English 

    E-print Network

    Fitt, Susan; Isard, Stephen

    This paper reports on work developing an accent-independent lexicon for use in synthesising speech in English. Developing a lexicon for a new accent is a long process, and one potential solution to this problem involves ...

  14. Re-Evaluating the Time Course of Gender and Phonological Encoding during Silent Monitoring Tasks Estimated by ERP: Serial or Parallel Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camen, Christian; Morand, Stephanie; Laganaro, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Neurolinguistic and psycholinguistic studies suggest that grammatical (gender) and phonological information are retrieved independently and that gender can be accessed before phonological information. This study investigated the relative time courses of gender and phonological encoding using topographic evoked potentials mapping methods.…

  15. Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

  16. Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment (SLI): Relations with the Perception of Lexical and Phrasal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Susan; Goswami, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether impaired acoustic processing is a factor in developmental language disorders. The amplitude envelope of the speech signal is known to be important in language processing. We examined whether impaired perception of amplitude envelope rise time is related to impaired perception of lexical and phrasal stress in…

  17. The Contribution of Processing Impairments to SLI: Insights from Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oram Cardy, Janis E.; Tannock, Rosemary; Johnson, Andrew M.; Johnson, Carla J.

    2010-01-01

    Slowed speed of processing and impaired rapid temporal processing (RTP) have been proposed to underlie specific language impairment (SLI), but it is not clear that these dysfunctions are unique to SLI. We considered the contribution of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which frequently co-occurs with language impairments, to…

  18. Developmental Differences in the Influence of Phonological Similarity on Spoken Word Processing in Mandarin Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Malins, Jeffrey G.; Gao, Danqi; Tao, Ran; Booth, James R.; Shu, Hua; Joanisse, Marc F.; Liu, Li; Desroches, Amy S.

    2014-01-01

    The developmental trajectory of spoken word recognition has been well established in Indo-European languages, but to date remains poorly characterized in Mandarin Chinese. In this study, typically developing children (N = 17; mean age 10;5) and adults (N = 17; mean age 24) performed a picture-word matching task in Mandarin while we recorded ERPs. Mismatches diverged from expectations in different components of the Mandarin syllable; namely, word-initial phonemes, word-final phonemes, and tone. By comparing responses to different mismatch types, we uncovered evidence suggesting that both children and adults process words incrementally. However, we also observed key developmental differences in how subjects treated onset and rime mismatches. This was taken as evidence for a stronger influence of top-down processing on spoken word recognition in adults compared to children. This work therefore offers an important developmental component to theories of Mandarin spoken word recognition. PMID:25278419

  19. Developmental differences in the influence of phonological similarity on spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Malins, Jeffrey G; Gao, Danqi; Tao, Ran; Booth, James R; Shu, Hua; Joanisse, Marc F; Liu, Li; Desroches, Amy S

    2014-11-01

    The developmental trajectory of spoken word recognition has been well established in Indo-European languages, but to date remains poorly characterized in Mandarin Chinese. In this study, typically developing children (N=17; mean age 10; 5) and adults (N=17; mean age 24) performed a picture-word matching task in Mandarin while we recorded ERPs. Mismatches diverged from expectations in different components of the Mandarin syllable; namely, word-initial phonemes, word-final phonemes, and tone. By comparing responses to different mismatch types, we uncovered evidence suggesting that both children and adults process words incrementally. However, we also observed key developmental differences in how subjects treated onset and rime mismatches. This was taken as evidence for a stronger influence of top-down processing on spoken word recognition in adults compared to children. This work therefore offers an important developmental component to theories of Mandarin spoken word recognition. PMID:25278419

  20. Effects of phonological and semantic deficits on facilitative and inhibitory consequences of item repetition in spoken word comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Britt, Allison E.; Chen, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Repeating a word can have both facilitative and inhibitory effects on subsequent processing. The present study investigated these dynamics by examining the facilitative and inhibitory consequences of different kinds of item repetition in two individuals with aphasia and a group of neurologically intact control participants. The two individuals with aphasia were matched on overall aphasia severity, but had deficits at different levels of processing: one with a phonological deficit and spared semantic processing, the other with a semantic deficit and spared phonological processing. Participants completed a spoken word-to-picture matching task in which they had to pick which of four object images matched the spoken word. The trials were grouped into pairs such that exactly two objects from the first trial in a pair were present on screen during the second trial in the pair. When the second trial's target was the same as the first trial's target, compared to control participants, both participants with aphasia exhibited equally larger repetition priming effects. When the second trial's target was one of the new items, the participant with a phonological deficit exhibited a significantly more negative effect (i.e., second trial response slower than first trial response) than the control participants and the participant with a semantic deficit. Simulations of a computational model confirmed that this pattern of results could arise from (1) normal residual activation being functionally more significant when overall lexical processing is slower and (2) residual phonological activation of the previous trial's target having a particularly strong inhibitory effect specifically when phonological processing is impaired because the task was phonologically-driven (the spoken input specified the target). These results provide new insights into perseveration errors and lexical access deficits in aphasia. PMID:23770302

  1. Impaired implicit learning and feedback processing after stroke.

    PubMed

    Lam, J M; Globas, C; Hosp, J A; Karnath, H-O; Wächter, T; Luft, A R

    2016-02-01

    The ability to learn is assumed to support successful recovery and rehabilitation therapy after stroke. Hence, learning impairments may reduce the recovery potential. Here, the hypothesis is tested that stroke survivors have deficits in feedback-driven implicit learning. Stroke survivors (n=30) and healthy age-matched control subjects (n=21) learned a probabilistic classification task with brain activation measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a subset of these individuals (17 stroke and 10 controls). Stroke subjects learned slower than controls to classify cues. After being rewarded with a smiley face, they were less likely to give the same response when the cue was repeated. Stroke subjects showed reduced brain activation in putamen, pallidum, thalamus, frontal and prefrontal cortices and cerebellum when compared with controls. Lesion analysis identified those stroke survivors as learning-impaired who had lesions in frontal areas, putamen, thalamus, caudate and insula. Lesion laterality had no effect on learning efficacy or brain activation. These findings suggest that stroke survivors have deficits in reinforcement learning that may be related to dysfunctional processing of feedback-based decision-making, reward signals and working memory. PMID:26633264

  2. Reading, Phonological Skills and Short-Term Memory: Interactive Tributaries of Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the interactive development of short-term memory, phonological processing and reading. Reports that phonological skills promote the acquisition of letter knowledge and that these two abilities, together with visual short term memory, lead the development of reading. (MG)

  3. Spelling English Words: Contributions of Phonological, Morphological and Orthographic Knowledge in Speakers of English and Chinese 

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Jing

    2011-08-08

    learning to read and write in English must process information from the writing system at different levels, namely, phonological, morphological, semantic and syntactic levels (e.g., Nagy, Berninger & Abbot, 2006). The role of phonological awareness (PA...

  4. The Effect of a Music Program on Phonological Awareness in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Degé, Franziska; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. In particular, the effects of a music program and a phonological skills program on phonological awareness were compared. If language and music share basic processing mechanisms, the effect of both programs on enhancing phonological awareness should be similar. Forty-one preschoolers (22 boys) were randomly assigned to a phonological skills program, a music program, and a control group that received sports training (from which no effect was expected). Preschoolers were trained for 10?min on a daily basis over a period of 20?weeks. In a pretest, no differences were found between the three groups in regard to age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and phonological awareness. Children in the phonological skills group and the music group showed significant increases in phonological awareness from pre- to post-test. The children in the sports group did not show a significant increase from pre- to post-test. The enhancement of phonological awareness was basically driven by positive effects of the music program and the phonological skills program on phonological awareness for large phonological units. The data suggests that phonological awareness can be trained with a phonological skills program as well as a music program. These results can be interpreted as evidence of a shared sound category learning mechanism for language and music at preschool age. PMID:21734895

  5. The Acquisition of Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Arlene I.

    This paper deals with methods and models appropriate to the systematic linguistic study of the child's acquisiton of phonology. Sections I through IV present a review of previous studies in the field, discuss the usefulness of the concept of "innateness," discriminate between phonetic and phonological ability, and discuss the concept of discrete…

  6. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  7. Parental phonological memory contributes to prediction of outcome of late talkers from 20 months to 4 years: a longitudinal study of precursors of specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many children who are late talkers go on to develop normal language, but others go on to have longer-term language difficulties. In this study, we considered which factors were predictive of persistent problems in late talkers. Methods Parental report of expressive vocabulary at 18 months of age was used to select 26 late talkers and 70 average talkers, who were assessed for language and cognitive ability at 20 months of age. Follow-up at 4 years of age was carried out for 24 late and 58 average talkers. A psychometric test battery was used to categorize children in terms of language status (unimpaired or impaired) and nonverbal ability (normal range or more than 1 SD below average). The vocabulary and non-word repetition skills of the accompanying parent were also assessed. Results Among the late talkers, seven (29%) met our criteria for specific language impairment (SLI) at 4 years of age, and a further two (8%) had low nonverbal ability. In the group of average talkers, eight (14%) met the criteria for SLI at 4 years, and five other children (8%) had low nonverbal ability. Family history of language problems was slightly better than late-talker status as a predictor of SLI.. The best predictors of SLI at 20 months of age were score on the receptive language scale of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the parent's performance on a non-word repetition task. Maternal education was not a significant predictor of outcome. Conclusions In this study, around three-quarters of late talkers did not have any language difficulties at 4 years of age, provided there was no family history of language impairment. A family history of language-literacy problems was found to be a significant predictor for persisting problems. Nevertheless, there are children with SLI for whom prediction is difficult because they did not have early language delay. PMID:22958373

  8. Early difficulties of Chinese preschoolers at familial risk for dyslexia: deficits in oral language, phonological processing skills, and print-related skills.

    PubMed

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Leung, Man-Tak; Cheung, Him

    2011-05-01

    The present study examined some early performance difficulties of Chinese preschoolers at familial risk for dyslexia. Seventy-six high-risk (40 good and 36 poor readers) and 25 low-risk Chinese children were tested on oral language, reading-related cognitive skills (e.g. phonological processing skills, rapid naming, and morphological awareness), and Chinese word reading and spelling over a 3-year period. The parents were also given a behaviour checklist for identifying child at-risk behaviours. Results showed that the High Risk (Poor Reading) group performed significantly worse than the Low Risk and the High Risk (Good Reading) group on most of the measures and domains. More children in the High Risk (Poor Reading) group displayed at-risk behaviours than in the other two groups. These results suggest that Chinese at-risk children with early difficulties in reading and spelling do show a wide range of language-, phonology-, and print-related deficits, similar to their alphabetic counterparts. An understanding of these early difficulties may help prevent dyslexia from developing in at-risk children. PMID:21294232

  9. Semantic Processing Impairment in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes-Bautista, Amanda G.; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E.; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth

    2015-01-01

    The impairment in episodic memory system is the best-known cognitive deficit in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Recent studies have shown evidence of semantic disorders, but they have been less studied than episodic memory. The semantic dysfunction in TLE has various cognitive manifestations, such as the presence of language disorders characterized by defects in naming, verbal fluency, or remote semantic information retrieval, which affects the ability of patients to interact with their surroundings. This paper is a review of recent research about the consequences of TLE on semantic processing, considering neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging findings, as well as the functional role of the hippocampus in semantic processing. The evidence from these studies shows disturbance of semantic memory in patients with TLE and supports the theory of declarative memory of the hippocampus. Functional neuroimaging studies show an inefficient compensatory functional reorganization of semantic networks and electrophysiological studies show a lack of N400 effect that could indicate that the deficit in semantic processing in patients with TLE could be due to a failure in the mechanisms of automatic access to lexicon. PMID:26257956

  10. Semantic Processing Impairment in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Jaimes-Bautista, Amanda G; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth

    2015-01-01

    The impairment in episodic memory system is the best-known cognitive deficit in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Recent studies have shown evidence of semantic disorders, but they have been less studied than episodic memory. The semantic dysfunction in TLE has various cognitive manifestations, such as the presence of language disorders characterized by defects in naming, verbal fluency, or remote semantic information retrieval, which affects the ability of patients to interact with their surroundings. This paper is a review of recent research about the consequences of TLE on semantic processing, considering neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging findings, as well as the functional role of the hippocampus in semantic processing. The evidence from these studies shows disturbance of semantic memory in patients with TLE and supports the theory of declarative memory of the hippocampus. Functional neuroimaging studies show an inefficient compensatory functional reorganization of semantic networks and electrophysiological studies show a lack of N400 effect that could indicate that the deficit in semantic processing in patients with TLE could be due to a failure in the mechanisms of automatic access to lexicon. PMID:26257956

  11. Neural correlates of impaired emotion processing in manifest Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Imis; Saß, Christian; Mirzazade, Shahram; Kleiman, Alexandra; Werner, Cornelius J; Pohl, Anna; Schiefer, Johannes; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Schulz, Jörg B; Shah, N Jon; Reetz, Kathrin

    2014-05-01

    The complex phenotype of Huntington's disease (HD) encompasses motor, psychiatric and cognitive dysfunctions, including early impairments in emotion recognition. In this first functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated emotion-processing deficits in 14 manifest HD patients and matched controls. An emotion recognition task comprised short video clips displaying one of six basic facial expressions (sadness, happiness, disgust, fear, anger and neutral). Structural changes between patients and controls were assessed by means of voxel-based morphometry. Along with deficient recognition of negative emotions, patients exhibited predominantly lower neural response to stimuli of negative valences in the amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, insula, cingulate and prefrontal cortices, as well as in sensorimotor, temporal and visual areas. Most of the observed reduced activity patterns could not be explained merely by regional volume loss. Reduced activity in the thalamus during fear correlated with lower thalamic volumes. During the processing of sadness, patients exhibited enhanced amygdala and hippocampal activity along with reduced recruitment of the medial prefrontal cortex. Higher amygdala activity was related to more pronounced amygdala atrophy and disease burden. Overall, the observed emotion-related dysfunctions in the context of structural neurodegeneration suggest both disruptions of striatal-thalamo-cortical loops and potential compensation mechanism with greater disease severity in manifest HD. PMID:23482620

  12. Phonological Repetition-Suppression in Bilateral Superior Temporal Sulci

    PubMed Central

    Vaden, Kenneth I.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Hickok, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is critically involved in phonological processing during speech perception, although there are conflicting accounts regarding the degree of lateralization. The current fMRI experiment aimed to identify phonological processing during speech perception through repetition-suppression effects. Repetition-suppression occurs when brain activity decreases from repetitive presentation of stimulus characteristics, in regions of cortex that process those characteristics. We manipulated the degree of phonological repetition among words in short lists to obtain systematic decreases in brain response, indicative of phonological processing. The fMRI experiment presented seventeen participants with recorded wordlists, of low, medium, or high phonological repetition, defined by how many phonemes were shared among words. Bilaterally, middle STS demonstrated activity differences consistent with our prediction of repetition-suppression, as responses decreased systematically with each increase in phonological repetition. Phonological repetition-suppression in bilateral STS converges with neuroimaging evidence for phonological processing, and word deafness resulting from bilateral superior temporal lesions. PMID:19651222

  13. Phonological Development in Specific Contexts: Studies of Chinese-Speaking Children. Child Language and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Zhu

    This book examines the phonological development and impairment of Chinese-speaking children. It contains a series of studies of phonological acquisition and development of children in specific contexts (Putonghua or Modern Standard Chinese, the language variety promoted by the Chinese government, and normally developing children, children with…

  14. Conceptual Coherence Affects Phonological Activation of Context Objects during Object Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Schriefers, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    In 4 picture-word interference experiments, speakers named a target object that was presented with a context object. Using auditory distractors that were phonologically related or unrelated either to the target object or the context object, the authors assessed whether phonological processing was confined to the target object or not. Phonological

  15. Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

  16. The Interpretation and Representation of Neutralisation in Generative Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staun, Jorgen.

    Phonological neutralization from a generative viewpoint is examined, and the process of solving the problems of representing the products of neutralization is described. First, in generative phonological terms, the product must be morphologically irresoluble in order to be considered a true neutralization. This distinguishes neutralization from…

  17. Phonological Segments and Features as Planning Units in Speech Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Ardi

    1999-01-01

    Examined phonological processes in spoken-word production, applying a form-preparation model to the question of whether phonological features could be preplanned to facilitate word production. Results are explained in terms of the WEAVER model of word-form encoding, which follows a serial encoding of segments with a parallel activation of…

  18. Sensitivity to Phonological Similarity within and across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marian, Viorica; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Boukrina, Olga V.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of phonological similarity on bilingual language processing was examined within and across languages in three experiments. Phonological similarity was manipulated within a language by varying neighborhood density, and across languages by varying extent of cross-linguistic overlap between native and non-native languages. In Experiment…

  19. Learning Novel Words: Detail and Vulnerability of Initial Representations for Children with Specific Language Impairment and Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary; Suddarth, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the phonological representations that children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers (TD) have during the initial process of word learning. The goals of this study were to determine if children with SLI attended to different components of words than peers, and whether they were more vulnerable…

  20. Nonlinear Perception of Hearing-Impaired People Using Preference Learning with Gaussian Processes

    E-print Network

    Groot, Perry

    Nonlinear Perception of Hearing-Impaired People Using Preference Learning with Gaussian Processes P degradation mechanisms that might be present in a hearing aid. In Arehart et al. [2007] pairwise comparisons were performed with 14 normal-hearing and 18 hearing-impaired subjects for several sound distortions

  1. Impaired conscious and preserved unconscious inhibitory processing in recent onset schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Aron, Adam

    Impaired conscious and preserved unconscious inhibitory processing in recent onset schizophrenia V function have been found in studies of cognition in schizophrenia. These have been linked to a failure are specifically impaired in people with schizophrenia. Method. The subjects were 33 patients presenting

  2. The Structure of Phonological Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Bridget D.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…

  3. Hearing Loss Severity: Impaired Processing of Formant Transition Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coez, A.; Belin, P.; Bizaguet, E.; Ferrary, E.; Zilbovicius, M.; Samson, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Normal hearing listeners exploit the formant transition (FT) detection to identify place of articulation for stop consonants. Neuro-imaging studies revealed that short FT induced less cortical activation than long FT. To determine the ability of hearing impaired listeners to distinguish short and long formant transitions (FT) from vowels of the…

  4. Teaching Transferable Compensatory Skills and Processes to Visually Impaired Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Alvin

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the eight laws of association theory and applies four of them to strategies for teaching transferable skills to individuals with visual impairments. Strategies described include situation forecasting, generalization, sense shifting, performing skills repetitively to facilitate the transfer habit, and assigning an intensity…

  5. Contrasting Effects of Phonological Priming in Aphasic Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilshire, Carolyn E.; Saffran, Eleanor M.

    2005-01-01

    Two fluent aphasics, IG and GL, performed a phonological priming task in which they repeated an auditory prime then named a target picture. The two patients both had selective deficits in word production: they were at or near ceiling on lexical comprehension tasks, but were significantly impaired in picture naming. IG's naming errors included both…

  6. Phonology without universal grammar.

    PubMed

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791

  7. Phonology without universal grammar

    PubMed Central

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns. PMID:26388791

  8. Language evolution: syntax before phonology?

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P.; Manser, Marta B.; Townsend, Simon W.

    2014-01-01

    Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364

  9. Dual-task information processing in schizotypal personality disorder: evidence of impaired processing capacity.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip D; Reichenberg, Abraham; Romero, Michelle; Granholm, Eric; Siever, Larry J

    2006-07-01

    Working memory theories heavily rely on the concept of processing resources and the their efficient deployment. Some recent work with schizophrenia-spectrum patients has suggested that many associated cognitive impairments may be reduced to deficits in working memory, possibly related to reductions in information-processing capacity resources. In this study, 38 patients with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), 22 patients with other personality disorders, and 14 healthy comparison participants performed a dual-task processing assessment that was designed specifically for use in this type of study. Participants recalled lists of digits at their predetermined maximum digit span and performed box-checking tests, first alone and then in a dual-task format. Instructions included equal prioritization of both tasks. SPD patients had significantly shorter digit spans, and they also showed more deterioration on both tasks. Performance operating characteristics curves indicated that SPD patients' reduced performance was not due to abnormal resource allocation strategies leading to strategic failures. The authors discuss the implications of these processing capacity limitations for understanding both the signature of cognitive impairment within the schizophrenia spectrum and general abnormalities in working memory. PMID:16846263

  10. Phonological Awareness for American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…

  11. Neonatal nicotine exposure impairs nicotinic enhancement of central auditory processing and auditory learning in

    E-print Network

    Weinberger, Norman M.

    Neonatal nicotine exposure impairs nicotinic enhancement of central auditory processing. Clinical studies have implicated developmental exposure to nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient an animal model to determine how neonatal nicotine exposure affects adult auditory function. In adult

  12. Electrophysiological Indices of Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desroches, Amy S.; Newman, Randy Lynn; Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A range of studies have shown difficulties in perceiving acoustic and phonetic information in dyslexia; however, much less is known about how such difficulties relate to the perception of individual words. The authors present data from event-related potentials (ERPs) examining the hypothesis that children with dyslexia have difficulties…

  13. A dual-route perspective on poor reading in a regular orthography: Evidence from phonological and orthographic lexical decisions

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Jürgen; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit. PMID:18642138

  14. Dynamics of Phonological Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafos, Adamantios I.; Benus, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental problem in spoken language is the duality between the continuous aspects of phonetic performance and the discrete aspects of phonological competence. We study 2 instances of this problem from the phenomenon of voicing neutralization and vowel harmony. In each case, we present a model where the experimentally observed continuous…

  15. Learning Phonological Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris

    2009-01-01

    This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…

  16. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  17. Phonological and Orthographic Overlap Effects in Fast and Masked Priming

    PubMed Central

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  18. Semantic and phonological information in sentence recall: converging psycholinguistic and neuropsychological evidence.

    PubMed

    Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf; Bormann, Tobias; Martin, Randi C

    2011-12-01

    We present one experiment and a neuropsychological case study to investigate to what extent phonological and semantic representations contribute to short-term sentence recall. We modified Potter and Lombardi's (1990) intrusion paradigm, in which retention of a list interferes with sentence recall such that on the list a semantically related lure is presented, which is expected to intrude into sentence recall. In our version, lure words are either semantically related to target words in the sentence or semantically plus phonologically related. With healthy participants, intrusions are more frequent when lure and target overlap phonologically in addition to semantically than when they solely overlap semantically. When this paradigm is applied to a patient with a phonological short-term memory impairment, both lure types induce the same amount of intrusions. These findings indicate that usually phonological information is retained in sentence recall in addition to semantic information. PMID:22813068

  19. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  20. Prefrontal cortex activity during response selection predicts processing speed impairment in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Neil D.; Duffy-Alberto, Brittney; Karbasforoushan, Haleh

    2014-01-01

    Processing speed is the most impaired neuropsychological domain in schizophrenia and a robust predictor of functional outcome. Determining the specific cognitive operations underlying processing speed dysfunction and indentifying their neural correlates may assist in developing pro-cognitive interventions. Response selection, the process of mapping stimuli onto motor responses, correlates with neuropsychological tests of processing speed and may contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. This study investigated the relationship between behavioral and neural measures of response selection, and a neuropsychological index of processing speed in schizophrenia. 26 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning during performance of 2 and 4-choice-reaction time (RT) tasks and completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS) Processing Speed Index (PSI). Response selection, defined as RT slowing between 2 and 4-choice RT, was impaired in schizophrenia and correlated with psychometric processing speed. Greater activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) was observed in schizophrenia and correlated with poorer WAIS PSI scores. Deficient response selection and abnormal recruitment of the dorsolateral PFC during response selection contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. Interventions that improve response selection and normalize dorsolateral PFC function may improve processing speed in schizophrenia. PMID:23816240

  1. Visuo-Spatial Processing and Executive Functions in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Klara

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individual differences in complex working memory tasks reflect simultaneous processing, executive functions, and attention control. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show a deficit in verbal working memory tasks that involve simultaneous processing of information. Aims: The purpose of the study was to examine executive…

  2. Ophthalmological, Cognitive, Electrophysiological and MRI Assessment of Visual Processing in Preterm Children without Major Neuromotor Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Michelle; Vollmer, Brigitte; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Neville, Brian; Connelly, Alan; Wyatt, John; Timms, Chris; De Haan, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Many studies report chronic deficits in visual processing in children born preterm. We investigated whether functional abnormalities in visual processing exist in children born preterm but without major neuromotor impairment (i.e. cerebral palsy). Twelve such children (less than 33 weeks gestation or birthweight less than 1000 g) without major…

  3. Beyond phonological and morphological processing: pure copying as a marker of dyslexia in Chinese but not poor reading of English.

    PubMed

    Kalindi, Sylvia Chanda; McBride, Catherine; Tong, Xiuhong; Wong, Natalie Lok Yee; Chung, Kien Hoa Kevin; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-07-01

    To examine cognitive correlates of dyslexia in Chinese and reading difficulties in English as a foreign language, a total of 14 Chinese dyslexic children (DG), 16 poor readers of English (PE), and 17 poor readers of both Chinese and English (PB) were compared to a control sample (C) of 17 children, drawn from a statistically representative sample of 177 second graders. Children were tested on pure copying of unfamiliar stimuli, rapid automatized naming (RAN), phoneme deletion, syllable deletion, and morphological awareness. With children's ages and Raven's nonverbal reasoning statistically controlled, the PE and PB groups were significantly lower than the C group on phoneme deletion and RAN tasks, while the DG performed significantly better than the PB group on the RAN task. The copying task distinguished the DG group from the C group. Findings particularly highlight the importance of phoneme awareness for word reading in English (but not Chinese), the potential need for fluency training for children with reading difficulties in both Chinese and English, and the important role that copying skills could have specifically in understanding impairment of literacy skills in Chinese (but not English). PMID:25876887

  4. Developmental Increase in Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processing in a Phonological Task: An Effective Connectivity, fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitan, Tali; Cheon, Jimmy; Lu, Dong; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined age-related changes in the interactions among brain regions in children performing rhyming judgments on visually presented words. The difficulty of the task was manipulated by including a conflict between task-relevant (phonological) information and task-irrelevant (orthographic) information. The conflicting conditions included pairs…

  5. The Role of Visual and Phonological Representations in the Processing of Written Words by Readers with Diagnosed Dyslexia: Evidence from a Working Memory Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul; Kupfermann, Amirit

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the nature and efficiency of the strategies that readers with phonological dyslexia use for temporary retention of written words in Working Memory (WM). Data was gathered through a paradigm whereby participants had to identify serially presented written (target) words from within larger word pools according to…

  6. Developmental Dyslexia: Exploring How Much Phonological and Visual Attention Span Disorders Are Linked to Simultaneous Auditory Processing Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lallier, Marie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    The simultaneous auditory processing skills of 17 dyslexic children and 17 skilled readers were measured using a dichotic listening task. Results showed that the dyslexic children exhibited difficulties reporting syllabic material when presented simultaneously. As a measure of simultaneous visual processing, visual attention span skills were…

  7. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this measure uses eye fixations recorded while the participant listens to a sentence. Eye fixations toward a target picture (which matches the aurally presented sentence) were measured in the presence of a competitor picture. Based on the recorded eye fixations, the single target detection amplitude, which reflects the tendency of the participant to fixate the target picture, was used as a metric to estimate the duration of sentence processing. The single target detection amplitude was calculated for sentence structures with different levels of linguistic complexity and for different listening conditions: in quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive abilities, was investigated. Longer processing durations were measured for participants with hearing impairment who were not accustomed to using a hearing aid. Moreover, significant correlations were found between sentence processing duration and individual cognitive abilities (such as working memory capacity or susceptibility to interference). These findings are discussed with respect to audiological applications. PMID:25910503

  8. How hearing impairment affects sentence comprehension: using eye fixations to investigate the duration of speech processing.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this measure uses eye fixations recorded while the participant listens to a sentence. Eye fixations toward a target picture (which matches the aurally presented sentence) were measured in the presence of a competitor picture. Based on the recorded eye fixations, the single target detection amplitude, which reflects the tendency of the participant to fixate the target picture, was used as a metric to estimate the duration of sentence processing. The single target detection amplitude was calculated for sentence structures with different levels of linguistic complexity and for different listening conditions: in quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive abilities, was investigated. Longer processing durations were measured for participants with hearing impairment who were not accustomed to using a hearing aid. Moreover, significant correlations were found between sentence processing duration and individual cognitive abilities (such as working memory capacity or susceptibility to interference). These findings are discussed with respect to audiological applications. PMID:25910503

  9. The locus of impairment in English developmental letter position dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Kezilas, Yvette; Kohnen, Saskia; McKague, Meredith; Castles, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Many children with reading difficulties display phonological deficits and struggle to acquire non-lexical reading skills. However, not all children with reading difficulties have these problems, such as children with selective letter position dyslexia (LPD), who make excessive migration errors (such as reading slime as “smile”). Previous research has explored three possible loci for the deficit – the phonological output buffer, the orthographic input lexicon, and the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. While there is compelling evidence against a phonological output buffer and orthographic input lexicon deficit account of English LPD, the evidence in support of an orthographic-visual analysis deficit is currently limited. In this multiple single-case study with three English-speaking children with developmental LPD, we aimed to both replicate and extend previous findings regarding the locus of impairment in English LPD. First, we ruled out a phonological output buffer and an orthographic input lexicon deficit by administering tasks that directly assess phonological processing and lexical guessing. We then went on to directly assess whether or not children with LPD have an orthographic-visual analysis deficit by modifying two tasks that have previously been used to localize processing at this level: a same-different decision task and a non-word reading task. The results from these tasks indicate that LPD is most likely caused by a deficit specific to the coding of letter positions at the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. These findings provide further evidence for the heterogeneity of dyslexia and its underlying causes. PMID:24917802

  10. Phonology and neuropsychology of the English past tense.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D

    2002-01-01

    The double dissociation between the regular and irregular past tense in English has been explained in terms of dual and single mechanism accounts. In previous research we have argued that problems with the regular past tense in patients with left inferior frontal damage arise from morpho-phonological parsing difficulties [Trends in Cognitive Science 2 (1998) 428]. This claim has recently been challenged by a single mechanism connectionist account which argues that a general phonological processing deficit causes the poor performance on the regular past tense, with morphological factors playing no explicit role [Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96 (1999) 7592]. We used a speeded judgement task with four patients who have documented difficulties with the regular past tense to contrast the claims made by these different approaches. We compared patients' ability to detect the difference between the past tense and stem of regular (hugged/hug) and irregular (taught/teach) past tense verbs, as well as matched "pseudo" pairs (trade/tray and port/peach). These real word conditions were accompanied by matched sets of non-words (e.g. nugged/nug). Patients' latencies to the regular past tense real word-pairs were consistently slower than in any other condition. To test for a general phonological processing deficit, we conducted several tests of phonological processing ability. The results show that the patients had a range of difficulties in phonological processing, from very mild to severe. This did not correlate with their performance on the speeded judgement task. We interpret this pattern of results as support for a specialised morpho-phonological processing mechanism which can be dissociated from other phonological processes and which is used directly in the processing of the regular past tense in a dual-mechanism system. PMID:11931919

  11. Effect Size in Clinical Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

  12. Aberrant Pattern of Scanning in Prosopagnosia Reflects Impaired Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Blossom Christa Maree; Caine, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Visual scanpath recording was used to investigate the information processing strategies used by a prosopagnosic patient, SC, when viewing faces. Compared to controls, SC showed an aberrant pattern of scanning, directing attention away from the internal configuration of facial features (eyes, nose) towards peripheral regions (hair, forehead) of the…

  13. Orthographic and Phonological Contributions to Reading Development: Tracking Developmental Trajectories Using Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Bertrand, Daisy; Lété, Bernard; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a variant of masked priming to track the development of 2 marker effects of orthographic and phonological processing from Grade 1 through Grade 5 in a cross-sectional study. Pseudohomophone (PsH) priming served as a marker for phonological processing, whereas transposed-letter (TL) priming was a marker for coarse-grained…

  14. Musical plus phonological input for young foreign language readers.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Mora, M C; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María

    2015-01-01

    Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7-8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills. PMID:25852604

  15. Musical plus phonological input for young foreign language readers

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Mora, M. C.; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María

    2015-01-01

    Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7–8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills. PMID:25852604

  16. Processing Speed Measures as Clinical Markers for Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jisook; Miller, Carol A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relative utility of linguistic and nonlinguistic processing speed tasks as predictors of language impairment (LI) in children across 2 time points. Method: Linguistic and nonlinguistic reaction time data, obtained from 131 children (89 children with typical development [TD] and 42 children with LI; 74 boys and…

  17. Behavioral Profiles Associated with Auditory Processing Disorder and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol A.; Wagstaff, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and compare behavioral profiles associated with auditory processing disorder (APD) and specific language impairment (SLI) in school-age children. Method: The participants in this cross-sectional observational study were 64 children (mean age 10.1 years) recruited through clinician referrals. Thirty-five participants had a…

  18. Using Compressed Speech to Measure Simultaneous Processing in Persons with and without Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, William J.; Jones, W. Paul; Loe, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the use of compressed speech as a modality for assessment of the simultaneous processing function for participants with visual impairment. A 24-item compressed speech test was created using a sound editing program to randomly remove sound elements from aural stimuli, holding pitch constant, with the objective to emulate the…

  19. Spelling English Words: Contributions of Phonological, Morphological and Orthographic Processing Skills of Turkish EFL Students in Grades 6-8 

    E-print Network

    Unal, Melike

    2014-11-12

    & ?ney, 1999). Therefore, beginning reading instruction in Turkish relies on the orthographic consistency and salient syllabic structures (Durguno?lu, Nagy, & Hancin-Bhatt, 1993). 10 Turkish Morphology Turkish, the largest member... words was reported (Berninger, Abbott, Nagy, & Carlisle, 2010). The morphophonemic nature of English, with an inconsistent phoneme-to-grapheme mapping, complicates spelling processes not only for native English speaking spellers but also...

  20. The role of visual and phonological representations in the processing of written words by readers with diagnosed dyslexia: evidence from a working memory task.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul; Kupfermann, Amirit

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the nature and efficiency of the strategies that readers with phonological dyslexia use for temporary retention of written words in Working Memory (WM). Data was gathered through a paradigm whereby participants had to identify serially presented written (target) words from within larger word pools according to their presentation order, with word pools containing code-specific distracter (CSD) words and non-code-specific distracter (NCSD) words. Analyses focused on three aspects of performance: (1) false recognition of target words; (2) correct recognition of target words; and (3) retention of word presentation order. Participants were readers with diagnosed phonological dyslexia (n = 20, mean grade level = 9.05 [0.89]) and a control group of regular readers (n = 25, mean grade level = 9.00 [0.76]). Results provide direct evidence that the dyslexic readers and the regular readers used essentially different memory coding strategies for the temporary retention of written words, with the former predominantly relying on a visual strategy and the latter on a phonological strategy. Findings further pinpointed a notably impoverished ability of the dyslexic readers to retain word presentation order. The implication of these findings is discussed in relation to theories predicting the acquisition and mastery of reading. PMID:19308736

  1. Impaired Statistical Learning in Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Thiessen, Erik D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Developmental dyslexia (DD) is commonly thought to arise from phonological impairments. However, an emerging perspective is that a more general procedural learning deficit, not specific to phonological processing, may underlie DD. The current study examined if individuals with DD are capable of extracting statistical regularities across sequences of passively experienced speech and nonspeech sounds. Such statistical learning is believed to be domain-general, to draw upon procedural learning systems, and to relate to language outcomes. Method DD and control groups were familiarized with a continuous stream of syllables or sine-wave tones, the ordering of which was defined by high or low transitional probabilities across adjacent stimulus pairs. Participants subsequently judged two 3-stimulus test items with either high or low statistical coherence as being the most similar to the sounds heard during familiarization. Results As with control participants, the DD group was sensitive to the transitional probability structure of the familiarization materials as evidenced by above-chance performance. However, the performance of participants with DD was significantly poorer than controls across linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. In addition, reading-related measures were significantly correlated with statistical learning performance of both speech and nonspeech material. Conclusion Results are discussed in light of procedural learning impairments among participants with DD. PMID:25860795

  2. Identification of Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Lesley J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of a wide range of language measures (phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics) for the identification of adults with developmental language impairment. Method: Measures were administered to 3 groups of adults, each representing a population expected to demonstrate high levels of language impairment, and to…

  3. Cross-Language Phonological Activation of Meaning: Evidence from Category Verification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Jared, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated phonological processing in bilingual reading for meaning. English-French and French-English bilinguals performed a category verification task in either their first or second language. Interlingual homophones (words that share phonology across languages but not orthography or meaning) and single language control words served…

  4. Sensitivity to Speech Rhythm Explains Individual Differences in Reading Ability Independently of Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliman, Andrew J.; Wood, Clare; Sheehy, Kieron

    2008-01-01

    This study considered whether sensitivity to speech rhythm can predict concurrent variance in reading attainment after individual differences in age, vocabulary, and phonological awareness have been controlled. Five- to six-year-old English-speaking children completed a battery of phonological processing assessments and reading assessments, along…

  5. A Case Study of Phonological Development in Language Delayed Twins Not Enrolled in Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Marie May; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This report documents phonological changes in a pair of identical twin boys diagnosed as language delayed. The boys were evaluated four times between the ages of three and four. Speech samples were analyzed for phonetic inventories, phonological process use, and syllabic shapes. Observed changes in their speech generally followed normal…

  6. Phonological Patterns in the Conversational Speech of Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flipsen, Peter, Jr.; Parker, Rhonda G.

    2008-01-01

    In this descriptive, longitudinal study, phonological patterns (i.e., natural phonological processes) were examined in a set of conversational speech samples obtained from six young children fitted with cochlear implants. Both developmental and non-developmental patterns were observed. This is consistent with findings from previous studies of the…

  7. Neural Changes after Phonological Treatment for Anomia: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochon, Elizabeth; Leonard, Carol; Burianova, Hana; Laird, Laura; Soros, Peter; Graham, Simon; Grady, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural processing characteristics associated with word retrieval abilities after a phonologically-based treatment for anomia in two stroke patients with aphasia. Neural activity associated with a phonological and a semantic task was compared before and after treatment with…

  8. Grammatical Class Effects Across Impaired Child and Adult Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kambanaros, Maria; Grohmann, Kleanthes K.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are to compare quantitative and qualitative differences for noun/verb retrieval across language-impaired groups, examine naming errors with reference to psycholinguistic models of word processing, and shed light on the nature of the naming deficit as well as determine relevant group commonalities and differences. This includes an attempt to establish whether error types differentiate language-impaired children from adults, to determine effects of psycholinguistic variables on naming accuracies, and to link the results to genetic mechanisms and/or neural circuitry in the brain. A total of 89 (language-)impaired participants took part in this report: 24 adults with acquired aphasia, 20 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, 31 adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and 14 children with specific language impairment. The results of simultaneous multiple regression analyses for the errors in verb naming compared to the psycholinguistic variables for all language-impaired groups are reported and discussed in relation to models of lexical processing. This discussion will lead to considerations of genetic and/or neurobiological underpinnings: Presence of the noun–verb dissociation in focal and non-focal brain impairment make localization theories redundant, but support for wider neural network involvement.The patterns reported cannot be reduced to any one level of language processing, suggesting multiple interactions at different levels (e.g., receptive vs. expressive language abilities).Semantic-conceptual properties constrain syntactic properties with implications for phonological word form retrieval.Competition needs to be resolved at both conceptual and phonological levels of representation. Moreover, this study may provide a cross-pathological baseline that can be probed further with respect to recent suggestions concerning a reconsideration of open- vs. closed-class items, according to which verbs may actually fall into the latter rather than the standardly received former class. PMID:26635644

  9. Syllable Structure and Interlanguage Phonology

    E-print Network

    Riney, Tim

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines several research assumptions and procedures of two recent studies of interlanguage (IL) phonology that use 'syllable structure' as a primary variable, but make opposing claims about 'open' and 'closed' IL syllable structure...

  10. Biased learning of phonological alternations

    E-print Network

    Do, Young Ah

    2013-01-01

    What is the initial state of the grammar when children begin to figure out patterns of phonological alternations? This thesis documents the developmental stages of children acquiring Korean verb and noun paradigms, and ...

  11. REFERRAL FORM PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS CLINIC

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    REFERRAL FORM PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS CLINIC Concerns regarding communication Please return this form to: Clinical Administrator Email: clinic@cmds.canterbury.ac.nz Department of Communication Ethnicity: Referred by: Relationship: Address: Postal code: GP name: Practice: Parents/Caregivers name

  12. The Role of Visual and Auditory Temporal Processing for Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Simpson W. L.; Cheung, Him; Penney, Trevor B.; Ho, Connie S. -H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined temporal processing in relation to Chinese reading acquisition and impairment. The performances of 26 Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia on tasks of visual and auditory temporal order judgement, rapid naming, visual-orthographic knowledge, morphological, and phonological awareness were compared with…

  13. Aspects of the Phonology-Syntax Interface in Akan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfo, Charles Ofosu

    This paper discusses the phonology-syntax interface in Akan, a language spoken in Ghana and the Cote d'Ivoire, describing a medium of exchange between phonology and syntax. Studies in lexical phonology have distinguished two levels in phonology--lexical and post-lexical--based on how and where phonological rules apply, although some phonological

  14. Evaluation of central auditory processing in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    W?odarczyk, El?bieta; Szkie?kowska, Agata; Pi?ka, Adam

    2015-10-31

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI) affects about 7-15 % of children of school age and according to the currently accepted diagnostic criteria, it is presumed that these children do not suffer from hearing impairment. The goal of this work was to assess anomalies of central auditory processes in a group of children diagnosed with specific language impairment. Material consisted of 200 children aged 7-10 years (100 children in the study group and 100 hundred in the control group). Selected psychoacoustic tests (Frequency Pattern Test - FPT, Duration Pattern Test - DPT, Dichotic Digit Test - DDT, Time Compressed Sentence Test - CST, Gap Detection Test - GDT) were performed in all children. Results were subject to statistical analysis. It was observed that mean results obtained in individual age groups in the study group are significantly lower than in the control group. Based on the conducted studies we may conclude that children with SLI suffer from disorders of some higher auditory functions, which substantiates the diagnosis of hearing disorders according to the AHSA (American Hearing and Speech Association) guidelines. Use of sound-based, not verbal tests, eliminates the probability that observed problems with perception involve only perception of speech, therefore do not signify central hearing disorders, but problems with understanding of speech. Lack of literature data on the significance of FPT, DPT, DDT, CST and GDT tests in children with specific language impairment precludes comparison of acquired results and makes them unique. PMID:26540009

  15. Impairment of inhibitory control processing related to acute psychotomimetic effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Atakan, Z; Martin-Santos, R; Crippa, J A; Kambeitz, J; Malhi, S; Giampietro, V; Williams, S; Brammer, M; Rubia, K; Collier, D A; McGuire, P K

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis use can induce acute psychotic symptoms and increase the risk of schizophrenia. Impairments in inhibitory control and processing are known to occur both under the influence of cannabis and in schizophrenia. Whether cannabis-induced impairment in inhibitory processing is related to the acute induction of psychotic symptoms under its influence is unclear. We investigated the effects of acute oral administration of 10mg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, on inhibitory control and regional brain activation during inhibitory processing in humans and examined whether these effects are related to the induction of psychotic symptoms under its influence using a repeated-measures, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subject design. We studied thirty-six healthy, English-speaking, right-handed men with minimal previous exposure to cannabis and other illicit drugs twice using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they performed a response inhibition (Go/No-Go) task. Relative to placebo, delta-9-THC caused transient psychotic symptoms, anxiety, intoxication and sedation, inhibition errors and impaired inhibition efficiency. Severity of psychotic symptoms was directly correlated with inhibition error frequency and inversely with inhibition efficiency under the influence of delta-9-THC. Delta-9-THC attenuated left inferior frontal activation which was inversely correlated with the frequency of inhibition errors and severity of psychotic symptoms and positively with inhibition efficiency under its influence. These results provide experimental evidence that impairments in cognitive processes involved in the inhibitory control of thoughts and actions and inferior frontal function under the influence of cannabis may have a role in the emergence of transient psychotic symptoms under its influence. PMID:25532865

  16. Acute Alcohol Consumption Impairs Controlled but Not Automatic Processes in a Psychophysical Pointing Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Kevin; Timney, Brian; Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Such studies have shown that alcohol impairs performance on tasks requiring conscious, intentional control, while leaving automatic performance relatively intact. Here, we sought to extend these findings to aspects of visuomotor control by investigating the effects of alcohol in a visuomotor pointing paradigm that allowed us to separate the influence of controlled and automatic processes. Six male participants were assigned to an experimental “correction” condition in which they were instructed to point at a visual target as quickly and accurately as possible. On a small percentage of trials, the target “jumped” to a new location. On these trials, the participants’ task was to amend their movement such that they pointed to the new target location. A second group of 6 participants were assigned to a “countermanding” condition, in which they were instructed to terminate their movements upon detection of target “jumps”. In both the correction and countermanding conditions, participants served as their own controls, taking part in alcohol and no-alcohol conditions on separate days. Alcohol had no effect on participants’ ability to correct movements “in flight”, but impaired the ability to withhold such automatic corrections. Our data support the notion that alcohol selectively impairs controlled processes in the visuomotor domain. PMID:23861934

  17. Spatio-Visual Memory of Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence for Generalized Processing Problems. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavin, Edith L.; Wilson, Peter H.; Maruff, Paul; Sleeman, Felicity

    2005-01-01

    Children with Specific language Impairment (SLI) have problems with verbal memory, particularly with tasks that have more processing demands. They also have slower speeds of responding for some tasks. To identify the extent to which young children with SLI would differ in performance from age-matched non-impaired children on a set of spatio-visual…

  18. Cognitive speed of processing training in older adults with visual impairments

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Amanda F.; O’Connor, Melissa L.; Edwards, Jerri D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether older adults with vision impairment differentially benefit from cognitive speed of processing training (SPT) relative to healthy older adults. Methods Secondary data analyses were conducted from a randomised trial on the effects of SPT among older adults. The effects of vision impairment as indicated by (1) near visual acuity, (2) contrast sensitivity, (3) self-reported cataracts and (4) self-reported other eye conditions (e.g., glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, optic neuritis, and retinopathy) among participants randomised to either SPT or a social- and computer-contact control group was assessed. The primary outcome was Useful Field of View Test (UFOV) performance. Results Mixed repeated-measures ancovas demonstrated that those randomized to SPT experienced greater baseline to post-test improvements in UFOV performance relative to controls (p’s < 0.001), regardless of impairments in near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity or presence of cataracts. Those with other eye conditions significantly benefitted from training (p = 0.044), but to a lesser degree than those without such conditions. Covariates included age and baseline measures of balance and depressive symptoms, which were significantly correlated with baseline UFOV performance. Conclusions Among a community-based sample of older adults with and without visual impairment and eye disease, the SPT intervention was effective in enhancing participants’ UFOV performance. The analyses presented here indicate the potential for SPT to enhance UFOV performance among a community-based sample of older adults with visual impairment and potentially for some with self-reported eye disease; further research to explore this area is warranted, particularly to determine the effects of eye diseases on SPT benefits. PMID:25160890

  19. Transcranial direct current stimulation modulates efficiency of reading processes

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Jennifer M.; Doruk, Deniz; Mascio, Bryan; Fregni, Felipe; Cerruti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that offers promise as an investigative method for understanding complex cognitive operations such as reading. This study explores the ability of a single session of tDCS to modulate reading efficiency and phonological processing performance within a group of healthy adults. Half the group received anodal or cathodal stimulation, on two separate days, of the left temporo-parietal junction while the other half received anodal or cathodal stimulation of the right homologue area. Pre- and post-stimulation assessment of reading efficiency and phonological processing was carried out. A larger pre-post difference in reading efficiency was found for participants who received right anodal stimulation compared to participants who received left anodal stimulation. Further, there was a significant post-stimulation increase in phonological processing speed following right hemisphere anodal stimulation. Implications for models of reading and reading impairment are discussed. PMID:25852513

  20. Processing Sentences with Literal versus Figurative Use of Verbs: An ERP Study with Children with Language Impairments, Nonverbal Impairments, and Typical Development

    PubMed Central

    Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Burigo, Michele; Borsa, Virginia; Molteni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Forty native Italian children (age 6–15) performed a sentence plausibility judgment task. ERP recordings were available for 12 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 11 children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD), and 13 control children. Participants listened to verb-object combinations and judged them as acceptable or unacceptable. Stimuli belonged to four conditions, where concreteness and congruency were manipulated. All groups made more errors responding to abstract and to congruent sentences. Moreover, SLI participants performed worse than NVLD participants with abstract sentences. ERPs were analyzed in the time window 300–500?ms. SLI children show atypical, reversed effects of concreteness and congruence as compared to control and NVLD children, respectively. The results suggest that linguistic impairments disrupt abstract language processing more than visual-motor impairments. Moreover, ROI and SPM analyses of ERPs point to a predominant involvement of the left rather than the right hemisphere in the comprehension of figurative expressions. PMID:26246693

  1. Face processing impairments after encephalitis: amygdala damage and recognition of fear.

    PubMed

    Broks, P; Young, A W; Maratos, E J; Coffey, P J; Calder, A J; Isaac, C L; Mayes, A R; Hodges, J R; Montaldi, D; Cezayirli, E; Roberts, N; Hadley, D

    1998-01-01

    Face processing and facial emotion recognition were investigated in five post-encephalitic people of average or above-average intelligence. Four of these people (JC, YW, RB and SE) had extensive damage in the region of the amygdala. A fifth post-encephalitic person with predominantly hippocampal damage and relative sparing of the amygdala (RS) participated, allowing us to contrast the effects of temporal lobe damage including and excluding the amygdala region. The findings showed impaired recognition of fear following bilateral temporal lobe damage when this included the amygdala. For JC, this was part of a constellation of deficits on face processing tasks, with impaired recognition of several emotions. SE, YW and RB, however, showed relatively circumscribed deficits. Although they all had some problems in recognizing or naming famous faces, and had poor memory for faces on the Warrington Recognition Memory Test, none showed a significant impairment on the Benton Test of Facial Recognition, indicating relatively good perception of the face's physical structure. In a test of recognition of basic emotions (happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, disgust and anger), SE, YW and RB achieved normal levels of performance in comparison to our control group for all emotions except fear. Their results contrast with those of RS, with relative sparing of the amygdala region and unimpaired recognition of emotion, pointing clearly toward the importance of the amygdala in the recognition of fear. PMID:9533388

  2. Interaction between phonological and semantic representations: time matters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Computational modeling and eye-tracking were used to investigate how phonological and semantic information interact to influence the time course of spoken word recognition. We extended our recent models (Chen & Mirman, 2012; Mirman, Britt, & Chen, 2013) to account for new evidence that competition among phonological neighbors influences activation of semantically related concepts during spoken word recognition (Apfelbaum, Blumstein, & McMurray, 2011). The model made a novel prediction: Semantic input modulates the effect of phonological neighbors on target word processing, producing an approximately inverted-U-shaped pattern with a high phonological density advantage at an intermediate level of semantic input-in contrast to the typical disadvantage for high phonological density words in spoken word recognition. This prediction was confirmed with a new analysis of the Apfelbaum et al. data and in a visual world paradigm experiment with preview duration serving as a manipulation of strength of semantic input. These results are consistent with our previous claim that strongly active neighbors produce net inhibitory effects and weakly active neighbors produce net facilitative effects. PMID:25155249

  3. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate improves processing speed and memory in cognitively impaired MS patients: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Sarah A; Smerbeck, Audrey; Patrick, Kara; Cookfair, Diane; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B

    2013-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes cognitive impairment including slowed processing speed and problems with learning and memory. Stimulants are attractive candidates for improving mental speed but carry risk of addiction and other adverse behavioral effects. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a D-amphetamine prodrug currently approved for attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder with the potential to be better tolerated due to its prolonged clinical effect. This phase II placebo-controlled, double-blind study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of LDX in cognitively impaired MS patients. Subjects were patients with clinically definite MS, aged 18-56 years, and impaired on either of two primary outcomes: the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) or the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Both SDMT and PASAT are measures of cognitive processing speed. Of 174 MS patients screened, 63 were randomized to 30 mg of LDX or placebo in a 2:1 fashion; the dose was increased as tolerated to 70 mg over 4 weeks and then maintained for another 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes were the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised (BVMTR), the California Verbal Learning Test 2nd edition (CVLT2), both measures of episodic memory, and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function for adults (BRIEF-A), a self-report measure of executive function. Fatigue and depression were also evaluated. There was significant improvement in the SDMT score (+4.6 vs. +1.3) and CVLT2 score (+4.7 vs. -0.9) in the LDX group compared with the placebo group among the 49 completers. There was no change on the other outcomes. A high proportion of both LDX-treated and placebo-treated subjects reported adverse events (73.5 % vs. 68.4 %). However, there were no serious adverse events noted in the study. These preliminary data indicate that LDX has the potential to be an efficacious treatment for MS patients with cognitive impairment. PMID:23001556

  4. Identification of the regions involved in phonological assembly using a novel paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Twomey, Tae; Waters, Dafydd; Price, Cathy J.; Kherif, Ferath; Woll, Bencie; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2015-01-01

    Here we adopt a novel strategy to investigate phonological assembly. Participants performed a visual lexical decision task in English in which the letters in words and letterstrings were delivered either sequentially (promoting phonological assembly) or simultaneously (not promoting phonological assembly). A region of interest analysis confirmed that regions previously associated with phonological assembly, in studies contrasting different word types (e.g. words versus pseudowords), were also identified using our novel task that controls for a number of confounding variables. Specifically, the left pars opercularis, the superior part of the ventral precentral gyrus and the supramarginal gyrus were all recruited more during sequential delivery than simultaneous delivery, even when various psycholinguistic characteristics of the stimuli were controlled. This suggests that sequential delivery of orthographic stimuli is a useful tool to explore how readers, with various levels of proficiency, use sublexical phonological processing during visual word recognition. PMID:26335996

  5. Identification of the regions involved in phonological assembly using a novel paradigm.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Tae; Waters, Dafydd; Price, Cathy J; Kherif, Ferath; Woll, Bencie; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2015-11-01

    Here we adopt a novel strategy to investigate phonological assembly. Participants performed a visual lexical decision task in English in which the letters in words and letterstrings were delivered either sequentially (promoting phonological assembly) or simultaneously (not promoting phonological assembly). A region of interest analysis confirmed that regions previously associated with phonological assembly, in studies contrasting different word types (e.g. words versus pseudowords), were also identified using our novel task that controls for a number of confounding variables. Specifically, the left pars opercularis, the superior part of the ventral precentral gyrus and the supramarginal gyrus were all recruited more during sequential delivery than simultaneous delivery, even when various psycholinguistic characteristics of the stimuli were controlled. This suggests that sequential delivery of orthographic stimuli is a useful tool to explore how readers, with various levels of proficiency, use sublexical phonological processing during visual word recognition. PMID:26335996

  6. Phonological awareness skills in the two languages of Mandarin-English bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H; Zhao, Jing; Bernhardt, May

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that bilingual children have an advantage when performing on phonological awareness tasks, particularly in their stronger language. Little research has been done to date, examining the effects of bilingualism on both languages of bilingual children. In this study Mandarin-English bilingual children's performance on phonological awareness tests was compared with that of Mandarin monolingual children and English monolingual children. The Mandarin-English bilinguals performed better than English monolinguals on the Elision and Blending sub-tests of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). Similarly, Mandarin-English bilinguals also performed better than their Mandarin monolingual counterparts on most of the experimental Mandarin phonological awareness tasks. The results from the study are discussed in terms of the effects of bilingualism on phonological awareness in both languages of bilingual children. Further clinical and educational implications of these results are also discussed. PMID:20345266

  7. Two-year-old phonology: impact of input, motor and cognitive abilities on development.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Barbara; McIntosh, Beth

    2010-11-01

    Previous research has rarely compared the contributions of different underlying abilities to phonological acquisition. In this study, the auditory-visual speech perception, oro-motor and rule abstraction skills of 62 typically developing two-year olds were assessed and contrasted with the accuracy of their spoken phonology. Measures included auditory-visual speech perception, production of isolated and sequenced oro-motor movements, and verbal and non-verbal rule abstraction. Abilities in all three domains contributed to phonological acquisition. However, the use of atypical phonological rules was associated with lower levels of phonological accuracy and a linear regression indicated that this measure of rule abstraction had greater explanatory power than the measures of input processing and output skill. PMID:19961658

  8. On Phonological Representations, Rules, and Opacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkai, Malachi

    1975-01-01

    A fundamental concept of generative phonology stating that related morphemes have unique phonological representations is criticized. It is argued that more morphologization of phonological rules is needed to explain morphophonemic changes. (Available from North-Holland Publishing Co., P. O. Box 211, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.) (CHK)

  9. Gradient Phonological Inconsistency Affects Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muench, Kristin L.; Creel, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Learners frequently experience phonologically inconsistent input, such as exposure to multiple accents. Yet, little is known about the consequences of phonological inconsistency for language learning. The current study examines vocabulary acquisition with different degrees of phonological inconsistency, ranging from no inconsistency (e.g., both…

  10. Bias in Phonological Learning: Evidence from Saltation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, James Clifford

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how people learn the phonological patterns of their language is a major challenge facing the field of phonology. In this dissertation, I approach the issue of phonological learning by focusing on "saltatory" alternations, which occur when two alternating sounds "leap over" an intermediate, invariant sound (e.g.,…

  11. A DISCOVERY PROCEDURE FOR CERTAIN PHONOLOGICAL RULES

    E-print Network

    A DISCOVERY PROCEDURE FOR CERTAIN PHONOLOGICAL RULES Mark Johnson Linguistics, UCSD. ABSTRACT Acquisition of phonological systems can be insightfully studied in terms of discovery procedures. This paper describes a discovery procedure, implemented in Lisp, capable of deter- mining a set of ordered phonological

  12. On Some Claims of Atomic Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Max W.

    1985-01-01

    Examines some of the rules of atomic phonology so as to elucidate just what the theory is and is not capable of. The theory of atomic phonology maintains that all linguistic variation requiring distinctly varied formulations of phonological rules is predictable from a set of "atomic rules" and universal principles of grammar. (SED)

  13. The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural

    PubMed Central

    Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic and phonological abilities. The present paper reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of plural forms for both production and comprehension. In Experiments 1 and 2 plural productions were elicited from eighty two-year-old children for nouns with codas with varying phonological properties. The results provide evidence that production of the plural morpheme is partly governed by the complexity of the coda and its sonority. Experiments 3 and 4 show that these constraints on codas also hold for comprehension as well, suggesting this effect is not simply articulatory, but also impacts the morphophonology of the plural. PMID:22544999

  14. A multimodal mapping study of conduction aphasia with impaired repetition and spared reading aloud.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Barbara; Marin, Dario; Maieron, Marta; D'Agostini, Serena; Medeossi, Irene; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    The present study explores the functional neuroanatomy of the phonological production system in an Italian aphasic patient (SP) who developed conduction aphasia of the reproduction type following brain surgery. SP presented with two peculiar features: (1) his lesion was localized in the superior temporal gyrus, just posterior to the primary auditory cortex and anterior/inferior to and neighboring the Sylvian parietal temporal (Spt) area, and (2) he presented with severely impaired repetition and spelling from dictation of words and pseudowords but spared reading-aloud of words and pseudowords. Structural, functional, fiber tracking and intraoperative findings were combined to analyze SP's pattern of performance within a widely used sensorimotor control scheme of speech production. We found a dissociation between an interrupted sector of the arcuate fasciculus terminating in STG, known to be involved in phonological processing, and a part of the arcuate fasciculus terminating in MTG, which is held to be involved in lexical-semantic processing. We argue that this phonological deficit should be interpreted as a disorder of the feedback system, in particular of the auditory and somatosensory target maps, which are assumed to be located along the Spt area. In patient SP, the spared part of the left arcuate fasciculus originating in MTG may support an unimpaired reading performance, while the damaged part of the left arcuate fasciculus originating in STG may be responsible for his impaired repetition and spelling from dictation. PMID:25701795

  15. Redefining Individual Growth and Development Indicators: Phonological Awareness.

    PubMed

    Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K; Schmitt, Braden A; Bradfield, Tracy A; Rodriguez, Michael C; McConnell, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Learning to read is one of the most important indicators of academic achievement. The development of early literacy skills during the preschool years is associated with improved reading outcomes in later grades. One of these skill areas, phonological awareness, shows particular importance because of its strong link to later reading success. Presented here are two studies that describe the development and revision of four measures of phonological awareness skills: Individual Growth and Development Indicators Sound Blending, Syllable Sameness, Rhyming, and Alliteration 2.0. The authors discuss the measure development process, revision, and utility within an early childhood Response to Intervention framework. PMID:24232734

  16. Variability in Speed of Information Processing: A New Measure of Cognitive Impairment in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    E-print Network

    Bodling, Angela Michelle

    2010-06-14

    Cognitive slowing has been firmly established as one of the few primary cognitive deficits associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Numerous studies have documented impairments in speed of information processing for MS patients relative to healthy...

  17. Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children with SLI: Semantic, Phonological, and Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Melinda; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current understanding of how children with specific language impairment (SLI) organize their mental lexicons. The study examined semantic and phonological priming in children with and without SLI. Method: Thirteen children (7;0-11;3 [years;months]) with SLI and 13 age-matched children…

  18. Electrophysiological Correlates of Rapid Auditory and Linguistic Processing in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Leonard, Laurence B.; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Brief tonal stimuli and spoken sentences were utilized to examine whether adolescents (aged 14;3-18;1) with specific language impairments (SLI) exhibit atypical neural activity for rapid auditory processing of non-linguistic stimuli and linguistic processing of verb-agreement and semantic constraints. Further, we examined whether the behavioral and electrophysiological indices for rapid auditory processing were correlated with those for linguistic processing. Fifteen adolescents with SLI and 15 adolescents with normal language met strict criteria for displaying consistent diagnoses from kindergarten through the eighth grade. The findings provide evidence that auditory processing for non-linguistic stimuli is atypical in a significant number of adolescents with SLI compared to peers with normal language and indicate that reduced efficiency in auditory processing in SLI is more vulnerable to rapid rates (200 ms ISI) of stimuli presentation (indexed by reduced accuracy, a tendency for longer RTs, reduced N100 over right anterior sites, and reduced amplitude P300). Many adolescents with SLI displayed reduced behavioral accuracy for detecting verb-agreement violations and semantic anomalies, along with less robust P600s elicited by verb-agreement violations. The results indicate that ERPs elicited by morphosyntactic aspects of language processing are atypical in many adolescents with SLI. Additionally, correlational analyses between behavioral and electrophysiological indices of processing non-linguistic stimuli and verb-agreement violations suggest that the integrity of neural functions for auditory processing may only account for a small proportion of the variance in morphosyntactic processing in some adolescents. PMID:20889197

  19. Children with speech sound disorder: comparing a non-linguistic auditory approach with a phonological intervention approach to improve phonological skills

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Cristina F. B.; Pagan-Neves, Luciana O.; Wertzner, Haydée F.; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder (SSD). A total of 17 children, aged 7–12 years, with SSD were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2) or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2). The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills) and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production, and phonological awareness skills). The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (e.g., backward masking and frequency discrimination), whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (e.g., phonological organization and awareness). Both interventions consisted of 12 45-min sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of 9 h. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills. PMID:25698997

  20. Activation of Phonological and Semantic Codes in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Nivedita; Durrant, Samantha; Floccia, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    What are the processes underlying word recognition in the toddler lexicon? Work with adults suggests that, by 5-years of age, hearing a word leads to cascaded activation of other phonologically, semantically and phono-semantically related words (Huang & Snedeker, 2010; Marslen-Wilson & Zwitserlood, 1989). Given substantial differences in…

  1. Evidence for a General Auditory Processing Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia from a Discrimination Paradigm Using Speech versus Nonspeech Sounds Matched in Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmann, Corinna A.; Lachmann, Thomas; Steinbrink, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: It is unknown whether phonological deficits are the primary cause of developmental dyslexia or whether they represent a secondary symptom resulting from impairments in processing basic acoustic parameters of speech. This might be due, in part, to methodological difficulties. Our aim was to overcome two of these difficulties: the…

  2. Impairments in Fine-Motor Coordination and Speed of Information Processing Predict Declines in Everyday Functioning in Hepatitis C Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Ofilio; Posada, Carolina; Woods, Steven Paul; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Heaton, Robert K.; Perry, William; Hassanein, Tarek I.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    Research increasingly supports the neurovirulence of chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). For example, HCV infection has been associated with neuropsychological impairment in several ability areas, including psychomotor skills. This study aimed to examine whether HCV-associated neuropsychological impairment is predictive of declines in the independent performance of physical (PADLs) and instrumental (IADLs) activities of daily living. One-hundred and six volunteers with HCV infection completed a comprehensive neuropsychological, medical, and psychiatric research evaluation. As compared to 30 HCV seronegative comparison subjects, the HCV-infected group reported significantly greater declines in both PADLs and IADLs. Within the HCV cohort, individuals with impaired speed of information processing reported significantly greater IADL declines, whereas impaired fine-motor coordination was associated with declines in both IADLs and PADLs. In a series of regression analyses, impaired speed of information processing and depressive symptoms (as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory) were the only independent predictors of IADL declines, whereas general affective distress (as measured by the Profile of Mood States), sex, and fine-motor coordination impairment were predictive of declines in PADLs. Although the clinical assessment of HCV typically emphasizes both affective (e.g., depression) and physical factors, findings from the present study suggest that cognitive impairment is an important contributor to everyday functioning in persons living with HCV infection and therefore warrants consideration in clinical and research evaluations. PMID:18608687

  3. Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Phonological Awareness Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning. Phonological awareness is a precursor to reading. "Phonological Awareness Training" can involve various…

  4. Gist-based conceptual processing of pictures remains intact in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Deason, Rebecca G.; Hussey, Erin P.; Budson, Andrew E.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The picture superiority effect, better memory for pictures compared to words, has been found in young adults, healthy older adults, and, most recently, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. Although the picture superiority effect is widely found, there is still debate over what drives this effect. One main question is whether it is enhanced perceptual or conceptual information that leads to the advantage for pictures over words. In this experiment, we examined the picture superiority effect in healthy older adults and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to better understand the role of gist-based conceptual processing. Method We had participants study three exemplars of categories as either words or pictures. In the test phase, participants were again shown pictures or words and were asked to determine whether the item was in the same category as something they had studied earlier or whether it was from a new category. Results We found that all participants demonstrated a robust picture superiority effect, better performance for pictures than for words. Conclusions These results suggest that the gist-based conceptual processing of pictures is preserved in patients with MCI. While in healthy older adults preserved recollection for pictures could lead to the picture superiority effect, in patients with MCI it is most likely that the picture superiority effect is a result of spared conceptually-based familiarity for pictures, perhaps combined with their intact ability to extract and use gist information. PMID:22229341

  5. Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?

    PubMed Central

    De-Torres, Irene; Dávila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Seán Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460

  6. Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…

  7. GENERATIVE RULES FOR ITALIAN PHONOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DI PIETRO, ROBERT J.

    TWO MODELS OF DESCRIPTION, GENERATIVE AND NONGENERATIVE, ARE APPLIED TO THE PHONOLOGY OF ITALIAN TO DETERMINE WHICH OF THE TWO OFFERS A SIMPLER YET MORE COMPREHENSIVE STATEMENT. THE NONGENERATIVE MODEL IS GIVEN IN A LISTING OF PHONEMES AND A BRIEF STATEMENT OF THE PHONOTACTICS AND ALLOPHONICS. THE GENERATIVE MODEL STATES THE FACTS IN 11 REWRITE…

  8. The Phonological Assimilation of Borrowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Saleh M.

    Linguistic borrowing from English to Jordanian Arabic at the lexical level is described, focusing on phonology and the extent to which Jordanian Arabic has affected the phonetic structure of English loans assimilated partially or completely into it. Conspicuous distinctive sound features in the two languages that may affect non-native speakers'…

  9. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  10. JULY 20 24, 2015 PHONOLOGICAL

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    ! At the Gebbie Clinic, we are committed to the development of emergent literacy skills that support a child's ability to learn to read. Children who attend camp will practice phonological awareness skills while participating in listening and rhyming games, vocabulary activities, songs, crafts, and story time in a fun

  11. Assessing the US Clean Water Act 303(d) listing process for determining impairment of a waterbody.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arturo A; Cavallaro, Lindsey

    2008-03-01

    This study evaluated the US Clean Water Act (CWA) Section 303(d) listing and delisting processes, based on historical and current federal and state guidelines, to determine whether there are regional differences in water quality assessment criteria used by various states to determine impairment of a waterbody for inclusion in the 303(d) list. A review of almost 50 total maximum daily load (TMDL) and delisting documents revealed that the basis for listing or delisting a waterbody varies considerably and that, in many cases, determination of impairment was based on insufficient water quality information. Historical USEPA guidance on the 303(d) listing and delisting processes has been generally broad, resulting in wide interpretation of the assessment criteria by various states. This has led to unclear or conflicting listing methodologies among states, leading to inconsistencies in impairment determination. Common problems include inconsistent data quality and quantity, differences in frequency of monitoring, variable interpretation of narrative water quality standards, and differences in specificity of implementation and monitoring plans, resulting in significant difference in the basis for listing and delisting waterbodies. In response, several states have taken the initiative to provide much more specific guidance for their internal agencies. Listing and delisting criteria are generally clearer at the state level, but the development of differing state guidance documents has resulted in diversity in the development of the 303(d) lists and in the process of delisting a waterbody. While state guidelines are better able to address local considerations, such as variations in climate, landuse, and water quality objectives, as well as social and economic preferences, the variation in listing criteria has led to inconsistencies across state boundaries in the levels of attainment of national water quality objectives. For stakeholders that participate in the 303(d) listing process within a particular state, these types of discrepancies may not have a significant impact. However, these inconsistencies can lead to confusion for some stakeholders who participate in the process in multiples states, and must deal with differing and sometimes conflicting requirements depending on the location of their facilities. PMID:17270339

  12. Role of Phonotactic Frequency in Nonword Repetition by Children with Specific Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Jeffry; Evans, Julia L.; Kluender, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairments (SLI) repeat nonwords less accurately than typically developing children, suggesting a phonological deficit. Much work has attempted to explain these results in terms of a phonological memory deficit. However, subsequent work revealed that these results might be explained better as a deficit…

  13. High Tech Aids Low Vision: A Review of Image Processing for the Visually Impaired

    PubMed Central

    Moshtael, Howard; Aslam, Tariq; Underwood, Ian; Dhillon, Baljean

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in digital image processing provide promising methods for maximizing the residual vision of the visually impaired. This paper seeks to introduce this field to the readership and describe its current state as found in the literature. A systematic search revealed 37 studies that measure the value of image processing techniques for subjects with low vision. The techniques used are categorized according to their effect and the principal findings are summarized. The majority of participants preferred enhanced images over the original for a wide range of enhancement types. Adapting the contrast and spatial frequency content often improved performance at object recognition and reading speed, as did techniques that attenuate the image background and a technique that induced jitter. A lack of consistency in preference and performance measures was found, as well as a lack of independent studies. Nevertheless, the promising results should encourage further research in order to allow their widespread use in low-vision aids. PMID:26290777

  14. Acute Neuroinflammation Impairs Context Discrimination Memory and Disrupts Pattern Separation Processes in Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Czerniawski, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Although it is known that immune system activation can impair cognition, no study to date has linked cognitive deficits during acute neuroinflammation to dysregulation of task-relevant neuronal ensemble activity. Here, we assessed both neural circuit activity and context discrimination memory retrieval, in a within-subjects design, of male rats given systemic administration of saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were exposed over several days to two similar contexts: one of which was paired with weak foot shock and the other was not. After reaching criteria for discriminative freezing, rats were given systemic LPS or saline injection and tested for retrieval of context discrimination 6 h later. Importantly, LPS administration produced an acute neuroinflammatory response in dorsal hippocampus at this time (as assessed by elevation of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels) and abolished retrieval of the previously acquired discrimination. The impact of neuroinflammation on hippocampal CA3 and CA1 neural circuit activity was assessed using the Arc/Homer1a cellular analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization imaging method. Whereas the saline-treated subjects discriminated and had low overlap of hippocampal ensembles activated in the two contexts, LPS-treated subjects did not discriminate and had greater ensemble overlap (i.e., reduced orthogonalization). Additionally, retrieval of standard contextual fear conditioning, which does not require context discrimination, was not affected by pretesting LPS administration. Together, the behavioral and circuit analyses data provide compelling evidence that LPS administration impairs context discrimination memory by disrupting cellular pattern separation processes within the hippocampus, thus linking acute neuroinflammation to disruption of specific neural circuit functions and cognitive impairment. PMID:25209285

  15. Monitoring Different Phonological Parameters of Sign Language Engages the Same Cortical Language Network but Distinctive Perceptual Ones.

    PubMed

    Cardin, Velia; Orfanidou, Eleni; Kästner, Lena; Rönnberg, Jerker; Woll, Bencie; Capek, Cheryl M; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The study of signed languages allows the dissociation of sensorimotor and cognitive neural components of the language signal. Here we investigated the neurocognitive processes underlying the monitoring of two phonological parameters of sign languages: handshape and location. Our goal was to determine if brain regions processing sensorimotor characteristics of different phonological parameters of sign languages were also involved in phonological processing, with their activity being modulated by the linguistic content of manual actions. We conducted an fMRI experiment using manual actions varying in phonological structure and semantics: (1) signs of a familiar sign language (British Sign Language), (2) signs of an unfamiliar sign language (Swedish Sign Language), and (3) invented nonsigns that violate the phonological rules of British Sign Language and Swedish Sign Language or consist of nonoccurring combinations of phonological parameters. Three groups of participants were tested: deaf native signers, deaf nonsigners, and hearing nonsigners. Results show that the linguistic processing of different phonological parameters of sign language is independent of the sensorimotor characteristics of the language signal. Handshape and location were processed by different perceptual and task-related brain networks but recruited the same language areas. The semantic content of the stimuli did not influence this process, but phonological structure did, with nonsigns being associated with longer RTs and stronger activations in an action observation network in all participants and in the supramarginal gyrus exclusively in deaf signers. These results suggest higher processing demands for stimuli that contravene the phonological rules of a signed language, independently of previous knowledge of signed languages. We suggest that the phonological characteristics of a language may arise as a consequence of more efficient neural processing for its perception and production. PMID:26351993

  16. Phonological Patterns in Normally Developing Spanish-Speaking 3-and 4-Year Olds of Puerto Rican Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    1996-01-01

    This study used quantitative and qualitative methodology to examine the phonological patterns of 24 3-year-old and 30 4-year-old Spanish-speaking preschoolers of Puerto Rican descent. The children acquired the sounds of their language at an early age and did not exhibit high percentages of occurrence on targeted phonological processes. (DB)

  17. Genetic dyslexia risk variant is related to neural connectivity patterns underlying phonological awareness in children.

    PubMed

    Skeide, Michael A; Kirsten, Holger; Kraft, Indra; Schaadt, Gesa; Müller, Bent; Neef, Nicole; Brauer, Jens; Wilcke, Arndt; Emmrich, Frank; Boltze, Johannes; Friederici, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Phonological awareness is the best-validated predictor of reading and spelling skill and therefore highly relevant for developmental dyslexia. Prior imaging genetics studies link several dyslexia risk genes to either brain-functional or brain-structural factors of phonological deficits. However, coherent evidence for genetic associations with both functional and structural neural phenotypes underlying variation in phonological awareness has not yet been provided. Here we demonstrate that rs11100040, a reported modifier of SLC2A3, is related to the functional connectivity of left fronto-temporal phonological processing areas at resting state in a sample of 9- to 12-year-old children. Furthermore, we provide evidence that rs11100040 is related to the fractional anisotropy of the arcuate fasciculus, which forms the structural connection between these areas. This structural connectivity phenotype is associated with phonological awareness, which is in turn associated with the individual retrospective risk scores in an early dyslexia screening as well as to spelling. These results suggest a link between a dyslexia risk genotype and a functional as well as a structural neural phenotype, which is associated with a phonological awareness phenotype. The present study goes beyond previous work by integrating genetic, brain-functional and brain-structural aspects of phonological awareness within a single approach. These combined findings might be another step towards a multimodal biomarker for developmental dyslexia. PMID:26080313

  18. Masked phonological priming effects in English: are they real? Do they matter?

    PubMed

    Rastle, Kathleen; Brysbaert, Marc

    2006-09-01

    For over 15 years, masked phonological priming effects have been offered as evidence that phonology plays a leading role in visual word recognition. The existence of these effects-along with their theoretical implications-has, however, been disputed. The authors present three sources of evidence relevant to an assessment of the existence and implications of these effects. First, they present an exhaustive meta-analytic literature review, in which they evaluate the strength of the evidence for masked phonological priming effects on English visual word processing. Second, they present two original experiments that demonstrate a small but significant masked priming effect on English visual lexical decision, which persists in conditions that may discourage phonological recoding. Finally, they assess the theory of visual word recognition offered by the DRC model (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001) in the context of their empirical data. Through numerous simulations with this model, they argue that masked phonological priming effects might best be captured by a weak phonological (i.e., dual-access) theory in which lexical decisions are made on the basis of phonological information. PMID:16554045

  19. Perceptual Training Restores Impaired Cortical Temporal Processing Due to Lead Exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Xia; Wei, Fanfan; Wang, Fang; Merzenich, Michael M; Schreiner, Christoph E; Sun, Xinde; Zhou, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Low-level lead exposure is a risk factor for cognitive and learning disabilities in children and has been specifically associated with deficits in auditory temporal processing that impair aural language and reading abilities. Here, we show that rats exposed to low levels of lead in early life display a significant behavioral impairment in an auditory temporal rate discrimination task. Lead exposure also results in a degradation of the neuronal repetition-rate following capacity and response synchronization in primary auditory cortex. A modified go/no-go repetition-rate discrimination task applied in adult animals for ?50 days nearly restores to normal these lead-induced deficits in cortical temporal fidelity. Cortical expressions of parvalbumin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and NMDA receptor subunits NR2a and NR2b, which are down-regulated in lead-exposed animals, are also partially reversed with training. These studies in an animal model identify the primary auditory cortex as a novel target for low-level lead exposure and demonstrate that perceptual training can ameliorate lead-induced deficits in cortical discrimination between sound sequences. PMID:25405943

  20. Histamine H1 receptor blockade predominantly impairs sensory processes in human sensorimotor performance

    PubMed Central

    van Ruitenbeek, P; Vermeeren, A; Smulders, FTY; Sambeth, A; Riedel, WJ

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Centrally active antihistamines impair cognitive performance, particularly sensorimotor performance. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the scarcely studied subprocesses involved in sensorimotor performance, which may be affected by H1 receptor blockade. Better knowledge about the cognitive deficits associated with histamine dysfunction can contribute to better treatment of clinical disorders in which histamine hypofunction may be a contributing factor, such as in schizophrenia. Experimental approach: Interactions of dexchlorpheniramine with specific task manipulations in a choice reaction time task were studied. Task demands were increased at the level of sensory subprocesses by decreasing stimulus quality, and at the level of motor subprocesses by increasing response complexity. A total of 18 healthy volunteers (9 female) aged between 18 and 45 years participated in a three-way, double-blind, crossover design. Treatments were single oral doses of 4 mg dexchlorpheniramine, 1 mg lorazepam and placebo. Behavioural effects were assessed by measuring reaction times and effects on brain activity by event-related potentials. Key results: Dexchlorpheniramine significantly slowed reaction times, but did not significantly interact with task manipulations. However, it did significantly interact with stimulus quality, as measured by event-related potentials. Lorazepam slowed reaction times and interacted with perceptual manipulations, as shown by effects on reaction times. Conclusions and implications: The results confirm that the histamine system is involved in sensory information processing and show that H1 blockade does not affect motoric information processing. Histamine hypofunction in clinical disorders may cause impaired sensory processing, which may be a drug target. PMID:19220286

  1. Contrast Responsivity in MT+ Correlates with Phonological Awareness and Reading Measures in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shachar, Michal; Dougherty, Robert F.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Wandell, Brian A.

    2007-01-01

    There are several independent sets of findings concerning the neural basis of reading. One set demonstrates a powerful relationship between phonological processing and reading skills. Another set reveals a relationship between visual responses in the motion pathways and reading skills. It is widely assumed that these two findings are unrelated. We tested the hypothesis that phonological awareness is related to motion responsivity in children’s MT+. We measured BOLD signals to drifting gratings as a function of contrast. Subjects were 35 children ages 7–12y with a wide range of reading skills. Contrast responsivity in MT+, but not V1, was correlated with phonological awareness and to a lesser extent with two other measures of reading. No correlation was found between MT+ signals and rapid naming, age or general IQ measures. These results establish an important link between visual and phonological processing in children and suggest that MT+ responsivity is a marker for healthy reading development. PMID:17689981

  2. Density, Frequency and the Expressive Phonology of Children with Phonological Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were…

  3. Effects of sleep reduction on the phonological and visuospatial components of working memory

    PubMed Central

    del Angel, Jacqueline; Cortez, Juventino; Juárez, Diana; Guerrero, Martha; García, Aída; Ramírez, Candelaria; Valdez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Sleep reduction impairs the performance of many tasks, so it may affect a basic cognitive process, such as working memory, crucial for the execution of a broad range of activities. Working memory has two storage components: a phonological and a visuospatial component. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of sleep reduction for 5 days on the storage components of working memory. Thirteen undergraduate students (18.77±2.20 years of age), 5 men and 8 women, responded two N-Back tasks (auditory and visual), with three sections each (0-Back, 1-Back, and 2-Back). These tasks were performed at 13:00 h under the following conditions: before sleep reduction (control; C); on the first (SR1), fourth (SR4), and fifth (SR5) days of sleep reduction (4 h of sleep per night); and one day after they slept freely (recovery, R). Sleep reduction produced a decrement in accuracy on the auditory 2-Back section the fifth day of sleep reduction (C=87.86±13.35%; SR5=74.76±16.37%; F=14.57, p<0.01). In the visual 2-Back section accuracy decreased (C=88.10±9.95%; SR1=82.45±11.57%; SR5=77.76±14.14%; F=10.80, p<0.05), and reaction time increased (C=810.02±173.96 ms; SR1=913.51±172.25 ms; SR5=874.78±172.27 ms; F=10.80, p<0.05) on the first and fifth day of sleep reduction. In conclusion, five days of sleep reduction produces a decrease in the phonological and visuospatial storage components of working memory, which may interfere with processing verbal information and solving problems that require spatial analysis. PMID:26483947

  4. The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception, and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jeremy M.; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquiere, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception, and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading. We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e., rapid automatic naming, verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise time (RT); an intensity discrimination task (ID) was included as a non-dynamic control task. Speech perception was assessed by means of sentences and words-in-noise tasks. Group analyses revealed significant group differences in auditory tasks (i.e., RT and ID) and in phonological processing measures, yet no differences were found for speech perception. In addition, performance on RT discrimination correlated with reading but this relation was mediated by phonological processing and not by speech-in-noise. Finally, inspection of the individual scores revealed that the dyslexic readers showed an increased proportion of deviant subjects on the slow-dynamic auditory and phonological tasks, yet each individual dyslexic reader does not display a clear pattern of deficiencies across the processing skills. Although our results support phonological and slow-rate dynamic auditory deficits which relate to literacy, they suggest that at the individual level, problems in reading and writing cannot be explained by the cascading auditory theory. Instead, dyslexic adults seem to vary considerably in the extent to which each of the auditory and phonological factors are expressed and interact with environmental and higher-order cognitive influences. PMID:25071512

  5. Signal-Processing Strategy for Restoration of Cross-Channel Suppression in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Gorga, Michael P.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    Because frequency components interact nonlinearly with each other inside the cochlea, the loudness growth of tones is relatively simple in comparison to the loudness growth of complex sounds. The term suppression refers to a reduction in the response growth of one tone in the presence of a second tone. Suppression is a salient feature of normal cochlear processing and contributes to psychophysical masking. Suppression is evident in many measurements of cochlear function in subjects with normal hearing, including distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Suppression is also evident, to a lesser extent, in subjects with mild-to-moderate hearing loss. This paper describes a hearing-aid signal-processing strategy that aims to restore both loudness growth and two-tone suppression in hearing-impaired listeners. The prescription of gain for this strategy is based on measurements of loudness by a method known as categorical loudness scaling. The proposed signal-processing strategy reproduces measured DPOAE suppression tuning curves and generalizes to any number of frequency components. The restoration of both normal suppression and normal loudness has the potential to improve hearing-aid performance and user satisfaction. PMID:23925364

  6. Decision Making and Ratio Processing in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Pertl, Marie-Theres; Benke, Thomas; Zamarian, Laura; Delazer, Margarete

    2015-10-01

    Making advantageous decisions is important in everyday life. This study aimed at assessing how patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) make decisions under risk. Additionally, it investigated the relationship between decision making, ratio processing, basic numerical abilities, and executive functions. Patients with MCI (n?=?22) were compared with healthy controls (n?=?29) on a complex task of decision making under risk (Game of Dice Task-Double, GDT-D), on two tasks evaluating basic decision making under risk, on a task of ratio processing, and on several neuropsychological background tests. Patients performed significantly lower than controls on the GDT-D and on ratio processing, whereas groups performed comparably on basic decision tasks. Specifically, in the GDT-D, patients obtained lower net scores and lower mean expected values, which indicate a less advantageous performance relative to that of controls. Performance on the GDT-D correlated significantly with performance in basic decision tasks, ratio processing, and executive-function measures when the analysis was performed on the whole sample. Patients with MCI make sub-optimal decisions in complex risk situations, whereas they perform at the same level as healthy adults in simple decision situations. Ratio processing and executive functions have an impact on the decision-making performance of both patients and healthy older adults. In order to facilitate advantageous decisions in complex everyday situations, information should be presented in an easily comprehensible form and cognitive training programs for patients with MCI should focus-among other abilities-on executive functions and ratio processing. PMID:26402094

  7. Chemical processing does not always impair heterogeneous ice nucleation of mineral dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, R. C.; Demott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; Minambres, L.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Moehler, O.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral dust particles are the most abundant heterogeneous ice nuclei in the atmosphere. They also frequently become mixed with secondary material during atmospheric transport. The effect that such atmospheric processing has on the ice nucleation properties of dust particles remains under investigation. We have studied changes in the ice nucleation ability of various mineral dust sources after exposure to nitric acid in an aerosol flow tube, and after heterogeneous nucleation of ?-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the AIDA cloud expansion chamber. Both chemical treatments altered and homogenized the dust particles’ heterogeneous ice nucleation properties below water-saturation, but had no apparent impact on the immersion-freezing fraction well above water saturation. The fraction of particles capable of nucleating ice at fixed mixed-phase cloud temperatures between -35 and -15 °C was determined using a continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) as the relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) was scanned from 75% to 110% RHw. Exposure to both nitric acid and SOA impaired essentially all ice nucleation in the deposition-regime below water saturation, while causing the onset of condensation-freezing to occur in a step-wise manner over a small range of RHw just below water saturation. We interpret this as the result of an increase in particle hygroscopicity following chemical treatment. This allows the mineral particles to absorb enough water to overcome solute freezing point depression effects and nucleate ice via condensation-freezing at a slightly smaller and narrower range of RHw than the less hygroscopic untreated dust can. Immersion-freezing above water saturation was not affected by either treatment. This is in stark contrast to earlier experiments where dust was exposed to sulfuric acid from a heated vapor source; ice nucleation was notably impaired in both the deposition and immersion-freezing regimes following sulfuric acid treatment.

  8. Neuroanatomic substrates of semantic memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease: Patterns of functional MRI activation

    PubMed Central

    SAYKIN, ANDREW J.; FLASHMAN, LAURA A.; FRUTIGER, SALLY A.; JOHNSON, STERLING C.; MAMOURIAN, ALEXANDER C.; MORITZ, CHAD H.; O’JILE, JUDITH R.; RIORDAN, HENRY J.; SANTULLI, ROBERT B.; SMITH, CYNTHIA A.; WEAVER, JOHN B.

    2015-01-01

    Impairment in semantic processing occurs early in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and differential impact on subtypes of semantic relations have been reported, yet there is little data on the neuroanatomic basis of these deficits. Patients with mild AD and healthy controls underwent 3 functional MRI auditory stimulation tasks requiring semantic or phonological decisions (match–mismatch) about word pairs (category–exemplar, category–function, pseudoword). Patients showed a significant performance deficit only on the exemplar task. On voxel-based fMRI activation analyses, controls showed a clear activation focus in the left superior temporal gyrus for the phonological task; patients showed additional foci in the left dorsolateral prefrontal and bilateral cingulate areas. On the semantic tasks, predominant activation foci were seen in the inferior and middle frontal gyrus (left greater than right) in both groups but patients showed additional activation suggesting compensatory recruitment of locally expanded foci and remote regions, for example, right frontal activation during the exemplar task. Covariance analyses indicated that exemplar task performance was strongly related to signal increase in bilateral medial prefrontal cortex. The authors conclude that fMRI can reveal similarities and differences in functional neuroanatomical processing of semantic and phonological information in mild AD compared to healthy elderly, and can help to bridge cognitive and neural investigations of the integrity of semantic networks in AD. PMID:10439584

  9. Triggering word learning in children with Language Impairment: the effect of phonotactic probability and neighbourhood density.

    PubMed

    McKean, Cristina; Letts, Carolyn; Howard, David

    2014-11-01

    The effect of phonotactic probability (PP) and neighbourhood density (ND) on triggering word learning was examined in children with Language Impairment (3;04-6;09) and compared to Typically Developing children. Nonwords, varying PP and ND orthogonally, were presented in a story context and their learning tested using a referent identification task. Group comparisons with receptive vocabulary as a covariate found no group differences in overall scores or in the influence of PP or ND. Therefore, there was no evidence of atypical lexical or phonological processing. 'Convergent' PP/ND (High PP/High ND; Low PP/Low ND) was optimal for word learning in both groups. This bias interacted with vocabulary knowledge. 'Divergent' PP/ND word scores (High PP/Low ND; Low PP/High ND) were positively correlated with vocabulary so the 'divergence disadvantage' reduced as vocabulary knowledge grew; an interaction hypothesized to represent developmental changes in lexical-phonological processing linked to the emergence of phonological representations. PMID:24191951

  10. Phonological Fluency Strategy of Switching Differentiates Relapsing-Remitting and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Messinis, L.; Kosmidis, M. H.; Vlahou, C.; Malegiannaki, A. C.; Gatzounis, G.; Dimisianos, N.; Karra, A.; Kiosseoglou, G.; Gourzis, P.; Papathanasopoulos, P.

    2013-01-01

    The strategies used to perform a verbal fluency task appear to be reflective of cognitive abilities necessary for successful daily functioning. In the present study, we explored potential differences in verbal fluency strategies (switching and clustering) used to maximize word production by patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) versus patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We further assessed impairment rates and potential differences in the sensitivity and specificity of phonological versus semantic verbal fluency tasks in discriminating between those with a diagnosis of MS and healthy adults. We found that the overall rate of impaired verbal fluency in our MS sample was consistent with that in other studies. However, we found no differences between types of MS (SPMS, RRMS), on semantic or phonological fluency word production, or the strategies used to maximize semantic fluency. In contrast, we found that the number of switches differed significantly in the phonological fluency task between the SPMS and RRMS subtypes. The clinical utility of semantic versus phonological fluency in discriminating MS patients from healthy controls did not indicate any significant differences. Further, the strategies used to maximize performance did not differentiate MS subgroups or MS patients from healthy controls. PMID:23401793

  11. Processing of speech and non-speech stimuli in children with specific language impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Madhavi L.; Surprenant, Aimee M.

    2003-10-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a developmental language disorder in which children demonstrate varying degrees of difficulties in acquiring a spoken language. One possible underlying cause is that children with SLI have deficits in processing sounds that are of short duration or when they are presented rapidly. Studies so far have compared their performance on speech and nonspeech sounds of unequal complexity. Hence, it is still unclear whether the deficit is specific to the perception of speech sounds or whether it more generally affects the auditory function. The current study aims to answer this question by comparing the performance of children with SLI on speech and nonspeech sounds synthesized from sine-wave stimuli. The children will be tested using the classic categorical perception paradigm that includes both the identification and discrimination of stimuli along a continuum. If there is a deficit in the performance on both speech and nonspeech tasks, it will show that these children have a deficit in processing complex sounds. Poor performance on only the speech sounds will indicate that the deficit is more related to language. The findings will offer insights into the exact nature of the speech perception deficits in children with SLI. [Work supported by ASHF.

  12. Impaired neural reward processing in children and adolescents with reactive attachment disorder: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kei; Takiguchi, Shinichiro; Yamazaki, Mika; Asano, Mizuki; Kato, Shiho; Kuriyama, Kikuko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Sadato, Norihiro; Tomoda, Akemi

    2015-10-01

    Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is characterized by markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness due to parental maltreatment. RAD patients often display a high number of comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and certain RAD symptoms are difficult to discriminate from ADHD. One of the core characteristics of ADHD is a decrease in neural reward processing due to dopamine dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the brain activity involved in reward processing in RAD patients is impaired in comparison with ADHD patients and typically developed controls. Five RAD patients, 17 typically developed (TD) controls and 17 ADHD patients aged 10-16 years performed tasks with high and low monetary reward while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. ADHD patients were tested before and after 3 months treatment with osmotic release oral system-methylphenidate. Before treatment, ADHD patients showed that striatal and thalamus activities only in the tasks with low monetary reward were lower than TD controls. RAD patients showed decrease in activity of the caudate, putamen and thalamus during both the high and low monetary reward conditions in comparison with all the other groups. In RAD patients, the activity of the putamen was associated with the severity of posttraumatic stress and overt dissociation. Reward sensitivity was markedly decreased in children and adolescents with RAD, as evidenced by a diminished neural response during reward perception. This suggests that dopaminergic dysfunction exists in these patients, and may inform future dopaminergic treatment strategies for RAD. PMID:26310381

  13. Knockout of Drosophila RNase ZL impairs mitochondrial transcript processing, respiration and cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xie; Dubrovsky, Edward B

    2015-12-01

    RNase Z(L) is a highly conserved tRNA 3'-end processing endoribonuclease. Similar to its mammalian counterpart, Drosophila RNase Z(L) (dRNaseZ) has a mitochondria targeting signal (MTS) flanked by two methionines at the N-terminus. Alternative translation initiation yields two protein forms: the long one is mitochondrial, and the short one may localize in the nucleus or cytosol. Here, we have generated a mitochondria specific knockout of the dRNaseZ gene. In this in vivo model, cells deprived of dRNaseZ activity display impaired mitochondrial polycistronic transcript processing, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a switch to aerobic glycolysis compensating for cellular ATP. Damaged mitochondria impose a cell cycle delay at the G2 phase disrupting cell proliferation without affecting cell viability. Antioxidants attenuate genotoxic stress and rescue cell proliferation, implying a critical role for ROS. We suggest that under a low-stress condition, ROS activate tumor suppressor p53, which modulates cell cycle progression and promotes cell survival. Transcriptional profiling of p53 targets confirms upregulation of antioxidant and cycB-Cdk1 inhibitor genes without induction of apoptotic genes. This study implicates Drosophila RNase Z(L) in a novel retrograde signaling pathway initiated by the damage in mitochondria and manifested in a cell cycle delay before the mitotic entry. PMID:26553808

  14. Knockout of Drosophila RNase ZL impairs mitochondrial transcript processing, respiration and cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xie; Dubrovsky, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    RNase ZL is a highly conserved tRNA 3?-end processing endoribonuclease. Similar to its mammalian counterpart, Drosophila RNase ZL (dRNaseZ) has a mitochondria targeting signal (MTS) flanked by two methionines at the N-terminus. Alternative translation initiation yields two protein forms: the long one is mitochondrial, and the short one may localize in the nucleus or cytosol. Here, we have generated a mitochondria specific knockout of the dRNaseZ gene. In this in vivo model, cells deprived of dRNaseZ activity display impaired mitochondrial polycistronic transcript processing, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a switch to aerobic glycolysis compensating for cellular ATP. Damaged mitochondria impose a cell cycle delay at the G2 phase disrupting cell proliferation without affecting cell viability. Antioxidants attenuate genotoxic stress and rescue cell proliferation, implying a critical role for ROS. We suggest that under a low-stress condition, ROS activate tumor suppressor p53, which modulates cell cycle progression and promotes cell survival. Transcriptional profiling of p53 targets confirms upregulation of antioxidant and cycB-Cdk1 inhibitor genes without induction of apoptotic genes. This study implicates Drosophila RNase ZL in a novel retrograde signaling pathway initiated by the damage in mitochondria and manifested in a cell cycle delay before the mitotic entry. PMID:26553808

  15. Steps towards understanding the phonological output buffer and its role in the production of numbers, morphemes, and function words.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Dror; Friedmann, Naama

    2015-02-01

    The Stimulus Type Effect on Phonological and Semantic errors (STEPS) describes the phenomenon in which a person, following brain damage, produces words with phonological errors (fine ? fige), but number words with semantic errors (five ? eight). To track the origins of this phenomenon and find out whether it is limited to numbers, we assessed the speech production of six individuals with conduction aphasia following a damage in the left hemisphere, who made phonological errors in words. STEPS was found in all six participants, and was not limited to number words - several other word categories were also produced with semantic rather than phonological errors: function words, English letter names, and morphological affixes were substituted with other words within their category. This supports the building blocks hypothesis: when phonological sequences serve as building blocks in a productive process, they end up having pre-assembled phonological representations, ready for articulation. STEPS reflects a deficit that causes substitutions of one phonological unit with another. In the case of plain content words, this causes substitutions of one phoneme with another, but in the case of pre-assembled phonological units, this causes substitutions of number words with other number words, function words with function words, and morphological affixes with other affixes. An analysis of the participants' functional locus of deficit revealed that they all had a deficit in the phonological output buffer, and this was their only common deficit. We therefore concluded that the pre-assembled phonological units are stored in dedicated mini-stores in the phonological output buffer, which processes not only phonemes but also whole number words, function words, and morphemes. We also found that STEPS depends on the word's role: number words were produced with semantic errors only when they appeared in numeric context, and function words triggered semantic errors only in grammatical context. This suggests that the phonological representation of a word can be obtained either from the phonological output lexicon or from a store of pre-assembled representations in the phonological output buffer, depending on the word's role. PMID:25460497

  16. The Proximate Phonological Unit of Chinese-English Bilinguals: Proficiency Matters

    PubMed Central

    Verdonschot, Rinus Gerardus; Nakayama, Mariko; Zhang, Qingfang; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Schiller, Niels Olaf

    2013-01-01

    An essential step to create phonology according to the language production model by Levelt, Roelofs and Meyer is to assemble phonemes into a metrical frame. However, recently, it has been proposed that different languages may rely on different grain sizes of phonological units to construct phonology. For instance, it has been proposed that, instead of phonemes, Mandarin Chinese uses syllables and Japanese uses moras to fill the metrical frame. In this study, we used a masked priming-naming task to investigate how bilinguals assemble their phonology for each language when the two languages differ in grain size. Highly proficient Mandarin Chinese-English bilinguals showed a significant masked onset priming effect in English (L2), and a significant masked syllabic priming effect in Mandarin Chinese (L1). These results suggest that their proximate unit is phonemic in L2 (English), and that bilinguals may use different phonological units depending on the language that is being processed. Additionally, under some conditions, a significant sub-syllabic priming effect was observed even in Mandarin Chinese, which indicates that L2 phonology exerts influences on L1 target processing as a consequence of having a good command of English. PMID:23646107

  17. Dynamic Temporal Processing of Nonspeech Acoustic Information by Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visto, Jane C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Ten children (ages 12-16) with specific language impairments (SLI) and controls matched for chronological or language age were tested with measures of complex sound localization involving the precedence effect phenomenon. SLI children exhibited tracking skills similar to language-age matched controls, indicating impairment in their ability to use…

  18. Auditory Processing and Speech Perception in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Relations with Oral Language and Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated temporal auditory processing (frequency modulation and between-channel gap detection) and speech perception (speech-in-noise and categorical perception) in three groups of 6 years 3 months to 6 years 8 months-old children attending grade 1: (1) children with specific language impairment (SLI) and literacy delay…

  19. Language Impairment in Less Skilled Comprehenders: The On-Line Processing of Anaphoric Pronouns in a Listening Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megherbi, Hakima; Ehrlich, Marie-France

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment, conducted with second-grade children (mean age: 7;8), was to examine the hypothesis that less skilled comprehenders in a reading situation suffer an impairment in spoken language comprehension and, more specifically, in the on-line processing of anaphoric pronouns. Skilled and less skilled comprehenders performed a…

  20. How Phonological Reductions Sometimes Help the Listener

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitterer, Holger; Russell, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    In speech production, high-frequency words are more likely than low-frequency words to be phonologically reduced. We tested in an eye-tracking experiment whether listeners can make use of this correlation between lexical frequency and phonological realization of words. Participants heard prefixed verbs in which the prefix was either fully produced…

  1. Phonology in Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrah, Ali Saleh

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at absorbing the pronunciation teachers task and how much phonology should teachers know. Teachers and future teachers need a well-rounded concept of the phonology of the language they are going to teach and the native language of learners. Emphasis must be placed on the understanding of language as a system of rules and as a…

  2. Phonological Priming in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological

  3. Chile Language Aphasia and Phonological Universals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobson, Roman

    This work is an English translation of the author's classic "Kindersprache, Aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze," first published in 1941. It is considered the most representative and comprehensive of the author's phonological writings, dealing not only with phonological typology but related problems of language acquisition and phonemic regression…

  4. Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

  5. Phonological Skills in English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Alyse; Goldstein, Brian A.; Gilhool, Amanda; Paradis, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the English phonological skills of English language learners (ELLs) over 5 time points. Method: Sound class accuracy, whole-word accuracy, percentage of occurrence of phonological patterns, and sociolinguistic correlational analyses were investigated in 19 ELLs ranging in age from 5;0…

  6. Lexical-Phonological Interactions in Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined lexical-phonological interactions in the first 50 words of a group of monolingual German- and Spanish-speaking children and bilingual German--Spanish children. The phonological characteristics of the earliest target word forms and output patterns of these children were analyzed to determine whether bilingual children select…

  7. Nonword Repetition Problems in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Deficit in Accessing Long-Term Linguistic Representations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Maillart, Christelle; Majerus, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) consistently show poor nonword repetition (NWR) performance. However, the reason for these difficulties remains a matter of intensive debate. Nonword repetition is a complex psycholinguistic task that heavily relies upon phonological segmentation and phonological knowledge, and even lexical…

  8. Orthographic and phonological form interference during silent reading.

    PubMed

    Price, Iya Khelm; Witzel, Naoko; Witzel, Jeffrey

    2015-11-01

    This study reports 2 eye-tracking experiments investigating form interference during sentence-level silent reading. The items involved reduced and unreduced relative clauses (RCs) with words that were orthographically and phonologically similar (injection-infection; O+P+, Experiment 1) as well as with words that were orthographically similar, but phonologically dissimilar (laughter-daughter; O+P-, Experiment 2). Both experiments revealed syntactic processing disruptions for reduced RCs. Processing difficulty was also observed at the form-related word in both experiments under first-pass and second-pass reading measures. These form-interference effects did not interact with structural processing difficulty under first-pass measures in either experiment. Under second-pass time, there were larger processing disruptions for reduced RCs in O+P+ sentences relative to their controls. This was not the case, however, for O+P- sentences. These results suggest 2 components to form-interference effects during silent reading: (a) an early, low-level component that is driven in large part by visual form overlap and (b) a component that relates to late stages of interpretation and that is associated more closely with phonological form overlap. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26076330

  9. Can a bird brain do phonology?

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Bridget D.

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent studies have revealed correspondences between song- and language-related neural structures, pathways, and gene expression in humans and songbirds. Analyses of vocal learning, song structure, and the distribution of song elements have similarly revealed a remarkable number of shared characteristics with human speech. This article reviews recent developments in the understanding of these issues with reference to the phonological phenomena observed in human language. This investigation suggests that birds possess a host of abilities necessary for human phonological computation, as evidenced by behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular genetic studies. Vocal-learning birds therefore present an excellent model for studying some areas of human phonology, though differences in the primitives of song and language as well as the absence of a human-like morphosyntax make human phonology differ from birdsong phonology in crucial ways. PMID:26284006

  10. Phonological development in young bilinguals: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Core, Cynthia; Scarpelli, Chiara

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews recent research on bilingual phonological development and describes the nature of bilingual phonology, focusing on characteristics of cross-linguistic influence on bilingual phonological abilities. There is evidence of positive and negative transfer (acceleration and deceleration) on children's phonological abilities. Several methodological issues limit the ability to generalize findings from previous research to larger groups of bilingual children (e.g., small sample size, lack of consideration of age of acquisition of each language, and language abilities of the participants). Sources of heterogeneity in language development are presented and discussed. Phonological abilities are related to language abilities in bilingual first language learners of English and Spanish. Empirical evidence from research in our laboratory supports this claim. We discuss implications of research findings and limitations for future research and clinical practice. We provide specific recommendations for bilingual research and for clinical assessment of young bilingual children. PMID:25922995

  11. A Probabilistic Model of Phonological Relationships from Contrast to Allophony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kathleen Currie

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…

  12. Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Phonological awareness, or the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, has been identified as a key early literacy skill and precursor to reading. For the purposes of this review, "phonological awareness training" refers to any practice targeting young children's phonological awareness abilities. "Phonological

  13. Cell phone electromagnetic field radiations affect rhizogenesis through impairment of biochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harminder Pal; Sharma, Ved Parkash; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Indiscriminate adoption and use of cell phone technology has tremendously increased the levels of electromagnetic field radiations (EMFr) in the natural environment. It has raised the concerns among the scientists regarding the possible risks of EMFr to living organisms. However, not much has been done to assess the damage caused to plants that are continuously exposed to EMFr present in the environment. The present study investigated the biochemical mechanism of interference of 900 MHz cell phone EMFr with root formation in mung bean (Vigna radiata syn. Phaseolus aureus) hypocotyls, a model system to study rhizogenesis in plants. Cell phone EMFr enhanced the activities of proteases (by 1.52 to 2.33 times), polyphenol oxidases (by 1.5 to 4.3 times), and peroxidases (by 1.5 to 2.0 times) in mung bean hypocotyls over control. Further, EMFr enhanced malondialdehyde (an indicator of lipid peroxidation), hydrogen peroxide, and proline content, indicating a reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative damage in hypocotyls. It was confirmed by the upregulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase) suggesting their possible role in providing protection against EMFr-induced oxidative damage. The study concluded that cell phone radiations affect the process of rhizogenesis through biochemical alterations that manifest as oxidative damage resulting in root impairment. PMID:21562792

  14. Impaired Processing in the Primary Auditory Cortex of an Animal Model of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Anomal, Renata Figueiredo; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Brandão, Juliana Alves; Diniz, Rebecca; Costa, Marcos R.; Romcy-Pereira, Rodrigo N.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder clinically characterized by deficits in communication, lack of social interaction and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. A number of studies have reported that sensory perception abnormalities are common in autistic individuals and might contribute to the complex behavioral symptoms of the disorder. In this context, hearing incongruence is particularly prevalent. Considering that some of this abnormal processing might stem from the unbalance of inhibitory and excitatory drives in brain circuitries, we used an animal model of autism induced by valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy in order to investigate the tonotopic organization of the primary auditory cortex (AI) and its local inhibitory circuitry. Our results show that VPA rats have distorted primary auditory maps with over-representation of high frequencies, broadly tuned receptive fields and higher sound intensity thresholds as compared to controls. However, we did not detect differences in the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in AI of VPA and control rats. Altogether our findings show that neurophysiological impairments of hearing perception in this autism model occur independently of alterations in the number of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. These data support the notion that fine circuit alterations, rather than gross cellular modification, could lead to neurophysiological changes in the autistic brain. PMID:26635548

  15. Low dose radiation induced senescence of human mesenchymal stromal cells and impaired the autophagy process

    PubMed Central

    Alessio, Nicola; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Capasso, Stefania; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Cipollaro, Marilena; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Low doses of radiation may have profound effects on cellular function. Individuals may be exposed to low doses of radiation either intentionally for medical purposes or accidentally, such as those exposed to radiological terrorism or those who live near illegal radioactive waste dumpsites. We studied the effects of low dose radiation on human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), which contain a subpopulation of stem cells able to differentiate in bone, cartilage, and fat; support hematopoiesis; and contribute to body's homeostasis. The main outcome of low radiation exposure, besides reduction of cell cycling, is the triggering of senescence, while the contribution to apoptosis is minimal. We also showed that low radiation affected the autophagic flux. We hypothesize that the autophagy prevented radiation deteriorative processes, and its decline contributed to senescence. An increase in ATM staining one and six hours post-irradiation and return to basal level at 48 hours, along with persistent gamma-H2AX staining, indicated that MSC properly activated the DNA repair signaling, though some damages remained unrepaired, mainly in non-cycling cells. This suggested that the impaired DNA repair capacity of irradiated MSC seemed mainly related to the reduced activity of a non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) system rather than HR (homologous recombination). PMID:25544750

  16. Sleep May Not Benefit Learning New Phonological Categories

    PubMed Central

    Collet, Gregory; Schmitz, Rémy; Urbain, Charline; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Colin, Cécile; Peigneux, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    It is known that sleep participates in memory consolidation processes. However, results obtained in the auditory domain are inconsistent. Here we aimed at investigating the role of post-training sleep in auditory training and learning new phonological categories, a fundamental process in speech processing. Adult French-speakers were trained to identify two synthetic speech variants of the syllable /d?/ during two 1-h training sessions. The 12-h interval between the two sessions either did (8 p.m. to 8 a.m.?±?1?h) or did not (8 a.m. to 8 p.m.?±?1?h) included a sleep period. In both groups, identification performance dramatically improved over the first training session, to slightly decrease over the 12-h offline interval, although remaining above chance levels. Still, reaction times (RT) were slowed down after sleep suggesting higher attention devoted to the learned, novel phonological contrast. Notwithstanding, our results essentially suggest that post-training sleep does not benefit more than wakefulness to the consolidation or stabilization of new phonological categories. PMID:22723789

  17. The Phonological Permeability Hypothesis: Measuring Regressive L3 Influence to Test L1 and L2 Phonological Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrelli Amaro, Jennifer Lauren

    2013-01-01

    The Phonological Permeability Hypothesis (PPH, Cabrelli Amaro & Rothman, 2010) attempts to reconcile evidence suggesting some L2 learners, however rare, attain native-like L2 phonological systems with the observation that most do not. Considering existing L2 phonology research, it is not clear that phonological differences between early and…

  18. Celastrol Potentiates Radiotherapy by Impairment of DNA Damage Processing in Human Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Yao; DeSano, Jeffrey T.; Meng Yang; J, Qing; Ljungman, Mats; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Xu Liang

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Celastrol is an active ingredient of traditional herbal medicine and has recently been identified as a potent natural proteasome inhibitor. In the present study, we evaluated the radiosensitizing potential of celastrol in the human prostate cancer PC-3 model. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic assays were performed to determine the radiosensitizing effect of celastrol. Apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide staining and by a caspase-3 activation assay. DNA damage processing was examined by immunofluorescent staining and Western blot for phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}H2AX). The PC-3 xenograft model in the athymic nude mouse was used for the determination of the in vivo efficacy of celastrol combined with radiotherapy. The tumor samples were also analyzed for apoptosis and angiogenesis. Results: Celastrol sensitized PC-3 cells to ionizing radiation (IR) in a dose- and schedule-dependent manner, in which pretreatment with celastrol for 1 h followed by IR achieved maximal radiosensitization. Celastrol significantly prolonged the presence of IR-induced {gamma}H2AX and increased IR-induced apoptosis. Celastrol, combined with fractionated radiation, significantly inhibited PC-3 tumor growth in vivo without obvious systemic toxicity. The combination treatment increased {gamma}H2AX levels and apoptosis, induced cleavage of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose)polymerase and Mcl-1, and reduced angiogenesis in vivo compared with either treatment alone. Conclusion: Celastrol sensitized PC-3 cells to radiation both in vitro and in vivo by impairing DNA damage processing and augmenting apoptosis. Celastrol might represent a promising new adjuvant regimen for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

  19. Density, frequency and the expressive phonology of children with phonological delay*

    PubMed Central

    GIERUT, JUDITH A.; MORRISETTE, MICHELE L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were taught using stimulus words that varied orthogonally in neighborhood density and word frequency as the independent variables. Generalization was the dependent variable, defined as production accuracy of treated and untreated (erred) sounds. Blocked comparisons showed that dense neighborhoods triggered greater generalization, but frequency did not have a clear differential effect. Orthogonal comparisons revealed graded effects, with frequent words from dense neighborhoods being optimal for generalization. The results contrast with prior literature, which has reported a sparse neighborhood advantage for children with phonological delay. There is a suggestion that children with phonological delay require greater than usual cue redundancy and convergence to prompt expressive phonological learning. PMID:22182669

  20. The contribution of phonological knowledge, memory, and language background to reading comprehension in deaf populations

    PubMed Central

    Hirshorn, Elizabeth A.; Dye, Matthew W. G.; Hauser, Peter; Supalla, Ted R.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    While reading is challenging for many deaf individuals, some become proficient readers. Little is known about the component processes that support reading comprehension in these individuals. Speech-based phonological knowledge is one of the strongest predictors of reading comprehension in hearing individuals, yet its role in deaf readers is controversial. This could reflect the highly varied language backgrounds among deaf readers as well as the difficulty of disentangling the relative contribution of phonological versus orthographic knowledge of spoken language, in our case ‘English,’ in this population. Here we assessed the impact of language experience on reading comprehension in deaf readers by recruiting oral deaf individuals, who use spoken English as their primary mode of communication, and deaf native signers of American Sign Language. First, to address the contribution of spoken English phonological knowledge in deaf readers, we present novel tasks that evaluate phonological versus orthographic knowledge. Second, the impact of this knowledge, as well as memory measures that rely differentially on phonological (serial recall) and semantic (free recall) processing, on reading comprehension was evaluated. The best predictor of reading comprehension differed as a function of language experience, with free recall being a better predictor in deaf native signers than in oral deaf. In contrast, the measures of English phonological knowledge, independent of orthographic knowledge, best predicted reading comprehension in oral deaf individuals. These results suggest successful reading strategies differ across deaf readers as a function of their language experience, and highlight a possible alternative route to literacy in deaf native signers. Highlights: 1. Deaf individuals vary in their orthographic and phonological knowledge of English as a function of their language experience. 2. Reading comprehension was best predicted by different factors in oral deaf and deaf native signers. 3. Free recall memory (primacy effect) better predicted reading comprehension in deaf native signers as compared to oral deaf or hearing individuals. 4. Language experience should be taken into account when considering cognitive processes that mediate reading in deaf individuals. PMID:26379566

  1. Specific impairment of face-processing abilities in children with autism spectrum disorder using the Let's Face It! skills battery.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Julie M; Tanaka, James W; Klaiman, Cheryl; Cockburn, Jeff; Herlihy, Lauren; Brown, Carla; South, Mikle; McPartland, James; Kaiser, Martha D; Phillips, Rebecca; Schultz, Robert T

    2008-12-01

    Although it has been well established that individuals with autism exhibit difficulties in their face recognition abilities, it has been debated whether this deficit reflects a category-specific impairment of faces or a general perceptual bias toward the local-level information in a stimulus. In this study, the Let's Face It! Skills Battery [Tanaka & Schultz, 2008] of developmental face- and object-processing measures was administered to a large sample of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children. The main finding was that when matched for age and IQ, individuals with ASD were selectively impaired in their ability to recognize faces across changes in orientation, expression and featural information. In a face discrimination task, ASD participants showed a preserved ability to discriminate featural and configural information in the mouth region of a face, but were compromised in their ability to discriminate featural and configural information in the eyes. On object-processing tasks, ASD participants demonstrated a normal ability to recognize automobiles across changes in orientation and a superior ability to discriminate featural and configural information in houses. These findings indicate that the face-processing deficits in ASD are not due to a local-processing bias, but reflect a category-specific impairment of faces characterized by a failure to form view-invariant face representations and discriminate information in the eye region of the face. PMID:19360688

  2. The Consequences of Progressive Phonological Impairment for Reading Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollams, Anna M.; Patterson, Karalyn

    2012-01-01

    The "primary systems" view of reading disorders proposes that there are no neural regions devoted exclusively to reading, and therefore that acquired dyslexias should reliably co-occur with deficits in more general underlying capacities. This perspective predicted that surface dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading aloud "exception" words (those…

  3. The representation of lexical-syntactic information: evidence from syntactic and lexical retrieval impairments in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Biran, Michal; Friedmann, Naama

    2012-10-01

    This study explored lexical-syntactic information - syntactic information that is stored in the lexicon - and its relation to syntactic and lexical impairments in aphasia. We focused on two types of lexical-syntactic information: predicate argument structure (PAS) of verbs (the number and types of arguments the verb selects) and grammatical gender of nouns. The participants were 17 Hebrew-speaking individuals with aphasia who had a syntactic deficit (agrammatism) or a lexical retrieval deficit (anomia) located at the semantic lexicon, the phonological output lexicon, or the phonological output buffer. After testing the participants' syntactic and lexical retrieval abilities and establishing the functional loci of their deficits, we assessed their PAS and grammatical gender knowledge. This assessment included sentence completion, sentence production, sentence repetition, and grammaticality judgment tasks. The participants' performance on these tests yielded several important dissociations. Three agrammatic participants had impaired syntax but unimpaired PAS knowledge. Three agrammatic participants had impaired syntax but unimpaired grammatical gender knowledge. This indicates that lexical-syntactic information is represented separately from syntax, and can be spared even when syntax at the sentence level, such as embedding and movement are impaired. All 5 individuals with phonological output buffer impairment and all 3 individuals with phonological output lexicon impairment had preserved lexical-syntactic knowledge. These selective impairments indicate that lexical-syntactic information is represented at a lexical stage prior to the phonological lexicon and the phonological buffer. Three participants with impaired PAS (aPASia) and impaired grammatical gender who showed intact lexical-semantic knowledge indicate that the lexical-syntactic information is represented separately from the semantic lexicon. This led us to conclude that lexical-syntactic information is stored in a separate syntactic lexicon. A double dissociation between PAS and grammatical gender impairments indicated that different types of lexical-syntactic information are represented separately in this syntactic lexicon. PMID:21798529

  4. Dissociating Stimulus-Driven Semantic and Phonological Effect During Reading and Naming

    PubMed Central

    Mechelli, Andrea; Josephs, Oliver; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; McClelland, James L; Price, Cathy J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to dissociate the neural correlates of semantic and phonological processes during word reading and picture naming. Previous studies have addressed this issue by contrasting tasks involving semantic and phonological decisions. However, these tasks engage verbal short-term memory and executive functions that are not required for reading and naming. Here, 20 subjects were instructed to overtly name written words and pictures of objects while their neuronal responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Each trial consisted of a pair of successive stimuli that were either semantically related (e.g., “ROBIN-nest”), phonologically related (e.g., “BELL-belt”), unrelated (e.g., “KITE-lobster”), or semantically and phonologically identical (e.g., “FRIDGE-fridge”). In addition, a pair of stimuli could be presented in either the same modality (word-word or picture-picture) or a different modality (word-picture or picture-word). We report that semantically related pairs modulate neuronal responses in a left-lateralized network, including the pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus, the middle temporal gyrus, the angular gyrus, and the superior frontal gyrus. We propose that these areas are involved in stimulus-driven semantic processes. In contrast, phonologically related pairs modulate neuronal responses in bilateral insula. This region is therefore implicated in the discrimination of similar, competing phonological and articulatory codes. The above effects were detected with both words and pictures and did not differ between the two modalities even with a less conservative statistical threshold. In conclusion, this study dissociates the effects of semantic and phonological relatedness between successive items during reading and naming aloud. Hum Brain Mapp, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:16767767

  5. Phonological working memory and reading in students with dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Carolina A. F.; Kida, Adriana de S. B.; Capellini, Simone A.; de Avila, Clara R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate parameters related to fluency, reading comprehension and phonological processing (operational and short-term memory) and identify potential correlation between the variables in Dyslexia and in the absence of reading difficulties. Method: One hundred and fifteen students from the third to eighth grade of elementary school were grouped into a Control Group (CG) and Group with Dyslexia (GDys). Reading of words, pseudowords and text (decoding); listening and reading comprehension; phonological short-term and working memory (repetition of pseudowords and Digit Span) were evaluated. Results: The comparison of the groups showed significant differences in decoding, phonological short-term memory (repetition of pseudowords) and answers to text-connecting questions (TC) on reading comprehension, with the worst performances identified for GDys. In this group there were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both on listening comprehension. No correlations were found between operational and short-term memory (Digit Span) and parameters of fluency and reading comprehension in dyslexia. For the sample without complaint, there were positive correlations between some parameters of reading fluency and repetition of pseudowords and also between answering literal questions in listening comprehension and repetition of digits on the direct and reverse order. There was no correlation with the parameters of reading comprehension. Conclusion: GDys and CG showed similar performance in listening comprehension and in understanding of explicit information and gap-filling inference on reading comprehension. Students of GDys showed worst performance in reading decoding, phonological short-term memory (pseudowords) and on inferences that depends on textual cohesion understanding in reading. There were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both in listening comprehension. PMID:25101021

  6. Auditory Middle Latency Response and Phonological Awareness in Students with Learning Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Ana Carla Leite; Funayama, Carolina Araújo Rodrigues; Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction?Behavioral tests of auditory processing have been applied in schools and highlight the association between phonological awareness abilities and auditory processing, confirming that low performance on phonological awareness tests may be due to low performance on auditory processing tests. Objective?To characterize the auditory middle latency response and the phonological awareness tests and to investigate correlations between responses in a group of children with learning disorders. Methods?The study included 25 students with learning disabilities. Phonological awareness and auditory middle latency response were tested with electrodes placed on the left and right hemispheres. The correlation between the measurements was performed using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results?There is some correlation between the tests, especially between the Pa component and syllabic awareness, where moderate negative correlation is observed. Conclusion?In this study, when phonological awareness subtests were performed, specifically phonemic awareness, the students showed a low score for the age group, although for the objective examination, prolonged Pa latency in the contralateral via was observed. Negative weak to moderate correlation for Pa wave latency was observed, as was positive weak correlation for Na-Pa amplitude. PMID:26491479

  7. AMAR: A Computational Model of Autosegmental Phonology

    E-print Network

    Albro, Daniel M.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes a computational system with which phonologists may describe a natural language in terms of autosegmental phonology, currently the most advanced theory pertaining to the sound systems of human ...

  8. Five subtypes of developmental phonological disorders.

    PubMed

    Shriberg, L D

    1994-03-01

    Evidence for subgroups among developmental phonological disorders based on etiological origins, as opposed to the alternative linguistic view of childhood phonological disorders as a learning problem of unknown origin, is presented. A three-parameter framework that arranges relevant individual differences (mechanism, cognitive-linguistic, and psychosocial) is proposed for study and classification of the phonological disorders. The disorders are studied in relation to developmental correlates and speech-sound normalization. This permits study of these variables in relation to severity and forms of expression and interaction. Subgroups of "speech delay," each of which reflects phonological consequences, are suggested. Residual articulation errors are classified based on causal origins, possibly influenced by the developmental context in which precise articulation is an acquired skill and differentiated from genetic origins posited for speech delays and those related to specific hearing, motor-speech, and psychosocial origins. Exploration of causal origins provides advantages for both assessment and intervention as well as prevention. PMID:8019550

  9. Speech synthesis by phonological structure matching. 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Paul; Black, Alan W

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for speech synthesis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonological trees, and using a selection algorithm which ...

  10. Processing of Audiovisually Congruent and Incongruent Speech in School-Age Children with a History of Specific Language Impairment: A Behavioral and Event-Related Potentials Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaganovich, Natalya; Schumaker, Jennifer; Macias, Danielle; Gustafson, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that at least some aspects of audiovisual speech perception are impaired in children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, whether audiovisual processing difficulties are also present in older children with a history of this disorder is unknown. By combining electrophysiological and behavioral measures, we…

  11. Exploring Assessment Processes in Specialized Schools for Students Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannan, Cheryl Kamei

    2007-01-01

    In this qualitative study, various professionals in specialized schools for students who are visually impaired provided information on assessment tools; how information was used to plan Individualized Education Programs; and their opinions on the reliability, validity, and usefulness of various measurements. The implications of the findings for…

  12. The Process of Auditory Distraction: Disrupted Attention and Impaired Recall in a Simulated Lecture Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeamer, Charlotte; Fox Tree, Jean E.

    2013-01-01

    Literature on auditory distraction has generally focused on the effects of particular kinds of sounds on attention to target stimuli. In support of extensive previous findings that have demonstrated the special role of language as an auditory distractor, we found that a concurrent speech stream impaired recall of a short lecture, especially for…

  13. Information Processing and Proactive Interference in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Eichorn, Naomi; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a deficit in inhibition control, but research isolating specific abilities is scarce. The goal of this study was to examine whether children with SLI differ from their peers in resistance to proactive interference under different conditions. Method: An…

  14. Anticipatory Sentence Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from Eye Movements during Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Trueswell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five children with specific language impairment (SLI; age 5 years, 3 months [5;3]-8;2), 50 typically developing children (3;3-8;2), and 31 normal adults participated in three eye-tracking experiments of spoken language comprehension that were designed to investigate the use of verb information during real-time sentence comprehension in…

  15. Interaction of Language Processing and Motor Skill in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C.; Goffman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for…

  16. Phonology and orthography in reading aloud.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Niels O

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the orthographic and phonological contribution of visually masked primes to reading aloud in Dutch. Although there is a relatively clear mapping between the spelling and sound of words in Dutch, words starting with the letter c are ambiguous as to whether they begin with the phoneme /s/ (e.g., citroen, "lemon") or with the phoneme /k/ (e.g., complot, "conspiracy"). Therefore, using words of this type, one can tease apart the contributions of orthographic and phonological activation in reading aloud. Dutch participants read aloud bisyllabic c-initial target words, which were preceded by visually masked, bisyllabic prime words that either shared the initial phoneme with the target (phonologically related) or the first grapheme (orthographically related) or both (phonologically and orthographically related). Unrelated primes did not share the first segment with the target. Response latencies in the phonologically related conditions were shorter than those in the unrelated condition. However, primes that were orthographically related did not speed up responses. One may conclude that the nature of the onset effect in reading aloud is phonological and not orthographic. PMID:17874588

  17. What Models of Verbal Working Memory Can Learn from Phonological Theory: Decomposing the Phonological Similarity Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…

  18. Extracting Phonological Patterns for L2 Word Learning: The Effect of Poor Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-01-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of…

  19. Phonological Awareness and Phonological Hierarchy in Unintelligible Speech: What Does the Child Really "Know"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyakoda, Haruko; Imatomi, Setsuko

    2009-01-01

    Phonological awareness has been claimed to play an important role in the development of language skills, and it is essential that the child's phonological skills be assessed accurately in order to predict and to take early measures to help those that may encounter problems. Although the mora has attracted much attention in the discussion of…

  20. Phonological Awareness and the Use of Phonological Similarity in Letter-Sound Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…

  1. A Mouse with a Roof? Effects of Phonological Neighbors on Processing of Words in Sentences in a Non-Native Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Nojack, Agnes; Limbach, Maxi

    2008-01-01

    The architecture of the language processing system for speakers of more than one language remains an intriguing topic of research. A common finding is that speakers of multiple languages are slower at responding to language stimuli in their non-native language (L2) than monolingual speakers. This may simply reflect participants' unfamiliarity with…

  2. Neural Processing of Acoustic Duration and Phonological German Vowel Length: Time Courses of Evoked Fields in Response to Speech and Nonspeech Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaschek, Fabian; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Hertrich, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Recent experiments showed that the perception of vowel length by German listeners exhibits the characteristics of categorical perception. The present study sought to find the neural activity reflecting categorical vowel length and the short-long boundary by examining the processing of non-contrastive durations and categorical length using MEG.…

  3. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  4. A self-teaching image processing and voice-recognition-based, intelligent and interactive system to educate visually impaired children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Asim; Farooq, Umar; Mahmood, Hassan; Asad, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Akrama; Atiq, Hafiz Muhammad

    2010-02-01

    A self teaching image processing and voice recognition based system is developed to educate visually impaired children, chiefly in their primary education. System comprises of a computer, a vision camera, an ear speaker and a microphone. Camera, attached with the computer system is mounted on the ceiling opposite (on the required angle) to the desk on which the book is placed. Sample images and voices in the form of instructions and commands of English, Urdu alphabets, Numeric Digits, Operators and Shapes are already stored in the database. A blind child first reads the embossed character (object) with the help of fingers than he speaks the answer, name of the character, shape etc into the microphone. With the voice command of a blind child received by the microphone, image is taken by the camera which is processed by MATLAB® program developed with the help of Image Acquisition and Image processing toolbox and generates a response or required set of instructions to child via ear speaker, resulting in self education of a visually impaired child. Speech recognition program is also developed in MATLAB® with the help of Data Acquisition and Signal Processing toolbox which records and process the command of the blind child.

  5. Grammatical Morpheme Effects on Sentence Processing by School-Aged Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Miller, Carol A.; Finneran, Denise A.

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen-year-olds with specific language impairment (SLI), nonspecific language impairment (NLI), and those showing typical language development (TD) responded to target words in sentences that were either grammatical or contained a grammatical error immediately before the target word. The TD participants showed the expected slower response times (RTs) when errors preceded the target word, regardless of error type. The SLI and NLI groups also showed the expected slowing, except when the error type involved the omission of a tense/agreement inflection. This response pattern mirrored an early developmental period of alternating between using and omitting tense/agreement inflections that is characteristic of SLI and NLI. The findings could not be readily attributed to factors such as insensitivity to omissions in general or insensitivity to the particular phonetic forms used to mark tense/agreement. The observed response pattern may represent continued difficulty with tense/agreement morphology that persists in subtle form into adolescence. PMID:19690626

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-? impairs oligodendroglial differentiation through a mitochondria-dependent process

    PubMed Central

    Bonora, M; De Marchi, E; Patergnani, S; Suski, J M; Celsi, F; Bononi, A; Giorgi, C; Marchi, S; Rimessi, A; Duszy?ski, J; Pozzan, T; Wieckowski, M R; Pinton, P

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial defects, affecting parameters such as mitochondrial number and shape, levels of respiratory chain complex components and markers of oxidative stress, have been associated with the appearance and progression of multiple sclerosis. Nevertheless, mitochondrial physiology has never been monitored during oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) differentiation, especially in OPCs challenged with proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) inhibits OPC differentiation, accompanied by altered mitochondrial calcium uptake, mitochondrial membrane potential, and respiratory complex I activity as well as increased reactive oxygen species production. Treatment with a mitochondrial uncoupler (FCCP) to mimic mitochondrial impairment also causes cells to accumulate at the progenitor stage. Interestingly, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels increase during TNF-? exposure and inhibit OPC differentiation. Overall, our data indicate that TNF-? induces metabolic changes, driven by mitochondrial impairment and AMPK activation, leading to the inhibition of OPC differentiation. PMID:24658399

  7. The Acquisition of Consonant Feature Sequences: Harmony, Metathesis, and Deletion Patterns in Phonological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Sharon Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines three processes affecting consonants in child speech: harmony (long-distance assimilation) involving major place features as in "coat" [kouk]; long-distance metathesis as in "cup" [p[wedge]k]; and initial consonant deletion as in "fish" [is]. These processes are unattested in adult phonology, leading to proposals for…

  8. Cognitive Impairment in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Role of Online and Offline Processing of Single Cell Information

    PubMed Central

    Titiz, A. S.; Mahoney, J. M.; Testorf, M. E.; Holmes, G. L.; Scott, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common comorbidity in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and is often considered more detrimental to quality of life than seizures. While it has been previously shown that the encoding of memory during behavior is impaired in the pilocarpine model of TLE in rats, how this information is consolidated during the subsequent sleep period remains unknown. In this study, we first report marked deficits in spatial memory performance and severe cell loss in the CA1 layer of the hippocampus lower spatial coherence of firing in TLE rats. We then present the first evidence that the reactivation of behavior-driven patterns of activity of CA1 place cells in the hippocampus is intact in TLE rats. Using a template-matching method, we discovered that real-time (3–5 s) reactivation structure was intact in TLE rats. Furthermore, we estimated the entropy rate of short time scale (~250 ms) bursting activity using block entropies and found that significant, extended temporal correlations exist in both TLE and Control rats. Fitting a first order Markov Chain model to these bursting time series, we found that long sequences derived from behavior were significantly enriched in the Markov model over corresponding models fit on randomized data confirming the presence of replay in shorter time scales. We propose that the persistent consolidation of poor spatial information in both real-time and during bursting activity may contribute to memory impairments in TLE rats. PMID:24799359

  9. Cognitive impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy: role of online and offline processing of single cell information.

    PubMed

    Titiz, A S; Mahoney, J M; Testorf, M E; Holmes, G L; Scott, R C

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common comorbidity in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and is often considered more detrimental to quality of life than seizures. While it has been previously shown that the encoding of memory during behavior is impaired in the pilocarpine model of TLE in rats, how this information is consolidated during the subsequent sleep period remains unknown. In this study, we first report marked deficits in spatial memory performance and severe cell loss in the CA1 layer of the hippocampus lower spatial coherence of firing in TLE rats. We then present the first evidence that the reactivation of behavior-driven patterns of activity of CA1 place cells in the hippocampus is intact in TLE rats. Using a template-matching method, we discovered that real-time (3-5 s) reactivation structure was intact in TLE rats. Furthermore, we estimated the entropy rate of short time scale (?250 ms) bursting activity using block entropies and found that significant, extended temporal correlations exist in both TLE and control rats. Fitting a first-order Markov Chain model to these bursting time series, we found that long sequences derived from behavior were significantly enriched in the Markov model over corresponding models fit on randomized data confirming the presence of replay in shorter time scales. We propose that the persistent consolidation of poor spatial information in both real time and during bursting activity may contribute to memory impairments in TLE rats. PMID:24799359

  10. Phonological Knowledge Guides Two-year-olds’ and Adults’ Interpretation of Salient Pitch Contours in Word Learning

    PubMed Central

    Quam, Carolyn; Swingley, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Phonology provides a system by which a limited number of types of phonetic variation can signal communicative intentions at multiple levels of linguistic analysis. Because phonologies vary from language to language, acquiring the phonology of a language demands learning to attribute phonetic variation appropriately. Here, we studied the case of pitch-contour variation. In English, pitch contour does not differentiate words, but serves other functions, like marking yes/no questions and conveying emotions. We show that, in accordance with their phonology, English-speaking adults and two-year-olds do not interpret salient pitch contours as inherent to novel words. We taught participants a new word with consistent segmental and pitch characteristics, and then tested word recognition for trained and deviant pronunciations using an eyegaze-based procedure. Vowel-quality mispronunciations impaired recognition, but large changes in pitch contour did not. By age two, children already apply their knowledge of English phonology to interpret phonetic consistencies in their experience with words. PMID:20161601

  11. 24.961 Introduction to Phonology, Fall 2002

    E-print Network

    Zoll, Cheryl

    The year-long Introduction to Phonology reviews at the graduate level fundamental notions of phonological analysis and introduces students to current debates, research and analytical techniques. The Fall term reviews issues ...

  12. Early phonological awareness and reading skills in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Esther J; Flynn, Mark C

    2003-08-01

    Increasingly, children with Down syndrome receive literacy instruction with the expectation of acquiring functional reading skills. Unfortunately, little is known about the processes underlying literacy skills in this special population. Phonological awareness contributes to literacy development in typically developing children, however, there is inconclusive evidence about these skills in younger children with Down syndrome. 9 children with Down syndrome (5.6-8.10 years) participated in this investigation. Due to the paucity of standardised phonological awareness measures for children with special needs, in particular children with Down syndrome, a variety of tasks were adapted from the literature. The assessment battery examined the skills of phonological awareness, literacy, speech production, expressive language, hearing acuity, speech perception, and auditory-visual memory. The results suggest that children with Down syndrome are at risks for reading acquisition difficulties due to reduced phonological awareness skills. These deficits are in addition to delays caused by reduced cognitive skills. Only one of the participants was able to demonstrate rhyme awareness, which may have been due to task effects. Written word recognition ability was correlated with tests of phonemic awareness, and error analysis of the spelling and non-word reading tasks suggested grapheme-phoneme connections deficits. Further research is needed to determine the best methods of assessment and intervention for phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome. PMID:14502837

  13. Narrative Skills Following Early Confirmation of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worsfold, Sarah; Mahon, Merle; Yuen, Ho Ming; Kennedy, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare spoken language production in children with permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) whose PCHI was confirmed either early or late. Method: Audio-taped spoken narrative was assessed for syntax, phonology, morphology, and narrative in transcripts from a population-based sample of 89 children (49 males,…

  14. Impairments in Episodic-Autobiographical Memory and Emotional and Social Information Processing in CADASIL during Mid-Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Staniloiu, Angelica; Woermann, Friedrich G.; Markowitsch, Hans J.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) – is the most common genetic source of vascular dementia in adults, being caused by a mutation in NOTCH3 gene. Spontaneous de novo mutations may occur, but their frequency is largely unknown. Ischemic strokes and cognitive impairments are the most frequent manifestations, but seizures affect up to 10% of the patients. Herein, we describe a 47-year-old male scholar with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of CADASIL (Arg133Cys mutation in the NOTCH3 gene) and a seemingly negative family history of CADASIL illness, who was investigated with a comprehensive neuropsychological testing battery and neuroimaging methods. The patient demonstrated on one hand severe and accelerated deteriorations in multiple cognitive domains such as concentration, long-term memory (including the episodic-autobiographical memory domain), problem solving, cognitive flexibility and planning, affect recognition, discrimination and matching, and social cognition (theory of mind). Some of these impairments were even captured by abbreviated instruments for investigating suspicion of dementia. On the other hand the patient still possessed high crystallized (verbal) intelligence and a capacity to put forth a façade of well-preserved intellectual functioning. Although no definite conclusions can be drawn from a single case study, our findings point to the presence of additional cognitive changes in CADASIL in middle adulthood, in particular to impairments in the episodic-autobiographical memory domain and social information processing (e.g., social cognition). Whether these identified impairments are related to the patient’s specific phenotype or to an ascertainment bias (e.g., a paucity of studies investigating these cognitive functions) requires elucidation by larger scale research. PMID:25009481

  15. Impairments in Episodic-Autobiographical Memory and Emotional and Social Information Processing in CADASIL during Mid-Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Staniloiu, Angelica; Woermann, Friedrich G; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) - is the most common genetic source of vascular dementia in adults, being caused by a mutation in NOTCH3 gene. Spontaneous de novo mutations may occur, but their frequency is largely unknown. Ischemic strokes and cognitive impairments are the most frequent manifestations, but seizures affect up to 10% of the patients. Herein, we describe a 47-year-old male scholar with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of CADASIL (Arg133Cys mutation in the NOTCH3 gene) and a seemingly negative family history of CADASIL illness, who was investigated with a comprehensive neuropsychological testing battery and neuroimaging methods. The patient demonstrated on one hand severe and accelerated deteriorations in multiple cognitive domains such as concentration, long-term memory (including the episodic-autobiographical memory domain), problem solving, cognitive flexibility and planning, affect recognition, discrimination and matching, and social cognition (theory of mind). Some of these impairments were even captured by abbreviated instruments for investigating suspicion of dementia. On the other hand the patient still possessed high crystallized (verbal) intelligence and a capacity to put forth a façade of well-preserved intellectual functioning. Although no definite conclusions can be drawn from a single case study, our findings point to the presence of additional cognitive changes in CADASIL in middle adulthood, in particular to impairments in the episodic-autobiographical memory domain and social information processing (e.g., social cognition). Whether these identified impairments are related to the patient's specific phenotype or to an ascertainment bias (e.g., a paucity of studies investigating these cognitive functions) requires elucidation by larger scale research. PMID:25009481

  16. A Tale of Two Studies on Auditory Training in Children: A Response to the Claim that ‘Discrimination Training of Phonemic Contrasts Enhances Phonological Processing in Mainstream School Children’ by Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (2005)

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Lorna F

    2014-01-01

    In a previous article, Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (Brain and Language, 2005, 94, 72-85) reported evidence for significant improvements in phonological awareness in mainstream children following 6 h of exposure to a commercially available phoneme discrimination training programme, but not in a control group. In a follow-up study, we failed to replicate this finding, despite using an almost identical training programme (Halliday, Taylor, Millward, & Moore, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2012, 55, 168-181). This paper directly compares the methods and the results of the two studies, in an effort to explain the discrepant findings. It reports that the trained group in Moore et al. (2005) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness following training than the trained group in Halliday et al. (2012). However, the control group in Halliday et al. (2012) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness than the control group in Moore et al. (2005). The paper concludes that differences in the randomization, blinding, experimenter familiarity and treatment of trained and control groups contributed to the different outcomes of the two studies. The results indicate that a plethora of factors can contribute to training effects and highlight the importance of well-designed randomized controlled trials in assessing the efficacy of a given intervention. © 2014 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24470350

  17. Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

  18. Learning General Phonological Rules from Distributional Information: A Computational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calamaro, Shira; Jarosz, Gaja

    2015-01-01

    Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony…

  19. The role of consciousness in the phonological loop: hidden in plain sight

    PubMed Central

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.

    2013-01-01

    We know from everyday experience that when we need to keep a small amount of verbal information “in mind” for a short period, an effective cognitive strategy is to silently rehearse the words. This basic cognitive strategy has been elegantly codified in Baddeley and colleagues model of verbal working memory, the phonological loop. Here we explore how the intuitive appeal of the phonological loop is grounded in the phenomenological experience of subvocal rehearsal as consisting of an interaction between an “inner voice” and an “inner ear.” We focus particularly on how our intuitions about the phenomenological experience of “inner speech” might constrain or otherwise inform the functional architecture of information processing models of verbal working memory such as the phonological loop; and how, indeed, how ideas about consciousness may offer alternative explanations for the dual nature of inner speech in verbal working memory. PMID:23964252

  20. The role of consciousness in the phonological loop: hidden in plain sight.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R

    2013-01-01

    We know from everyday experience that when we need to keep a small amount of verbal information "in mind" for a short period, an effective cognitive strategy is to silently rehearse the words. This basic cognitive strategy has been elegantly codified in Baddeley and colleagues model of verbal working memory, the phonological loop. Here we explore how the intuitive appeal of the phonological loop is grounded in the phenomenological experience of subvocal rehearsal as consisting of an interaction between an "inner voice" and an "inner ear." We focus particularly on how our intuitions about the phenomenological experience of "inner speech" might constrain or otherwise inform the functional architecture of information processing models of verbal working memory such as the phonological loop; and how, indeed, how ideas about consciousness may offer alternative explanations for the dual nature of inner speech in verbal working memory. PMID:23964252

  1. Infant information processing and family history of specific language impairment: converging evidence for RAP deficits from two paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Naseem; Leppanen, Paavo H.T.; Leevers, Hilary J.; Benasich, April A.

    2007-01-01

    An infant’s ability to process auditory signals presented in rapid succession (i.e. rapid auditory processing abilities [RAP]) has been shown to predict differences in language outcomes in toddlers and preschool children. Early deficits in RAP abilities may serve as a behavioral marker for language-based learning disabilities. The purpose of this study is to determine if performance on infant information processing measures designed to tap RAP and global processing skills differ as a function of family history of specific language impairment (SLI) and/or the particular demand characteristics of the paradigm used. Seventeen 6- to 9-month-old infants from families with a history of specific language impairment (FH+) and 29 control infants (FH?) participated in this study. Infants’ performance on two different RAP paradigms (head-turn procedure [HT] and auditory-visual habituation/recognition memory [AVH/RM]) and on a global processing task (visual habituation/recognition memory [VH/RM]) was assessed at 6 and 9 months. Toddler language and cognitive skills were evaluated at 12 and 16 months. A number of significant group differences were seen: FH+ infants showed significantly poorer discrimination of fast rate stimuli on both RAP tasks, took longer to habituate on both habituation/recognition memory measures, and had lower novelty preference scores on the visual habituation/recognition memory task. Infants’ performance on the two RAP measures provided independent but converging contributions to outcome. Thus, different mechanisms appear to underlie performance on operantly conditioned tasks as compared to habituation/recognition memory paradigms. Further, infant RAP processing abilities predicted to 12- and 16-month language scores above and beyond family history of SLI. The results of this study provide additional support for the validity of infant RAP abilities as a behavioral marker for later language outcome. Finally, this is the first study to use a battery of infant tasks to demonstrate multi-modal processing deficits in infants at risk for SLI. PMID:17286846

  2. Conduction aphasia, sensory-motor integration, and phonological short-term memory An aggregate analysis of lesion and fMRI data

    E-print Network

    Conduction aphasia, sensory-motor integration, and phonological short-term memory ­ An aggregate December 2010 Available online 21 January 2011 Keywords: Conduction aphasia Working memory Speech a c t Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired

  3. Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-Term Memory--An Aggregate Analysis of Lesion and fMRI Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways,…

  4. Physiologic discrimination of stop consonants relates to phonological skills in pre-readers: a biomarker for subsequent reading ability?†

    PubMed Central

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Reading development builds upon the accurate representation of the phonological structure of spoken language. This representation and its neural foundations have been studied extensively with respect to reading due to pervasive performance deficits on basic phonological tasks observed in children with dyslexia. The subcortical auditory system – a site of intersection for sensory and cognitive input – is exquisitely tuned to code fine timing differences between phonemes, and so likely plays a foundational role in the development of phonological processing and, eventually, reading. This temporal coding of speech varies systematically with reading ability in school age children. Little is known, however, about subcortical speech representation in pre-school age children. We measured auditory brainstem responses to the stop consonants [ba] and [ga] in a cohort of 4-year-old children and assessed their phonological skills. In a typical auditory system, brainstem responses to [ba] and [ga] are out of phase (i.e., differ in time) due to formant frequency differences in the consonant-vowel transitions of the stimuli. We found that children who performed worst on the phonological awareness task insufficiently code this difference, revealing a physiologic link between early phonological skills and the neural representation of speech. We discuss this finding in light of existing theories of the role of the auditory system in developmental dyslexia, and argue for a systems-level perspective for understanding the importance of precise temporal coding for learning to read. PMID:24399956

  5. Perinatal Asphyxia Affects Rat Auditory Processing: Implications for Auditory Perceptual Impairments in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Strata, Fabrizio; Stoianov, Ivilin P.; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Bonham, Ben; Martone, Tiziana; Kenet, Tal; Chang, Edward F.; Vincenti, Vincenzo; Merzenich, Michael M.

    2010-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia, a naturally and commonly occurring risk factor in birthing, represents one of the major causes of neonatal encephalopathy with long term consequences for infants. Here, degraded spectral and temporal responses to sounds were recorded from neurons in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of adult rats exposed to asphyxia at birth. Response onset latencies and durations were increased. Response amplitudes were reduced. Tuning curves were broader. Degraded successive-stimulus masking inhibitory mechanisms were associated with a reduced capability of neurons to follow higher-rate repetitive stimuli. The architecture of peripheral inner ear sensory epithelium was preserved, suggesting that recorded abnormalities can be of central origin. Some implications of these findings for the genesis of language perception deficits or for impaired language expression recorded in developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, contributed to by perinatal asphyxia, are discussed. PMID:21203459

  6. The Roles of Semantic and Phonological Information in Word Production: Evidence from Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennison, Shelia M.; Fernandez, Elaine C.; Bowers, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    The research investigated the roles of semantic and phonological processing in word production. Spanish-English bilingual individuals produced English target words when cued with definitions that were also written in English. When the correct word was not produced, a secondary task was performed in which participants rated the ease of…

  7. Native Language Phonological Skills in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the link between low second language performance and difficulties with native language phonological processing. Participants were native Hebrew speakers, 19-31 years of age, who learned English as a second language in a school setting. Individuals with dyslexia performed below high-proficiency second language learners on…

  8. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence for Early and Automatic Detection of Phonological Equivalence in Variable Speech Inputs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kharlamov, Viktor; Campbell, Kenneth; Kazanina, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Speech sounds are not always perceived in accordance with their acoustic-phonetic content. For example, an early and automatic process of perceptual repair, which ensures conformity of speech inputs to the listener's native language phonology, applies to individual input segments that do not exist in the native inventory or to sound sequences that…

  9. Phonological Effects in Handwriting Production : Evidence from the Implicit Priming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afonso, Olivia; Alvarez, Carlos J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, we report 3 experiments using the odd-man-out variant of the implicit priming paradigm, aimed at determining the role played by phonological information during the handwriting process. Participants were asked to write a small set of words learned in response to prompts. Within each block, response words could share initial…

  10. Decoding Ability Makes Waves in Reading: Deficient Interactions between Attention and Phonological Analysis in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savill, Nicola J.; Thierry, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Whilst there is general consensus that phonological processing is deficient in developmental dyslexia, recent research also implicates visuo-attentional contributions. Capitalising on the P3a wave of event-related potentials as an index of attentional capture, we tested dyslexic and normal readers on a novel variant of a visual oddball task to…

  11. Event-Related Brain Potentials Elicited during Word Recognition by Adult Good and Poor Phonological Decoders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Frances Heritage; Kaine, Alison; Kirby, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive processing of lexical and sub-lexical stimuli was compared for good and poor adult phonological decoders. Sixteen good decoders and 16 poor decoders, average age 19 years, silently read 150 randomly computer presented sentences ending in incongruous regular, irregular, or nonwords and 100 congruent filler sentences.…

  12. Multisensory Spatial Attention Deficits Are Predictive of Phonological Decoding Skills in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Ruffino, Milena; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cattaneo, Carmen; Galli, Raffaella; Molteni, Massimo; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Although the dominant approach posits that developmental dyslexia arises from deficits in systems that are exclusively linguistic in nature (i.e., phonological deficit theory), dyslexics show a variety of lower level deficits in sensory and attentional processing. Although their link to the reading disorder remains contentious, recent empirical…

  13. Fine-Tuned: Phonology and Semantics Affect First- to Second-Language Zooming In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elston-Guttler, Kerrie E.; Gunter, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how L1 phonology and semantics affect processing of interlingual homographs by manipulating language context before, and auditory input during, a visual experiment in the L2. Three experiments contained German-English homograph primes ("gift" = German "poison") in English sentences and was performed by German (L1) learners of…

  14. Anatomical Properties of the Arcuate Fasciculus Predict Phonological and Reading Skills in Children

    E-print Network

    Wandell, Brian A.

    in the left arcuate correlate with phonological awareness skills and arcuate volume lateralization correlates network model of language processing in the brain (Wernicke, 1874). His view of cortical com- putations portrayed the brain as a mosaic of sensory and motor representations, where new functions arise from novel

  15. Phonological and Sensory Short-Term Memory Are Correlates and Both Affected in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Virsu, Veijo; Oinonen, Suvi; Sandbacka, Mirja; Salakari, Anita; Service, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether poor short-term memory (STM) in developmental dyslexia affects the processing of sensory stimulus sequences in addition to phonological material. STM for brief binary non-verbal stimuli (light flashes, tone bursts, finger touches, and their crossmodal combinations) was studied in 20 Finnish adults with dyslexia and 24…

  16. Reading impairment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: A pilot study to investigate similarities and differences with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Astrea, Guja; Pecini, Chiara; Gasperini, Filippo; Brisca, Giacomo; Scutifero, Marianna; Bruno, Claudio; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Cioni, Giovanni; Politano, Luisa; Chilosi, Anna Maria; Battini, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Below-average reading performances have been reported in individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but literacy problems in these subjects have yet to be characterized. In this study, the presence and characteristics of literacy deficits in boys with DMD were investigated through a comparison with typically developing children and with children affected by developmental dyslexia, with the aim of clarifying whether DMD and developmental dyslexia have overlapping profiles of literacy deficits and whether these deficits are associated, as in children with dyslexia, with impairments in phonological processing and rapid lexical access. The results confirmed the high incidence of literacy problems in boys with DMD and revealed a profile less severe than, but qualitatively similar to, that of Italian children with developmental dyslexia. Both groups showed specific difficulties in reading and writing words and a reduced rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed. This is the first time that a RAN speed deficit has been documented in DMD. Moreover, the boys with DMD and the subgroup of dyslexic children with a previous language delay showed additional deficits in phonological processing. The impairments highlighted in this study could explain the reading difficulties observed in boys with DMD and suggest that there is a need for targeted preschool interventions. PMID:26255617

  17. Phonology impacts segmentation in online speech processing 

    E-print Network

    Onnis, Luca; Monaghan, Padraic; Richmond, Korin; Chater, Nick

    2005-01-01

    Peña, Bonatti, Nespor and Mehler(2002) investigated an artificial language where the structure of words was determined by nonadjacent dependencies between syllables. They found that segmentation of continuous speech could ...

  18. Phonological similarity and lexical bias in phonological speech errors : self-monitoring or feedback ? 

    E-print Network

    Moat, Susannah

    2005-01-01

    The lexical bias effect refers to the fact that phonological errors result in real words more often than would be predicted by chance. It has also been observed that phonemes are more likely to be exchanged if they are ...

  19. Spelling impairments in Spanish dyslexic adults

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Olivia; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Spelling deficits have repeatedly been observed in children with dyslexia. However, the few studies addressing this issue in dyslexic adults have reported contradictory results. We investigated whether Spanish dyslexics show spelling deficits in adulthood and which components of the writing production process might be impaired in developmental dyslexia. In order to evaluate the involvement of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the graphemic buffer, lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography consistency and word length were manipulated in two writing tasks: a direct copy transcoding task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that adults with dyslexia produced longer written latencies, inter-letter intervals, writing durations and more errors than their peers without dyslexia. Moreover, the dyslexics were more affected by lexical frequency and word length than the controls, but both groups showed a similar effect of P-O consistency. Written latencies also revealed that while the dyslexics initiated the response later in the direct copy transcoding task than in the spelling-to-dictation task, the controls showed the opposite pattern. However, the dyslexics were slower than the controls in both tasks. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that spelling difficulties are present in adults with dyslexia, at least in a language with a transparent orthography such as Spanish. These difficulties seem to be associated with a deficit affecting both lexical processing and the ability to maintain information about the serial order of the letters in a word. However, the dyslexic group did not differ from the control group in the application of the P-O conversion procedures. The spelling impairment would be in addition to the reading deficit, leading to poorer performance in direct copy transcoding compared to spelling-to-dictation. PMID:25941507

  20. Auditory temporal processing skills in musicians with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Bishop-Liebler, Paula; Welch, Graham; Huss, Martina; Thomson, Jennifer M; Goswami, Usha

    2014-08-01

    The core cognitive difficulty in developmental dyslexia involves phonological processing, but adults and children with dyslexia also have sensory impairments. Impairments in basic auditory processing show particular links with phonological impairments, and recent studies with dyslexic children across languages reveal a relationship between auditory temporal processing and sensitivity to rhythmic timing and speech rhythm. As rhythm is explicit in music, musical training might have a beneficial effect on the auditory perception of acoustic cues to rhythm in dyslexia. Here we took advantage of the presence of musicians with and without dyslexia in musical conservatoires, comparing their auditory temporal processing abilities with those of dyslexic non-musicians matched for cognitive ability. Musicians with dyslexia showed equivalent auditory sensitivity to musicians without dyslexia and also showed equivalent rhythm perception. The data support the view that extensive rhythmic experience initiated during childhood (here in the form of music training) can affect basic auditory processing skills which are found to be deficient in individuals with dyslexia. PMID:25044949

  1. Comprehension of Inferences in Discourse Processing by Adolescents With and Without Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Karasinski, Courtney; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated inference construction within spoken narratives in adolescents with varying cognitive and language abilities, using W. Kintsch's (1988) construction-integration model as a framework. The role of working memory in inference construction was examined along with language and nonverbal cognition. Method Participants were 527 eighth-grade students in 4 diagnostic groups: normal language (NL), low cognitive (LC), specific language impairment (SLI), and nonspecific language impariment (NLI). Participants answered premise and inference questions based on adjacent and distant information. Results Distant inferences were significantly more difficult than were adjacent inferences. When controlling for premise accuracy, the NL group performed significantly better than each of the other groups on distant inferences. The LC group demonstrated significantly higher accuracy on distant inferences than did the NLI group. Regression analyses revealed that performance on a verbal working memory measure predicted unique variance in distant inference accuracy beyond that accounted for by measures of language and nonverbal cognition. Conclusions Understanding implicit information, particularly when linking distant information, is difficult for adolescents who are deficient in language comprehension, verbal working memory skills, and/or general world knowledge. PMID:20631230

  2. Learning novel phonological neighbors: Syntactic category matters.

    PubMed

    Dautriche, Isabelle; Swingley, Daniel; Christophe, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Novel words (like tog) that sound like well-known words (dog) are hard for toddlers to learn, even though children can hear the difference between them (Swingley & Aslin, 2002, 2007). One possibility is that phonological competition alone is the problem. Another is that a broader set of probabilistic considerations is responsible: toddlers may resist considering tog as a novel object label because its neighbor dog is also an object. In three experiments, French 18-month-olds were taught novel words whose word forms were phonologically similar to familiar nouns (noun-neighbors), to familiar verbs (verb-neighbors) or to nothing (no-neighbors). Toddlers successfully learned the no-neighbors and verb-neighbors but failed to learn the noun-neighbors, although both novel neighbors had a familiar phonological neighbor in the toddlers' lexicon. We conclude that when creating a novel lexical entry, toddlers' evaluation of similarity in the lexicon is multidimensional, incorporating both phonological and semantic or syntactic features. PMID:26114905

  3. Lexical and Syllabic Patterns in Phonological Acquisiton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shibamoto, J. S.; Olmstead, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Looks at phonological development in lexical terms and extends the method of Ferguson and Farwell to consideration of syllables within words. The research is directed toward the question of whether children acqure a sound system by following "universal" orders of acquistion or by developing distinct strategies. (EJS)

  4. Phonological Priming in Children's Picture Naming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Patricia J.; MacWhinney, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments examined phonological priming in children and adults using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Pictures of familiar objects were presented on a computer screen, while interfering words were presented over headphones. Results indicate that priming effects reach a peak during a time when articulatory information is being…

  5. Phonological Acquisition: Recent Attainments and New Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peperkamp, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    Infants' phonological acquisition during the first 18 months of life has been studied within experimental psychology for some 30 years. Current research themes include statistical learning mechanisms, early lexical development, and models of phonetic category perception. So far, linguistic theories have hardly been taken into account. These…

  6. Phonological Precedence in Dyslexia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider-Zioga, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A…

  7. Phonological Networks and New Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Service, Elisabet

    2006-01-01

    The first report of a connection between vocabulary learning and phonological short-term memory was published in 1988 (Baddeley, Papagno, & Vallar, 1988). At that time, both Susan Gathercole and I were involved in longitudinal studies, investigating the relation between nonword repetition and language learning. We both found a connection. Now,…

  8. St. Lawrence Island Eskimo Phonology and Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Michael E.

    1975-01-01

    Central Siberian Yupik Eskimo is the language both of the natives of St. Lawrence Island and of the facing Siberian mainland, with few minor variations. A history of the language is given as it evolved in both countries, as well as a phonological analysis and orthographic developments on both sides. (SCC)

  9. A Re-Examiniation of Phonological Neutralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnsen, D.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews research studies that raise serious questions about phonological neutralization, that is, the merger of a contrast in certain contexts. Some findings cast doubt on the very existence of neutralization and the correctness of the theoretical principles that make assumptions based on neutralization. Reanalyzes neutralization in light of these…

  10. Notes on the Development of Phonological Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen R.

    1980-01-01

    Notes the parallels between N. Chomsky and M. Halle's "The Sound Pattern of English" and A. N. Whitehead and B. Russell's "Principia Mathematica." Uses these parallels to distinguish "formalist" v "substance-based" generative phonology. Suggests that a modification of the "formalist" program is ultimately more satisfactory than the…

  11. Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubrecht, August Weston

    Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

  12. A BINI GRAMMAR, PART 1--PHONOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESCOTT, ROGER W.

    A PHONOLOGY OF BINI GRAMMAR (A LANGUAGE OF WESTERN NIGERIA) HAS BEEN DESIGNED FOR A HIGHLY HETEROGENEOUS AUDIENCE. THE VOLUME IS AIMED AT (1) AREA SPECIALISTS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE OR CULTURE STUDIES OF AFRICA, (2) ETHNOGRAPHERS FOCUSING ON THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLES, (3) HISTORIANS WORKING ON THE BENIN PROJECT OF IBADAN…

  13. Acoustic Evidence for Phonologically Mismatched Speech Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Speech errors are generally said to accommodate to their new phonological context. This accommodation has been validated by several transcription studies. The transcription methodology is not the best choice for detecting errors at this level, however, as this type of error can be difficult to perceive. This paper presents an acoustic analysis of…

  14. Topics in Mocho' Phonology and Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palosaari, Naomi Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a grammatical description of several features of the morphology and phonology of the Mocho' language. Mocho' (Motozintleco) is a moribund Mayan language spoken in the Chiapas region of Mexico near the border of Guatemala. This dissertation, based on data collected during several field trips and supplemented with unpublished…

  15. Early Parallel Activation of Semantics and Phonology in Picture Naming: Evidence from a Multiple Linear Regression MEG Study.

    PubMed

    Miozzo, Michele; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2015-10-01

    The time course of brain activation during word production has become an area of increasingly intense investigation in cognitive neuroscience. The predominant view has been that semantic and phonological processes are activated sequentially, at about 150 and 200-400 ms after picture onset. Although evidence from prior studies has been interpreted as supporting this view, these studies were arguably not ideally suited to detect early brain activation of semantic and phonological processes. We here used a multiple linear regression approach to magnetoencephalography (MEG) analysis of picture naming in order to investigate early effects of variables specifically related to visual, semantic, and phonological processing. This was combined with distributed minimum-norm source estimation and region-of-interest analysis. Brain activation associated with visual image complexity appeared in occipital cortex at about 100 ms after picture presentation onset. At about 150 ms, semantic variables became physiologically manifest in left frontotemporal regions. In the same latency range, we found an effect of phonological variables in the left middle temporal gyrus. Our results demonstrate that multiple linear regression analysis is sensitive to early effects of multiple psycholinguistic variables in picture naming. Crucially, our results suggest that access to phonological information might begin in parallel with semantic processing around 150 ms after picture onset. PMID:25005037

  16. Early Parallel Activation of Semantics and Phonology in Picture Naming: Evidence from a Multiple Linear Regression MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Miozzo, Michele; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    The time course of brain activation during word production has become an area of increasingly intense investigation in cognitive neuroscience. The predominant view has been that semantic and phonological processes are activated sequentially, at about 150 and 200–400 ms after picture onset. Although evidence from prior studies has been interpreted as supporting this view, these studies were arguably not ideally suited to detect early brain activation of semantic and phonological processes. We here used a multiple linear regression approach to magnetoencephalography (MEG) analysis of picture naming in order to investigate early effects of variables specifically related to visual, semantic, and phonological processing. This was combined with distributed minimum-norm source estimation and region-of-interest analysis. Brain activation associated with visual image complexity appeared in occipital cortex at about 100 ms after picture presentation onset. At about 150 ms, semantic variables became physiologically manifest in left frontotemporal regions. In the same latency range, we found an effect of phonological variables in the left middle temporal gyrus. Our results demonstrate that multiple linear regression analysis is sensitive to early effects of multiple psycholinguistic variables in picture naming. Crucially, our results suggest that access to phonological information might begin in parallel with semantic processing around 150 ms after picture onset. PMID:25005037

  17. When overlap leads to competition: Effects of phonological encoding on word duration.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Loretta K; Watson, Duane G

    2015-12-01

    Some accounts of acoustic reduction propose that variation in word duration is a reflection of the speaker's internal production processes, but it is unclear why lengthening within a word benefits planning. The present study examines whether variability in word length is partly attributable to phonological encoding. In an event-description task, speakers produced words with longer durations when the word shared part of its phonology with a previously articulated word than when it did not. More importantly, lengthening was greater when the overlap was word-initial than when it was word-final. These differences in duration are in line with predictions of serial phonological competition models, which claim that words that overlap in onsets create more competition than words that overlap in offsets and are thus more difficult to produce. That word duration is sensitive to differences in production difficulty suggests a link between speakers' duration choices and phonological encoding. We propose that lengthening provides the production system with the necessary processing time to produce a word's sounds. PMID:25855202

  18. What Phonological Facilitation Tells about Semantic Interference: A Dual-Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Ayora, Pauline; Peressotti, Francesca; Alario, F.-Xavier; Mulatti, Claudio; Pluchino, Patrick; Job, Remo; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in the topic, the extent to which linguistic processing demands attentional resources remains poorly understood. We report an empirical re-examination of claims about lexical processing made on the basis of the picture–word interference task when merged in a dual-task psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm. Two experiments were conducted in which participants were presented with a tone followed, at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), by a picture–word stimulus. In Experiment 1, the phonological relatedness between pictures and words was manipulated. Begin- and end-related words decreased picture naming latencies relative to unrelated words. This effect was additive with SOA effects. In Experiment 2, both the semantic and the phonological relatedness between pictures and words were manipulated. Replicating Experiment 1, effects arising from the phonological manipulation were additive with SOA effects on picture naming latencies. In contrast, effects arising from the semantic manipulation were under additive with SOA effects on picture naming latencies, that is, semantic interference decreased as SOA was decreased. Such contrastive pattern suggests that semantic and phonological effects on picture naming latencies are characterized by distinguishable sources, the former prior to the PRP bottleneck and the latter at the PRP bottleneck or after. The present findings are discussed in relation to current models of language production. PMID:21716584

  19. Trichotomous Processes in Early Memory Development, Aging, and Neurocognitive Impairment: A Unified Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Howe, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most extensively investigated topics in the adult memory literature, dual memory processes, has had virtually no impact on the study of early memory development. The authors remove the key obstacles to such research by formulating a trichotomous theory of recall that combines the traditional dual processes of recollection and…

  20. Basic Auditory Processing and Developmental Dyslexia in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Huss, Martina; Hamalainen, Jarmo A.; Goswami, Usha

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between basic auditory processing of sound rise time, frequency, duration and intensity, phonological skills (onset-rime and tone awareness, sound blending, RAN, and phonological memory) and reading disability in Chinese. A series of psychometric, literacy, phonological, auditory, and character…

  1. Longitudinal Processing Speed Impairments in Males with Autism and the Effects of White Matter Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Tromp, Do P. M.; Adluru, Nagesh; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Ennis, Chad; Lange, Nicholas; Nielsen, Jared A.; Prigge, Molly B. D.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study used an accelerated longitudinal design to examine group differences and age-related changes in processing speed in 81 individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared to 56 age-matched individuals with typical development (ages 6–39 years). Processing speed was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-3rd edition (WISC-III) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd edition (WAIS-III). Follow-up analyses examined processing speed subtest performance and relations between processing speed and white matter microstructure (as measured with diffusion tensor imaging [DTI] in a subset of these participants). After controlling for full scale IQ, the present results show that processing speed index standard scores were on average 12 points lower in the group with ASD compared to the group with typical development. There were, however, no significant group differences in standard score age-related changes within this age range. For subtest raw scores, the group with ASD demonstrated robustly slower processing speeds in the adult versions of the IQ test (i.e., WAIS-III) but not in the child versions (WISC-III), even though age-related changes were similar in both the ASD and typically developing groups. This pattern of results may reflect difficulties that become increasingly evident in ASD on more complex measures of processing speed. Finally, DTI measures of whole-brain white matter microstructure suggested that fractional anisotropy (but not mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, or axial diffusivity) made significant but small-sized contributions to processing speed standard scores across our entire sample. Taken together, the present findings suggest that robust decreases in processing speed may be present in ASD, more pronounced in adulthood, and partially attributable to white matter microstructural integrity. PMID:24269298

  2. Nonselective access of phonological lexicon for two different orthographies: Korean and English.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonil; Nam, Kichun; Lee, Chang Hwan

    2010-06-01

    In studies of bilingual word processing, the primary question has been [corrected] whether various bilingual lexical information is selectively or nonselectively activated. [corrected] Specifically, when a reader processes a [corrected] second language, the lexical properties of the first language can influence the processing of the second language, or vice versa. Phonological priming was significant for both target languages with 50 msec. duration of the priming presentation. [corrected] PMID:20681324

  3. Obesity Induces Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Impairs Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) Post-translational Processing*

    PubMed Central

    Çakir, Isin; Cyr, Nicole E.; Perello, Mario; Litvinov, Bogdan Patedakis; Romero, Amparo; Stuart, Ronald C.; Nillni, Eduardo A.

    2013-01-01

    It was shown previously that abnormal prohormone processing or inactive proconverting enzymes that are responsible for this processing cause profound obesity. Our laboratory demonstrated earlier that in the diet-induced obesity (DIO) state, the appetite-suppressing neuropeptide ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) is reduced, yet the mRNA of its precursor protein proopiomelanocortin (POMC) remained unaltered. It was also shown that the DIO condition promotes the development of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and leptin resistance. In the current study, using an in vivo model combined with in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that obesity-induced ER stress obstructs the post-translational processing of POMC by decreasing proconverting enzyme 2, which catalyzes the conversion of adrenocorticotropin to ?-MSH, thereby decreasing ?-MSH peptide production. This novel mechanism of ER stress affecting POMC processing in DIO highlights the importance of ER stress in regulating central energy balance in obesity. PMID:23640886

  4. Impaired configural body processing in anorexia nervosa: evidence from the body inversion effect.

    PubMed

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Fornasari, Livia; Canalaz, Francesca; Perini, Laura; Cremaschi, Silvana; Faleschini, Laura; Thyrion, Erica Zappoli; Zuliani, Martina; Balestrieri, Matteo; Fabbro, Franco; Brambilla, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) suffer from severe disturbances of body perception. It is unclear, however, whether such disturbances are linked to specific alterations in the processing of body configurations with respect to the local processing of body part details. Here, we compared a consecutive sample of 12 AN patients with a group of 12 age-, gender- and education-matched controls using an inversion effect paradigm requiring the visual discrimination of upright and inverted pictures of whole bodies, faces and objects. The AN patients presented selective deficits in the discrimination of upright body stimuli, which requires configural processing. Conversely, patients and controls showed comparable abilities in the discrimination of inverted bodies, which involves only detail-based processing, and in the discrimination of both upright and inverted faces and objects. Importantly, the body inversion effect negatively correlated with the persistence scores at the Temperament and Character Inventory, which evaluates increased tendency to convert a signal of punishment into a signal of reinforcement. These results suggest that the deficits of configural processing in AN patients may be associated with their obsessive worries about body appearance and to the excessive attention to details that characterizes their general perceptual style. PMID:24206365

  5. Beyond Words: Phonological Short-Term Memory and Syntactic Impairment in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of nonword repetition in children goes back at least to 1974, when the Goldman-Fristoe-Woodcock Auditory Skills Battery was published, including a subtest (Sound Mimicry) assessing nonword repetition (Goldman, Fristoe, & Woodcock, 1974). Nevertheless, it was not until 20 years later, when Gathercole and Baddeley (1990) reported a…

  6. Assessing phonological skills in Hispanic/Latino children.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, B A

    2001-01-01

    Phonological assessment of Hispanic/Latino children (many of whom are bilingual) is often difficult because of the limited information on appropriate assessment techniques. Without information on appropriate assessment strategies for these children, there may be a delay in their receiving diagnostic (and intervention) services and an inappropriate characterization of phonological skills in both typically developing children and children with phonological disorders. In order to assess the phonological skills of Hispanic/Latino children appropriately, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) must make modifications to the standard assessment protocol. To that end, SLPs must determine language of assessment, choose assessment tools, complete phonological analyses, and consider dialect in their assessment. The purpose of this article is to delineate the procedures for completing a thorough phonological assessment for Hispanic/Latino children. PMID:11302455

  7. The roles of semantic and phonological information in word production: evidence from Spanish-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Kennison, Shelia M; Fernandez, Elaine C; Bowers, J Michael

    2014-04-01

    The research investigated the roles of semantic and phonological processing in word production. Spanish-English bilingual individuals produced English target words when cued with definitions that were also written in English. When the correct word was not produced, a secondary task was performed in which participants rated the ease of pronunciation of a Spanish prime word. We varied the relatedness between target and prime words. In related conditions, the target and prime words were cognates (i.e., similar in meaning and sound), false cognates (i.e., similar in sound, but different in meaning), or noncognates (i.e., similar in meaning, but different in sound). In unrelated conditions, target and primes were dissimilar in sound and meaning. The results showed that participants' performance was influenced by semantic as well as phonological information. These results provided evidence that semantic as well as phonological information can influence word production, as is predicted by memory models in which representations for semantic and phonological levels of representation are interconnected. PMID:23479316

  8. Reading acquisition reorganizes the phonological awareness network only in alphabetic writing systems.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R

    2013-12-01

    It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8-12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. PMID:22815229

  9. Acoustics and sociolinguistics: Patterns of communication in hearing impairing classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKellin, William; Shahin, Kimary; Jamieson, Janet; Hodgson, Murray; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen

    2005-04-01

    In elementary school classes, noise during student led activities is often taken as evidence of successful interaction and learning. In this complex social environment of elementary school classrooms, acquisition of complex language and social skills-the focus of activities in early education-is expected to take place in hearing-hostile environments. Communication and language processing in these contexts requires interactive strategies, discourse forms, and syntactic structures different from the educationally desired forms used in acoustically advantageous environments. Recordings were made of the interaction of groups of students in grades 1-3, 5, and 7 during collaborative group work in their regular classrooms. Each student wore microphones at the ear level and head-mounted video cameras. Each group as a whole was also audio- and videotaped and noise level readings were recorded. Analysis of the acoustical and phonological properties of language heard by each student has demonstrated that the language variety used in these noisy and reverberant settings is similar to that of individuals with hearing impairments. This paper reports similarities between the syntactic structures and pragmatic strategies used by hearing impaired children and normally hearing children in noisy contexts. [Work supported by Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, University of British Columbia.

  10. Does Testing Impair Relational Processing? Failed Attempts to Replicate the Negative Testing Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawson, Katherine A.; Wissman, Kathryn T.; Vaughn, Kalif E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on testing effects (i.e., practice tests are more effective than restudy for enhancing subsequent memory) has focused on explaining when and why testing enhances memory. Of particular interest for present purposes, Zaromb and Roediger (2010) reported evidence that testing effects in part reflect enhanced relational processing,…

  11. Defective Number Module or Impaired Access? Numerical Magnitude Processing in First Graders with Mathematical Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Gilmore, Camilla K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined numerical magnitude processing in first graders with severe and mild forms of mathematical difficulties, children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) and children with low achievement (LA) in mathematics, respectively. In total, 20 children with MLD, 21 children with LA, and 41 regular achievers completed a numerical…

  12. Impairment in local and global processing and set-shifting in body dysmorphic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kerwin, Lauren; Hovav, Sarit; Helleman, Gerhard; Feusner, Jamie D.

    2014-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by distressing and often debilitating preoccupations with misperceived defects in appearance. Research suggests that aberrant visual processing may contribute to these misperceptions. This study used two tasks to probe global and local visual processing as well as set shifting in individuals with BDD. Eighteen unmedicated individuals with BDD and 17 non-clinical controls completed two global-local tasks. The embedded figures task requires participants to determine which of three complex figures contained a simpler figure embedded within it. The Navon task utilizes incongruent stimuli comprised of a large letter (global level) made up of smaller letters (local level). The outcome measures were response time and accuracy rate. On the embedded figures task, BDD individuals were slower and less accurate than controls. On the Navon task, BDD individuals processed both global and local stimuli slower and less accurately than controls, and there was a further decrement in performance when shifting attention between the different levels of stimuli. Worse insight correlated with poorer performance on both tasks. Taken together, these results suggest abnormal global and local processing for non-appearance related stimuli among BDD individuals, in addition to evidence of poor set-shifting abilities. Moreover, these abnormalities appear to relate to the important clinical variable of poor insight. Further research is needed to explore these abnormalities and elucidate their possible role in the development and/or persistence of BDD symptoms. PMID:24972487

  13. Altered Evoked Gamma-Band Responses Reveal Impaired Early Visual Processing in ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Daniel; Krauel, Kerstin; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Schadow, Jeanette; Hinrichs, Hermann; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2010-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies yield contrary results whether attentional problems of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to early visual processing deficits or not. Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs), being among the first cortical responses occurring as early as 90 ms after visual stimulation in human EEG, have…

  14. Graphophonological Processes in Dyslexic Readers of French: A Longitudinal Study of the Explicitness Effect of Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigle, Daniel; Berthiaume, Rachel; Plisson, Anne; Demont, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Given the well-acknowledged phonological deficit found in dyslexic children, this study was aimed at investigating graphophonological processes in dyslexic readers of French over a 1-year period. Among the different types of phonological processing can be distinguished those related to phonological awareness based on knowledge of the oral language…

  15. Emotional face processing in post-traumatic stress disorder after reconsolidation impairment using propranolol: A pilot fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Mahabir, Megan; Tucholka, Alan; Shin, Lisa M; Etienne, Pierre; Brunet, Alain

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit exaggerated emotional reactions to threatening stimuli, which may represent deregulated fear-conditioning, associated with long-term adaptations in the sympathetic nervous system. Within a repeated measures design, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed to investigate neural responses to threat in PTSD participants (N=7), during the presentation of emotional facial expressions. Scans were separated by 6 weekly reconsolidation impairment treatment sessions, consisting of traumatic memory reactivation under the influence of propranolol. Greater activation before versus after treatment emerged in the thalamus and amygdala during fearful versus neutral face processing. Furthermore, participants showed greater activation after versus before treatment in the right anterior cingulate, during fearful relative to happy face processing. PTSD symptoms significantly improved (d=1.75), post-treatment. These preliminary results suggest that aberrant emotional responding is modulated by noradrenergic plasticity within the amygdala-prefrontal cortex circuit, a neural substrate for the pharmacological treatment of PTSD. PMID:26551661

  16. Is the comprehension of idiomatic sentences indeed impaired in paranoid Schizophrenia? A window into semantic processing deficits

    PubMed Central

    Pesciarelli, Francesca; Gamberoni, Tania; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Lo Russo, Leo; Pedrazzi, Francesca; Melati, Ermanno; Cacciari, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have been reported to be more impaired in comprehending non-literal than literal language since early studies on proverbs. Preference for literal rather than figurative interpretations continues to be documented. The main aim of this study was to establish whether patients are indeed able to use combinatorial semantic processing to comprehend literal sentences and both combinatorial analysis, and retrieval of pre-stored meanings to comprehend idiomatic sentences. The study employed a sentence continuation task in which subjects were asked to decide whether a target word was a sensible continuation of a previous sentence fragment to investigate idiomatic and literal sentence comprehension in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Patients and healthy controls were faster in accepting sensible continuations than in rejecting non-sensible ones in both literal and idiomatic sentences. Patients were as accurate as controls in comprehending literal and idiomatic sentences, but they were overall slower than controls in all conditions. Once the contribution of cognitive covariates was partialled out, the response times (RTs) to sensible idiomatic continuations of patients did not significantly differ from those of controls. This suggests that the state of residual schizophrenia did not contribute to slower processing of sensible idioms above and beyond the cognitive deficits that are typically associated with schizophrenia. PMID:25346676

  17. The effect of spatio-temporal distance between visual stimuli on information processing in children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Dispaldro, Marco; Corradi, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) have a deficit in processing a sequence of two visual stimuli (S1 and S2) presented at different inter-stimulus intervals and in different spatial locations. In particular, the core of this study is to investigate whether S1 identification is disrupted due to a retroactive interference of S2. To this aim, two experiments were planned in which children with SLI and children with typical development (TD), matched by age and non-verbal IQ, were compared (Experiment 1: SLI n=19; TD n=19; Experiment 2: SLI n=16; TD n=16). Results show group differences in the ability to identify a single stimulus surrounded by flankers (Baseline level). Moreover, children with SLI show a stronger negative interference of S2, both for temporal and spatial modulation. These results are discussed in the light of an attentional processing limitation in children with SLI. PMID:26277740

  18. The effects of context processing on social cognition impairments in adults with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baez, Sandra; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition-the basis of all communicative and otherwise interpersonal relationships-is embedded in specific contextual circumstances which shape intrinsic meanings. This domain is compromised in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Asperger's syndrome (AS) (DSM-V). However, the few available reports of social cognition skills in adults with AS have largely neglected the effects of contextual factors. Moreover, previous studies on this population have also failed to simultaneously (a) assess multiple social cognition domains, (b) examine executive functions, (c) follow strict sample selection criteria, and (d) acknowledge the cognitive heterogeneity typical of the disorder. The study presently reviewed (Baez et al., 2012), addressed all these aspects in order to establish the basis of social cognition deficits in adult AS patients. Specifically, we assessed the performance of AS adults in multiple social cognition tasks with different context-processing requirements. The results suggest that social cognition deficits in AS imply a reduced ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual cues needed to access social meaning. Nevertheless, the patients' performance was normal when explicit social information was presented or when the situation could be navigated with abstract rules. Here, we review the results of our study and other relevant data, and discuss their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AS and other neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, frontotemporal dementia). Finally, we analyze previous results in the light of a current neurocognitive model of social-context processing. PMID:25232301

  19. Neonatal Restriction of Tactile Inputs Leads to Long-Lasting Impairments of Cross-Modal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Röder, Brigitte; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L.

    2015-01-01

    Optimal behavior relies on the combination of inputs from multiple senses through complex interactions within neocortical networks. The ontogeny of this multisensory interplay is still unknown. Here, we identify critical factors that control the development of visual-tactile processing by combining in vivo electrophysiology with anatomical/functional assessment of cortico-cortical communication and behavioral investigation of pigmented rats. We demonstrate that the transient reduction of unimodal (tactile) inputs during a short period of neonatal development prior to the first cross-modal experience affects feed-forward subcortico-cortical interactions by attenuating the cross-modal enhancement of evoked responses in the adult primary somatosensory cortex. Moreover, the neonatal manipulation alters cortico-cortical interactions by decreasing the cross-modal synchrony and directionality in line with the sparsification of direct projections between primary somatosensory and visual cortices. At the behavioral level, these functional and structural deficits resulted in lower cross-modal matching abilities. Thus, neonatal unimodal experience during defined developmental stages is necessary for setting up the neuronal networks of multisensory processing. PMID:26600123

  20. The effects of context processing on social cognition impairments in adults with Asperger's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baez, Sandra; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition—the basis of all communicative and otherwise interpersonal relationships—is embedded in specific contextual circumstances which shape intrinsic meanings. This domain is compromised in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Asperger's syndrome (AS) (DSM-V). However, the few available reports of social cognition skills in adults with AS have largely neglected the effects of contextual factors. Moreover, previous studies on this population have also failed to simultaneously (a) assess multiple social cognition domains, (b) examine executive functions, (c) follow strict sample selection criteria, and (d) acknowledge the cognitive heterogeneity typical of the disorder. The study presently reviewed (Baez et al., 2012), addressed all these aspects in order to establish the basis of social cognition deficits in adult AS patients. Specifically, we assessed the performance of AS adults in multiple social cognition tasks with different context-processing requirements. The results suggest that social cognition deficits in AS imply a reduced ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual cues needed to access social meaning. Nevertheless, the patients' performance was normal when explicit social information was presented or when the situation could be navigated with abstract rules. Here, we review the results of our study and other relevant data, and discuss their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AS and other neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, frontotemporal dementia). Finally, we analyze previous results in the light of a current neurocognitive model of social-context processing. PMID:25232301

  1. Use of Adaptive Digital Signal Processing to Improve Speech Communication for Normally Hearing aand Hearing-Impaired Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Richard W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A two-microphone adaptive digital noise cancellation technique improved word-recognition ability for 20 normal and 12 hearing-impaired adults by reducing multitalker speech babble and speech spectrum noise 18-22 dB. Word recognition improvements averaged 37-50 percent for normal and 27-40 percent for hearing-impaired subjects. Improvement was best…

  2. The Effectiveness of Sensory Integration Activities on Language Processing in Preschoolers Who Are Sensory and Language Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Moira A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Nine children participated in one of three groups: children diagnosed as both sensory and language impaired, children diagnosed as language impaired, and normally developing children matched for language level. Sensory integration activities prior to language intervention resulted in significant changes on the Battelle Developmental Inventory for…

  3. Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule

    PubMed Central

    Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X?XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal. PMID:24959158

  4. Phonological awareness in young second language learners.

    PubMed

    Bruck, M; Genesee, F

    1995-06-01

    English-speaking children (N = 91) who were attending French schools (bilingual group) were given a battery of phonological awareness tests in kindergarten and in grade I. At the time of kindergarten testing the mean age of the children was 5:9. Their performance was compared to age-matched English-speaking children (N = 72) attending English schools (monolingual group). The bilingual children showed heightened levels of phonological awareness skills in kindergarten in the area of onset-rime awareness. By grade I, the pattern of group differences was more complex. The monolingual and bilingual children performed similarly on onset-rime segmentation tasks. The monolingual children had higher phoneme awareness scores than their French-schooled peers; this result is interpreted to reflect the role of literacy instruction on phoneme awareness development. In comparison, the bilingual children had higher syllable segmentation scores than their monolingual peers. This result is interperted to reflect the role of second language input on phonological awareness. PMID:8550725

  5. Failing to get the gist of what's being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, John E.; Ljung, Robert; Nöstl, Anatole; Threadgold, Emma; Campbell, Tom A.

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a “gap” between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg et al., 2008). Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore…) was associated with a “critical” lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep). Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26052289

  6. Failing to get the gist of what's being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Marsh, John E; Ljung, Robert; Nöstl, Anatole; Threadgold, Emma; Campbell, Tom A

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a "gap" between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg et al., 2008). Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore…) was associated with a "critical" lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep). Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26052289

  7. Beyond Capacity Limitations II: Effects of Lexical Processes on Word Recall in Verbal Working Memory Tasks in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the impact of lexical processes on target word recall in sentence span tasks in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Participants were 42 children (ages 8;2-12;3 [years;months]): 21 with SLI and 21 typically developing peers matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children completed a…

  8. Out of body, out of space: Impaired reference frame processing in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Serino, Silvia; Dakanalis, Antonios; Gaudio, Santino; Carrà, Giuseppe; Cipresso, Pietro; Clerici, Massimo; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-12-15

    A distorted body representation is a core symptom in eating disorders (EDs), though its mechanism is unclear. Allocentric lock theory, emphasising the role of reference frame processing in body image, suggests that ED patients may be (b)locked to an (allocentric) representation of their own body stored in long-term memory (e.g., my body is fat) that is not updated (modified) by the (real-time egocentric) perception-driven experience of the physical body. Employing a well-validated virtual reality-based procedure, relative to healthy controls, ED patients showed deficits in the ability to refer to and update a long-term stored (allocentric) representation with (egocentric) perceptual-driven inputs. PMID:26541204

  9. Contrast reversal of the eyes impairs infants' face processing: a near-infrared spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hiroko; Otsuka, Yumiko; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2013-11-01

    Human can easily detect other's eyes and gaze from early in life. Such sensitivity is supported by the contrast polarity of human eyes, which have a white sclera contrasting with the darker colored iris (Kobayashi & Kohshima, (1997). Nature, 387, 767-768; Kobayashi & Kohshima, (2001). Journal of Human Evolution, 40, 419-435). Recent studies suggest that the contrast polarity around the eyes plays an important role in infants' face processing. Newborns preferred upright face images to inverted ones in contrast-preserved faces, but not in contrast-reversed faces (Farroni et al., (2005). Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, p. 17245-17250). Seven- to 8-month-old infants failed to discriminate between faces when the contrast polarity of eyes was reversed (Otsuka et al., (2013). Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 115, 598-606). Neuroimaging study with adults revealed that full-negative faces induced less activation in the right fusiform gyrus than either full-positive faces or negative faces with contrast-preserved eyes (Gilad et al., (2009). Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, p. 5353-5358). In the present study, we investigated whether contrast-reversed eyes diminish infants' brain activity related to face processing. We measured hemodynamic responses in the bilateral temporal area of 5- to 6-month-old infants. Their hemodynamic responses to faces with positive eyes and those with negative eyes were compared against the baseline activation during the presentation of object images. We found that the presentation of faces with positive eyes increased the concentration of oxy-Hb in the right temporal area and those of total-Hb in the bilateral temporal areas. No such change occurred for faces with negative eyes. Our results suggest the importance of contrast polarity of the eyes in the face-selective neural responses from early development. PMID:24012650

  10. Neuroscience illuminating the influence of auditory or phonological intervention on language-related deficits

    PubMed Central

    Ylinen, Sari; Kujala, Teija

    2015-01-01

    Remediation programs for language-related learning deficits are urgently needed to enable equal opportunities in education. To meet this need, different training and intervention programs have been developed. Here we review, from an educational perspective, studies that have explored the neural basis of behavioral changes induced by auditory or phonological training in dyslexia, specific language impairment (SLI), and language-learning impairment (LLI). Training has been shown to induce plastic changes in deficient neural networks. In dyslexia, these include, most consistently, increased or normalized activation of previously hypoactive inferior frontal and occipito-temporal areas. In SLI and LLI, studies have shown the strengthening of previously weak auditory brain responses as a result of training. The combination of behavioral and brain measures of remedial gains has potential to increase the understanding of the causes of language-related deficits, which may help to target remedial interventions more accurately to the core problem. PMID:25741305

  11. Impaired hepatic handling and processing of lysophosphatidylcholine in rats with liver cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Angelico, M.; Alvaro, D.; Cantafora, A.; Masella, R.; Gaudio, E.; Gandin, C.; Ginanni Corradini, S.; Ariosto, F.; Riggio, O.; Capocaccia, L. )

    1991-07-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine is a major metabolic product in the plasma and cellular turnover of phospholipids, with well-known membrane-toxic and proinflammatory properties. Because the liver plays a key role in plasma lysophosphatidylcholine removal and biotransformation and because virtually nothing is known of these processes in a diseased organ, the hepatobiliary metabolism of lysophosphatidylcholine was investigated in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver cirrhosis. Twelve adult male Wistar rats with histologically confirmed cirrhosis and 8 control animals were fitted with jugular and biliary catheters and allowed to recover. The animals were kept under constant IV infusion of taurocholate (1 mumol/min). Two microcuries of sn-1{sup 14}Cpalmitoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine was administered as a single bolus. The fate of the injected radioactivity, including removal from plasma, uptake, and subcellular location in the liver and molecular and aggregative forms, was studied by combined chromatographic and radiochemical methods. Major findings were (a) that lysophosphatidylcholine has a prolonged permanence in plasma of cirrhotic rats, due both to decreased hepatic clearance and to depressed conversion into phosphatidylcholine; (b) that the rate of lysophosphatidylcholine acylation is much slower in the cirrhotic than in the normal liver, both at the microsomal and at the cytosolic level; (c) that cytosolic lysophosphatidylcholine in the cirrhotic liver, but not in the normal liver, is predominantly non-protein bound; (d) that the strict molecular selectivity of lysophosphatidylcholine acylation observed in controls is partially lost in cirrhosis; and (e) that a consistent fraction of lysophosphatidylcholine is converted into triacylglycerols in cirrhotics but not in controls.

  12. Impaired leaf litter processing in acidified streams : learning from microbial enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Clivot, Hugues; Danger, Michael; Pagnout, Christophe; Wagner, Philippe; Rousselle, Philippe; Poupin, Pascal; Guérold, François

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic acidification in headwater streams is known to affect microbial assemblages involved in leaf litter breakdown. Far less is known about its potential effects on microbial enzyme activities. To assess the effects of acidification on microbial activities associated with decaying leaves, a 70-day litter bag experiment was conducted in headwater streams at six sites across an acidification gradient. The results revealed that microbial leaf decomposition was strongly and negatively correlated with total Al concentrations (r?=?-0.99, p?processing by interfering with the P cycle. These effects may in turn have repercussions on higher trophic levels and whole ecosystem functioning. PMID:22903164

  13. mir-30d Regulates multiple genes in the autophagy pathway and impairs autophagy process in human cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaojun; Department of General Surgery, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu 710000 ; Zhong, Xiaomin; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200011 ; Tanyi, Janos L.; Shen, Jianfeng; Xu, Congjian; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Tim M.; DeMichele, Angela; Zhang, Lin

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ? Gene set enrichment analysis indicated mir-30d might regulate the autophagy pathway. ? mir-30d represses the expression of BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5 and ATG2. ? BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5 and ATG2 are direct targets of mir-30d. ? mir-30d inhibits autophagosome formation and LC3B-I conversion to LC3B-II. ? mir-30d regulates the autophagy process. -- Abstract: In human epithelial cancers, the microRNA (miRNA) mir-30d is amplified with high frequency and serves as a critical oncomir by regulating metastasis, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Autophagy, a degradation pathway for long-lived protein and organelles, regulates the survival and death of many cell types. Increasing evidence suggests that autophagy plays an important function in epithelial tumor initiation and progression. Using a combined bioinformatics approach, gene set enrichment analysis, and miRNA target prediction, we found that mir-30d might regulate multiple genes in the autophagy pathway including BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5, and ATG2. Our further functional experiments demonstrated that the expression of these core proteins in the autophagy pathway was directly suppressed by mir-30d in cancer cells. Finally, we showed that mir-30d regulated the autophagy process by inhibiting autophagosome formation and LC3B-I conversion to LC3B-II. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the oncomir mir-30d impairs the autophagy process by targeting multiple genes in the autophagy pathway. This result will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of mir-30d in tumorigenesis and developing novel cancer therapy strategy.

  14. Alternate Reading Strategies and Variable Asymmetry of the Planum Temporale in Adult Resilient Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Leonard, Christiana M.; Chiarello, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Resilient readers are characterized by impaired phonological processing despite skilled text comprehension. We investigated orthographic and semantic processing in resilient readers to examine mechanisms of compensation for poor phonological decoding. Performance on phonological (phoneme deletion, pseudoword reading), orthographic (orthographic…

  15. Phonological and Surface Subtypes among University Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological

  16. Teaching Phonological Awareness to All Children through Storybook Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihai, Alina; Friesen, Amber; Butera, Gretchen; Horn, Eva; Lieber, Joan; Palmer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors focus on one important early literacy skill--phonological awareness--and describe how to support its development for all children by intentionally embedding it in storybook reading. Supporting the development of young children's phonological awareness is an important part of helping a child learn to read. Preschool…

  17. Phonological Awareness and Reading Proficiency in Adults with Profound Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlonger, Brett; Holmes, Virginia M.; Rickards, Field W.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the phonological knowledge and reading skill of deaf adults using three experimental conditions that tested sensitivity to syllables, rhyme, and phonemes. Analysis of response latencies and accuracy in the three awareness tasks demonstrated that skilled deaf readers had superior phonological awareness skill…

  18. Phonology, phonetics and the nondominant hand Wendy Sandler

    E-print Network

    Wintner, Shuly

    Phonology, phonetics and the nondominant hand Wendy Sandler Many studies have shown, the behavior of the nondominant hand in the phonology and the prosody of sign language is analyzed. This articulator, anatomically identical to another articulator in the system (the dominant hand), has no parallel

  19. Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Michael Ian

    2009-01-01

    Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

  20. Evidence-Based Practice: A Matrix for Predicting Phonological Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.; Hulse, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a matrix for clinical use in the selection of phonological treatment targets to induce generalization, and in the identification of probe sounds to monitor during the course of intervention. The matrix appeals to a set of factors that have been shown to promote phonological generalization in the research literature, including…

  1. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  2. Integration of Phonological Information in Obstruent Consonant Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbert, Noah H.

    2009-01-01

    Speech perception requires the integration of information from multiple phonetic and phonological dimensions. Numerous studies have investigated the mapping between multiple acoustic-phonetic dimensions and single phonological dimensions (e.g., spectral and temporal properties of stop consonants in voicing contrasts). Many fewer studies have…

  3. Phonological Mediation in Visual Masked Priming: Evidence from Phonotactic Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Pierre A.; Dominguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; Segui, Juan

    2008-01-01

    In a series of 4 experiments, the authors show that phonological repair mechanisms, known to operate in the auditory modality, are directly translated in the visual modality. This holds with the provision that printed stimuli are presented for a very brief duration and that the effect of phonological repair is tested after a delay of some 100 ms…

  4. Phonological Meanings in Literary Prose Texts and Their Translations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventola, Eija

    This article discusses phonological meanings and their realization in fiction texts and the problematics of their translations. The various views linguists appear to have about what phonological meanings are and how they are expressed linguistically are examined. Furthermore two linguistically oriented approaches on translation theory, Nida's and…

  5. Dynamic Assessment in Phonological Disorders: The Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaspey, Amy M.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic assessment is applied to phonological disorders with the Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability (SSS). The SSS comprises a 21-point hierarchical scale of cues and linguistic environments. With the SSS, clinicians assess stimulability as a diagnostic indicator and use the measure to monitor progress across treatment. Unlike other phonological

  6. Interaction between Phonological and Semantic Representations: Time Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling and eye-tracking were used to investigate how phonological and semantic information interact to influence the time course of spoken word recognition. We extended our recent models (Chen & Mirman, 2012; Mirman, Britt, & Chen, 2013) to account for new evidence that competition among phonological neighbors influences…

  7. Disfluency Patterns and Phonological Skills Near Stuttering Onset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are…

  8. Semantic and Phonological Activation in First and Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2012-01-01

    No consensus has been reached on whether phonological information is activated in reading Chinese. Further, semantic activation has not been well-studied in the context of orthographic depth. To contribute to these issues, this dissertation investigated semantic and phonological activation in reading Chinese and English. This dissertation also…

  9. The Acquisition of Phonological Awareness and Its Relationship to Reading in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Kim Kyoung; Kemp, Coral

    2006-01-01

    A review of research into the acquisition of phonological awareness skills in individuals with intellectual disabilities, the relationship between phonological awareness and reading in these individuals and the effect of phonological awareness training on the development of their phonological skills is presented. Research indicates that children…

  10. Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Phonological Awareness Training plus Letter Knowledge Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness, print awareness, and early reading abilities. Phonological awareness, the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, is a precursor to reading. Phonological awareness…

  11. Motor Control and Nonword Repetition in Specific Working Memory Impairment and SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Munson, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Debate around the underlying cognitive factors leading to poor performance in the repetition of nonwords by children with developmental impairments in language has centered around phonological short-term memory, lexical knowledge, and other factors. This study examines the impact of motor control demands on nonword repetition in groups of…

  12. Effect of Onset and Rhyme Primes in Preschoolers with Typical Development and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Shelley; Reiser, Mark; Brinkley, Shara

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors used cued shadowing to examine children's phonological word-form representations by studying the effects of onset and rhyme primes on lexical access. Method: Twenty-five preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI; hereafter known as the SLI group), 24 age- and gender-matched children (AM group), and 20…

  13. Individual Literacy Activities with Hearing-Impaired Children in the Preschool Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasu, H. Pelin

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize sight words, phonological awareness, syntax, semantics, and pragmatic skills begins to develop during the preschool period, and is important for formal reading education. The purpose of this study was to define individualized studies that support the development of literacy skills among hearing-impaired preschool children.…

  14. Impaired Balance in Developmental Dyslexia? A Meta-Analysis of the Contending Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochelle, Kim S. H.; Talcott, Joel B.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Developmental dyslexia is typically defined by deficits in phonological skills, but it is also associated with anomalous performance on measures of balance. Although balance assessments are included in several screening batteries for dyslexia, the association between impairments in literacy and deficits in postural stability could be…

  15. The Role of Sensorimotor Impairments in Dyslexia: A Multiple Case Study of Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah; Milne, Elizabeth; Rosen, Stuart; Hansen, Peter; Swettenham, John; Frith, Uta; Ramus, Franck

    2006-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the role of sensorimotor impairments in the reading disability that characterizes dyslexia. Twenty-three children with dyslexia were compared to 22 control children, matched for age and non-verbal intelligence, on tasks assessing literacy as well as phonological, visual, auditory and motor abilities. The dyslexic…

  16. Response to Early Intervention of Children with Specific and General Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Snowling, Margaret J.; Duff, Fiona; Hulme, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports a secondary analysis of data from a published randomised controlled trial. This paper compares the outcomes of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and those with a general delay (GD) following participation in either an oral language intervention or a phonology with reading intervention. Sixty-eight children…

  17. Accurately Predicting Future Reading Difficulty for Bilingual Latino Children at Risk for Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Douglas B.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    Sixty-three bilingual Latino children who were at risk for language impairment were administered reading-related measures in English and Spanish (letter identification, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and sentence repetition) and descriptive measures including English language proficiency (ELP), language ability (LA),…

  18. Preschool language profiles of children at family risk of dyslexia: continuities with specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Hannah M.; Hulme, Charles; Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Children at family risk of dyslexia have been reported to show phonological deficits as well as broader language delays in the preschool years. Method The preschool language skills of 112 children at family risk of dyslexia (FR) at ages 3½ and 4½ were compared with those of children with SLI and typically developing (TD) controls. Results Children at FR showed two different profiles: one third of the group resembled the children with SLI and scored poorly across multiple domains of language including phonology. As a group, the remaining children had difficulties on tasks tapping phonological skills at T1 and T2. At the individual level, we confirmed that some FR children had both phonological and broader oral language difficulties (compared with TD controls), some had only phonological difficulties and some appeared to be developing typically. Conclusions We have highlighted the early overlap between family risk of dyslexia and SLI. A family history of dyslexia carries an increased risk for SLI and the two disorders both show an increased incidence of phonological deficits which appear to a proximal risk factor for developing a reading impairment. PMID:23772651

  19. Setting the Tone: An ERP Investigation of the Influences of Phonological Similarity on Spoken Word Recognition in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malins, Jeffrey G.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influences of phonological similarity on the time course of spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese. Event related potentials were recorded while adult native speakers of Mandarin ("N" = 19) judged whether auditory words matched or mismatched visually presented pictures. Mismatching words were of the following nature:…

  20. Proceedings of the EMNLP 2014 Workshop on Arabic Natural Langauge Processing (ANLP), pages 93103, October 25, 2014, Doha, Qatar. c 2014 Association for Computational Linguistics

    E-print Network

    - cial media, are quite different from Modern Standard Arabic phonologically, morphologi- cally Standard Arabic (MSA) phonologically, morphologically and lex- ically, and most importantly, they lackProceedings of the EMNLP 2014 Workshop on Arabic Natural Langauge Processing (ANLP), pages 93

  1. Impaired non-speech auditory processing at a pre-reading age is a risk-factor for dyslexia but not a predictor: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Plakas, Anna; van Zuijen, Titia; van Leeuwen, Theo; Thomson, Jennifer M; van der Leij, Aryan

    2013-04-01

    Impaired auditory sensitivity to amplitude rise time (ART) has been suggested to be a primary deficit in developmental dyslexia. The present study investigates whether impaired ART-sensitivity at a pre-reading age precedes and predicts later emerging reading problems in a sample of Dutch children. An oddball paradigm, with a deviant that differed from the standard stimulus in ART, was administered to 41-month-old children (30 genetically at-risk for developmental dyslexia and 14 controls) with concurrent EEG measurement. A second deviant that differed from the standard stimulus in frequency served as a control deviant. Grade two reading scores were used to divide the at-risks in a typical-reading and a dyslexic subgroup. We found that both ART- and frequency processing were related to later reading skill. We however also found that irrespective of reading level, the at-risks in general showed impaired basic auditory processing when compared to controls and that it was impossible to discriminate between the at-risk groups on basis of both auditory measures. A relatively higher quality of early expressive syntactic skills in the typical-reading at-risk group might indicate a protective factor against negative effects of impaired auditory processing on reading development. Based on these results we argue that ART- and frequency-processing measures, although they are related to reading skill, lack the power to be considered single-cause predictors of developmental dyslexia. More likely, they are genetically driven risk factors that may add to cumulative effects on processes that are critical for learning to read. PMID:22542727

  2. Phonetic and phonological imitation of intonation in two varieties of Italian

    PubMed Central

    D’Imperio, Mariapaola; Cavone, Rossana; Petrone, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether both phonetic and phonological representations of intonation can be rapidly modified when imitating utterances belonging to a different regional variety of the same language. Our main hypothesis was that tonal alignment, just as other phonetic features of speech, would be rapidly modified by Italian speakers when imitating pitch accents of a different (Southern) variety of Italian. In particular, we tested whether Bari Italian (BI) speakers would produce later peaks for their native rising L + H* (question pitch accent) in the process of imitating Neapolitan Italian (NI) rising L* + H accents. Also, we tested whether BI speakers are able to modify other phonetic properties (pitch level) as well as phonological characteristics (changes in tonal composition) of the same contour. In a follow-up study, we tested if the reverse was also true, i.e., whether NI speakers would produce earlier peaks within the L* + H accent in the process of imitating the L + H* of BI questions, despite the presence of a contrast between two rising accents in this variety. Our results show that phonetic detail of tonal alignment can be successfully modified by both BI and NI speakers when imitating a model speaker of the other variety. The hypothesis of a selective imitation process preventing alignment modifications in NI was hence not supported. Moreover the effect was significantly stronger for low frequency words. Participants were also able to imitate other phonetic cues, in that they modified global utterance pitch level. Concerning phonological convergence, speakers modified the tonal specification of the edge tones in order to resemble that of the other variety by either suppressing or increasing the presence of a final H%. Hence, our data show that intonation imitation leads to fast modification of both phonetic and phonological intonation representations including detail of tonal alignment and pitch scaling. PMID:25408676

  3. Auditory-motor entrainment and phonological skills: precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH)

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Phonological skills are enhanced by music training, but the mechanisms enabling this cross-domain enhancement remain unknown. To explain this cross-domain transfer, we propose a precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH) whereby entrainment practice is the core mechanism underlying enhanced phonological abilities in musicians. Both rhythmic synchronization and language skills such as consonant discrimination, detection of word and phrase boundaries, and conversational turn-taking rely on the perception of extremely fine-grained timing details in sound. Auditory-motor timing is an acoustic feature which meets all five of the pre-conditions necessary for cross-domain enhancement to occur (Patel, 2011, 2012, 2014). There is overlap between the neural networks that process timing in the context of both music and language. Entrainment to music demands more precise timing sensitivity than does language processing. Moreover, auditory-motor timing integration captures the emotion of the trainee, is repeatedly practiced, and demands focused attention. The PATH predicts that musical training emphasizing entrainment will be particularly effective in enhancing phonological skills. PMID:25505879

  4. Auditory-motor entrainment and phonological skills: precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH).

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Phonological skills are enhanced by music training, but the mechanisms enabling this cross-domain enhancement remain unknown. To explain this cross-domain transfer, we propose a precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH) whereby entrainment practice is the core mechanism underlying enhanced phonological abilities in musicians. Both rhythmic synchronization and language skills such as consonant discrimination, detection of word and phrase boundaries, and conversational turn-taking rely on the perception of extremely fine-grained timing details in sound. Auditory-motor timing is an acoustic feature which meets all five of the pre-conditions necessary for cross-domain enhancement to occur (Patel, 2011, 2012, 2014). There is overlap between the neural networks that process timing in the context of both music and language. Entrainment to music demands more precise timing sensitivity than does language processing. Moreover, auditory-motor timing integration captures the emotion of the trainee, is repeatedly practiced, and demands focused attention. The PATH predicts that musical training emphasizing entrainment will be particularly effective in enhancing phonological skills. PMID:25505879

  5. 2 Working memory impairment as an endophenotypic marker of a 3 schizophrenia diathesis

    E-print Network

    Park, Sohee

    processes by providing an interface between percep- 40 tion, long-term memory and action (Baddeley, 2003.g. phonological 44 loop, visuospatial sketchpad) that feed into a multimodal episodic stor- 45 age buffer

  6. Taste - impaired

    MedlinePLUS

    ... longer. Causes of impaired taste include: Bell's palsy Common cold Flu and other viral infections Nasal infection, nasal ... your diet. For taste problems due to the common cold or flu, normal taste should return when the ...

  7. The gradual emergence of phonological form in a new language

    PubMed Central

    Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The division of linguistic structure into a meaningless (phonological) level and a meaningful level of morphemes and words is considered a basic design feature of human language. Although established sign languages, like spoken languages, have been shown to be characterized by this bifurcation, no information has been available about the way in which such structure arises. We report here on a newly emerging sign language, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, which functions as a full language but in which a phonological level of structure has not yet emerged. Early indications of formal regularities provide clues to the way in which phonological structure may develop over time. PMID:22223927

  8. Contribution of Temporal Preparation and Processing Speed to Simple Reaction Time in Persons with Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvain-Roy, Stephanie; Bherer, Louis; Belleville, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Temporal preparation was assessed in 15 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 20 persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 28 healthy older adults. Participants completed a simple reaction time task in which the preparatory interval duration varied randomly within two blocks (short versus long temporal window). Results indicated that AD and…

  9. ERPs Reveal Atypical Processing of Subject versus Object "Wh"-Questions in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Baila; Hestvik, Arild; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular difficulty comprehending and producing object ("Who did the bear follow?") relative to subject ("Who followed the tiger?") "wh"-questions. Aims: To determine if school-age children with SLI, relative to children with typical development (TD),…

  10. CASE STUDY DEMONSTRATING THE STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION PROCESS THAT IDENTIFIES CAUSES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT IN THE NATION'S WATER BODIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stressor identification program developed guidance for identifying the causes of biological impairments in the nation's waters:

    U.S. EPA. 2000. Stressor identification guidance document. EPA/822/B-00/025. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The ...

  11. Learning to read as the formation of a dynamic system: evidence for dynamic stability in phonological recoding

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Two aspects of dynamic systems approaches that are pertinent to developmental models of reading are the emergence of a system with self-organizing characteristics, and its evolution over time to a stable state that is not easily modified or perturbed. The effects of dynamic stability may be seen in the differences obtained in the processing of print by beginner readers taught by different approaches to reading (phonics and text-centered), and more long-term effects on adults, consistent with these differences. However, there is little direct evidence collected over time for the same participants. In this study, lexicalized (implicit) phonological processing, and explicit phonological and letter-sound skills are further examined in a precocious reader whose early development at 3 and 5 years has been extensively described (Cognition, 2000, 2004). At ages 10 and 14 years, comparisons were made with these earlier reports and skilled adult readers, using the same tasks for evidence of changes in reading processes. The results showed that along with an increase of reading accuracy and speed, her pattern of lexicalized phonological responses for reading did not change over time. Neither did her pattern of explicit phonological and letter-sound skills, aspects of which were inferior to her lexicalized phonological processing, and word reading. These results suggest dynamic stability of the word reading system. The early emergence of this system with minimal explicit skill development calls into question developmental reading theories that require such skills for learning to read. Currently, only the Knowledge Sources theory of reading acquisition can account for such findings. Consideration of these aspects of dynamic systems raise theoretical issues that could result in a paradigm shift with regard to best practice and intervention. PMID:25071635

  12. Extracting phonological patterns for L2 word learning: the effect of poor phonological awareness.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-10-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning. PMID:24043509

  13. Learning a novel phonological contrast depends on interactions between individual differences and training paradigm design.

    PubMed

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Lee, Jiyeon; Ha, Louisa Y Y; Wong, Patrick C M

    2011-07-01

    Studies evaluating phonological contrast learning typically investigate either the predictiveness of specific pretraining aptitude measures or the efficacy of different instructional paradigms. However, little research considers how these factors interact--whether different students learn better from different types of instruction--and what the psychological basis for any interaction might be. The present study demonstrates that successfully learning a foreign-language phonological contrast for pitch depends on an interaction between individual differences in perceptual abilities and the design of the training paradigm. Training from stimuli with high acoustic-phonetic variability is generally thought to improve learning; however, we found high-variability training enhanced learning only for individuals with strong perceptual abilities. Learners with weaker perceptual abilities were actually impaired by high-variability training relative to a low-variability condition. A second experiment assessing variations on the high-variability training design determined that the property of this learning environment most detrimental to perceptually weak learners is the amount of trial-by-trial variability. Learners' perceptual limitations can thus override the benefits of high-variability training where trial-by-trial variability in other irrelevant acoustic-phonetic features obfuscates access to the target feature. These results demonstrate the importance of considering individual differences in pretraining aptitudes when evaluating the efficacy of any speech training paradigm. PMID:21786912

  14. The interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure: evidence from Kera phonetics and phonology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Mary Dorothy

    This thesis uses acoustic measurements as a basis for the phonological analysis of the interaction of tone with voicing and foot structure in Kera (a Chadic language). In both tone spreading and vowel harmony, the iambic foot acts as a domain for spreading. Further evidence for the foot comes from measurements of duration, intensity and vowel quality. Kera is unusual in combining a tone system with a partially independent metrical system based on iambs. In words containing more than one foot, the foot is the tone bearing unit (TBU), but in shorter words, the TBU is the syllable. In perception and production experiments, results show that Kera speakers, unlike English and French, use the fundamental frequency as the principle cue to 'Voicing" contrast. Voice onset time (VOT) has only a minor role. Historically, tones probably developed from voicing through a process of tonogenesis, but synchronically, the feature voice is no longer contrastive and VOT is used in an enhancing role. Some linguists have claimed that Kera is a key example for their controversial theory of long-distance voicing spread. But as voice is not part of Kera phonology, this thesis gives counter-evidence to the voice spreading claim. An important finding from the experiments is that the phonological grammars are different between village women, men moving to town and town men. These differences are attributed to French contact. The interaction between Kera tone and voicing and contact with French have produced changes from a 2-way voicing contrast, through a 3-way tonal contrast, to a 2-way voicing contrast plus another contrast with short VOT. These diachronic and synchronic tone/voicing facts are analysed using laryngeal features and Optimality Theory. This thesis provides a body of new data, detailed acoustic measurements, and an analysis incorporating current theoretical issues in phonology, which make it of interest to Africanists and theoreticians alike.

  15. Modelling reading development through phonological decoding and self-teaching: implications for dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Perry, Conrad; Zorzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The most influential theory of learning to read is based on the idea that children rely on phonological decoding skills to learn novel words. According to the self-teaching hypothesis, each successful decoding encounter with an unfamiliar word provides an opportunity to acquire word-specific orthographic information that is the foundation of skilled word recognition. Therefore, phonological decoding acts as a self-teaching mechanism or ‘built-in teacher’. However, all previous connectionist models have learned the task of reading aloud through exposure to a very large corpus of spelling–sound pairs, where an ‘external’ teacher supplies the pronunciation of all words that should be learnt. Such a supervised training regimen is highly implausible. Here, we implement and test the developmentally plausible phonological decoding self-teaching hypothesis in the context of the connectionist dual process model. In a series of simulations, we provide a proof of concept that this mechanism works. The model was able to acquire word-specific orthographic representations for more than 25 000 words even though it started with only a small number of grapheme–phoneme correspondences. We then show how visual and phoneme deficits that are present at the outset of reading development can cause dyslexia in the course of reading development. PMID:24324240

  16. Phonology Project Part II: Laryngeal Neutralization and Syllable Structure

    E-print Network

    Ananian, C. Scott

    Phonology Project Part II: Laryngeal Neutralization and Syllable Structure C. Scott Ananian Andrew Ira Nevins December 2000 Contents 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Laryngeal Neutralization Is the Syllable involved in Neutralization? 12 3.1 Linear Constraints in Klamath

  17. Learning general phonological rules from distributional information: a computational model.

    PubMed

    Calamaro, Shira; Jarosz, Gaja

    2015-04-01

    Phonological rules create alternations in the phonetic realizations of related words. These rules must be learned by infants in order to identify the phonological inventory, the morphological structure, and the lexicon of a language. Recent work proposes a computational model for the learning of one kind of phonological alternation, allophony (Peperkamp, Le Calvez, Nadal, & Dupoux, 2006). This paper extends the model to account for learning of a broader set of phonological alternations and the formalization of these alternations as general rules. In Experiment 1, we apply the original model to new data in Dutch and demonstrate its limitations in learning nonallophonic rules. In Experiment 2, we extend the model to allow it to learn general rules for alternations that apply to a class of segments. In Experiment 3, the model is further extended to allow for generalization by context; we argue that this generalization must be constrained by linguistic principles. PMID:25227261

  18. How to Meet the Neighbors: Modality Effects on Phonological Generalization

    PubMed Central

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term auditory priming of words from dense neighborhoods has been posited as a learning mechanism that affects change in the phonological structure of children’s lexical representations. An apparent confound associated with the modality of priming responsible for structural change has been introduced in the literature, which challenges this proposal. Thus, our purpose was to evaluate prime modality in treatment of children with phonological delay. Nine children were assigned to auditory-visual, auditory or visual priming of words from dense neighborhoods prior to treatment of production as the independent variable. The dependent variable was phonological generalization. Results showed that auditory priming (with or without visual input) promoted greater generalization on an order of magnitude of 3:1. Findings support the theoretical significance of auditory priming for phonological learning and demonstrate the applied utility of priming in clinical treatment. PMID:25000373

  19. Does "reading" develop "phonological awareness" in Down's syndrome?

    E-print Network

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    casual relationship for alphabetic scripts. Results discussed in this paper do not support this view as far as reading ability and phonological awareness go in Down's syndrome. The present study compared a sample of children with Down's syndrome (N=10...

  20. The Limit of Structure Preservation in Dakota Lexical Phonology

    E-print Network

    Kyle, John

    1994-01-01

    Some of the earliest papers on Lexical Phonology claim that structure preservation applies throughout a Lexical derivation and may only he shut off by exiting the Lexicon. Work by Kellogg (1991) in Lakota attempts to uphold ...