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1

Phonological processing skills in specific language impairment.  

PubMed

In order to provide effective intervention for children with specific language impairment (SLI), it is crucial that there is an understanding of the underlying deficit in SLI. This study utilized a battery of phonological processing tasks to compare the phonological processing skills of children with SLI to typically-developing peers matched for age or language. The children with SLI had significantly poorer performance than age-matched peers on measures of phonological representations, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, phonological short-term memory, and one measure of working memory. Of particular significance, the SLI group also demonstrated significantly weaker performance than language-matched peers on one measure of phonological representations, and one measure of working memory. The findings provide some support for a phonological processing account of SLI and highlight the utility of using tasks that draw on a comprehensive model of speech processing to profile and consider children's phonological processing skills in detail. PMID:23327452

Claessen, Mary; Leitão, Suze; Kane, Robert; Williams, Cori

2013-10-01

2

PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT?  

E-print Network

between nonword reading deficits and phonological impairment. Following focal brain lesions, not only may routes to derive the sound of written words (see Figure 1). Following the initial processing of the visual characteristics of a word, along one route a word's sound is retrieved from the lexicon by first

3

BRAIN AND LANGUAGE 18, 128-174 (1983) The Selective Impairment of Phonological Processing  

E-print Network

BRAIN AND LANGUAGE 18, 128-174 (1983) The Selective Impairment of Phonological Processing: A Case Fort Hm.urd Veterans' Administration Medic,crl Center A case study is reported of an aphasic patient are discussed. The syndrome of "pure word-deafness" is a relatively rare language disorder that has received

Caramazza, Alfonso

4

Phonological Awareness Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children with Mild to Moderate Phonological Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized and nonstandardized assessments of phonological awareness skills were administered to two groups of 6-year-old children. Group 1 passed a language screening but exhibited mild or moderate phonological impairments on the "Assessment of Phonological Processes--Revised." Group 2 passed a language screening and exhibited no phonological

Gernand, Keri Leigh; Moran, Michael J.

2007-01-01

5

Semantic memory impairment does not impact on phonological and orthographic processing in a case of developmental hyperlexia.  

PubMed

Recent evidence from patients with progressive language disorders and dementia has been used to suggest that phonological and orthographic processing depend on intact semantic memory. These claims challenge the traditional view that there are functionally separate modules in the language system. The effect of a severe, but nonprogressive, semantic impairment on phonological and orthographic processing was evaluated in LA, a mentally retarded child with hyperlexia. Knowledge of a word's meaning did not affect LA's word repetition, a measure of phonological processing, or his acquisition and retention of orthographic patterns for writing to dictation low-frequency words with exceptional spellings. These findings support the assertion that both orthographic and phonological whole-word representations can be acquired, stored, and retrieved in the absence of a functional link to semantic memory. PMID:9027372

Glosser, G; Grugan, P; Friedman, R B

1997-02-01

6

Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia.  

PubMed

Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161

Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E; Hogan, Tiffany P

2014-01-01

7

Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161

Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M.; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

2014-01-01

8

Verbal Memory and Phonological Processing in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether two frequently reported causes of dyslexia, phonological processing problems and verbal memory impairments, represent a double-deficit or whether they are two expressions of the same deficit. Two-hundred-and-sixty-seven Dutch children aged 10-14 with dyslexia completed a list-learning task and several phonological

Tijms, Jurgen

2004-01-01

9

Phonological and visual processing deficits can dissociate  

E-print Network

disorder. Many data showing a strong link between phonological processing ability and learning to read manuscript, published in "Reading and Writing 16 (2003) 541-572" #12;2 To appear in Reading and Writing hal with developmental reading and writing impairments whose performance was compared to that of chronological age

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Development of Phonological Processing Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment with and without Literacy Delay: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To compare the development of phonological skills in children with specific language impairment (SLI) with and without literacy delay and to examine whether kindergarten phonological skills could discriminate these 2 groups. Method: In a longitudinal study, 8 children with SLI and literacy delay, 10 children with SLI and normal literacy,…

Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

2012-01-01

11

Phonological and Articulation Therapy in Portuguese Children with Language Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

words) This study evaluates the effectiveness of two interventions (articulatory and phonological) for treatment of developmental phonological disorders in 14 pre-school Portuguese children with Language Impairment (LI) over 25 sessions. Results explored phonological ability pre- and post-intervention at single word and spontaneous speech level. The percentage consonant correct (PCC), the level of intelligibility of speech and percentage occurrence of several

Marisa Lousada; Luis M. T. Jesus; Victoria Joffe; Sylvie Capelas; Cláudia Margaça; David Simões

12

Impaired Letter-String Processing in Developmental Dyslexia: What Visual-to-Phonology Code Mapping Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In…

Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

2012-01-01

13

Phonological processing in Parkinson's disease: a neuropsychological assessment.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have cognitive deficits that cause functional impairments across several domains, including language. There is experimental evidence that basal ganglia and frontostriatal circuits are implicated in phonological processing, which leads to the hypothesis that a dysfunction of these circuits could be expressed behaviorally as phonological deficiencies in patients with PD. Using neuropsychological assessments, the present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities of patients in the initial stages of PD while controlling for other cognitive processes. The results showed lower scores in patients with PD on phonological tests with respect to a control group and these differences were independent of processes such as attention/working memory, long-term memory, thinking, and verbal language comprehension. However, there was an association between phonological skills and reading comprehension abilities. This finding implies a specific phonological deficit in terms of word reading. PMID:23963326

Elorriaga-Santiago, Sergio; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Carrasco-Vargas, Humberto

2013-10-23

14

Exploring dyslexics' phonological deficit I: lexical vs sub-lexical and input vs output processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a series of experiments designed to explore the locus of the phonological deficit in dyslexia. Phonological processing of dyslexic adults is compared to that of age- and IQ-matched controls. Dyslexics' impaired performance on tasks involving nonwords suggests that sub-lexical phonological representations are deficient. Contrasting nonword repetition vs auditory nonword discrimination suggests that dyslexics are specifically impaired in input

Gayaneh Szenkovits; Franck Ramus

2005-01-01

15

Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing  

PubMed Central

We compared three phonological processing components (phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and phonological memory), verbal working memory, and attention control in terms of how well they predict the various aspects of reading: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8–12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley’s model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081

Kibby, Michelle Y.; Lee, Sylvia E.; Dyer, Sarah M.

2014-01-01

16

Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing.  

PubMed

WE COMPARED THREE PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING COMPONENTS (PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS, RAPID AUTOMATIZED NAMING AND PHONOLOGICAL MEMORY), VERBAL WORKING MEMORY, AND ATTENTION CONTROL IN TERMS OF HOW WELL THEY PREDICT THE VARIOUS ASPECTS OF READING: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8-12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley's model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081

Kibby, Michelle Y; Lee, Sylvia E; Dyer, Sarah M

2014-01-01

17

Is the Phonological Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia Related to Impaired Phonological Representations and to Universal Phonological Grammar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia is still debated. We concur with possible impairments in the representations of the universal phonological constraints that universally govern how phonemes co-occur as a source of this deficit. We were interested in whether-and how-dyslexic children have sensitivity to…

Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; Taki, Yasuyuki; Yokoyama, Satoru; Magnan, Annie; Takahashi, Kei; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ecalle, Jean; Kawashima, Ryuta

2013-01-01

18

Different Origin of Auditory and Phonological Processing Problems in Children With Language Impairment: Evidence From a Twin Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the heritability of auditory processing impairment, as assessed by Tallal's Auditory Repetition Test (ART). The sample consisted of 37 same-sex twin pairs who had previously been selected because one or both twins met criteria for language impairment (LI) and 104 same-sex twin pairs in the same age range (7 to 13 years) from the general population. These

D. V. M. Bishop; Sonia J. Bishop; Peter Bright; Cheryl James; Tom Delaney; Paula Tallal

19

Development of Phonological Representations and Phonological Awareness in Children with Speech Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with speech impairment are more likely to have difficulty learning to read compared with children with typical speech development. Researchers have hypothesized that a difficulty in accessing good-quality phonological representations of words stored in the memory may constrain these children's performance on phonological

Sutherland, Dean; Gillon, Gail T.

2007-01-01

20

The consequences of progressive phonological impairment for reading aloud.  

PubMed

The 'primary systems' view of reading disorders proposes that there are no neural regions devoted exclusively to reading, and therefore that acquired dyslexias should reliably co-occur with deficits in more general underlying capacities. This perspective predicted that surface dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading aloud 'exception' words (those with atypical spelling-sound characteristics), should be a consistent feature of semantic dementia, a progressive disorder of conceptual knowledge, and just such a pattern has been observed in previous research. In a similar vein, one might expect the gradual deterioration of phonological processing seen in the nonfluent forms of progressive aphasia to be accompanied by phonological dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading of unfamiliar letter strings, i.e., nonwords. The present study, reporting a case-series consideration of reading-aloud data from 16 progressive nonfluent aphasic patients, revealed a pattern in which both low-frequency exception word and nonword reading were comparably compromised. The severity of the reading disorder was predicted by scores on the expressive language task of picture naming but not the receptive task of spoken word-to-picture matching. Our hypothesis that a phonological deficit underpins diminished performance for both naming and reading was supported by the finding that reading-aloud performance was predicted specifically by the rate of phonological errors in picture naming. Moreover, the strength of this relationship was similar for low-frequency exception words and nonwords, suggesting that reading deficits for these two types of items in this disorder shared a common cause: a progressive impairment of phonological processing. PMID:23000132

Woollams, Anna M; Patterson, Karalyn

2012-12-01

21

Phonological but not auditory discrimination is impaired in dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficient phonological skills are considered to be a core problem in developmental dyslexia. Children with dyslexia often demonstrate poorer performance than non-impaired readers when categorizing speech-sounds. Using the automatic mismatch response, we show that in contrast to this deficit at the behavioural level, neurophysiological responding in dyslexic children indicates their ability to automatically discriminate syllables. Therefore, the phonological deficit is

Isabella Paul; Christof Bott; Sabine Heim; Christian Wienbruch; Thomas R. Elbert

2006-01-01

22

Morphological processing with deficient phonological short-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the processing of Hebrew derivational morphology in an individual (S.E.) with deficient phonological short-term memory. In comparison to 10 age- and education-matched men, S.E. was impaired on digit span tasks and demonstrated no recency effect in word list recall. S.E. had low word retention span, but he exhibited phonological similarity and word length effects. His ability to

Gitit Kavé; Hagit Bar Zeev; Anita Lev

2007-01-01

23

Phonological processing among good and poor readers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many researchers believe that a connection exists between phonological processing skills and reading ability, and phonological deficits have often been cited as possible explanation for reading disability among both children and adults. This study will present research findings on phonological processing of various speech sounds among school-aged children who were classified as good and poor readers by standardized tests. These subjects will be administered speech discrimination tests using a variety of speech stimuli. Results of their performance on these tasks will be presented and a relationship between their reading and phonological processing abilities will be discussed.

Wayland, Ratree

2001-05-01

24

Global Rules and Phonological Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is asserted that the treatment of intonation within the framework of generative grammar has not shown whether surface syntactic structure is sufficient for formulation of phonological rules. An attempt is made to demonstrate that within English phonology reference to deep structure is necessary. (Available from: See FL 508 214). (RM)

Gussmann, Edmund

1973-01-01

25

Reading impairments in schizophrenia relate to individual differences in phonological processing and oculomotor control: evidence from a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm.  

PubMed

Language and oculomotor disturbances are 2 of the best replicated findings in schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined skilled reading in schizophrenia (e.g., Arnott, Sali, Copland, 2011; Hayes & O'Grady, 2003; Revheim et al., 2006; E. O. Roberts et al., 2012), and none have examined the contribution of cognitive and motor processes that underlie reading performance. Thus, to evaluate the relationship of linguistic processes and oculomotor control to skilled reading in schizophrenia, 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 demographically matched controls were tested using a moving window paradigm (McConkie & Rayner, 1975). Linguistic skills supporting reading (phonological awareness) were assessed with the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (R. K. Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999). Eye movements were assessed during reading tasks and during nonlinguistic tasks tapping basic oculomotor control (prosaccades, smooth pursuit) and executive functions (predictive saccades, antisaccades). Compared with controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited robust oculomotor markers of reading difficulty (e.g., reduced forward saccade amplitude) and were less affected by reductions in window size, indicative of reduced perceptual span. Reduced perceptual span in schizophrenia was associated with deficits in phonological processing and reduced saccade amplitudes. Executive functioning (antisaccade errors) was not related to perceptual span but was related to reading comprehension. These findings suggest that deficits in language, oculomotor control, and cognitive control contribute to skilled reading deficits in schizophrenia. Given that both language and oculomotor dysfunction precede illness onset, reading may provide a sensitive window onto cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia vulnerability and be an important target for cognitive remediation. PMID:22506755

Whitford, Veronica; O'Driscoll, Gillian A; Pack, Christopher C; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok; Titone, Debra

2013-02-01

26

Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…

Lee, Su-Yeon

2011-01-01

27

Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model  

PubMed Central

An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At least three different models have been proposed: the severity model, the additional deficit model and the component model. We address this issue by comparing children with specific language impairment only, those with dyslexia-only, those with specific language impairment and dyslexia and those with no impairment, using a broad test battery of language skills. We find that specific language impairment and dyslexia do not always co-occur, and that some children with specific language impairment do not have a phonological deficit. Using factor analysis, we find that language abilities across the four groups of children have at least three independent sources of variance: one for non-phonological language skills and two for distinct sets of phonological abilities (which we term phonological skills versus phonological representations). Furthermore, children with specific language impairment and dyslexia show partly distinct profiles of phonological deficit along these two dimensions. We conclude that a multiple-component model of language abilities best explains the relationship between specific language impairment and dyslexia and the different profiles of impairment that are observed. PMID:23413264

Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart

2013-01-01

28

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes  

MedlinePLUS

... of words, such as "nana" for "banana." The child may have an articulation disorder if these errors continue past the expected age. ... processes see Phonological Processes . How are speech sound ... and may use a formal articulation test to record sound errors. An oral mechanism ...

29

Phonological Processing and Reading in Children with Speech Sound Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergarten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological

Rvachew, Susan

2007-01-01

30

Semantic and phonological processing in illiteracy.  

PubMed

Researchers of cognitive processing in illiteracy have proposed that the acquisition of literacy modifies the functional organization of the brain. They have suggested that, while illiterate individuals have access only to innate semantic processing skills, those who have learned the correspondence between graphemes and phonemes have several mechanisms available to them through which to process oral language. We conducted 2 experiments to verify that suggestion with respect to language processing, and to elucidate further the differences between literate and illiterate individuals in the cognitive strategies used to process oral language, as well as hemispheric specialization for these processes. Our findings suggest that semantic processing strategies are qualitatively the same in literates and illiterates, despite the fact that overall performance is augmented by increased education. In contrast, explicit processing of oral information based on phonological characteristics appears to be qualitatively different between literates and illiterates: effective strategies in the processing of phonological information depend upon having had a formal education, regardless of the level of education. We also confirmed the differential abilities needed for the processing of semantic and phonological information and related them to hemisphere-specific processing. PMID:15637772

Kosmidis, Mary H; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Folia, Vasiliki; Vlahou, Christina H; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris

2004-10-01

31

Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Representation in Dyslexic Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is now well-established that there is a causal connection between children's phonological skills and their acquisition of reading and spelling. Here we study low-level auditory processes that may underpin the development of phonological representations in children. Dyslexic and control children were given a battery of phonological tasks,…

Richardson, Ulla; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Scott, Sophie K.; Goswami, Usha

2004-01-01

32

Working Memory Compensates for Hearing Related Phonological Processing Deficit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acquired hearing impairment is associated with gradually declining phonological representations. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model, poorly defined representations lead to mismatch in phonologically challenging tasks. To resolve the mismatch, reliance on working memory capacity (WMC) increases. This study investigated…

Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Ronnberg, Jerker

2013-01-01

33

Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background & Aims: The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity among…

Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

2013-01-01

34

Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children with Language and Reading Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…

Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne

2012-01-01

35

Auditory Processing, Speech Perception and Phonological Ability in Pre-School Children at High-Risk for Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study of the Auditory Temporal Processing Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether the core bottleneck of literacy-impairment should be situated at the phonological level or at a more basic sensory level, as postulated by supporters of the auditory temporal processing theory. Phonological ability, speech perception and low-level auditory processing were assessed in a group of 5-year-old pre-school…

Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquiere, Pol

2007-01-01

36

Phonological Processing and Reading in Children With Speech Sound Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergar- ten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological processing skills (SSD-high PP), and 35 children with

Susan Rvachew

2007-01-01

37

Phonological processing in first-degree relatives of individuals with autism: An fMRI study  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Twin studies have provided heritability estimates as high as 90% for idiopathic ASD. Further evidence for the spectrum’s heritability is provided by the presence of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) in unaffected first-degree relatives. Language ability, specifically phonological processing, is proposed to be a core BAP trait. To date, however, no functional neuroimaging investigations of phonological processing in relatives of individuals with ASD have been undertaken. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in parents of children with ASD utilizing a priming task probing implicit phonological processing. In our condition that placed heavier demands on phonological recoding, parents exhibited greater hemodynamic responses than controls in a network of cortical regions involved in phonological processing. Across conditions, parents exhibited enhanced priming-induced response suppression suggesting compensatory neural processing. A nonword repetition test used in previous studies of relatives was also administered. Correlations between this measure and our functional measures also suggested compensatory processing in parents. Regions exhibiting atypical responses in parents included regions previously implicated in the spectrum’s language impairments and found to exhibit structural abnormalities in a parent study. These results suggest a possible neurobiological substrate of the phonological deficits proposed to be a core BAP trait. However, these results should be considered preliminary. No previous fMRI study has investigated phonological processing in ASD, so replication is required. Furthermore, interpretation of our fMRI results is limited by the fact that the parent group failed to exhibit behavioral evidence of phonological impairments. PMID:22419478

Wilson, Lisa B.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E.; Hepburn, Susan; Rojas, Donald C.

2014-01-01

38

Phonological processing in first-degree relatives of individuals with autism: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Twin studies have provided heritability estimates as high as 90% for idiopathic ASD. Further evidence for the spectrum's heritability is provided by the presence of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) in unaffected first-degree relatives. Language ability, specifically phonological processing, is proposed to be a core BAP trait. To date, however, no functional neuroimaging investigations of phonological processing in relatives of individuals with ASD have been undertaken. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in parents of children with ASD utilizing a priming task probing implicit phonological processing. In our condition that placed heavier demands on phonological recoding, parents exhibited greater hemodynamic responses than controls in a network of cortical regions involved in phonological processing. Across conditions, parents exhibited enhanced priming-induced response suppression suggesting compensatory neural processing. A nonword repetition test used in previous studies of relatives was also administered. Correlations between this measure and our functional measures also suggested compensatory processing in parents. Regions exhibiting atypical responses in parents included regions previously implicated in the spectrum's language impairments and found to exhibit structural abnormalities in a parent study. These results suggest a possible neurobiological substrate of the phonological deficits proposed to be a core BAP trait. However, these results should be considered preliminary. No previous fMRI study has investigated phonological processing in ASD, so replication is required. Furthermore, interpretation of our fMRI results is limited by the fact that the parent group failed to exhibit behavioral evidence of phonological impairments. PMID:22419478

Wilson, Lisa B; Tregellas, Jason R; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E; Hepburn, Susan; Rojas, Donald C

2013-06-01

39

Do children with dyslexia and\\/or specific language impairment compensate for place assimilation? Insight into phonological grammar and representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

English speakers have to recognize, for example, that te[m] in te[m] pens is a form of ten, despite place assimilation of the nasal consonant. Children with dyslexia and specific language impairment (SLI) are commonly proposed to have a phonological deficit, and we investigate whether that deficit extends to place assimilation, as a way of probing phonological representations and phonological grammar.

Chloe R. Marshall; Franck Ramus; Heather van der Lely

2010-01-01

40

Do children with dyslexia and\\/or specific language impairment compensate for place assimilation? Insight into phonological grammar and representations  

Microsoft Academic Search

English speakers have to recognize, for example, that te[m] in te[m] pens is a form of ten, despite place assimilation of the nasal consonant. Children with dyslexia and specific language impairment (SLI) are commonly proposed to have a phonological deficit, and we investigate whether that deficit extends to place assimilation, as a way of probing phonological representations and phonological grammar.

Chloe R. Marshall; Franck Ramus; Heather van der Lely

2011-01-01

41

Specific Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia Revealed by Eyetracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a…

Desroches, Amy S.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Robertson, Erin K.

2006-01-01

42

Revisiting the Phonological Deficit in Dyslexia: Are Implicit Nonorthographic Representations Impaired?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether developmental dyslexia involves an impairment in implicit phonological representations, as distinct from orthographic representations and metaphonological skills. A group of adults with dyslexia was matched with a group with no history of speech/language/literacy impairment. Tasks varied in the demands made on…

Dickie, Catherine; Ota, Mitsuhiko; Clark, Ann

2013-01-01

43

Phonological Deficits in Specific Language Impairment and Developmental Dyslexia: Towards a Multidimensional Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At…

Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

2013-01-01

44

Phonological Processing and Arithmetic Fact Retrieval: Evidence from Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact…

De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart

2010-01-01

45

Role of Visual Speech in Phonological Processing by Children With  

E-print Network

of articulation (e.g., /da/ or /8a/). Signif- icantly fewer children than adults experience this illusionRole of Visual Speech in Phonological Processing by Children With Hearing Loss Purpose: This research assessed the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by children with hearing loss

O'Toole, Alice J.

46

Independence of Input and Output Phonology in Word Processing and Short-Term Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, theorists have suggested a close relation between the codes activated during language processing and those involved in STM. In order to further investigate this relationship, we examined the performance of an anomic patient, MS, to determine whether he would exhibit the same impairment in retrieving phonology from semantics in short-term memory that he shows in picture naming. The results

Randi C. Martin; Mary F. Lesch; Michael C. Bartha

1999-01-01

47

Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2012-01-01

48

A Treatment Sequence for Phonological Alexia/Agraphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Damage to left perisylvian cortex often results in impaired phonological processing abilities with written language profiles consistent with phonological alexia and phonological agraphia. The purpose of this article was to examine a behavioral treatment sequence for such individuals intended to strengthen phonological processing and links…

Beeson, Pelagie M.; Rising, Kindle; Kim, Esther S.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

2010-01-01

49

Differential effects of orthographic and phonological consistency in cortex for children with and without reading impairment  

PubMed Central

One of the central challenges in mastering English is becoming sensitive to consistency from spelling to sound (i.e. phonological consistency) and from sound to spelling (i.e. orthographic consistency). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of consistency in 9-15-year-old Normal and Impaired Readers during a rhyming task in the visual modality. In line with our previous study, for Normal Readers, lower phonological and orthographic consistency were associated with greater activation in several regions including bilateral inferior/middle frontal gyri, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex as well as left fusiform gyrus. Impaired Readers activated only bilateral anterior cingulate cortex in response to decreasing consistency. Group comparisons revealed that, relative to Impaired Readers, Normal Readers exhibited a larger response in this network for lower phonological consistency whereas orthographic consistency differences were limited. Lastly, brain-behavior correlations revealed a significant relationship between skill (i.e. Phonological Awareness and non-word decoding) and cortical consistency effects for Impaired Readers in left inferior/middle frontal gyri and left fusiform gyrus. Impaired Readers with higher skill showed greater activation for higher consistency. This relationship was reliably different from that of Normal Readers in which higher skill was associated with greater activation for lower consistency. According to single-route or connectionist models, these results suggest that Impaired Readers with higher skill devote neural resources to representing the mapping between orthography and phonology for higher consistency words, and therefore do not robustly activate this network for lower consistency words. PMID:18725239

Bolger, Donald J.; Minas, Jennifer; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

2009-01-01

50

Children's Recognition of Their Own Recorded Voice: Influence of Age and Phonological Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with phonological impairment (PI) often have difficulties perceiving insufficiencies in their own speech. The use of recordings has been suggested as a way of directing the child's attention toward his/her own speech, despite a lack of evidence that children actually recognize their recorded voice as their own. We present two studies of…

Strombergsson, Sofia

2013-01-01

51

Past-Tense Morphology and Phonological Deficits in Children with Dyslexia and Children with Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated past-tense morphology problems in children with dyslexia compared to those classically observed in children with oral language impairment (LI). Children were tested on a past-tense elicitation task involving regulars ("look-looked"), irregulars ("take-took"), and nonwords ("murn-murned"). Phonological skills were also…

Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Desroches, Amy S.; Terry, Alexandra

2013-01-01

52

Phonology and Children with Specific Language Impairment: Status of Structural Constraints in Two Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies compared phonological characteristics of American and Italian preschool-age children with specific language impairments (SLI) with younger controls matched for mean length of utterance and consonant inventory size. In Italian and English, children with SLI had more difficulty in the use of non-final weak syllables. (Contains…

Bortolini, Umberta; Leonard, Laurence B.

2000-01-01

53

Differential Effects of Orthographic and Phonological Consistency in Cortex for Children with and without Reading Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the central challenges in mastering English is becoming sensitive to consistency from spelling to sound (i.e. phonological consistency) and from sound to spelling (i.e. orthographic consistency). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of consistency in 9-15-year-old Normal and Impaired Readers…

Bolger, Donald J.; Minas, Jennifer; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

2008-01-01

54

SHORT-TERM MEMORY, PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING AND READING ABILITY*  

E-print Network

SHORT-TERM MEMORY, PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING AND READING ABILITY* Susan Bradyt Abstract. Verbal short-term, 1973; Vellutino, Pruzek, Steger, & Meshoulam, 1973). The repeated finding that short-term memory in verbal short-term memory. We have sup

55

Electrophysiological Evidence for Impaired Attentional Engagement with Phonologically Acceptable Misspellings in Developmental Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Event-related potential (ERP) studies of word recognition have provided fundamental insights into the time-course and stages of visual and auditory word form processing in reading. Here, we used ERPs to track the time-course of phonological processing in dyslexic adults and matched controls. Participants engaged in semantic judgments of visually presented high-cloze probability sentences ending either with (a) their best completion word, (b) a homophone of the best completion, (c) a pseudohomophone of the best completion, or (d) an unrelated word, to examine the interplay of phonological and orthographic processing in reading and the stage(s) of processing affected in developmental dyslexia. Early ERP peaks (N1, P2, N2) were modulated in amplitude similarly in the two groups of participants. However, dyslexic readers failed to show the P3a modulation seen in control participants for unexpected homophones and pseudohomophones (i.e., sentence completions that are acceptable phonologically but are misspelt). Furthermore, P3a amplitudes significantly correlated with reaction times in each experimental condition. Our results showed no sign of a deficit in accessing phonological representations during reading, since sentence primes yielded phonological priming effects that did not differ between participant groups in the early phases of processing. On the other hand, we report new evidence for a deficient attentional engagement with orthographically unexpected but phonologically expected words in dyslexia, irrespective of task focus on orthography or phonology. In our view, this result is consistent with deficiency in reading occurring from the point at which attention is oriented to phonological analysis, which may underlie broader difficulties in sublexical decoding. PMID:21734903

Savill, Nicola J.; Thierry, Guillaume

2011-01-01

56

Reading Impairments in Schizophrenia Relate to Individual Differences in Phonological Processing and Oculomotor Control: Evidence from a Gaze-Contingent Moving Window Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language and oculomotor disturbances are 2 of the best replicated findings in schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined skilled reading in schizophrenia (e.g., Arnott, Sali, Copland, 2011; Hayes & O'Grady, 2003; Revheim et al., 2006; E. O. Roberts et al., 2012), and none have examined the contribution of cognitive and motor processes that…

Whitford, Veronica; O'Driscoll, Gillian A.; Pack, Christopher C.; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok; Titone, Debra

2013-01-01

57

Dyslexia: a deficit in visuo-spatial attention, not in phonological processing.  

PubMed

Developmental dyslexia affects up to 10 per cent of the population and it is important to understand its causes. It is widely assumed that phonological deficits, that is, deficits in how words are sounded out, cause the reading difficulties in dyslexia. However, there is emerging evidence that phonological problems and the reading impairment both arise from poor visual (i.e., orthographic) coding. We argue that attentional mechanisms controlled by the dorsal visual stream help in serial scanning of letters and any deficits in this process will cause a cascade of effects, including impairments in visual processing of graphemes, their translation into phonemes and the development of phonemic awareness. This view of dyslexia localizes the core deficit within the visual system and paves the way for new strategies for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20080053

Vidyasagar, Trichur R; Pammer, Kristen

2010-02-01

58

Early and Sustained Supramarginal Gyrus Contributions to Phonological Processing  

PubMed Central

Reading is a difficult task that, at a minimum, requires recognizing a visual stimulus and linking it with its corresponding sound and meaning. Neurologically, this involves an anatomically distributed set of brain regions cooperating to solve the problem. It has been hypothesized that the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) contributes preferentially to phonological aspects of word processing and thus plays an important role in visual word recognition. Here, we used chronometric transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the functional specificity and timing of SMG involvement in reading visually presented words. Participants performed tasks designed to focus on either the phonological, semantic, or visual aspects of written words while double pulses of TMS (delivered 40?ms apart) were used to temporarily interfere with neural information processing in the left SMG at five different time windows. Stimulation at 80/120, 120/160, and 160/200?ms post-stimulus onset significantly slowed subjects’ reaction times in the phonological task. This inhibitory effect was specific to the phonological condition, with no effect of TMS in the semantic or visual tasks, consistent with claims that SMG contributes preferentially to phonological aspects of word processing. The fact that the effect began within 80–120?ms of the onset of the stimulus and continued for approximately 100?ms, indicates that phonological processing initiates early and is sustained over time. These findings are consistent with accounts of visual word recognition that posit parallel activation of orthographic, phonological, and semantic information that interact over time to settle into a distributed, but stable, representation of a word. PMID:22654779

Sliwinska, Magdalena W.; Khadilkar, Manali; Campbell-Ratcliffe, Jonathon; Quevenco, Frances; Devlin, Joseph T.

2012-01-01

59

The interface between morphology and phonology: exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production.  

PubMed

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment-these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-05-01

60

The interface between morphology and phonology: Exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production  

PubMed Central

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment—these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

61

Response Inhibition and its Relationship to Phonological Processing in Children with and without Dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates response inhibition and its relationship to phonological processing in third?graders with and without dyslexia. Children with dyslexia (n = 20) and children without dyslexia (n = 16) were administered a stop signal task and a digit span forwards task. Initial analyses revealed phonological processing deficits in terms of a phonological short?term deficit in children with dyslexia but

Johanna M. Schmid; Andju S. Labuhn; Marcus Hasselhorn

2011-01-01

62

Phonological Processing in Adults with Deficits in Musical Pitch Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We identified individuals with deficits in musical pitch recognition by screening a large random population using the Distorted Tunes Test (DTT), and enrolled individuals who had DTT scores in the lowest 10th percentile, classified as tune deaf. We examined phonological processing abilities in 35 tune deaf and 34 normal control individuals. Eight…

Jones, Jennifer L.; Lucker, Jay; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis

2009-01-01

63

Neural Correlates of Sublexical Processing in Phonological Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural responses to these manipulations under conditions of covert rehearsal (Experiment 1). A

Carolyn McGettigan; Jane E. Warren; Frank Eisner; Chloe R. Marshall; Pradheep Shanmugalingam; Sophie K. Scott

2010-01-01

64

Phonological Processes in Kannada-Speaking Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some…

Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R.; Velleman, Shelley L.

2010-01-01

65

Neural Correlates of Sublexical Processing in Phonological Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural responses to these manipulations under conditions of covert rehearsal (Experiment 1). A

Carolyn McGettigan; Jane E. Warren; Frank Eisner; Chloe R. Marshall; Pradheep Shanmugalingam; Sophie K. Scott

2011-01-01

66

Impaired Phonological and Orthographic Word Representations among Adult Dyslexic Readers: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the processing of phonological and orthographic word representations among 17 dyslexic and 16 normal college-level readers using Event-Related Potential measures. They focused on 2 early components--the P200 and the P300. The results revealed P200 and P300 components of lower amplitude and later latency among dyslexic readers…

Meyler, Ann; Breznitz, Zvia

2005-01-01

67

Evidence for a Preserved Sensitivity to Orthographic Redundancy and an Impaired Access to Phonological Syllables in French Developmental Dyslexics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To evaluate the orthographic and phonological processing skills of developmental dyslexics, we (a) examined their abilities to exploit properties of orthographic redundancy and (b) tested whether their phonological deficit extends to spelling-to-sound connections for large-grain size units such as syllables. To assess the processing skills in…

Doignon-Camus, Nadège; Seigneuric, Alix; Perrier, Emeline; Sisti, Aurélie; Zagar, Daniel

2013-01-01

68

Phonological processing and emergent literacy in Spanish-speaking preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological awareness (PA), phonological memory (PM), and phonological access to lexical storage (also known as RAN), play\\u000a important roles in acquiring literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological\\u000a processing abilities (PPAs) in 147 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children whose native language was Spanish. Confirmatory factor\\u000a analysis (CFA) supported the validity of each PPA as separate

Jason L. Anthony; Jeffrey M. Williams; Renee McDonald; Deborah Corbitt-Shindler; Coleen D. Carlson; David J. Francis

2006-01-01

69

Developmental dyslexia: exploring how much phonological and visual attention span disorders are linked to simultaneous auditory processing deficits.  

PubMed

The simultaneous auditory processing skills of 17 dyslexic children and 17 skilled readers were measured using a dichotic listening task. Results showed that the dyslexic children exhibited difficulties reporting syllabic material when presented simultaneously. As a measure of simultaneous visual processing, visual attention span skills were assessed in the dyslexic children. We presented the dyslexic children with a phonological short-term memory task and a phonemic awareness task to quantify their phonological skills. Visual attention spans correlated positively with individual scores obtained on the dichotic listening task while phonological skills did not correlate with either dichotic scores or visual attention span measures. Moreover, all the dyslexic children with a dichotic listening deficit showed a simultaneous visual processing deficit, and a substantial number of dyslexic children exhibited phonological processing deficits whether or not they exhibited low dichotic listening scores. These findings suggest that processing simultaneous auditory stimuli may be impaired in dyslexic children regardless of phonological processing difficulties and be linked to similar problems in the visual modality. PMID:22829423

Lallier, Marie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane

2013-07-01

70

Phonology and children with specific language impairment: status of structural constraints in two languages.  

PubMed

Two studies are reported in which the phonological characteristics of preschool-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) are compared with those seen in younger normally developing children matched for mean length of utterance and consonant inventory size. The productions of both English-speaking and Italian-speaking children with SLI were more likely to deviate from the adult standard than the productions of the younger control children. In Italian, the children with SLI had more difficulty than the younger controls in the use of non-final weak syllables; in English, the children with SLI were poorer than the younger controls in the use of non-final weak syllables, word-final consonants, and word-final consonant clusters. These are the same phonological details that are required for several grammatical inflections and many function words in the two languages. However, the children with SLI were also less consistent than their younger compatriots in using consonants in structurally simple words. These findings provide evidence for the view that for many preschool-age children with SLI, phonological problems go beyond those that might be predicted on the basis of the children's short utterances and limited consonant inventories. PMID:10834830

Bortolini, U; Leonard, L B

2000-01-01

71

Neural network for encoding immediate memory in phonological processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this fMRI study was to identify neuroanatomical sub- strates of immediate memory underlying phonological processing. To distinguish encoding of immediate memory from rehearsal, par- ticipants were required to match tones from the ¢rst and last posi- tions of a three-syllable list to their following probes in an immediate-recognition paradigm. The ¢rst position task included intervening distractors between

Xiaojian Li; Donald Wong; Jack Gandour; Mario Dzemidzic; Yunxia Tong; Thomas Talavage; Mark Lowe

2004-01-01

72

Neural Dynamics of Phonological Processing in the Dorsal Auditory Stream  

PubMed Central

Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80–100 ms), consistent with a direct influence of articulatory somatomotor areas on phonemic perception. Left hemispheric lateralization was observed 250 ms earlier in IPL and vCS than pSTG, suggesting that functional specialization of somatomotor (and not auditory) areas determined lateralization in the dorsal auditory pathway. The temporal dynamics of the dorsal auditory pathway described here offer a new understanding of its functional organization and demonstrate that temporal information is essential to resolve neural circuits underlying complex behaviors. PMID:24068810

Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A.; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali

2013-01-01

73

What is the deficit in phonological processing deficits: Auditory sensitivity, masking, or category formation?  

PubMed Central

Although children with language impairments, including those associated with reading, usually demonstrate deficits in phonological processing, there is minimal agreement as to the source of those deficits. This study examined two problems hypothesized to be possible sources: either poor auditory sensitivity to speech-relevant acoustic properties, mainly formant transitions, or enhanced masking of those properties. Adults and 8-year-olds with and without phonological processing deficits (PPD) participated. Children with PPD demonstrated weaker abilities than children with typical language development (TLD) in reading, sentence recall, and phonological awareness. Dependent measures were: 1) word recognition; 2) discrimination of spectral glides; and 3) phonetic judgments based on spectral and temporal cues. All tasks were conducted in quiet and in noise. Children with PPD showed neither poorer auditory sensitivity nor greater masking than adults and children with TLD, but did demonstrate an unanticipated deficit in category formation for non-speech sounds. These results suggest that these children may have an underlying deficit in perceptually organizing sensory information to form coherent categories. PMID:21109251

Nittrouer, Susan; Shune, Samantha; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

2012-01-01

74

A model of phonological processing, language, and reading for students with mild intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-age children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using structural equation modeling. Phonological processing consisted of two distinct but correlated latent abilities: phonological awareness and naming speed. Phonological awareness had strong relationships with expressive and receptive language and reading skills. Naming speed had moderate relationships with these variables. Results suggest that children with ID bring the same skills to the task of learning to read as children with typical development, highlighting the fact that phonologically based reading instruction should be considered a viable approach. PMID:24245730

Barker, R Michael; Sevcik, Rose A; Morris, Robin D; Romski, Maryann

2013-09-01

75

An Investigation into Semantic and Phonological Processing in Individuals with Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The current study examined semantic and phonological processing in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Previous research in language processing in individuals with WS suggests a complex linguistic system characterized by "deviant" semantic organization and differential phonological processing. Method: Two experiments…

Lee, Cheryl S.; Binder, Katherine S.

2014-01-01

76

Toddlers' Processing of Phonological Alternations: Early Compensation for Assimilation in English and French  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a picture pointing task, this study examines toddlers' processing of phonological alternations that trigger sound changes in connected speech. Three experiments investigate whether 2;5- to 3-year-old children take into account assimilations--processes by which phonological features of one sound spread to adjacent sounds--for the purpose of…

Skoruppa, Katrin; Mani, Nivedita; Peperkamp, Sharon

2013-01-01

77

A Model of Phonological Processing, Language, and Reading for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-age children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using…

Barker, R. Michael; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn

2013-01-01

78

Response Inhibition and Its Relationship to Phonological Processing in Children with and without Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates response inhibition and its relationship to phonological processing in third-graders with and without dyslexia. Children with dyslexia (n = 20) and children without dyslexia (n = 16) were administered a stop signal task and a digit span forwards task. Initial analyses revealed phonological processing deficits in terms of a…

Schmid, Johanna M.; Labuhn, Andju S.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

2011-01-01

79

Atypical Neural Functions Underlying Phonological Processing and Silent Rehearsal in Children Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological processing was examined in school-age children who stutter (CWS) by assessing their performance and recording event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in a visual rhyming task. CWS had lower accuracy on rhyming judgments, but the cognitive processes that mediate the comparisons of the phonological representations of words, as indexed by…

Weber-Fox, Christine; Spruill, John E.; Spencer, Rebecca; Smith, Anne

2008-01-01

80

Phonological Processes in Fricative Acquisition. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research reported here was carried out to help establish the normal course of fricative acquisition as a basis for comparisons with abnormal development. Three questions concerning phonological processes were investigated as part of a larger study of fricative acquisition: (1) the phonological processes that underlie children's fricative…

Edwards, Mary Louise

81

Processing of acoustic and phonological information of lexical tones in Mandarin Chinese revealed by mismatch negativity  

PubMed Central

The accurate perception of lexical tones in tonal languages involves the processing of both acoustic information and phonological information carried by the tonal signal. In this study we evaluated the relative role of the two types of information in native Chinese speaker’s processing of tones at a preattentive stage with event-related potentials (ERPs), particularly the mismatch negativity (MNN). Specifically, we distinguished the acoustic from the phonological information by manipulating phonological category and acoustic interval of the stimulus materials. We found a significant main effect of phonological category for the peak latency of MMN, but a main effect of both phonological category and acoustic interval for the mean amplitude of MMN. The results indicated that the two types of information, acoustic and phonological, play different roles in the processing of Chinese lexical tones: acoustic information only impacts the extent of tonal processing, while phonological information affects both the extent and the time course of tonal processing. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of neurocognitive processes of phonological processing.

Yu, Keke; Wang, Ruiming; Li, Li; Li, Ping

2014-01-01

82

Impaired learning of phonetic consistency and generalized neural adaptation deficits in dyslexia  

E-print Network

Developmental dyslexia is a neurological condition that specifically impairs the development of expert reading ability. Phonological processing deficits -- impaired representation of, or access to, the abstract units of ...

Perrachione, Tyler K. (Tyler Kent)

2012-01-01

83

Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (p<0.05) than normal-reading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

2006-02-01

84

Phonological Awareness Development as a Discrete Process: Evidence for an Integrative Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theoretical and practical implications of examining young children's acquisitions of phonological awareness skills with specific and differentiated processing tasks are explored in this study. The study presents data from 269 kindergarten children completing a phonological awareness protocol that provided information on 14 discrete…

Cassady, Jerrell C.; Smith, Lawrence L.; Putman, S. Michael

2008-01-01

85

Efficacy of temporal processing training to improve phonological awareness among dyslexic and normal reading students.  

PubMed

One of the leading theories for dyslexia suggests that it is the result of a difficulty in auditory temporal processing (ATP). This theory, as well as others, is supported by studies showing group differences and correlation between phonological awareness and ATP. However, these studies do not provide causal relationship. In the current study the authors aimed to test causal relationship between ATP and phonological awareness by comparing the performance of dyslexic and normal reader students in phonological awareness tasks before and after a short-term (5-day) training in either temporal processing (dichotic temporal order judgment; TOJ), nontemporal processing (intensity discrimination), or no training. TOJ training resulted in significant reduction of TOJ threshold and increase in phonological awareness tasks' scores. Intensity discrimination training resulted in a decrease of intensity discrimination threshold, but with no change in phonological awareness tasks. Those who had no training, had no change in TOJ and intensity discrimination thresholds, as well as in the phonological awareness tasks. These results show that (a) a short-term training in temporal processing with no other perceptual cues for adult dyslexic and normal readers can be efficient in improving their phonological awareness; and (b) phonological awareness (dis) ability has causal relationship to ATP. PMID:25089573

Fostick, Leah; Eshcoly, Reut; Shtibelman, Hila; Nehemia, Revital; Levi, Hadas

2014-10-01

86

Phonological Profile of Spanish-Catalan Children with Specific Language Impairment at Age 4: Are There Any Changes over Time?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phonology of a group of Spanish-Catalan children with specific language impairment (SLI, n = 5), who had been analysed at age 3;10, is now analysed at age 4;09 and compared with two control groups: an age-matched control (n = 5) and a language level control (measured using the mean length of utterance by words; n = 5). The children

Eva Aguilar-Mediavilla; Miquel Serra-Raventós

2006-01-01

87

Phonological Processing Skills and Early Reading Abilities in Hong Kong Chinese Kindergarteners Learning to Read English as a Second Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present 9-month longitudinal study investigated relations between Chinese native language phonological processing skills and early Chinese and English reading abilities among 227 kindergarteners in Hong Kong. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and short-term verbal memory differed in their relations to concurrent and subsequent Chinese and English word recognition. The significant bidirectional relations between phonological awareness and Chinese reading ability

Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow; Catherine McBride-Chang; Stephen Burgess

2005-01-01

88

Sentence Comprehension in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Effects of Input Rate and Phonological Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit sentence comprehension difficulties. In some instances, these difficulties appear to be related to poor linguistic knowledge and, in other instances, to inferior general processing abilities. Two processing deficiencies evidenced by these children include reduced linguistic processing

Montgomery, James W.

2004-01-01

89

What phonological deficit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a series of experiments aimed at understanding the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia. These experiments investigate input and output phonological representations, phonological grammar, foreign speech perception and production, and unconscious speech processing and lexical access. Our results converge on the observation that the phonological representations of people with dyslexia may be intact, and that the

Franck Ramus; Gayaneh Szenkovits

2008-01-01

90

Semantic, syntactic, and phonological processing of written words in adult developmental dyslexic readers: an event-related brain potential study  

PubMed Central

Background The present study used event-related brain potentials to investigate semantic, phonological and syntactic processes in adult German dyslexic and normal readers in a word reading task. Pairs of German words were presented one word at a time. Subjects had to perform a semantic judgment task (house – window; are they semantically related?), a rhyme judgment task (house – mouse; do they rhyme?) and a gender judgment task (das – Haus [the – house]; is the gender correct? [in German, house has a neutral gender: das Haus]). Results Normal readers responded faster compared to dyslexic readers in all three tasks. Onset latencies of the N400 component were delayed in dyslexic readers in the rhyme judgment and in the gender judgment task, but not in the semantic judgment task. N400 and the anterior negativity peak amplitudes did not differ between the two groups. However, the N400 persisted longer in the dyslexic group in the rhyme judgment and in the semantic judgment tasks. Conclusion These findings indicate that dyslexics are phonologically impaired (delayed N400 in the rhyme judgment task) but that they also have difficulties in other, non-phonological aspects of reading (longer response times, longer persistence of the N400). Specifically, semantic and syntactic integration seem to require more effort for dyslexic readers and take longer irrespective of the reading task that has to be performed. PMID:17640332

Russeler, Jascha; Becker, Petra; Johannes, Sonke; Munte, Thomas F

2007-01-01

91

Phonologic Processing in Adults Who Stutter: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), judgment accuracy, and reaction times (RTs) were obtained for 11 adults who stutter and 11 normally fluent speakers as they performed a rhyme judgment task of visually presented word pairs. Half of the word pairs (i.e., prime and target) were phonologically and orthographically congruent across words. That…

Weber-Fox, Christine; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Spruill, John E., III; Smith, Anne

2004-01-01

92

A meta-analysis of fMRI studies on Chinese orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing.  

PubMed

A growing body of neuroimaging evidence has shown that Chinese character processing recruits differential activation from alphabetic languages due to its unique linguistic features. As more investigations on Chinese character processing have recently become available, we applied a meta-analytic approach to summarize previous findings and examined the neural networks for orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing of Chinese characters independently. The activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method was used to analyze eight studies in the orthographic task category, eleven in the phonological and fifteen in the semantic task categories. Converging activation among three language-processing components was found in the left middle frontal gyrus, the left superior parietal lobule and the left mid-fusiform gyrus, suggesting a common sub-network underlying the character recognition process regardless of the task nature. With increasing task demands, the left inferior parietal lobule and the right superior temporal gyrus were specialized for phonological processing, while the left middle temporal gyrus was involved in semantic processing. Functional dissociation was identified in the left inferior frontal gyrus, with the posterior dorsal part for phonological processing and the anterior ventral part for semantic processing. Moreover, bilateral involvement of the ventral occipito-temporal regions was found for both phonological and semantic processing. The results provide better understanding of the neural networks underlying Chinese orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing, and consolidate the findings of additional recruitment of the left middle frontal gyrus and the right fusiform gyrus for Chinese character processing as compared with the universal language network that has been based on alphabetic languages. PMID:22759996

Wu, Chiao-Yi; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel

2012-10-15

93

The Nature of Preschool Phonological Processing Abilities and Their Relations to Vocabulary, General Cognitive Abilities, and Print Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities represents an important developmental milestone in the process of learning to read. In this cross-sectional study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of phonological processing abilities in 129 younger preschoolers (M = 40.88 months, SD = 4.65) and 304…

Lonigan, Christopher J.; Anthony, Jason L.; Phillips, Beth M.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; McQueen, Jessica D.

2009-01-01

94

The Influence of Working Memory and Phonological Processing on English Language Learner Children's Bilingual Reading and Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we explored whether the contribution of working memory (WM) to children's (N = 471) 2nd language (L2) reading and language acquisition was best accounted for by processing efficiency at a phonological level and\\/or by executive processes independent of phonological processing. Elementary school children (Grades 1, 2, & 3) whose 1st language (L1) was Spanish were administered a

H. Lee Swanson; Michael J. Orosco; Cathy M. Lussier; Michael M. Gerber; Danielle A. Guzman-Orth

2011-01-01

95

Dissociating a common working memory network from different neural substrates of phonological and spatial stimulus processing.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography was used to investigate common versus specific cortical regions for the maintenance of spatial versus phonological information in working memory (WM). Group and single-subject analyses of regional cerebral blood flow during a new 2 x 2 factorial n-back task were performed. Eight subjects had to memorize either phonological features or the location of serially presented syllables. Brain activation during phonological judgment and spatial judgment (0-back) was compared with that during two corresponding WM conditions (2-back). We observed a common network associated with the requirement of maintaining and sequencing items in WM. Seven or more subjects activated (posterior) superior frontal sulcus (pSFS, BA 6/8, global maximum) and/or adjacent gyri, posterior parietal cortex, and precuneus (BA 7). Less consistently, bilateral middle frontal gyrus (BA 9/46) was involved. Bilateral anterior (BA 39/40) and posterior (BA 7) intraparietal sulcus, as well as right pSFS, exhibited dominance for spatial WM. Although underlying stimulus processing pathways for both types of information were different, no region specific for phonological WM was found. Robust activation within the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44 and 45) was present, during both phonological WM and phonological judgment. We conclude that the controversial left prefrontal lateralization for verbal WM reflects more general phonological processing strategies, not necessarily required by tasks using letters. We propose a stimulus-independent role for the bilateral pSFS and its vicinity for maintenance and manipulation of different context-dependent information within working memory. PMID:11771973

Zurowski, Bartosz; Gostomzyk, Julia; Grön, Georg; Weller, Rolf; Schirrmeister, Holger; Neumeier, Bernd; Spitzer, Manfred; Reske, Sven N; Walter, Henrik

2002-01-01

96

Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Ability in Normal Readers and Readers with Dyslexia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies explored the relationship between rapid auditory processing and phonological processing in 82 typical children and compared 17 children with dyslexia to controls. Children with dyslexia performed at a level similar to reading-age controls on auditory processing but obtained scores that were significantly below those of the…

Marshall, Catherine M.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Bailey, Peter J.

2001-01-01

97

Mutation of Dcdc2 in mice leads to impairments in auditory processing and memory ability.  

PubMed

Dyslexia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reading ability despite normal intellect, and is associated with specific difficulties in phonological and rapid auditory processing (RAP), visual attention and working memory. Genetic variants in Doublecortin domain-containing protein 2 (DCDC2) have been associated with dyslexia, impairments in phonological processing and in short-term/working memory. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sensory and behavioral impairments can result directly from mutation of the Dcdc2 gene in mice. Several behavioral tasks, including a modified pre-pulse inhibition paradigm (to examine auditory processing), a 4/8 radial arm maze (to assess/dissociate working vs. reference memory) and rotarod (to examine sensorimotor ability and motor learning), were used to assess the effects of Dcdc2 mutation. Behavioral results revealed deficits in RAP, working memory and reference memory in Dcdc2(del2/del2) mice when compared with matched wild types. Current findings parallel clinical research linking genetic variants of DCDC2 with specific impairments of phonological processing and memory ability. PMID:25130614

Truong, D T; Che, A; Rendall, A R; Szalkowski, C E; LoTurco, J J; Galaburda, A M; Holly Fitch, R

2014-11-01

98

Persistence of Phonological Processing Deficits in College Students with Dyslexia Who Have Age-Appropriate Reading Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated phonological processing skills of 28 undergraduates with dyslexia. When compared to 31 controls, subjects performed significantly less well on standardized measures of reading and spelling but in the average range. Controls, however, performed significantly better on all phonological processing measures, particularly those…

Wilson, Alexander M.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

2001-01-01

99

Phonological and semantic influences on auditory word perception in children with and without reading impairments using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG)  

E-print Network

Children with dyslexia struggle with learning to read despite adequate intelligence, motivation, and schooling. Over the years, there has been a growing consensus about the role of phonological processing in reading ...

Wehner, Daniel T

2007-01-01

100

Learning Letter Names and Sounds: Effects of Instruction, Letter Type, and Phonological Processing Skill  

PubMed Central

Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in light of letter name structure, whether letter names included cues to their respective sounds, and children’s phonological processing skills. Consistent with past research, children receiving letter name and sound instruction were most likely to learn the sounds of letters whose names included cues to their sounds, regardless of phonological processing skills. Only children with higher phonological skills showed a similar effect in the control condition. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:20097352

Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

2010-01-01

101

Manipulation of length and lexicality localizes the functional neuroanatomy of phonological processing in adult readers.  

PubMed

In a previous study of single word reading, regions in the left supramarginal gyrus and left angular gyrus showed positive BOLD activity in children but significantly less activity in adults for high-frequency words [Church, J. A., Coalson, R. S., Lugar, H. M., Petersen, S. E., & Schlaggar, B. L. A developmental fMRI study of reading and repetition reveals changes in phonological and visual mechanisms over age. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 2054-2065, 2008]. This developmental decrease may reflect decreased reliance on phonological processing for familiar stimuli in adults. Therefore, in the present study, variables thought to influence phonological demand (string length and lexicality) were manipulated. Length and lexicality effects in the brain were explored using both ROI and whole-brain approaches. In the ROI analysis, the supramarginal and angular regions from the previous study were applied to this study. The supramarginal region showed a significant positive effect of length, consistent with a role in phonological processing, whereas the angular region showed only negative deflections from baseline with a strong effect of lexicality and other weaker effects. At the whole-brain level, varying effects of length and lexicality and their interactions were observed in 85 regions throughout the brain. The application of hierarchical clustering analysis to the BOLD time course data derived from these regions revealed seven clusters, with potentially revealing anatomical locations. Of note, a left angular gyrus region was the sole constituent of one cluster. Taken together, these findings in adult readers (1) provide support for a widespread set of brain regions affected by lexical variables, (2) corroborate a role for phonological processing in the left supramarginal gyrus, and (3) do not support a strong role for phonological processing in the left angular gyrus. PMID:20433237

Church, Jessica A; Balota, David A; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

2011-06-01

102

Phonological and lexical encoding processes in beginning readers: Effects of age and word characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was two-fold. First to find out whether the prelexical phonological route develops prior to the visual route or whether the direct visual route develops first in the process of learning to read Greek. Second, to see whether the subjects' chronological age deviation affects decisively the overall reading accuracy and the processes employed in word reading.

C. D. Porpodas; S. N. Pantelis; E. Hantziou

1990-01-01

103

The Relationship between Speech Impairment, Phonological Awareness and Early Literacy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although children with speech impairment are at increased risk for impaired literacy, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. Around half the children with speech impairment have delayed acquisition, making errors typical of a normally developing younger child (e.g. reducing consonant clusters so that "spoon" is pronounced as "poon"). A…

Harris, Judy; Botting, Nicola; Myers, Lucy; Dodd, Barbara

2011-01-01

104

On the role of the supramarginal gyrus in phonological processing and verbal working memory: evidence from rTMS studies.  

PubMed

The supramarginal gyrus (SMG) is activated for phonological processing during both language and verbal working memory tasks. Using rTMS, we investigated whether the contribution of the SMG to phonological processing is domain specific (specific to phonology) or more domain general (specific to verbal working memory). A measure of phonological complexity was developed based on sonority differences and subjects were tested after low frequency rTMS on a same/different judgment task and an n-back verbal memory task. It was reasoned that if the phonological processing in the SMG is more domain general, i.e., related to verbal working memory demands, performance would be more affected by the rTMS during the n-back task than during the same/different judgment task. Two auditory experiments were conducted. The first experiment demonstrated that under conditions where working memory demands are minimized (i.e. same/different judgment), repetitive stimulation had no effect on performance although performance varied as a function of phonological complexity. The second experiment demonstrated that during a verbal working memory task (n-back task), where phonological complexity was also manipulated, subjects were less accurate and slower at performing the task after stimulation but the effect of phonology was not affected. The results confirm that the SMG is involved in verbal working memory but not in the encoding of sonority differences. PMID:24184438

Deschamps, Isabelle; Baum, Shari R; Gracco, Vincent L

2014-01-01

105

Project DyAdd: Phonological Processing, Reading, Spelling, and Arithmetic in Adults with Dyslexia or ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Difficulties in phonological processing and reading that characterize developmental dyslexia have been suggested also to affect those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, it is not known to what extent various intervening factors, such as low intelligence quotient or age, explain the observed difficulties. In this study,…

Laasonen, Marja; Lehtinen, Maisa; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

2010-01-01

106

The Processing of English Regular Inflections: Phonological Cues to Morphological Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies suggest that different neural and functional mechanisms are involved in the analysis of irregular ("caught") and regular ("filled") past tense forms in English. In particular, the comprehension and production of regular forms is argued to require processes of morpho-phonological assembly and disassembly, analysing these forms into…

Post, Brechtje; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K.

2008-01-01

107

Processing Interactions between Phonology and Melody: Vowels Sing but Consonants Speak  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine if two dimensions of song, the phonological part of lyrics and the melodic part of tunes, are processed in an independent or integrated way. In a series of five experiments, musically untrained participants classified bi-syllabic nonwords sung on two-tone melodic intervals. Their response had to be based on…

Kolinsky, Regine; Lidji, Pascale; Peretz, Isabelle; Besson, Mireille; Morais, Jose

2009-01-01

108

Letter Knowledge, Phonological Processing, and Print Knowledge: Skill Development in Nonreading Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development of reading skills was examined in 4-year-old children from low-income homes attending a prekindergarten program. Fall to spring gains in letter identification were examined and compared with skills in phonological processing, rhyme detection, and environmental print, and with performance on a screening tool ("Get Ready to Read"). It…

Molfese, Victoria J.; Modglin, Arlene A.; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Neamon, Jessica D.; Berg, Shelby A.; Berg, C. Jeffrey; Molnar, Andrew

2006-01-01

109

Phonological processing: a platform for assisting second-language learners with English spelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The English spelling abilities of 22 adolescent English second language learners were related to their input processing skills. Strong correlations were found between their spelling of words containing first language (L1) and second language (L2) vowels and their auditory discrimination and phonological representation of these words. An increased length of exposure to English first language models was found to have

Belinda Seeff-Gabriel

2003-01-01

110

A functional toolkit for morphological and phonological processing, application to a Sanskrit tagger  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the Zen toolkit for morphological and phonological processing of natural lan- guages. This toolkit is presented in literate programming style, in the Pidgin ML subset of the Objective Caml functional programming language. This toolkit is based on a sys- tematic representation of nite state automata and transducers as decorated lexical trees. All operations on the state space data

Gérard P. Huet

2005-01-01

111

Phonological Priming in Young Children Who Stutter: Holistic versus Incremental Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the holistic versus incremental phonological encoding processes of young children who stutter (CWS; N = 26) and age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter (CWNS; N = 26) via a picture-naming auditory priming paradigm. Method: Children named pictures during 3 auditory priming conditions: neutral, holistic, and…

Byrd, Courtney T.; Conture, Edward G.; Ohde, Ralph N.

2007-01-01

112

Children's Auditory Lexical Decisions: A Limited Processing Capacity Account of Language Impairment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-three children (ages 10 to 12) with language impairment and 46 typically achieving adults participated in two auditory lexical-decision tasks evaluating effects of phonological opacity on word recognition. Findings indicated that the language-impaired children were less able than controls to identify phonologically opaque…

Windsor, Jennifer; Hwang, Mina

1999-01-01

113

Age-related Differences in the Neural Bases of Phonological and Semantic Processes.  

PubMed

Changes in language functions during normal aging are greater for phonological compared with semantic processes. To investigate the behavioral and neural basis for these age-related differences, we used fMRI to examine younger and older adults who made semantic and phonological decisions about pictures. The behavioral performance of older adults was less accurate and less efficient than younger adults' in the phonological task but did not differ in the semantic task. In the fMRI analyses, the semantic task activated left-hemisphere language regions, and the phonological task activated bilateral cingulate and ventral precuneus. Age-related effects were widespread throughout the brain and most often expressed as greater activation for older adults. Activation was greater for younger compared with older adults in ventral brain regions involved in visual and object processing. Although there was not a significant Age × Condition interaction in the whole-brain fMRI results, correlations examining the relationship between behavior and fMRI activation were stronger for younger compared with older adults. Our results suggest that the relationship between behavior and neural activation declines with age, and this may underlie some of the observed declines in performance. PMID:24893737

Diaz, Michele T; Johnson, Micah A; Burke, Deborah M; Madden, David J

2014-12-01

114

Developmental Differences of Neurocognitive Networks for Phonological and Semantic Processing in Chinese Word Reading  

PubMed Central

Developmental differences in the neurocognitive networks for phonological and semantic processing in Chinese word reading were examined in 13 adults and 13 children using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Rhyming and semantic association judgments were made to two-character words that were presented sequentially in the visual modality. These lexical tasks were compared with a nonlinguistic control task involving judgment of line patterns. The first main finding was that adults showed greater activation than children in right middle occipital gyrus on both the meaning and rhyming task, suggesting adults more effectively engage right hemisphere brain regions involved in the visual-spatial analysis of Chinese characters. The second main finding was that adults showed greater activation than children in left inferior parietal lobule for the rhyming as compared with the meaning task, suggesting greater specialization of phonological processing in adults. The third main finding was that children who had better performance in the rhyming task on characters with conflicting orthographic and phonological information relative to characters with nonconflicting information showed greater activation in left middle frontal gyrus, suggesting greater engagement of brain regions involved in the integration of orthography and phonology. PMID:18330872

Cao, Fan; Peng, Danling; Liu, Li; Jin, Zhen; Fan, Ning; Deng, Yuan; Booth, James R.

2010-01-01

115

The time course of phonological and orthographic processing of acronyms in reading: evidence from eye movements.  

PubMed

The present experiment presented acronyms preceded by either a or an in a sentence. The key stimuli were acronyms that begin with a consonant such as F, whose letter name begins with a vowel sound, or with the vowel U, whose letter name begins with a consonant sound. The durations of first fixations were influenced solely by phonology: For example, a FBI caused as much disruption (relative to an FBI) as did an CIA (relative to a CIA). Somewhat later processing (most notably go-past time and total time) was influenced by orthography as well, as combinations such as an FBI had longer processing times than did combinations such as a CIA. Although the initial coding of visual stimuli must proceed from an orthographic code to a phonological one, these data indicate that the phonological representation of the acronym is the primary initial code that makes contact with the article that precedes it and suggest that the initial contact with the sentence context is phonological. PMID:17048723

Slattery, Timothy J; Pollatsek, Alexander; Rayner, Keith

2006-06-01

116

The role of phonological awareness, speech perception, and auditory temporal processing for dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is strong evidence that auditory processing plays a major role in the etiology of dyslexia. Auditory temporal processing\\u000a of non-speech stimuli, speech perception, and phonological awareness have been shown to be influential in reading and spelling\\u000a development. However, the relationship between these variables remains unclear. In order to analyze the influence of these\\u000a three auditory processing levels on spelling,

G. Schulte-Körne; W. Deimel; J. Bartling; H. Remschmidt

1999-01-01

117

Impairment: The Case of Phonotactic Probability and Nonword Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to explore the relationship between lexical and phonological knowledge in children with primary language impairment (PLI) through the application of a developmental methodology. Specifically, they tested whether there is evidence for an impairment in the process of phonological abstraction in this group of…

McKean, Cristina; Letts, Carolyn; Howard, David

2013-01-01

118

Atypical Neural Functions Underlying Phonological Processing and Silent Rehearsal in Children Who Stutter  

PubMed Central

Phonological processing was examined in school-age children who stutter (CWS) by assessing their performance and recording event related brain potentials (ERPs) in a visual rhyming task. CWS had lower accuracy on rhyming judgments, but the cognitive processes that mediate the comparisons of the phonological representations of words, as indexed by the rhyming effect (RE) ERP, were similar for the stuttering and normally fluent groups. Thus the lower behavioral accuracy of rhyming judgments by the CWS could not be attributed to that particular stage of processing. Instead, the neural functions for processes preceding the RE, indexed by the N400 and CNV elicited by the primes and the N400 elicited by the targets, suggest atypical processing that may have resulted in less efficient, less accurate rhyming judgment for the CWS. Based on the present results, it seems likely that the neural processes related to phonological rehearsal and target word anticipation, as indexed by the CNV, are distinctive for CWS at this age. Further, it is likely that the relative contributions of the left and right hemispheres differ in CWS in the stage of processing when linguistic integration occurs, as indexed by the N400. Taken together, these results suggest that CWS may be less able to form and retain a stable neural representation of the prime onset and rime as they anticipate the target presentation, which may lead to lower rhyming judgment accuracy. PMID:18333985

Weber-Fox, Christine; Spruill, John E.; Spencer, Rebecca; Smith, Anne

2009-01-01

119

What is the relationship between phonological short-term memory and speech processing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, models of speech comprehension and production do not depend on concepts and processes from the phonological short-term memory (pSTM) literature. Likewise, in working memory research, pSTM is considered to be a language-independent system that facilitates language acquisition rather than speech processing per se. We discuss couplings between pSTM, speech perception and speech production, and we pro- pose that pSTM

Charlotte Jacquemot; Sophie K. Scott

2006-01-01

120

Reading impairment and visual processing deficits in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Individuals with schizophrenia show magnocellular visual pathway abnormalities similar to those described in dyslexia, predicting that reading disturbance should be a common concomitant of schizophrenia. To date, however, reading deficits have not been well established, and, in fact, reading is often thought to be normal in schizophrenia based upon results of tests such as the WRAT, which evaluate single word reading. This study evaluated “real world” reading ability in schizophrenia, relative to functioning of the magnocellular visual pathway. Standardized psychoeducational reading tests and contrast sensitivity measures were administered to 19 patients and 10 controls. Analyses of between group differences were further refined by classification of participants into reading vs. non-reading impaired groups using a priori and derived theoretical models. Patients with schizophrenia, as a group, showed highly significant impairments in reading (p<0.04–p<0.001), with particular deficits on tests of rate, comprehension and phonological awareness. Between 21% and 63% of patients met criteria for dyslexia depending upon diagnostic model vs. 0–20% of the controls. The degree of deficit correlated significantly with independent measures of magnocellular dysfunction. Reading impairment in schizophrenia reaches the level of dyslexia and is associated with compromised magnocellular processing as hypothesized. Findings related to symptoms, functioning and recommendations for reading ability assessment are discussed. PMID:16890409

Revheim, Nadine; Butler, Pamela D.; Schechter, Isaac; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Silipo, Gail; Javitt, Daniel C.

2007-01-01

121

Phonological and morphological processing in adult students with learning/reading disabilities.  

PubMed

A target group of college students with learning/reading disabilities was compared with reading-level (RA) and chronological-age (CA) contrast groups on several phonological and morphological computerized information-processing tasks. Results confirm the importance of accurate and rapid processing of simple lexical items to the automatic level. The target students were less accurate and took longer reaction time, as compared with their CA controls, though not with the RA contrast group, in deciding if pseudohomophonics sounded like real words and if pairs of words with different rime conditions rhymed. The target students showed both quantitative and qualitative differences in processing morphological words and morphographic letter strings, in contrast to some earlier findings. The integration of phonological and morphological knowledge is emphasized in working with adult college students with learning/reading disabilities. PMID:15508242

Leong, C K

1999-01-01

122

Phonological and Articulation Treatment Approaches in Portuguese Children with Speech and Language Impairments: A Randomized Controlled Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In Portugal, the routine clinical practice of speech and language therapists (SLTs) in treating children with all types of speech sound disorder (SSD) continues to be articulation therapy (AT). There is limited use of phonological therapy (PT) or phonological awareness training in Portugal. Additionally, at an international level there…

Lousada, M.; Jesus, Luis M. T.; Capelas, S.; Margaca, C.; Simoes, D.; Valente, A.; Hall, A.; Joffe, V. L.

2013-01-01

123

Phonological facilitation of object naming in agrammatic and logopenic primary progressive aphasia (PPA)  

PubMed Central

Phonological processing deficits are characteristic of both the agrammatic and logopenic subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L). However, it is an open question which substages of phonological processing (i.e., phonological word form retrieval, phonological encoding) are impaired in these subtypes of PPA, as well as how phonological processing deficits contribute to anomia. In the present study, participants with PPA-G (n=7), PPA-L (n=7), and unimpaired controls (n=17) named objects as interfering written words (phonologically related/unrelated) were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 0, +100, +300, and +500 ms. Phonological facilitation (PF) effects (faster naming times with phonologically related interfering words) were found for the controls and PPA-L group only at SOA=0 and +100 ms. However, the PPA-G group exhibited protracted PF effects (PF at SOA=0, +100, and +300 ms). These results may reflect deficits in phonological encoding in PPA-G, but not in PPA-L, supporting the neuropsychological reality of this substage of phonological processing and the distinction between these two PPA subtypes. PMID:24070176

Mack, Jennifer E.; Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Kloet, James D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2013-01-01

124

Working memory and phonological processing as predictors of children’s mathematical problem solving at different ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explored the contribution of working memory (WM) to mathematical problem solving in younger (8-year-old) and older\\u000a (11-year-old) children. The results showed that (1) significant agerelated differences in WM performance were maintained when\\u000a measures of phonological processing (i.e., digit naming speed, short-term memory, phonological deletion) were partialed from\\u000a the analysis; (2) WM predicted solution accuracy of word problems independently

H. Lee Swanson

2004-01-01

125

Evidence for the automatic processing of prelexical codes in an orthographic but not a phonological task.  

PubMed

The automatic activation of phonological and orthographic information in auditory and visual word processing was examined using a task-set procedure. Participants engaged in a phonological task (i.e., determining whether the letter "a" in a word sounded like /e/ or /æ/) or an orthographic task (i.e., determining whether the sound /s/ in a word was spelled with an "s" or a "c"). Participants were cued regarding which task to perform simultaneously with, or 750 ms before, a clear or degraded target. The stimulus clarity effect (i.e., clear words responded to faster than degraded words) was absorbed into the time that it took participants to identify the task on the basis of the cue in a simultaneous cue-target as compared to a delayed cue-target condition, but only for the orthographic task. These data are consistent with the claim that prelexical processing occurs in a capacity-free manner upon stimulus presentation when participants are trying to extract orthographic codes from words presented in the visual and auditory modalities. Such affirmative data were not obtained when participants attempted to extract phonological codes from words, since here the effects of stimulus clarity and cue delay were additive. PMID:24793681

Slowiaczek, Louisa M; Kahan, Todd A

2014-12-01

126

The roles of family history of dyslexia, language, speech production and phonological processing in predicting literacy progress.  

PubMed

It is well established that speech, language and phonological skills are closely associated with literacy, and that children with a family risk of dyslexia (FRD) tend to show deficits in each of these areas in the preschool years. This paper examines what the relationships are between FRD and these skills, and whether deficits in speech, language and phonological processing fully account for the increased risk of dyslexia in children with FRD. One hundred and fifty-three 4-6-year-old children, 44 of whom had FRD, completed a battery of speech, language, phonology and literacy tasks. Word reading and spelling were retested 6 months later, and text reading accuracy and reading comprehension were tested 3 years later. The children with FRD were at increased risk of developing difficulties in reading accuracy, but not reading comprehension. Four groups were compared: good and poor readers with and without FRD. In most cases good readers outperformed poor readers regardless of family history, but there was an effect of family history on naming and nonword repetition regardless of literacy outcome, suggesting a role for speech production skills as an endophenotype of dyslexia. Phonological processing predicted spelling, while language predicted text reading accuracy and comprehension. FRD was a significant additional predictor of reading and spelling after controlling for speech production, language and phonological processing, suggesting that children with FRD show additional difficulties in literacy that cannot be fully explained in terms of their language and phonological skills. PMID:24581037

Carroll, Julia M; Mundy, Ian R; Cunningham, Anna J

2014-09-01

127

The dorsal stream contribution to phonological retrieval in object naming  

PubMed Central

Meaningful speech, as exemplified in object naming, calls on knowledge of the mappings between word meanings and phonological forms. Phonological errors in naming (e.g. GHOST named as ‘goath’) are commonly seen in persisting post-stroke aphasia and are thought to signal impairment in retrieval of phonological form information. We performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis of 1718 phonological naming errors collected from 106 individuals with diverse profiles of aphasia. Voxels in which lesion status correlated with phonological error rates localized to dorsal stream areas, in keeping with classical and contemporary brain-language models. Within the dorsal stream, the critical voxels were concentrated in premotor cortex, pre- and postcentral gyri and supramarginal gyrus with minimal extension into auditory-related posterior temporal and temporo-parietal cortices. This challenges the popular notion that error-free phonological retrieval requires guidance from sensory traces stored in posterior auditory regions and points instead to sensory-motor processes located further anterior in the dorsal stream. In a separate analysis, we compared the lesion maps for phonological and semantic errors and determined that there was no spatial overlap, demonstrating that the brain segregates phonological and semantic retrieval operations in word production. PMID:23171662

Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Kim, Junghoon; Coslett, H. Branch

2012-01-01

128

Differences between Patterns of Brain Activity Associated with Semantics and Those Linked with Phonological Processing Diminish with Age  

PubMed Central

It is widely believed that language function tends to show little age-related performance decline. Indeed, some older individuals seem to use compensatory mechanisms to maintain a high level of performance when submitted to lexical tasks. However, how these mechanisms affect cortical and subcortical activity during semantic and phonological processing has not been extensively explored. The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of healthy aging on cortico-subcortical routes related to semantic and phonological processing using a lexical analogue of the Wisconsin Cart-Sorting Task. Our results indicate that while young adults tend to show increased activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the fusiform gyrus, the ventral temporal lobe and the caudate nucleus during semantic decisions and in the posterior Broca's area (area 44), the temporal lobe (area 37), the temporoparietal junction (area 40) and the motor cortical regions during phonological decisions, older individuals showed increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and motor cortical regions during both semantic and phonological decisions. Furthermore, when semantic and phonological decisions were contrasted with each other, younger individuals showed significant brain activity differences in several regions while older individuals did not. Therefore, in older individuals, the semantic and phonological routes seem to merge into a single pathway. These findings represent most probably neural reserve/compensation mechanisms, characterized by a decrease in specificity, on which the elderly rely to maintain an adequate level of performance. PMID:24972020

Martins, Ruben; Simard, France; Monchi, Oury

2014-01-01

129

Effects of Phonological Contrast on Auditory Word Discrimination in Children with and without Reading Disability: A Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor readers perform worse than their normal reading peers on a variety of speech perception tasks, which may be linked to their phonological processing abilities. The purpose of the study was to compare the brain activation patterns of normal and impaired readers on speech perception to better understand the phonological basis in reading…

Wehner, Daniel T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Mody, Maria

2007-01-01

130

Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children.  

PubMed

Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

2013-12-01

131

Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children  

PubMed Central

Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

2013-01-01

132

Phonological Process and Accuracy Measures in Typically Developing Punjabi Speaking Children between 3-5 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonology is an area of linguistics that is concerned with the sounds of language. Since each language has its own unique system of sound patterns, there is a need to study phonological development in different languages. However, lack of published data necessitates the present study on phonological developmental pattern in Punjabi language…

Kaur, Simran; John, Sunila; Veena, K. D.; Rajashekhar, B.

2013-01-01

133

Relations among musical skills, phonological processing, and early reading ability in preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relations among phonological awareness, music perception skills, and early reading skills in a population of 100 4- and 5-year-old children. Music skills were found to correlate significantly with both phonological awareness and reading development. Regression analyses indicated that music perception skills contributed unique variance in predicting reading ability, even when variance due to phonological awareness and other

Sima H. Anvari; Laurel J. Trainor; Jennifer Woodside; Betty Ann Levy

2002-01-01

134

Phonological iconicity  

PubMed Central

The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062

Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2014-01-01

135

The relationship between phonological and auditory processing and brain organization in beginning readers  

PubMed Central

We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of skill-correlated regions, including left hemisphere temporoparietal and occipitotemporal sites, as well as inferior frontal, visual, visual attention, and subcortical components. For speech-related activation, shared variance among reading skill measures was most prominently correlated with activation in left hemisphere inferior frontal gyrus and precuneus. Implications for brain-based models of literacy acquisition are discussed. PMID:22572517

PUGH, Kenneth R.; LANDI, Nicole; PRESTON, Jonathan L.; MENCL, W. Einar; AUSTIN, Alison C.; SIBLEY, Daragh; FULBRIGHT, Robert K.; SEIDENBERG, Mark S.; GRIGORENKO, Elena L.; CONSTABLE, R. Todd; MOLFESE, Peter; FROST, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

136

The Interface between Morphology and Phonology: Exploring a Morpho-Phonological Deficit in Spoken Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

137

Processing Problems and Language Impairment in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reviews studies on the assessment of rapid auditory processing abilities. Issues in auditory processing research are identified including a link between otitis media with effusion and language learning problems. A theory that linguistically impaired children experience difficulty in perceiving and processing low phonetic substance…

Watkins, Ruth V.

1990-01-01

138

Auditory Temporal Information Processing in Preschool Children at Family Risk for Dyslexia: Relations with Phonological Abilities and Developing Literacy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this project, the hypothesis of an auditory temporal processing deficit in dyslexia was tested by examining auditory processing in relation to phonological skills in two contrasting groups of five-year-old preschool children, a familial high risk and a familial low risk group. Participants were individually matched for gender, age, non-verbal…

Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquiere, Pol

2006-01-01

139

Phonological coding during reading.  

PubMed

The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25150679

Leinenger, Mallorie

2014-11-01

140

Exploring the Phenotype of Phonological Reading Disability as a Function of the Phonological Deficit Severity: Evidence from the Error Analysis Paradigm in Arabic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dominant error types were investigated as a function of phonological processing (PP) deficit severity in four groups of impaired readers. For this aim, an error analysis paradigm distinguishing between four error types was used. The findings revealed that the different types of impaired readers were characterized by differing predominant error…

Taha, Haitham; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Khateb, Asaid

2014-01-01

141

The articulatory basis of positional asymmetries in phonological acquisition  

E-print Network

Child phonological processes that lack counterparts in adult phonological typology have long posed a problem for formal modeling of phonological acquisition. This dissertation investigates child-specific processes with a ...

McAllister, Tara Kathleen

2009-01-01

142

Processing of Phonological Variation in Children with Hearing Loss: Compensation for English Place Assimilation in Connected Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors explored phonological processing in connected speech in children with hearing loss. Specifically, the authors investigated these children's sensitivity to English place assimilation, by which alveolar consonants like t and n can adapt to following sounds (e.g., the word ten can be realized as tem in the…

Skoruppa, Katrin; Rosen, Stuart

2014-01-01

143

Effects of Phonological and Orthographic Shifts on Children's Processing of Written Morphology: A Time-Course Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report two experiments that investigated whether phonological and/or orthographic shifts in a base word interfere with morphological processing by French 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders and adults (as a control group) along the time course of visual word recognition. In both experiments, prime-target pairs shared four possible relationships:…

Quémart, Pauline; Casalis, Séverine

2014-01-01

144

Semantic, syntactic, and phonological processing of written words in adult developmental dyslexic readers: an event-related brain potential study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The present study used event-related brain potentials to investigate semantic, phonological and syntactic processes in adult German dyslexic and normal readers in a word reading task. Pairs of German words were presented one word at a time. Subjects had to perform a semantic judgment task (house – window; are they semantically related?), a rhyme judgment task (house – mouse;

Jascha Rüsseler; Petra Becker; Sönke Johannes; Thomas F Münte

2007-01-01

145

Relationships Among Linguistic Processing Speed, Phonological Working Memory, and Attention in Children Who Stutter  

PubMed Central

Relatively recently, experimental studies of linguistic processing speed in children who stutter (CWS) have emerged, some of which suggest differences in performance among CWS compared to children who do not stutter (CWNS). What is not yet well understood is the extent to which underlying cognitive skills may impact performance on timed tasks of linguistic performance. The purpose of this study was to explore possible relationships between measures of linguistic processing speed and two aspects of cognition: phonological working memory and attention. Participants were 9 CWS and 14 CWNS between the ages of 3;6 and 5;2. Children participated in a computerized picture naming task (an index of linguistic processing speed) and a nonword repetition task (an index of phonological working memory). Parents completed a temperament behavior questionnaire, from which information about the children’s attentional skills was collected. Findings revealed that the groups did not differ from each other on speed of picture naming or attention; however, the CWS performed significantly worse in nonword repetition. In addition, after partialling out the effects of age, (a) for CWS only, there was a significant negative relationship between picture naming speed and nonword repetition; (b) there were no significant relationships for either group between aspects of attention and picture naming speed; and (c) only the CWNS showed a significant relationship between nonword repetition and focused attentional skills. These results underscore the need to consider the underlying skills associated with lexically-related aspects of language production when examining the task performances of CWS and CWNS. PMID:20831969

Anderson, Julie D.; Wagovich, Stacy A.

2010-01-01

146

Computing the Meanings of Words in Reading: Cooperative Division of Labor Between Visual and Phonological Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are words read visually (by means of a direct mapping from orthography to semantics) or phonologically (by mapping from orthography to phonology to semantics)? The authors addressed this long-standing debate by examining how a large-scale computational model based on connectionist principles would solve the problem and comparing the model's…

Harm, Michael W.; Seidenberg, Mark S.

2004-01-01

147

A Longitudinal Study of Phonological Processing Skills in Children Learning to Read in a Second Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

English-speaking children (N = 122) in French immersion classes participated in a 1-year longitudinal study of the relation between phonological awareness and reading achievement in both languages. Participants were administered measures of word decoding and of phonological awareness in French and in English as well as measures of cognitive ability, speeded naming, and pseudoword repetition in English only. The relation

Liane Comeau; Pierre Cormier; Éric Grandmaison; Diane Lacroix

1999-01-01

148

Electrophysiological Indices of Spatial Attention during Global/Local Processing in Good and Poor Phonological Decoders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research suggests a relationship between spatial attention and phonological decoding in developmental dyslexia. The aim of this study was to examine differences between good and poor phonological decoders in the allocation of spatial attention to global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli. A further aim was to investigate the…

Matthews, Allison Jane; Martin, Frances Heritage

2009-01-01

149

Neural Processing of Spoken Words in Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adults with a history of specific language impairment (SLI) differ from reading-impaired (dyslexic) individuals in terms of limited vocabulary and poor verbal short-term memory. Phonological short-term memory has been shown to play a significant role in learning new words. We investigated the neural signatures of auditory word recognition…

Helenius, Paivi; Parviainen, Tiina; Paetau, Ritva; Salmelin, Riitta

2009-01-01

150

Who Is At Risk for Dyslexia? Phonological Processing in Five-to Seven-Year-Old Dutch-Speaking Children With SLI  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disproportionally high number of children with specific language impairment (SLI) develop dyslexia. Yet it is hard to predict which individual child is at risk. This article presents a longitudinal study of phonological and early literacy development of 18 Dutch-speaking children with SLI, compared to 18 typically developing controls over a period of 2 years. These matched pairs of children

Ellen Vandewalle; Bart Boets; Pol Ghesquière; Inge Zink

2010-01-01

151

An fMRI study of multimodal semantic and phonological processing in reading disabled adolescents  

E-print Network

2009 /Accepted: 11 September 2009 # The International Dyslexia Association 2009 Abstract Using Dyslexia . fMRI . Performance . Phonology. Reading disability. Semantics Introduction The neurobiology of reading disability An increasing body of research suggests that the core deficit in developmental dyslexia

152

The phonological and visual basis of developmental dyslexia in Brazilian Portuguese reading children  

PubMed Central

Evidence from opaque languages suggests that visual attention processing abilities in addition to phonological skills may act as cognitive underpinnings of developmental dyslexia. We explored the role of these two cognitive abilities on reading fluency in Brazilian Portuguese, a more transparent orthography than French or English. Sixty-six children with developmental dyslexia and normal Brazilian Portuguese children participated. They were administered three tasks of phonological skills (phoneme identification, phoneme, and syllable blending) and three visual tasks (a letter global report task and two non-verbal tasks of visual closure and visual constancy). Results show that Brazilian Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia are impaired not only in phonological processing but further in visual processing. The phonological and visual processing abilities significantly and independently contribute to reading fluency in the whole population. Last, different cognitively homogeneous subtypes can be identified in the Brazilian Portuguese population of children with developmental dyslexia. Two subsets of children with developmental dyslexia were identified as having a single cognitive disorder, phonological or visual; another group exhibited a double deficit and a few children showed no visual or phonological disorder. Thus the current findings extend previous data from more opaque orthographies as French and English, in showing the importance of investigating visual processing skills in addition to phonological skills in children with developmental dyslexia whatever their language orthography transparency. PMID:25352822

Germano, Giseli D.; Reilhac, Caroline; Capellini, Simone A.; Valdois, Sylviane

2014-01-01

153

Directional Effects between Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Deficient rapid auditory processing (RAP) has been associated with early language impairment and dyslexia. Using an auditory masking paradigm, children with language disabilities perform selectively worse than controls at detecting a tone in a backward masking (BM) condition (tone followed by white noise) compared to a forward masking…

Johnson, Erin Phinney; Pennington, Bruce F.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Boada, Richard

2009-01-01

154

Neural basis of phonological processing in second language reading: an fMRI study of Chinese regularity effect.  

PubMed

The present study examined the neural basis of phonological processing in Chinese later acquired as a second language (L2). The regularity effect of Chinese was selected to elucidate the addressed phonological processing. We recruited a group of alphabetic language speakers who had been learning Chinese as L2 for at least one year, and a control group of native Chinese speakers. Participants from both groups exhibited a regularity effect in a pilot behavioral test. Neuroimaging results revealed that L2 learners exhibited stronger activation than native Chinese speakers in the right occipitotemporal region (i.e. right lingual gyrus and right fusiform gyrus). Moreover, L2 learners exhibited greater activations in the ventral aspects of the left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) and the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) for irregular character reading minus regular character reading. In contrast, native Chinese speakers exhibited more dorsal activations in the LIPL and LIFG. According to the "accommodation/assimilation" hypothesis of second language reading, the current findings suggest that native speakers of alphabetic languages utilized an accommodation pattern for the specific requirements of the visual form of Chinese characters, and an assimilation pattern for orthography-to-phonology transformation in Chinese reading. PMID:22245646

Zhao, Jing; Li, Qing-Lin; Wang, Jiu-Ju; Yang, Yang; Deng, Yuan; Bi, Hong-Yan

2012-03-01

155

[Perception-production relations in substitution phonological processes in children with language disorders].  

PubMed

It is generally agreed that the auditory perception skills of children with developmental language disorders are more limited than those of typically developing children. It is not easy to determine exactly how the capacity to discriminate and the capacity to pronounce phonemes influence each other in children with language disorders. For most authors, the inability to discriminate certain phonemes accurately causes a developmental delay in pronunciation, whereas others claim the influence is mutual. The aim of this study is to determine in which consonants perceptive difficulty is more likely to occur and in which cases there is a greater probability of difficulty when it comes to articulating them. The sample used in the study consisted of 86 children with a mean age of 4 years and 7 months. The phonological processes involved in simplifying speech were identified. Their errors were used as the basis on which to construct and apply a specific speech perception test. The relationship between the articulatory and perceptive skills of children with substitutive processes were analysed by means of two comparisons: first, in all the processes detected taken as a whole and, second, in the three most frequent substitutive processes. These analyses were carried out to determine whether the nature of the consonant implied a greater probability of perceptive difficulty. The findings provide information about a relation between the articulatory and perceptive skills, and about whether the nature of the consonant determines a higher probability of perceptive or articulatory difficulties. These results can be of value in the assessment, design and effectiveness of speech therapy programmes. PMID:23446715

Ygual-Fernández, Amparo; Cervera-Mérida, José Francisco

2013-02-22

156

Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere.  

PubMed

Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by manipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data-driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater recruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings suggest a key role for selective attention in on-line phonological computations. Furthermore, these findings motivate future research on the role that neural mechanisms of attention may play in phonological awareness impairments thought to underlie developmental reading disabilities. PMID:24746955

Yoncheva, Yuliya; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D; McCandliss, Bruce D

2014-08-15

157

Production and Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement in Monolingual Dutch Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. Method: An SLI…

Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

2014-01-01

158

Questions people ask about the role of phonological processes in learning to read  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing reliance on research to guidedecisions about reading instruction hasresulted in a swing toward approaches thatemphasize phoneme awareness and the relationsbetween speech and alphabetic writing. Becausethis is a time of innovation andexperimentation in the schools, and because thenew emphasis has not won universal acceptance,there is a need to address recurring questionsabout the role of phonology in readingacquisition. These questions

Donald Shankweiler; Anne E. Fowler

2004-01-01

159

Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number naming…

Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

2012-01-01

160

Phonologic and Semantic Processing in Reading-Disabled and Nondisabled Males at Two Age Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading-disabled and nondisabled 8-10 year olds and 14-16 year olds indicated instances of recurrence in lists of words and pseudowords that contained repeats, rhymes, near rhymes, and semantically related pairs. Poor readers relied on semantic connections and good readers relied on phonological connections. (ME)

Waterman, Betsy; Lewandowski, Lawrence

1993-01-01

161

Semantic and Phonological Task-Set Priming and Stimulus Processing Investigated Using Magnetoencephalography (MEG)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study the neural substrates of semantic and phonological task priming and task performance were investigated using single word task-primes. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were analysed using Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry (SAM) to determine the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of cortical responses. Comparisons were made…

McNab, F.; Rippon, G.; Hillebrand, A.; Singh, K. D.; Swithenby, S. J.

2007-01-01

162

Phonological Working Memory, Phonological Awareness and Language in Literacy Difficulties in Brazilian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most usual flaws that lead to literacy disability regards cognitive difficulties and alterations some children present in the literacy process. Many studies have found alterations in phonological processing, more specifically in phonological working memory (PWM) and phonological awareness (PA). Therefore, our aim was to identify…

Barbosa, Thais; Miranda, Monica Carolina; Santos, Ruth F.; Bueno, Orlando Francisco A.

2009-01-01

163

Trajectories Emerging from Discrete versus Continuous Processing Models in Phonological Competitor Tasks: A Commentary on Spivey, Grosjean, and Knoblich (2005)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

M. J. Spivey, M. Grosjean, and G. Knoblich (2005) showed that in a phonological competitor task, participants' mouse cursor movements showed more curvature toward the competitor item when the competitor and target were phonologically similar than when the competitor and target were phonologically dissimilar. Spivey et al. interpreted this result…

Van Der Wel, Robrecht P. R. D.; Eder, Jeffrey R.; Mitchel, Aaron D.; Walsh, Matthew M.; Rosenbaum, David A.

2009-01-01

164

Demonstrating the effects of phonological similarity and frequency on item and order memory in Down syndrome using process dissociation.  

PubMed

It is important to distinguish between memory for item information and memory for order information when considering the nature of verbal short-term memory (vSTM) performance. Although other researchers have attempted to make this distinction between item and order memory in children, none has done so using process dissociation. This study shows that such an approach can be particularly useful and informative. Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to experience a vSTM deficit. These two experiments explored whether phonological similarity (Experiment 1) and item frequency (Experiment 2) affected vSTM for item and order information in a group of individuals with DS compared with typically developing (TD) vocabulary-matched children. Process dissociation was used to obtain measures of item and order memory via Nairne and Kelley's procedure (Journal of Memory and Language, 50 (2004) 113-133). Those with DS were poorer than the matched TD group for recall of both item and order information. However, in both populations, phonologically similar items reduced order memory but enhanced item memory, whereas high-frequency items resulted in improvements in both item and order memory-effects that are in line with previous research in the adult literature. These results indicate that, despite poorer vSTM performance in DS, individuals experience phonological coding of verbal input and a contribution of long-term memory knowledge to recall. These findings inform routes for interventions for those with DS, highlighting the need to enhance both item and order memory. Moreover, this work demonstrates that process dissociation is applicable and informative for studying special populations and children. PMID:25089885

Smith, Elizabeth; Jarrold, Christopher

2014-12-01

165

Early Contribution of Phonological Awareness and Later Influence of Phonological Memory throughout Reading Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acquisition of reading skills is known to rely on early phonological abilities, but only a few studies have investigated the independent contribution of the different steps involved in phonological processing. This 1-year longitudinal study, spanning the initial year of reading instruction, aimed at specifying the development of phonological

Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle; Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Leybaert, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

166

Type-specific proactive interference in patients with semantic and phonological STM deficits.  

PubMed

Prior neuropsychological evidence suggests that semantic and phonological components of short-term memory (STM) are functionally and neurologically distinct. The current paper examines proactive interference (PI) from semantic and phonological information in two STM-impaired patients, DS (semantic STM deficit) and AK (phonological STM deficit). In Experiment 1 probe recognition tasks with open and closed sets of stimuli were used. Phonological PI was assessed using nonword items, and semantic and phonological PI was assessed using words. In Experiment 2 phonological and semantic PI was elicited by an item recognition probe test with stimuli that bore phonological and semantic relations to the probes. The data suggested heightened phonological PI for the semantic STM patient, and exaggerated effects of semantic PI in the phonological STM case. The findings are consistent with an account of extremely rapid decay of activated type-specific representations in cases of severely impaired phonological and semantic STM. PMID:24295224

Harris, Lara; Olson, Andrew; Humphreys, Glyn

2014-11-01

167

Diagnostics of phonological lexical processing: Pseudohomophone naming advantages, disadvantages, and base-word frequency effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological lexical access has been investigated by examining both a pseudohomophone (e.g.,brane) base-word frequency effect and a pseudohomophone advantage over pronounceable nonwords (e.g.,frane) in a single mixed block of naming trials. With a new set of pseudohomophones and nonwords presented in a mixed block, we\\u000a replicated the standard finding in the naming literature: no reliable base-word frequency effect, and a

Ron Borowsky; William J. Owen; Michael E. J. Masson

2002-01-01

168

A DYNAMIC LOOK AT L2 PHONOLOGICAL LEARNING: Seeking Processing Explanations for Implicational Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether L2 phonological learning can be characterized as a gradual and systematically patterned replacement of non-native segments by native segments in learners' speech, conforming to a two-stage implicational scale. The study adopted a dynamic approach to language variation based on Gatbonton's (1978) gradual diffusion framework. Participants were 40 Québec Francophones, representing different English proficiency levels, who produced

Pavel Trofimovich; Elizabeth Gatbonton; Norman Segalowitz

2007-01-01

169

Left posterior superior temporal gyrus participates specifically in accessing lexical phonology  

PubMed Central

Impairments in phonological processing have been associated with damage to the region of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), but the extent to which this area supports phonological processing, independent of semantic processing, is less clear. We used repetition priming and neural repetition suppression during fMRI in an auditory pseudoword repetition task as a semantics-free model of lexical (whole-word) phonological access. Across six repetitions, we observed repetition priming in terms of decreased reaction time and repetition suppression in terms of reduced neural activity. An additional analysis aimed at sublexical phonology did not show significant effects in the areas where repetition suppression was observed. To test if these areas were relevant to real word production, we performed a conjunction analysis with data from a separate fMRI experiment which manipulated word frequency (a putative index of lexical phonological access) in picture naming. The left pSTG demonstrated significant effects independently in both experiments, suggesting that this area participates specifically in accessing lexical phonology. PMID:18345989

Graves, William W.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Mehta, Sonya; Gupta, Prahlad

2008-01-01

170

Do Phonological and Executive Processes in English Learners at Risk for Reading Disabilities in Grade 1 Predict Performance in Grade 2?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined the degree to which the phonological and executive components of memory reflect language-specific capacities in reading achievement. We tested whether the memory processes in a sample of English-language learners that played a major role in predicting second-language acquisition and risk for reading disability (RD) in Grade 1…

Lee Swanson, H.; Sez, Leilani; Gerber, Michael

2004-01-01

171

Dynamics of phonological-phonetic encoding in word production: evidence from diverging ERPs between stroke patients and controls.  

PubMed

While the dynamics of lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological encoding in word production have been investigated in several event-related potential (ERP) studies, the estimated time course of phonological-phonetic encoding is the result of rather indirect evidence. We investigated the dynamics of phonological-phonetic encoding combining ERP analyses covering the entire encoding process in picture naming and word reading tasks by comparing ERP modulations in eight brain-damaged speakers presenting impaired phonological-phonetic encoding relative to 16 healthy controls. ERPs diverged between groups in terms of local waveform amplitude and global topography at ?400 ms after stimulus onset in the picture naming task and at ?320-350 ms in word reading and sustained until 100 ms before articulation onset. These divergences appeared in later time windows than those found in patients with underlying lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological impairment in previous studies, providing evidence that phonological-phonetic encoding is engaged around 400 ms in picture naming and around 330 ms in word reading. PMID:23707932

Laganaro, Marina; Python, Grégoire; Toepel, Ulrike

2013-08-01

172

The Role of Orthographic and Phonological Processing Skills in the Reading and Spelling of Monolingual Persian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of phonological and orthographic skills to Persian reading and spelling. The Persian language is of interest because it has very consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences, but somewhat inconsistent phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences. Reading, spelling, phonological, and…

Rahbari, Noriyeh; Senechal, Monique; Arab-Moghaddam, Narges

2007-01-01

173

Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill  

PubMed Central

This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D.

2012-01-01

174

Phonological and Phonetic Biases in Speech Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates how knowledge of phonological generalizations influences speech perception, with a particular focus on evidence that phonological processing is autonomous from (rather than interactive with) auditory processing. A model is proposed in which auditory cue constraints and markedness constraints interact to determine a…

Key, Michael Parrish

2012-01-01

175

Phonological Assimilation and Visual Word Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are the visual word-processing tasks of naming and lexical decision sensitive to systematic phonological properties that may or may not be specified in the spelling? Two experiments with Hangul, the alphabetic orthography of Korea, were directed at the effects of the phonological process of assimilation whereby one articulation changes to conform to a neighboring articulation. Disyllabic words were responded to

Yang Lee; Miguel A. Moreno; Claudia Carello; Michael T. Turvey

2006-01-01

176

Language and phonological skills in children at high risk of reading difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dyslexia is now generally acknowledged to involve difficulties in phonological processing. However, the links between reading difficulties and speech difficulties remain unclear. Method: In the present study, 17 children with speech difficulties between the ages of four and six were compared to children with a family history of dyslexia and normally developing controls on phonological processing, phonological learning, phonological

Julia M. Carroll; Margaret J. Snowling

2004-01-01

177

Modeling the Control of Phonological Encoding in Bilingual Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…

Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim

2006-01-01

178

Short-Term and Working Memory in Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Investigations of the cognitive processes underlying specific language impairment (SLI) have implicated deficits in the storage and processing of phonological information, but to date these abilities have not been studied in the same group of children with SLI. Aims: To examine the extent to which deficits in immediate verbal…

Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2006-01-01

179

Otitis Media and Disordered Phonologies: Some Concerns and Cautions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews problems faced by researchers in the association between otitis media with effusion and phonological impairment and then summarizes currently established findings concerning otitis media and its effects on phonological acquisition. Professionals are cautioned to neither ignore nor exaggerate the possible influence of otitis…

Paden, Elaine Pagel

1994-01-01

180

Phonological disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... structures work to create speech (such as from cerebral palsy ). ... intellectual disability ) Hearing impairment Neurological conditions (such as cerebral palsy) Physical problems (such as cleft palate) The health ...

181

The Word Complexity Measure: Description and Application to Developmental Phonology and Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Miccio's work included a number of articles on the assessment of phonology in children with phonological disorders, typically using measures of correct articulation, using the PCC, or analyses of errors, using the framework of phonological processes. This paper introduces an approach to assessing phonology by examining the phonetic complexity of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol

2010-01-01

182

Phonological short-term memory and central executive processing in attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder with\\/without dyslexia – evidence of cognitive overlap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with\\/without dyslexia was investigated using a double dissociation design.\\u000a Neuropsychological performance representing the core deficits of the two disorders was measured in order to test the common\\u000a deficit hypothesis. Phonological short-term memory, morpho-syntactical language, and central executive processing (manipulating and switching) tasks were administered to four groups of 10–14 year old children (ADHD-only n = 20, dyslexia-only

M. C. Tiffin-Richards; M. Hasselhorn; W. Woerner; A. Rothenberger; T. Banaschewski

2008-01-01

183

Temporal Processing and Reading Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the hypothesis that early auditory temporal processing deficits cause later specific reading disability by impairing phonological processing. Suggests that auditory temporal deficits in dyslexics may be associated with dysphasic-type symptoms observed by Tallal and her colleagues in specific language-impaired populations, but do not cause…

Share, David L.; Jorm, Anthony F.; Maclean, Rod; Matthews, Russell

2002-01-01

184

Training phonological awareness: A study with inner-city kindergarten children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small-scale, longitudinal, phonological awareness training study with inner-city kindergarten children was conducted in\\u000a four classrooms. The central goals of the study were the creation and evaluation of a phonological awareness training program\\u000a and a preliminary look at the consequence of that training on basic phonological processes.\\u000a \\u000a Assessment of phonological awareness and basic phonological processes was carried out in the

Susan Brady; Anne Fowler; Brenda Stone; Nancy Winbury

1994-01-01

185

Phonological and visual processing deficits can dissociate in developmental dyslexia: Evidence from two case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study describes two Frenchteenagers with developmental reading andwriting impairments whose performance wascompared to that of chronological age andreading age matched non-dyslexic participants.Laurent conforms to the pattern of phonologicaldyslexia: he exhibits a poor performance inpseudo-word reading and spelling, producesphonologically inaccurate misspellings butreads most exception words accurately. Nicolas,in contrast, is poor in reading and spelling ofexception words but is quite

Sylviane Valdois; Marie-Line Bosse; B. Ans; S. Carbonnel; Michel Zorman; D. David; Jacques Pellat

2003-01-01

186

Incremental Phonological Encoding during Unscripted Sentence Production  

PubMed Central

We investigate phonological encoding during unscripted sentence production, focusing on the effect of phonological overlap on phonological encoding. Previous work on this question has almost exclusively employed isolated word production or highly scripted multi-word production. These studies have led to conflicting results: some studies found that phonological overlap between two words facilitates phonological encoding, while others found inhibitory effects. One worry with many of these paradigms is that they involve processes that are not typical to everyday language use, which calls into question to what extent their findings speak to the architectures and mechanisms underlying language production. We present a paradigm to investigate the consequences of phonological overlap between words in a sentence while leaving speakers much of the lexical and structural choices typical in everyday language use. Adult native speakers of English described events in short video clips. We annotated the presence of disfluencies and the speech rate at various points throughout the sentence, as well as the constituent order. We find that phonological overlap has an inhibitory effect on phonological encoding. Specifically, if adjacent content words share their phonological onset (e.g., hand the hammer), they are preceded by production difficulty, as reflected in fluency and speech rate. We also find that this production difficulty affects speakers’ constituent order preferences during grammatical encoding. We discuss our results and previous works to isolate the properties of other paradigms that resulted in facilitatory or inhibitory results. The data from our paradigm also speak to questions about the scope of phonological planning in unscripted speech and as to whether phonological and grammatical encoding interact. PMID:23162515

Jaeger, T. Florian; Furth, Katrina; Hilliard, Caitlin

2012-01-01

187

[Phonological and orthographic processes of reading and spelling in young adolescents and adults with and without dyslexia in German and English: impact on foreign language learning].  

PubMed

The present study addressed the question whether there is a relationship between phonological and orthographic processes of reading and spelling in adolescents and young adults with and without dyslexia in German and English. On the evidence of the Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis and results of the latest research in foreign language learning the hypothesis is tested if there is a relationship between phonological and orthographic knowledge on the one hand and decoding and spelling performance on the other hand in German adolescents and young adults reading and spelling German and English words. This hypothesis was tested with the statistical method of structural equation modeling and therefore the research population was divided into the following groups: group 1 with dyslexia in reading (n = 93), group 2 with dyslexia in spelling (n = 93), group 3 without dyslexia in reading (n = 95), and group 4 without dyslexia in spelling (n = 95). Results of data analysis show that the postulated prediction model fits only the data of the dyslexia group for reading and spelling, but not for the control group. Also the model for both groups does not fit. The results of the pilot study show that it is necessary to modify diagnostic instruments of measurement and to separate scales of phonological and orthographic processes. PMID:15914994

Romonath, Roswitha; Wahn, Claudia; Gregg, Noel

2005-01-01

188

Research Article Phonological Dyslexia  

E-print Network

Research Article Phonological Dyslexia A Test Case for Reading Models Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet,1 words, a type of deficit referred to as phonological dyslexia. We report on 2 individuals with Alzheimer's disease who show phonological dyslexia. Although highly accurate in reading familiar words aloud (even

189

On Government in Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monik Charette's "Condition on Phonological Government" is reviewed. It is the first book-length study written in the framework of Government Phonology (GP), a theory that makes a dramatic break with the classical generative approaches to phonology. (Contains 10 references.) (LB)

Gussmann, Edmund

1992-01-01

190

Agraphia in Alzheimer's Disease: An Independent Lexical Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to delineate the pattern of the writing impairments in 12 patients with Alzheimer type dementia. The patients performed writing tasks involving regular and irregular words and nonwords given by dictation as well as a decision test composed of printed words and pictures requiring phonologic, lexical, and semantic processing. Writing from dictation demonstrated a predominant, but nonisolated,

Jany Lambert; Francis Eustache; Fausto Viader; Martine Dary; Patrice Rioux; Bernard Lechevalier; Jean M. Travere

1996-01-01

191

Phonologically driven variability: The case of determiners.  

PubMed

Speakers usually produce words in connected speech. In such contexts, the form in which many words are uttered is influenced by the phonological properties of neighboring words. The current article examines the representations and processes underlying the production of phonologically constrained word form variations. For this purpose, we consider determiners whose form is sensitive to phonological context (e.g., in English: a car vs. an animal; in French: le chien 'the dog' vs. l'âne 'the donkey'). Two hypotheses have been proposed regarding how these words are processed. Determiners either are thought to have different representations for each of their surface forms, or they are thought to have only 1 representation while other forms are generated online after selection through a rule-based process. We tested the predictions derived from these 2 views in 3 picture naming experiments. Participants named pictures using determiner-adjective-noun phrases (e.g., la nouvelle table 'the new table'). Phonologically consistent or inconsistent conditions were contrasted, based on the phonological onsets of the adjective and the noun. Results revealed shorter naming latencies for consistent than for inconsistent sequences (i.e., a phonological consistency effect) for all the determiner types tested. Our interpretation of these findings converges on the assumption that determiners with varying surface forms are represented in memory with multiple phonological-lexical representations. This conclusion is discussed in relation to models of determiner processing and models of lexical variability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24797443

Bürki, Audrey; Laganaro, Marina; Alario, F-Xavier

2014-09-01

192

Impairment in Non-Word Repetition: A Marker for Language Impairment or Reading Impairment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: A deficit in non-word repetition (NWR), a measure of short-term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment. We evaluated the strength of association between language impairment and reading impairment in children with current, past, and no language…

Baird, Gillian; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily; Dworzynski, Katharina

2011-01-01

193

The Roles of Family History of Dyslexia, Language, Speech Production and Phonological Processing in Predicting Literacy Progress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that speech, language and phonological skills are closely associated with literacy, and that children with a family risk of dyslexia (FRD) tend to show deficits in each of these areas in the preschool years. This paper examines what the relationships are between FRD and these skills, and whether deficits in speech, language…

Carroll, Julia M.; Mundy, Ian R.; Cunningham, Anna J.

2014-01-01

194

Phonological Processing Deficits and the Acquisition of the Alphabetic Principle in a Severely Delayed Reader: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the end of first grade, TM did not know the alphabet and could read no words. He could not tap syllables in words, had difficulty producing rhyming words and retrieving the phonological representations of words, and he could not discriminate many phoneme contrasts. He learned letter-sound correspondences first for single-consonant onsets and…

Penney, Catherine G.; Drover, James; Dyck, Carrie

2009-01-01

195

Left and right basal ganglia and frontal activity during language generation: Contributions to lexical, semantic, and phonological processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

f MRI was used to determine the frontal, basal ganglia, and thalamic structures engaged by three facets of language generation: lexical status of generated items, the use of semantic vs. phonological information during language generation, and rate of generation. During f MRI, 21 neurologically normal subjects performed four tasks: generation of nonsense syllables given beginning and ending consonant blends, generation

BRUCE CROSSON; HOPE BENEFIELD; M. ALLISON CATO; JOSEPH R. SADEK; ANNA BACON MOORE; CHRISTINA E. WIERENGA; KAUNDINYA GOPINATH; DAVID SOLTYSIK; RUSSELL M. BAUER; EDWARD J. AUERBACH; DIDEM GÖKÇAY; CHRISTIANA M. LEONARD; RICHARD W. BRIGGS

2003-01-01

196

Phonological Activation of Category Coordinates during Speech Planning is Observable in Children but Not in Adults: Evidence for Cascaded Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a long-standing debate in the area of speech production on the question of whether only words selected for articulation are phonologically activated (as maintained by serial-discrete models) or whether this is also true for their semantic competitors (as maintained by forward-cascading and interactive models). Past research has addressed…

Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Hahne, Anja; Hoffmann, Stefanie; Wagner, Valentin

2006-01-01

197

Auditory processing efficiency deficits in children with developmental language impairments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.

Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.

2002-12-01

198

A Cross-Linguistic fMRI Study of Spectral and Temporal Cues Underlying Phonological Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It remains a matter of controversy precisely what kind of neural mechanisms underlie functional asymmetries in speech processing. Whereas some studies support speech-specific circuits, others suggest that lateralization is dictated by relative computational demands of complex auditory signals in the spectral or time domains. To examine how the brain processes linguistically relevant spectral and temporal information, a functional magnetic resonance

Jack Gandour; Donald Wong; Mark Lowe; Mario Dzemidzic; Nakarin Satthamnuwong; Yunxia Tong; Xiaojian Li

2002-01-01

199

The phonetics of metrical prominence and its consequences on segmental phonology  

E-print Network

Only very few phonological processes are reported to be conditioned by stress. There are two major patterns of stress-sensitive processes: segments are lengthened under stress, and vowels become louder. Two other phonological ...

Giavazzi, Maria

2010-01-01

200

Children with specific language impairment also show impairment of music-syntactic processing.  

PubMed

Both language and music consist of sequences that are structured according to syntactic regularities. We used two specific event-related brain potential (ERP) components to investigate music-syntactic processing in children: the ERAN (early right anterior negativity) and the N5. The neural resources underlying these processes have been posited to overlap with those involved in the processing of linguistic syntax. Thus, we expected children with specific language impairment (SLI, which is characterized by deficient processing of linguistic syntax) to demonstrate difficulties with music-syntactic processing. Such difficulties were indeed observed in the neural correlates of music-syntactic processing: neither an ERAN nor an N5 was elicited in children with SLI, whereas both components were evoked in age-matched control children with typical language development. Moreover, the amplitudes of ERAN and N5 were correlated with subtests of a language development test. These data provide evidence for a strong interrelation between the language and the music processing system, thereby setting the ground for possible effects of musical training in SLI therapy. PMID:18416683

Jentschke, Sebastian; Koelsch, Stefan; Sallat, Stephan; Friederici, Angela D

2008-11-01

201

Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

2013-01-01

202

Relationships among linguistic processing speed, phonological working memory, and attention in children who stutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively recently, experimental studies of linguistic processing speed in children who stutter (CWS) have emerged, some of which suggest differences in performance among CWS compared to children who do not stutter (CWNS). What is not yet well understood is the extent to which underlying cognitive skills may impact performance on timed tasks of linguistic performance. The purpose of this study

Julie D. Anderson; Stacy A. Wagovich

2010-01-01

203

Relationships among Linguistic Processing Speed, Phonological Working Memory, and Attention in Children Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relatively recently, experimental studies of linguistic processing speed in children who stutter (CWS) have emerged, some of which suggest differences in performance among CWS compared to children who do not stutter (CWNS). What is not yet well understood is the extent to which underlying cognitive skills may impact performance on timed tasks of…

Anderson, Julie D.; Wagovich, Stacy A.

2010-01-01

204

Altered neuronal response during rapid auditory processing and its relation to phonological processing in prereading children at familial risk for dyslexia.  

PubMed

Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a learning disability affecting 5-17% of children. Although researchers agree that DD is characterized by deficient phonological processing (PP), its cause is debated. It has been suggested that altered rapid auditory processing (RAP) may lead to deficient PP in DD and studies have shown deficient RAP in individuals with DD. Functional neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have implicated hypoactivations in left prefrontal brain regions during RAP in individuals with DD. When and how these neuronal alterations evolve remains unknown. In this article, we investigate functional networks during RAP in 28 children with (n = 14) and without (n = 14) a familial risk for DD before reading onset (mean: 5.6 years). Results reveal functional alterations in left-hemispheric prefrontal regions during RAP in prereading children at risk for DD, similar to findings in individuals with DD. Furthermore, activation during RAP in left prefrontal regions positively correlates with prereading measures of PP and with neuronal activation during PP in posterior dorsal and ventral brain areas. Our results suggest that neuronal differences during RAP predate reading instruction and thus are not due to experience-dependent brain changes resulting from DD itself and that there is a functional relationship between neuronal networks for RAP and PP within the prereading brain. PMID:23599167

Raschle, Nora M; Stering, Patrice L; Meissner, Sarah N; Gaab, Nadine

2014-09-01

205

Dynamic auditory processing, musical experience and language development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with language-learning impairments (LLI) form a heterogeneous population with the majority having both spoken and written language deficits as well as sensorimotor deficits, specifically those related to dynamic processing. Research has focused on whether or not sensorimotor deficits, specifically auditory spec- trotemporal processing deficits, cause phonological deficit, leading to language and reading impairments. New trends aimed at resolving this

Paula Tallal; Nadine Gaab

2006-01-01

206

Dyslexics are impaired on implicit higher-order sequence learning, but not on implicit spatial context learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental dyslexia is characterized by poor reading ability and impairments on a range of tasks including phonological processing and processing of sensory information. Some recent studies have found deficits in implicit sequence learning using the serial reaction time task, but others have not. Other skills, such as global visuo-spatial processing may even be enhanced in dyslexics, although deficits have also

James H. Howard; Darlene V. Howard; Karin C. Japikse; Guinevere F. Eden

2006-01-01

207

Mental fatigue impairs pre-attentive processing: a MMN study.  

PubMed

Individuals frequently experience mental fatigue during or after prolonged periods of cognitive activity. We investigated the effects of mental fatigue on the ability to detect minor changes in the pre-attentive stage of information processing by recoding MMN of ERP components. The equal probable paradigm was employed to elicit pure memory-comparison-based MMN component. Mental fatigue was induced by the continuous performance for 2h of mental arithmetic tasks. MMN amplitudes at fronto-central electrode sites were significantly decreased in subjects with mental fatigue than in subjects under control conditions, whereas temporal MMN was not affected by mental fatigue. These results suggest that mental fatigue impairs pre-attentive processing. PMID:22985513

Yang, Bo; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Xufeng; Wu, Shengjun; Miao, Danmin

2013-01-01

208

Short-Term and Working Memory Skills in Primary School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment and Children with Pragmatic Language Impairment: Phonological, Linguistic and Visuo-Spatial Aspects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) are consistently reported to have short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) difficulties. Aim: To compare STM and WM abilities in CwSLI with children with pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI). Methods & Procedures: Primary school-aged CwSLI (n = 12) and CwPLI (n = 23) were…

Freed, Jenny; Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine

2012-01-01

209

Cross-linguistic Analysis of Developmental Dyslexia? Does Phonology Matter in Learning to Read Chinese?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological processing deficit has been ascertained to be the core cognitive deficit of developmental dyslexia—in alphabetic languages at least. Measures of phonological processing typically include three components: phonemic awareness, phonological working memory, and rapid automatic naming. Among the three tasks, phonemic awareness was the most powerful predictor of reading abilities. Because the Chinese language has no explicit rules for mapping

Jun Ren Lee; Daisy L. Hung; Ovid J. L. Tzeng

210

Divergence of verbal expression and embodied knowledge: Evidence from speech and gesture in children with speciéc language impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that phonological working memory serves to link speech comprehension to production. We suggest further that impairments in phonological working memory may inèuence the way in which children represent and express their knowledge about the world around them. In particular, children with severe phonological working memory deécits may have diféculty retaining stable representations of phonological forms, which

Julia L. Evans; Martha W. Alibali; Nicole M. McNeil

2001-01-01

211

A review of reward processing and motivational impairment in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This article reviews and synthesizes research on reward processing in schizophrenia, which has begun to provide important insights into the cognitive and neural mechanisms associated with motivational impairments. Aberrant cortical-striatal interactions may be involved with multiple reward processing abnormalities, including: (1) dopamine-mediated basal ganglia systems that support reinforcement learning and the ability to predict cues that lead to rewarding outcomes; (2) orbitofrontal cortex-driven deficits in generating, updating, and maintaining value representations; (3) aberrant effort-value computations, which may be mediated by disrupted anterior cingulate cortex and midbrain dopamine functioning; and (4) altered activation of the prefrontal cortex, which is important for generating exploratory behaviors in environments where reward outcomes are uncertain. It will be important for psychosocial interventions targeting negative symptoms to account for abnormalities in each of these reward processes, which may also have important interactions; suggestions for novel behavioral intervention strategies that make use of external cues, reinforcers, and mobile technology are discussed. PMID:24375459

Strauss, Gregory P; Waltz, James A; Gold, James M

2014-03-01

212

Phonetic Inventories and Phonological Patterns of African American Two-Year-Olds: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated phonological skills of 8 African American English (AAE)-speaking 2-year-olds. They acquired and used the same phonemes and phonological processes as described in the literature for both AAE-speaking toddlers and toddlers speaking Standard American English. Results could not distinguish typical phonological development from…

Bland-Stewart, Linda M.

2003-01-01

213

Conceptual Coherence Affects Phonological Activation of Context Objects during Object Naming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 4 picture-word interference experiments, speakers named a target object that was presented with a context object. Using auditory distractors that were phonologically related or unrelated either to the target object or the context object, the authors assessed whether phonological processing was confined to the target object or not. Phonological

Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Schriefers, Herbert

2008-01-01

214

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

215

Developmental implications of nonlinear phonological theory.  

PubMed

For the past 20 years the field of linguistics has provided a basis for assessment and treatment methods for speech and language disorders. Since Goldsmiths (1976) dissertation showing tone as an independently functioning autosegment, new and robust phonological frameworks have become available, i.e. nonlinear phonological frameworks. This paper outlines major aspects of nonlinear phonology and its developmental implications. Based in generative phonology, nonlinear frameworks adhere to many of the tenets of the generative grammar tradition, such as markedness and autonomy of linguistic components. The major difference between classical and nonlinear generative phonology is the latters emphasis on representation rather than on rules or processes. This enriched representation is hierarchical and multitiered, rather than being strictly sequential as in classical generative phonology, and includes syllabic structure and segmental information. Phonological rules or processes result from, and are constrained by, principles of association between the various autonomous levels. If a child comes to the language-learning situation with a representional framework, a set of universal 'templates' are then available to utilize for decoding and encoding. The incorporation of both syllabic (prosodic level) and segmental information in representation suggests that the child will come to the language-learning process primed with expected syllable structure bases as well as with an expected segmental 'feature inventory'. The concept of autonomy implies possible independent learning for information on the various tiers, e.g. between the prosodic and segmental levels. The concept of hierarchy suggests that prominent system units in tree structure may have developmental precedence over deeply embedded units. These and other concepts are developed in the following pages. PMID:20670203

Bernhardt, B

1992-01-01

216

Preserved subliminal processing and impaired conscious access in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of visual backward masking have frequently revealed an elevated masking threshold in schizophrenia. This finding has frequently been interpreted as indicating a low-level visual deficit. However, more recent models suggest that masking may also involve late and higher-level integrative processes, while leaving intact early “bottom-up” visual processing. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that the backward masking deficit in schizophrenia corresponds to a deficit in the late stages of conscious perception, whereas the subliminal processing of masked stimuli is fully preserved. Method 28 patients with schizophrenia and 28 normal controls performed two backward-masking experiments. We used Arabic digits as stimuli and varied quasi-continuously the interval with a subsequent mask, thus allowing us to progressively “unmask” the stimuli. We finely quantified their degree of visibility using both objective and subjective measures to evaluate the threshold duration for access to consciousness. We also studied the priming effect caused by the variably masked numbers on a comparison task performed on a subsequently presented and highly visible target number. Results The threshold delay between digit and mask necessary for the conscious perception of the masked stimulus was longer in patients compared to control subjects. This higher consciousness threshold in patients was confirmed by an objective and a subjective measure, and both measures were highly correlated for patients as well as for controls. However, subliminal priming of masked numbers was effective and identical in patients compared to controls. Conclusions Access to conscious report of masked stimuli is impaired in schizophrenia, while fast bottom-up processing of the same stimuli, as assessed by subliminal priming, is preserved. These findings suggest a high-level origin of the masking deficit in schizophrenia, although they leave open for further research its exact relation to previously identified bottom-up visual processing abnormalities. PMID:17146006

Del Cul, Antoine; Dehaene, Stanislas; Leboyer, Marion

2006-01-01

217

From Hindsight to Foresight: Working Around Barriers to Success in Phonological Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major goal of phonological intervention is to help bring a child's speech development to within normal range for his or her developmental stage. Reaching that goal may take longer than anticipated for some children. This paper illustrates an in-depth retrospective evaluation of assessment data from one child with a phonological impairment, who…

Baker, Elise; Bernhardt, Barbara

2004-01-01

218

Auditory Sensitivity, Speech Perception, and Reading Development and Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the importance of phonological sensitivity for understanding reading acquisition and impairment across orthographies\\u000a is well documented, what underlies deficits in phonological sensitivity is not well understood. Some researchers have argued\\u000a that speech perception underlies variability in phonological representations. Others have investigated the role of more general\\u000a auditory sensitivity for reading development and reading difficulties, arguing that poor phonological representations

Juan Zhang; Catherine McBride-Chang

2010-01-01

219

Phonological Underspecification and Mapping Mechanisms in the Speech Recognition Lexicon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of recognizing phonological variations in the speech input has triggered numerous treatments in speech processing models. Two areas of current controversy are the possibility of phonological underspecification in the mental lexicon and the nature of the mapping mechanism from the speech signal to the abstract lexical entry. We present…

Wheeldon, Linda; Waksler, Rachelle

2004-01-01

220

On the Nature of Phonological Assembly: Evidence from Backward Masking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used backward masking paradigm to investigate nature and time course of phonological assembly. Two experiments examined to what extent phonological assembly is a serial process. One showed recognition rates in a backward masking task varied as a function of the serial position of phonemes that were shared between backward masks and target words;…

Perry, Conrad; Ziegler, Johannes C.

2002-01-01

221

Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia—a developmental analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper presents data from seven developmental dyslexics who exhibit the profile of abilities which can be described as “phonological” dyslexia. Three of the cases, all children, were of low reading age; four cases, one of which was an adult, had reading ages above ten years. Tests of reading, spelling and auditory processing revealed a range of phonological deficits

Maggie Snowling; Joy Stackhouse; John Rack

1986-01-01

222

Semantic typicality effects in acquired dyslexia: Evidence for semantic impairment in deep dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acquired deep dyslexia is characterised by impairment in grapheme-phoneme conversion and production of semantic errors in oral reading. Several theories have attempted to explain the production of semantic errors in deep dyslexia, some proposing that they arise from impairments in both grapheme-phoneme and lexical-semantic processing, and others proposing that such errors stem from a deficit in phonological production. Whereas

Ellyn A. Riley; Cynthia K. Thompson

2010-01-01

223

Phonological decoding involves left posterior fusiform gyrus.  

PubMed

Aloud reading of novel words is achieved by phonological decoding, a process in which grapheme-to-phoneme conversion rules are applied to "sound out" a word's spoken representation. Numerous brain imaging studies have examined the neural bases of phonological decoding by contrasting pseudoword (pronounceable nonwords) to real word reading. However, only a few investigations have examined pseudoword reading under both aloud and silent conditions, task parameters that are likely to significantly alter the functional anatomy of phonological decoding. Subjects participated in an fMRI study of aloud pseudoword, aloud real word, silent pseudoword, and silent real word reading. Using this two-by-two design, we examined effects of word-type (real words vs. pseudowords) and response-modality (silent vs. aloud) and their interactions. We found 1) four regions to be invariantly active across the four reading conditions: the anterior aspect of the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann's Area (BA) 6), and three areas within the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex; 2) a main effect of word-type (pseudowords > words) in left inferior frontal gyrus and left intraparietal sulcus; 3) a main effect of response-modality (aloud > silent) that included bilateral motor, auditory, and extrastriate cortex; and 4) a single left hemisphere extrastriate region showing a word-type by response-modality interaction effect. This region, within the posterior fusiform cortex at BA 19, was uniquely modulated by varying phonological processing demands. This result suggests that when reading, word forms are subject to phonological analysis at the point they are first recognized as alphabetic stimuli and BA 19 is involved in processing the phonological properties of words. PMID:15934062

Dietz, Nicole A E; Jones, Karen M; Gareau, Lynn; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Eden, Guinevere F

2005-10-01

224

Using Parallel Distributed Processing Models to Simulate Phonological Dyslexia: The Key Role of Plasticity-related Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

PMSP96 [Plaut, D. C., McClelland, J. L., Seidenberg, M. S., & Patterson, K. Understanding normal and impaired word reading: Computational principles in quasi-regular domains. Psychological Review, 103, 56115, 1996, Simulation 4] is an implementation of the triangle model of reading, which was able to simulate effects found in normal and surface dyslexic readers. This study replicated the original findings and

Stephen R. Welbourne; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

2007-01-01

225

Language evolution: syntax before phonology?  

PubMed

Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364

Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P; Manser, Marta B; Townsend, Simon W

2014-08-01

226

Language evolution: syntax before phonology?  

PubMed Central

Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364

Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P.; Manser, Marta B.; Townsend, Simon W.

2014-01-01

227

A longitudinal case study of developmental phonological dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a four-year follow-up study of JM, a developmental phonological dyslexic previously described by Snowling, Stackhouse, and Rack (1986). JM has made some progress in reading and spelling although these skills remain severely impaired. His reading and spelling skills are consistent with arrest in the logographic phase of literacy development as described by Frith (1985); reading errors are primarily

Maggie Snowling; Charles Hulme

1989-01-01

228

On Some Theoretical Implications of Winnebago Phonology  

E-print Network

This paper is essentially a commentary on Steriade 1990, which deals i.a. with certain aspects of Winnebago phonology. The issues cluster around a much-discussed process known as Dorsey's Law (see Miner 1992 and references given there) which...

Miner, Kenneth L.

1993-01-01

229

Phonological and orthographic demands in the production of handwriting.  

PubMed

In an experimental handwriting task, with two parts, we varied the phonological and orthographic complexity of visually presented nonwords. Twelve adult subjects had to write these nonwords in shorthand as well as in Latin script. Phonological complexity was varied by presenting a nonword which included two identical vowel characters. These were either phonologically similar (simple condition) or phonologically different (complex condition). Orthographic complexity was varied by using nonwords which either have a graphemic format for shorthand that corresponds with the graphemic format that is applied for Latin script (simple condition) or a graphemic format for shorthand which is discrepant from the Latin script format (complex condition). It appeared that a higher degree of phonological and orthographic complexity led to a slower and less fluent performance in graphemes that preceded the actual locus of complexity of the nonword. Furthermore, complexity effects were by far the strongest under the production of shorthand. The results are interpreted from the point of view of a psychomotor theory of handwriting, which assumes that the spelling process of visually presented nonwords may follow a phonological or an orthographic (sublexical) route. The finding that orthographic complexity interferes with the production of a phonologically oriented task such as shorthand is interpreted as evidence in favour of an interactive transmission of information between these two processing routes. PMID:8475769

Portier, S J; van Galen, G P; Thomassen, A J

1993-03-01

230

Electrophysiological Indices of Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A range of studies have shown difficulties in perceiving acoustic and phonetic information in dyslexia; however, much less is known about how such difficulties relate to the perception of individual words. The authors present data from event-related potentials (ERPs) examining the hypothesis that children with dyslexia have difficulties…

Desroches, Amy S.; Newman, Randy Lynn; Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.

2013-01-01

231

Learning Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…

Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris

2009-01-01

232

Children with Specific Language Impairment Also Show Impairment of Music-syntactic Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both language and music consist of sequences that are structured according to syntactic regularities. We used two specific event-related brain potential (ERP) components to investigate music-syntactic processing in children: the ERAN (early right anterior negativity) and the N5. The neural resources underlying these processes have been posited to overlap with those involved in the processing of linguistic syntax. Thus, we

Sebastian Jentschke; Stefan Koelsch; Stephan Sallat; Angela D. Friederici

2008-01-01

233

Impairments of lexical-semantic processing in aphasia: evidence from the processing of lexical ambiguities.  

PubMed

Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics performed speeded lexical decisions on the third member of auditorily presented triplets consisting of two word primes followed by either a word or a nonword. In three of the four priming conditions, the second prime was a homonym with two unrelated meanings. The relation of the first prime and the target with the two meanings of the homonym was manipulated in the different priming conditions. The two readings of the ambiguous words either shared their grammatical form class (noun-noun ambiguities) or not (noun-verb ambiguities). The silent intervals between the members of the triplets were varied between 100, 500, and 1250 msec. Priming at the shortest interval is mainly attributed to automatic lexical processing, and priming at the longest interval is mainly due to forms of controlled lexical processing. For both Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics overall priming effects were obtained at ISIs of 100 and 500 msec, but not at an ISI of 1250 msec. This pattern of results is consistent with the view that both types of aphasics can automatically access the semantic lexicon, but might be impaired in integrating lexical-semantic information into the context. Broca's aphasics showed a specific impairment in selecting the contextually appropriate reading of noun-verb ambiguities, which is suggested to result from a failure either in the on-line morphological parsing of complex word forms into a stem and an inflection or in the on-line exploitation of the syntactic implications of the inflectional suffix. In a final experiment patients were asked to explicitly judge the semantic relations between a subset of the primes that were used in the lexical decision study. Wernicke's aphasics performed worse than both Broca's aphasics and normal controls, indicating a specific impairment for these patients in consciously operating on automatically accessed lexical-semantic information. PMID:8358597

Hagoort, P

1993-08-01

234

Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition  

PubMed Central

Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task. PMID:21159322

Wilson, Lisa B.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E.; Rojas, Donald C.

2011-01-01

235

Lesions impairing regular versus irregular past tense production?  

PubMed Central

We investigated selective impairments in the production of regular and irregular past tense by examining language performance and lesion sites in a sample of twelve stroke patients. A disadvantage in regular past tense production was observed in six patients when phonological complexity was greater for regular than irregular verbs, and in three patients when phonological complexity was closely matched across regularity. These deficits were not consistently related to grammatical difficulties or phonological errors but were consistently related to lesion site. All six patients with a regular past tense disadvantage had damage to the left ventral pars opercularis (in the inferior frontal cortex), an area associated with articulatory sequencing in prior functional imaging studies. In addition, those that maintained a disadvantage for regular verbs when phonological complexity was controlled had damage to the left ventral supramarginal gyrus (in the inferior parietal lobe), an area associated with phonological short-term memory. When these frontal and parietal regions were spared in patients who had damage to subcortical (n = 2) or posterior temporo-parietal regions (n = 3), past tense production was relatively unimpaired for both regular and irregular forms. The remaining (12th) patient was impaired in producing regular past tense but was significantly less accurate when producing irregular past tense. This patient had frontal, parietal, subcortical and posterior temporo-parietal damage, but was distinguished from the other patients by damage to the left anterior temporal cortex, an area associated with semantic processing. We consider how our lesion site and behavioral observations have implications for theoretical accounts of past tense production. PMID:24273726

Meteyard, Lotte; Price, Cathy J.; Woollams, Anna M.; Aydelott, Jennifer

2013-01-01

236

Semantic and phonological information in sentence recall: converging psycholinguistic and neuropsychological evidence.  

PubMed

We present one experiment and a neuropsychological case study to investigate to what extent phonological and semantic representations contribute to short-term sentence recall. We modified Potter and Lombardi's (1990) intrusion paradigm, in which retention of a list interferes with sentence recall such that on the list a semantically related lure is presented, which is expected to intrude into sentence recall. In our version, lure words are either semantically related to target words in the sentence or semantically plus phonologically related. With healthy participants, intrusions are more frequent when lure and target overlap phonologically in addition to semantically than when they solely overlap semantically. When this paradigm is applied to a patient with a phonological short-term memory impairment, both lure types induce the same amount of intrusions. These findings indicate that usually phonological information is retained in sentence recall in addition to semantic information. PMID:22813068

Schweppe, Judith; Rummer, Ralf; Bormann, Tobias; Martin, Randi C

2011-12-01

237

Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

2012-01-01

238

Speed of processing and depression affect function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the effect of depression and cognition on function in older adults with amnestic and nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI; nonaMCI). Design The study uses baseline data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center. Setting Data was collected at multiple Alzheimer’s Disease Centers in the United States. Participants The sample included a total of 3117 individuals with MCI, mean age = 74.37 years, SD = 9.37 (aMCI n =2488; nonaMCI n = 629). Measurements The 10-item Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessed function. Results Depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), memory impairment (Logical Memory II), and processing speed decrements (Digit Symbol Substitution Test) were significantly associated with functional impairment (p < .001). Processing speed partially mediated the effect of depression on function and fully mediated the effect of executive dysfunction on function (p < .001) in the total MCI and aMCI subsample, while in the nonaMCI subsample processing speed mediated the effect of executive function but not the effect of depression (p = .20) on function. Conclusions The findings show that processing speed is central to the effect that depression and executive dysfunction have on functional impairment in cognitively impaired older adults. Future studies are needed to better understand the physiological underpinnings in age-related and disease-specific decrements in processing speed, and to address the problems in the assessment of processing speed in clinical samples. PMID:23567401

Brown, Patrick J.; Liu, Xinhua; Sneed, Joel R.; Pimontel, Monique A.; Devanand, D.P.; Roose, Steven P.

2012-01-01

239

Developmental Increase in Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processing in a Phonological Task: An Effective Connectivity, fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined age-related changes in the interactions among brain regions in children performing rhyming judgments on visually presented words. The difficulty of the task was manipulated by including a conflict between task-relevant (phonological) information and task-irrelevant (orthographic) information. The conflicting conditions included pairs…

Bitan, Tali; Cheon, Jimmy; Lu, Dong; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

2009-01-01

240

Understanding Phonological Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Dissociation of Short-Term Storage and Articulatory Rehearsal Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study dissociated and examined the two primary components of the phonological working memory subsystem--the short-term store and articulatory rehearsal mechanism--in boys with ADHD (n = 18) relative to typically developing boys (n = 15). Word lists of increasing length (2, 4, and 6 words per trial) were presented to and recalled by…

Bolden, Jennifer; Rapport, Mark D.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

2012-01-01

241

The Role of Visual and Phonological Representations in the Processing of Written Words by Readers with Diagnosed Dyslexia: Evidence from a Working Memory Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to elucidate the nature and efficiency of the strategies that readers with phonological dyslexia use for temporary retention of written words in Working Memory (WM). Data was gathered through a paradigm whereby participants had to identify serially presented written (target) words from within larger word pools according to…

Miller, Paul; Kupfermann, Amirit

2009-01-01

242

Prefrontal cortex activity during response selection predicts processing speed impairment in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Processing speed is the most impaired neuropsychological domain in schizophrenia and a robust predictor of functional outcome. Determining the specific cognitive operations underlying processing speed dysfunction and identifying their neural correlates may assist in developing pro-cognitive interventions. Response selection, the process of mapping stimuli onto motor responses, correlates with neuropsychological tests of processing speed and may contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. This study investigated the relationship between behavioral and neural measures of response selection, and a neuropsychological index of processing speed in schizophrenia. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning during performance of two- and four-choice reaction time (RT) tasks and completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS) Processing Speed Index (PSI). Response selection, defined as RT slowing between two- and four-choice RT, was impaired in schizophrenia and correlated with psychometric processing speed. Greater activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) was observed in schizophrenia and correlated with poorer WAIS PSI scores. Deficient response selection and abnormal recruitment of the dorsolateral PFC during response selection contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. Interventions that improve response selection and normalize dorsolateral PFC function may improve processing speed in schizophrenia. PMID:23816240

Woodward, Neil D; Duffy, Brittney; Karbasforoushan, Haleh

2013-08-01

243

Prefrontal cortex activity during response selection predicts processing speed impairment in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Processing speed is the most impaired neuropsychological domain in schizophrenia and a robust predictor of functional outcome. Determining the specific cognitive operations underlying processing speed dysfunction and indentifying their neural correlates may assist in developing pro-cognitive interventions. Response selection, the process of mapping stimuli onto motor responses, correlates with neuropsychological tests of processing speed and may contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. This study investigated the relationship between behavioral and neural measures of response selection, and a neuropsychological index of processing speed in schizophrenia. 26 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning during performance of 2 and 4-choice-reaction time (RT) tasks and completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS) Processing Speed Index (PSI). Response selection, defined as RT slowing between 2 and 4-choice RT, was impaired in schizophrenia and correlated with psychometric processing speed. Greater activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) was observed in schizophrenia and correlated with poorer WAIS PSI scores. Deficient response selection and abnormal recruitment of the dorsolateral PFC during response selection contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. Interventions that improve response selection and normalize dorsolateral PFC function may improve processing speed in schizophrenia. PMID:23816240

Woodward, Neil D.; Duffy-Alberto, Brittney; Karbasforoushan, Haleh

2014-01-01

244

Effects of Onset Density in Preschool Children: Implications for Development of Phonological Awareness and Phonological Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neighborhood density influences adult performance on several word processing tasks. Some studies show age-related effects of density on children's performance, reflecting a developmental restructuring of the mental lexicon from holistic into segmental representations that may play a role in phonological awareness. To further investigate density…

Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia A.

2009-01-01

245

Selective impairment of self body-parts processing in right brain-damaged patients.  

PubMed

To investigate whether the processing of the visual appearance of one's own body, that is the corporeal self is a unified or modular function we submitted eight right brain-damaged (RBD) patients and a group of fourteen age-matched neurologically healthy subjects, to a visual matching-to-sample task testing for corporeal self processing. If corporeal self processing is a unique function (i.e., body- and face-parts are processed by the same network), patients impaired in self body-parts (i.e., showing no self-advantage) should be impaired also in self face-parts; alternatively, if corporeal self processing is a modular function (i.e., body- and face-parts are processed by different networks), patients impaired in self body-parts should be unimpaired in self face-parts, unless the face-module is also damaged by the lesion. Results showed that healthy participants were more accurate in processing pictures representing their own as compared to other people's body- and face-parts, showing the so-called self-advantage. The patients' findings revealed a simple dissociation, in that patients who were impaired in the processing of self-related body-parts showed a preserved self-advantage when processing self-related face-parts, thus providing initial evidence of a modular representation of the corporeal self. PMID:19482271

Frassinetti, Francesca; Maini, Manuela; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Avanzi, Stefano; Cantagallo, Anna; Farnè, Alessandro

2010-03-01

246

Deep dyslexia for kanji and phonological dyslexia for kana: Different manifestations from a common source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Japanese-speaking stroke patient with disrupted phonology but relatively good semantics was severely impaired in nonword reading, with better preserved and imageability-modulated word-reading in both kanji and kana. This basic similarity of reading in the two Japanese scripts was accompanied by the following differences: (i) distinct error patterns (prominent semantic errors for kanji vs. phonological errors for kana); (ii) a

Hitomi Sato; Karalyn Patterson; Takao Fushimi; Jane Maxim; Karen Bryan

2008-01-01

247

Electrophysiological Correlates of Rapid Auditory and Linguistic Processing in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief tonal stimuli and spoken sentences were utilized to examine whether adolescents (aged 14;3-18;1) with specific language impairments (SLI) exhibit atypical neural activity for rapid auditory processing of non-linguistic stimuli and linguistic processing of verb-agreement and semantic constraints. Further, we examined whether the behavioral…

Weber-Fox, Christine; Leonard, Laurence B.; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2010-01-01

248

Word processing in Parkinson's Disease is impaired for action verbs but not for concrete nouns  

E-print Network

1 Word processing in Parkinson's Disease is impaired for action verbs but not for concrete nouns Lyon I, INSERM U864, Lyon, France. Running Title: Action word processing in Parkinson's Disease by examining the impact of Parkinson's Disease (PD) on lexical decision performance for action words, relative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

Visuo-Spatial Processing and Executive Functions in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Individual differences in complex working memory tasks reflect simultaneous processing, executive functions, and attention control. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show a deficit in verbal working memory tasks that involve simultaneous processing of information. Aims: The purpose of the study was to examine executive…

Marton, Klara

2008-01-01

250

Effect Size in Clinical Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2011-01-01

251

Distinct genetic influences on grammar and phonological short-term memory deficits: evidence from 6-year-old twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with language impairments have limitations of phonological short-term memory (STM) and have dis- tinctive problems with certain aspects of grammar. Both deficits have been proposed as phenotypic markers of heritable language impairment. We studied 173 twin pairs, selected to be over-representative of children with risk of developmental language impairment, using a battery of standardized language and intelligence tests, a

D. V. M. Bishop; C. V. Adams; C. F. Norbury

2006-01-01

252

Digital Signal Processing of Speech for the Hearing Impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some speech processing algorithms developed for hearing aid applications. However these algorithms are also applicable for other speech and audio applications. Considering that the basic properties of speech remain invariant across applications, it is logical to consider these algorithms under the broader umbrella of 'unified theory of speech.' These algorithms have been implemented on Texas Instruments (TI)

N. Magotra; F. Livingston; S. Savadatti; S. Kamath

253

Aberrant Pattern of Scanning in Prosopagnosia Reflects Impaired Face Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual scanpath recording was used to investigate the information processing strategies used by a prosopagnosic patient, SC, when viewing faces. Compared to controls, SC showed an aberrant pattern of scanning, directing attention away from the internal configuration of facial features (eyes, nose) towards peripheral regions (hair, forehead) of the…

Stephan, Blossom Christa Maree; Caine, Diana

2009-01-01

254

Gesture and the Nature of Semantic Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…

Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.

2009-01-01

255

Contributions of phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory, and rapid automated naming, toward decoding ability in students with mild intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual disability who commonly suffer from reading decoding problems. This study is aimed at determining the contributions of phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory, and rapid automated naming, as three well known phonological processing skills, to decoding ability among 60 participants with mild intellectual disability of unspecified origin ranging from 15 to 23 years old. The results of the correlation analysis revealed that all three aspects of phonological processing are significantly correlated with decoding ability. Furthermore, a series of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that after controlling the effect of IQ, phonological awareness, and rapid automated naming are two distinct sources of decoding ability, but phonological short-term memory significantly contributes to decoding ability under the realm of phonological awareness. PMID:23314249

Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

2013-03-01

256

Hyperthermia impaired pre-attentive processing: an auditory MMN study.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of hyperthermia on pre-attentive processing by recording the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of ERPs. 36 right-handed young male undergraduates were divided into two groups, a control group with 1h of exposure at 25°C and a heat group with 1h of exposure at 50°C. MMNs were recorded before and after heat exposure. It was found that, although there was no group difference before heat exposure, MMN declined significantly in the heat group compared to the control group after heat exposure for 1h, indicating that passive heat exposure could damage pre-attentive processing. The MMN component could be a good index to assess cognitive functioning in a hot environment. PMID:21820488

Sun, Gang; Li, Li; Li, Min; Jiang, Qingjun

2011-09-15

257

The locus of impairment in English developmental letter position dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Many children with reading difficulties display phonological deficits and struggle to acquire non-lexical reading skills. However, not all children with reading difficulties have these problems, such as children with selective letter position dyslexia (LPD), who make excessive migration errors (such as reading slime as “smile”). Previous research has explored three possible loci for the deficit – the phonological output buffer, the orthographic input lexicon, and the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. While there is compelling evidence against a phonological output buffer and orthographic input lexicon deficit account of English LPD, the evidence in support of an orthographic-visual analysis deficit is currently limited. In this multiple single-case study with three English-speaking children with developmental LPD, we aimed to both replicate and extend previous findings regarding the locus of impairment in English LPD. First, we ruled out a phonological output buffer and an orthographic input lexicon deficit by administering tasks that directly assess phonological processing and lexical guessing. We then went on to directly assess whether or not children with LPD have an orthographic-visual analysis deficit by modifying two tasks that have previously been used to localize processing at this level: a same-different decision task and a non-word reading task. The results from these tasks indicate that LPD is most likely caused by a deficit specific to the coding of letter positions at the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. These findings provide further evidence for the heterogeneity of dyslexia and its underlying causes. PMID:24917802

Kezilas, Yvette; Kohnen, Saskia; McKague, Meredith; Castles, Anne

2014-01-01

258

The Dyslexia Spectrum: Continuities between Reading, Speech, and Language Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

D. V. M. Bishop and M. J. Snowling (2004) proposed that 2 dimensions of language are required to conceptualize the relationship between dyslexia and specific language impairment: phonological skills and wider language skills beyond phonology (grammatical, semantic, and pragmatic skills). In this article, we discuss the commonalities between…

Snowling, Margaret J.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.

2006-01-01

259

Appeared as: Anttila, A., Fong, V., Beus, S., Nycz, J. (2008). Consonant clusters in Singapore English. Phonology, 25(2), 181-216.  

E-print Network

English. Phonology, 25(2), 181-216. Variation and Opacity in Singapore English Consonant Clusters Abstract Singapore English consonant clusters undergo phonological processes that exhibit variation and opacity, the evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that phonological opacity has only one source: the interleaving

Benus, Stefan

260

Electropalatography in the treatment of articulation\\/phonological disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment using electropalatography (EPG) is described. Speech learners wear a custommade appliance called a pseudopalate in order to view their tongue-to-palate (lingual palatal) contacts on a computer monitor. The results from studies with children who have either articulation or phonology-based problems are discussed. Assessments of contact patterns used by articulation-impaired children suggests that they may produce more atypical articulatory contacts

Paul A. Dagenais

1995-01-01

261

Processing and Linguistic Markers in Young Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-two 5-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 32 chronological age (CA) controls completed 4 tasks that were considered potential positive markers for SLI. Children's performance on 2 linguistic tasks (past tense and noun plurals task) and 2 processing tasks (nonword repetition and digit recall) were examined. This…

Conti-Ramsden, Gina

2003-01-01

262

Factors associated with symbolic play development in preschoolers with hearing impairments and language processing delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A child's ability to play is dependent on various factors, both internal and environmental. This study examines the relationships between symbolic play development in children, language development in children, parental role behaviors and parenting stress. This project is specifically concerned with the development of play in relation to these other factors in a population of hearing impaired and language processing

Jennifer A Maltz

2003-01-01

263

Spectral vs. Temporal Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment: A Developmental ERP Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pre-linguistic sensory deficits, especially in "temporal" processing, have been implicated in developmental language impairment (LI). However, recent evidence has been equivocal with data suggesting problems in the spectral domain. The present study examined event-related potential (ERP) measures of auditory sensory temporal and spectral…

Ceponiene, R.; Cummings, A.; Wulfeck, B.; Ballantyne, A.; Townsend, J.

2009-01-01

264

Impaired interleukin-1 signaling is associated with deficits in hippocampal memory processes and neural plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is produced by peripheral immune cells as well as glia and neurons within the brain; it plays a major role in immune to brain communication and in modulation of neural, neuroen- docrine, and behavioral systems during illness. Although previous studies demonstrated that excess levels of IL-1 impaired memory processes and neural plasticity, it has been suggested

Avi Avital; Inbal Goshen; Ariel Kamsler; Menahem Segal; Kerstin Iverfeldt; Gal Richter-Levin; Raz Yirmiya

2003-01-01

265

Utility of a Processing Speed Measure in Screening for Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging research has suggested that the nature of cognitive deficits in Amnestic-MCI (a-MCI) may extend beyond memory impairments and can include deficits in attention (Gualtieri & Johnson, 2005; 2007). Recent studies have found significant differences between subjects with a-MCI and cognitively healthy individuals on measures of processing speed (Gorus, De Raedt, Lambert, Lemper, & Mets, 2008; Gualtieri & Johnson, 2005;

Dmitry M. Meyerson

2010-01-01

266

Processing of Mass/Count Information in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the processing of a specific linguistic distinction, the mass/count distinction, in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Fourteen AD and 10 MCI subjects were tested using a sentence grammaticality judgement task where grammaticality violations were caused by determiner--noun…

Taler, Vanessa; Jarema, Gonia

2004-01-01

267

Preserved subliminal processing and1 impaired conscious access in Schizophrenia.3  

E-print Network

Preserved subliminal processing and1 2 impaired conscious access in Schizophrenia.3 4 5 6 7 Authors threshold in schizophrenia. This finding has frequently been interpreted as indicating a low-36 level visual the hypothesis that the backward masking deficit in schizophrenia41 corresponds to a deficit in the late stages

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

268

Letter naming and letter writing reversals in children with dyslexia: momentary inefficiency in the phonological and orthographic loops of working memory.  

PubMed

Given mounting evidence for working memory impairments in dyslexia, letter reversals during rapid automatic letter naming (phonological loop) or rapid automatic letter writing (orthographic loop) may reflect momentary inefficiency of working memory. Few of the children, with or without dyslexia, in a multi-generational family genetics study, produced reversals, but those with dyslexia produced more than those without dyslexia. Working-memory component predictors (word storing and processing units, phonological and orthographic loops, and executive functions) in regressions differentiated children with dyslexia (average age 11) who did and did not make reversals, predicted the number of reversals on specific letter naming or letter writing tasks, and explained unique variance in reading and writing outcomes. Although reversals are not a hallmark defining feature of dyslexia, children who produce reversals may benefit from instruction designed to develop specific working memory components and their efficient coordination in time. PMID:21978009

Brooks, Allison D; Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D

2011-01-01

269

Cross-Language Phonological Activation of Meaning: Evidence from Category Verification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated phonological processing in bilingual reading for meaning. English-French and French-English bilinguals performed a category verification task in either their first or second language. Interlingual homophones (words that share phonology across languages but not orthography or meaning) and single language control words served…

Friesen, Deanna C.; Jared, Debra

2012-01-01

270

Phonological oddballs in the focus of attention elicit a normal P3b in dyslexic adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in phonological processing have been proposed to be the core symptom of developmental dyslexia. Phoneme awareness tasks have been shown to both index and predict individual reading ability. In a previous experiment, we observed that dyslexic adults fail to display a P3a modulation for phonological deviants within an alliterated word stream when concentrating primarily on a lexical decision task

Timothy Fosker; Guillaume Thierry

2005-01-01

271

Reading and Spelling Acquisition in French: The Role of Phonological Mediation and Orthographic Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to study the development of reading and spelling in French. The two main hypotheses were that (1) phonological mediation is the primary process in the acquisition of these skills and that (2) the use of phonological mediation may allow the construction of the orthographic lexicon. In January and June, first graders (n= 57) were

Liliane Sprenger-Charolles; Linda S. Siegel; Philippe Bonnet

1998-01-01

272

Maintenance and Generalization Effects of Semantic and Phonological Treatments of Anomia: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anomia is one of the most frequent manifestations in aphasia. Model-based treatments for anomia usually focus on semantic and/or phonological levels of processing. This study reports treatment of anomia in an individual with chronic aphasia. After baseline testing, she received a training program in which semantic and phonological treatments were…

Macoir, Joel; Routhier, Sonia; Simard, Anne; Picard, Josee

2012-01-01

273

Quantization analysis for fixed-point implementation of speech processing for the hearing impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, real time digital signal processing (DSP) has found several new applications in the biomedical arena. One of these has been in the area of hearing aids. This paper presents quantization analysis of speech processing algorithms, for the hearing impaired, for implementation on Texas Instruments' (TI) TMS320C54x (C54x) fixed point DSP chip. These algorithms were initial implemented

N. Magotra; S. Bangalore; S. Savadatti; P. Kasthuri; S. Divakar; T. Stetzler; P. Gelabert

1999-01-01

274

Temporal Processing Deficits in Remediation-Resistant Reading-Impaired Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable interest in whether a deficit in temporal processing underlies specific learning and language disabilities in school-aged children. This view is particularly controversial in the area of developmental reading problems. The temporal-processing hypothesis was tested in a sample of normal children, 9–11 years of age, and in a sample of age-matched children with reading impairments, by assessing temporal-order

Anthony T. Cacace; Dennis J. McFarland; John R. Ouimet; Edward J. Schrieber; Peggy Marro

2000-01-01

275

Biased learning of phonological alternations  

E-print Network

What is the initial state of the grammar when children begin to figure out patterns of phonological alternations? This thesis documents the developmental stages of children acquiring Korean verb and noun paradigms, and ...

Do, Young Ah

2013-01-01

276

Phonological Complexity and Language Learnability  

PubMed Central

Purpose To extend formal models of language learnability to applications in clinical treatment of children with functional phonological delays. Method The focus of the narrative review is on phonological complexity. This follows from learnability theory, whereby complexity in the linguistic input to children has been shown to trigger language learning. Drawing from the literature, phonological complexity is defined from epistemic, ontological, and functional perspectives, with specific emphasis on the application of language universals in the selection of target sounds for treatment. Results The cascading effects of phonological complexity on children’s generalization learning are illustrated, and frequently asked questions about complexity in treatment are addressed. Conclusion The role of complexity in cognitive development is introduced to demonstrate the apparent robustness of effects. PMID:17329671

Gierut, Judith A.

2008-01-01

277

Ojitlan Chinantec Phonology and Morphology  

E-print Network

This paper provides a preliminary sketch of Ojitlan Chinantec phonology and parts of its verbal morphology. Most Chinantec monomorphemic words are monosyllabic, and inflected words are often monosyllabic as well. There are numerous potential...

Macaulay, Monica

1999-01-01

278

Auditory temporal structure processing in dyslexia: processing of prosodic phrase boundaries is not impaired in children with dyslexia.  

PubMed

Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--temporal grouping--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase boundaries are characterized by temporal grouping of functionally related speech elements and can facilitate syntactic processing of speech. For example, temporary syntactic ambiguities, such as early-closure structures, are processed faster when prosodic phrase boundaries are present. We examined children's prosodic facilitation by measuring their efficiency of sentence processing for temporary syntactic ambiguities spoken with (facilitating) versus without (neutral) prosodic phrase boundaries. Both groups of children benefited similarly from prosodic facilitation, displaying faster reaction times in facilitating compared to neutral prosody. These findings indicate that the use of prosodic phrase boundaries for speech processing is not impaired in children with dyslexia. PMID:24338429

Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D E

2014-04-01

279

Impairment in face processing in autism spectrum disorder: a developmental perspective.  

PubMed

Findings on face identity and facial emotion recognition in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are inconclusive. Moreover, little is known about the developmental trajectory of face processing skills in ASD. Taking a developmental perspective, the aim of this study was to extend previous findings on face processing skills in a sample of adolescents and adults with ASD. N = 38 adolescents and adults (13-49 years) with high-functioning ASD and n = 37 typically developing (TD) control subjects matched for age and IQ participated in the study. Moreover, n = 18 TD children between the ages of 8 and 12 were included to address the question whether face processing skills in ASD follow a delayed developmental pattern. Face processing skills were assessed using computerized tasks of face identity recognition (FR) and identification of facial emotions (IFE). ASD subjects showed impaired performance on several parameters of the FR and IFE task compared to TD control adolescents and adults. Whereas TD adolescents and adults outperformed TD children in both tasks, performance in ASD adolescents and adults was similar to the group of TD children. Within the groups of ASD and control adolescents and adults, no age-related changes in performance were found. Our findings corroborate and extend previous studies showing that ASD is characterised by broad impairments in the ability to process faces. These impairments seem to reflect a developmentally delayed pattern that remains stable throughout adolescence and adulthood. PMID:24737035

Greimel, Ellen; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Remschmidt, Helmut; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

2014-09-01

280

Is the impaired N170 print tuning specific to developmental dyslexia? A matched reading-level study with poor readers and dyslexics.  

PubMed

Left N170 print tuning has been associated with visual expertise for print and has been reported to be impaired in dyslexics, using age matched designs. This is the first time N170 print tuning has been compared in adult dyslexics and adult poor readers, matched in reading level. Participants performed a lexical decision task using both word-like stimuli and symbol strings. In contrast to dyslexics, poor readers displayed similar N170 tuning to control expert readers, suggesting that impaired N170 specialization is a hallmark of developmental dyslexia. Our findings provide electrophysiological support for dyslexia being the result of abnormal specialization of the left occipito-temporal areas involved in the expert processing of print. Furthermore, as shown by correlations data and in accordance with the phonological mapping deficit theory, the impaired visual expertise for print described in dyslexics may have been caused by their core phonological deficits. PMID:24148146

Mahé, Gwendoline; Bonnefond, Anne; Doignon-Camus, Nadège

2013-12-01

281

A Phonologically Based Analysis of Misspellings by Third Graders with Disordered-Phonology Histories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misspellings evidenced by 69 3rd graders in a battery containing 25 words and 20 nonsense syllable items were analyzed phonologically. Children with histories of disordered phonologies (n=29) showed more phonologically based deviations in their misspellings, relied more on less productive spelling strategies, and showed poorer phonological

Clarke-Klein, Susan; Hodson, Barbara Williams

1995-01-01

282

Impairment in early stages of visual information processing in nonpsychotic schizotypic individuals  

E-print Network

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1977 Major Subject: Psychology IMPAIRMENT IN EARLY STAGES OF VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING IN NONPSYCHOTIC SCHIZOTYPIC INDIVIDUALS A Thesis by ROBERT JON STERONKO Approved as to sty1e and content by...- order. The MMPI 2-7-8 code type (elevated Depression, Psychasthenia and Schizophrenia scales) was used to iden- tify these subjects. This group was compared on a back- ward visual masking task with two control groups: one whose profiles were...

Steronko, Robert Jon

2012-06-07

283

Phonological awareness: one key to the reading proficiency of deaf children.  

PubMed

A case is made for the importance of children's development of phonological awareness--whether they are hearing or deaf--if they are to reach their potential as readers. Relevant terms are defined (i.e., phonological awareness, phonological processes, and phonics) to assist the reader with the research review, which covers (a) the typical stages in the acquisition of phonological awareness and (b) phonological awareness and deafness. Suggestions for phonological awareness assessment are offered, along with the recommendation that the use of recently developed formal and informal measures of phonological awareness might facilitate the setting of goals and objectives when deaf educators or speech-language pathologists are evaluating the skills of deaf students and planning instruction for these students. Such tools yield information about skills that have been shown to correlate with literacy attainment and that are not commonly addressed by deaf educators or speech-language pathologists serving deaf students. Finally, research concerning the facilitation of phonological awareness and its application is explained. PMID:12448128

Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

2002-07-01

284

On Some Claims of Atomic Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines some of the rules of atomic phonology so as to elucidate just what the theory is and is not capable of. The theory of atomic phonology maintains that all linguistic variation requiring distinctly varied formulations of phonological rules is predictable from a set of "atomic rules" and universal principles of grammar. (SED)

Wheeler, Max W.

1985-01-01

285

Phonological Working Memory in Very Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to establish whether phonological working memory skills could be assessed in children below 4 years of age. A group of 2- and 3-year-old children were tested on 3 phonological memory measures (digit span, nonword repetition, and word repetition) and were also given tasks that tapped other cognitive skills. Scores on the 3 phonological memory tasks were

Susan E. Gathercole; Anne-Marie Adams

1993-01-01

286

Phonological Awareness in Children with Down Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined phonological awareness in 17 children with Down syndrome (ages 9-14). Children demonstrated measurable levels of phonological awareness. Significant positive correlations were found among phonological awareness and reading and spelling competence, and ability to spell non-words and non-verbal measures. (Contains references.)…

Fletcher, Helen; Buckley, Sue

2002-01-01

287

Phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the area of phonological awareness has mainly focused on the nature of the relationship between reading ability and awareness of phonemes. However, a recent study of phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome questioned the existence of any neces- sary relationship (Cossu, Rossini & Marshall, 1993). This paper describes a study of phonological awareness in children with Down

Helen Fletcher; Sue Buckley

2002-01-01

288

On Phonological Representations, Rules, and Opacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A fundamental concept of generative phonology stating that related morphemes have unique phonological representations is criticized. It is argued that more morphologization of phonological rules is needed to explain morphophonemic changes. (Available from North-Holland Publishing Co., P. O. Box 211, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.) (CHK)

Barkai, Malachi

1975-01-01

289

Early ERP Signature of Hearing Impairment in Visual Rhyme Judgment  

PubMed Central

Postlingually acquired hearing impairment (HI) is associated with changes in the representation of sound in semantic long-term memory. An indication of this is the lower performance on visual rhyme judgment tasks in conditions where phonological and orthographic cues mismatch, requiring high reliance on phonological representations. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used for the first time to investigate the neural correlates of phonological processing in visual rhyme judgments in participants with acquired HI and normal hearing (NH). Rhyme task word pairs rhymed or not and had matching or mismatching orthography. In addition, the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) was manipulated to be either long (800?ms) or short (50?ms). Long ISIs allow for engagement of explicit, top-down processes, while short ISIs limit the involvement of such mechanisms. We hypothesized lower behavioral performance and N400 and N2 deviations in HI in the mismatching rhyme judgment conditions, particularly in short ISI. However, the results showed a different pattern. As expected, behavioral performance in the mismatch conditions was lower in HI than in NH in short ISI, but ERPs did not differ across groups. In contrast, HI performed on a par with NH in long ISI. Further, HI, but not NH, showed an amplified N2-like response in the non-rhyming, orthographically mismatching condition in long ISI. This was also the rhyme condition in which participants in both groups benefited the most from the possibility to engage top-down processes afforded with the longer ISI. Taken together, these results indicate an early ERP signature of HI in this challenging phonological task, likely reflecting use of a compensatory strategy. This strategy is suggested to involve increased reliance on explicit mechanisms such as articulatory recoding and grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. PMID:23653613

Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Johansson, Mikael; Ronnberg, Jerker

2013-01-01

290

Histamine H1 receptor antagonist cetirizine impairs working memory processing speed, but not episodic memory  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The histaminergic neurotransmitter system is currently under investigation as a target for drug treatment of cognitive deficits in clinical disorders. The therapeutic potential of new drugs may initially be screened using a model of histaminergic dysfunction, for example, as associated with the use of centrally active antihistamines. Of the selective second generation antihistamines, cetirizine has been found to have central nervous system effects. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cetirizine can be used as a tool to model cognitive deficits associated with histaminergic hypofunction. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The study was conducted according to a three-way, double-blind, cross-over design. Treatments were single oral doses of cetirizine 10 and 20 mg and placebo. Effects on cognition were assessed using tests of word learning, memory scanning, vigilance, divided attention, tracking and visual information processing speed. KEY RESULTS Cetirizine 10 mg impaired tracking performance and both doses impaired memory scanning speed. None of the other measures indicated impaired performance. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Cetirizine affects information processing speed, but these effects were not sufficient to serve as a model for cognitive deficits in clinical disorders. PMID:20735428

van Ruitenbeek, P; Vermeeren, A; Riedel, WJ

2010-01-01

291

Grey matter hypometabolism and atrophy in Parkinson's disease with cognitive impairment: a two-step process.  

PubMed

The pathophysiological process underlying cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease is not well understood. Cerebral atrophy and hypometabolism have been described in patients with Parkinson's disease and dementia or mild cognitive impairment with respect to control subjects. However, the exact relationships between atrophy and hypometabolism are still unclear. To determine the extension and topographical distribution of hypometabolism and atrophy in the different cognitive states of Parkinson's disease, we examined 46 patients with Parkinson's disease (19 female, 27 male; 71.7 ± 5.9 years old; 14.6 ± 4.2 years of disease evolution; modified Hoehn and Yahr mean stage 3.1 ± 0.7). Cognitive status was diagnosed as normal in 14 patients, as mild cognitive impairment in 17 and as dementia in 15 patients. Nineteen normal subjects (eight female, 11 male; 68.1 ± 3.2 years old) were included as controls. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained, co-registered, corrected for partial volume effect and spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute space in each subject. Smoothing was applied to the positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans to equalize their effective smoothness and resolution (10 mm and 12 mm full-width at half-maximum and Gaussian kernel, respectively). Z-score maps for atrophy and for hypometabolism were obtained by comparing individual images to the data set of control subjects. For each group of patients, a paired Student's t-test was performed to statistically compare the two Z-map modalities (P < 0.05 false discovery rate corrected) using the direct voxel-based comparison technique. In patients with mild cognitive impairment, hypometabolism exceeded atrophy in the angular gyrus, occipital, orbital and anterior frontal lobes. In patients with dementia, the hypometabolic areas observed in the group with mild cognitive impairment were replaced by areas of atrophy, which were surrounded by extensive zones of hypometabolism. Areas where atrophy was more extended than hypometabolism were found in the precentral and supplementary motor areas in both patients with mild cognitive impairment and with dementia, and in the hippocampus and temporal lobe in patients with dementia. These findings suggest that there is a gradient of severity in cortical changes associated with the development of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease in which hypometabolism and atrophy represent consecutive stages of the same process in most of the cortical regions affected. PMID:24951642

González-Redondo, Rafael; García-García, David; Clavero, Pedro; Gasca-Salas, Carmen; García-Eulate, Reyes; Zubieta, José L; Arbizu, Javier; Obeso, José A; Rodríguez-Oroz, María C

2014-08-01

292

Orienting responses to various visual stimuli in children with visual processing impairments or infantile nystagmus syndrome.  

PubMed

Quantification of orienting responses can be used to differentiate between children with cerebral visual impairment and infantile nystagmus syndrome. To further improve the sensitivity of this method, we compared orienting responses to a Cartoon stimulus, which contains all sorts of visual information, to stimuli that contain only Contrast, Form coherence, Motion coherence, Color and Motion detection. The stimuli were shown on an eye tracker monitor using a preferential looking paradigm. We found that both groups of children showed general slowing in orienting responses compared to controls. The children with cerebral visual impairment had significantly prolonged responses to Cartoon compared to the children with nystagmus, whereas the children with nystagmus had prolonged responses to Motion detection and larger fixation areas. Previously reported differences in orienting responses to Cartoon were replicated. Application of specific visual information did not alter the sensitivity of the method to distinguish between children with visual processing deficits. PMID:24334347

Pel, J J M; Kooiker, M J G; van der Does, J M E; Boot, F H; de Faber, J T; van der Steen-Kant, S P; van der Steen, J

2014-12-01

293

Optimizing the assessment of pain in children who are cognitively impaired through the quality improvement process.  

PubMed

Pain assessment in children with cognitive impairment (CI) is challenging. A quality improvement (QI) project involving evidence-based review of pain assessment tools, feedback from the Family Advisory Council, trialing of selected tools within clinical settings including obtaining feedback from nurses, and parents caring for nonverbal children with developmental delay was reported. Synthesized evidence supported the adoption of revised Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability pain assessment tool into clinical practice. Results of postimplementation audit and challenges of staff nurse involvement in the QI process were also discussed. The 24-month-long QI process and its impact on changing practice were described in detail. PMID:22497741

Chen-Lim, Mei Lin; Zarnowsky, Colleen; Green, Renee; Shaffer, Susan; Holtzer, Brenda; Ely, Elizabeth

2012-12-01

294

Visual rapid naming and phonological abilities: different subtypes in dyslexic children.  

PubMed

One implication of the double-deficit hypothesis for dyslexia is that there should be subtypes of dyslexic readers that exhibit rapid naming deficits with or without concomitant phonological processing problems. In the current study, we investigated the validity of this hypothesis for Portuguese orthography, which is more consistent than English orthography, by exploring different cognitive profiles in a sample of dyslexic children. In particular, we were interested in identifying readers characterized by a pure rapid automatized naming deficit. We also examined whether rapid naming and phonological awareness independently account for individual differences in reading performance. We characterized the performance of dyslexic readers and a control group of normal readers matched for age on reading, visual rapid naming and phonological processing tasks. Our results suggest that there is a subgroup of dyslexic readers with intact phonological processing capacity (in terms of both accuracy and speed measures) but poor rapid naming skills. We also provide evidence for an independent association between rapid naming and reading competence in the dyslexic sample, when the effect of phonological skills was controlled. Altogether, the results are more consistent with the view that rapid naming problems in dyslexia represent a second core deficit rather than an exclusive phonological explanation for the rapid naming deficits. Furthermore, additional non-phonological processes, which subserve rapid naming performance, contribute independently to reading development. PMID:22044084

Araújo, Susana; Pacheco, Andreia; Faísca, Luís; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

2010-12-01

295

Wots that Werd? Pseudowords (Non-Words) May Be a Misleading Measure of Phonological Skills in Young Learner Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pseudoword (non-word) reading tasks are a commonly used measure of phonological processing across diverse fields of reading research. However, whether pseudoword reading gives any more information about phonological processing in young learner readers than does the reading of real words has seldom been considered. Here we show that pseudoword and…

Thomson, Brenda; Crewther, David P.; Crewther, Sheila G.

2006-01-01

296

Cocaine Users Manifest Impaired Prosodic and Cross-Modal Emotion Processing  

PubMed Central

Background: A small number of previous studies have provided evidence that cocaine users (CU) exhibit impairments in complex social cognition tasks, while the more basic facial emotion recognition is widely unaffected. However, prosody and cross-modal emotion processing has not been systematically investigated in CU so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess complex multisensory emotion processing in CU in comparison to controls and to examine a potential association with drug use patterns. Method: The abbreviated version of the comprehensive affect testing system (CATS-A) was used to measure emotion perception across the three channels of facial affect, prosody, and semantic content in 58 CU and 48 healthy control (HC) subjects who were matched for age, sex, verbal intelligence, and years of education. Results: CU had significantly lower scores than controls in the quotient scales of “emotion recognition” and “prosody recognition” and the subtests “conflicting prosody/meaning – attend to prosody” and “match emotional prosody to emotional face” either requiring to attend to prosody or to integrate cross-modal information. In contrast, no group difference emerged for the “affect recognition quotient.” Cumulative cocaine doses and duration of cocaine use correlated negatively with emotion processing. Conclusion: CU show impaired cross-modal integration of different emotion processing channels particularly with regard to prosody, whereas more basic aspects of emotion processing such as facial affect perception are comparable to the performance of HC. PMID:24046750

Hulka, Lea M.; Preller, Katrin H.; Vonmoos, Matthias; Broicher, Sarah D.; Quednow, Boris B.

2013-01-01

297

Dedifferentiation and substitute strategy: Deconstructing the processing-speed impairment in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Recent research has identified impairment in processing speed, measured by the digit–symbol substitution task, as central to the cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. However, the underlying cognitive correlates of this impairment remain unknown. Methods A sample of cases (N=125) meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and a sample of community controls (N=272) from the same geographical area completedaset of putative measures of processing-speed ability to which we implemented confirmatory factor and structural regression modelling in order to elucidate the latent structure of processing speed. Next, we tested the degree to which the structural and relational portions of the model were equal across groups. Results Processing-speed ability was best defined, in both controls and cases (?2=38.5926, p=0.053), as a multidimensional cognitive ability consisting of three latent factors comprising: psychomotor speed, sequencing and shifting, and verbal fluency. However, cases exhibited dedifferentiation (i.e., markedly stronger inter-correlations between factors; ?2=59.9429, p < .01) and a reliance on an alternative ensemble of cognitive operations to controls when completing the digit–symbol substitution task. Conclusion Dedifferentiation of processing-speed ability in schizophrenia and subsequent overreliance on alternative (and possibly less than optimal) cognitive operations underlies the marked deficit observed on the digit– symbol substitution task. PMID:23084540

Knowles, Emma E.M.; Weiser, Mark; David, Anthony S.; Dickinson, Dwight; Glahn, David; Gold, James; Davidson, Michael; Reichenberg, Abraham

2014-01-01

298

Towards a Further Characterization of Phonological and Literacy Problems in Dutch-Speaking Children with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined the development of phonology and literacy in Dutch-speaking children at family risk of dyslexia and in matched controls. Measures were administered in kindergarten (before the start of formal reading instruction), in first and in third grade. Children, diagnosed with dyslexia in third grade, showed impaired

Boets, Bart; De Smedt, Bert; Cleuren, Leen; Vandewalle, Ellen; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquiere, Pol

2010-01-01

299

Phonology and Syntax in French Children with SLI: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maillart and Parisse found out that French children with specific language impairment (SLI) presented strong difficulties in phonology when compared with normally-developing children matched by MLU (NLD). Some of the youngest children from this study were followed to provide developmental information about their language deficit. Children were…

Parisse, Christophe; Maillart, Christelle

2007-01-01

300

Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children with SLI: Semantic, Phonological, and Repetition Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current understanding of how children with specific language impairment (SLI) organize their mental lexicons. The study examined semantic and phonological priming in children with and without SLI. Method: Thirteen children (7;0-11;3 [years;months]) with SLI and 13 age-matched children…

Velez, Melinda; Schwartz, Richard G.

2010-01-01

301

Effects of background music on phonological short-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immediate memory for visually presented verbal material is disrupted by concurrent speech, even when the speech is unattended and in a foreign language. Unattended noise does not produce a reliable decrement. These results have been interpreted in terms of a phonological short-term store that excludes non-speechlike sounds. The characteristics of this exclusion process were explored by studying the effects of

Pierre Salamé; Alan Baddeley

1989-01-01

302

Activation of Phonological and Semantic Codes in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the processes underlying word recognition in the toddler lexicon? Work with adults suggests that, by 5-years of age, hearing a word leads to cascaded activation of other phonologically, semantically and phono-semantically related words (Huang & Snedeker, 2010; Marslen-Wilson & Zwitserlood, 1989). Given substantial differences in…

Mani, Nivedita; Durrant, Samantha; Floccia, Caroline

2012-01-01

303

Confronting Professional Impairment During the Internship: Identification, Due Process, and Remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although increasing efforts have been made in recent years to address impairment in practicing psychologists, little regarding how to deal with impairment early in the professional career has been reported. The predoctoral internship is a pivotal training experience, which makes it a critical stage at which to assess and deal with impairment. We identify criteria of impairment, suggest components to

Douglas H. Lamb; Nan R. Presser; Karen S. Pfost; Michael C. Baum; Vivian R. Jackson; Paul A. Jarvis

1987-01-01

304

Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired childrenameliorated by training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with language-based learning impairments (LLIs) have major\\u000a\\u0009deficits in their recognition of some rapidly successive phonetic\\u000a\\u0009elements and nonspeech sound stimuli. In the current study, LLI children\\u000a\\u0009were engaged in adaptive training exercises mounted as computer ''games''\\u000a\\u0009designed to drive improvements in their ''temporal processing'' skills.\\u000a\\u0009With 8 to 16 hours of training during a 20-day period, LLI children

Michael M. Merzenich; W. M. Jenkins; Paul Johnston; Christoph Schreiner; S. L. Miller; Paula Tallal; Peter R. Schreiner

1996-01-01

305

Phonological Perception of Early Words.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study consisting of two experiments attempted to further adapt the visual preference procedure for determining children's meaningful phonological perception. In the first experiment, 1-year-olds were presented with auditory stimuli (words) and screens containing paired color photographs of the object described by each word and of an unusual…

Pollock, Karen E.; Schwartz, Richard G.

306

Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

2013-01-01

307

Temporal processing deficits in remediation-resistant reading-impaired children.  

PubMed

There is considerable interest in whether a deficit in temporal processing underlies specific learning and language disabilities in school-aged children. This view is particularly controversial in the area of developmental reading problems. The temporal-processing hypothesis was tested in a sample of normal children, 9-11 years of age, and in a sample of age-matched children with reading impairments, by assessing temporal-order discrimination. Five different binary temporal-order tasks were evaluated in the auditory and visual sensory modalities. Other basic discrimination abilities for single auditory stimuli were also assessed, including just noticeable differences (JNDs) for frequency and intensity and a simple threshold detection task. In these tasks, the temporal dimension was the duration of the individual stimuli (20 and 200 ms). All data were obtained using forced- choice psychophysical methods, either in a single-track adaptive format or using psychometric functions. The results from these experiments showed that children with reading impairments had deficits in temporal-order discrimination, but these effects were not modality specific. These same children also had significantly elevated frequency and intensity JNDs and their performance on these tasks were not dependent on stimulus duration. No group differences were observed on the threshold detection task, and the derived measurements of temporal integration (i.e. the threshold difference between the 20- and 200-ms stimuli) were considered normal, averaging 11.7 dB. As a whole, discrimination deficits observed in the reading-impaired group only occurred with suprathreshold stimuli. The deficits were neither modality specific nor temporal (duration) specific. PMID:10720824

Cacace, A T; McFarland, D J; Ouimet, J R; Schrieber, E J; Marro, P

2000-01-01

308

Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?  

PubMed Central

Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460

De-Torres, Irene; Davila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Sean Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

2013-01-01

309

Impaired Global, and Compensatory Local, Biological Motion Processing in People with High Levels of Autistic Traits  

PubMed Central

People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are hypothesized to have poor high-level processing but superior low-level processing, causing impaired social recognition, and a focus on non-social stimulus contingencies. Biological motion perception provides an ideal domain to investigate exactly how ASD modulates the interaction between low and high-level processing, because it involves multiple processing stages, and carries many important social cues. We investigated individual differences among typically developing observers in biological motion processing, and whether such individual differences associate with the number of autistic traits. In Experiment 1, we found that individuals with fewer autistic traits were automatically and involuntarily attracted to global biological motion information, whereas individuals with more autistic traits did not show this pre-attentional distraction. We employed an action adaptation paradigm in the second study to show that individuals with more autistic traits were able to compensate for deficits in global processing with an increased involvement in local processing. Our findings can be interpreted within a predictive coding framework, which characterizes the functional relationship between local and global processing stages, and explains how these stages contribute to the perceptual difficulties associated with ASD. PMID:23630514

van Boxtel, Jeroen J. A.; Lu, Hongjing

2013-01-01

310

Clinical Phonology: The Explanation and Treatment of Speech Sound Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author considers problems in the conceptualization of children's speech sound disorders and terminology changes related to use of "articulation" and "phonology." He suggests that clinical phonology must use scientific methods to explain phonological disorders. (CL)

Locke, John L.

1983-01-01

311

The impact of dental impairment on ring-tailed lemur food processing performance.  

PubMed

During mastication, foods are reduced into particles suitable for swallowing and digestion. Smaller particles possess a greater surface area per unit of volume on which digestive enzymes and bacteria may work than relatively larger particles, and are thus more readily digested. As dental morphology facilitates the breakdown of diets with specific mechanical properties, extensive dental wear and/or tooth loss may impede an individual's ability to break down and exploit foods. We present data demonstrating a relationship between dental impairment and particle size in 43 fecal samples from 33 ring-tailed lemurs at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), Madagascar. All fecal samples were sifted through three sieves of decreasing size (11.2 mm, 4.75 mm, and 1.0 mm). The resulting fraction in each sieve was then weighed and assessed in relation to individual dental impairment status. With increasing wear, the percentage of each sample within the 1.0 mm sieve decreases, whereas that in the 11.2 mm sieve increases with increasing postcanine wear, although these effects are not present when limited to individuals without tooth loss. Individuals with tooth loss also demonstrate larger proportions of fecal material 1.0-4.75 mm in size. Dental impairment results in larger food particles and potentially less efficient utilization of foods. When fecal material was examined by leaf vs. fruit content, individuals with tooth loss demonstrated reduced proportions of fruit in the 1.0 mm and 11.2 mm sieves. These data suggest individuals with tooth loss consume less fruit than those without loss, potentially reflecting a reduced ability to process tamarind fruit, a key fallback resource at BMSR. PMID:22610899

Millette, James B; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Ness, Jenifer L

2012-06-01

312

The Relationship Between Phonological Memory, Phonological Sensitivity, and Incidental Word Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the cognitive abilities needed to succeed at incidental word learning, specifically by examining the\\u000a role of phonological memory and phonological sensitivity in novel word learning by 4-year-olds who were typically developing.\\u000a Forty 4-year-olds were administered a test of nonword repetition (to investigate phonological memory), rhyming and phoneme\\u000a alliteration tasks (to investigate phonological sensitivity), and an incidental word

Vijayachandra Ramachandra; Lynne E. Hewitt; Tim Brackenbury

2011-01-01

313

Impact of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior in children with hearing impairment  

PubMed Central

In order to explore verbal–nonverbal integration, we investigated the influence of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior during spoken language conversation between children with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment (HI) and normal-hearing (NH) peers. Ten HI–NH and 10 NH-NH dyads performed a referential communication task requiring description of faces. During task performance, eye movements and speech were tracked. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model associations between performance on cognitive and linguistic tasks and the probability of gaze to the conversational partner’s face. Analyses compare the listeners in each dyad (HI: n = 10, mean age = 12; 6 years, SD = 2; 0, mean better ear pure-tone average 33.0 dB HL, SD = 7.8; NH: n = 10, mean age = 13; 7 years, SD = 1; 11). Group differences in gaze behavior – with HI gazing more to the conversational partner than NH – remained significant despite adjustment for ability on receptive grammar, expressive vocabulary, and complex working memory. Adjustment for phonological short term memory, as measured by non-word repetition, removed group differences, revealing an interaction between group membership and non-word repetition ability. Stratified analysis showed a twofold increase of the probability of gaze-to-partner for HI with low phonological short term memory capacity, and a decreased probability for HI with high capacity, as compared to NH peers. The results revealed differences in gaze behavior attributable to performance on a phonological short term memory task. Participants with HI and low phonological short term memory capacity showed a doubled probability of gaze to the conversational partner, indicative of a visual bias. The results stress the need to look beyond the HI in diagnostics and intervention. Acknowledgment of the finding requires clinical assessment of children with HI to be supported by tasks tapping phonological processing. PMID:24302915

Sandgren, Olof; Andersson, Richard; van de Weijer, Joost; Hansson, Kristina; Sahlen, Birgitta

2013-01-01

314

Importance of "Process Evaluation" in Audiological Rehabilitation: Examples from Studies on Hearing Impairment  

PubMed Central

The main focus of this paper is to discuss the importance of “evaluating the process of change” (i.e., process evaluation) in people with disability by studying their lived experiences. Detailed discussion is made about “why and how to investigate the process of change in people with disability?” and some specific examples are provided from studies on patient journey of persons with hearing impairment (PHI) and their communication partners (CPs). In addition, methodological aspects in process evaluation are discussed in relation to various metatheoretical perspectives. The discussion has been supplemented with relevant literature. The healthcare practice and disability research in general are dominated by the use of outcome measures. Even though the values of outcome measures are not questioned, there seems to be a little focus on understanding the process of change over time in relation to health and disability. We suggest that the process evaluation has an additional temporal dimension and has applications in both clinical practice and research in relation to health and disability.

Manchaiah, Vinaya; Danermark, Berth; Ronnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas

2014-01-01

315

Phonological Awareness Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia and the Phonological Representations Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The claim that the well-documented difficulties shown by dyslexic children in phonological awareness tasks may arise from deficits in the accuracy and the segmental organization of the phonological representations of words in their mental lexicons is receiving increasing interest from researchers. In this experiment, two versions of the phonological representations hypothesis were investigated by using a picture naming task and

Denise Swan; Usha Goswami

1997-01-01

316

Assessment of individual differences in phonological representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the\\u000a development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement\\u000a of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the dimensionality of phonological\\u000a representation abilities. Second, we empirically compared how well typical measures index various

Jason L. Anthony; Jeffrey M. Williams; Rachel G. Aghara; Martha Dunkelberger; Barbara Novak; Anuja Divatia Mukherjee

2010-01-01

317

Histamine H1 receptor blockade predominantly impairs sensory processes in human sensorimotor performance  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Centrally active antihistamines impair cognitive performance, particularly sensorimotor performance. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the scarcely studied subprocesses involved in sensorimotor performance, which may be affected by H1 receptor blockade. Better knowledge about the cognitive deficits associated with histamine dysfunction can contribute to better treatment of clinical disorders in which histamine hypofunction may be a contributing factor, such as in schizophrenia. Experimental approach: Interactions of dexchlorpheniramine with specific task manipulations in a choice reaction time task were studied. Task demands were increased at the level of sensory subprocesses by decreasing stimulus quality, and at the level of motor subprocesses by increasing response complexity. A total of 18 healthy volunteers (9 female) aged between 18 and 45 years participated in a three-way, double-blind, crossover design. Treatments were single oral doses of 4 mg dexchlorpheniramine, 1 mg lorazepam and placebo. Behavioural effects were assessed by measuring reaction times and effects on brain activity by event-related potentials. Key results: Dexchlorpheniramine significantly slowed reaction times, but did not significantly interact with task manipulations. However, it did significantly interact with stimulus quality, as measured by event-related potentials. Lorazepam slowed reaction times and interacted with perceptual manipulations, as shown by effects on reaction times. Conclusions and implications: The results confirm that the histamine system is involved in sensory information processing and show that H1 blockade does not affect motoric information processing. Histamine hypofunction in clinical disorders may cause impaired sensory processing, which may be a drug target. PMID:19220286

van Ruitenbeek, P; Vermeeren, A; Smulders, FTY; Sambeth, A; Riedel, WJ

2009-01-01

318

Impaired Cross-Talk between Mesolimbic Food Reward Processing and Metabolic Signaling Predicts Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

The anticipation of the pleasure derived from food intake drives the motivation to eat, and hence facilitate overconsumption of food, which ultimately results in obesity. Brain imaging studies provide evidence that mesolimbic brain regions underlie both general as well as food-related anticipatory reward processing. In light of this knowledge, the present study examined the neural responsiveness of the ventral striatum (VS) in participants with a broad BMI spectrum. The study differentiated between general (i.e., monetary) and food-related anticipatory reward processing. We recruited a sample of volunteers with greatly varying body weights, ranging from a low BMI (below 20?kg/m2) over a normal (20–25?kg/m2) and overweight (25–30?kg/m2) BMI, to class I (30–35?kg/m2) and class II (35–40?kg/m2) obesity. A total of 24 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing both a food and monetary incentive delay task, which allows to measure neural activation during the anticipation of rewards. After the presentation of a cue indicating the amount of food or money to be won, participants had to react correctly in order to earn “snack points” or “money coins,” which could then be exchanged for real food or money, respectively, at the end of the experiment. During the anticipation of both types of rewards, participants displayed activity in the VS, a region that plays a pivotal role in the anticipation of rewards. Additionally, we observed that specifically anticipatory food reward processing predicted the individual BMI (current and maximum lifetime). This relation was found to be mediated by impaired hormonal satiety signaling, i.e., increased leptin levels and insulin resistance. These findings suggest that heightened food reward motivation contributes to obesity through impaired metabolic signaling. PMID:25368558

Simon, Joe J.; Skunde, Mandy; Hamze Sinno, Maria; Brockmeyer, Timo; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Bendszus, Martin; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

2014-01-01

319

Altered Connectivity of the Balance Processing Network After Tongue Stimulation in Balance-Impaired Individuals  

PubMed Central

Abstract Some individuals with balance impairment have hypersensitivity of the motion-sensitive visual cortices (hMT+) compared to healthy controls. Previous work showed that electrical tongue stimulation can reduce the exaggerated postural sway induced by optic flow in this subject population and decrease the hypersensitive response of hMT+. Additionally, a region within the brainstem (BS), likely containing the vestibular and trigeminal nuclei, showed increased optic flow-induced activity after tongue stimulation. The aim of this study was to understand how the modulation induced by tongue stimulation affects the balance-processing network as a whole and how modulation of BS structures can influence cortical activity. Four volumes of interest, discovered in a general linear model analysis, constitute major contributors to the balance-processing network. These regions were entered into a dynamic causal modeling analysis to map the network and measure any connection or topology changes due to the stimulation. Balance-impaired individuals had downregulated response of the primary visual cortex (V1) to visual stimuli but upregulated modulation of the connection between V1 and hMT+ by visual motion compared to healthy controls (p?1E–5). This upregulation was decreased to near-normal levels after stimulation. Additionally, the region within the BS showed increased response to visual motion after stimulation compared to both prestimulation and controls. Stimulation to the tongue enters the central nervous system at the BS but likely propagates to the cortex through supramodal information transfer. We present a model to explain these brain responses that utilizes an anatomically present, but functionally dormant pathway of information flow within the processing network. PMID:23216162

Tyler, Mitchell E.; Danilov, Yuri P.; Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Meyerand, Mary E.

2013-01-01

320

Dyslexia: Verbal impairments in the absence of magnocellular impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity to dynamic visual and auditory stimuli was assessed in dyslexic children (Grade 7) who at school entrance had su¡ered from the well-established double-de¢cit of impaired phonological sensitivity and de¢cient rapid naming performance. A visual mag- nocellular de¢cit was assessed by the coherent motion detection task of the Oxford group. An auditory magnocellular de¢cit was assessed by the illusory sound

Martin Kronbichler; Florian Hutzler; Heinz Wimmer

2002-01-01

321

Evidence of Deficient Central Speech Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment: the T-Complex  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper examined neurophysiological correlates of speech in children with language impairment (LI) and typical language development (TLD) across four experiments using different speech stimuli and tasks. Method The T-complex event-related potential (ERP) components and other ERP components (e.g., mismatch negativity [MMN]; N400) were examined. A subset of the children participated in more than one of the experiments. Results 73% of the children with LI had poor T-complex measures compared to only 13% of children with TLD. The T-complex measures were more comparable, in terms of indicating typical versus deviant processing, to neurophysiological measures of language processing, such as lexical discrimination, than to other measures of auditory and speech processing, such as the MMN. Only one LI child showed no poor measures and 64% showed three or more poor neurophyisological measures. However, 50% of children with TLD showed no poor neurophysiological measures, and 82% of the TLD children showed no more than two poor measures. Conclusion These results suggest that poor auditory processing, as measured by the T-complex, is a marker for LI and that multiple deficits serve to mark LI. Significance The T-complex measures, indexing secondary auditory cortex, reflect an important aspect of processing in speech and language development. PMID:21147550

Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Martin, Brett

2010-01-01

322

Impaired autophagy and APP processing in Alzheimer's disease: The potential role of Beclin 1 interactome.  

PubMed

The accumulation of amyloid-?-containing neuritic plaques and intracellular tau protein tangles are key histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This type of pathology clearly indicates that the mechanisms of neuronal housekeeping and protein quality control are compromised in AD. There is mounting evidence that the autophagosome-lysosomal degradation is impaired, which could disturb the processing of APP and provoke AD pathology. Beclin 1 is a molecular platform assembling an interactome with stimulating and suppressive components which regulate the initiation of the autophagosome formation. Recent studies have indicated that the expression Beclin 1 is reduced in AD brain. Moreover, the deficiency of Beclin 1 in cultured neurons and transgenic mice provokes the deposition of amyloid-? peptides whereas its overexpression reduces the accumulation of amyloid-?. There are several potential mechanisms, which could inhibit the function of Beclin 1 interactome and thus impair autophagy and promote AD pathology. The mechanisms include (i) reduction of Beclin 1 expression or its increased proteolytic cleavage by caspases, (ii) sequestration of Beclin 1 to non-functional locations, such as tau tangles, (iii) formation of inhibitory complexes between Beclin 1 and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins or inflammasomes, (iv) interaction of Beclin 1 with inhibitory neurovirulent proteins, e.g. herpex simplex ICP34.5, or (v) inhibition of the Beclin 1/Vps34 complex through the activation of CDK1 and CDK5. We will shortly introduce the function of Beclin 1 interactome in autophagy and phagocytosis, review the recent evidence indicating that Beclin 1 regulates autophagy and APP processing in AD, and finally examine the potential mechanisms through which Beclin 1 dysfunction could be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:23827971

Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu; Ojala, Johanna; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Soininen, Hilkka; Hiltunen, Mikko

2013-01-01

323

Impaired Temporal Processing of Tactile and Proprioceptive Stimuli in Cerebellar Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Performance of timed motor sequences relies on the cerebellum and basal ganglia, which integrate proprioceptive information during the motor task and set internal timing mechanisms. Accordingly, these structures are also involved in other temporal processes, such as the discrimination of the different afferent information in the domain of time. In the present study we tested temporal processing of proprioceptive and tactile stimuli in 20 patients with neurodegenerative cerebellar ataxia and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Tactile temporal discrimination threshold was defined as the value at which subjects recognized the two stimuli as asynchronous. Temporal discrimination movement threshold of the first dorsal interosseous and flexor carpi radialis was defined as the shortest interval between two paired electrical stimuli in which the subjects blindfolded perceived two separate index finger abductions and wrist flexions. Both tactile and movement temporal discrimination thresholds were higher in patients with cerebellar ataxia. No correlation was found with disease duration and severity. Our study demonstrates that temporal processing of tactile and proprioceptive stimuli is impaired in patients with cerebellar neurodegeneration and highlights the involvement of cerebellum in temporal processing of somatosensory stimuli of different type. PMID:24244328

Peretti, Alessia; Mariotti, Caterina; Panzeri, Marta; Fiorio, Mirta; Fasano, Alfonso

2013-01-01

324

Process-evaluation of a home visit programme to prevent falls and mobility impairments among elderly people at risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a detailed evaluation of the intervention process of a multifactorial home visit programme aimed at preventing falls and mobility impairments among elderly persons living in the community. The aim of the study is to provide insight in factors related to the intervention process that may have influenced the effectiveness of this home visit programme.

Jolanda C. M. van Haastregt; Erik van Rossum; Jos P. M. Diederiks; Luc P. de Witte; Peter M. Voorhoeve; Harry F. J. M. Crebolder

2002-01-01

325

Impaired holistic processing of left-right composite faces in congenital prosopagnosia  

PubMed Central

Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) refers to a lifelong impairment in face processing despite normal visual and intellectual skills. Many studies have suggested that the key underlying deficit in CP is one of a failure to engage holistic processing. Moreover, there has been some suggestion that, in normal observers, there may be greater involvement of the right than left hemisphere in holistic processing. To examine the proposed deficit in holistic processing and its potential hemispheric atypicality in CP, we compared the performance of 8 CP individuals with both matched controls and a large group of non-matched controls on a novel, vertical composite task. In this task, participants judged whether a cued half of a face (either left or right half) was the same or different at study and test, and the two face halves could be either aligned or misaligned. The standard index of holistic processing is one in which the unattended face half influences performance on the cued half and this influence is greater in the aligned than in the misaligned condition. Relative to controls, the CP participants, both at a group and at an individual level, did not show holistic processing in the vertical composite task. There was also no difference in performance as a function of hemifield of the cued face half in the CP individuals, and this was true in the control participants, as well. The findings clearly confirm the deficit in holistic processing in CP and reveal the useful application of this novel experimental paradigm to this population and potentially to others as well. PMID:25324755

Liu, Tina T.; Behrmann, Marlene

2014-01-01

326

Reduced Sensory Oscillatory Activity during Rapid Auditory Processing as a Correlate of Language-Learning Impairment  

PubMed Central

Successful language acquisition has been hypothesized to involve the ability to integrate rapidly presented, brief acoustic cues in sensory cortex. A body of work has suggested that this ability is compromised in language-learning impairment (LLI). The present research aimed to examine sensory integration during rapid auditory processing by means of electrophysiological measures of oscillatory brain activity using data from a larger longitudinal study. Twenty-nine children with LLI and control participants with typical language development (n=18) listened to tone doublets presented at a temporal interval that is essential for accurate speech processing (70-ms interstimulus interval). The children performed a deviant (pitch change of second tone) detection task, or listened passively. The electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 electrodes. Data were source-projected to the auditory cortices and submitted to wavelet analysis, resulting in time-frequency representations of electrocortical activity. Results show significantly reduced amplitude and phase-locking of early (45–75 ms) oscillations in the gamma-band range (29–52 Hz), specifically in the LLI group, for the second stimulus of the tone doublet. This suggests altered temporal organization of sensory oscillatory activity in LLI when processing rapid sequences. PMID:21822356

Heim, Sabine; Friedman, Jennifer Thomas; Keil, Andreas; Benasich, April A.

2010-01-01

327

Signal-Processing Strategy for Restoration of Cross-Channel Suppression in Hearing-Impaired Listeners  

PubMed Central

Because frequency components interact nonlinearly with each other inside the cochlea, the loudness growth of tones is relatively simple in comparison to the loudness growth of complex sounds. The term suppression refers to a reduction in the response growth of one tone in the presence of a second tone. Suppression is a salient feature of normal cochlear processing and contributes to psychophysical masking. Suppression is evident in many measurements of cochlear function in subjects with normal hearing, including distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Suppression is also evident, to a lesser extent, in subjects with mild-to-moderate hearing loss. This paper describes a hearing-aid signal-processing strategy that aims to restore both loudness growth and two-tone suppression in hearing-impaired listeners. The prescription of gain for this strategy is based on measurements of loudness by a method known as categorical loudness scaling. The proposed signal-processing strategy reproduces measured DPOAE suppression tuning curves and generalizes to any number of frequency components. The restoration of both normal suppression and normal loudness has the potential to improve hearing-aid performance and user satisfaction. PMID:23925364

Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Gorga, Michael P.; Neely, Stephen T.

2013-01-01

328

Identification of a strategic brain network underlying processing speed deficits in vascular cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) commonly exhibit deficits in processing speed. This has been attributed to a disruption of frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits by ischemic lesions, but the exact mechanisms and underlying anatomical structures are poorly understood. We set out to identify a strategic brain network for processing speed by applying graph-based data-mining techniques to MRI lesion maps from patients with small vessel disease. We studied 235 patients with CADASIL, a genetic small vessel disease causing pure VCI. Using a probabilistic atlas in standard space we first determined the regional volumes of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and lacunar lesions (LL) within major white matter tracts. Conditional dependencies between the regional lesion volumes and processing speed were then examined using Bayesian network analysis. Exploratory analysis identified a network of five imaging variables as the best determinant of processing speed. The network included LL in the left anterior thalamic radiation and the left cingulum as well as WMH in the left forceps minor, the left parahippocampal white matter and the left corticospinal tract. Together these variables explained 34% of the total variance in the processing speed score. Structural equation modeling confirmed the findings obtained from the Bayesian models. In summary, using graph-based models we identified a strategic brain network having the highest predictive value for processing speed in our cohort of patients with pure small vessel disease. Our findings confirm and extend previous results showing a role of frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits, in particular dorsolateral prefrontal and cingulate circuits, in VCI. PMID:23153965

Duering, Marco; Gonik, Mariya; Malik, Rainer; Zieren, Nikola; Reyes, Sonia; Jouvent, Eric; Hervé, Dominique; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Opherk, Christian; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin

2013-02-01

329

The Proximate Phonological Unit of Chinese-English Bilinguals: Proficiency Matters  

PubMed Central

An essential step to create phonology according to the language production model by Levelt, Roelofs and Meyer is to assemble phonemes into a metrical frame. However, recently, it has been proposed that different languages may rely on different grain sizes of phonological units to construct phonology. For instance, it has been proposed that, instead of phonemes, Mandarin Chinese uses syllables and Japanese uses moras to fill the metrical frame. In this study, we used a masked priming-naming task to investigate how bilinguals assemble their phonology for each language when the two languages differ in grain size. Highly proficient Mandarin Chinese-English bilinguals showed a significant masked onset priming effect in English (L2), and a significant masked syllabic priming effect in Mandarin Chinese (L1). These results suggest that their proximate unit is phonemic in L2 (English), and that bilinguals may use different phonological units depending on the language that is being processed. Additionally, under some conditions, a significant sub-syllabic priming effect was observed even in Mandarin Chinese, which indicates that L2 phonology exerts influences on L1 target processing as a consequence of having a good command of English. PMID:23646107

Verdonschot, Rinus Gerardus; Nakayama, Mariko; Zhang, Qingfang; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Schiller, Niels Olaf

2013-01-01

330

Mapping Symbols to Sounds: Electrophysiological Correlates of the Impaired Reading Process in Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Dyslexic and control first-grade school children were compared in a Symbol-to-Sound matching test based on a non-linguistic audiovisual training which is known to have a remediating effect on dyslexia. Visual symbol patterns had to be matched with predicted sound patterns. Sounds incongruent with the corresponding visual symbol (thus not matching the prediction) elicited the N2b and P3a event-related potential (ERP) components relative to congruent sounds in control children. Their ERPs resembled the ERP effects previously reported for healthy adults with this paradigm. In dyslexic children, N2b onset latency was delayed and its amplitude significantly reduced over left hemisphere whereas P3a was absent. Moreover, N2b amplitudes significantly correlated with the reading skills. ERPs to sound changes in a control condition were unaffected. In addition, correctly predicted sounds, that is, sounds that are congruent with the visual symbol, elicited an early induced auditory gamma band response (GBR) reflecting synchronization of brain activity in normal-reading children as previously observed in healthy adults. However, dyslexic children showed no GBR. This indicates that visual symbolic and auditory sensory information are not integrated into a unitary audiovisual object representation in them. Finally, incongruent sounds were followed by a later desynchronization of brain activity in the gamma band in both groups. This desynchronization was significantly larger in dyslexic children. Although both groups accomplished the task successfully remarkable group differences in brain responses suggest that normal-reading children and dyslexic children recruit (partly) different brain mechanisms when solving the task. We propose that abnormal ERPs and GBRs in dyslexic readers indicate a deficit resulting in a widespread impairment in processing and integrating auditory and visual information and contributing to the reading impairment in dyslexia. PMID:22403564

Widmann, Andreas; Schroger, Erich; Tervaniemi, Mari; Pakarinen, Satu; Kujala, Teija

2012-01-01

331

PROGRAMMED INTRODUCTION TO ARABIC SCRIPT AND PHONOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PRESENT PROGRESS REPORT DESCRIBES INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE TEACHING OF ARABIC WRITING AND PHONOLOGY, BASED ON THE RESULTS OF (1) A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHONOLOGIES OF AMERICAN ENGLISH AND MODERN LITERARY ARABIC, (2) AN ANALYSIS OF MODERN LITERARY ARABIC WRITING, AND (3) A WORD STUDY OF 11 ELEMENTARY ARABIC TEXTBOOKS. (FOR A…

MCCARUS, ERNEST; RAMMUNY, RAJI

332

Chile Language Aphasia and Phonological Universals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work is an English translation of the author's classic "Kindersprache, Aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze," first published in 1941. It is considered the most representative and comprehensive of the author's phonological writings, dealing not only with phonological typology but related problems of language acquisition and phonemic regression…

Jakobson, Roman

333

Phonological Fluency Strategy of Switching Differentiates Relapsing-Remitting and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

PubMed Central

The strategies used to perform a verbal fluency task appear to be reflective of cognitive abilities necessary for successful daily functioning. In the present study, we explored potential differences in verbal fluency strategies (switching and clustering) used to maximize word production by patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) versus patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We further assessed impairment rates and potential differences in the sensitivity and specificity of phonological versus semantic verbal fluency tasks in discriminating between those with a diagnosis of MS and healthy adults. We found that the overall rate of impaired verbal fluency in our MS sample was consistent with that in other studies. However, we found no differences between types of MS (SPMS, RRMS), on semantic or phonological fluency word production, or the strategies used to maximize semantic fluency. In contrast, we found that the number of switches differed significantly in the phonological fluency task between the SPMS and RRMS subtypes. The clinical utility of semantic versus phonological fluency in discriminating MS patients from healthy controls did not indicate any significant differences. Further, the strategies used to maximize performance did not differentiate MS subgroups or MS patients from healthy controls. PMID:23401793

Messinis, L.; Kosmidis, M. H.; Vlahou, C.; Malegiannaki, A. C.; Gatzounis, G.; Dimisianos, N.; Karra, A.; Kiosseoglou, G.; Gourzis, P.; Papathanasopoulos, P.

2013-01-01

334

Damage to the lateral prefrontal cortex impairs familiarity but not recollection  

PubMed Central

Frontal lobe lesions impair recognition memory but it is unclear whether the deficits arise from impaired recollection, impaired familiarity, or both. In the current study, recognition memory for verbal materials was examined in patients with damage to the left or right lateral prefrontal cortex. Words were incidentally encoded under semantic or phonological orienting conditions, and recognition memory was tested using a 6-point confidence procedure. Receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) were examined in order to measure the contributions of recollection and familiarity to recognition memory. In both encoding conditions, lateral prefrontal cortex damage led to a deficit in familiarity but not recollection. Similar deficits were observed in left and right hemisphere patients. The results indicate that the lateral prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in the monitoring or decision processes required for accurate familiarity-based recognition responses. PMID:21827792

Aly, Mariam; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Kishiyama, Mark M.; Knight, Robert T.

2011-01-01

335

Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness, or the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, has been identified as a key early literacy skill and precursor to reading. For the purposes of this review, "phonological awareness training" refers to any practice targeting young children's phonological awareness abilities. "Phonological

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

336

A Probabilistic Model of Phonological Relationships from Contrast to Allophony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…

Hall, Kathleen Currie

2009-01-01

337

Processing of speech and non-speech stimuli in children with specific language impairment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a developmental language disorder in which children demonstrate varying degrees of difficulties in acquiring a spoken language. One possible underlying cause is that children with SLI have deficits in processing sounds that are of short duration or when they are presented rapidly. Studies so far have compared their performance on speech and nonspeech sounds of unequal complexity. Hence, it is still unclear whether the deficit is specific to the perception of speech sounds or whether it more generally affects the auditory function. The current study aims to answer this question by comparing the performance of children with SLI on speech and nonspeech sounds synthesized from sine-wave stimuli. The children will be tested using the classic categorical perception paradigm that includes both the identification and discrimination of stimuli along a continuum. If there is a deficit in the performance on both speech and nonspeech tasks, it will show that these children have a deficit in processing complex sounds. Poor performance on only the speech sounds will indicate that the deficit is more related to language. The findings will offer insights into the exact nature of the speech perception deficits in children with SLI. [Work supported by ASHF.

Basu, Madhavi L.; Surprenant, Aimee M.

2003-10-01

338

Modeling and Estimating Recall Processing Capacity: Sensitivity and Diagnostic Utility in Application to Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

We investigate the potential for using latency-based measures of retrieval processing capacity to assess changes in perfomance specific to individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a reliable precursor state to Alzheimer's Disease. Use of these capacity measures is motivated in part by exploration of the effects of atrophy on a computational model of a basic hippocampal circuit. We use this model to suggest that capacity may be a more sensitive indicator of undelying atrophy than speed of processing, and test this hypothesis by adapting a standard behavioral measure of memory (the free and cued selective reminding test, FCSRT) to allow for the collection of cued recall latencies. Participants were drawn from five groups: college-aged, middle-aged, healthy elderly, those with a diagnosis of MCI, and a sample of MCI control participants. The measure of capacity is shown to offer increased classificatory sensitivity relative to the standard behavioral measures, and is also shown to be the behavioral measure that correlated most strongly with hippocampal volume. PMID:20436932

Wenger, Michael K.; Negash, Selamawit; Petersen, Ronald C.; Petersen, Lyndsay

2009-01-01

339

Triggering word learning in children with Language Impairment: the effect of phonotactic probability and neighbourhood density.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The effect of phonotactic probability (PP) and neighbourhood density (ND) on triggering word learning was examined in children with Language Impairment (3;04-6;09) and compared to Typically Developing children. Nonwords, varying PP and ND orthogonally, were presented in a story context and their learning tested using a referent identification task. Group comparisons with receptive vocabulary as a covariate found no group differences in overall scores or in the influence of PP or ND. Therefore, there was no evidence of atypical lexical or phonological processing. 'Convergent' PP/ND (High PP/High ND; Low PP/Low ND) was optimal for word learning in both groups. This bias interacted with vocabulary knowledge. 'Divergent' PP/ND word scores (High PP/Low ND; Low PP/High ND) were positively correlated with vocabulary so the 'divergence disadvantage' reduced as vocabulary knowledge grew; an interaction hypothesized to represent developmental changes in lexical-phonological processing linked to the emergence of phonological representations. PMID:24191951

McKean, Cristina; Letts, Carolyn; Howard, David

2014-11-01

340

Impaired conscious and preserved unconscious inhibitory processing in recent onset schizophrenia  

E-print Network

are specifically impaired in people with schizophrenia. Method. The subjects were 33 patients presenting. Results. Patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls showed significantly increased duration conditions. It is well established that patients with schizophrenia have impaired working memory, which holds

Aron, Adam

341

Dynamic Temporal Processing of Nonspeech Acoustic Information by Children with Specific Language Impairment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten children (ages 12-16) with specific language impairments (SLI) and controls matched for chronological or language age were tested with measures of complex sound localization involving the precedence effect phenomenon. SLI children exhibited tracking skills similar to language-age matched controls, indicating impairment in their ability to use…

Visto, Jane C.; And Others

1996-01-01

342

Sublexical frequency measures for orthographic and phonological units in German  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many recent studies have demonstrated the influence of sublexical frequency measures on language processing, or called for\\u000a controlling sublexical measures when selecting stimulus material for psycholinguistic studies (Aichert & Ziegler, 2005). The\\u000a present study discusses which measures should be controlled for in what kind of study, and presents orthographic and phonological\\u000a syllable, dual unit (bigram and biphoneme) and single unit

Markus J. Hofmann; Prisca Stenneken; Markus Conrad; Arthur M. Jacobs

2007-01-01

343

Sensitivity and Specificity of French Language and Processing Measures for the Identification of Primary Language Impairment at Age 5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Research on the diagnostic accuracy of different language measures has focused primarily on English. This study examined the sensitivity and specificity of a range of measures of language knowledge and language processing for the identification of primary language impairment (PLI) in French-speaking children. Because of the lack of…

Thordardottir, Elin; Kehayia, Eva; Mazer, Barbara; Lessard, Nicole; Majnemer, Annette; Sutton, Ann; Trudeau, Natacha; Chilingaryan, Gevorg

2011-01-01

344

Selecting process quality indicators for the integrated care of vulnerable older adults affected by cognitive impairment or dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at evaluating face and content validity, feasibility and reliability of process quality indicators developed previously in the United States or other countries. The indicators can be used to evaluate care and services for vulnerable older adults affected by cognitive impairment or dementia within an integrated service system in Quebec, Canada. METHODS: A total of 33 clinical

Edeltraut Kröger; André Tourigny; Diane Morin; Lise Côté; Marie-Jeanne Kergoat; Paule Lebel; Line Robichaud; Shirley Imbeault; Solange Proulx; Zohra Benounissa

2007-01-01

345

The impact of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory in stroke aphasia and semantic dementia: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

This study presents the first direct comparison of immediate serial recall in semantic dementia (SD) and transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA). Previous studies of the effect of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory (STM) have led to important theoretical advances. However, different conclusions have been drawn from these two groups. This research aimed to explain these inconsistencies. We observed (a) qualitative differences between SD and TSA in the nature of the verbal STM impairment and (b) considerable variation within the TSA group. The SD and TSA patients all had poor semantic processing and good phonology. Reflecting this, both groups remained sensitive to phonological similarity and showed a reduced effect of lexicality in immediate serial recall. The SD patients showed normal serial position effects; in contrast, the TSA patients had poor recall of the initial list items and exhibited large recency effects on longer lists. The error patterns of the two groups differed: the SD patients made numerous phoneme migration errors whereas the TSA group were more likely to produce entire words in the wrong order, often initiating recall with terminal list items. The SD cases also showed somewhat larger effects of word frequency and imageability. We propose that these contrasting performance patterns are explicable in terms of the nature of the underlying semantic impairment. SD is associated with anterior lobe atrophy and produces degradation of semantic knowledge – this is more striking for less frequent/imageable items, accentuating the effects of these lexical/semantic variables in STM. SD patients frequently recombine the phonemes of different list items due to the reduced semantic constraint upon phonology (semantic binding: Patterson et al., 1994). In contrast, the semantic impairment in TSA follows frontal or temporoparietal lesions and is associated with poor executive control of semantic processing (deregulated semantic cognition: Jefferies and Lambon Ralph, 2006), explaining why these patients are liable to recall entire words out of serial order. PMID:18438454

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Paul; Jones, Roy; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon

2008-01-01

346

Exploring semantic and phonological picture-word priming in adults who stutter using event-related potentials  

PubMed Central

Objective Our aim was to investigate how semantic and phonological information is processed in adults who stutter (AWS) preparing to name pictures, following-up a report that event-related potentials (ERPs) in AWS evidenced atypical semantic picture-word priming (Maxfield et al., 2010). Methods Fourteen AWS and 14 typically-fluent adults (TFA) participated. Pictures, named at a delay, were followed by probe words. Design elements not used in Maxfield et al. (2010) let us evaluate both phonological and semantic picture-word priming. Results TFA evidenced typical priming effects in probe-elicited ERPs. AWS evidenced diminished Semantic priming, and reverse Phonological N400 priming. Conclusions Results point to atypical processing of semantic and phonological information in AWS. Discussion considers whether AWS ERP effects reflect unstable activation of target label semantic and phonological representations, strategic inhibition of target label phonological neighbors, and/or phonological label-probe competition. Significance Results raise questions about how mechanisms that regulate activation spreading operate in AWS. PMID:22055837

Maxfield, Nathan D.; Pizon-Moore, Angela A.; Frisch, Stefan A.; Constantine, Joseph L.

2011-01-01

347

Disease-associated Mutations in the Prion Protein Impair Laminin-induced Process Outgrowth and Survival*  

PubMed Central

Prions, the agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, require the expression of prion protein (PrPC) to propagate disease. PrPC is converted into an abnormal insoluble form, PrPSc, that gains neurotoxic activity. Conversely, clinical manifestations of prion disease may occur either before or in the absence of PrPSc deposits, but the loss of normal PrPC function contribution for the etiology of these diseases is still debatable. Prion disease-associated mutations in PrPC represent one of the best models to understand the impact of PrPC loss-of-function. PrPC associates with various molecules and, in particular, the interaction of PrPC with laminin (Ln) modulates neuronal plasticity and memory formation. To assess the functional alterations associated with PrPC mutations, wild-type and mutated PrPC proteins were expressed in a neural cell line derived from a PrPC-null mouse. Treatment with the laminin ?1 chain peptide (Ln ?1), which mimics the Ln binding site for PrPC, increased intracellular calcium in cells expressing wild-type PrPC, whereas a significantly lower response was observed in cells expressing mutated PrPC molecules. The Ln ?1 did not promote process outgrowth or protect against staurosporine-induced cell death in cells expressing mutated PrPC molecules in contrast to cells expressing wild-type PrPC. The co-expression of wild-type PrPC with mutated PrPC molecules was able to rescue the Ln protective effects, indicating the lack of negative dominance of PrPC mutated molecules. These results indicate that PrPC mutations impair process outgrowth and survival mediated by Ln ?1 peptide in neural cells, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of genetic prion diseases. PMID:23132868

Machado, Cleiton F.; Beraldo, Flavio H.; Santos, Tiago G.; Bourgeon, Dominique; Landemberger, Michele C.; Roffe, Martin; Martins, Vilma R.

2012-01-01

348

Neural Correlates of Orthographic and Phonological Consistency Effects in Children  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the neural correlates of phonological inconsistency (relationship of spelling to sound) and orthographic inconsistency (relationship of sound to spelling) in visual word processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Children (9- to 15-year-old) performed a rhyming and spelling task in which two words were presented sequentially in the visual modality. Consistent with previous studies in adults, higher phonological inconsistency was associated with greater activation in several regions including left inferior frontal gyrus and medial frontal gyrus/anterior cingulate cortex. We additionally demonstrated an effect of orthographic inconsistency in these same areas, suggesting that these regions are involved in the integration of orthographic and phonological information and, with respect to the medial frontal/anterior cingulate, greater demands on executive function. Higher phonological and orthographic consistency was associated with greater activation in precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, the putative steady state system active during resting, suggesting lower demands on cognitive resources for consistent items. Both consistency effects were larger for the rhyming compared with the spelling task suggesting greater demands of integrating spelling and sound in the former task. Finally, accuracy on the rhyming task was negatively correlated with the consistency effect in left fusiform gyrus. In particular, this region showed insensitivity to consistency in low performers, sensitivity to inconsistency (higher activity) in moderate performers, and sensitivity to inconsistency (high activation) and to consistency (deactivation). In general, these results show that the influence of spelling-sound (and sound-spelling) correspondences on processing in fusiform gyrus develops as a function of skill. PMID:17957704

Bolger, Donald J.; Hornickel, Jane; Cone, Nadia E.; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

2009-01-01

349

GRAMMATICAL)CONSTRAINTS)ON)PHONOLOGICAL)ENCODING) )))1) Grammatical)constraints)on)phonological)encoding)in)speech)production)  

E-print Network

,)Mitchum,)Haendiges,)&)Sandson,)1997).)In)nonQerrorful)speech,)phonological) similarity)between)words)in)sentences)can)affect)word)choice)Rd) Evanston,)IL)60208) jordana@u.northwestern.edu,)mattQgoldrick@northwestern.edu) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) Word)influence)of)grammatical)encoding)on)the)retrieval)and)encoding) of)phonological)wordQform)information)during)speech)production,)we)examine)how) grammatical)class)constraints)influence)the)activation)of)phonological)neighbors)(words

Bustamante, Fabián E.

350

Early semantic and phonological effects on temporal- and muscle-specific motor resonance.  

PubMed

Previous studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) explored the relationships between linguistic processing and motor resonance, i.e. the activation of the motor system while perceiving others performing an action. These studies have mainly investigated a specific linguistic domain, i.e. semantics, whereas phonology has been largely neglected. Here we used single-pulse TMS to compare the effects of semantic and phonological processing with motor resonance effects. We applied TMS to the primary motor hand area while subjects observed object-oriented actions and performed semantic and phonological tasks related to the observed action. Motor evoked potentials were recorded in two hand muscles, one of them more involved in the execution of the observed actions than the other one, at three different timepoints (0, 200 and 400 ms after stimulus onset). The results demonstrated increased corticospinal excitability that was muscle-specific (i.e. restricted to the hand muscle involved in the observed action), hemisphere-specific (left), and time-specific (400 ms after stimulus onset). The results suggest an additive effect of independent semantic and phonological processing on motor resonance. The novel phonological effect reported here expands the links between language and the motor system and is consistent with a theory of shared control for hand and mouth. Furthermore, the timing of the semantic effect suggests that motor activation during semantic processing is not an 'epiphenomenon' but rather is essential to the construction of meaning. PMID:22672158

Meister, Ingo G; Wu, Allan D; Deblieck, Choi; Iacoboni, Marco

2012-08-01

351

Gaze Position Reveals Impaired Attentional Shift during Visual Word Recognition in Dysfluent Readers  

PubMed Central

Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level. PMID:25268909

Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

2014-01-01

352

Phonological working memory and reading in students with dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To investigate parameters related to fluency, reading comprehension and phonological processing (operational and short-term memory) and identify potential correlation between the variables in Dyslexia and in the absence of reading difficulties. Method: One hundred and fifteen students from the third to eighth grade of elementary school were grouped into a Control Group (CG) and Group with Dyslexia (GDys). Reading of words, pseudowords and text (decoding); listening and reading comprehension; phonological short-term and working memory (repetition of pseudowords and Digit Span) were evaluated. Results: The comparison of the groups showed significant differences in decoding, phonological short-term memory (repetition of pseudowords) and answers to text-connecting questions (TC) on reading comprehension, with the worst performances identified for GDys. In this group there were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both on listening comprehension. No correlations were found between operational and short-term memory (Digit Span) and parameters of fluency and reading comprehension in dyslexia. For the sample without complaint, there were positive correlations between some parameters of reading fluency and repetition of pseudowords and also between answering literal questions in listening comprehension and repetition of digits on the direct and reverse order. There was no correlation with the parameters of reading comprehension. Conclusion: GDys and CG showed similar performance in listening comprehension and in understanding of explicit information and gap-filling inference on reading comprehension. Students of GDys showed worst performance in reading decoding, phonological short-term memory (pseudowords) and on inferences that depends on textual cohesion understanding in reading. There were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both in listening comprehension. PMID:25101021

de Carvalho, Carolina A. F.; Kida, Adriana de S. B.; Capellini, Simone A.; de Avila, Clara R. B.

2014-01-01

353

Spared and Impaired Spoken Discourse Processing in Schizophrenia: Effects of Local and Global Language Context  

PubMed Central

Individuals with schizophrenia are impaired in a broad range of cognitive functions, including impairments in the controlled maintenance of context-relevant information. In this study, we used ERPs in human subjects to examine whether impairments in the controlled maintenance of spoken discourse context in schizophrenia lead to overreliance on local associations among the meanings of individual words. Healthy controls (n = 22) and patients (n = 22) listened to short stories in which we manipulated global discourse congruence and local priming. The target word in the last sentence of each story was globally congruent or incongruent and locally associated or unassociated. ERP local association effects did not significantly differ between control participants and schizophrenia patients. However, in contrast to controls, patients only showed effects of discourse congruence when targets were primed by a word in the local context. When patients had to use discourse context in the absence of local priming, they showed impaired brain responses to the target. Our findings indicate that schizophrenia patients are impaired during discourse comprehension when demands on controlled maintenance of context are high. We further found that ERP measures of increased reliance on local priming predicted reduced social functioning, suggesting that alterations in the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension have functional consequences in the illness. PMID:24068824

Boudewyn, Megan A.; Long, Debra L.; Luck, Steve J.; Kring, Ann M.; Ragland, J. Daniel; Ranganath, Charan; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Solomon, Marjorie; Mangun, George R.; Carter, Cameron S.

2013-01-01

354

Subgrouping children with familial phonologic disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial aggregation of speech and language disorders was examined as a basis of subgrouping children with phonologic disorders. Fifty-nine children with phonologic disorders were subgrouped according to whether or not other nuclear family members reported a history of speech\\/language disorders. Thirty-four subjects (58%) reported at least one other nuclear family member affected and 25 subjects (42%) reported no other nuclear

Barbara A Lewis; Lisa Freebairn

1997-01-01

355

A case for the involvement of phonological loop in sentence comprehension  

PubMed Central

The specific role of the phonological loop in sentence comprehension is still a matter of debate. We tested the behavioural consequences of activity disruption in left BA 40 and BA 44, key regions of the phonological loop, on language comprehension using 1 Hz rTMS. Comprehension was assessed by means of two tasks: a sentence-to-picture matching task, with sentences varying in length and syntactic complexity (Experiment 1), and a sentence verification task (Experiment 2). rTMS over left BA40 significantly reduced accuracy for syntactically complex sentences and long, but syntactically simpler sentences, while rTMS over left BA 44 significantly reduced accuracy only for syntactically complex sentences. rTMS applied over left BA40 also impaired performance on sentences in which word order was crucial. We suggest that the neural correlates of the phonological loop, left BA40 and BA44, are both involved in the comprehension of syntactically complex sentences, while only left BA40, corresponding to the short-term store, is recruited for the comprehension of long but syntactically simple sentences. Therefore, in contrast with the dominant view, we showed that sentence comprehension is a function of the phonological loop. PMID:20969883

Romero Lauro, Leonor J.; Reis, Janine; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Cecchetto, Carlo; Papagno, Costanza

2010-01-01

356

Auditory evoked potentials: predicting speech therapy outcomes in children with phonological disorders  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether neurophysiologic responses (auditory evoked potentials) differ between typically developed children and children with phonological disorders and whether these responses are modified in children with phonological disorders after speech therapy. METHODS: The participants included 24 typically developing children (Control Group, mean age: eight years and ten months) and 23 children clinically diagnosed with phonological disorders (Study Group, mean age: eight years and eleven months). Additionally, 12 study group children were enrolled in speech therapy (Study Group 1), and 11 were not enrolled in speech therapy (Study Group 2). The subjects were submitted to the following procedures: conventional audiological, auditory brainstem response, auditory middle-latency response, and P300 assessments. All participants presented with normal hearing thresholds. The study group 1 subjects were reassessed after 12 speech therapy sessions, and the study group 2 subjects were reassessed 3 months after the initial assessment. Electrophysiological results were compared between the groups. RESULTS: Latency differences were observed between the groups (the control and study groups) regarding the auditory brainstem response and the P300 tests. Additionally, the P300 responses improved in the study group 1 children after speech therapy. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that children with phonological disorders have impaired auditory brainstem and cortical region pathways that may benefit from speech therapy. PMID:24626949

Leite, Renata Aparecida; Wertzner, Haydee Fiszbein; Goncalves, Isabela Crivellaro; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Matas, Carla Gentile

2014-01-01

357

Phonology and orthography in reading aloud.  

PubMed

This study investigated the orthographic and phonological contribution of visually masked primes to reading aloud in Dutch. Although there is a relatively clear mapping between the spelling and sound of words in Dutch, words starting with the letter c are ambiguous as to whether they begin with the phoneme /s/ (e.g., citroen, "lemon") or with the phoneme /k/ (e.g., complot, "conspiracy"). Therefore, using words of this type, one can tease apart the contributions of orthographic and phonological activation in reading aloud. Dutch participants read aloud bisyllabic c-initial target words, which were preceded by visually masked, bisyllabic prime words that either shared the initial phoneme with the target (phonologically related) or the first grapheme (orthographically related) or both (phonologically and orthographically related). Unrelated primes did not share the first segment with the target. Response latencies in the phonologically related conditions were shorter than those in the unrelated condition. However, primes that were orthographically related did not speed up responses. One may conclude that the nature of the onset effect in reading aloud is phonological and not orthographic. PMID:17874588

Schiller, Niels O

2007-06-01

358

Anticipatory Sentence Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from Eye Movements during Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-five children with specific language impairment (SLI; age 5 years, 3 months [5;3]-8;2), 50 typically developing children (3;3-8;2), and 31 normal adults participated in three eye-tracking experiments of spoken language comprehension that were designed to investigate the use of verb information during real-time sentence comprehension in…

Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Trueswell, John C.

2013-01-01

359

Interaction of Language Processing and Motor Skill in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for…

DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C.; Goffman, Lisa

2014-01-01

360

Impairment of Verb Processing in Frontal Variant-Frontotemporal Dementia: A Dysexecutive Symptom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Object and action naming and comprehension were tested in frontotemporal dementia (frontal variant, FTD), in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and in controls. Although lower scores were obtained by all groups, we can confirm that actions were proportionally more impaired in FTD. The correlation between action naming deficit and severity of dementia was stronger in this group than in AD. The correlation

M. C. Silveri; B. L. Salvigni; A. Cappa; C. Della Vedova; M. Puopolo

2003-01-01

361

Information Processing and Proactive Interference in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a deficit in inhibition control, but research isolating specific abilities is scarce. The goal of this study was to examine whether children with SLI differ from their peers in resistance to proactive interference under different conditions. Method: An…

Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Eichorn, Naomi; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee

2014-01-01

362

Phonological Awareness and the Use of Phonological Similarity in Letter-Sound Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…

de Jong, Peter F.

2007-01-01

363

What models of verbal working memory can learn from phonological theory: Decomposing the phonological similarity effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying types and levels of similarity in their onset

Judith Schweppe; Martine Grice; Ralf Rummer

2011-01-01

364

Effects of Phonological Complexity on Error Production and Pseudoword Training in Acquired Phonological Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with their corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Several studies have attempted to improve reading in this population by training letter-to-sound correspondence, general phonological skills, or a combination of these approaches; however,…

Riley, Ellyn Anne

2011-01-01

365

What Models of Verbal Working Memory Can Learn from Phonological Theory: Decomposing the Phonological Similarity Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…

Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf

2011-01-01

366

A Mouse with a Roof? Effects of Phonological Neighbors on Processing of Words in Sentences in a Non-Native Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The architecture of the language processing system for speakers of more than one language remains an intriguing topic of research. A common finding is that speakers of multiple languages are slower at responding to language stimuli in their non-native language (L2) than monolingual speakers. This may simply reflect participants' unfamiliarity with…

Ruschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Nojack, Agnes; Limbach, Maxi

2008-01-01

367

Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Rapid Automated Naming, toward Decoding Ability in Students with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual…

Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

2013-01-01

368

The Acquisition of Consonant Feature Sequences: Harmony, Metathesis, and Deletion Patterns in Phonological Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines three processes affecting consonants in child speech: harmony (long-distance assimilation) involving major place features as in "coat" [kouk]; long-distance metathesis as in "cup" [p[wedge]k]; and initial consonant deletion as in "fish" [is]. These processes are unattested in adult phonology, leading to proposals for…

Gerlach, Sharon Ruth

2010-01-01

369

Some Phonological Characteristics of the Speech of Normal-Hearing Children of Deaf Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of articulation and stress patterns of five young (18-30 months of age) hearing children of deaf parents revealed that phonological processes used most frequently were those identified as common processes among children from hearing homes. None of the children adopted, with any frequency, the less typical productions found in their…

Schiff-Myers, Naomi B.; Klein, Harriet B.

1985-01-01

370

The process of self-report of impairment in clinical research.  

PubMed

This paper examines how labels for impairment are negotiated by people with disabilities during clinical assessment. It builds on Robert Murphy's (1987) explanations of the disability experience as rooted in the individual's sense of having multiple past, present and intended future body-selves. Using transcripts of five consecutive daily clinical research assessments, it describes the conduct of clinical research assessments with an older man with stroke-related motor impairments and dysphoria. It also examines how the researcher as Other shapes a person's sense of identity, experience and quality of life by regulating the medical labels for personal experience, and by authoring socially authoritative scientific models of disabilities. Points of dissension (regarding identity, discourse and time perspectives) and collaboration are identified and then illustrated with excerpts from the transcripts. Analysis reveals how salient personal experiences are locally asserted in discourse, and selectively misrepresented in the clinical research record. PMID:7667650

Luborsky, M R

1995-06-01

371

Grammatical Morpheme Effects on Sentence Processing by School-Aged Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Sixteen-year-olds with specific language impairment (SLI), nonspecific language impairment (NLI), and those showing typical language development (TD) responded to target words in sentences that were either grammatical or contained a grammatical error immediately before the target word. The TD participants showed the expected slower response times (RTs) when errors preceded the target word, regardless of error type. The SLI and NLI groups also showed the expected slowing, except when the error type involved the omission of a tense/agreement inflection. This response pattern mirrored an early developmental period of alternating between using and omitting tense/agreement inflections that is characteristic of SLI and NLI. The findings could not be readily attributed to factors such as insensitivity to omissions in general or insensitivity to the particular phonetic forms used to mark tense/agreement. The observed response pattern may represent continued difficulty with tense/agreement morphology that persists in subtle form into adolescence. PMID:19690626

Leonard, Laurence B.; Miller, Carol A.; Finneran, Denise A.

2009-01-01

372

A tale of two studies on auditory training in children: A response to the claim that 'discrimination training of phonemic contrasts enhances phonological processing in mainstream school children' by Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (2005).  

PubMed

In a previous article, Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (Brain and Language, 2005, 94, 72-85) reported evidence for significant improvements in phonological awareness in mainstream children following 6 h of exposure to a commercially available phoneme discrimination training programme, but not in a control group. In a follow-up study, we failed to replicate this finding, despite using an almost identical training programme (Halliday, Taylor, Millward, & Moore, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2012, 55, 168-181). This paper directly compares the methods and the results of the two studies, in an effort to explain the discrepant findings. It reports that the trained group in Moore et al. (2005) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness following training than the trained group in Halliday et al. (2012). However, the control group in Halliday et al. (2012) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness than the control group in Moore et al. (2005). The paper concludes that differences in the randomization, blinding, experimenter familiarity and treatment of trained and control groups contributed to the different outcomes of the two studies. The results indicate that a plethora of factors can contribute to training effects and highlight the importance of well-designed randomized controlled trials in assessing the efficacy of a given intervention. PMID:24470350

Halliday, Lorna F

2014-05-01

373

Chemical processing does not always impair heterogeneous ice nucleation of mineral dust particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposing Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles to nitric acid vapor in an aerosol flow tube impaired subsequent deposition ice nucleation below water-saturation, but promoted condensation\\/immersion-freezing on approach to water saturation and had no apparent impact on freezing of activated droplets above water saturation. The fraction of particles capable of nucleating ice at ?30°C was determined using a continuous flow diffusion

Ryan C. Sullivan; Lorena Miñambres; Paul J. DeMott; Anthony J. Prenni; Christian M. Carrico; Ezra J. T. Levin; Sonia M. Kreidenweis

2010-01-01

374

A self-teaching image processing and voice-recognition-based, intelligent and interactive system to educate visually impaired children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self teaching image processing and voice recognition based system is developed to educate visually impaired children, chiefly in their primary education. System comprises of a computer, a vision camera, an ear speaker and a microphone. Camera, attached with the computer system is mounted on the ceiling opposite (on the required angle) to the desk on which the book is placed. Sample images and voices in the form of instructions and commands of English, Urdu alphabets, Numeric Digits, Operators and Shapes are already stored in the database. A blind child first reads the embossed character (object) with the help of fingers than he speaks the answer, name of the character, shape etc into the microphone. With the voice command of a blind child received by the microphone, image is taken by the camera which is processed by MATLAB® program developed with the help of Image Acquisition and Image processing toolbox and generates a response or required set of instructions to child via ear speaker, resulting in self education of a visually impaired child. Speech recognition program is also developed in MATLAB® with the help of Data Acquisition and Signal Processing toolbox which records and process the command of the blind child.

Iqbal, Asim; Farooq, Umar; Mahmood, Hassan; Asad, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Akrama; Atiq, Hafiz Muhammad

2010-02-01

375

Quality of Phonological Representations: A Window into the Lexicon?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is a great deal of evidence to support the robust relationship between phonological awareness and literacy development. Researchers are beginning to understand the relationship between the accuracy and distinctiveness of stored phonological representations and performance on phonological awareness tasks. However, many of the…

Claessen, Mary; Heath, Steve; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John; Leitao, Suze

2009-01-01

376

Phonological Awareness Intervention for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness intervention to improve the speech production, phonological awareness and printed word decoding skills for three children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) aged 7;3, 6;3 and 6;10. The three children presented with severely delayed phonological awareness skills…

Moriarty, Brigid C.; Gillon, Gail T.

2006-01-01

377

Cognition, 42 (1992) 261-286 Disorders of phonological encoding*  

E-print Network

Cognition, 42 (1992) 261-286 Disorders of phonological encoding* Brian Butterworth Department. Disorders of phonological encoding. Cognition, 42: 261-286. Studies of phonological disturbances in aphasic vary from 1.6 errors per 1000words (Shallice & Butterworth, 1977) down to 62 (segment errors

Butterworth, Brian

378

Phonological Awareness and Mathematical Difficulty: A Longitudinal Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present longitudinal study sought to investigate the impact of poor phonology on children's mathematical status. From a screening sample of 256 five-year-olds, 82 children were identified as either typically achieving (TA; N = 31), having comorbid poor phonology and mathematical difficulties (PDMD; N = 31), or having only poor phonology

Jordan, Julie-Ann; Wylie, Judith; Mulhern, Gerry

2010-01-01

379

The role of consciousness in the phonological loop: hidden in plain sight  

PubMed Central

We know from everyday experience that when we need to keep a small amount of verbal information “in mind” for a short period, an effective cognitive strategy is to silently rehearse the words. This basic cognitive strategy has been elegantly codified in Baddeley and colleagues model of verbal working memory, the phonological loop. Here we explore how the intuitive appeal of the phonological loop is grounded in the phenomenological experience of subvocal rehearsal as consisting of an interaction between an “inner voice” and an “inner ear.” We focus particularly on how our intuitions about the phenomenological experience of “inner speech” might constrain or otherwise inform the functional architecture of information processing models of verbal working memory such as the phonological loop; and how, indeed, how ideas about consciousness may offer alternative explanations for the dual nature of inner speech in verbal working memory. PMID:23964252

Buchsbaum, Bradley R.

2013-01-01

380

Adapting for Impaired Patrons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.…

Schuyler, Michael

1999-01-01

381

Bridging the Gap Between Neurocognitive Processing Theory and Performance Validity Assessment among the Cognitively Impaired: A Review and Methodological Approach.  

PubMed

Bigler (2012) and Larrabee (2012) recently addressed the state of the science surrounding performance validity tests (PVTs) in a dialogue highlighting evidence for the valid and increased use of PVTs, but also for unresolved problems. Specifically, Bigler criticized the lack of guidance from neurocognitive processing theory in the PVT literature. For example, individual PVTs have applied the simultaneous forced-choice methodology using a variety of test characteristics (e.g., word vs. picture stimuli) with known neurocognitive processing implications (e.g., the "picture superiority effect"). However, the influence of such variations on classification accuracy has been inadequately evaluated, particularly among cognitively impaired individuals. The current review places the PVT literature in the context of neurocognitive processing theory, and identifies potential methodological factors to account for the significant variability we identified in classification accuracy across current PVTs. We subsequently evaluated the utility of a well-known cognitive manipulation to provide a Clinical Analogue Methodology (CAM), that is, to alter the PVT performance of healthy individuals to be similar to that of a cognitively impaired group. Initial support was found, suggesting the CAM may be useful alongside other approaches (analogue malingering methodology) for the systematic evaluation of PVTs, particularly the influence of specific neurocognitive processing components on performance. (JINS, 2014, 20, 873-886). PMID:25383483

Leighton, Angela; Weinborn, Michael; Maybery, Murray

2014-10-01

382

Differential impairment of psychomotor efficiency and processing speed in patients with chronic kidney disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Cognitive impairment has been documented in patients with chronic kidney disease. In a recent paper, improvements in cognitive\\u000a function were seen in hemodialysis (HD) patients switched from conventional HD to nocturnal HD, in two of three domains of\\u000a cognitive function. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that functional decline may occur differentially in some domains\\u000a more than others.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using a

Sarbjit V. Jassal; Janet Roscoe; Denise LeBlanc; Gerald M. Devins; Sean Rourke

2008-01-01

383

Lexical learning and lexical processing in children with developmental language impairments.  

PubMed

Lexical skills are a crucial component of language comprehension and production. This paper reviews evidence for lexical-level deficits in children and young people with developmental language impairment (LI). Across a range of tasks, LI is associated with reduced vocabulary knowledge in terms of both breadth and depth and difficulty with learning and retaining new words; evidence is emerging from on-line tasks to suggest that low levels of language skill are associated with differences in lexical competition in spoken word recognition. The role of lexical deficits in understanding the nature of LI is also discussed. PMID:24324231

Nation, Kate

2014-01-01

384

Lead-Induced Impairments in the Neural Processes Related to Working Memory Function  

PubMed Central

Background It is well known that lead exposure induces neurotoxic effects, which can result in a variety of neurocognitive dysfunction. Especially, occupational lead exposures in adults are associated with decreases in cognitive performance including working memory. Despite recent advances in human neuroimaging techniques, the neural correlates of lead-exposed cognitive impairment remain unclear. Therefore, this study was aimed to compare the neural activations in relation to working memory function between the lead-exposed subjects and healthy controls. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-one lead-exposed subjects and 34 healthy subjects performed an n-back memory task during MRI scan. We performed fMRI using the 1-back and 2-back memory tasks differing in cognitive demand. Functional MRI data were analyzed using within- and between-group analysis. We found that the lead-exposed subjects showed poorer working memory performance during high memory loading task than the healthy subjects. In addition, between-group analyses revealed that the lead-exposed subjects showed reduced activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, pre supplementary motor areas, and inferior parietal cortex. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that functional abnormalities in the frontoparietal working memory network might contribute to impairments in maintenance and manipulation of working memory in the lead-exposed subjects. PMID:25141213

Jin, Seong-Uk; Park, Jang Woo; Kim, Yang-Tae; Ryeom, Hun-Kyu; Lee, Jongmin; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Suk Hwan; Park, Sin-Jae; Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Ham, Jung-O; Kim, Yangho; Chang, Yongmin

2014-01-01

385

Phonology Impacts Segmentation in Online Speech Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pena, Bonatti, Nespor, and Mehler (2002) investigated an artificial language where the structure of words was determined by nonadjacent dependencies between syllables. They found that segmentation of continuous speech could proceed on the basis of these dependencies. However, Pena et al.'s artificial language contained a confound in terms of…

Onnis, L.; Monaghan, P.; Richmond, K.; Chater, N.

2005-01-01

386

Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing  

E-print Network

1, three groups of children participated: English monolinguals, Korean monolinguals, and Korean-English bilinguals. A same-different task with nonword stimuli was used. The nonwords were matched in phonotactic probability across the two languages (i...

Lee, Su-Yeon

2011-08-31

387

Physiologic discrimination of stop consonants relates to phonological skills in pre-readers: a biomarker for subsequent reading ability?†  

PubMed Central

Reading development builds upon the accurate representation of the phonological structure of spoken language. This representation and its neural foundations have been studied extensively with respect to reading due to pervasive performance deficits on basic phonological tasks observed in children with dyslexia. The subcortical auditory system – a site of intersection for sensory and cognitive input – is exquisitely tuned to code fine timing differences between phonemes, and so likely plays a foundational role in the development of phonological processing and, eventually, reading. This temporal coding of speech varies systematically with reading ability in school age children. Little is known, however, about subcortical speech representation in pre-school age children. We measured auditory brainstem responses to the stop consonants [ba] and [ga] in a cohort of 4-year-old children and assessed their phonological skills. In a typical auditory system, brainstem responses to [ba] and [ga] are out of phase (i.e., differ in time) due to formant frequency differences in the consonant-vowel transitions of the stimuli. We found that children who performed worst on the phonological awareness task insufficiently code this difference, revealing a physiologic link between early phonological skills and the neural representation of speech. We discuss this finding in light of existing theories of the role of the auditory system in developmental dyslexia, and argue for a systems-level perspective for understanding the importance of precise temporal coding for learning to read. PMID:24399956

White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

2013-01-01

388

Holistic processing impairment can be restricted to faces in acquired prosopagnosia: evidence from the global/local Navon effect.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that acquired prosopagnosia is characterized by impairment at holistic/configural processing. However, this view is essentially supported by studies performed with patients whose face recognition difficulties are part of a more general visual (integrative) agnosia. Here, we tested the patient PS, a case of acquired prosopagnosia whose face-specific recognition difficulties have been related to the inability to process individual faces holistically (absence of inversion, composite, and whole-part effects with faces). Here, we show that in contrast to this impairment, the patient presents with an entirely normal response profile in a Navon hierarchical letter task: she was as fast as normal controls, faster to identify global than local letters, and her sensitivity to global interference during identification of local letters was at least as large as normal observers. These observations indicate that holistic processing as measured with global/local interference in the Navon paradigm is functionally distinct from the ability to perceive an individual face holistically. PMID:21366884

Busigny, Thomas; Rossion, Bruno

2011-03-01

389

Infant information processing and family history of specific language impairment: converging evidence for RAP deficits from two paradigms  

PubMed Central

An infant’s ability to process auditory signals presented in rapid succession (i.e. rapid auditory processing abilities [RAP]) has been shown to predict differences in language outcomes in toddlers and preschool children. Early deficits in RAP abilities may serve as a behavioral marker for language-based learning disabilities. The purpose of this study is to determine if performance on infant information processing measures designed to tap RAP and global processing skills differ as a function of family history of specific language impairment (SLI) and/or the particular demand characteristics of the paradigm used. Seventeen 6- to 9-month-old infants from families with a history of specific language impairment (FH+) and 29 control infants (FH?) participated in this study. Infants’ performance on two different RAP paradigms (head-turn procedure [HT] and auditory-visual habituation/recognition memory [AVH/RM]) and on a global processing task (visual habituation/recognition memory [VH/RM]) was assessed at 6 and 9 months. Toddler language and cognitive skills were evaluated at 12 and 16 months. A number of significant group differences were seen: FH+ infants showed significantly poorer discrimination of fast rate stimuli on both RAP tasks, took longer to habituate on both habituation/recognition memory measures, and had lower novelty preference scores on the visual habituation/recognition memory task. Infants’ performance on the two RAP measures provided independent but converging contributions to outcome. Thus, different mechanisms appear to underlie performance on operantly conditioned tasks as compared to habituation/recognition memory paradigms. Further, infant RAP processing abilities predicted to 12- and 16-month language scores above and beyond family history of SLI. The results of this study provide additional support for the validity of infant RAP abilities as a behavioral marker for later language outcome. Finally, this is the first study to use a battery of infant tasks to demonstrate multi-modal processing deficits in infants at risk for SLI. PMID:17286846

Choudhury, Naseem; Leppanen, Paavo H.T.; Leevers, Hilary J.; Benasich, April A.

2007-01-01

390

Classroom-Based Phonological Sensitivity Intervention (PSI) Using a Narrative Platform: An Experimental Study of First Graders at Risk for a Reading Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of classroom-based phonological sensitivity intervention (PSI) using a narrative platform for children in first grade who are at risk for a reading disability. Participants consisted of 59 first graders identified as at risk for later reading impairments. At-risk designation was dictated by…

Ritter, Michaela J.; Saxon, Terrill F.

2011-01-01

391

Multisensory Spatial Attention Deficits Are Predictive of Phonological Decoding Skills in Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the dominant approach posits that developmental dyslexia arises from deficits in systems that are exclusively linguistic in nature (i.e., phonological deficit theory), dyslexics show a variety of lower level deficits in sensory and attentional processing. Although their link to the reading disorder remains contentious, recent empirical…

Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Ruffino, Milena; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cattaneo, Carmen; Galli, Raffaella; Molteni, Massimo; Zorzi, Marco

2010-01-01

392

Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence for Early and Automatic Detection of Phonological Equivalence in Variable Speech Inputs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech sounds are not always perceived in accordance with their acoustic-phonetic content. For example, an early and automatic process of perceptual repair, which ensures conformity of speech inputs to the listener's native language phonology, applies to individual input segments that do not exist in the native inventory or to sound sequences that…

Kharlamov, Viktor; Campbell, Kenneth; Kazanina, Nina

2011-01-01

393

Modeling the Length Effect: Specifying the Relation with Visual and Phonological Correlates of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning readers' reading latencies increase as words become longer. This length effect is believed to be a marker of a serial reading process. We examined the effects of visual and phonological skills on the length effect. Participants were 184 second-grade children who read 3- to 5-letter words and nonwords. Results indicated that reading…

van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F.; Haentjens-van Meeteren, Marleen M.

2013-01-01

394

A Comparison of the Contributions of Phonological Recoding and Selective Attention Deficits to Reading Disability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated whether a visual selective attention deficit with its presumed basis in slow visual processing referred to the same phonological recoding deficit, or whether they were two independent sources of reading disability. Subjects were children aged 7 to 15 referred to a university clinic (the Waterloo Child Assessment…

Bowers, P. G.; And Others

395

Native Language Phonological Skills in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the link between low second language performance and difficulties with native language phonological processing. Participants were native Hebrew speakers, 19-31 years of age, who learned English as a second language in a school setting. Individuals with dyslexia performed below high-proficiency second language learners on…

Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

2014-01-01

396

Cortical Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Underlying Phonological Target Detection in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selective processing of task-relevant stimuli is critical for goal-directed behavior. We used electrocorticography to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical activation during a simple phonological target detection task, in which subjects press a button when a prespecified target syllable sound is heard. Simultaneous surface potential…

Chang, Edward F.; Edwards, Erik; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Fogelson, Noa; Dalal, Sarang S.; Canolty, Ryan T.; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Barbaro, Nicholas M.; Knight, Robert T.

2011-01-01

397

Early phonological awareness and reading skills in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, children with Down syndrome receive literacy instruction with the expectation of acquiring functional reading skills. Unfortunately, little is known about the processes underlying literacy skills in this special population. Phonological awareness contributes to literacy development in typically developing children, however, there is inconclusive evidence about these skills in younger children with Down syndrome. 9 children with Down syndrome (5;6

Esther J. Kennedy; Mark C. Flynn

2003-01-01

398

Decoding Ability Makes Waves in Reading: Deficient Interactions between Attention and Phonological Analysis in Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whilst there is general consensus that phonological processing is deficient in developmental dyslexia, recent research also implicates visuo-attentional contributions. Capitalising on the P3a wave of event-related potentials as an index of attentional capture, we tested dyslexic and normal readers on a novel variant of a visual oddball task to…

Savill, Nicola J.; Thierry, Guillaume

2012-01-01

399

Phonological and Sensory Short-Term Memory Are Correlates and Both Affected in Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether poor short-term memory (STM) in developmental dyslexia affects the processing of sensory stimulus sequences in addition to phonological material. STM for brief binary non-verbal stimuli (light flashes, tone bursts, finger touches, and their crossmodal combinations) was studied in 20 Finnish adults with dyslexia and 24…

Laasonen, Marja; Virsu, Veijo; Oinonen, Suvi; Sandbacka, Mirja; Salakari, Anita; Service, Elisabet

2012-01-01

400

The Studies about Phonological Deficit Theory in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Developmental Dyslexia (DD) or Reading Disability (RD) that was part of a larger heterogeneous group of learning di sorders and characterized by unexpected problems in academic performance, despite average intelligence. Approach: Current opinions on the biological basis of dyslexia pointed to problems with phonolog ical processing deficits with resulting poor phonemic awareness. Though there was much support for

Emrah Caylak

2010-01-01

401

Event-Related Brain Potentials Elicited during Word Recognition by Adult Good and Poor Phonological Decoders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive processing of lexical and sub-lexical stimuli was compared for good and poor adult phonological decoders. Sixteen good decoders and 16 poor decoders, average age 19 years, silently read 150 randomly computer presented sentences ending in incongruous regular, irregular, or nonwords and 100 congruent filler sentences.…

Martin, Frances Heritage; Kaine, Alison; Kirby, Miriam

2006-01-01

402

Impaired MicroRNA Processing Facilitates Breast Cancer Cell Invasion by Upregulating Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Expression  

PubMed Central

Global mature microRNA (miRNA) expression is downregulated in cancers, and impaired miRNA processing enhances cancer cell proliferation. These findings indicate that the miRNA system generally serves as a negative regulator during cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the role of the miRNA system in cancer cell invasion by determining the effect of damaging miRNA processing on invasion-essential urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expression in breast cancer cells. Short hairpin RNAs specific for Drosha, DGCR8, and Dicer, key components of miRNA processing machinery, were introduced into 2 breast cancer cell lines with high uPA expression and 2 lines with poor uPA expression. Knockdown of Drosha, DGCR8, or Dicer led to even higher uPA expression in cells with high uPA expression, while it was unable to increase uPA level in cells with poor uPA expression, suggesting that the miRNA system most likely impacts uPA expression as a facilitator. In cells with high uPA expression, knockdown of Drosha, DGCR8, or Dicer substantially increased in vitro invasion, and depleting uPA abrogated enhanced invasion. These results thus link the augmented invasion conferred by impaired miRNA processing to upregulated uPA expression. uPA mRNA was a direct target of miR-193a/b and miR-181a, and a higher uPA level in cells with impaired miRNA processing resulted from less mature miR-193a/b and miR-181a processed from their respective primary miRNAs. Importantly, the levels of mature miR-193a, miR-193b, and miR-181a, but not their respective primary miRNAs, were lower in high uPA-expressing cells compared to cells with low uPA expression, and this apparently attributed to lower Drosha/DGCR8 expression in high uPA-expressing cells. This study suggests that less efficient miRNA processing can be a mechanism responsible for reduced levels of mature forms of tumor-suppressive miRNAs frequently detected in cancers. PMID:21779487

Noh, Hyangsoon; Hong, Sungguan; Dong, Zheng; Pan, Zhixing K.; Jing, Qing; Huang, Shuang

2011-01-01

403

Limited role of phonology in reading Chinese two-character compounds: evidence from an ERP study.  

PubMed

This study investigates the role of phonology in reading logographic Chinese. Specifically, whether phonological information is obligatorily activated in reading Chinese two-character compounds was examined using the masked-priming paradigm with event-related potential (ERP) recordings. Twenty-two native Cantonese Chinese speakers participated in a lexical decision experiment. The targets were visually presented Chinese two-character strings and the participants were asked to judge whether the target in each trial was a legitimate compound word in Chinese. Each target was preceded by a briefly presented word prime. The prime and target shared an identical constituent character in the Character-related condition, a syllable in the Syllable-related condition, were semantically related in the Semantic-related condition, and were unrelated (both phonologically and semantically) in the control condition. The prime–target relationship was manipulated to probe the effects of word-form (i.e., character- or syllable-relatedness) and word-semantic relatedness on phonological (as indexed by an N250 ERP component) and semantic (as indexed by an N400 ERP component) processing. Significant and comparable facilitation effects in reaction time, relative to the control, were observed in the Character-related and the Semantic-related conditions. Furthermore, a significant reduction in ERP amplitudes (N250), relative to the control, was obtained in the Character-related condition in the time window of 150-250 ms post target. In addition, attenuation in ERP amplitudes was found in the Semantic-related condition in the window of 250-500 ms (N400). However, no significant results (neither behavioral nor ERP) were found in the Syllable-related condition. These results suggest that phonological activation is not mandatory and the role of phonology is minimal at best in reading Chinese two-character compounds. PMID:24505608

Wong, A W-K; Wu, Y; Chen, H-C

2014-01-01

404

Time course analyses of orthographic and phonological priming effects during word recognition in a transparent orthography.  

PubMed

In opaque orthographies, the activation of orthographic and phonological codes follows distinct time courses during visual word recognition. However, it is unclear how orthography and phonology are accessed in more transparent orthographies. Therefore, we conducted time course analyses of masked priming effects in the transparent Dutch orthography. The first study used targets with small phonological differences between phonological and orthographic primes, which are typical in transparent orthographies. Results showed consistent orthographic priming effects, yet phonological priming effects were absent. The second study explicitly manipulated the strength of the phonological difference and revealed that both orthographic and phonological priming effects became identifiable when phonological differences were strong enough. This suggests that, similar to opaque orthographies, strong phonological differences are a prerequisite to separate orthographic and phonological priming effects in transparent orthographies. Orthographic and phonological priming appeared to follow distinct time courses, with orthographic codes being quickly translated into phonological codes and phonology dominating the remainder of the lexical access phase. PMID:24456311

Zeguers, M H T; Snellings, P; Huizenga, H M; van der Molen, M W

2014-10-01

405

Perinatal Asphyxia Affects Rat Auditory Processing: Implications for Auditory Perceptual Impairments in Neurodevelopmental Disorders  

PubMed Central

Perinatal asphyxia, a naturally and commonly occurring risk factor in birthing, represents one of the major causes of neonatal encephalopathy with long term consequences for infants. Here, degraded spectral and temporal responses to sounds were recorded from neurons in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of adult rats exposed to asphyxia at birth. Response onset latencies and durations were increased. Response amplitudes were reduced. Tuning curves were broader. Degraded successive-stimulus masking inhibitory mechanisms were associated with a reduced capability of neurons to follow higher-rate repetitive stimuli. The architecture of peripheral inner ear sensory epithelium was preserved, suggesting that recorded abnormalities can be of central origin. Some implications of these findings for the genesis of language perception deficits or for impaired language expression recorded in developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, contributed to by perinatal asphyxia, are discussed. PMID:21203459

Strata, Fabrizio; Stoianov, Ivilin P.; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Bonham, Ben; Martone, Tiziana; Kenet, Tal; Chang, Edward F.; Vincenti, Vincenzo; Merzenich, Michael M.

2010-01-01

406

BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS AND LESION SITES ASSOCIATED WITH IMPAIRED PROCESSING OF LEXICAL AND CONCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE OF ACTIONS  

PubMed Central

To further investigate the neural substrates of lexical and conceptual knowledge of actions, we administered a battery of six tasks to 226 brain-damaged patients with widely distributed lesions in the left and right cerebral hemispheres. The tasks probed lexical and conceptual knowledge of actions in a variety of verbal and non-verbal ways, including naming, word-picture matching, attribute judgments involving both words and pictures, and associative comparisons involving both words and pictures. Of the 226 patients who were studied, 61 failed one or more of the six tasks, with four patients being impaired on the entire battery, and varied numbers of patients being impaired on varied combinations of tasks. Overall, the 61 patients manifested a complex array of associations and dissociations across the six tasks. The lesion sites of 147 of the 226 patients were also investigated, using formal methods for lesion-deficit statistical mapping and power analysis of lesion overlap maps. Significant effects for all six tasks were found in the following left-hemisphere regions: the inferior frontal gyrus; the ventral precentral gyrus, extending superiorly into what are likely to be hand-related primary motor and premotor areas; and the anterior insula. In addition, significant effects for 4-5 tasks were found in not only the regions just mentioned, but also in several other left-hemisphere areas: the ventral postcentral gyrus; the supramarginal gyrus; and the posterior middle temporal gyrus. These results converge with previous research on the neural underpinnings of action words and concepts. However, the current study goes considerably beyond most previous investigations by providing extensive behavioral and lesion data for an unusually large and diverse sample of brain-damaged patients, and by incorporating multiple measures of verb comprehension. Regarding theoretical implications, the study provides new support for the Embodied Cognition Framework, which maintains that conceptual knowledge is grounded in sensorimotor systems. PMID:21159333

Kemmerer, David; Rudrauf, David; Manzel, Ken; Tranel, Daniel

2014-01-01

407

Dysregulated Striatal Neuronal Processing and Impaired Motor Behavior in Mice Lacking Huntingtin Interacting Protein 14 (HIP14)  

PubMed Central

Palmitoyl acyl transferases (PATs) play a critical role in protein trafficking and function. Huntingtin interacting protein 14 (HIP14) is a PAT that acts on proteins associated with neuronal transmission, suggesting that deficient protein palmitoylation by HIP14, which occurs in the YAC128 model of Huntington’s disease (HD), might have deleterious effects on neurobehavioral processing. HIP14 knockout mice show biochemical and neuropathological changes in the striatum, a forebrain region affected by HD that guides behavioral choice and motor flexibility. Thus, we evaluated the performance of these mice in two tests of motor ability: nest-building and plus maze turning behavior. Relative to wild-type controls, HIP14 knockout mice show impaired nest building and decreased turning in the plus maze. When we recorded the activity of striatal neurons during plus-maze performance, we found faster firing rates and dysregulated spike bursting in HIP14 knockouts compared to wild-type. There was also less correlated firing between simultaneously recorded neuronal pairs in the HIP14 knockouts. Overall, our results indicate that HIP14 is critically involved in behavioral modulation of striatal processing. In the absence of HIP14, striatal neurons become dysfunctional, leading to impaired motor behavior. PMID:24376823

Estrada-Sánchez, Ana María; Barton, Scott J.; Burroughs, Courtney L.; Doyle, Amanda R.; Rebec, George V.

2013-01-01

408

Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

2010-01-01

409

Losing the sound of concepts: damage to auditory association cortex impairs the processing of sound-related concepts.  

PubMed

Conceptual knowledge is classically supposed to be abstract and represented in an amodal unitary system, distinct from the sensory and motor brain systems. A more recent embodiment view of conceptual knowledge, however, proposes that concepts are grounded in distributed modality-specific brain areas which typically process sensory or action-related object information. Recent neuroimaging evidence suggested the significance of left auditory association cortex encompassing posterior superior and middle temporal gyrus in coding conceptual sound features of everyday objects. However, a causal role of this region in processing conceptual sound information has yet to be established. Here we had the unique chance to investigate a patient, JR, with a focal lesion in left posterior superior and middle temporal gyrus. To test the necessity of this region in conceptual and perceptual processing of sound information we administered four different experimental tasks to JR: Visual word recognition, category fluency, sound recognition and voice classification. Compared with a matched control group, patient JR was consistently impaired in conceptual processing of sound-related everyday objects (e.g., "bell"), while performance for non-sound-related everyday objects (e.g., "armchair"), animals, whether they typically produce sounds (e.g., "frog") or not (e.g., "tortoise"), and musical instruments (e.g., "guitar") was intact. An analogous deficit pattern in JR was also obtained for perceptual recognition of the corresponding sounds. Hence, damage to left auditory association cortex specifically impairs perceptual and conceptual processing of sounds from everyday objects. In support of modality-specific theories, these findings strongly evidence the necessity of auditory association cortex in coding sound-related conceptual information. PMID:22405961

Trumpp, Natalie M; Kliese, Daniel; Hoenig, Klaus; Haarmeier, Thomas; Kiefer, Markus

2013-02-01

410

Face recognition impairments despite normal holistic processing and face space coding: evidence from a case of developmental prosopagnosia.  

PubMed

Holistic processing and face space coding are widely considered primary perceptual mechanisms behind good face recognition. Here, however, we present the case of S.P., a developmental prosopagnosic who demonstrated severe impairments in face memory and face perception, yet showed normal holistic processing and face space coding. Across three composite experiments, S.P. showed normal-strength holistic processing for upright faces and no composite effect for inverted faces. Across five aftereffect experiments, S.P. showed normal-sized face aftereffects, which derived normally from face space rather than shape-generic mechanisms. The case of S.P. implies: (a) normal holistic processing and face space coding can be insufficient for good face recognition even when present in combination; and (b) the focus of recent literature on holistic processing and face space should be expanded to include other potential face processing mechanisms (e.g., part-based processing). Our article also highlights the importance of internal task reliability in drawing inferences from single-case studies. PMID:22074472

Susilo, Tirta; McKone, Elinor; Dennett, Hugh; Darke, Hayley; Palermo, Romina; Hall, Ashleigh; Pidcock, Madeleine; Dawel, Amy; Jeffery, Linda; Wilson, C Ellie; Rhodes, Gillian

2010-12-01

411

Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2010-01-01

412

Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

Rubrecht, August Weston

413

Phonological Priming in Children's Picture Naming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined phonological priming in children and adults using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Pictures of familiar objects were presented on a computer screen, while interfering words were presented over headphones. Results indicate that priming effects reach a peak during a time when articulatory information is being…

Brooks, Patricia J.; MacWhinney, Brian

2000-01-01

414

Longitudinal Predictors of Implicit Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal predictive relationships among variables that may contribute to poor phonological awareness skills in preschool-age children with speech-sound disorders. Method: Forty-seven children with speech-sound disorders were assessed during the spring of their prekindergarten year and again…

Rvachew, Susan

2006-01-01

415

Phonological Assimilation in Urban Jordanian Arabic  

E-print Network

This study reports patterns of phonological assimilation in consonant clusters in Urban Jordanian Arabic (UJA). We examine all possible C1C2 combinations across a word boundary as well as the concatenations of consonant-final prefixes //in/ and //il...

Zuraiq, Wael; Zhang, Jie

2006-01-01

416

Notes on the Development of Phonological Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes the parallels between N. Chomsky and M. Halle's "The Sound Pattern of English" and A. N. Whitehead and B. Russell's "Principia Mathematica." Uses these parallels to distinguish "formalist" v "substance-based" generative phonology. Suggests that a modification of the "formalist" program is ultimately more satisfactory than the…

Anderson, Stephen R.

1980-01-01

417

Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…

Suh, Yunju

2009-01-01

418

St. Lawrence Island Eskimo Phonology and Orthography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central Siberian Yupik Eskimo is the language both of the natives of St. Lawrence Island and of the facing Siberian mainland, with few minor variations. A history of the language is given as it evolved in both countries, as well as a phonological analysis and orthographic developments on both sides. (SCC)

Krauss, Michael E.

1975-01-01

419

THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE: A PROCESS FOR DETERMINING THE PROBABLE CAUSES OF BIOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has ongoing programs to encourage the evaluation of stream condition based on biological indicators. Bioassessments reveal impairments but do not identify causes of impairments, a necessary step in the restoration of aqua...

420

Orthographic and phonological pathways in hyperlexic readers with Autism Spectrum Disorders.  

PubMed

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often present poor text comprehension relative to their ability to read individual words. Some of them have been considered hyperlexic because of their oustanding word-reading abilities. Although it has been suggested that these children access word reading in an atypical way, there is conflicting evidence on their use of phonological and orthograhic pathways. Fourteen adolescents with ASD with word reading to text comprehension discrepancy and 12 typically developing children, all matched on word reading and chronological age, were administered different lexical and sublexical tasks exploring semantic, orthographic, and phonological word representations and processes. No differences were found on any of the tasks between the children with ASD and the typically developing group. The children with ASD were further subdivided into two groups matched on word reading, one with outstanding word reading rela0tive to verbal IQ and another with word reading consistent with verbal IQ. The first group outperformed the second on tasks involving lexical orthographic and phonological representation. However, they were no different on sub-lexical phonological processing, on rapid naming or working, and short-term memory tasks. PMID:19437201

Saldaña, David; Carreiras, Manuel; Frith, Uta

2009-01-01

421

Neural correlates reveal sub-lexical orthography and phonology during reading aloud: a review  

PubMed Central

The sub-lexical conversion of graphemes-to-phonemes (GPC) during reading has been investigated extensively with behavioral measures, as well as event-related potentials (ERPs). Most research utilizes silent reading (e.g., lexical decision task) for which phonological activation is not a necessity. However, recent research employed reading aloud to capture sub-lexical GPC. The masked priming paradigm avoids strategic processing and is therefore well suitable for capturing sub-lexical processing instead of lexical effects. By employing ERPs, the on-line time course of sub-lexical GPC can be observed before the overt response. ERPs have revealed that besides phonological activation, as revealed by behavioral studies, there is also early orthographic activation. This review describes studies in one’s native language, in one’s second language, and in a cross-language situation. We discuss the implications the ERP results have on different (computational) models. First, the ERP results show that computational models should assume an early locus of the GPC. Second, cross-language studies reveal that the phonological representations from both languages of a bilingual become activated automatically and the phonology belonging to the context is selected rapidly. Therefore, it is important to extend the scope of computational models of reading (aloud) to multiple lexicons.

Timmer, Kalinka; Schiller, Niels O.

2014-01-01

422

Auditory temporal processing skills in musicians with dyslexia.  

PubMed

The core cognitive difficulty in developmental dyslexia involves phonological processing, but adults and children with dyslexia also have sensory impairments. Impairments in basic auditory processing show particular links with phonological impairments, and recent studies with dyslexic children across languages reveal a relationship between auditory temporal processing and sensitivity to rhythmic timing and speech rhythm. As rhythm is explicit in music, musical training might have a beneficial effect on the auditory perception of acoustic cues to rhythm in dyslexia. Here we took advantage of the presence of musicians with and without dyslexia in musical conservatoires, comparing their auditory temporal processing abilities with those of dyslexic non-musicians matched for cognitive ability. Musicians with dyslexia showed equivalent auditory sensitivity to musicians without dyslexia and also showed equivalent rhythm perception. The data support the view that extensive rhythmic experience initiated during childhood (here in the form of music training) can affect basic auditory processing skills which are found to be deficient in individuals with dyslexia. PMID:25044949

Bishop-Liebler, Paula; Welch, Graham; Huss, Martina; Thomson, Jennifer M; Goswami, Usha

2014-08-01

423

Individual Variability in Speed of Information Processing: An Index of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The principal cognitive domain impacted by multiple sclerosis (MS) appears to be information processing speed. Studies have documented mean differences between MS patients and healthy controls on numerous measures of information processing speed, but the present study is one of the first to examine individual variability (i.e., inconsistency) in processing speed. Method: Thirty-nine patients with relapsing-remitting or secondary progressive

Angela M. Bodling; Douglas R. Denney; Sharon G. Lynch

2012-01-01

424

The Complexities of Complex Memory Span: Storage and Processing Deficits in Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the verbal and visuospatial processing and storage skills of children with SLI and typically developing children. Fourteen school-age children with SLI, and two groups of typically developing children matched either for age or language abilities, completed measures of processing speed and storage capacity, and a set of…

Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2007-01-01

425

Temporal Processing Impairment in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study aimed to investigate temporal processing in Chinese children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) using time production, time reproduction paradigm and duration discrimination tasks. A battery of tests specifically designed to measure temporal processing was administered to 94 children with ADHD and 100…

Huang, Jia; Yang, Bin-rang; Zou, Xiao-bing; Jing, Jin; Pen, Gang; McAlonan, Grainne M.; Chan, Raymond C. K.

2012-01-01

426

Longitudinal processing speed impairments in males with autism and the effects of white matter microstructure.  

PubMed

The present study used an accelerated longitudinal design to examine group differences and age-related changes in processing speed in 81 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to 56 age-matched individuals with typical development (ages 6-39 years). Processing speed was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-3rd edition (WISC-III) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd edition (WAIS-III). Follow-up analyses examined processing speed subtest performance and relations between processing speed and white matter microstructure (as measured with diffusion tensor imaging [DTI] in a subset of these participants). After controlling for full scale IQ, the present results show that processing speed index standard scores were on average 12 points lower in the group with ASD compared to the group with typical development. There were, however, no significant group differences in standard score age-related changes within this age range. For subtest raw scores, the group with ASD demonstrated robustly slower processing speeds in the adult versions of the IQ test (i.e., WAIS-III) but not in the child versions (WISC-III), even though age-related changes were similar in both the ASD and typically developing groups. This pattern of results may reflect difficulties that become increasingly evident in ASD on more complex measures of processing speed. Finally, DTI measures of whole-brain white matter microstructure suggested that fractional anisotropy (but not mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, or axial diffusivity) made significant but small-sized contributions to processing speed standard scores across our entire sample. Taken together, the present findings suggest that robust decreases in processing speed may be present in ASD, more pronounced in adulthood, and partially attributable to white matter microstructural integrity. PMID:24269298

Travers, Brittany G; Bigler, Erin D; Tromp, Do P M; Adluru, Nagesh; Froehlich, Alyson L; Ennis, Chad; Lange, Nicholas; Nielsen, Jared A; Prigge, Molly B D; Alexander, Andrew L; Lainhart, Janet E

2014-01-01

427

Obesity Induces Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Impairs Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) Post-translational Processing*  

PubMed Central

It was shown previously that abnormal prohormone processing or inactive proconverting enzymes that are responsible for this processing cause profound obesity. Our laboratory demonstrated earlier that in the diet-induced obesity (DIO) state, the appetite-suppressing neuropeptide ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) is reduced, yet the mRNA of its precursor protein proopiomelanocortin (POMC) remained unaltered. It was also shown that the DIO condition promotes the development of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and leptin resistance. In the current study, using an in vivo model combined with in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that obesity-induced ER stress obstructs the post-translational processing of POMC by decreasing proconverting enzyme 2, which catalyzes the conversion of adrenocorticotropin to ?-MSH, thereby decreasing ?-MSH peptide production. This novel mechanism of ER stress affecting POMC processing in DIO highlights the importance of ER stress in regulating central energy balance in obesity. PMID:23640886

Cakir, Isin; Cyr, Nicole E.; Perello, Mario; Litvinov, Bogdan Patedakis; Romero, Amparo; Stuart, Ronald C.; Nillni, Eduardo A.

2013-01-01

428

Phonological Awareness, Reading Accuracy and Spelling Ability of Children with Inconsistent Phonological Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although children with speech disorder are at increased risk of literacy impairments, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. They are also a heterogeneous population in terms of the number and type of speech errors and their identified speech processing deficits. One problem lies in determining which preschool children with…

Holm, Alison; Farrier, Faith; Dodd, Barbara

2008-01-01

429

Reading Acquisition Reorganizes the Phonological Awareness Network Only in Alphabetic Writing Systems  

PubMed Central

It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8–12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. PMID:22815229

Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R.

2012-01-01

430

Reading acquisition reorganizes the phonological awareness network only in alphabetic writing systems.  

PubMed

It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8-12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. PMID:22815229

Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R

2013-12-01

431

fMRI evidence for the interaction between orthography and phonology in reading Chinese compound words.  

PubMed

Compound words make up a major part of modern Chinese vocabulary. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that access to lexical semantics of compound words is driven by the interaction between orthographic and phonological information. However, little is known about the neural underpinnings of compound word processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we asked participants to perform lexical decisions to pseudohomophones, which were constructed by replacing one or both constituents of two-character compound words with orthographically dissimilar homophonic characters. Mixed pseudohomophones, which shared the first constituent with the base words, were more difficult to reject than non-pseudohomophone non-words. This effect was accompanied by the increased activation of bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and left angular gyrus. The pure pseudohomophones, which shared no constituent with their base words, were rejected as quickly as non-word controls and did not elicit any significant neural activation. The effective connectivity of a phonological pathway from left IPL to left IFG was enhanced for the mixed pseudohomophones but not for pure pseudohomophones. These findings demonstrated that phonological activation alone, as in the case of the pure pseudohomophones, is not sufficient to drive access to lexical representations of compound words, and that orthographic information interacts with phonology, playing a gating role in the recognition of Chinese compound words. PMID:24319418

Zhan, Jiayu; Yu, Hongbo; Zhou, Xiaolin

2013-01-01

432

Semantic priming is affected by real-time phonological competition: evidence for continuous cascading systems.  

PubMed

Lexical-semantic access is affected by the phonological structure of the lexicon. What is less clear is whether such effects are the result of continuous activation between lexical form and semantic processing or whether they arise from a more modular system in which the timing of accessing lexical form determines the timing of semantic activation. This study examined this issue using the visual world paradigm by investigating the time course of semantic priming as a function of the number of phonological competitors. Critical trials consisted of high or low density auditory targets (e.g., horse) and a visual display containing a target, a semantically related object (e.g., saddle), and two phonologically and semantically unrelated objects (e.g., chimney, bikini). Results showed greater magnitude of priming for semantically related objects of low than of high density words, and no differences for high and low density word targets in the time course of looks to the word semantically related to the target. This pattern of results is consistent with models of cascading activation, which predict that lexical activation has continuous effects on the level of semantic activation, with no delays in the onset of semantic activation for phonologically competing words. PMID:21327343

Apfelbaum, Keith S; Blumstein, Sheila E; McMurray, Bob

2011-02-01

433

Semantic priming is affected by real-time phonological competition: Evidence for continuous cascading systems  

PubMed Central

Lexical-semantic access is affected by the phonological structure of the lexicon. What is less clear is whether such effects are the result of continuous activation between lexical form and semantic processing, or whether they arise from a more modular system in which the timing of accessing lexical form determines the timing of semantic activation. This study examined this issue using the visual world paradigm by investigating the time course of semantic priming as a function of the number of phonological competitors. Critical trials consisted of high or low density auditory targets (e.g. horse) and a visual display containing a target, a semantically related object (e.g. saddle), and two phonologically and semantically unrelated objects (e.g. chimney, bikini). Results showed greater magnitude of priming for semantically related objects of low than of high density words and no differences for high and low density word targets in the time course of looks to the word semantically related to the target. This pattern of results is consistent with models of cascading activation, which predict that lexical activation has continuous effects on the level of semantic activation, with no delays in the onset of semantic activation for phonologically-competing words. PMID:21327343

Apfelbaum, Keith S.; Blumstein, Sheila E.; McMurray, Bob

2012-01-01

434

A single stage approach to learning phonological categories: Insights from Inuktitut  

PubMed Central

To acquire one’s native phonological system, language-specific phonological categories and relationships must be extracted from the input. The acquisition of the categories and relationships have each in their own right been the focus of intense research. However, it is remarkable that research on the acquisition of categories and the relations between them have proceeded, for the most part, independent of one another. We argue that this has led to the implicit view that phonological acquisition is a ‘two-stage’ process: phonetic categories are first acquired, and then subsequently mapped onto abstract phoneme categories. We present simulations that suggest two problems with this view: first, the learner might mistake the phoneme-level categories for phonetic-level categories and thus be unable to learn the relationships between phonetic-level categories; on the other hand, the learner might construct inaccurate phonetic-level representations that prevent it from finding regular relations among them. We suggest an alternative conception of the phonological acquisition problem that sidesteps this apparent inevitability, and acquires phonemic categories in a single stage. Using acoustic data from Inuktitut, we show that this model reliably converges on a set of phoneme-level categories and phonetic-level relations among subcategories, without making use of a lexicon. PMID:23137418

Dillon, Brian; Dunbar, Ewan; Idsardi, William

2014-01-01

435

Impaired configural body processing in anorexia nervosa: Evidence from the body inversion effect.  

PubMed

Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) suffer from severe disturbances of body perception. It is unclear, however, whether such disturbances are linked to specific alterations in the processing of body configurations with respect to the local processing of body part details. Here, we compared a consecutive sample of 12 AN patients with a group of 12 age-, gender- and education-matched controls using an inversion effect paradigm requiring the visual discrimination of upright and inverted pictures of whole bodies, faces and objects. The AN patients presented selective deficits in the discrimination of upright body stimuli, which requires configural processing. Conversely, patients and controls showed comparable abilities in the discrimination of inverted bodies, which involves only detail-based processing, and in the discrimination of both upright and inverted faces and objects. Importantly, the body inversion effect negatively correlated with the persistence scores at the Temperament and Character Inventory, which evaluates increased tendency to convert a signal of punishment into a signal of reinforcement. These results suggest that the deficits of configural processing in AN patients may be associated with their obsessive worries about body appearance and to the excessive attention to details that characterizes their general perceptual style. PMID:24206365

Urgesi, Cosimo; Fornasari, Livia; Canalaz, Francesca; Perini, Laura; Cremaschi, Silvana; Faleschini, Laura; Thyrion, Erica Zappoli; Zuliani, Martina; Balestrieri, Matteo; Fabbro, Franco; Brambilla, Paolo

2014-11-01

436

Aberrant N400 responses to phonological overlap during rhyme judgements in children at risk for dyslexia.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that dyslexia is associated with difficulties in phonological awareness and that rhyme awareness in young children can predict later reading success. However, little is known regarding the underlying phonological mechanisms of rhyme awareness in dyslexia, as rhyme awareness is typically assessed using explicit behavioural measures that represent only the endpoint of processing and often lack phonological distracters. We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to auditory word pairs that differed in phonological overlap during a rhyme judgement task given to 6-year-old beginning readers who were at risk for dyslexia (n=30) and typical-reading age-matched controls (n=29). ERPs were recorded in response to word pairs with various types of phonological overlap, including rhyming (e.g., wall-ball), non-rhyming overlapping (e.g., bell-ball) and non-rhyming unrelated (e.g., sock-ball) word pairs. Both groups of participants exhibited N400 responses for basic rhyme judgements vs. unrelated targets. In the typical-reading controls, the neural responses also differed between the rhyming targets and the non-rhyming overlapping targets, whereas neural responses to these targets were similar in the group of children at risk for dyslexia, indicating difficulties in their ability to process similar-sounding, non-rhyming targets. These findings suggest that typical-reading children solve the rhyme judgement task using a more analytical approach, whereas children who are at risk for dyslexia base their judgments on a comparison of overall sound similarity. PMID:24060646

Noordenbos, Mark W; Segers, Eliane; Wagensveld, Barbara; Verhoeven, Ludo

2013-11-01

437

Auditory working memory load impairs visual ventral stream processing: toward a unified model of attentional load.  

PubMed

Attentional interference between tasks performed in parallel is known to have strong and often undesired effects. As yet, however, the mechanisms by which interference operates remain elusive. A better knowledge of these processes may facilitate our understanding of the effects of attention on human performance and the debilitating consequences that disruptions to attention can have. According to the load theory of cognitive control, processing of task-irrelevant stimuli is increased by attending in parallel to a relevant task with high cognitive demands. This is due to the relevant task engaging cognitive control resources that are, hence, unavailable to inhibit the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli. However, it has also been demonstrated that a variety of types of load (perceptual and emotional) can result in a reduction of the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli, suggesting a uniform effect of increased load irrespective of the type of load. In the present study, we concurrently presented a relevant auditory matching task [n-back working memory (WM)] of low or high cognitive load (1-back or 2-back WM) and task-irrelevant images at one of three object visibility levels (0%, 50%, or 100%). fMRI activation during the processing of the task-irrelevant visual stimuli was measured in the lateral occipital cortex and found to be reduced under high, compared to low, WM load. In combination with previous findings, this result is suggestive of a more generalized load theory, whereby cognitive load, as well as other types of load (e.g., perceptual), can result in a reduction of the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli, in line with a uniform effect of increased load irrespective of the type of load. PMID:19302005

Klemen, Jane; Büchel, Christian; Bühler, Mira; Menz, Mareike M; Rose, Michael

2010-03-01

438

Unified Theory of Speech : Speech Processing for the Hearing Impaired and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents some speech processing algorithms that were originally developed for hearing aid applications. However these algorithms are also applicable for other speech and audio applications. Considering that the basic properties of speech remain invariant across applications, it is logical to consider these algorithms under the broader umbrella of 'unified theory of speech.' These algorithms have been implemented on

N. Magotra; F. Livingston; S. Savadatti

2000-01-01

439

A multi-barrier osmotic dilution process for simultaneous desalination and purification of impaired water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotically driven membrane processes use chemical potential difference between two aqueous solutions as a driving force for separation and concentration of feed streams or for recovery of energy. Forward osmosis was extensively studied in recent years and demonstrated that it can be successfully utilized in many applications of water treatment. In a new approach, the salinity difference between seawater and

Tzahi Y. Cath; Nathan T. Hancock; Carl D. Lundin; Christiane Hoppe-Jones; Jörg E. Drewes

2010-01-01

440

Auditory Working Memory Load Impairs Visual Ventral Stream Processing: Toward a Unified Model of Attentional Load  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attentional interference between tasks performed in parallel is known to have strong and often undesired effects. As yet, however, the mechanisms by which interference operates remain elusive. A better knowledge of these processes may facilitate our understanding of the effects of attention on human performance and the debilitating consequences…

Klemen, Jane; Buchel, Christian; Buhler, Mira; Menz, Mareike M.; Rose, Michael

2010-01-01

441

Context Processing in Schizotypal Personality Disorder: Evidence of Specificity of Impairment to the Schizophrenia Spectrum  

PubMed Central

Working memory abnormalities, which are particularly pronounced on context processing tasks, appear relatively specific to schizophrenia spectrum illnesses compared with other psychotic disorders. However, the specificity of context processing deficits to schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), a prototype of schizophrenia, has not been studied. The authors administered 3 versions of the modified AX Continuous Performance Test and an N-back working memory test to 63 individuals with SPD and 25 with other personality disorders, as well as 42 healthy controls. For the AX Continuous Performance Test standard and degraded versions, there was a significant Trial Type × Delay × Group interaction, as SPDs made significantly more errors reflecting poor maintenance of context and fewer errors reflecting good maintenance of context. SPDs also demonstrated poor performance on the N-back, especially at the 2-back condition. Context processing errors and N-back accuracy scores were related to disorganization symptoms. These findings, which are quite similar to those previously reported in patients with schizophrenia, suggest that context processing deficits are specific to the schizophrenia spectrum and are not a reflection of overall psychopathology. PMID:18489210

McClure, Margaret M.; Flory, Janine D.; Barch, Deanna M.; Harvey, Philip D.; Siever, Larry J.

2014-01-01

442

The Role of Native-Language Phonology in the Auditory Word Identification and Visual Word Recognition of Russian–English Bilinguals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does native language phonology influence visual word processing in a second language? This question was investigated in two\\u000a experiments with two groups of Russian-English bilinguals, differing in their English experience, and a monolingual English\\u000a control group. Experiment 1 tested visual word recognition following semantic categorization of words containing four phonological\\u000a vowel contrasts ($${\\/{{\\\\rm i}}\\/-\\/{{\\\\rm u}}\\/, \\/{{\\\\rm I}}\\/-\\/\\\\wedge\\/, \\/{{\\\\rm i}}\\/-\\/{{\\\\rm I}}\\/,

Valeriy Shafiro; Anatoliy V. Kharkhurin

2009-01-01

443

An fMRI study of phonological and spatial working memory using identical stimuli.  

PubMed

The aim of the present fMRI study was to localize brain areas that were uniquely activated for phonological versus spatial working memory. Previous studies have reported inconsistent results, most likely because of methodological heterogeneity varying both stimuli and instructions in the same study. Here, identical consonant-vowel-consonant non-words were visually presented to the subjects in a 2-back paradigm under two different instructions; the subjects either had to memorize the non-words per se or their location. The results give evidence for a hemispheric organization of working memory, with dominance for processing of phonological information in the left hemisphere and frontal cortex, and spatial information in the right hemisphere and parietal cortex. The results also reflect a certain overlap between the neuronal network for working memory and processing of verbal and spatial material. These findings are discussed with regard to processing specificity and the extent that activated areas also may reflect perceptual processes. PMID:18705673

Lycke, Christine; Specht, Karsten; Ersland, Lars; Hugdahl, Kenneth

2008-10-01

444

Frontal Lobe Damage Impairs Process and Content in Semantic Memory: Evidence from Category Specific Effects in Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Portions of left inferior frontal cortex have been linked to semantic memory both in terms of the content of conceptual representation (e.g., motor aspects in an embodied semantics framework) and the cognitive processes used to access these representations (e.g., response selection). Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia (PNFA) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive atrophy of left inferior frontal cortex. PNFA can, therefore, provide a lesion model for examining the impact of frontal lobe damage on semantic processing and content. In the current study we examined picture naming in a cohort of PNFA patients across a variety of semantic categories. An embodied approach to semantic memory holds that sensorimotor features such as self-initiated action may assume differential importance for the representation of manufactured artifacts (e.g., naming hand tools). Embodiment theories might therefore predict that patients with frontal damage would be differentially impaired on manufactured artifacts relative to natural kinds, and this prediction was borne out. We also examined patterns of naming errors across a wide range of semantic categories and found that naming error distributions were heterogeneous. Although PNFA patients performed worse overall on naming manufactured artifacts, there was no reliable relationship between anomia and manipulability across semantic categories. These results add to a growing body of research arguing against a purely sensorimotor account of semantic memory, suggesting instead a more nuanced balance of process and content in how the brain represents conceptual knowledge. PMID:20576258

Reilly, Jamie; Rodriguez, Amy D.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Grossman, Murray

2010-01-01

445

Phonological learning and lexicality of treated stimuli  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to evaluate the lexicality of treated stimuli relative to phonological learning by preschool children with functional phonological disorders. Four children were paired in a single-subject alternating treatments design that was overlaid on a multiple baseline across subjects design. Within each pair, one child was taught one sound in real words and a second sound in non-words; for the other child of the pair, lexicality was reversed and counterbalanced. The dependent variable was production accuracy of the treated sounds as measured during the session-by-session course of instruction. Results indicated that production accuracy of the treated sound was as good as or better using non-word as opposed to real word stimuli. The clinical implications are considered, along with potential accounts of the patterns of learning. PMID:20100042

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

446

Phonological influences on lexical (mis)selection.  

PubMed

Speakers produce words to convey meaning, but does meaning alone determine which words they say? We report three experiments that show independent semantic and phonological influences converging to determine word selection. Speakers named pictures (e.g., of a priest) following visually presented cloze sentences that primed either semantic competitors of the target object name ("The woman went to the convent to become a..."), homophones of the competitors ("I thought that there would still be some cookies left, but there were..."), or matched unrelated control object names. Primed semantic competitors (nun) were produced instead of picture names more often than primed unrelated control object names, showing the well-documented influence of semantic similarity on lexical selection. Surprisingly, primed homophone competitors (none) also substituted for picture names more often than control object names even though they only sounded like competitors. Thus, independent semantic and phonological influences can converge to affect word selection. PMID:12564760

Ferreira, Victor S; Griffin, Zenzi M

2003-01-01

447

THE PHONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF SIGN LANGUAGES  

PubMed Central

Visually perceivable and movable parts of the body – the hands, facial features, head, and upper body – are the articulators of sign language. It is through these articulators that that words are formed, constrained, and contrasted with one another, and that prosody is conveyed. This article provides an overview of the way in which phonology is organized in the alternative modality of sign language. PMID:23539295

SANDLER, WENDY

2013-01-01

448

The effects of context processing on social cognition impairments in adults with Asperger's syndrome  

PubMed Central

Social cognition—the basis of all communicative and otherwise interpersonal relationships—is embedded in specific contextual circumstances which shape intrinsic meanings. This domain is compromised in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Asperger's syndrome (AS) (DSM-V). However, the few available reports of social cognition skills in adults with AS have largely neglected the effects of contextual factors. Moreover, previous studies on this population have also failed to simultaneously (a) assess multiple social cognition domains, (b) examine executive functions, (c) follow strict sample selection criteria, and (d) acknowledge the cognitive heterogeneity typical of the disorder. The study presently reviewed (Baez et al., 2012), addressed all these aspects in order to establish the basis of social cognition deficits in adult AS patients. Specifically, we assessed the performance of AS adults in multiple social cognition tasks with different context-processing requirements. The results suggest that social cognition deficits in AS imply a reduced ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual cues needed to access social meaning. Nevertheless, the patients' performance was normal when explicit social information was presented or when the situation could be navigated with abstract rules. Here, we review the results of our study and other relevant data, and discuss their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AS and other neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, frontotemporal dementia). Finally, we analyze previous results in the light of a current neurocognitive model of social-context processing.

Baez, Sandra; Ibanez, Agustin

2014-01-01

449

Acoustics and sociolinguistics: Patterns of communication in hearing impairing classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In elementary school classes, noise during student led activities is often taken as evidence of successful interaction and learning. In this complex social environment of elementary school classrooms, acquisition of complex language and social skills-the focus of activities in early education-is expected to take place in hearing-hostile environments. Communication and language processing in these contexts requires interactive strategies, discourse forms, and syntactic structures different from the educationally desired forms used in acoustically advantageous environments. Recordings were made of the interaction of groups of students in grades 1-3, 5, and 7 during collaborative group work in their regular classrooms. Each student wore microphones at the ear level and head-mounted video cameras. Each group as a whole was also audio- and videotaped and noise level readings were recorded. Analysis of the acoustical and phonological properties of language heard by each student has demonstrated that the language variety used in these noisy and reverberant settings is similar to that of individuals with hearing impairments. This paper reports similarities between the syntactic structures and pragmatic strategies used by hearing impaired children and normally hearing children in noisy contexts. [Work supported by Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, University of British Columbia.

McKellin, William; Shahin, Kimary; Jamieson, Janet; Hodgson, Murray; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen<