Note: This page contains sample records for the topic impaired phonological processing from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonology and Auditory Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore potential similarities between developmental dyslexia (specific reading disability [SRD]) and specific language impairment (SLI) in terms of phonological skills, underlying auditory processing abilities, and nonphonological language skills. Children aged 9 to 11 years with reading and/or language difficulties were recruited and compared…

Fraser, Jill; Goswami, Usha; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

2010-01-01

2

Phonological Processing Deficits in Specific Reading Disability and Specific Language Impairment: Same or Different?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine if phonological processing deficits in specific reading disability (SRD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are the same or different. In four separate analyses, a different combination of reading and spoken language measures was used to divide 73 children into three subgroups: poor readers with average…

McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne

2013-01-01

3

Phonological Awareness Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children with Mild to Moderate Phonological Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized and nonstandardized assessments of phonological awareness skills were administered to two groups of 6-year-old children. Group 1 passed a language screening but exhibited mild or moderate phonological impairments on the "Assessment of Phonological Processes--Revised." Group 2 passed a language screening and exhibited no phonological

Gernand, Keri Leigh; Moran, Michael J.

2007-01-01

4

Semantic memory impairment does not impact on phonological and orthographic processing in a case of developmental hyperlexia.  

PubMed

Recent evidence from patients with progressive language disorders and dementia has been used to suggest that phonological and orthographic processing depend on intact semantic memory. These claims challenge the traditional view that there are functionally separate modules in the language system. The effect of a severe, but nonprogressive, semantic impairment on phonological and orthographic processing was evaluated in LA, a mentally retarded child with hyperlexia. Knowledge of a word's meaning did not affect LA's word repetition, a measure of phonological processing, or his acquisition and retention of orthographic patterns for writing to dictation low-frequency words with exceptional spellings. These findings support the assertion that both orthographic and phonological whole-word representations can be acquired, stored, and retrieved in the absence of a functional link to semantic memory. PMID:9027372

Glosser, G; Grugan, P; Friedman, R B

1997-02-01

5

Reading disabilities in SLI and dyslexia result from distinct phonological impairments.  

PubMed

Children with specific language impairment (SLI) who show impaired phonological processing are at risk of developing reading disabilities, which raises the question of phonological impairment commonality between developmental dyslexia (DD) and SLI. In order to distinguish the failing phonological processes in SLI and DD, we investigated the different steps involved in speech processing going from perceptual discrimination through various aspects of phonological memory. Our results show that whereas the memory for sequence is likewise impaired in either disorder, children with SLI have to face additional impairment in phonological discrimination and short-term memory, which may account for even poorer phonological awareness than dyslexics'. PMID:19437205

Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Majerus, Steve; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Poncelet, Martine; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noëlle

2009-01-01

6

"Non-Vocalization": A Phonological Error Process in the Speech of Severely and Profoundly Hearing Impaired Adults, from the Point of View of the Theory of Phonology as Human Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Non-vocalization" (N-V) is a newly described phonological error process in hearing impaired speakers. In N-V the hearing impaired person actually articulates the phoneme but without producing a voice. The result is an error process looking as if it is produced but sounding as if it is omitted. N-V was discovered by video recording the speech of…

Halpern, Orly; Tobin, Yishai

2008-01-01

7

Effects of Onset- and Rhyme-Related Distractors on Phonological Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study used the cross-modal picture-word interference task of P. J. Brooks and B. MacWhinney (2000) to compare effects of phonologically related words on lexical access in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Children (7;1 [years;months]-11;2) named pictures while ignoring auditory distractors. Three stimulus…

Seiger-Gardner, Liat; Brooks, Patricia J.

2008-01-01

8

Dyslexia impairs speech recognition but can spare phonological competence.  

PubMed

Dyslexia is associated with numerous deficits to speech processing. Accordingly, a large literature asserts that dyslexics manifest a phonological deficit. Few studies, however, have assessed the phonological grammar of dyslexics, and none has distinguished a phonological deficit from a phonetic impairment. Here, we show that these two sources can be dissociated. Three experiments demonstrate that a group of adult dyslexics studied here is impaired in phonetic discrimination (e.g., ba vs. pa), and their deficit compromises even the basic ability to identify acoustic stimuli as human speech. Remarkably, the ability of these individuals to generalize grammatical phonological rules is intact. Like typical readers, these Hebrew-speaking dyslexics identified ill-formed AAB stems (e.g., titug) as less wordlike than well-formed ABB controls (e.g., gitut), and both groups automatically extended this rule to nonspeech stimuli, irrespective of reading ability. The contrast between the phonetic and phonological capacities of these individuals demonstrates that the algebraic engine that generates phonological patterns is distinct from the phonetic interface that implements them. While dyslexia compromises the phonetic system, certain core aspects of the phonological grammar can be spared. PMID:23028654

Berent, Iris; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered; Balaban, Evan; Galaburda, Albert M

2012-01-01

9

The Association of Rapid Temporal Perception with Orthographic and Phonological Processing in Children and Adults with Reading Impairment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supports a differential development model of reading disability that argues deficits in rapid auditory ability in children are primarily associated with problems in phonological processing, whereas deficits in rapid visual ability in children are primarily associated with problems in orthographic processing; and, for adults, continued deficits in…

Booth, James R.; Perfetti, Charles A.; MacWhinney, Brian; Hunt, Sean B.

2000-01-01

10

Development of Phonological Processing Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment with and without Literacy Delay: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To compare the development of phonological skills in children with specific language impairment (SLI) with and without literacy delay and to examine whether kindergarten phonological skills could discriminate these 2 groups. Method: In a longitudinal study, 8 children with SLI and literacy delay, 10 children with SLI and normal literacy,…

Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

2012-01-01

11

Impaired Letter-String Processing in Developmental Dyslexia: What Visual-to-Phonology Code Mapping Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In…

Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

2012-01-01

12

Phonological processing in Parkinson's disease: a neuropsychological assessment.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have cognitive deficits that cause functional impairments across several domains, including language. There is experimental evidence that basal ganglia and frontostriatal circuits are implicated in phonological processing, which leads to the hypothesis that a dysfunction of these circuits could be expressed behaviorally as phonological deficiencies in patients with PD. Using neuropsychological assessments, the present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities of patients in the initial stages of PD while controlling for other cognitive processes. The results showed lower scores in patients with PD on phonological tests with respect to a control group and these differences were independent of processes such as attention/working memory, long-term memory, thinking, and verbal language comprehension. However, there was an association between phonological skills and reading comprehension abilities. This finding implies a specific phonological deficit in terms of word reading. PMID:23963326

Elorriaga-Santiago, Sergio; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Carrasco-Vargas, Humberto

2013-10-23

13

Is the Phonological Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia Related to Impaired Phonological Representations and to Universal Phonological Grammar?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To date, the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia is still debated. We concur with possible impairments in the representations of the universal phonological constraints that universally govern how phonemes co-occur as a source of this deficit. We were interested in whether-and how-dyslexic children have sensitivity to…

Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; Taki, Yasuyuki; Yokoyama, Satoru; Magnan, Annie; Takahashi, Kei; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ecalle, Jean; Kawashima, Ryuta

2013-01-01

14

Different Origin of Auditory and Phonological Processing Problems in Children with Language Impairment: Evidence from a Twin Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving 55 children with a language impairment and 76 with normal language investigated the heritability of auditory processing impairment in same-sex twins (ages 7 to 13, selected from a sample of 37 pairs). Although correlations between co-twins were high, lack of significant difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins suggested…

Bishop, D. V. M.; Bishop, Sonia J.; Bright, Peter; James, Cheryl; Delaney, Tom; Tallal, Paula

1999-01-01

15

The consequences of progressive phonological impairment for reading aloud.  

PubMed

The 'primary systems' view of reading disorders proposes that there are no neural regions devoted exclusively to reading, and therefore that acquired dyslexias should reliably co-occur with deficits in more general underlying capacities. This perspective predicted that surface dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading aloud 'exception' words (those with atypical spelling-sound characteristics), should be a consistent feature of semantic dementia, a progressive disorder of conceptual knowledge, and just such a pattern has been observed in previous research. In a similar vein, one might expect the gradual deterioration of phonological processing seen in the nonfluent forms of progressive aphasia to be accompanied by phonological dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading of unfamiliar letter strings, i.e., nonwords. The present study, reporting a case-series consideration of reading-aloud data from 16 progressive nonfluent aphasic patients, revealed a pattern in which both low-frequency exception word and nonword reading were comparably compromised. The severity of the reading disorder was predicted by scores on the expressive language task of picture naming but not the receptive task of spoken word-to-picture matching. Our hypothesis that a phonological deficit underpins diminished performance for both naming and reading was supported by the finding that reading-aloud performance was predicted specifically by the rate of phonological errors in picture naming. Moreover, the strength of this relationship was similar for low-frequency exception words and nonwords, suggesting that reading deficits for these two types of items in this disorder shared a common cause: a progressive impairment of phonological processing. PMID:23000132

Woollams, Anna M; Patterson, Karalyn

2012-12-01

16

Exploring Dyslexics' Phonological Deficit I: Lexical vs Sub-Lexical and Input vs Output Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report a series of experiments designed to explore the locus of the phonological deficit in dyslexia. Phonological processing of dyslexic adults is compared to that of age- and IQ-matched controls. Dyslexics' impaired performance on tasks involving nonwords suggests that sub-lexical phonological representations are deficient. Contrasting…

Szenkovits, Gayaneh; Ramus, Franck

2005-01-01

17

Phonological Processing, Language, and Literacy: A Comparison of Children with Mild-to-moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Those with Specific Language Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological skills, language ability, and literacy scores were compared for four groups: 19 children with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss (SNH), 20 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 20 controls matched on chronological age to the SNH group (CA), and 15 controls matched on receptive vocabulary level to a subset of the SLI group (CB). In common with the SLI group,

Josie Briscoe; Dorothy V. M. Bishop; Courtenay Frazier Norbury

2001-01-01

18

Written Language Impairments in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Reflection of Damage to Central Semantic and Phonological Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Connectionist theories of language propose that written language deficits arise as a result of damage to semantic and phonological systems that also support spoken language production and comprehension, a view referred to as the "primary systems" hypothesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the primary systems account in a mixed…

Henry, Maya L.; Beeson, Pelagie M.; Alexander, Gene E.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

2012-01-01

19

Understanding the Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in Phonological Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lesion studies have demonstrated impairments of specific types of phonological processes. However, results from neuropsychological studies of speech sound processing have been inconclusive as to the role of specific brain regions because of a lack of a one-to-one correspondence between behavioural patterns and lesion location. Functional…

Burton, Martha W.

2009-01-01

20

Do deep dyslexia, dysphasia and dysgraphia share a common phonological impairment?  

PubMed

This study directly compared four patients who, to varying degrees, showed the characteristics of deep dyslexia, dysphasia and/or dysgraphia--i.e., they made semantic errors in oral reading, repetition and/or spelling to dictation. The "primary systems" hypothesis proposes that these different conditions result from severe impairment to a common phonological system, rather than damage to task-specific mechanisms (i.e. grapheme-phoneme conversion). By this view, deep dyslexic/dysphasic patients should show overlapping deficits but previous studies have not directly compared them. All four patients in the current study showed poor phonological production across different tasks, including repetition, reading aloud and spoken picture naming, in line with the primary systems hypothesis. They also showed severe deficits in tasks that required the manipulation of phonology, such as phoneme addition and deletion. Some of the characteristics of the deep syndromes - namely lexicality and imageability effects - were typically observed in all of the tasks, regardless of whether semantic errors occurred or not, suggesting that the patients' phonological deficits impacted on repetition, reading aloud and spelling to dictation in similar ways. Differences between the syndromes were accounted for by variation in other primary systems--particularly auditory processing. Deep dysphasic symptoms occurred when the impact of phonological input on spoken output was disrupted or reduced, either as a result of auditory/phonological impairment, or for patients with good phonological input analysis, when repetition was delayed. 'Deep' disorders of reading aloud, repetition and spelling can therefore be explained in terms of damage to interacting primary systems such as phonology, semantics and vision, with phonology playing a critical role. PMID:17227679

Jefferies, Elizabeth; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

2007-04-01

21

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes  

MedlinePLUS

Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech sound disorders ? Can adults have speech sound disorders ? What ... individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as they ...

22

Speech and non-speech processing in children with phonological disorders: an electrophysiological study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neurophysiological auditory brainstem responses to clicks and repeated speech stimuli differ between typically developing children and children with phonological disorders. INTRODUCTION: Phonological disorders are language impairments resulting from inadequate use of adult phonological language rules and are among the most common speech and language disorders in children (prevalence: 8 ? 9%). Our hypothesis is that children with phonological disorders have basic differences in the way that their brains encode acoustic signals at brainstem level when compared to normal counterparts. METHODS: We recorded click and speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in 18 typically developing children (control group) and in 18 children who were clinically diagnosed with phonological disorders (research group). The age range of the children was from 7?11 years. RESULTS: The research group exhibited significantly longer latency responses to click stimuli (waves I, III and V) and speech stimuli (waves V and A) when compared to the control group. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that the abnormal encoding of speech sounds may be a biological marker of phonological disorders. However, these results cannot define the biological origins of phonological problems. We also observed that speech?evoked auditory brainstem responses had a higher specificity/sensitivity for identifying phonological disorders than click?evoked auditory brainstem responses. CONCLUSIONS: Early stages of the auditory pathway processing of an acoustic stimulus are not similar in typically developing children and those with phonological disorders. These findings suggest that there are brainstem auditory pathway abnormalities in children with phonological disorders.

Goncalves, Isabela Crivellaro; Wertzner, Haydee Fiszbein; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Matas, Carla Gentile

2011-01-01

23

Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model  

PubMed Central

An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At least three different models have been proposed: the severity model, the additional deficit model and the component model. We address this issue by comparing children with specific language impairment only, those with dyslexia-only, those with specific language impairment and dyslexia and those with no impairment, using a broad test battery of language skills. We find that specific language impairment and dyslexia do not always co-occur, and that some children with specific language impairment do not have a phonological deficit. Using factor analysis, we find that language abilities across the four groups of children have at least three independent sources of variance: one for non-phonological language skills and two for distinct sets of phonological abilities (which we term phonological skills versus phonological representations). Furthermore, children with specific language impairment and dyslexia show partly distinct profiles of phonological deficit along these two dimensions. We conclude that a multiple-component model of language abilities best explains the relationship between specific language impairment and dyslexia and the different profiles of impairment that are observed.

Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart

2013-01-01

24

An fMRI study of multimodal semantic and phonological processing in reading disabled adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated multimodal (visual and auditory) semantic and unimodal (visual\\u000a only) phonological processing in reading disabled (RD) adolescents and non-impaired (NI) control participants. We found reduced\\u000a activation for RD relative to NI in a number of left-hemisphere reading-related areas across all processing tasks regardless\\u000a of task type (semantic vs. phonological) or modality (auditory vs. visual

Nicole Landi; W. Einar Mencl; Stephen J. Frost; Rebecca Sandak; Kenneth R. Pugh

2010-01-01

25

Phonological development in 4-6-year-old moderately hearing impaired children.  

PubMed

The acquisition of clear phonological rules is of utmost importance for a child when he/she is learning to decode and convey meanings using spoken language. Fifteen Finnish-speaking children, five normally hearing (NH) 3-year-olds and 10 moderately hearing impaired (HId) 4-6-year-olds were studied here. Speech samples consisting of 62 words were collected from each child during a picture naming task. Frequent phonetic (articulation) errors together with normal (but delayed) and deviant phonological processes of HId children were found in this study. The frequency and quality of the processes seemed to be related more to the grade of HI than, for example, the age of the child. Implications for speech therapy are briefly discussed. PMID:11409782

Huttunen, K H

2001-01-01

26

A Phonologically Based Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: Implications for Reading Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted utilizing a quasi-experimental pre- and postgroup design to examine the effects of a phonologically based intervention aimed to improve phonological awareness (PA) and reading abilities in school-age children with language impairment (LI) in Grades 1 through 3. The intervention included instruction in PA and sound-symbol…

Ritter, Michaela J.; Park, Jungjun; Saxon, Terrill F.; Colson, Karen A.

2013-01-01

27

Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background & Aims: The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity among…

Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

2013-01-01

28

Explaining Lexical-Semantic Deficits in Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonological Similarity, Phonological Working Memory, and Lexical Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated potential explanations for sparse lexical-semantic representations in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers. The role of auditory perception, phonological working memory, and lexical competition were investigated. Method: Participants included 32 children…

Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry A.

2010-01-01

29

Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children with Language and Reading Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…

Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne

2012-01-01

30

Density Pervades: An Analysis of Phonological Neighborhood Density Effects in Aphasic Speakers with Different Types of Naming Impairment  

PubMed Central

We investigated the influence of phonological neighborhood density (PND) on the performance of aphasic speakers whose naming impairments differentially implicate phonological or semantic stages of lexical access. A word comes from a dense phonological neighborhood if many words sound like it. Limited evidence suggests that higher density facilitates naming in aphasic speakers, as it does in healthy speakers. Using well controlled stimuli, Experiment 1 confirmed the influence of PND on accuracy and phonological error rates in two aphasic speakers with phonological processing deficits. In Experiments 2 and 3, we extended the investigation to an aphasic speaker who is prone to semantic errors, indicating a semantic deficit and/or a deficit in the mapping from semantics to words. This individual had higher accuracy, and fewer semantic errors, in naming targets from high versus low density neighborhoods. It is argued that the results provide strong support for interactive approaches to lexical access, where reverberatory feedback between word- and phoneme-level lexical representations not only facilitates phonological level processes but also privileges the selection of a target word over its semantic competitors.

Middleton, Erica L.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

2011-01-01

31

Phonological Processing and Reading in Children With Speech Sound Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergar- ten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological processing skills (SSD-high PP), and 35 children with

Susan Rvachew

2007-01-01

32

Phonological processing in first-degree relatives of individuals with autism: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Twin studies have provided heritability estimates as high as 90% for idiopathic ASD. Further evidence for the spectrum's heritability is provided by the presence of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) in unaffected first-degree relatives. Language ability, specifically phonological processing, is proposed to be a core BAP trait. To date, however, no functional neuroimaging investigations of phonological processing in relatives of individuals with ASD have been undertaken. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in parents of children with ASD utilizing a priming task probing implicit phonological processing. In our condition that placed heavier demands on phonological recoding, parents exhibited greater hemodynamic responses than controls in a network of cortical regions involved in phonological processing. Across conditions, parents exhibited enhanced priming-induced response suppression suggesting compensatory neural processing. A nonword repetition test used in previous studies of relatives was also administered. Correlations between this measure and our functional measures also suggested compensatory processing in parents. Regions exhibiting atypical responses in parents included regions previously implicated in the spectrum's language impairments and found to exhibit structural abnormalities in a parent study. These results suggest a possible neurobiological substrate of the phonological deficits proposed to be a core BAP trait. However, these results should be considered preliminary. No previous fMRI study has investigated phonological processing in ASD, so replication is required. Furthermore, interpretation of our fMRI results is limited by the fact that the parent group failed to exhibit behavioral evidence of phonological impairments. PMID:22419478

Wilson, Lisa B; Tregellas, Jason R; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E; Hepburn, Susan; Rojas, Donald C

2013-06-01

33

Auditory Processing, Speech Perception and Phonological Ability in Pre-School Children at High-Risk for Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study of the Auditory Temporal Processing Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether the core bottleneck of literacy-impairment should be situated at the phonological level or at a more basic sensory level, as postulated by supporters of the auditory temporal processing theory. Phonological ability, speech perception and low-level auditory processing were assessed in a group of 5-year-old pre-school…

Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquiere, Pol

2007-01-01

34

Phonological Processing and Arithmetic Fact Retrieval: Evidence from Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact…

De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart

2010-01-01

35

Specific Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia Revealed by Eyetracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a…

Desroches, Amy S.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Robertson, Erin K.

2006-01-01

36

An fMRI Study of Multimodal Semantic and Phonological Processing in Reading Disabled Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated multimodal (visual and auditory) semantic and unimodal (visual only) phonological processing in reading disabled (RD) adolescents and non-impaired (NI) control participants. We found reduced activation for RD relative to NI in a number of left-hemisphere reading-related areas across all…

Landi, Nicole; Mencl, W. Einar; Frost, Stephen J.; Sandak, Rebecca; Pugh, Kenneth R.

2010-01-01

37

Independence of Input and Output Phonology in Word Processing and Short-Term Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, theorists have suggested a close relation between the codes activated during language processing and those involved in STM. In order to further investigate this relationship, we examined the performance of an anomic patient, MS, to determine whether he would exhibit the same impairment in retrieving phonology from semantics in short-term memory that he shows in picture naming. The results

Randi C. Martin; Mary F. Lesch; Michael C. Bartha

1999-01-01

38

Effectiveness of Early Phonological Awareness Interventions for Students with Speech or Language Impairments  

PubMed Central

This article reviews research examining the efficacy of early phonological interventions for young students identified with Speech or Language impairments. Eighteen studies are included, providing results for nearly 500 students in preschool through third grade. Although findings were generally positive, there were large individual differences in response to intervention. Further, there was little evidence that interventions enabled students to catch up in phonological or reading skills to typically developing peers. Methodological issues are described and implications for practice and future research are discussed.

Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Puranik, Cynthia; Zilkowski, Robin; Curran, Tricia

2009-01-01

39

Comparing Phonological Skills and Spelling Abilities in Children with Reading and Language Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Bishop and Snowling (2004) proposed that children with language impairments (LI) and children with reading difficulties (RD) can be considered to be on a (phonological) continuum of risk for reading impairments. Aims: The first aim of the present study was to address two specific hypotheses about the relationship between RD and LI. The…

Larkin, Rebecca F.; Snowling, Margaret J.

2008-01-01

40

Phonological Deficits in Specific Language Impairment and Developmental Dyslexia: Towards a Multidimensional Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At…

Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

2013-01-01

41

Revisiting the Phonological Deficit in Dyslexia: Are Implicit Nonorthographic Representations Impaired?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether developmental dyslexia involves an impairment in implicit phonological representations, as distinct from orthographic representations and metaphonological skills. A group of adults with dyslexia was matched with a group with no history of speech/language/literacy impairment. Tasks varied in the demands made on…

Dickie, Catherine; Ota, Mitsuhiko; Clark, Ann

2013-01-01

42

Patterns of Impairments in AOS and Mechanisms of Interaction between Phonological and Phonetic Encoding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: One reason why the diagnosis of apraxia of speech (AOS) and its underlying impairment are often debated may lie in the fact that most patients do not display pure patterns of AOS. Mixed patterns are clearly acknowledged at other levels of impairment (e.g., lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological), and they have contributed to debate…

Laganaro, Marina

2012-01-01

43

A Treatment Sequence for Phonological Alexia/Agraphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Damage to left perisylvian cortex often results in impaired phonological processing abilities with written language profiles consistent with phonological alexia and phonological agraphia. The purpose of this article was to examine a behavioral treatment sequence for such individuals intended to strengthen phonological processing and links…

Beeson, Pelagie M.; Rising, Kindle; Kim, Esther S.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

2010-01-01

44

Cortical Dynamics of Acoustic and Phonological Processing in Speech Perception  

PubMed Central

In speech perception, a functional hierarchy has been proposed by recent functional neuroimaging studies: Core auditory areas on the dorsal plane of superior temporal gyrus (STG) are sensitive to basic acoustic characteristics, whereas downstream regions, specifically the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) ventral to Heschl's gyrus (HG) are responsive to abstract phonological features. What is unclear so far is the relationship between the dorsal and ventral processes, especially with regard to whether low-level acoustic processing is modulated by high-level phonological processing. To address the issue, we assessed sensitivity of core auditory and downstream regions to acoustic and phonological variations by using within- and across-category lexical tonal continua with equal physical intervals. We found that relative to within-category variation, across-category variation elicited stronger activation in the left middle MTG (mMTG), apparently reflecting the abstract phonological representations. At the same time, activation in the core auditory region decreased, resulting from the top-down influences of phonological processing. These results support a hierarchical organization of the ventral acoustic-phonological processing stream, which originates in the right HG/STG and projects to the left mMTG. Furthermore, our study provides direct evidence that low-level acoustic analysis is modulated by high-level phonological representations, revealing the cortical dynamics of acoustic and phonological processing in speech perception. Our findings confirm the existence of reciprocal progression projections in the auditory pathways and the roles of both feed-forward and feedback mechanisms in speech perception.

Xu, Guoqing; Shu, Hua; Wang, Xiaoyi; Li, Ping

2011-01-01

45

Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity among words. While children with SLI have well documented memory difficulties, it is not clear whether these language knowledge factors also influence recall in this population. Methods & Procedures 16 children with SLI (mean age 10;2) and CAM controls recalled lists of words differing in phonological similarity, word frequency, and phonotactic pattern frequency. While previous studies used a small set of words appearing in multiple word lists, the current study used a larger set of words, without replacement, so that children could not gain practice with individual test items. Outcomes & Results All main effects were significant. Interactions revealed that children with SLI were affected by similarity, but less so than their peers, comparably affected by word frequency, and unaffected by phonotactic pattern frequency. Conclusions Results due to phonological similarity suggest that children with SLI use less efficient encoding, while results due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency were mixed. Children with SLI used coarse-grained language knowledge (word frequency) comparably to peers, but were less able to use fine-grained knowledge (phonotactic pattern frequency). Paired with phonological similarity results, this suggests that children with SLI have difficulty establishing robust phonological knowledge for use in language tasks.

Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

2014-01-01

46

Differential Effects of Orthographic and Phonological Consistency in Cortex for Children with and without Reading Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the central challenges in mastering English is becoming sensitive to consistency from spelling to sound (i.e. phonological consistency) and from sound to spelling (i.e. orthographic consistency). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of consistency in 9-15-year-old Normal and Impaired Readers…

Bolger, Donald J.; Minas, Jennifer; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

2008-01-01

47

The Fragile Nature of Phonological Awareness in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from Literacy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have suggested that children with specific language impairment (SLI) risk encountering subsequent literacy difficulties, due to difficulties in phonological awareness (PA). This longitudinal study provides evidence in support of this view based on a group of 20 French-speaking children with SLI examined at the start of learning to…

Zourou, Filio; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie; Sanchez, Monique

2010-01-01

48

Past-Tense Morphology and Phonological Deficits in Children with Dyslexia and Children with Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors investigated past-tense morphology problems in children with dyslexia compared to those classically observed in children with oral language impairment (LI). Children were tested on a past-tense elicitation task involving regulars ("look-looked"), irregulars ("take-took"), and nonwords ("murn-murned"). Phonological skills were also…

Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Desroches, Amy S.; Terry, Alexandra

2013-01-01

49

Electrophysiological Evidence for Impaired Attentional Engagement with Phonologically Acceptable Misspellings in Developmental Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Event-related potential (ERP) studies of word recognition have provided fundamental insights into the time-course and stages of visual and auditory word form processing in reading. Here, we used ERPs to track the time-course of phonological processing in dyslexic adults and matched controls. Participants engaged in semantic judgments of visually presented high-cloze probability sentences ending either with (a) their best completion word, (b) a homophone of the best completion, (c) a pseudohomophone of the best completion, or (d) an unrelated word, to examine the interplay of phonological and orthographic processing in reading and the stage(s) of processing affected in developmental dyslexia. Early ERP peaks (N1, P2, N2) were modulated in amplitude similarly in the two groups of participants. However, dyslexic readers failed to show the P3a modulation seen in control participants for unexpected homophones and pseudohomophones (i.e., sentence completions that are acceptable phonologically but are misspelt). Furthermore, P3a amplitudes significantly correlated with reaction times in each experimental condition. Our results showed no sign of a deficit in accessing phonological representations during reading, since sentence primes yielded phonological priming effects that did not differ between participant groups in the early phases of processing. On the other hand, we report new evidence for a deficient attentional engagement with orthographically unexpected but phonologically expected words in dyslexia, irrespective of task focus on orthography or phonology. In our view, this result is consistent with deficiency in reading occurring from the point at which attention is oriented to phonological analysis, which may underlie broader difficulties in sublexical decoding.

Savill, Nicola J.; Thierry, Guillaume

2011-01-01

50

Early and Sustained Supramarginal Gyrus Contributions to Phonological Processing  

PubMed Central

Reading is a difficult task that, at a minimum, requires recognizing a visual stimulus and linking it with its corresponding sound and meaning. Neurologically, this involves an anatomically distributed set of brain regions cooperating to solve the problem. It has been hypothesized that the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) contributes preferentially to phonological aspects of word processing and thus plays an important role in visual word recognition. Here, we used chronometric transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the functional specificity and timing of SMG involvement in reading visually presented words. Participants performed tasks designed to focus on either the phonological, semantic, or visual aspects of written words while double pulses of TMS (delivered 40?ms apart) were used to temporarily interfere with neural information processing in the left SMG at five different time windows. Stimulation at 80/120, 120/160, and 160/200?ms post-stimulus onset significantly slowed subjects’ reaction times in the phonological task. This inhibitory effect was specific to the phonological condition, with no effect of TMS in the semantic or visual tasks, consistent with claims that SMG contributes preferentially to phonological aspects of word processing. The fact that the effect began within 80–120?ms of the onset of the stimulus and continued for approximately 100?ms, indicates that phonological processing initiates early and is sustained over time. These findings are consistent with accounts of visual word recognition that posit parallel activation of orthographic, phonological, and semantic information that interact over time to settle into a distributed, but stable, representation of a word.

Sliwinska, Magdalena W.; Khadilkar, Manali; Campbell-Ratcliffe, Jonathon; Quevenco, Frances; Devlin, Joseph T.

2012-01-01

51

Phonological working memory impairments in children with specific language impairment: where does the problem lie?  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine which factors contribute to the lexical learning deficits of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Method Participants included 40 7-8-year old participants, half of whom were diagnosed with SLI and half of whom had normal language skills. We tested hypotheses about the contributions to word learning of the initial encoding of phonological information and the link to long-term memory. Children took part in a computer-based fast-mapping task which manipulated word length and phonotactic probability to address the hypotheses. The task had a recognition and a production component. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs with post-hoc testing. Results Results indicate that the main problem for children with SLI is with initial encoding, with implications for limited capacity. There was not strong evidence for specific deficits in the link to long term memory. Conclusions We were able to ascertain which aspects of lexical learning are most problematic for children with SLI in terms of fast-mapping. These findings may allow clinicians to focus intervention on known areas of weakness. Future directions include extending these findings to slow mapping scenarios.

Alt, Mary

2010-01-01

52

The interface between morphology and phonology: Exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production  

PubMed Central

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment—these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing.

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

53

Phonological Processing in Adults with Deficits in Musical Pitch Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We identified individuals with deficits in musical pitch recognition by screening a large random population using the Distorted Tunes Test (DTT), and enrolled individuals who had DTT scores in the lowest 10th percentile, classified as tune deaf. We examined phonological processing abilities in 35 tune deaf and 34 normal control individuals. Eight…

Jones, Jennifer L.; Lucker, Jay; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis

2009-01-01

54

Role of left posterior superior temporal gyrus in phonological processing for speech perception and production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models of both speech perception and speech production typically postulate a processing level that involves some form of phonological processing. There is disagreement, however, on the question of whether there are separate phonological systems for speech input versus speech output. We review a range of neuroscientific data that indicate that input and output phonological systems partially overlap. An important anatomical

Bradley R. Buchsbaum; Gregory Hickok; Colin Humphries

2001-01-01

55

CMIP and ATP2C2 modulate phonological short-term memory in language impairment.  

PubMed

Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in language acquisition despite otherwise normal development and in the absence of any obvious explanatory factors. We performed a high-density screen of SLI1, a region of chromosome 16q that shows highly significant and consistent linkage to nonword repetition, a measure of phonological short-term memory that is commonly impaired in SLI. Using two independent language-impaired samples, one family-based (211 families) and another selected from a population cohort on the basis of extreme language measures (490 cases), we detected association to two genes in the SLI1 region: that encoding c-maf-inducing protein (CMIP, minP = 5.5 x 10(-7) at rs6564903) and that encoding calcium-transporting ATPase, type2C, member2 (ATP2C2, minP = 2.0 x 10(-5) at rs11860694). Regression modeling indicated that each of these loci exerts an independent effect upon nonword repetition ability. Despite the consistent findings in language-impaired samples, investigation in a large unselected cohort (n = 3612) did not detect association. We therefore propose that variants in CMIP and ATP2C2 act to modulate phonological short-term memory primarily in the context of language impairment. As such, this investigation supports the hypothesis that some causes of language impairment are distinct from factors that influence normal language variation. This work therefore implicates CMIP and ATP2C2 in the etiology of SLI and provides molecular evidence for the importance of phonological short-term memory in language acquisition. PMID:19646677

Newbury, Dianne F; Winchester, Laura; Addis, Laura; Paracchini, Silvia; Buckingham, Lyn-Louise; Clark, Ann; Cohen, Wendy; Cowie, Hilary; Dworzynski, Katharina; Everitt, Andrea; Goodyer, Ian M; Hennessy, Elizabeth; Kindley, A David; Miller, Laura L; Nasir, Jamal; O'Hare, Anne; Shaw, Duncan; Simkin, Zoe; Simonoff, Emily; Slonims, Vicky; Watson, Jocelynne; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Fisher, Simon E; Seckl, Jonathon R; Helms, Peter J; Bolton, Patrick F; Pickles, Andrew; Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Baird, Gillian; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Monaco, Anthony P

2009-08-01

56

Phonological Awareness of Young Children with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings from a sample of 22 young children with visual impairments and no additional disabilities suggest that potential readers of braille or dual media had better syllable-segmentation, sound-isolation, and sound-segmentation skills than potential readers of print. Potential readers of print seemed to have slightly better…

Hatton, Deborah D.; Erickson, Karen A.; Lee, Donna Brostek

2010-01-01

57

Impaired Phonological and Orthographic Word Representations among Adult Dyslexic Readers: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the processing of phonological and orthographic word representations among 17 dyslexic and 16 normal college-level readers using Event-Related Potential measures. They focused on 2 early components--the P200 and the P300. The results revealed P200 and P300 components of lower amplitude and later latency among dyslexic readers…

Meyler, Ann; Breznitz, Zvia

2005-01-01

58

Implicit Phonological and Semantic Processing in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dyslexia is characterized by a core phonological deficit, although recent studies indicate that semantic impairment also contributes to this condition. In this study, event-related potentials (ERP) were used to examine whether the N400 wave in dyslexic children is modulated by phonological or semantic priming, similarly to age-matched controls.…

Jednorog, K.; Marchewka, A.; Tacikowski, P.; Grabowska, A.

2010-01-01

59

Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

2013-01-01

60

Neural dynamics of phonological processing in the dorsal auditory stream.  

PubMed

Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80-100 ms), consistent with a direct influence of articulatory somatomotor areas on phonemic perception. Left hemispheric lateralization was observed 250 ms earlier in IPL and vCS than pSTG, suggesting that functional specialization of somatomotor (and not auditory) areas determined lateralization in the dorsal auditory pathway. The temporal dynamics of the dorsal auditory pathway described here offer a new understanding of its functional organization and demonstrate that temporal information is essential to resolve neural circuits underlying complex behaviors. PMID:24068810

Liebenthal, Einat; Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali

2013-09-25

61

Neural Dynamics of Phonological Processing in the Dorsal Auditory Stream  

PubMed Central

Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80–100 ms), consistent with a direct influence of articulatory somatomotor areas on phonemic perception. Left hemispheric lateralization was observed 250 ms earlier in IPL and vCS than pSTG, suggesting that functional specialization of somatomotor (and not auditory) areas determined lateralization in the dorsal auditory pathway. The temporal dynamics of the dorsal auditory pathway described here offer a new understanding of its functional organization and demonstrate that temporal information is essential to resolve neural circuits underlying complex behaviors.

Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A.; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali

2013-01-01

62

Phonological processes and the perception of phonotactically illegal consonant clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perception of consonant clusters that are phonotactically illegal word initially in English (e.g., \\/tl\\/, \\/sr\\/) was investigated\\u000a to determine whether listeners’ phonological knowledge of the language influences speech processing. Experiment 1 examined\\u000a whether the phonotactic context effect (Massaro & Cohen, 1983), a bias toward hearing illegal sequences (e.g., \\/tl\\/) as legal\\u000a (e.g., \\/tr\\/), is more likely due to knowledge

Mark A. Pitt

1998-01-01

63

Speech Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory Capacity in Language Impairment: Preliminary Evidence from Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The cognitive bases of language impairment in specific language impairment (SLI) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated in a novel non-word comparison task which manipulated phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and speech perception, both implicated in poor non-word repetition. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the…

Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick Greatorex; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Baird, Gillian

2010-01-01

64

A prospective study of the relationship between specific language impairment, phonological disorders and reading retardation.  

PubMed

Language and literacy skills were assessed in 83 8 1/2-year olds whose language development had been impaired at 4 years of age. Provided that language problems had resolved by age 5 1/2 years, literacy development was normal, but many of the children who still had verbal deficits at 5 1/2 years of age did have reading difficulties and persisting oral language impairments later on. In these children, reading comprehension tended to be poor relative to reading accuracy. Syntactic competence in the preschool period accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in literacy attainments, after allowing for the effects of non-verbal ability. There were only weak links between expressive phonological disorders and later ability to read either meaningful text or non-words. PMID:2289942

Bishop, D V; Adams, C

1990-11-01

65

Phonological Processing in Visual Rhyming: A Developmental ERP Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We employed a visual rhyming priming paradigm to characterize the development of brain systems important for phonological processing in reading. We studied 109 right-handed, native English speakers within eight age groups: 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18, 19-20, and 21-23. Participants decided whether two written words (prime-target) rhymed (JUICE-MOOSE) or not (CHAIR-MOOSE). In similar studies of adults, two main event-related

Giordana Grossi; Donna Coch; Sharon Coffey-Corina; Phillip J. Holcomb; Helen J. Neville

2001-01-01

66

The Relationship between Phonological Memory, Receptive Vocabulary, and Fast Mapping in Young Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study assessed the fast mapping performance of children with specific language impairment (SLI) across the preschool to kindergarten age span in relation to their phonological memory and vocabulary development. Method: Fifty-three children diagnosed with SLI and 53 children with normal language (NL) matched for age and gender (30…

Gray, Shelley

2006-01-01

67

Influence of Phonology on Morpho-Syntax in Romance Languages in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The profiles of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ greatly according to the language they speak. The Surface Hypothesis attempts to explain these differences through the theory that children with SLI will incorrectly produce elements in their language with low phonological weights or that are produced in a…

Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Serra-Raventos, Miquel

2007-01-01

68

An Investigation into Semantic and Phonological Processing in Individuals with Williams Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The current study examined semantic and phonological processing in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Previous research in language processing in individuals with WS suggests a complex linguistic system characterized by "deviant" semantic organization and differential phonological processing. Method: Two experiments…

Lee, Cheryl S.; Binder, Katherine S.

2014-01-01

69

Phonological Representations in Children with SLI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been hypothesized that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty processing sound-based information, including storing and accessing phonological representations in the lexicon. Tasks are emerging in the literature that provide a measure of the quality of stored phonological representations, without requiring a verbal…

Claessen, Mary; Leitao, Suze

2012-01-01

70

Implicit phonological and semantic processing in children with developmental dyslexia: evidence from event-related potentials.  

PubMed

Dyslexia is characterized by a core phonological deficit, although recent studies indicate that semantic impairment also contributes to this condition. In this study, event-related potentials (ERP) were used to examine whether the N400 wave in dyslexic children is modulated by phonological or semantic priming, similarly to age-matched controls. ERPs were recorded while children listened to word lists in which the semantic and phonological congruency of the terminal words were manipulated. No overt judgments were made by participants. In control children the N400 amplitude to both semantically and phonologically incongruent words was enlarged relative to congruent words. Dyslexic children exhibited a dissociation of priming effects depending on whether semantic or phonological primes were used. Semantic priming elicited an N400 effect comparable to controls, though delayed. In phonological priming, the dyslexics differed from controls in both the phonologically incongruent and congruent conditions showing reduced N400 amplitude in the former and enhanced N400 in the latter. This pattern suggests that when faced with phonological priming, dyslexics show abnormal neural responses related to both integration of similarities between the consecutive stimuli and the ability to detect incongruent stimuli. Semantic priming seems relatively intact in dyslexics, however neural responses to contextual incongruency are delayed. PMID:20430041

Jednoróg, K; Marchewka, A; Tacikowski, P; Grabowska, A

2010-07-01

71

Response Inhibition and Its Relationship to Phonological Processing in Children with and without Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates response inhibition and its relationship to phonological processing in third-graders with and without dyslexia. Children with dyslexia (n = 20) and children without dyslexia (n = 16) were administered a stop signal task and a digit span forwards task. Initial analyses revealed phonological processing deficits in terms of a…

Schmid, Johanna M.; Labuhn, Andju S.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

2011-01-01

72

A Model of Phonological Processing, Language, and Reading for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-age children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using…

Barker, R. Michael; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn

2013-01-01

73

Enhancing the phonological processing skills of children with specific reading disability.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the benefits of phonological processing skills training for children with persistent reading difficulties. Children aged between 9-14 years, identified as having a specific reading disability, participated in the study. In a series of three experiments, pedagogical issues related to length of training time, model of intervention and severity of readers' phonological processing skills deficit prior to intervention, were explored. The results indicated that improvement in poor readers' phonological processing skills led to a dramatic improvement in their reading accuracy and reading comprehension performance. Increasing the length of training time significantly improved transfer effects to the reading process. Children with particularly severe phonological processing skill deficits benefited from an extended training period, and both individual and group intervention models for phonological processing training proved successful. Implications for speech and language therapists are discussed. PMID:9279428

Gillon, G; Dodd, B

1997-01-01

74

The Relations between Phonological Processing Abilities and Emerging Individual Differences in Mathematical Computation Skills: A Longitudinal Study from Second to Fifth Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relations between phonological processing and emerging individual differences in math computation skills. Found that phonological memory, access rate to phonological codes in memory, and phonological awareness were uniquely associated with growth in number of computation procedures mastered from 92.5 to 134.8 months. Phonological

Hecht, Steven A.; Torgesen, Joseph K.; Wagner, Richard K.; Rashotte, Carol A.

2001-01-01

75

Rate of Acquiring and Processing L2 Color Words in Relation to L1 Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of first language (L1) phonological awareness on the rate of learning new second language (L2) color terms and the rate of processing old color terms. Two groups of 37 children participated; they differed on L1 phonological awareness measured at Grade 3. At Grade 5, over multiple trials, the children learned new L2…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2008-01-01

76

Cerebral Asymmetries in Early Orthographic and Phonological Reading Processes: Evidence from Backward Masking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A lateralized backward masking paradigm was used to examine hemisphere differences in orthographic and phonological processes at an early time course of word recognition. Targets (e.g., bowl) were presented and backward masked by either pseudohomophones of the target word (orthographically and phonologically similar, e.g., BOAL), orthographically…

Halderman, Laura K.; Chiarello, Christine

2005-01-01

77

Natural Phonology or Natural Memory? The Interaction between Phonological Processes and Recall Mechanisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents study in which attempts by children to learn a number of new words revealed that their recall errors were similar to phonological deformations found in speech of young children in early stages of language development. Suggests role of memory needs to be taken into consideration. (Author/BK)

Aitchison, Jean; Chiat, Schulamuth

1981-01-01

78

What phonological deficit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a series of experiments aimed at understanding the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia. These experiments investigate input and output phonological representations, phonological grammar, foreign speech perception and production, and unconscious speech processing and lexical access. Our results converge on the observation that the phonological representations of people with dyslexia may be intact, and that the

Franck Ramus; Gayaneh Szenkovits

2008-01-01

79

A critical review of PET studies of phonological processing.  

PubMed

The use of positron emission tomography to identify sensory and motor systems in humans in vivo has been very successful. In contrast, studies of cognitive processes have not always generated results that can be reliably interpreted. A metaanalysis of five positron emission tomography studies designed to engage phonological processing (Petersen, Fox, Posner, Mintun, & Raichle, 1989; Zatorre, Evans, Meyer, & Gjedde 1992; Sergent, Zuck, Levesque, & MacDonald, 1992; Demonet, Chollet, Ramsay, Cardebat, Nespoulous, Wise, & Frackowiak, 1992; and Paulesu, Frith, & Frakowiak, 1993) reveals that the results do not converge as expected: Very similar experiments designed to isolate the same language processes show activation in nonoverlapping cortical areas. Although these PET confirm the importance of left perisylvian cortex, the experiments implicate distinct, nonoverlapping perisylvian areas. Because of the divergence of results, it is premature to attribute certain language processes or the elementary computations underlying the construction of the relevant linguistic representations to specific cerebral regions on the basis of positron emission tomographic results. It is argued that this sparse-overlap result is due (1) to insufficiently detailed task decomposition and task-control matching, (2) to insufficient contact with cognitive psychology, psycholinguistics, and linguistic theory, and (3) to some inherent problems in using substractive PET methodology to study the neural representation and processing of language. PMID:8954603

Poeppel, D

1996-12-01

80

When Words Collide: Orthographic and Phonological Interference during Word Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The interaction between orthographic and phonological information was studied in two experiments by requiring subjects to match visually presented word pairs on the basics of their visual or rhyming similarty. Word pairs either rhymed and looked alike, rh...

J. Polich G. McCarthy W. S. Wang E. Donchin

1983-01-01

81

Discrimination Training of Phonemic Contrasts Enhances Phonological Processing in Mainstream School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Auditory perceptual learning has been proposed as effective for remediating impaired language and for enhancing normal language development. We examined the effect of phonemic contrast discrimination training on the discrimination of whole words and on phonological awareness in 8- to 10-year-old mainstream school children. Eleven phonemic contrast…

Moore, D.R.; Rosenberg, J.F.; Coleman, J.S.

2005-01-01

82

Semantic, syntactic, and phonological processing of written words in adult developmental dyslexic readers: an event-related brain potential study  

PubMed Central

Background The present study used event-related brain potentials to investigate semantic, phonological and syntactic processes in adult German dyslexic and normal readers in a word reading task. Pairs of German words were presented one word at a time. Subjects had to perform a semantic judgment task (house – window; are they semantically related?), a rhyme judgment task (house – mouse; do they rhyme?) and a gender judgment task (das – Haus [the – house]; is the gender correct? [in German, house has a neutral gender: das Haus]). Results Normal readers responded faster compared to dyslexic readers in all three tasks. Onset latencies of the N400 component were delayed in dyslexic readers in the rhyme judgment and in the gender judgment task, but not in the semantic judgment task. N400 and the anterior negativity peak amplitudes did not differ between the two groups. However, the N400 persisted longer in the dyslexic group in the rhyme judgment and in the semantic judgment tasks. Conclusion These findings indicate that dyslexics are phonologically impaired (delayed N400 in the rhyme judgment task) but that they also have difficulties in other, non-phonological aspects of reading (longer response times, longer persistence of the N400). Specifically, semantic and syntactic integration seem to require more effort for dyslexic readers and take longer irrespective of the reading task that has to be performed.

Russeler, Jascha; Becker, Petra; Johannes, Sonke; Munte, Thomas F

2007-01-01

83

Phonologic Processing in Adults Who Stutter: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), judgment accuracy, and reaction times (RTs) were obtained for 11 adults who stutter and 11 normally fluent speakers as they performed a rhyme judgment task of visually presented word pairs. Half of the word pairs (i.e., prime and target) were phonologically and orthographically congruent across words. That…

Weber-Fox, Christine; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Spruill, John E., III; Smith, Anne

2004-01-01

84

Phonological Processing of Words in Right- and Left-Handers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is commonly accepted that phonology is the exclusive domain of the left hemisphere. However, this pattern of lateralization, which posits a right visual field advantage, has been questioned by several studies. In fact, certain factors such as characteristics of the stimuli and subjects' handedness can modulate the right visual field advantage.…

Tremblay, Tania; Monetta, Laura; Joanette, Yves

2004-01-01

85

They played with the trade: MEG investigation of the processing of past tense verbs and their phonological twins  

PubMed Central

How regular and irregular verbs are processed remains a matter of debate. Some English-speaking patients with nonfluent aphasia are especially impaired on regular past-tense forms like played, whether the task requires production, comprehension or even the judgement that “play” and “played” sound different. Within a dual-mechanism account of inflectional morphology, these deficits reflect disruption to the rule-based process that adds (or strips) the suffix -ed to regular verb stems; but the fact that the patients are also impaired at detecting the difference between word pairs like “tray” and “trade” (the latter being a phonological but not a morphological twin to “played”) suggests an important role for phonological characteristics of the regular past tense. The present study examined MEG brain responses in healthy participants evoked by spoken regular past-tense forms and phonological twin words (plus twin pseudowords and a non-speech control) presented in a passive oddball paradigm. Deviant forms (played, trade, kwade/kwayed) relative to their standards (play, tray, kway) elicited a pronounced neuromagnetic response at approximately 130 ms after the onset of the affix; this response was maximal at sensors over temporal areas of both hemispheres but stronger on the left, especially for played and kwayed. Relative to the same standards, a different set of deviants ending in /t/?—plate, trait and kwate—?produced stronger difference responses especially over the right hemisphere. Results are discussed with regard to dual- and single-mechanism theories of past tense processing and the need to consider neurobiological evidence in attempts to understand inflectional morphology.

Holland, Rachel; Brindley, Lisa; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Patterson, Karalyn

2012-01-01

86

Word stress processing in specific language impairment: auditory or representational deficits?  

PubMed

Word stress processing has repeatedly been reported to be affected in specific language impairment (SLI) with potential consequences for various aspects of language development. However, it still remains unresolved whether word stress impairments in SLI are due to deficits in basic auditory processing or to a degraded phonological representation or both. We addressed this question examining an unselected sample of 10 children with SLI and 11 typically developing (TD) children, aged about 8 years, with respect to their basic auditory processing (duration and skewness discrimination) and phonological representation of prosodic (word stress) and segmental (consonant) contrasts. Our results show lower performance of the SLI group compared to the TD group in all tasks. Crucially, two subgroups of children with SLI emerged from our analyses: While one group was impaired in basic auditory perception, particularly affecting duration discrimination, the other showed no significant auditory processing deficits but a representational impairment. PMID:23806129

Haake, Caroline; Kob, Malte; Willmes, Klaus; Domahs, Frank

2013-08-01

87

The processing of English regular inflections: Phonological cues to morphological structure  

PubMed Central

Previous studies suggest that different neural and functional mechanisms are involved in the analysis of irregular (caught) and regular (filled) past tense forms in English. In particular, the comprehension and production of regular forms is argued to require processes of morpho-phonological assembly and disassembly, analysing these forms into a stem plus an inflectional affix (e.g., {fill} + {-ed}), as opposed to irregular forms, which do not have an overt stem + affix structure and must be analysed as full forms [Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Tyler, L. K. (1997). Dissociating types of mental computation. Nature, 387, 592–594; Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Tyler, L. K. (1998). Rules, representations, and the English past tense. Trends in Cognitive Science, 2, 428–435]. On this account, any incoming string that shows the critical diagnostic properties of an inflected form – a final coronal consonant (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/) that agrees in voicing with the preceding segment as in filled, mild, or nilled – will automatically trigger an attempt at segmentation. We report an auditory speeded judgment experiment which explored the contribution of these critical morpho-phonological properties (labelled as the English inflectional rhyme pattern) to the processing of English regular inflections. The results show that any stimulus that can be interpreted as ending in a regular inflection, whether it is a real inflection (filled–fill), a pseudo-inflection (mild–mile) or a phonologically matched nonword (nilled–nill), is responded to more slowly than an unambiguously monomorphemic stimulus pair (e.g., belt–bell). This morpho-phonological effect was independent of phonological effects of voicing and syllabicity. The findings are interpreted as evidence for a basic morpho-phonological parsing process that applies to all items with the criterial phonological properties.

Post, Brechtje; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K.

2008-01-01

88

The Influence of Working Memory and Phonological Processing on English Language Learner Children's Bilingual Reading and Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we explored whether the contribution of working memory (WM) to children's (N = 471) 2nd language (L2) reading and language acquisition was best accounted for by processing efficiency at a phonological level and/or by executive processes independent of phonological processing. Elementary school children (Grades 1, 2, & 3) whose 1st…

Swanson, H. Lee; Orosco, Michael J.; Lussier, Cathy M.; Gerber, Michael M.; Guzman-Orth, Danielle A.

2011-01-01

89

The Influence of Working Memory and Phonological Processing on English Language Learner Children's Bilingual Reading and Language Acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we explored whether the contribution of working memory (WM) to children's (N = 471) 2nd language (L2) reading and language acquisition was best accounted for by processing efficiency at a phonological level and\\/or by executive processes independent of phonological processing. Elementary school children (Grades 1, 2, & 3) whose 1st language (L1) was Spanish were administered a

H. Lee Swanson; Michael J. Orosco; Cathy M. Lussier; Michael M. Gerber; Danielle A. Guzman-Orth

2011-01-01

90

Phonological alexia: three dissociations.  

PubMed Central

Three dissociations were observed in a case of alexia: a disturbance of reading, without comparable disturbance of oral expression, oral comprehension, writing, or spelling aloud; a disturbance of the phonological reading process, without disturbance of the non-phonological reading process; a disturbance located at the level of the phonological stage, without disturbance of the perceptual and expressive stages. This pattern of results has been called phonological alexia.

Beauvois, M F; Derouesne, J

1979-01-01

91

Do Temporal Processing Deficits Cause Phonological Processing Problems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children (N=110, ages 8 to 10) with either normal or poor reading ability were tested on (1) ability to recall sequences of nonspeech tones presented at various rates, and (2) ability to make phonetic decisions using brief and transitional properties of the speech signal. Results did not support the hypothesis that temporal-processing deficits…

Nittrouer, Susan

1999-01-01

92

Computational modelling of phonological dyslexia: how does the DRC model fare?  

PubMed

This paper investigates the patterns of reading impairment in phonological dyslexia using computational modelling with the dual-route cascaded model of reading (DRC, Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001). Systematic lesioning of nonlexical and phonological processes in DRC demonstrates that different lesions and severity of those lesions can reproduce features of phonological dyslexia including impaired reading of nonwords, relatively spared reading of words, an advantage for reading pseudohomophones. Using the same stimuli for model and for patients, lesions to DRC were also used to simulate the reading accuracy shown by three individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia. No single lesion could replicate the reading performance of all three individuals. In order to simulate reading accuracy for one individual a phonological impairment was necessary (addition of noise to the phoneme units), and for the remaining two individuals an impairment to nonlexical reading procedures (increasing the time interval between each new letter being processed) was necessary. We argue that no single locus of impairment (neither phonological nor nonlexical) can account for the reading impairments of all individuals with phonological dyslexia. Instead, different individuals have different impairments (and combinations of impairments) that together provide the spectrum of patterns found in phonological dyslexia. PMID:18568812

Nickels, Lyndsey; Biedermann, Britta; Coltheart, Max; Saunders, Steve; Tree, Jeremy J

2008-03-01

93

Phonological short-term memory impairment and the word length effect in children with intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

There is mounting evidence that children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) of nonspecific aetiology perform poorer on phonological short-term memory tasks than children matched for mental age indicating a structural deficit in a process contributing to short-term recall of verbal material. One explanation is that children with ID of nonspecific aetiology do not activate subvocal rehearsal to refresh degrading memory traces. However, existing research concerning this explanation is inconclusive since studies focussing on the word length effect (WLE) as indicator of rehearsal have revealed inconsistent results for samples with ID and because in several existing studies, it is unclear whether the WLE was caused by rehearsal or merely appeared during output of the responses. We assumed that in children with ID only output delays produce a small WLE while in typically developing 6- to 8-year-olds rehearsal and output contribute to the WLE. From this assumption we derived several predictions that were tested in an experiment including 34 children with mild or borderline ID and 34 typically developing children matched for mental age (MA). As predicted, results revealed a small but significant WLE for children with ID that was significantly smaller than the WLE in the control group. Additionally, for children with ID, a WLE was not found for the first word of each trial but the effect emerged only in later serial positions. The findings corroborate the notion that in children with ID subvocal rehearsal does not develop in line with their mental age and provide a potential explanation for the inconsistent results on the WLE in children with ID. PMID:24361814

Poloczek, Sebastian; Büttner, Gerhard; Hasselhorn, Marcus

2014-02-01

94

Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological and Orthographic Processing Skills from Spanish L1 to English L2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous cross-language research has focused on L1 phonological processing and its relation to L2 reading. Less extensive is the research on the effect that L1 orthographic processing skill has on L2 reading and spelling. This study was designed to investigate how reading and spelling acquisition in English (L2) is influenced by phonological and…

Sun-Alperin, M. Kendra; Wang, Min

2011-01-01

95

Improving the Early Literacy Skills of Children with Behavioral Disorders and Phonological Processing Deficits at School Entry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving the reading outcomes of children with concomitant emotional and behavior disorders (BD) and phonological processing deficits represents one of the greatest challenges facing educators today. For example, the results from a meta-analysis indicated that problem behavior (Z[sub r]=.46) was as important as phonological processing skills in…

Nelson, J. Ron; Benner, Gregory J.

2005-01-01

96

A Comparison of Phonological Processing Skills of Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Children with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999), the researchers compared strengths and weaknesses in phonological processing skills in three groups: 21 children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), 29 children with dyslexia, and 30 age-matched controls. The MSNH group showed…

Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J.

2012-01-01

97

Process Dissociation of Sight Vocabulary and Phonetic Decoding in Reading: A New Perspective on Surface and Phonological Dyslexias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research on developmental dyslexia has suggested a phonological core deficit hypothesis (e.g., Manis, Seidenberg, Doi, McBride-Chang, & Peterson, 1996; Stanovich, Siegel, & Gottardo, 1997) whereby pure cases of developmental phonological dyslexia (dysfunctional phonetic decoding processing but normal sight vocabulary processing) can exist,…

McDougall, Patricia; Borowsky, Ron; MacKinnon, G. E.; Hymel, Shelley

2005-01-01

98

Lexical and phonological processes in dyslexic readers: evidence from a visual lexical decision task.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether reading failure in the context of an orthography of intermediate consistency is linked to inefficient use of the lexical orthographic reading procedure. The performance of typically developing and dyslexic Portuguese-speaking children was examined in a lexical decision task, where the stimulus lexicality, word frequency and length were manipulated. Both lexicality and length effects were larger in the dyslexic group than in controls, although the interaction between group and frequency disappeared when the data were transformed to control for general performance factors. Children with dyslexia were influenced in lexical decision making by the stimulus length of words and pseudowords, whereas age-matched controls were influenced by the length of pseudowords only. These findings suggest that non-impaired readers rely mainly on lexical orthographic information, but children with dyslexia preferentially use the phonological decoding procedure--albeit poorly--most likely because they struggle to process orthographic inputs as a whole such as controls do. Accordingly, dyslexic children showed significantly poorer performance than controls for all types of stimuli, including words that could be considered over-learned, such as high-frequency words. This suggests that their orthographic lexical entries are less established in the orthographic lexicon. PMID:24115511

Araújo, Susana; Faísca, Luís; Bramão, Inês; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

2014-02-01

99

Non-Word Repetition in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Deficit in Phonological Working Memory or in Long-Term Verbal Knowledge?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated the effects of long-term memory (LTM) verbal knowledge on short-term memory (STM) verbal recall in a sample of Italian children affected by different subtypes of specific language impairment (SLI). The aim of the study was to evaluate if phonological working memory (PWM) abilities of SLI children can be supported by LTM linguistic representations and if

Claudia Casalini; Daniela Brizzolara; Anna Chilosi; Paola Cipriani; Stefania Marcolini; Chiara Pecini; Silvia Roncoli; Cristina Burani

2007-01-01

100

Functional Connectivity in an fMRI Study of Semantic and Phonological Processes and the Effect of L-Dopa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe an fMRI experiment examining the functional connectivity (FC) between regions of the brain associated with semantic and phonological processing. We wished to explore whether L-Dopa administration affects the interaction between language network components in semantic and phonological categorization tasks, as revealed by FC. We…

Tivarus, Madalina E.; Hillier, Ashleigh; Schmalbrock, Petra; Beversdorf, David Q.

2008-01-01

101

Interaction of Phonological Awareness and "Magnocellular" Processing during Normal and Dyslexic Reading: Behavioural and fMRI Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether phonological deficits are a consequence of magnocellular processing deficits in dyslexic and control children. In Experiment 1, children were tested for reading ability, phonological awareness, visuo-magnocellular motion perception, and attention shifting (sometimes considered as magnocellular function). A two-step cluster…

Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen, Muna; Meffert, Elisabeth; Grabowska, Anna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

2010-01-01

102

Effects of phonological and semantic cuing on encoding and retrieval processes in adolescent psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cuing on encoding and retrieval processes in adolescent psychosis. Patients and controls were instructed to learn word lists under three conditions: no cue, phonological cue, and semantic cue. Memory performance was measured with free and cued recalls. In free recall, both groups showed higher performance with semantic than with

Marie-Claire Doré; Nicole Caza; Nathalie Gingras; Michel Maziade; Nancie Rouleau

2009-01-01

103

The Relationship between Phonological and Auditory Processing and Brain Organization in Beginning Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of…

Pugh, Kenneth R.; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L.; Mencl, W. Einar; Austin, Alison C.; Sibley, Daragh; Fulbright, Robert K.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Molfese, Peter; Frost, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

104

Phonological Priming in Young Children Who Stutter: Holistic versus Incremental Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the holistic versus incremental phonological encoding processes of young children who stutter (CWS; N = 26) and age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter (CWNS; N = 26) via a picture-naming auditory priming paradigm. Method: Children named pictures during 3 auditory priming conditions: neutral, holistic, and…

Byrd, Courtney T.; Conture, Edward G.; Ohde, Ralph N.

2007-01-01

105

Individual Differences in Categorical Perception Are Related to Sublexical/Phonological Processing in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the relationship between individual differences in speech perception and sublexical/phonological processing in reading. We used an auditory phoneme identification task in which a /ba/-/pa/ syllable continuum measured sensitivity to classify participants into three performance groups: poor, medium, and good categorizers. A…

Lopez-Zamora, Miguel; Luque, Juan L.; Alvarez, Carlos J.; Cobos, Pedro L.

2012-01-01

106

Processing Interactions between Phonology and Melody: Vowels Sing but Consonants Speak  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to determine if two dimensions of song, the phonological part of lyrics and the melodic part of tunes, are processed in an independent or integrated way. In a series of five experiments, musically untrained participants classified bi-syllabic nonwords sung on two-tone melodic intervals. Their response had to be based on…

Kolinsky, Regine; Lidji, Pascale; Peretz, Isabelle; Besson, Mireille; Morais, Jose

2009-01-01

107

Letter Knowledge, Phonological Processing, and Print Knowledge: Skill Development in Nonreading Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Development of reading skills was examined in 4-year-old children from low-income homes attending a prekindergarten program. Fall to spring gains in letter identification were examined and compared with skills in phonological processing, rhyme detection, and environmental print, and with performance on a screening tool ("Get Ready to Read"). It…

Molfese, Victoria J.; Modglin, Arlene A.; Beswick, Jennifer L.; Neamon, Jessica D.; Berg, Shelby A.; Berg, C. Jeffrey; Molnar, Andrew

2006-01-01

108

How Is Phonological Processing Related to Individual Differences in Children's Arithmetic Skills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there is evidence for an association between the development of reading and arithmetic, the precise locus of this relationship remains to be determined. Findings from cognitive neuroscience research that point to shared neural correlates for phonological processing and arithmetic as well as recent behavioral evidence led to the present…

De Smedt, Bert; Taylor, Jessica; Archibald, Lisa; Ansari, Daniel

2010-01-01

109

An Analysis of Phonological Process Use in Young Children with Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological process use was investigated in five children who used Nucleus 24 cochlear implants (CIs). All participants were less than 3 years of age at the time of cochlear implantation and ranged from 4;2 to 4;7 years of age at onset of study. Speech samples obtained from the GFTA-2 were analyzed using the KLPA-2 to evaluate participants'…

Buhler, Helen C.; DeThomasis, Betty; Chute, Pat; DeCora, Anne

2007-01-01

110

The Processing of English Regular Inflections: Phonological Cues to Morphological Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies suggest that different neural and functional mechanisms are involved in the analysis of irregular ("caught") and regular ("filled") past tense forms in English. In particular, the comprehension and production of regular forms is argued to require processes of morpho-phonological assembly and disassembly, analysing these forms into…

Post, Brechtje; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K.

2008-01-01

111

The Role of Phonological Awareness, Rapid Automatized Naming, and Orthographic Processing in Word Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of three subskills associated with word decoding. The skills utilized for this study were phonological, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and orthographic processing. To do this, six separate models were utilized to define different ways that these three subskills (represented as factors)…

Holland, Jason; McIntosh, David; Huffman, Lisa

2004-01-01

112

Evaluating Phonological Processing Skills in Children with Prelingual Deafness Who Use Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the phonological processing skills of 29 children with prelingual, profound hearing loss with 4 years of cochlear implant experience. Results were group matched with regard to word-reading ability and mother's educational level with the performance of 29 hearing children. Results revealed that it is possible to obtain a…

Spencer, Linda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2009-01-01

113

The Effects of Concurrent Cognitive Load on Phonological Processing in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To determine whether phonological processing in adults who stutter (AWS) is disrupted by increased amounts of cognitive load in a concurrent attention-demanding task. Method: Nine AWS and 9 adults who do not stutter (AWNS) participated. Using a dual-task paradigm, the authors presented word pairs for rhyme judgments and, concurrently,…

Jones, Robin M.; Fox, Robert A.; Jacewicz, Ewa

2012-01-01

114

Evaluating Phonological Processing Skills in Children With Prelingual Deafness Who Use Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the phonological processing skills of 29 children with prelingual, profound hearing loss with 4 years of cochlear implant experience. Results were group matched with regard to word-reading ability and mother’s educational level with the performance of 29 hearing children. Results revealed that it is possible to obtain a valid measure of phonological processing (PP) skills in children using CIs. They could complete rhyming tasks and were able to complete sound-based tasks using standard test materials provided by a commercial test distributor. The CI children completed tasks measuring PP, but there were performance differences between the CI users and the hearing children. The process of learning phonological awareness (PA) for the children with CIs was characterized by a longer, more protracted learning phase than their counterparts with hearing. Tests of phonological memory skills indicated that when the tasks were controlled for presentation method and response modality, there were no differences between the performance of children with CIs and their counterparts with hearing. Tests of rapid naming revealed that there were no differences between rapid letter and number naming between the two groups. Results yielded a possible PP test battery for children with CI experience.

Tomblin, J. Bruce

2009-01-01

115

Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia: cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates.  

PubMed

To examine the validity of different theoretical assumptions about the neuropsychological mechanisms and lesion correlates of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia, we studied written and spoken language performance in a large cohort of patients with focal damage to perisylvian cortical regions implicated in phonological processing. Despite considerable variation in accuracy for both words and non-words, the majority of participants demonstrated the increased lexicality effects in reading and spelling that are considered the hallmark features of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia. Increased lexicality effects were also documented in spoken language tasks such as oral repetition, and patients performed poorly on a battery of phonological tests that did not involve an orthographic component. Furthermore, a composite measure of general phonological ability was strongly predictive of both reading and spelling accuracy, and we obtained evidence that the continuum of severity that characterized the written language disorder of our patients was attributable to an underlying continuum of phonological impairment. Although patients demonstrated qualitatively similar deficits across measures of written and spoken language processing, there were quantitative differences in levels of performance reflecting task difficulty effects. Spelling was more severely affected than reading by the reduction in phonological capacity and this differential vulnerability accounted for occasional disparities between patterns of impairment on the two written language tasks. Our findings suggest that phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia in patients with perisylvian lesions are manifestations of a central or modality-independent phonological deficit rather than the result of damage to cognitive components dedicated to reading or spelling. Our results also provide empirical support for shared-components models of written language processing, according to which the same central cognitive systems support both reading and spelling. Lesion-deficit correlations indicated that phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia may be produced by damage to a variety of perisylvian cortical regions, consistent with distributed network models of phonological processing. PMID:18625494

Rapcsak, Steven Z; Beeson, Pélagie M; Henry, Maya L; Leyden, Anne; Kim, Esther; Rising, Kindle; Andersen, Sarah; Cho, Hyesuk

2009-05-01

116

Working memory impairment in children with developmental dyslexia: is it just a phonological deficity?  

PubMed

Although reduced verbal span is well documented in individuals with developmental dyslexia, the existing data on visual-spatial span are inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether the working memory deficit in developmental dyslexia is confined to verbal material or whether it also involves visual-object and visual-spatial information. Results document deficits on span tasks tapping verbal, visual-spatial, and visual-object working memory in dyslexic children and indicate that the working memory deficit in developmental dyslexia is not limited to dysfunction of phonological components but also involves visual-object and visual-spatial information. PMID:21347921

Menghini, Deny; Finzi, Alessandra; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Vicari, Stefano

2011-01-01

117

The Relationship between Speech Impairment, Phonological Awareness and Early Literacy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although children with speech impairment are at increased risk for impaired literacy, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. Around half the children with speech impairment have delayed acquisition, making errors typical of a normally developing younger child (e.g. reducing consonant clusters so that "spoon" is pronounced as "poon"). A…

Harris, Judy; Botting, Nicola; Myers, Lucy; Dodd, Barbara

2011-01-01

118

Orthographic and phonological processing of Chinese characters: an fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the orthographic and phonological processing of Chinese characters. Four tasks were devised, including one homophone judgment and three physical judgments of characters, pseudo-characters, and Korean-like nonsense figures. While the left occipitotemporal region, left dorsal processing stream, and right middle frontal gyrus constitute a network for

Wen-Jui Kuo; Tzu-Chen Yeh; Jun-Ren Lee; Li-Fen Chen; Po-Lei Lee; Shyan-Shiou Chen; Low-Tone Ho; Daisy L. Hung; Ovid J.-L. Tzeng; Jen-Chuen Hsieh

2004-01-01

119

An Investigation to Validate the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) Test to Identify Children with Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Background The extraordinarily high incidence of grammatical language impairments in developmental disorders suggests that this uniquely human cognitive function is “fragile”. Yet our understanding of the neurobiology of grammatical impairments is limited. Furthermore, there is no “gold-standard” to identify grammatical impairments and routine screening is not undertaken. An accurate screening test to identify grammatical abilities would serve the research, health and education communities, further our understanding of developmental disorders, and identify children who need remediation, many of whom are currently un-diagnosed. A potential realistic screening tool that could be widely administered is the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) test – a 10 minute test that can be administered by professionals and non-professionals alike. Here we provide a further step in evaluating the validity and accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the GAPS test in identifying children who have Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Methods and Findings We tested three groups of children; two groups aged 3;6–6:6, a typically developing (n?=?30) group, and a group diagnosed with SLI: (n?=?11) (Young (Y)-SLI), and a further group aged 6;9–8;11 with SLI (Older (O)-SLI) (n?=?10) who were above the test age norms. We employed a battery of language assessments including the GAPS test to assess the children's language abilities. For Y-SLI children, analyses revealed a sensitivity and specificity at the 5th and 10th percentile of 1.00 and 0.98, respectively, and for O-SLI children at the 10th and 15th percentile .83 and .90, respectively. Conclusions The findings reveal that the GAPS is highly accurate in identifying impaired vs. non-impaired children up to 6;8 years, and has moderate-to-high accuracy up to 9 years. The results indicate that GAPS is a realistic tool for the early identification of grammatical abilities and impairment in young children. A larger investigation is warranted in children with SLI and other developmental disorders.

van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Payne, Elisabeth; McClelland, Alastair

2011-01-01

120

Phonological basis in reading disability: A review and analysis of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor readers are known to do consistently worsethan their normal reading peers on tasks ofphonological processing. They are characterizedby their difficulties in printed wordrecognition, phonological awareness andphonological decoding. An increasing body ofevidence points to deficits in speechperception as a source of subtle but ramifyingeffects in reading impaired children andadults. These deficits may be traced to poorlycoded phonological representations. Thisarticle will

Maria Mody

2003-01-01

121

Sequential Processing of Lexical, Grammatical, and Phonological Information within Broca's Area  

PubMed Central

Words, grammar, and phonology are linguistically distinct, yet their neural substrates are difficult to distinguish in macroscopic brain regions. We investigated whether they can be separated in time and space at the circuit level using intra-cranial electrophysiology (ICE), namely by recording local field potentials (LFP) from populations of neurons using depth electrodes implanted in language-related brain regions while people read words verbatim or grammatically inflected them (present/past, singular/plural). Neighboring probes within Broca’s area revealed distinct neuronal activity for lexical (~200 ms), grammatical (~320 ms), and phonological (~450 ms) processing, identically for nouns and verbs, in a region activated in the same patients and task in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). This suggests that a linguistic processing sequence predicted on computational grounds is implemented in the brain in fine-grained spatiotemporally patterned activity.

Sahin, Ned T.; Pinker, Steven; Cash, Sydney S.; Schomer, Donald; Halgren, Eric

2011-01-01

122

Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca's area.  

PubMed

Words, grammar, and phonology are linguistically distinct, yet their neural substrates are difficult to distinguish in macroscopic brain regions. We investigated whether they can be separated in time and space at the circuit level using intracranial electrophysiology (ICE), namely by recording local field potentials from populations of neurons using electrodes implanted in language-related brain regions while people read words verbatim or grammatically inflected them (present/past or singular/plural). Neighboring probes within Broca's area revealed distinct neuronal activity for lexical (approximately 200 milliseconds), grammatical (approximately 320 milliseconds), and phonological (approximately 450 milliseconds) processing, identically for nouns and verbs, in a region activated in the same patients and task in functional magnetic resonance imaging. This suggests that a linguistic processing sequence predicted on computational grounds is implemented in the brain in fine-grained spatiotemporally patterned activity. PMID:19833971

Sahin, Ned T; Pinker, Steven; Cash, Sydney S; Schomer, Donald; Halgren, Eric

2009-10-16

123

Phonological, visual and temporal processing in adults with and without reading disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of this study was to comparethree theoretical accounts of readingdisability (RD) by simultaneously studyingphonological, visual, and temporal processingskills. Adults with and without RD werecompared on measures of phonological processingwith the Auditory Analysis Test (AAT) and theWoodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT-R) WordAttack subtest. Visual processing was assessedwith the Useful Field of View test (UFOV®)and the Frequency Doubling Technology

Jerri D. Edwards; Amanda C. Walley; Karlene K. Ball

2003-01-01

124

Phonological Processes in the Speech of Jordanian Arabic Children with Cleft Lip and/or Palate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The controlled and free speech of 15 Jordanian male and female children with cleft lip and/or palate was analyzed to account for the different phonological processes exhibited. Study participants were divided into three main age groups, 4 years 2 months to 4 years 7 months, 5 years 3 months to 5 years 6 months, and 6 years 4 months to 6 years 6…

Al-Tamimi, Feda Y.; Owais, Arwa I.; Khabour, Omar F.; Khamaiseh, Zaidan A.

2011-01-01

125

Phonological Representations Are Unconsciously Used when Processing Complex, Non-Speech Signals  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging studies of speech processing increasingly rely on artificial speech-like sounds whose perceptual status as speech or non-speech is assigned by simple subjective judgments; brain activation patterns are interpreted according to these status assignments. The naïve perceptual status of one such stimulus, spectrally-rotated speech (not consciously perceived as speech by naïve subjects), was evaluated in discrimination and forced identification experiments. Discrimination of variation in spectrally-rotated syllables in one group of naïve subjects was strongly related to the pattern of similarities in phonological identification of the same stimuli provided by a second, independent group of naïve subjects, suggesting either that (1) naïve rotated syllable perception involves phonetic-like processing, or (2) that perception is solely based on physical acoustic similarity, and similar sounds are provided with similar phonetic identities. Analysis of acoustic (Euclidean distances of center frequency values of formants) and phonetic similarities in the perception of the vowel portions of the rotated syllables revealed that discrimination was significantly and independently influenced by both acoustic and phonological information. We conclude that simple subjective assessments of artificial speech-like sounds can be misleading, as perception of such sounds may initially and unconsciously utilize speech-like, phonological processing.

Azadpour, Mahan; Balaban, Evan

2008-01-01

126

Working memory and phonological processing as predictors of children’s mathematical problem solving at different ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explored the contribution of working memory (WM) to mathematical problem solving in younger (8-year-old) and older\\u000a (11-year-old) children. The results showed that (1) significant agerelated differences in WM performance were maintained when\\u000a measures of phonological processing (i.e., digit naming speed, short-term memory, phonological deletion) were partialed from\\u000a the analysis; (2) WM predicted solution accuracy of word problems independently

H. Lee Swanson

2004-01-01

127

Phonological facilitation of object naming in agrammatic and logopenic primary progressive aphasia (PPA).  

PubMed

Phonological processing deficits are characteristic of both the agrammatic and logopenic subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L). However, it is an open question which substages of phonological processing (i.e., phonological word form retrieval, phonological encoding) are impaired in these subtypes of PPA, as well as how phonological processing deficits contribute to anomia. In the present study, participants with PPA-G (n = 7), participants with PPA-L (n = 7), and unimpaired controls (n = 17) named objects as interfering written words (phonologically related/unrelated) were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 0, +100, +300, and +500 ms. Phonological facilitation (PF) effects (faster naming times with phonologically related interfering words) were found for the controls and PPA-L group only at SOA = 0 and +100 ms. However, the PPA-G group exhibited protracted PF effects (PF at SOA = 0, +100, and +300 ms). These results may reflect deficits in phonological encoding in PPA-G, but not in PPA-L, supporting the neuropsychological reality of this substage of phonological processing and the distinction between these two PPA subtypes. PMID:24070176

Mack, Jennifer E; Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Kloet, James D; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K

2013-01-01

128

Differences between Patterns of Brain Activity Associated with Semantics and Those Linked with Phonological Processing Diminish with Age  

PubMed Central

It is widely believed that language function tends to show little age-related performance decline. Indeed, some older individuals seem to use compensatory mechanisms to maintain a high level of performance when submitted to lexical tasks. However, how these mechanisms affect cortical and subcortical activity during semantic and phonological processing has not been extensively explored. The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of healthy aging on cortico-subcortical routes related to semantic and phonological processing using a lexical analogue of the Wisconsin Cart-Sorting Task. Our results indicate that while young adults tend to show increased activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the fusiform gyrus, the ventral temporal lobe and the caudate nucleus during semantic decisions and in the posterior Broca's area (area 44), the temporal lobe (area 37), the temporoparietal junction (area 40) and the motor cortical regions during phonological decisions, older individuals showed increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and motor cortical regions during both semantic and phonological decisions. Furthermore, when semantic and phonological decisions were contrasted with each other, younger individuals showed significant brain activity differences in several regions while older individuals did not. Therefore, in older individuals, the semantic and phonological routes seem to merge into a single pathway. These findings represent most probably neural reserve/compensation mechanisms, characterized by a decrease in specificity, on which the elderly rely to maintain an adequate level of performance.

Martins, Ruben; Simard, France; Monchi, Oury

2014-01-01

129

A Prospective Study of the Relationship between Specific Language Impairment, Phonological Disorders and Reading Retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language and literacy skills were assessed in 83 8 54 -year olds whose language development had been impaired at 4 years of age. Provided that language problems had resolved by age 5 V2 years, literacy development was normal, but many of the children who still had verbal deficits at 5 V2 years of age did have reading difficulties and persisting

D. V. M. Bishop; C. Adams

1990-01-01

130

The dorsal stream contribution to phonological retrieval in object naming  

PubMed Central

Meaningful speech, as exemplified in object naming, calls on knowledge of the mappings between word meanings and phonological forms. Phonological errors in naming (e.g. GHOST named as ‘goath’) are commonly seen in persisting post-stroke aphasia and are thought to signal impairment in retrieval of phonological form information. We performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis of 1718 phonological naming errors collected from 106 individuals with diverse profiles of aphasia. Voxels in which lesion status correlated with phonological error rates localized to dorsal stream areas, in keeping with classical and contemporary brain-language models. Within the dorsal stream, the critical voxels were concentrated in premotor cortex, pre- and postcentral gyri and supramarginal gyrus with minimal extension into auditory-related posterior temporal and temporo-parietal cortices. This challenges the popular notion that error-free phonological retrieval requires guidance from sensory traces stored in posterior auditory regions and points instead to sensory-motor processes located further anterior in the dorsal stream. In a separate analysis, we compared the lesion maps for phonological and semantic errors and determined that there was no spatial overlap, demonstrating that the brain segregates phonological and semantic retrieval operations in word production.

Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Kim, Junghoon; Coslett, H. Branch

2012-01-01

131

Impairment: The Case of Phonotactic Probability and Nonword Repetition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to explore the relationship between lexical and phonological knowledge in children with primary language impairment (PLI) through the application of a developmental methodology. Specifically, they tested whether there is evidence for an impairment in the process of phonological abstraction in this group of…

McKean, Cristina; Letts, Carolyn; Howard, David

2013-01-01

132

Phonological iconicity  

PubMed Central

The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern.

Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.

2014-01-01

133

Processing of phonological variation in children with hearing loss: compensation for english place assimilation in connected speech.  

PubMed

PURPOSE In this study, the authors explored phonological processing in connected speech in children with hearing loss. Specifically, the authors investigated these children's sensitivity to English place assimilation, by which alveolar consonants like t and n can adapt to following sounds (e.g., the word ten can be realized as tem in the phrase ten pounds). METHOD Twenty-seven 4- to 8-year-old children with moderate to profound hearing impairments, using hearing aids (n = 10) or cochlear implants (n = 17), and 19 children with normal hearing participated. They were asked to choose between pictures of familiar (e.g., pen) and unfamiliar objects (e.g., astrolabe) after hearing t- and n-final words in sentences. Standard pronunciations (Can you find the pen dear?) and assimilated forms in correct (… pem please?) and incorrect contexts (… pem dear?) were presented. RESULTS As expected, the children with normal hearing chose the familiar object more often for standard forms and correct assimilations than for incorrect assimilations. Thus, they are sensitive to word-final place changes and compensate for assimilation. However, the children with hearing impairment demonstrated reduced sensitivity to word-final place changes, and no compensation for assimilation. Restricted analyses revealed that children with hearing aids who showed good perceptual skills compensated for assimilation in plosives only. PMID:24167243

Skoruppa, Katrin; Rosen, Stuart

2014-06-01

134

Rhythmic Priming Enhances the Phonological Processing of Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While natural speech does not possess the same degree of temporal regularity found in music, there is recent evidence to suggest that temporal regularity enhances speech processing. The aim of this experiment was to examine whether speech processing would be enhanced by the prior presentation of a rhythmical prime. We recorded electrophysiological…

Cason, Nia; Schon, Daniele

2012-01-01

135

Relations among musical skills, phonological processing, and early reading ability in preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relations among phonological awareness, music perception skills, and early reading skills in a population of 100 4- and 5-year-old children. Music skills were found to correlate significantly with both phonological awareness and reading development. Regression analyses indicated that music perception skills contributed unique variance in predicting reading ability, even when variance due to phonological awareness and other

Sima H. Anvari; Laurel J. Trainor; Jennifer Woodside; Betty Ann Levy

2002-01-01

136

Relationships among rapid digit naming, phonological processing, motor automaticity, and speech perception in poor, average, and good readers and spellers.  

PubMed

In this article, we explore the relationship between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and other cognitive processes among below-average, average, and above-average readers and spellers. Nonsense word reading, phonological awareness, RAN, automaticity of balance, speech perception, and verbal short-term and working memory were measured. Factor analysis revealed a 3-component structure. The first component included phonological processing tasks, RAN, and motor balance. The second component included verbal short-term and working memory tasks. Speech perception loaded strongly as a third component, associated negatively with RAN. The phonological processing tests correlated most strongly with reading ability and uniquely discriminated average from below- and above-average readers in terms of word reading, reading comprehension, and spelling. On word reading, comprehension, and spelling, RAN discriminated only the below-average group from the average performers. Verbal memory, as assessed by word list recall, additionally discriminated the below-average group from the average group on spelling performance. Motor balance and speech perception did not discriminate average from above- or below-average performers. In regression analyses, phonological processing measures predicted word reading and comprehension, and both phonological processing and RAN predicted spelling. PMID:15727326

Savage, Robert S; Frederickson, Norah; Goodwin, Roz; Patni, Ulla; Smith, Nicola; Tuersley, Louise

2005-01-01

137

Metrical Phonology: German Sound System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English and German languages. The objective is to promote use of metrical phonology as a tool for enhancing instruction in stress patterns in words and sentences, particularly in…

Tice, Bradley S.

138

Visual Spatial Attention and Speech Segmentation are Both Impaired in Preschoolers at Familial Risk for Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological skills are foundational of reading acquisition and impaired phonological processing is widely assumed to characterize dyslexic individuals. However, reading by phonological decoding also requires rapid selection of sublexical orthographic units through serial attentional orienting, and recent studies have shown that visual spatial…

Facoetti, Andrea; Corradi, Nicola; Ruffino, Milena; Gori, Simone; Zorzi, Marco

2010-01-01

139

Metrical Phonology and SLA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metrical phonology, a linguistic process of phonological stress assessment and diagrammatic simplification of sentence and word stress, is discussed as it is found in the English language with the intention that it may be used in second language instruction. Stress is defined by its physical and acoustical correlates, and the principles of…

Tice, Bradley S.

140

Spatiotemporal distribution of cortical processing of first and second languages in bilinguals. II. Effects of phonologic and semantic priming.  

PubMed

This study determined the effects of phonology and semantics on the distribution of cortical activity to the second of a pair of words in first and second language (mixed pairs). The effects of relative proficiency in the two languages and linguistic setting (monolinguistic or mixed) are reported in a companion paper. Ten early bilinguals and 14 late bilinguals listened to mixed pairs of words in Arabic (L1) and Hebrew (L2) and indicated whether both words in the pair had the same or different meanings. The spatio-temporal distribution of current densities of event-related potentials were estimated for each language and according to semantic and phonologic relationship (same or different) compared with the first word in the pair. During early processing (<300 ms), brain activity in temporal and temporoparietal auditory areas was enhanced by phonologic incongruence between words in the pair and in Wernicke's area by both phonologic and semantic priming. In contrast, brain activities during late processing (>300 ms) were enhanced by semantic incongruence between the two words, particularly in temporal areas and in left hemisphere Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The latter differences were greater when words were in L2. Surprisingly, no significant effects of relative proficiency on processing the second word in the pair were found. These results indicate that the distribution of brain activity to the second of two words presented bilingually is affected differently during early and late processing by both semantic and phonologic priming by- and incongruence with the immediately preceding word. PMID:22696304

Pratt, Hillel; Abbasi, Dalal Abu-Amneh; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi; Starr, Arnold

2013-11-01

141

The Interface between Morphology and Phonology: Exploring a Morpho-Phonological Deficit in Spoken Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

142

Gamma phase locking modulated by phonological contrast during auditory comprehension in reading disability.  

PubMed

Children with specific reading impairment may have subtle deficits in speech perception related to difficulties in phonological processing. The aim of this study was to examine brain oscillatory activity related to phonological processing in the context of auditory sentence comprehension using magnetoencephalography to better understand these deficits. Good and poor readers, 16-18 years of age, were tested on speech perception of sentence-terminal incongruent words that were phonologically manipulated to be similar or dissimilar to corresponding congruent target words. Functional coupling between regions was measured using phase-locking values (PLVs). Gamma-band (30-45 Hz) PLV between auditory cortex and superior temporal sulcus in the right hemisphere was differentially modulated in the two groups by the degree of phonological contrast between the congruent and the incongruent target words in the latency range associated with semantic processing. Specifically, the PLV was larger in the phonologically similar than in the phonologically dissimilar condition in the good readers. This pattern was reversed in the poor readers, whose lower PLV in the phonologically similar condition may be indicative of the impaired phonological coding abilities of the group, and consequent vulnerability under perceptually demanding conditions. Overall, the results support the role of gamma oscillations in spoken language processing. PMID:22889887

Han, Jooman; Mody, Maria; Ahlfors, Seppo P

2012-10-01

143

Gamma phase-locking modulated by phonological contrast during auditory comprehension in reading disability  

PubMed Central

Children with specific reading impairment may have subtle deficits in speech perception related to difficulties in phonological processing. The aim of this study was to examine brain oscillatory activity related to phonological processing in the context of auditory sentence comprehension using magnetoencephalography (MEG) to better understand these deficits. Good and poor readers, 16-18 years of age, were tested on speech perception of sentence-terminal incongruent words that were phonologically manipulated to be similar or dissimilar to corresponding congruent target words. Functional coupling between regions was measured using phase-locking values (PLV). Gamma band (30-45 Hz) PLV between auditory cortex and superior temporal sulcus in the right hemisphere was differentially modulated in the two groups by the degree of phonological contrast between the congruent and incongruent target words in the latency range associated with semantic processing. Specifically, the PLV was larger in the phonologically similar than in the phonologically dissimilar condition in the good readers. This pattern was reversed in the poor readers, whose lower PLV in the phonologically similar condition may be indicative of the group's impaired phonological coding abilities, and consequent vulnerability under perceptually demanding conditions. Overall, the results support the role of gamma oscillations in spoken language processing.

Han, Jooman; Mody, Maria; Ahlfors, Seppo P.

2014-01-01

144

Factors Related to English Reading Performance in Children with Chinese as a First Language: More Evidence of Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parallel measures of phonological, syntactic, and orthographic processing skill and reading were administered in English and Chinese to 65 children whose first language (L1) was Cantonese and whose 2nd language (L2) was English. This research adds to the evidence for cross-language transfer of phonological processing in L2 learning of…

Gottardo, Alexandra; Yan, Bernice; Siegel, Linda S.; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

2001-01-01

145

Role of Visual Speech in Phonological Processing by Children With Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Purpose This research assessed the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by children with hearing loss (HL). Method Children with HL and children with normal hearing (NH) named pictures while attempting to ignore auditory or audiovisual speech distractors whose onsets relative to the pictures were either congruent, conflicting in place of articulation, or conflicting in voicing—for example, the picture “pizza” coupled with the distractors “peach,” “teacher,” or “beast,” respectively. Speed of picture naming was measured. Results The conflicting conditions slowed naming, and phonological processing by children with HL displayed the age-related shift in sensitivity to visual speech seen in children with NH, although with developmental delay. Younger children with HL exhibited a disproportionately large influence of visual speech and a negligible influence of auditory speech, whereas older children with HL showed a robust influence of auditory speech with no benefit to performance from adding visual speech. The congruent conditions did not speed naming in children with HL, nor did the addition of visual speech influence performance. Unexpectedly, the /?/-vowel congruent distractors slowed naming in children with HL and decreased articulatory proficiency. Conclusions Results for the conflicting conditions are consistent with the hypothesis that speech representations in children with HL (a) are initially disproportionally structured in terms of visual speech and (b) become better specified with age in terms of auditorily encoded information.

Jerger, Susan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Herve

2011-01-01

146

Auditory Temporal Information Processing in Preschool Children at Family Risk for Dyslexia: Relations with Phonological Abilities and Developing Literacy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this project, the hypothesis of an auditory temporal processing deficit in dyslexia was tested by examining auditory processing in relation to phonological skills in two contrasting groups of five-year-old preschool children, a familial high risk and a familial low risk group. Participants were individually matched for gender, age, non-verbal…

Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquiere, Pol

2006-01-01

147

Brain activation during phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters in deaf signers  

PubMed Central

Previous studies found altered brain function in deaf individuals reading alphabetic orthographies. However, it is not known whether similar alterations of brain function are characteristic of non-alphabetic writing systems and whether alterations are specific to certain kinds of lexical tasks. Here we examined differences in brain activation between Chinese congenitally deaf individuals (CD) and hearing controls (HC) during character reading tasks requiring phonological and semantic judgments. For both tasks, we found that CD showed less activation than HC in left inferior frontal gyrus, but greater activation in several right hemisphere regions including inferior frontal gyrus, angular gyrus, and inferior temporal gyrus. Although many group differences were similar across tasks, greater activation in right middle frontal gyrus was more pronounced for the rhyming compared to the meaning task. Finally, within the deaf individuals better performance on the rhyming task was associated with less activation in right inferior parietal lobule and angular gyrus. Our results in Chinese CD are broadly consistent with previous studies in alphabetic languages suggesting greater engagement of inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal cortex for reading that is largely independent of task, with the exception of right middle frontal gyrus for phonological processing. The brain behavior correlations potentially indicate that CD that more efficiently use the right hemisphere are better readers.

Li, Yanyan; Peng, Danling; Liu, Li; Booth, James R.; Ding, Guosheng

2014-01-01

148

Development of phonological and orthographic processing in reading aloud, in silent reading, and in spelling: A four-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of phonological and orthographic processing was studied from the middle of Grade 1 to the end of Grade 4 (age 6; 6–10 years) using the effects of regularity and of lexicality in reading aloud and in spelling tasks, and using the effect of pseudohomophony in a silent reading task. In all the tasks, signs of reliance on phonological

Liliane Sprenger-Charolles; Linda S. Siegel; Danielle Béchennec; Willy Serniclaes

2003-01-01

149

Relationship between L1 and L2 Word-Level Reading and Phonological Processing in Adults Learning English as a Second Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Word-level reading and phonological processing measures were administered in English and Chinese to adult ESL students whose first language (L1) was Mandarin and whose second language (L2) was English. Instructors also identified students who may be at risk for L2 reading difficulties based on specific identification criteria. L2 phonological

Harrison, Gina L.; Krol, Lisa

2007-01-01

150

Individual Differences in Late Bilinguals' L2 Phonological Processes: From Acoustic-Phonetic Analysis to Lexical Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which the phonetic system of a second language is mastered varies across individuals. The present study evaluates the pattern of individual differences in late bilinguals across different phonological processes. Fifty-five late Dutch-English bilinguals were tested on their ability to perceive a difficult L2 speech contrast (the…

Diaz, Begona; Mitterer, Holger; Broersma, Mirjam; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

2012-01-01

151

Training in Phonological Awareness Generalizes to Phonological Working Memory: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early reading achievement relies on phonological awareness (PA) and phonological working memory (WM). Children with language impairment (LI) have problems with both. Three studies were conducted to determine whether treating PA would also improve phonological WM in preschoolers with LI. Study 1 confirmed that children with specific LI perform more poorly than age-matched peers on both PA and WM tasks.

Anne van Kleeck; Ronald B. Gilla; LaVae M. Hoffman

2006-01-01

152

Cerebral functional asymmetry and phonological performance in dyslexic adults.  

PubMed

Developmental dyslexia is a frequent language-based learning disorder characterized by difficulty in reading. The predominant etiologic view postulates that reading impairment is related to phonological and orthographic dysfunction. The aim of this fMRI study was to evaluate the neural bases of phonological processing impairment in remediated dyslexic adults (DD). We used a rhyming words judgment task contrasted with an unreadable fonts font-matching judgment task to compare patterns of activation and functional asymmetry in DD and normal-reading young adults. We found evidence of a link between asymmetry in inferior frontal gyrus and performance during the phonological processing. We also observed that DD recruit a network including regions involved in articulatory control in order to achieve rhyme judgment suggesting that, due to a lack of hemispheric specialization, DD recruit the latter network to achieve rhyme judgment. PMID:24117474

Hernandez, N; Andersson, F; Edjlali, M; Hommet, C; Cottier, J P; Destrieux, C; Bonnet-Brilhault, F

2013-12-01

153

Contributions of Phonological Processing Skills to Reading Skills in Arabic Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study investigated contributions of phonological awareness (Elision and blending), rapid naming (object, color, letter, and digit), and phonological memory (nonword repetition and Digit Span) to basic decoding and fluency skills in Arabic. Participants were 237 Arabic speaking children from Grades K-3. Dependent measures…

Taibah, Nadia J.; Haynes, Charles W.

2011-01-01

154

Neural Correlates of Phonological Processing in Speech Sound Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech sound disorders (SSD) are the largest group of communication disorders observed in children. One explanation for these disorders is that children with SSD fail to form stable phonological representations when acquiring the speech sound system of their language due to poor phonological memory (PM). The goal of this study was to examine PM in…

Tkach, Jean A.; Chen, Xu; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Holland, Scott K.; Lewis, Barbara A.

2011-01-01

155

Kindergarten Letter Knowledge, Phonological Skills, and Memory Processes: Relative Effects on Early Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kindergarten phonological awareness tasks are first compared as to their predictability of later literacy performance independent of letter knowledge for a group of German children. Results indicate that the phonological awareness tasks vary in their prediction of later literacy performance, which includes spelling and a variety of reading tasks in the first and second grades. A second concern was the

Jan Carol Näslund; Wolfgang Schneider

1996-01-01

156

Orthographic and Phonological Processing in Reading Chinese Text: Evidence from Eye Fixations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the use of orthographic and phonologic information in reading Chinese text using an eye-monitoring technique. Results support the position that it is orthography rather than phonology that plays an early and dominant role in reading Chinese. (Author/VWL)

Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

1999-01-01

157

Smooth pursuit eye movements and phonological processing in adults with dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which adults with dyslexia are characterized by concurrent smooth pursuit eye movement and phonological difficulties was investigated, as was the relationship between performance on these respective tasks and literacy skills. A total of 19 adults with dyslexia and 19 age- and IQ-matched controls undertook a comprehensive battery of psychometric, literacy, and phonological tests. Smooth pursuit initiation was

Jeannie Judge; Markéta Caravolas; Paul C. Knox

2006-01-01

158

Auditory phonological priming in children and adults during word repetition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term auditory phonological priming effects involve changes in the speed with which words are processed by a listener as a function of recent exposure to other similar-sounding words. Activation of phonological/lexical representations appears to persist beyond the immediate offset of a word, influencing subsequent processing. Priming effects are commonly cited as demonstrating concurrent activation of word/phonological candidates during word identification. Phonological priming is controversial, the direction of effects (facilitating versus slowing) varying with the prime-target relationship. In adults, it has repeatedly been demonstrated, however, that hearing a prime word that rhymes with the following target word (ISI=50 ms) decreases the time necessary to initiate repetition of the target, relative to when the prime and target have no phonemic overlap. Activation of phonological representations in children has not typically been studied using this paradigm, auditory-word + picture-naming tasks being used instead. The present study employed an auditory phonological priming paradigm being developed for use with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children. Initial results from normal-hearing adults replicate previous reports of faster naming times for targets following a rhyming prime word than for targets following a prime having no phonemes in common. Results from normal-hearing children will also be reported. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD T32DC000039.

Cleary, Miranda; Schwartz, Richard G.

2001-05-01

159

Bantoanon Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bantoanon language has borrowed from Spanish and English, as well as from Hiligaynon and Tagalog. Many of the borrowed words have been assimilated into the Bantoanon phonemic patterns. In this paper on Bantoanon phonology, discussion focuses on the phonology of native Bantoanon words and the added phonemic patterns and phonemes resulting from…

Kilgour, Heather; Hendrickson, Gail

1992-01-01

160

Effects of phonological contrast on auditory word discrimination in children with and without reading disability: A magnetoencephalography (MEG) study  

PubMed Central

Poor readers perform worse than their normal reading peers on a variety of speech perception tasks, which may be linked to their phonological processing abilities. The purpose of the study was to compare the brain activation patterns of normal and impaired readers on speech perception to better understand the phonological basis in reading disability. Whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded as good and poor readers, 7-13 years of age, performed an auditory word discrimination task. We used an auditory oddball paradigm in which the ‘deviant’ stimuli (/bat/, /kat/, /rat/) differed in the degree of phonological contrast (1 vs. 3 features) from a repeated standard word (/pat/). Both good and poor readers responded more slowly to deviants that were phonologically similar compared to deviants that were phonologically dissimilar to the standard word. Source analysis of the MEG data using Minimum Norm Estimation (MNE) showed that compared to good readers, poor readers had reduced left-hemisphere activation to the most demanding phonological condition reflecting their difficulties with phonological processing. Furthermore, unlike good readers, poor readers did not show differences in activation as a function of the degree of phonological contrast. These results are consistent with a phonological account of reading disability.

Wehner, Daniel T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Mody, Maria

2007-01-01

161

Processing interactions between phonology and melody: vowels sing but consonants speak.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine if two dimensions of song, the phonological part of lyrics and the melodic part of tunes, are processed in an independent or integrated way. In a series of five experiments, musically untrained participants classified bi-syllabic nonwords sung on two-tone melodic intervals. Their response had to be based on pitch contour, on nonword identity, or on the combination of pitch and nonword. When participants had to ignore irrelevant variations of the non-attended dimension, patterns of interference and facilitation allowed us to specify the processing interactions between dimensions. Results showed that consonants are processed more independently from melodic information than vowels are (Experiments 1-4). This difference between consonants and vowels was neither related to the sonority of the phoneme (Experiment 3), nor to the acoustical correlates between vowel quality and pitch height (Experiment 5). The implication of these results for our understanding of the functional relationships between musical and linguistic systems is discussed in light of the different evolutionary origins and linguistic functions of consonants and vowels. PMID:19409537

Kolinsky, Régine; Lidji, Pascale; Peretz, Isabelle; Besson, Mireille; Morais, José

2009-07-01

162

A visual processing but no phonological disorder in a child with mixed dyslexia.  

PubMed

The case study of Martial, a French 9-year-old boy, who exhibits severe mixed dyslexia and surface dysgraphia is reported. Despite very poor pseudo-word reading, Martial has preserved phonological processing skills as his good oral language, good phoneme awareness and good verbal short-term memory show. He exhibited a strong length effect when reading briefly presented words but no sign of mini-neglect. His letter-string processing abilities were assessed through tasks of whole and partial report. In whole report, Martial could only name a few letters from briefly displayed 5-consonant strings. He showed an initial-position advantage and a sharper than expected left-to-right gradient of performance. He performed better when asked to report a single cued letter within the string but then showed an atypical right-side advantage. The same rightward attentional bias was observed in whole report when top-down control was prevented. Otherwise, Martial showed preserved single letter identification skills and good processing of 5-letter strings when letters were sequentially displayed one at a time. His poor letter-string processing thus reflects a parallel visual processing disorder that is compatible with either a visual attention (VA) span or a visual short-term memory disorder. Martial was further engaged in a complex reaching movement task involving VA and simultaneous processing. He performed motor sequences not as a whole but as a succession of independent motor units, suggesting that his attention was not allocated in parallel to the two to-be-reached targets prior to movement execution. Against a more basic motor disorder however, he showed good performance in a task of cyclical pointing movements. The overall findings suggest that Martial suffers from a visual simultaneous processing disorder that disturbs letter identification in strings. Instead of being restricted to letter-string processing, this VA disorder might extend to non-verbal task. PMID:21704984

Valdois, Sylviane; Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Reilhac, Caroline; N'guyen-Morel, Marie-Ange; Guinet, Eric; Orliaguet, Jean-Pierre

2011-01-01

163

The Universality of Acquisitional Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with the Aristotelian notion of "universal" as applied to phonological phenomena. It is claimed that speech production in children and adults, in normal and deviant speakers, and in a variety of languages, can all be described according to the same universal phonological rules which constitute the universal process of…

Salus, Peter H.

164

Phonological similarity effect in complex span task.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that two systems are involved in verbal working memory; one is specifically dedicated to the maintenance of phonological representations through verbal rehearsal while the other would maintain multimodal representations through attentional refreshing. This theoretical framework predicts that phonologically related phenomena such as the phonological similarity effect (PSE) should occur when the domain-specific system is involved in maintenance, but should disappear when concurrent articulation hinders its use. Impeding maintenance in the domain-general system by a concurrent attentional demand should impair recall performance without affecting PSE. In three experiments, we manipulated the concurrent articulation and the attentional demand induced by the processing component of complex span tasks in which participants had to maintain lists of either similar or dissimilar words. Confirming our predictions, PSE affected recall performance in complex span tasks. Although both the attentional demand and the articulatory requirement of the concurrent task impaired recall, only the induction of an articulatory suppression during maintenance made the PSE disappear. These results suggest a duality in the systems devoted to verbal maintenance in the short term, constraining models of working memory. PMID:23419012

Camos, Valérie; Mora, Gérôme; Barrouillet, Pierre

2013-01-01

165

Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere.  

PubMed

Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by manipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data-driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater recruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings suggest a key role for selective attention in on-line phonological computations. Furthermore, these findings motivate future research on the role that neural mechanisms of attention may play in phonological awareness impairments thought to underlie developmental reading disabilities. PMID:24746955

Yoncheva, Yuliya; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D; McCandliss, Bruce D

2014-08-15

166

Phonological Processing in Printed Word Recognition: Effects of Age and Writing System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates whether readers of Turkish (which has a simple relation between spelling and sound) depend more on decoding for word recognition than readers of English (which has an "opaque" orthography). Suggests that readers become less dependent on phonological mediation with experience and that this reduction is more rapid for readers of opaque…

Oney, Banu; And Others

1997-01-01

167

Processing Phonological Information in a Semi-Syllabic Script: Developmental Data from Telugu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments were undertaken to examine second and fifth grade Telugu-speaking children's awareness of phonological and orthographic properties of familiar Telugu words. Experiment 1 focused on the strategies the children used in completing word fragments. Experiment 2 examined the children's ability to judge and generate rhyming words, and…

Vasanta, Duggirala

2004-01-01

168

Reading Aloud Is Not Automatic: Processing Capacity Is Required to Generate a Phonological Code from Print  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present experiments tested the claim that phonological recoding occurs "automatically" by assessing whether it uses central attention in the context of the psychological refractory period paradigm. Task 1 was a tone discrimination task and Task 2 was reading aloud. The joint effects of long-lag word repetition priming and stimulus onset…

Reynolds, Michael; Besner, Derek

2006-01-01

169

Phonological Working Memory, Phonological Awareness and Language in Literacy Difficulties in Brazilian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most usual flaws that lead to literacy disability regards cognitive difficulties and alterations some children present in the literacy process. Many studies have found alterations in phonological processing, more specifically in phonological working memory (PWM) and phonological awareness (PA). Therefore, our aim was to identify…

Barbosa, Thais; Miranda, Monica Carolina; Santos, Ruth F.; Bueno, Orlando Francisco A.

2009-01-01

170

Lexicality and Frequency in Specific Language Impairment: Accuracy and Error Data from Two Nonword Repetition Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Deficits in phonological working memory and deficits in phonological processing have both been considered potential explanatory factors in specific language impairment (SLI). Manipulations of the lexicality and phonotactic frequency of nonwords enable contrasting predictions to be derived from these hypotheses. Method: Eighteen typically…

Jones, Gary; Tamburelli, Marco; Watson, Sarah E.; Gobet, Fernand; Pine, Julian M.

2010-01-01

171

Early Contribution of Phonological Awareness and Later Influence of Phonological Memory throughout Reading Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The acquisition of reading skills is known to rely on early phonological abilities, but only a few studies have investigated the independent contribution of the different steps involved in phonological processing. This 1-year longitudinal study, spanning the initial year of reading instruction, aimed at specifying the development of phonological

Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle; Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Leybaert, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

172

Building Vocabulary Knowledge and Phonological Awareness Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment through Hybrid Language Intervention: A Feasibility Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background & Aims: Preschool and early school-aged children with specific language impairment not only have spoken language difficulties, but also are at risk of future literacy problems. Effective interventions targeting both spoken language and emergent literacy skills for this population are limited. This paper reports a feasibility study of a…

Munro, Natalie; Lee, Kerrie; Baker, Elise

2008-01-01

173

Nondeclarative learning in children with specific language impairment: predicting regularities in the visuomotor, phonological, and cognitive domains.  

PubMed

Ullman (2004) suggested that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) results from a general procedural learning deficit. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated children with SLI via procedural learning tasks exploring the verbal, motor, and cognitive domains. Results showed that compared with a Control Group, the children with SLI (a) were unable to learn a phonotactic learning task, (b) were able but less efficiently to learn a motor learning task and (c) succeeded in a cognitive learning task. Regarding the motor learning task (Serial Reaction Time Task), reaction times were longer and learning slower than in controls. The learning effect was not significant in children with an associated Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), and future studies should consider comorbid motor impairment in order to clarify whether impairments are related to the motor rather than the language disorder. Our results indicate that a phonotactic learning but not a cognitive procedural deficit underlies SLI, thus challenging Ullmans' general procedural deficit hypothesis, like a few other recent studies. PMID:23062060

Mayor-Dubois, C; Zesiger, P; Van der Linden, M; Roulet-Perez, E

2014-01-01

174

Between-word processes in children with speech difficulties: insights from a usage-based approach to phonology.  

PubMed

There are some children with speech and/or language difficulties who are significantly more difficult to understand in connected speech than in single words. The study reported here explores the between-word behaviours of three such children, aged 11;8, 12;2 and 12;10. It focuses on whether these patterns could be accounted for by lenition, as suggested by a usage-based approach to phonology. The children carried out a repetition task, with sentences containing environments that can trigger assimilation and elision. Speech elicited was examined using a combination of perceptual and electropalatographic (EPG) analysis. All of the children produced instances of word boundary behaviours reported in adult speech, as well as some which are considered to be atypical. It is argued that all of these phenomena can be viewed as lenition, and that a usage-based approach to phonology has potential for providing a valuable framework for the description of between-word processes in disordered speech. PMID:22774930

Newton, Caroline

2012-08-01

175

Acquired prosopagnosia: structural basis and processing impairments.  

PubMed

Cognitive models propose a hierarchy of parallel processing stages in face perception, and functional neuroimaging shows a network of regions involved in face processing. Reflecting this, acquired prosopagnosia is not a single entity but a family of disorders with different anatomic lesions and different functional deficits. One classic distinction is between an apperceptive variant, in which there is impaired perception of facial structure, and an associative/amnestic variant, in which perception is relatively intact, with subsequent problems matching perception to facial memories, because of either disconnection or loss of those memories. These disorders also have to be distinguished from people-specific amnesia, a multimodal impairment, and prosop-anomia, in which familiarity with faces is preserved but access to names is disrupted. These different disorders can be conceived as specific deficits at different processing stages in cognitive models, and suggests that these functional stages may have distinct neuroanatomic substrates. It remains to be seen whether a similar anatomic and functional variability is present in developmental prosopagnosia. PMID:24389150

Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Pancaroglu, Raika; Barton, Jason

2014-01-01

176

The neural basis of inhibitory effects of semantic and phonological neighbors in spoken word production  

PubMed Central

Theories of word production and word recognition generally agree that multiple word candidates are activated during processing. The facilitative and inhibitory effects of these “lexical neighbors” have been studied extensively using behavioral methods and have spurred theoretical development in psycholinguistics, but relatively little is known about the neural basis of these effects and how lesions may affect them. The present study used voxel-wise lesion overlap subtraction to examine semantic and phonological neighbor effects in spoken word production following left hemisphere stroke. Increased inhibitory effects of near semantic neighbors were associated with inferior frontal lobe lesions, suggesting impaired selection among strongly activated semantically-related candidates. Increased inhibitory effects of phonological neighbors were associated with posterior superior temporal and inferior parietal lobe lesions. In combination with previous studies, these results suggest that such lesions cause phonological-to-lexical feedback to more strongly activate phonologically-related lexical candidates. The comparison of semantic and phonological neighbor effects and how they are affected by left hemisphere lesions provides new insights into the cognitive dynamics and neural basis of phonological, semantic, and cognitive control processes in spoken word production.

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

2014-01-01

177

Do Phonological and Executive Processes in English Learners at Risk for Reading Disabilities in Grade 1 Predict Performance in Grade 2?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined the degree to which the phonological and executive components of memory reflect language-specific capacities in reading achievement. We tested whether the memory processes in a sample of English-language learners that played a major role in predicting second-language acquisition and risk for reading disability (RD) in Grade 1…

Lee Swanson, H.; Sez, Leilani; Gerber, Michael

2004-01-01

178

Contribution of Temporal Processing Skills to Reading Comprehension in 8-Year-Olds: Evidence for a Mediation Effect of Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether the association between temporal processing (TP) and reading is mediated by phonological awareness (PA) in a normative sample of 615 eight-year-olds. TP was measured with auditory and bimodal (visual-auditory) temporal order judgment tasks and PA with a phoneme deletion task. PA partially mediated the association between…

Malenfant, Nathalie; Grondin, Simon; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Robaey, Philippe; Dionne, Ginette

2012-01-01

179

Early Difficulties of Chinese Preschoolers at Familial Risk for Dyslexia: Deficits in Oral Language, Phonological Processing Skills, and Print-Related Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined some early performance difficulties of Chinese preschoolers at familial risk for dyslexia. Seventy-six high-risk (40 good and 36 poor readers) and 25 low-risk Chinese children were tested on oral language, reading-related cognitive skills (e.g. phonological processing skills, rapid naming, and morphological awareness),…

Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Leung, Man-Tak; Cheung, Him

2011-01-01

180

Concurrent Validity and Diagnostic Accuracy of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the concurrent validity of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) with the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP), and (b) explore the diagnostic accuracy of the DIBELS in predicting CTOPP performance using suggested and alternative cut-scores. Eighty-six students…

Hintze, John M.; Ryan, Amanda L.; Stoner, Gary

2003-01-01

181

Concurrent Validity and Diagnostic Accuracy of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the concurrent validity of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) with the Com- prehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP), and (b) explore the diag- nostic accuracy of the DIBELS in predicting CTOPP performance using suggested and alternative cut-scores. Eighty-six students were administered the DIBELS and the CTOPP in

John M. Hintze; Amanda L. Ryan; Gary Stoner

182

Preschool Impairments in Auditory Processing and Speech Perception Uniquely Predict Future Reading Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental dyslexia is characterized by severe reading and spelling difficulties that are persistent and resistant to the usual didactic measures and remedial efforts. It is well established that a major cause of these problems lies in poorly specified phonological representations. Many individuals with dyslexia also present impairments in…

Boets, Bart; Vandermosten, Maaike; Poelmans, Hanne; Luts, Heleen; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquiere, Pol

2011-01-01

183

The Role of Orthographic and Phonological Processing Skills in the Reading and Spelling of Monolingual Persian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of phonological and orthographic skills to Persian reading and spelling. The Persian language is of interest because it has very consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences, but somewhat inconsistent phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences. Reading, spelling, phonological, and…

Rahbari, Noriyeh; Senechal, Monique; Arab-Moghaddam, Narges

2007-01-01

184

Attentional Processes in Young Children with Congenital Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated attentional processes of 32 preschool children with congenital visual impairment (VI). Children with profound visual impairment (PVI) and severe visual impairment (SVI) were compared to a group of typically developing sighted children in their ability to respond to adult directed attention in terms of establishing,…

Tadic, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

2009-01-01

185

Phonological similarity effects in verbal complex span  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological similarity effects were used to assess the role of acoustic coding in verbal complex span, a processing-plus-storage measure found to correlate significantly with aspects of complex cognition. Three experiments demonstrated consistent effects of phonological similarity on listening span. These effects appeared relatively insensitive to manipulations of task materials (Experiment 1) and differences in processing task demands (Experiments 2 and

Katy J. Lobley; Alan D. Baddeley; Susan E. Gathercole

2005-01-01

186

Modeling the Control of Phonological Encoding in Bilingual Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…

Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim

2006-01-01

187

Phonological Awareness. ERIC Topical Bibliography and Commentary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Topical Bibliography and Commentary examines recent studies on phonological awareness, finding the evidence conclusive that teaching phonological awareness to young children greatly facilitates the reading process. Researchers have studied problems children experience in reading for many years. The focus of research during the 1990s has been…

Smith, Carl B., Ed.

188

What Aspects of Face Processing Are Impaired in Developmental Prosopagnosia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a severe impairment in identifying faces that is present from early in life and that occurs despite no apparent brain damage and intact visual and intellectual function. Here, we investigated what aspects of face processing are impaired/spared in developmental prosopagnosia by examining a relatively large group…

Le Grand, Richard; Cooper, Philip A.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Sagiv, Noam; de Gelder, Beatrice; Maurer, Daphne

2006-01-01

189

What aspects of face processing are impaired in developmental prosopagnosia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a severe impairment in identifying faces that is present from early in life and that occurs despite no apparent brain damage and intact visual and intellectual function. Here, we investigated what aspects of face processing are impaired\\/spared in developmental prosopagnosia by examining a relatively large group of individuals with DP (n=8) using an extensive battery of

Richard Le Grand; Philip A. Cooper; Catherine J. Mondloch; Terri L. Lewis; Noam Sagiv; Beatrice de Gelder; Daphne Maurer

2006-01-01

190

Phonological Processing Deficits and the Acquisition of the Alphabetic Principle in a Severely Delayed Reader: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the end of first grade, TM did not know the alphabet and could read no words. He could not tap syllables in words, had difficulty producing rhyming words and retrieving the phonological representations of words, and he could not discriminate many phoneme contrasts. He learned letter-sound correspondences first for single-consonant onsets and…

Penney, Catherine G.; Drover, James; Dyck, Carrie

2009-01-01

191

Picture naming deficits in developmental dyslexia: the phonological representations hypothesis.  

PubMed

The picture and word naming performance of developmental dyslexics was compared to the picture and word naming performance of non-dyslexic ("garden variety") poor readers, reading age, and chronological age-matched controls. The stimulus list used for both tasks was systematically manipulated for word length and word frequency. In order to examine picture naming errors in more depth, an object name recognition test assessed each subject's vocabulary knowledge of those names which they were unable to spontaneously label in the picture naming task. Findings indicated that the dyslexic and the garden variety poor readers exhibited a picture naming deficit relative to both chronological and reading age-matched controls. Findings also indicated that both groups of impaired readers obtained superior scores in the word naming task than in the picture naming task, while both groups of controls showed no difference in performance across tasks. The dyslexics' picture naming errors, but not those of the garden variety poor readers, were particularly marked on polysyllabic and/or low frequency words, indicating a possible phonological basis to the picture naming deficit of the dyslexic children. These children also recognized significantly more unnamed target words than all comparison groups, suggesting a particular difficulty in retrieving the phonological codes of known picture names rather than a vocabulary deficit. Results are discussed in terms of dyslexics' difficulty in encoding full segmental phonological representations of names in long-term memory and/or in processing these representations in order to generate required names on demand. PMID:9070416

Swan, D; Goswami, U

1997-02-15

192

Re-Evaluating the Time Course of Gender and Phonological Encoding during Silent Monitoring Tasks Estimated by ERP: Serial or Parallel Processing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neurolinguistic and psycholinguistic studies suggest that grammatical (gender) and phonological information are retrieved independently and that gender can be accessed before phonological information. This study investigated the relative time courses of gender and phonological encoding using topographic evoked potentials mapping methods.…

Camen, Christian; Morand, Stephanie; Laganaro, Marina

2010-01-01

193

Reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds links phonological and reading deficits in adult dyslexia.  

PubMed

Developmental dyslexia is a specific reading and spelling deficit affecting 4% to 10% of the population. Advances in understanding its origin support a core deficit in phonological processing characterized by difficulties in segmenting spoken words into their minimally discernable speech segments (speech sounds, or phonemes) and underactivation of left superior temporal cortex. A suggested but unproven hypothesis is that this phonological deficit impairs the ability to map speech sounds onto their homologous visual letters, which in turn prevents the attainment of fluent reading levels. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the neural processing of letters and speech sounds in unisensory (visual, auditory) and multisensory (audiovisual congruent, audiovisual incongruent) conditions as a function of reading ability. Our data reveal that adult dyslexic readers underactivate superior temporal cortex for the integration of letters and speech sounds. This reduced audiovisual integration is directly associated with a more fundamental deficit in auditory processing of speech sounds, which in turn predicts performance on phonological tasks. The data provide a neurofunctional account of developmental dyslexia, in which phonological processing deficits are linked to reading failure through a deficit in neural integration of letters and speech sounds. PMID:19285401

Blau, Vera; van Atteveldt, Nienke; Ekkebus, Michel; Goebel, Rainer; Blomert, Leo

2009-03-24

194

Do weak phonological representations impact on arithmetic development? A review of research into arithmetic and dyslexia.  

PubMed

We review significant empirical studies of the arithmetic abilities of children with dyslexia. These studies suggest that the academic impairments of children with dyslexia are not limited to reading and spelling, but also include aspects of mathematics. A consistent finding across a number of studies is that children with dyslexia have difficulty recalling number facts. The results of the reviewed studies are analysed, both in terms of the weak phonological representations hypothesis, and the triple-code theory of mathematical cognition. It is suggested that the phonological processing deficits of individuals with dyslexia impair aspects of mathematics that rely on the manipulation of verbal codes (e.g. counting speed, number fact recall), whilst other aspects of mathematics that are less reliant on verbal codes (e.g. estimation, subitising) are unimpaired. Suggestions for testing this hypothesis are put forward. PMID:17659647

Simmons, Fiona R; Singleton, Chris

2008-05-01

195

Relationships among Linguistic Processing Speed, Phonological Working Memory, and Attention in Children Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relatively recently, experimental studies of linguistic processing speed in children who stutter (CWS) have emerged, some of which suggest differences in performance among CWS compared to children who do not stutter (CWNS). What is not yet well understood is the extent to which underlying cognitive skills may impact performance on timed tasks of…

Anderson, Julie D.; Wagovich, Stacy A.

2010-01-01

196

Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

2013-01-01

197

Phonological Short-Term Memory, Language and Literacy: Developmental Relationships in Early Adolescence in Young People with SLI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research has consistently documented a relationship between phonological short-term memory skills (STM) and specific language impairment (SLI). This study reports on the development of phonological STM abilities over 3 years in 80 young adolescents with a history of SLI, investigating the nature of the relationship between phonological

Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin

2007-01-01

198

From sound to syntax: phonological constraints on children's lexical categorization of new words.  

PubMed

Two studies examined the role of phonological cues in the lexical categorization of new words when children could also rely on learning by exclusion and whether the role of phonology depends on extensive experience with a language. Phonological cues were assessed via phonological typicality - an aggregate measure of the relationship between the phonology of a word and the phonology of words in the same lexical class. Experiment 1 showed that when monolingual English-speaking seven-year-olds could rely on learning by exclusion, phonological typicality only affected their initial inferences about the words. Consistent with recent computational analyses, phonological cues had stronger impact on the processing of verb-like than noun-like items. Experiment 2 revealed an impact of French on the performance of seven-year-olds in French immersion when tested in a French language environment. Thus, phonological knowledge may affect lexical categorization even in the absence of extensive experience. PMID:19105858

Fitneva, Stanka A; Christiansen, Morten H; Monaghan, Padraic

2009-11-01

199

Sensitivity to Phonological Similarity Within and Across Languages  

PubMed Central

The influence of phonological similarity on bilingual language processing was examined within and across languages in three experiments. Phonological similarity was manipulated within a language by varying neighborhood density, and across languages by varying extent of cross-linguistic overlap between native and non-native languages. In Experiment 1, speed and accuracy of bilinguals’ picture naming were susceptible to phonological neighborhood density in both the first and the second language. In Experiment 2, eye-movement patterns indicated that the time-course of language activation varied across phonological neighborhood densities and across native/non-native language status. In Experiment 3, speed and accuracy of bilingual performance in an auditory lexical decision task were influenced by degree of cross-linguistic phonological overlap. Together, the three experiments confirm that bilinguals are sensitive to phonological similarity within and across languages and suggest that this sensitivity is asymmetrical across native and non-native languages and varies along the timecourse of word processing.

Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Boukrina, Olga V.

2009-01-01

200

Agraphia in Alzheimer's Disease: An Independent Lexical Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to delineate the pattern of the writing impairments in 12 patients with Alzheimer type dementia. The patients performed writing tasks involving regular and irregular words and nonwords given by dictation as well as a decision test composed of printed words and pictures requiring phonologic, lexical, and semantic processing. Writing from dictation demonstrated a predominant, but nonisolated,

Jany Lambert; Francis Eustache; Fausto Viader; Martine Dary; Patrice Rioux; Bernard Lechevalier; Jean M. Travere

1996-01-01

201

The Acquisition of Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with methods and models appropriate to the systematic linguistic study of the child's acquisiton of phonology. Sections I through IV present a review of previous studies in the field, discuss the usefulness of the concept of "innateness," discriminate between phonetic and phonological ability, and discuss the concept of discrete…

Moskowitz, Arlene I.

202

The Link between Prosody and Language Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and/or Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are known to have impairments in various aspects of phonology, which have been claimed to cause their language and literacy impairments. However, "phonology" encompasses a wide range of skills, and little is known about whether these phonological impairments extend to…

Marshall, C. R.; Harcourt-Brown, S.; Ramus, F.; van der Lely, H. K. J.

2009-01-01

203

Impaired processing of proopiomelanocortin in corticotroph macroadenomas.  

PubMed

The regulation and secretion of the ACTH precursors POMC and pro-ACTH were assessed directly using a 2-site immunoradiometric assay in six patients with pituitary macroadenomas (> or = 1.2 cm in diameter) and 27 patients with Cushing's disease due to a microadenoma. ACTH precursor levels were elevated in patients with macroadenomas (150-3690 pmol/L; normal range, < 5-40 pmol/L) and significantly higher than those in microadenoma patients (median, 29 pmol/L; range, 9-104 pmol/L; P < 0.001). Patients with macroadenomas also had increased ACTH precursor/ACTH ratios (15-181:1) compared with microadenoma patients (median, 5:1, range, 0.7-18.5:1; P < 0.001). ACTH precursors were unresponsive to high dose dexamethasone in patients with macroadenomas, whereas ACTH and cortisol responses varied. After CRH administration, ACTH precursors were unchanged, whereas cortisol increased significantly, suggesting the release of biologically active ACTH. This study clearly demonstrates reduced processing of POMC to ACTH in large pituitary tumors, a characteristic usually associated with tumors causing the ectopic ACTH syndrome, and provides evidence for differential regulation of ACTH precursors and ACTH by glucocorticoid and CRH. Variation in the clinical symptoms of patients with corticotroph macroadenomas may be attributable to differences in biological potency between the ACTH precursors and ACTH. PMID:8636257

Gibson, S; Ray, D W; Crosby, S R; Dornan, T L; Jennings, A M; Bevan, J S; Davis, J R; White, A

1996-02-01

204

Speed of Processing, Working Memory, and Language Impairment in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Children with language impairment (LI) often perform below the level of typically developing peers on measures of both processing speed and working memory. This study examined the relationship between these 2 types of measures and attempted to determine whether such measures can account for the LI itself. Method: Fourteen-year-old…

Leonard, Laurence B.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Miller, Carol A.; Francis, David J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Kail, Robert V.

2007-01-01

205

Community structure in the phonological network  

PubMed Central

Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language.

Siew, Cynthia S. Q.

2013-01-01

206

Impairment in Non-Word Repetition: A Marker for Language Impairment or Reading Impairment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: A deficit in non-word repetition (NWR), a measure of short-term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment. We evaluated the strength of association between language impairment and reading impairment in children with current, past, and no language…

Baird, Gillian; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily; Dworzynski, Katharina

2011-01-01

207

Apathy in Parkinson's disease: neurophysiological evidence of impaired incentive processing.  

PubMed

Apathy is one of the most common and debilitating nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) and is characterized by diminished motivation, decreased goal-directed behavior, and flattened affect. Despite its high prevalence, its underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, having been associated with executive dysfunction, and impaired emotional processing and decision making. Apathy, as a syndrome, has recently been associated with reduced activation in the ventral striatum, suggesting that early- to middle-stage Parkinson's disease patients with this manifestation may have a compromised mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathway and impaired incentive processing. To test this hypothesis, we measured the amplitude of the feedback-related negativity, an event-related brain potential associated with performance outcome valence, following monetary gains and losses in human PD patients (12 women) and healthy controls (6 women) performing a gambling task. Early- to middle-stage PD patients presenting clinically meaningful symptoms of apathy were compared with nonapathetic PD patients and healthy controls. Patients with cognitive impairment, depression, and other psychiatric disturbances were excluded. Results showed that the amplitude of the feedback-related negativity, measured as the difference wave in the event-related brain potential between gains and losses, was significantly reduced in PD patients with apathy compared with nonapathetic patients and healthy controls. These findings indicate impaired incentive processing and suggest a compromised mesocorticolimbic pathway in cognitively intact PD patients with apathy. PMID:24760851

Martínez-Horta, Saul; Riba, Jordi; de Bobadilla, Ramón Fernández; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Pascual-Sedano, Berta; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; García-Sanchez, Carmen; Kulisevsky, Jaime

2014-04-23

208

Phonological Repetition-Suppression in Bilateral Superior Temporal Sulci  

PubMed Central

Evidence has accumulated that posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is critically involved in phonological processing during speech perception, although there are conflicting accounts regarding the degree of lateralization. The current fMRI experiment aimed to identify phonological processing during speech perception through repetition-suppression effects. Repetition-suppression occurs when brain activity decreases from repetitive presentation of stimulus characteristics, in regions of cortex that process those characteristics. We manipulated the degree of phonological repetition among words in short lists to obtain systematic decreases in brain response, indicative of phonological processing. The fMRI experiment presented seventeen participants with recorded wordlists, of low, medium, or high phonological repetition, defined by how many phonemes were shared among words. Bilaterally, middle STS demonstrated activity differences consistent with our prediction of repetition-suppression, as responses decreased systematically with each increase in phonological repetition. Phonological repetition-suppression in bilateral STS converges with neuroimaging evidence for phonological processing, and word deafness resulting from bilateral superior temporal lesions.

Vaden, Kenneth I.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Hickok, Gregory

2009-01-01

209

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

210

Phonological Mediation and Semantic and Orthographic Factors in Silent Reading in French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses 48 French children's phonological skills from kindergarten to the end of grade two. Finds that the French-speaking children used phonological mediation in silent-reading tasks and that phonological processing contributes to the construction of the orthographic lexicon. (RS)

Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; Siegel, Linda S.; Bechennec, Danielle

1998-01-01

211

The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process, but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic, and phonological abilities. The present article reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of…

Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer

2011-01-01

212

Impairments of number processing induced by prenatal alcohol exposure.  

PubMed

Prenatal alcohol exposure causes a variety of cognitive deficits, notably in mathematics and higher order processes such as abstraction. An exploratory battery was developed to examine specific types of number processing impairments in 29 adolescent and adult patients with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) relative to controls matched for age, gender, and educational level. The battery included 11 tests: number reading and writing, exact calculation (addition, multiplication, subtraction), approximate calculation (selecting a plausible result for an operation), number comparison, proximity judgment, and cognitive estimation. The results indicated particular difficulties in calculation and estimation tests, with intact number reading and writing ability. The greatest impairment was found in the cognitive estimation test, which is sensitive to frontal lobe lesions. The patterns of deficit described may reflect either the diffuseness of brain damage incurred from prenatal alcohol exposure, or a cumulative deficit in comprehension which may be important for the acquisition of higher-order mathematical abilities. PMID:8951830

Kopera-Frye, K; Dehaene, S; Streissguth, A P

1996-12-01

213

Differentiating Word Learning Processes May Yield New Insights--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stoel-Gammon (this issue) states that "from birth to age 2 ; 6, the developing phonological system affects lexical acquisition to a greater degree than lexical factors affect phonological development" (this issue). This conclusion is based on a wealth of data; however, the available data are somewhat limited in scope, focusing on rather holistic…

Storkel, Holly L.

2011-01-01

214

Auditory processing efficiency deficits in children with developmental language impairments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.

Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.

2002-12-01

215

Poor Reading: A Deficit in Skill-Automatization or a Phonological Deficit?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether the characteristic reading speed impairment of German dyslexic children resulted from a general skill-automatization deficit or a phonological deficit. Tests a dyslexic and nondyslexic group of boys in grade 2. Concludes that difficulties in learning to read are due phonological deficit and not a general skill-automatization…

Wimmer, Heinz; Mayringer, Heinz; Landerl, Karin.

1998-01-01

216

Left- and right-hemisphere forms of phonological alexia.  

PubMed

We studied the ability of patients with lesions arising from operation for an anterior or posterior (left or right) brain tumour to read a set of words and pronounceable nonwords. In line with previous works, we observed that damage to the left posterior or left anterior cortex can give rise to phonological alexia, where the reading performance of nonwords is affected more than that of words. More surprisingly, similar effects were found in the right posterior group. However, there were significant differences in the error types, for both complex and positional errors, between phonological alexic patients in the three location groups. The findings present difficulties for the position held by theorists of the triangle model that phonological alexia arises from impairments in the language production system or in a general-purpose orthographic-phonological translation system. They also pose new questions about the possible role of the right posterior cortex in letter sequence representation. PMID:23521052

Buiatti, Tania; Skrap, Miran; Shallice, Tim

2012-01-01

217

Are Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia Distinct Disorders?  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are distinct developmental disorders. Method Study 1 investigated the overlap between SLI identified in kindergarten and dyslexia identified in 2nd, 4th, or 8th grades in a representative sample of 527 children. Study 2 examined phonological processing in a subsample of participants, including 21 children with dyslexia only, 43 children with SLI only, 18 children with SLI and dyslexia, and 165 children with typical language/reading development. Measures of phonological awareness and nonword repetition were considered. Results Study 1 showed limited but statistically significant overlap between SLI and dyslexia. Study 2 found that children with dyslexia or a combination of dyslexia and SLI performed significantly less well on measures of phonological processing than did children with SLI only and those with typical development. Children with SLI only showed only mild deficits in phonological processing compared with typical children. Conclusions These results support the view that SLI and dyslexia are distinct but potentially comorbid developmental language disorders. A deficit in phonological processing is closely associated with dyslexia but not with SLI when it occurs in the absence of dyslexia.

Catts, Hugh W.; Adlof, Suzanne M.; Hogan, Tiffany; Weismer, Susan Ellis

2010-01-01

218

The Structure of Phonological Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…

Samuels, Bridget D.

2009-01-01

219

Impaired tactile processing in children with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Impaired responses to tactile stimulation are a commonly reported symptom among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Furthermore, impairments in filtering or habituation to tactile input have been described in ASD. This study measured different aspects of tactile processing to investigate atypical touch sensitivity in children with ASD, methodology that has not been previously used in this population. Sixty-seven typically developing children (TDC) and 32 children with ASD (ages 8-12) completed vibrotactile tasks assessing: reaction time (RT); static and dynamic detection threshold (DT); amplitude discrimination with and without single-site adaptation; frequency discrimination; and temporal order judgment (TOJ) with and without concurrent stimulation. Children with ASD showed raised static detection thresholds and an absence of the effect of a dynamically increasing subthreshold stimulus on static detection threshold. Children with ASD also showed poorer amplitude discrimination than TDC, as well as decreased adaptation. There were no significant differences in frequency discrimination or TOJ performance between the groups. Differences in the effect of dynamic stimulation on detection threshold suggest impaired feed-forward inhibition in autism, which may be linked to poor sensory filtering. Increased baseline amplitude discrimination thresholds in ASD suggest that lateral inhibitory connections are weaker in ASD, and an absence of the effect of adaptation suggests impaired modulation of lateral inhibitory connections in ASD, which may relate to aberrant habituation. These results suggest a functional deficit in the somatosensory inhibitory system in autism. Understanding the specific mechanisms underlying sensory symptoms in autism may allow for more specific therapeutic or drug targeting in the near future. PMID:24523518

Puts, Nicolaas A J; Wodka, Ericka L; Tommerdahl, Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Edden, Richard A E

2014-05-01

220

Phonological awareness of Cantonese-speaking pre-school children with cochlear implants.  

PubMed

The study investigated the phonological awareness abilities of Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. Participants were 15 Cantonese-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) aged 3.08-6.10, chronological-age-matched with 15 children with normal hearing. Each participant performed 10 tasks evaluating different levels of phonological awareness abilities and phonological knowledge. The results showed that pre-schoolers with cochlear implants and their normal hearing peers had similar levels of syllable awareness, phoneme awareness and rhyme awareness. However, cochlear implant users showed significantly poorer performance on tone awareness and phonological knowledge tasks than their normal hearing peers. Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants were able to develop phonological awareness. However, the cochlear implants might not provide enough tonal information for children with hearing impairment for tonal lexical comprehension. Incomplete speech and language stimulation may affect phonological knowledge development in Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. PMID:22257071

Tse, Wing Ting; So, Lydia K H

2012-02-01

221

Divergence of verbal expression and embodied knowledge: Evidence from speech and gesture in children with speciéc language impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that phonological working memory serves to link speech comprehension to production. We suggest further that impairments in phonological working memory may inèuence the way in which children represent and express their knowledge about the world around them. In particular, children with severe phonological working memory deécits may have diféculty retaining stable representations of phonological forms, which

Julia L. Evans; Martha W. Alibali; Nicole M. McNeil

2001-01-01

222

Impairment of the face processing network in congenital prosopagnosia.  

PubMed

The goal of the current paper is to review recent findings concerning the neural basis of congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a lifelong impairment in face processing that occurs in the absence of explicit brain damage. As such, CP offers a unique model for exploring the psychological and neural bases of normal face processing. We start by providing background about face perception and representation, and then review behavioral evidence gleaned from individuals with CP. We then review recent functional and structural neural investigations which offer a comprehensive account of the mechanisms underlying CP and support a characterization of this impairment as a disconnection syndrome rather than as a syndrome related to focal brain malfunction. We end the paper by offering a general framework for CP which, we believe, best integrates the behavioral and neural findings, and offers a platform for generating hypotheses for future studies. There remain many open issues in our understanding of CP and, to address these unanswered questions, we lay out several future research directions and testable hypotheses for further investigation. PMID:24896205

Avidan, Galia; Behrmann, Marlene

2014-01-01

223

Neglect Impairs Explicit Processing of the Mental Number Line  

PubMed Central

Converging evidence suggests that visuospatial attention plays a pivotal role in numerical processing, especially when the task involves the manipulation of numerical magnitudes. Visuospatial neglect impairs contralesional attentional orienting not only in perceptual but also in numerical space. Indeed, patients with left neglect show a bias toward larger numbers when mentally bisecting a numerical interval, as if they were neglecting its leftmost part. In contrast, their performance in parity judgments is unbiased, suggesting a dissociation between explicit and implicit processing of numerical magnitude. Here we further investigate the consequences of these visuospatial attention impairments on numerical processing and their interaction with task demands. Patients with right hemisphere damage, with and without left neglect, were administered both a number comparison and a parity judgment task that had identical stimuli and response requirements. Neglect patients’ performance was normal in the parity task, when processing of numerical magnitude was implicit, whereas they showed characteristic biases in the number comparison task, when access to numerical magnitude was explicit. Compared to patients without neglect, they showed an asymmetric distance effect, with slowing of the number immediately smaller than (i.e., to the left of) the reference and a stronger SNARC effect, particularly for large numbers. The latter might index an exaggerated effect of number-space compatibility after ipsilesional (i.e., rightward) orienting in number space. Thus, the effect of neglect on the explicit processing of numerical magnitude can be understood in terms of both a failure to orient to smaller (i.e., contralesional) magnitudes and a difficulty to disengage from larger (i.e., ipsilesional) magnitudes on the number line, which resembles the disrupted pattern of attention orienting in visual space.

Zorzi, Marco; Bonato, Mario; Treccani, Barbara; Scalambrin, Giovanni; Marenzi, Roberto; Priftis, Konstantinos

2012-01-01

224

The Contribution of Processing Impairments to SLI: Insights from Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Slowed speed of processing and impaired rapid temporal processing (RTP) have been proposed to underlie specific language impairment (SLI), but it is not clear that these dysfunctions are unique to SLI. We considered the contribution of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which frequently co-occurs with language impairments, to…

Oram Cardy, Janis E.; Tannock, Rosemary; Johnson, Andrew M.; Johnson, Carla J.

2010-01-01

225

Learning Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…

Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris

2009-01-01

226

Aspects of Phonological Fusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological fusion occurs when the phonemes of two different speech stimuli are combined into a new percept that is longer and linguistically more complex than either of the two inputs. The present article is an investigation of the conditions necessary and sufficient for fusion to occur. (Editor/RK)

Cutting, James E.

1975-01-01

227

Phonetics and Phonology. Occasional Papers, No. 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is devoted to phonetics and phonology. It consists of the following papers: (1) "Generative Phonology, Dependency Phonology and Southern French," by J. Durand, which discusses aspects of a regional pronunciation of French, the status of syllables in generative phonology, and concepts of dependency phonology; (2) "On the Role of…

Essex Univ., Colchester (England). Dept. of Language and Linguistics.

228

Rapid Extraction of Lexical Tone Phonology in Chinese Characters: A Visual Mismatch Negativity Study  

PubMed Central

Background In alphabetic languages, emerging evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies shows the rapid and automatic activation of phonological information in visual word recognition. In the mapping from orthography to phonology, unlike most alphabetic languages in which there is a natural correspondence between the visual and phonological forms, in logographic Chinese, the mapping between visual and phonological forms is rather arbitrary and depends on learning and experience. The issue of whether the phonological information is rapidly and automatically extracted in Chinese characters by the brain has not yet been thoroughly addressed. Methodology/Principal Findings We continuously presented Chinese characters differing in orthography and meaning to adult native Mandarin Chinese speakers to construct a constant varying visual stream. In the stream, most stimuli were homophones of Chinese characters: The phonological features embedded in these visual characters were the same, including consonants, vowels and the lexical tone. Occasionally, the rule of phonology was randomly violated by characters whose phonological features differed in the lexical tone. Conclusions/Significance We showed that the violation of the lexical tone phonology evoked an early, robust visual response, as revealed by whole-head electrical recordings of the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN), indicating the rapid extraction of phonological information embedded in Chinese characters. Source analysis revealed that the vMMN was involved in neural activations of the visual cortex, suggesting that the visual sensory memory is sensitive to phonological information embedded in visual words at an early processing stage.

Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, A-Ping; Wu, Yin-Yuan; Wang, Peng

2013-01-01

229

Multisensory spatial attention deficits are predictive of phonological decoding skills in developmental dyslexia.  

PubMed

Although the dominant approach posits that developmental dyslexia arises from deficits in systems that are exclusively linguistic in nature (i.e., phonological deficit theory), dyslexics show a variety of lower level deficits in sensory and attentional processing. Although their link to the reading disorder remains contentious, recent empirical and computational studies suggest that spatial attention plays an important role in phonological decoding. The present behavioral study investigated exogenous spatial attention in dyslexic children and matched controls by measuring RTs to visual and auditory stimuli in cued-detection tasks. Dyslexics with poor nonword decoding accuracy showed a slower time course of visual and auditory (multisensory) spatial attention compared with both chronological age and reading level controls as well as compared with dyslexics with slow but accurate nonword decoding. Individual differences in the time course of multisensory spatial attention accounted for 31% of unique variance in the nonword reading performance of the entire dyslexic sample after controlling for age, IQ, and phonological skills. The present study suggests that multisensory "sluggish attention shifting"-related to a temporoparietal dysfunction-selectively impairs the sublexical mechanisms that are critical for reading development. These findings may offer a new approach for early identification and remediation of developmental dyslexia. PMID:19366290

Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Ruffino, Milena; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cattaneo, Carmen; Galli, Raffaella; Molteni, Massimo; Zorzi, Marco

2010-05-01

230

Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

231

Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition.  

PubMed

Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in the left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task. PMID:21159322

Wilson, Lisa B; Tregellas, Jason R; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E; Rojas, Donald C

2011-03-15

232

A dual-route perspective on poor reading in a regular orthography: Evidence from phonological and orthographic lexical decisions  

PubMed Central

Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit.

Bergmann, Jurgen; Wimmer, Heinz

2010-01-01

233

Central auditory processing impairment in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) there may be functional abnormalities or structural lesions that can manifest as a central auditory processing disorder, which is defined as a disorder in the recognition, discrimination, ordering, grouping, and localization of sounds, with emphasis on the processing of nonspeech sounds. We performed frequency pattern, duration pattern, and dichotic tests in 28 patients with TLE with normal hearing on pure tone audiometry. The scores on the frequency pattern, duration pattern, and dichotic tests were abnormal in 78.6, 57.1, and 20.6% of patients, respectively, with no significant differences with the laterality of TLE. Patients with hippocampal sclerosis performed significantly worse than patients with normal MRI findings in frequency tests. Longer duration of epilepsy is negatively correlated with both the duration pattern and dichotic tests (P<0.05). Our results suggest that patients with TLE may be at risk for impairment of central auditory processing, which is increased in patients with hippocampal sclerosis or a longer duration of epilepsy. PMID:21273138

Han, Myung Woul; Ahn, Joong Ho; Kang, Joong Koo; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Bae, Jung Hyun; Chung, Jong Woo

2011-02-01

234

A review of reward processing and motivational impairment in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This article reviews and synthesizes research on reward processing in schizophrenia, which has begun to provide important insights into the cognitive and neural mechanisms associated with motivational impairments. Aberrant cortical-striatal interactions may be involved with multiple reward processing abnormalities, including: (1) dopamine-mediated basal ganglia systems that support reinforcement learning and the ability to predict cues that lead to rewarding outcomes; (2) orbitofrontal cortex-driven deficits in generating, updating, and maintaining value representations; (3) aberrant effort-value computations, which may be mediated by disrupted anterior cingulate cortex and midbrain dopamine functioning; and (4) altered activation of the prefrontal cortex, which is important for generating exploratory behaviors in environments where reward outcomes are uncertain. It will be important for psychosocial interventions targeting negative symptoms to account for abnormalities in each of these reward processes, which may also have important interactions; suggestions for novel behavioral intervention strategies that make use of external cues, reinforcers, and mobile technology are discussed. PMID:24375459

Strauss, Gregory P; Waltz, James A; Gold, James M

2014-03-01

235

Neural correlates of impaired emotion processing in manifest Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

The complex phenotype of Huntington's disease (HD) encompasses motor, psychiatric and cognitive dysfunctions, including early impairments in emotion recognition. In this first functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated emotion-processing deficits in 14 manifest HD patients and matched controls. An emotion recognition task comprised short video clips displaying one of six basic facial expressions (sadness, happiness, disgust, fear, anger and neutral). Structural changes between patients and controls were assessed by means of voxel-based morphometry. Along with deficient recognition of negative emotions, patients exhibited predominantly lower neural response to stimuli of negative valences in the amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, insula, cingulate and prefrontal cortices, as well as in sensorimotor, temporal and visual areas. Most of the observed reduced activity patterns could not be explained merely by regional volume loss. Reduced activity in the thalamus during fear correlated with lower thalamic volumes. During the processing of sadness, patients exhibited enhanced amygdala and hippocampal activity along with reduced recruitment of the medial prefrontal cortex. Higher amygdala activity was related to more pronounced amygdala atrophy and disease burden. Overall, the observed emotion-related dysfunctions in the context of structural neurodegeneration suggest both disruptions of striatal-thalamo-cortical loops and potential compensation mechanism with greater disease severity in manifest HD. PMID:23482620

Dogan, Imis; Saß, Christian; Mirzazade, Shahram; Kleiman, Alexandra; Werner, Cornelius J; Pohl, Anna; Schiefer, Johannes; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Schulz, Jörg B; Shah, N Jon; Reetz, Kathrin

2014-05-01

236

Electrophysiological Indices of Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A range of studies have shown difficulties in perceiving acoustic and phonetic information in dyslexia; however, much less is known about how such difficulties relate to the perception of individual words. The authors present data from event-related potentials (ERPs) examining the hypothesis that children with dyslexia have difficulties…

Desroches, Amy S.; Newman, Randy Lynn; Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.

2013-01-01

237

Developmental Increase in Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processing in a Phonological Task: An Effective Connectivity, fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined age-related changes in the interactions among brain regions in children performing rhyming judgments on visually presented words. The difficulty of the task was manipulated by including a conflict between task-relevant (phonological) information and task-irrelevant (orthographic) information. The conflicting conditions included pairs…

Bitan, Tali; Cheon, Jimmy; Lu, Dong; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

2009-01-01

238

Phonological Awareness and Reading Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was proposed that the young child's awareness of the phonology of language would influence early reading success. Results revealed a strong relationship between the first grader's reading performance and two measures of his/her phonological awareness, invented spelling and phoneme segmentation abilities. (Author/RD)

Zifcak, Michael

1981-01-01

239

Effect Size in Clinical Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2011-01-01

240

Phonological Awareness Is Child's Play!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noticing and being able to manipulate the sounds of spoken language-phonological awareness-is highly related to later success in reading and spelling. The authors define and explain the levels of phonological awareness-syllable awareness, onset-rime awareness, phoneme awareness. They give teachers step-by-step instructions for implementing a…

Yopp, Hallie Kay; Yopp, Helen

2009-01-01

241

Genetic Covariation Underlying Reading, Language and Related Measures in a Sample Selected for Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Specific language impairment is a developmental language disorder characterized by failure to develop language normally in the absence of a specific cause. Previous twin studies have documented the heritability of reading and language measures as well as the genetic correlation between those measures. This paper presents results from an alternative to the classical twin designs by estimating heritability from extended pedigrees. These pedigrees were previously studied as part of series of molecular genetic studies of specific language impairment where the strongest genetic findings were with reading phenotypes rather than language despite selecting pedigrees based on language impairments. To explore the relationship between reading and language in these pedigrees, variance components estimates of heritability of reading and language measures were conducted showing general agreement with the twin literature, as were genetics correlations between reading and language. Phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness and auditory processing were evaluated as candidate mediators of the reading-language genetic correlations. Only phonological awareness showed significant genetic correlations with all reading measures and several language measures while phonological short-term memory and auditory processing did not.

Logan, Jessica; Petrill, Stephen A.; Flax, Judy; Justice, Laura M.; Hou, Liping; Bassett, Anne S.; Tallal, Paula; Brzustowicz, Linda M.

2011-01-01

242

Lexical and Phonological Development in Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although not the focus of her article, phonological development in young children with speech sound disorders of various types is highly germane to Stoel-Gammon's discussion (this issue) for at least two primary reasons. Most obvious is that typical processes and milestones of phonological development are the standards and benchmarks against which…

Velleman, Shelley L.

2011-01-01

243

Electrophysiological differentiation of phonological and semantic integration in word and sentence contexts  

PubMed Central

During auditory language comprehension, listeners need to rapidly extract meaning from the continuous speech-stream. It is a matter of debate when and how contextual information constrains the activation of lexical representations in meaningful contexts. Electrophysiological studies of spoken language comprehension have identified an event-related potential (ERP) that was sensitive to phonological properties of speech, which was termed the phonological mismatch negativity (PMN). With the PMN, early lexical processing could potentially be distinguished from processes of semantic integration in spoken language comprehension. However, the sensitivity of the PMN to phonological processing per se has been questioned, and it has additionally been suggested that the “PMN” is not separable from the N400, an ERP that is sensitive to semantic aspects of the input. Here, we investigated whether or not a separable PMN exists and if it reflects purely phonological aspects of the speech input. In the present experiment, ERPs were recorded from healthy young adults (N =24) while they listened to sentences and word lists, in which we manipulated semantic and phonological expectation and congruency of the final word. ERPs sensitive to phonological processing were elicited only when phonological expectancy was violated in lists of words, but not during normal sentential processing. This suggests a differential role of phonological processing in more or less meaningful contexts and indicates a very early influence of the overall context on lexical processing in sentences.

Diaz, Michele T.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

2006-01-01

244

Teaching Transferable Compensatory Skills and Processes to Visually Impaired Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the eight laws of association theory and applies four of them to strategies for teaching transferable skills to individuals with visual impairments. Strategies described include situation forecasting, generalization, sense shifting, performing skills repetitively to facilitate the transfer habit, and assigning an intensity…

Roberts, Alvin

2001-01-01

245

Hearing Loss Severity: Impaired Processing of Formant Transition Duration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Normal hearing listeners exploit the formant transition (FT) detection to identify place of articulation for stop consonants. Neuro-imaging studies revealed that short FT induced less cortical activation than long FT. To determine the ability of hearing impaired listeners to distinguish short and long formant transitions (FT) from vowels of the…

Coez, A.; Belin, P.; Bizaguet, E.; Ferrary, E.; Zilbovicius, M.; Samson, Y.

2010-01-01

246

Neural Changes after Phonological Treatment for Anomia: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural processing characteristics associated with word retrieval abilities after a phonologically-based treatment for anomia in two stroke patients with aphasia. Neural activity associated with a phonological and a semantic task was compared before and after treatment with…

Rochon, Elizabeth; Leonard, Carol; Burianova, Hana; Laird, Laura; Soros, Peter; Graham, Simon; Grady, Cheryl

2010-01-01

247

Phonology and Language Development in Italian Children: An Analysis of Production and Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The principal aims of this study were to detect phonetic measures (consonant inventory, intelligibility, frequency, and types of phonological errors) associated with lexical and morphosyntactic ability and to analyze the types of phonological processes in children with different language skills. Method: The sample was composed of 30…

Zanobini, Mirella; Viterbori, Paola; Saraceno, Francesca

2012-01-01

248

Cross-Language Phonological Activation of Meaning: Evidence from Category Verification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated phonological processing in bilingual reading for meaning. English-French and French-English bilinguals performed a category verification task in either their first or second language. Interlingual homophones (words that share phonology across languages but not orthography or meaning) and single language control words served…

Friesen, Deanna C.; Jared, Debra

2012-01-01

249

Maintenance and Generalization Effects of Semantic and Phonological Treatments of Anomia: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anomia is one of the most frequent manifestations in aphasia. Model-based treatments for anomia usually focus on semantic and/or phonological levels of processing. This study reports treatment of anomia in an individual with chronic aphasia. After baseline testing, she received a training program in which semantic and phonological treatments were…

Macoir, Joel; Routhier, Sonia; Simard, Anne; Picard, Josee

2012-01-01

250

Electropalatography in the treatment of articulation/phonological disorders.  

PubMed

Treatment using electropalatography (EPG) is described. Speech learners wear a custom-made appliance called a pseudopalate in order to view their tongue-to-palate (lingual palatal) contacts on a computer monitor. The results from studies with children who have either articulation or phonology-based problems are discussed. Assessments of contact patterns used by articulation-impaired children suggests that they may produce more atypical articulatory contacts than are noted perceptually. Remediation, using electropalatography, showed that the children benefited from learning new articulatory gestures rather than learning to correct isolated errors. Studies with phonologically-impaired children have shown that perceptually neutralized (or non-contrasted) sounds may actually be produced with consistent articulatory contrasts. This knowledge could assist in identifying sounds that might soon emerge and be more responsive to therapy. Training studies with phonologically-impaired children have shown that a motor approach using sound contrasts to teach a phonetic inventory is an effective way to assist these children. Considerations for candidacy for EPG training are also discussed. PMID:8576412

Dagenais, P A

1995-12-01

251

Enhancing mobile phones for people with visual impairments through haptic icons: the effect of learning processes.  

PubMed

We report the results of a study on the learnability ofhaptic icons used in a system for incoming-call identification in mobile phones. The aim was to explore the feasibility of using haptic icons to create new assistive technologies for people with visual impairments. We compared the performance and satisfaction of users with different visual capacities (visually impaired vs. sighted) and using different learning processes (unimodal vs. multimodal). A better recognition rate and user experience were observed for the visually impaired than for sighted users and for multimodal rather than unimodal learning processes. PMID:23923690

Galdón, Pedro Maria; Madrid, R Ignacio; De La Rubia-Cuestas, Ernesto J; Diaz-Estrella, Antonio; Gonzalez, Lourdes

2013-01-01

252

MDMA polydrug users show processspecific central executive impairments coupled with impaired social and emotional judgement processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years working memory de.cits have been reported in users of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy). The current study aimed to assess the impact of MDMA use on three separate central executive processes (set shifting, inhibition and memory updating) and also on ëprefrontalí mediated social and emotional judgement processes. Fifteen polydrug ecstasy users and 15 polydrug non-ecstasy user controls completed a

J. L. Reay; D. O. Kennedy; A. B. Scholey

2006-01-01

253

The locus of impairment in English developmental letter position dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Many children with reading difficulties display phonological deficits and struggle to acquire non-lexical reading skills. However, not all children with reading difficulties have these problems, such as children with selective letter position dyslexia (LPD), who make excessive migration errors (such as reading slime as “smile”). Previous research has explored three possible loci for the deficit – the phonological output buffer, the orthographic input lexicon, and the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. While there is compelling evidence against a phonological output buffer and orthographic input lexicon deficit account of English LPD, the evidence in support of an orthographic-visual analysis deficit is currently limited. In this multiple single-case study with three English-speaking children with developmental LPD, we aimed to both replicate and extend previous findings regarding the locus of impairment in English LPD. First, we ruled out a phonological output buffer and an orthographic input lexicon deficit by administering tasks that directly assess phonological processing and lexical guessing. We then went on to directly assess whether or not children with LPD have an orthographic-visual analysis deficit by modifying two tasks that have previously been used to localize processing at this level: a same-different decision task and a non-word reading task. The results from these tasks indicate that LPD is most likely caused by a deficit specific to the coding of letter positions at the orthographic-visual analysis stage of reading. These findings provide further evidence for the heterogeneity of dyslexia and its underlying causes.

Kezilas, Yvette; Kohnen, Saskia; McKague, Meredith; Castles, Anne

2014-01-01

254

Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

2012-01-01

255

Processing Limitations in Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Executive Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have processing limitations; however, the mechanisms involved have not been well defined or investigated in a theory-guided manner. The theory of constructive operators was used as a framework to explore processes underlying limited processing capacity in children with SLI.…

Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Pascual-Leone, Juan

2006-01-01

256

On Some Claims of Atomic Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines some of the rules of atomic phonology so as to elucidate just what the theory is and is not capable of. The theory of atomic phonology maintains that all linguistic variation requiring distinctly varied formulations of phonological rules is predictable from a set of "atomic rules" and universal principles of grammar. (SED)

Wheeler, Max W.

1985-01-01

257

The Test of Phonological Awareness. Critique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Test of Phonological Awareness (TOPA) was developed to help identify children who are delayed in their development of phonological awareness. Research supports the theory that children with poor phonological awareness are at risk of later reading difficulties. Children who score in the bottom quartile of the TOPA are considered to be at risk…

Moore, Jenny

258

Phonological Awareness in Children with Down Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined phonological awareness in 17 children with Down syndrome (ages 9-14). Children demonstrated measurable levels of phonological awareness. Significant positive correlations were found among phonological awareness and reading and spelling competence, and ability to spell non-words and non-verbal measures. (Contains references.)…

Fletcher, Helen; Buckley, Sue

2002-01-01

259

Developmental Hierarchy of Arabic Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates a strong relationship between phonological awareness and reading success. Phonemic intervention programs clearly show the benefits of explicitly teaching phonological awareness skills. Phonological awareness skills vary in nature and degree of difficulty and appear to follow a developmental progression. This study examined a…

Tibi, Sana

2010-01-01

260

Effects of General Processing Capacity and Sustained Selective Attention on Temporal Processing Performance of Children with Specific Language Impairment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated potential influences of general processing capacity and sustained selective attention on the temporal processing of a group of children with specific language impairment and a group of age-matched controls. Results suggest that the SLI children did not evidence a basic temporal processing deficit. (Author/VWL)

Hanson, Rebecca A.; Montgomery, James W.

2002-01-01

261

Speed of processing and depression affect function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the effect of depression and cognition on function in older adults with amnestic and nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI; nonaMCI). Design The study uses baseline data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center. Setting Data was collected at multiple Alzheimer’s Disease Centers in the United States. Participants The sample included a total of 3117 individuals with MCI, mean age = 74.37 years, SD = 9.37 (aMCI n =2488; nonaMCI n = 629). Measurements The 10-item Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessed function. Results Depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), memory impairment (Logical Memory II), and processing speed decrements (Digit Symbol Substitution Test) were significantly associated with functional impairment (p < .001). Processing speed partially mediated the effect of depression on function and fully mediated the effect of executive dysfunction on function (p < .001) in the total MCI and aMCI subsample, while in the nonaMCI subsample processing speed mediated the effect of executive function but not the effect of depression (p = .20) on function. Conclusions The findings show that processing speed is central to the effect that depression and executive dysfunction have on functional impairment in cognitively impaired older adults. Future studies are needed to better understand the physiological underpinnings in age-related and disease-specific decrements in processing speed, and to address the problems in the assessment of processing speed in clinical samples.

Brown, Patrick J.; Liu, Xinhua; Sneed, Joel R.; Pimontel, Monique A.; Devanand, D.P.; Roose, Steven P.

2012-01-01

262

The Search for the Phonological Store: From Loop to Convolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract & The phonological,loop system,of Baddeley and colleagues’ Working,Memory,model,is a major,accomplishment,of the modern,era of cognitive psychology. It was,one,of the first information,processing models,to make,an explicit attempt,to accommodate,both traditional behavioral data and the results of neuropsychological case studies in an integrated theoretical framework. In the early and middle 1990s, the purview of the phonological,loop was expanded,to include the emerging,field of functional brain

Bradley R. Buchsbaum; Mark D'esposito

2008-01-01

263

The rhaeadr effect in clinical phonology.  

PubMed

Abstract A distinction is drawn between Crystal's bucket theory of language processing and an overflow of effects between different linguistic levels in language production. Most of the examples are drawn from Welsh (a language of mutual interest to the author and the honoree of this issue). For that reason, it is proposed that this effect is termed the rhaeadr effect (from the Welsh for waterfall). The rhaeadr effect is illustrated with the initial consonant mutation systems of Welsh and Irish, and with data from both normal phonological (and morphophonological) development and disordered speech. PMID:25000371

Ball, Martin J

2014-07-01

264

The Dyslexia Spectrum: Continuities between Reading, Speech, and Language Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

D. V. M. Bishop and M. J. Snowling (2004) proposed that 2 dimensions of language are required to conceptualize the relationship between dyslexia and specific language impairment: phonological skills and wider language skills beyond phonology (grammatical, semantic, and pragmatic skills). In this article, we discuss the commonalities between…

Snowling, Margaret J.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.

2006-01-01

265

Central auditory processing impairment in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) there may be functional abnormalities or structural lesions that can manifest as a central auditory processing disorder, which is defined as a disorder in the recognition, discrimination, ordering, grouping, and localization of sounds, with emphasis on the processing of nonspeech sounds. We performed frequency pattern, duration pattern, and dichotic tests in 28 patients with TLE

Myung Woul Han; Joong Ho Ahn; Joong Koo Kang; Eun Mi Lee; Jeong Hyun Lee; Jung Hyun Bae; Jong Woo Chung

2011-01-01

266

Visuo-Spatial Processing and Executive Functions in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Individual differences in complex working memory tasks reflect simultaneous processing, executive functions, and attention control. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show a deficit in verbal working memory tasks that involve simultaneous processing of information. Aims: The purpose of the study was to examine executive…

Marton, Klara

2008-01-01

267

Electrophysiological Correlates of Rapid Auditory and Linguistic Processing in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief tonal stimuli and spoken sentences were utilized to examine whether adolescents (aged 14;3-18;1) with specific language impairments (SLI) exhibit atypical neural activity for rapid auditory processing of non-linguistic stimuli and linguistic processing of verb-agreement and semantic constraints. Further, we examined whether the behavioral…

Weber-Fox, Christine; Leonard, Laurence B.; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2010-01-01

268

Information Processing and Language Comprehension in Children with Specific Language Impairment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines several sub-constructs of information processing and their potential association with the poorer language comprehension of children with specific language impairments (SLI). It argues that some of the language comprehension problems of children with SLI are related to certain information processing inefficiencies. Techniques…

Montgomery, James W.

2002-01-01

269

When Phonology Fails: Orthographic Neighbourhood Effects in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both cerebral hemispheres contain phonological, orthographic and semantic representations of words, however there are between-hemisphere differences in the relative engagement and specialization of the different representations. Taking orthographic processing for example, previous studies suggest that orthographic neighbourhood size (N) has…

Lavidor, Michal; Johnston, Rhona; Snowling, Margaret J.

2006-01-01

270

Impaired Face Processing in Autism: Fact or Artifact?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the last 10 years, there has been an upsurge of interest in face processing abilities in autism which has generated a proliferation of new empirical demonstrations employing a variety of measuring techniques. Observably atypical social behaviors early in the development of children with autism have led to the contention that autism is a…

Jemel, Boutheina; Mottron, Laurent; Dawson, Michelle

2006-01-01

271

Effects of intensive phonomotor treatment on reading in eight individuals with aphasia and phonological alexia.  

PubMed

PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate effects of a multimodal treatment of phonology, phonomotor treatment, on the reading abilities of persons with aphasia (PWA) with phonological alexia. METHOD In a retrospective, single-group design, this study presents pre-, post-, and 3-months posttreatment data for 8 PWA with phonological alexia. Participants completed 60 hr of phonomotor treatment over 6 weeks. Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests and group effect sizes comparing pre-, immediately post-, and 3-months posttreatment performance on tests of phonological processing and reading were performed. RESULTS Group data showed phonological processing and oral reading of real words and nonwords improved significantly posttreatment; these gains were maintained 3 months later. No group improvement was found for reading comprehension; however, one individual did show improvement immediately post- and 3-months posttreatment. CONCLUSIONS This study provides support that phonomotor treatment is a viable approach to improve phonological processing and oral reading for PWA with phonological alexia. The lack of improvement with comprehension is inconsistent with prior work using similar treatments (Conway et al., 1998; Kendall et al., 2003). However, this difference can, in part, be accounted for by differences in variables, such as treatment intensity and frequency, outcome measures, and alexia severity. PMID:24686537

Brookshire, C Elizabeth; Conway, Tim; Pompon, Rebecca Hunting; Oelke, Megan; Kendall, Diane L

2014-05-01

272

Altered semantic but not phonological verbal fluency in young help-seeking individuals with ultra high risk of psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the cognitive impairments of schizophrenia are already detectable before the onset of the disease, and could help to identify individuals at higher risk of psychosis. In patients with schizophrenia, semantic verbal fluency (VF) is more impaired than phonological fluency. We investigated whether the same profile is present in young patients at Ultra High Risk of psychosis (UHR). One

Emilie Magaud; Oussama Kebir; Anne Gut; Dominique Willard; François Chauchot; Jean-Pierre Olie; Mathilde Kazes; Marie-Odile Krebs

2010-01-01

273

Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…

Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

2012-01-01

274

Phonological Awareness and Musical Aptitude.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between phonological awareness and musical aptitude in pre-school Turkish and American children. Finds that children in the high musical aptitude group did much better on all tasks than those in the low musical aptitude group, showing that success in manipulating linguistic sounds was related to awareness of distinct…

Peynircioglu, Zehra F.; Durgunoglu, Aydyn Y.; Oney-Kusefoglu, Banu

2002-01-01

275

Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

2013-01-01

276

The Phonological Assimilation of Borrowing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linguistic borrowing from English to Jordanian Arabic at the lexical level is described, focusing on phonology and the extent to which Jordanian Arabic has affected the phonetic structure of English loans assimilated partially or completely into it. Conspicuous distinctive sound features in the two languages that may affect non-native speakers'…

Suleiman, Saleh M.

277

Infants' Learning of Phonological Status  

PubMed Central

There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants’ discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I’m should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in I’d, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants’ sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11?months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions.

Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

2012-01-01

278

Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children with SLI: Semantic, Phonological, and Repetition Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current understanding of how children with specific language impairment (SLI) organize their mental lexicons. The study examined semantic and phonological priming in children with and without SLI. Method: Thirteen children (7;0-11;3 [years;months]) with SLI and 13 age-matched children…

Velez, Melinda; Schwartz, Richard G.

2010-01-01

279

Pseudoname Learning by German-Speaking Children with Dyslexia: Evidence for a Phonological Learning Deficit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments found that German-speaking dyslexic 9-year-olds showed impaired learning of pseudonames in several visual-verbal learning tasks, even when phonological retrieval cues were provided and when pseudonames were presented in spoken and printed form. There was no deficit when short, familiar words were used, and no difficulty in…

Mayringer, Heinz; Wimmer, Heinz

2000-01-01

280

The contribution of phonological short-term memory to artificial grammar learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments investigated the contribution of phonological short-term memory (STM) to grammar learning by manipulating rehearsal during study of an auditory artificial grammar made up from a vocabulary of spoken Mandarin syllables. Experiment 1 showed that concurrent, irrelevant articulation impaired grammar learning compared with a nonverbal control task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding, showing that repeating the grammatical

Jackie Andrade; Alan Baddeley

2011-01-01

281

Selective imitation impairments differentially interact with language processing.  

PubMed

Whether motor and linguistic representations of actions share common neural structures has recently been the focus of an animated debate in cognitive neuroscience. Group studies with brain-damaged patients reported association patterns of praxic and linguistic deficits whereas single case studies documented double dissociations between the correct execution of gestures and their comprehension in verbal contexts. When the relationship between language and imitation was investigated, each ability was analysed as a unique process without distinguishing between possible subprocesses. However, recent cognitive models can be successfully used to account for these inconsistencies in the extant literature. In the present study, in 57 patients with left brain damage, we tested whether a deficit at imitating either meaningful or meaningless gestures differentially impinges on three distinct linguistic abilities (comprehension, naming and repetition). Based on the dual-pathway models, we predicted that praxic and linguistic performance would be associated when meaningful gestures are processed, and would dissociate for meaningless gestures. We used partial correlations to assess the association between patients' scores while accounting for potential confounding effects of aspecific factors such age, education and lesion size. We found that imitation of meaningful gestures significantly correlated with patients' performance on naming and repetition (but not on comprehension). This was not the case for the imitation of meaningless gestures. Moreover, voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis revealed that damage to the angular gyrus specifically affected imitation of meaningless gestures, independent of patients' performance on linguistic tests. Instead, damage to the supramarginal gyrus affected not only imitation of meaningful gestures, but also patients' performance on naming and repetition. Our findings clarify the apparent conflict between associations and dissociations patterns previously observed in neuropsychological studies, and suggest that motor experience and language can interact when the two domains conceptually overlap. PMID:23884815

Mengotti, Paola; Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Corrado; Negri, Gioia A L; Ukmar, Maja; Pesavento, Valentina; Rumiati, Raffaella I

2013-08-01

282

Visual spatial attention and speech segmentation are both impaired in preschoolers at familial risk for developmental dyslexia.  

PubMed

Phonological skills are foundational of reading acquisition and impaired phonological processing is widely assumed to characterize dyslexic individuals. However, reading by phonological decoding also requires rapid selection of sublexical orthographic units through serial attentional orienting, and recent studies have shown that visual spatial attention is impaired in dyslexic children. Our study investigated these different neurocognitive dysfunctions, before reading acquisition, in a sample of preschoolers including children with (N=20) and without (N=67) familial risk for developmental dyslexia. Children were tested on phonological skills, rapid automatized naming, and visual spatial attention. At-risk children presented deficits in both visual spatial attention and syllabic segmentation at the group level. Moreover, the combination of visual spatial attention and syllabic segmentation scores was more reliable than either single measure for the identification of at-risk children. These findings suggest that both visuo-attentional and perisylvian-auditory dysfunctions might adversely affect reading acquisition, and may offer a new approach for early identification and remediation of developmental dyslexia. PMID:20680993

Facoetti, Andrea; Corradi, Nicola; Ruffino, Milena; Gori, Simone; Zorzi, Marco

2010-08-01

283

Identification of Adults with Developmental Language Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To assess the utility of a wide range of language measures (phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics) for the identification of adults with developmental language impairment. Method: Measures were administered to 3 groups of adults, each representing a population expected to demonstrate high levels of language impairment, and to…

Fidler, Lesley J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

2011-01-01

284

Processing and Linguistic Markers in Young Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-two 5-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 32 chronological age (CA) controls completed 4 tasks that were considered potential positive markers for SLI. Children's performance on 2 linguistic tasks (past tense and noun plurals task) and 2 processing tasks (nonword repetition and digit recall) were examined. This…

Conti-Ramsden, Gina

2003-01-01

285

Behavioral Profiles Associated with Auditory Processing Disorder and Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To describe and compare behavioral profiles associated with auditory processing disorder (APD) and specific language impairment (SLI) in school-age children. Method: The participants in this cross-sectional observational study were 64 children (mean age 10.1 years) recruited through clinician referrals. Thirty-five participants had a…

Miller, Carol A.; Wagstaff, David A.

2011-01-01

286

Brainstem Correlates of Temporal Auditory Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deficits in identification and discrimination of sounds with short inter-stimulus intervals or short formant transitions in children with specific language impairment (SLI) have been taken to reflect an underlying temporal auditory processing deficit. Using the sustained frequency following response (FFR) and the onset auditory brainstem responses…

Basu, Madhavi; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Weber-Fox, Christine

2010-01-01

287

Spectral vs. Temporal Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment: A Developmental ERP Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pre-linguistic sensory deficits, especially in "temporal" processing, have been implicated in developmental language impairment (LI). However, recent evidence has been equivocal with data suggesting problems in the spectral domain. The present study examined event-related potential (ERP) measures of auditory sensory temporal and spectral…

Ceponiene, R.; Cummings, A.; Wulfeck, B.; Ballantyne, A.; Townsend, J.

2009-01-01

288

Using Compressed Speech to Measure Simultaneous Processing in Persons with and without Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the use of compressed speech as a modality for assessment of the simultaneous processing function for participants with visual impairment. A 24-item compressed speech test was created using a sound editing program to randomly remove sound elements from aural stimuli, holding pitch constant, with the objective to emulate the…

Marks, William J.; Jones, W. Paul; Loe, Scott A.

2013-01-01

289

Phonological effects in handwriting production: evidence from the implicit priming paradigm.  

PubMed

In the present article, we report 3 experiments using the odd-man-out variant of the implicit priming paradigm, aimed at determining the role played by phonological information during the handwriting process. Participants were asked to write a small set of words learned in response to prompts. Within each block, response words could share initial segments (constant homogeneous) or not (heterogeneous). Also, 2 variable homogeneous blocks were created by including a response word that did not share orthographic onset with the other response (odd-man-out). This odd-man-out could be phonologically related to the targets or not. Experiment 1 showed a preparation effect in the constant homogeneous condition, which disappeared (spoil effect) in the variable condition not phonologically related. However, no spoil effect was found when the odd-man-out shared the phonological initial segment with the targets. In Experiment 2, we obtained a spoil effect in the variable phonologically related condition, but it was significantly smaller than in the variable not phonologically related condition. The effects observed in Experiment 2 vanished in Experiment 3 under articulatory suppression, suggesting that they originated at a sublexical level. These findings suggest that phonological sublexical information is used during handwriting and provide evidence that the implicit priming paradigm (and the odd-man-out version of this) is a suitable tool for handwriting production research. PMID:21767055

Afonso, Olivia; Álvarez, Carlos J

2011-11-01

290

The Relationship between Phonological Awareness and Reading: Implications for the Assessment of Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) use phonological awareness assessments in many ways. This study examines the usefulness of these assessments in kindergarten and 2nd grade. Method: Measures of phonological awareness and letter identification were administered in kindergarten, and measures of phonological awareness, phonetic decoding…

Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.; Little, Todd D.

2005-01-01

291

Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?  

PubMed Central

Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes.

De-Torres, Irene; Davila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Sean Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

2013-01-01

292

Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?  

PubMed

Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460

De-Torres, Irene; Dávila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L; Walsh, Seán Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

2013-01-01

293

Auditory temporal structure processing in dyslexia: processing of prosodic phrase boundaries is not impaired in children with dyslexia.  

PubMed

Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--temporal grouping--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase boundaries are characterized by temporal grouping of functionally related speech elements and can facilitate syntactic processing of speech. For example, temporary syntactic ambiguities, such as early-closure structures, are processed faster when prosodic phrase boundaries are present. We examined children's prosodic facilitation by measuring their efficiency of sentence processing for temporary syntactic ambiguities spoken with (facilitating) versus without (neutral) prosodic phrase boundaries. Both groups of children benefited similarly from prosodic facilitation, displaying faster reaction times in facilitating compared to neutral prosody. These findings indicate that the use of prosodic phrase boundaries for speech processing is not impaired in children with dyslexia. PMID:24338429

Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D E

2014-04-01

294

Developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment: same or different?  

PubMed

Developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment (SLI) were for many years treated as distinct disorders but are now often regarded as different manifestations of the same underlying problem, differing only in severity or developmental stage. The merging of these categories has been motivated by the reconceptualization of dyslexia as a language disorder in which phonological processing is deficient. The authors argue that this focus underestimates the independent influence of semantic and syntactic deficits, which are widespread in SLI and which affect reading comprehension and impair attainment of fluent reading in adolescence. The authors suggest that 2 dimensions of impairment are needed to conceptualize the relationship between these disorders and to capture phenotypic features that are important for identifying neurobiologically and etiologically coherent subgroups. PMID:15535741

Bishop, Dorothy V M; Snowling, Margaret J

2004-11-01

295

Early ERP Signature of Hearing Impairment in Visual Rhyme Judgment  

PubMed Central

Postlingually acquired hearing impairment (HI) is associated with changes in the representation of sound in semantic long-term memory. An indication of this is the lower performance on visual rhyme judgment tasks in conditions where phonological and orthographic cues mismatch, requiring high reliance on phonological representations. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used for the first time to investigate the neural correlates of phonological processing in visual rhyme judgments in participants with acquired HI and normal hearing (NH). Rhyme task word pairs rhymed or not and had matching or mismatching orthography. In addition, the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) was manipulated to be either long (800?ms) or short (50?ms). Long ISIs allow for engagement of explicit, top-down processes, while short ISIs limit the involvement of such mechanisms. We hypothesized lower behavioral performance and N400 and N2 deviations in HI in the mismatching rhyme judgment conditions, particularly in short ISI. However, the results showed a different pattern. As expected, behavioral performance in the mismatch conditions was lower in HI than in NH in short ISI, but ERPs did not differ across groups. In contrast, HI performed on a par with NH in long ISI. Further, HI, but not NH, showed an amplified N2-like response in the non-rhyming, orthographically mismatching condition in long ISI. This was also the rhyme condition in which participants in both groups benefited the most from the possibility to engage top-down processes afforded with the longer ISI. Taken together, these results indicate an early ERP signature of HI in this challenging phonological task, likely reflecting use of a compensatory strategy. This strategy is suggested to involve increased reliance on explicit mechanisms such as articulatory recoding and grapheme-to-phoneme conversion.

Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Johansson, Mikael; Ronnberg, Jerker

2013-01-01

296

Early ERP Signature of Hearing Impairment in Visual Rhyme Judgment.  

PubMed

Postlingually acquired hearing impairment (HI) is associated with changes in the representation of sound in semantic long-term memory. An indication of this is the lower performance on visual rhyme judgment tasks in conditions where phonological and orthographic cues mismatch, requiring high reliance on phonological representations. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used for the first time to investigate the neural correlates of phonological processing in visual rhyme judgments in participants with acquired HI and normal hearing (NH). Rhyme task word pairs rhymed or not and had matching or mismatching orthography. In addition, the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) was manipulated to be either long (800?ms) or short (50?ms). Long ISIs allow for engagement of explicit, top-down processes, while short ISIs limit the involvement of such mechanisms. We hypothesized lower behavioral performance and N400 and N2 deviations in HI in the mismatching rhyme judgment conditions, particularly in short ISI. However, the results showed a different pattern. As expected, behavioral performance in the mismatch conditions was lower in HI than in NH in short ISI, but ERPs did not differ across groups. In contrast, HI performed on a par with NH in long ISI. Further, HI, but not NH, showed an amplified N2-like response in the non-rhyming, orthographically mismatching condition in long ISI. This was also the rhyme condition in which participants in both groups benefited the most from the possibility to engage top-down processes afforded with the longer ISI. Taken together, these results indicate an early ERP signature of HI in this challenging phonological task, likely reflecting use of a compensatory strategy. This strategy is suggested to involve increased reliance on explicit mechanisms such as articulatory recoding and grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. PMID:23653613

Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Johansson, Mikael; Rönnberg, Jerker

2013-01-01

297

Auditory Deficit as a Consequence Rather than Endophenotype of Specific Language Impairment: Electrophysiological Evidence  

PubMed Central

Background Are developmental language disorders caused by poor auditory discrimination? This is a popular theory, but behavioural evidence has been inconclusive. Here we studied children with specific language impairment, measuring the brain’s electrophysiological response to sounds in a passive paradigm. We focused on the T-complex, an event-related peak that has different origins and developmental course from the well-known vertex response. Methods We analysed auditory event-related potentials to tones and syllables from 16 children and 16 adolescents with specific language impairment who were compared with 32 typically-developing controls, matched for gender, IQ and age. Results We replicated prior findings of significant reduction in Ta amplitude for both children and adolescents with specific language impairment, which was particularly marked for syllables. The topography of the T-complex to syllables indicated a less focal response in those with language impairments. To distinguish causal models, we considered correlations between size of the Ta response and measures of language and literacy in parents as well as children. The best-fitting model was one in which auditory deficit was a consequence rather than a cause of difficulties in phonological processing. Conclusions The T-complex to syllables has abnormal size and topography in children with specific language impairment, but this is more likely to be a consequence rather than a cause of difficulties in phonological processing.

Bishop, D. V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.

2012-01-01

298

Testing the attentional boundary conditions of subliminal semantic priming: the influence of semantic and phonological task sets  

PubMed Central

Recent studies challenged the classical notion of automaticity and indicated that even unconscious automatic semantic processing is under attentional control to some extent. In line with our attentional sensitization model, these data suggest that a sensitization of semantic pathways by a semantic task set is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to occur while non-semantic task sets attenuate priming. In the present study, we tested whether masked semantic priming is also reduced by phonological task sets using the previously developed induction task paradigm. This would substantiate the notion that attention to semantics is necessary for eliciting unconscious semantic priming. Participants first performed semantic and phonological induction tasks that should either activate a semantic or a phonological task set. Subsequent to the induction task, a masked prime word, either associated or non-associated with the following lexical decision target word, was presented. Across two experiments, we varied the nature of the phonological induction task (word phonology vs. letter phonology) to assess whether the attentional focus on the entire word vs. single letters modulates subsequent masked semantic priming. In both experiments, subliminal semantic priming was only found subsequent to the semantic induction task, but was attenuated following either phonological induction task. These results indicate that attention to phonology attenuates subsequent semantic processing of unconsciously presented primes whether or not attention is directed to the entire word or to single letters. The present findings therefore substantiate earlier evidence that an attentional orientation toward semantics is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to be elicited.

Adams, Sarah C.; Kiefer, Markus

2012-01-01

299

The relationship of phonological ability, speech perception, and auditory perception in adults with dyslexia  

PubMed Central

This study investigated whether auditory, speech perception, and phonological skills are tightly interrelated or independently contributing to reading. We assessed each of these three skills in 36 adults with a past diagnosis of dyslexia and 54 matched normal reading adults. Phonological skills were tested by the typical threefold tasks, i.e., rapid automatic naming, verbal short-term memory and phonological awareness. Dynamic auditory processing skills were assessed by means of a frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise time (RT); an intensity discrimination task (ID) was included as a non-dynamic control task. Speech perception was assessed by means of sentences and words-in-noise tasks. Group analyses revealed significant group differences in auditory tasks (i.e., RT and ID) and in phonological processing measures, yet no differences were found for speech perception. In addition, performance on RT discrimination correlated with reading but this relation was mediated by phonological processing and not by speech-in-noise. Finally, inspection of the individual scores revealed that the dyslexic readers showed an increased proportion of deviant subjects on the slow-dynamic auditory and phonological tasks, yet each individual dyslexic reader does not display a clear pattern of deficiencies across the processing skills. Although our results support phonological and slow-rate dynamic auditory deficits which relate to literacy, they suggest that at the individual level, problems in reading and writing cannot be explained by the cascading auditory theory. Instead, dyslexic adults seem to vary considerably in the extent to which each of the auditory and phonological factors are expressed and interact with environmental and higher-order cognitive influences.

Law, Jeremy M.; Vandermosten, Maaike; Ghesquiere, Pol; Wouters, Jan

2014-01-01

300

LEXOP: a lexical database providing orthography-phonology statistics for French monosyllabic words.  

PubMed

During the last 20 years, psycholinguistic research has identified many variables that influence reading and spelling processes. We describe a new computerized lexical database, LEXOP, which provides quantitative descriptors about the relations between orthography and phonology for French monosyllabic words. Three main classes of variables are considered: consistency of print-to-sound and sound-to-print associations, frequency of orthography-phonology correspondences, and word neighborhood characteristics. PMID:10495825

Peereman, R; Content, A

1999-05-01

301

Cognitive Impairment in Relapsing Remitting and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Efficacy of a Computerized Cognitive Screening Battery  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate the pattern of cognitive impairment in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients using a computerized battery. Methods. RRMS patients (N = 50), SPMS patients (N = 30), and controls (N = 31) were assessed by Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) computerized battery, Trail Making Tests (TMT) A and B, and semantic and phonological verbal fluency tasks. Results. The overall prevalence of cognitive dysfunction was 53.75% (RRMS 38%, SPMS 80%). RRMS patients differed from controls with large effect size on reaction time, medium effect size on TMT A and small on TMT B, phonological verbal fluency, composite memory, psychomotor speed, and cognitive flexibility. SPMS patients differed from controls in all neuropsychological measures (except complex attention) with large effect sizes on TMT A and B, phonological verbal fluency, composite memory, psychomotor speed, reaction time, and cognitive flexibility. Between patient groups, medium effect sizes were present on TMT B and psychomotor speed, while small effect sizes were present on composite memory and processing speed. Conclusion. CNS VS is sensitive in detecting cognitive impairment in RRMS and SPMS patients. Significant impairment in episodic memory, executive function, and processing speed were identified, with gradual increment of the frequency as disease progresses.

Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Messinis, Lambros; Georgiou, Vasileios L.; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

2014-01-01

302

The effectiveness of phonological intervention in preschool children: a single-subject design study.  

PubMed

Abstract The purpose was to investigate an intervention model for treating preschool children with phonological processes. Six children, three girls and three boys, between 4y 1m and 5y 7m, with similar developmental phonological disorder (PD) received an individually adjusted intervention including articulatory, phonological, and meta-phonological approaches. A single-subject multiple-baseline design with /f/ and /s/ as target phonemes and velar plosives and /r/ as control phonemes was used. An improved production of the treated phonemes was found in five of the children, while one girl established /f/ but not /s/. The control phonemes remained unchanged for all children. Six to 18 therapy sessions were needed to reach the intervention goal. The study highlights the importance of considering heterogeneity in children with PD. PMID:23190080

Palle, Nanna; Berntsson, Agneta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Persson, Christina

2014-04-01

303

Phonological Priming and Cohort Effects in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult word recognition is influenced by prior exposure to phonologically or semantically related words ("cup" primes "cat" or "plate") compared to unrelated words ("door"), suggesting that words are organised in the adult lexicon based on their phonological and semantic properties and that word recognition implicates not just the heard word, but…

Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

2011-01-01

304

The Acquisition of L2 Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Acquisition of L2 Phonology is a wide-ranging new collection which focuses on various aspects of the acquisition of an L2 phonological system. The authors are researchers and practitioners from five different countries. The volume has been divided into three major sections. Phonetic Analysis presents five studies of language learners in both…

Wojtaszek, Adam; Arabski, Janusz

2011-01-01

305

Phonological Priming in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological

Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.

2012-01-01

306

Recent Advances in Phonological Theory and Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a clinical forum that considers a variety of theoretical and analytical frameworks that have been applied to developing systems in phonological theory and treatment. It explains phonological theory, in which sound properties that are marked in language are those sounds that are most complex. (Contains references.)…

Barlow, Jessica A.

2001-01-01

307

Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

2013-01-01

308

Assessment of Individual Differences in Phonological Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Dunkelberger, Martha; Novak, Barbara; Mukherjee, Anuja Divatia

2010-01-01

309

Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing

Lisa B. Wilson; Jason R. Tregellas; Erin Slason; Bryce E. Pasko; Donald C. Rojas

2011-01-01

310

Phonology in Language Learning and Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims at absorbing the pronunciation teachers task and how much phonology should teachers know. Teachers and future teachers need a well-rounded concept of the phonology of the language they are going to teach and the native language of learners. Emphasis must be placed on the understanding of language as a system of rules and as a…

Jarrah, Ali Saleh

2012-01-01

311

Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired children ameliorated by training.  

PubMed

Children with language-based learning impairments (LLIs) have major deficits in their recognition of some rapidly successive phonetic elements and nonspeech sound stimuli. In the current study, LLI children were engaged in adaptive training exercises mounted as computer "games" designed to drive improvements in their "temporal processing" skills. With 8 to 16 hours of training during a 20-day period, LLI children improved markedly in their abilities to recognize brief and fast sequences of nonspeech and speech stimuli. PMID:8539603

Merzenich, M M; Jenkins, W M; Johnston, P; Schreiner, C; Miller, S L; Tallal, P

1996-01-01

312

Temporal Processing Deficits of Language-Learning Impaired Children Ameliorated by Training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Children with language-based learning impairments (LLIs) have major deficits in their recognition of some rapidly successive phonetic elements and nonspeech sound stimuli. In the current study, LLI children were engaged in adaptive training exercises mounted as computer "games" designed to drive improvements in their "temporal processing" skills. With 8 to 16 hours of training during a 20-day period, LLI children improved markedly in their abilities to recognize brief and fast sequences of nonspeech and speech stimuli.

Merzenich, Michael M.; Jenkins, William M.; Johnston, Paul; Schreiner, Christoph; Miller, Steven L.; Tallal, Paula

1996-01-01

313

EVIDENCE FOR IMPAIRED INTEGRATION-SEGMENTATION PROCESSES AND SLOWED SYNCHRONY-CODING IN DYSLEXICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a primed flgure-detection task we were able to reveal the existence of two dis- tinct groups of dyslexics. One group is characterized by a signiflcant impairment of visual integration-segmentation processes, resulting in slowed performance for the detection of a illusory Kanizsa-typeflgure in a matrix of distractor elements. These deflcits appear to be produced by ine-cient synchrony coding mechanisms. The

Cordula Beckeryz; Mark A. Elliottyz

314

Relations between frequency selectivity, temporal fine-structure processing, and speech reception in impaired hearing.  

PubMed

Frequency selectivity, temporal fine-structure (TFS) processing, and speech reception were assessed for six normal-hearing (NH) listeners, ten sensorineurally hearing-impaired (HI) listeners with similar high-frequency losses, and two listeners with an obscure dysfunction (OD). TFS processing was investigated at low frequencies in regions of normal hearing, through measurements of binaural masked detection, tone lateralization, and monaural frequency modulation (FM) detection. Lateralization and FM detection thresholds were measured in quiet and in background noise. Speech reception thresholds were obtained for full-spectrum and lowpass-filtered sentences with different interferers. Both the HI listeners and the OD listeners showed poorer performance than the NH listeners in terms of frequency selectivity, TFS processing, and speech reception. While a correlation was observed between the monaural and binaural TFS-processing deficits in the HI listeners, no relation was found between TFS processing and frequency selectivity. The effect of noise on TFS processing was not larger for the HI listeners than for the NH listeners. Finally, TFS-processing performance was correlated with speech reception in a two-talker background and lateralized noise, but not in amplitude-modulated noise. The results provide constraints for future models of impaired auditory signal processing. PMID:19425674

Strelcyk, Olaf; Dau, Torsten

2009-05-01

315

Acute Alcohol Consumption Impairs Controlled but Not Automatic Processes in a Psychophysical Pointing Paradigm  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Such studies have shown that alcohol impairs performance on tasks requiring conscious, intentional control, while leaving automatic performance relatively intact. Here, we sought to extend these findings to aspects of visuomotor control by investigating the effects of alcohol in a visuomotor pointing paradigm that allowed us to separate the influence of controlled and automatic processes. Six male participants were assigned to an experimental “correction” condition in which they were instructed to point at a visual target as quickly and accurately as possible. On a small percentage of trials, the target “jumped” to a new location. On these trials, the participants’ task was to amend their movement such that they pointed to the new target location. A second group of 6 participants were assigned to a “countermanding” condition, in which they were instructed to terminate their movements upon detection of target “jumps”. In both the correction and countermanding conditions, participants served as their own controls, taking part in alcohol and no-alcohol conditions on separate days. Alcohol had no effect on participants’ ability to correct movements “in flight”, but impaired the ability to withhold such automatic corrections. Our data support the notion that alcohol selectively impairs controlled processes in the visuomotor domain.

Johnston, Kevin; Timney, Brian; Goodale, Melvyn A.

2013-01-01

316

The proximate phonological unit of Chinese-English bilinguals: proficiency matters.  

PubMed

An essential step to create phonology according to the language production model by Levelt, Roelofs and Meyer is to assemble phonemes into a metrical frame. However, recently, it has been proposed that different languages may rely on different grain sizes of phonological units to construct phonology. For instance, it has been proposed that, instead of phonemes, Mandarin Chinese uses syllables and Japanese uses moras to fill the metrical frame. In this study, we used a masked priming-naming task to investigate how bilinguals assemble their phonology for each language when the two languages differ in grain size. Highly proficient Mandarin Chinese-English bilinguals showed a significant masked onset priming effect in English (L2), and a significant masked syllabic priming effect in Mandarin Chinese (L1). These results suggest that their proximate unit is phonemic in L2 (English), and that bilinguals may use different phonological units depending on the language that is being processed. Additionally, under some conditions, a significant sub-syllabic priming effect was observed even in Mandarin Chinese, which indicates that L2 phonology exerts influences on L1 target processing as a consequence of having a good command of English. PMID:23646107

Verdonschot, Rinus Gerardus; Nakayama, Mariko; Zhang, Qingfang; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Schiller, Niels Olaf

2013-01-01

317

Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness, or the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, has been identified as a key early literacy skill and precursor to reading. For the purposes of this review, "phonological awareness training" refers to any practice targeting young children's phonological awareness abilities. "Phonological

What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

2012-01-01

318

Spatio-Visual Memory of Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence for Generalized Processing Problems. Research Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with Specific language Impairment (SLI) have problems with verbal memory, particularly with tasks that have more processing demands. They also have slower speeds of responding for some tasks. To identify the extent to which young children with SLI would differ in performance from age-matched non-impaired children on a set of spatio-visual…

Bavin, Edith L.; Wilson, Peter H.; Maruff, Paul; Sleeman, Felicity

2005-01-01

319

Histamine H1 receptor antagonist cetirizine impairs working memory processing speed, but not episodic memory  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The histaminergic neurotransmitter system is currently under investigation as a target for drug treatment of cognitive deficits in clinical disorders. The therapeutic potential of new drugs may initially be screened using a model of histaminergic dysfunction, for example, as associated with the use of centrally active antihistamines. Of the selective second generation antihistamines, cetirizine has been found to have central nervous system effects. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cetirizine can be used as a tool to model cognitive deficits associated with histaminergic hypofunction. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The study was conducted according to a three-way, double-blind, cross-over design. Treatments were single oral doses of cetirizine 10 and 20 mg and placebo. Effects on cognition were assessed using tests of word learning, memory scanning, vigilance, divided attention, tracking and visual information processing speed. KEY RESULTS Cetirizine 10 mg impaired tracking performance and both doses impaired memory scanning speed. None of the other measures indicated impaired performance. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Cetirizine affects information processing speed, but these effects were not sufficient to serve as a model for cognitive deficits in clinical disorders.

van Ruitenbeek, P; Vermeeren, A; Riedel, WJ

2010-01-01

320

Impaired conscious and preserved unconscious inhibitory processing in recent onset schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Impairments in inhibitory function have been found in studies of cognition in schizophrenia. These have been linked to a failure to adequately maintain the task demands in working memory. As response inhibition is known to occur in both voluntary and involuntary processes, an important question is whether both aspects of response inhibition are specifically impaired in people with schizophrenia. Method The subjects were 33 patients presenting with a first episode of psychosis (27 with schizophrenia and six with schizo-affective disorder) and 24 healthy controls. We administered two motor response tasks: voluntary response inhibition was indexed by the stop-signal task and involuntary response inhibition by the masked priming task. We also administered neuropsychological measures of IQ and executive function to explore their associations with response inhibition. Results Patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls showed significantly increased duration of the voluntary response inhibition process, as indexed by the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT). By contrast, there were no group differences on the pattern of priming on the masked priming task, indicative of intact involuntary response inhibition. Neuropsychological measures revealed that voluntary response inhibition is not necessarily dependent on working memory. Conclusions These data provide evidence for a specific impairment of voluntary response inhibition in schizophrenia.

Huddy, V. C.; Aron, A. R.; Harrison, M.; Barnes, T. R. E.; Robbins, T. W.; Joyce, E. M.

2009-01-01

321

Grey matter hypometabolism and atrophy in Parkinson's disease with cognitive impairment: a two-step process.  

PubMed

The pathophysiological process underlying cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease is not well understood. Cerebral atrophy and hypometabolism have been described in patients with Parkinson's disease and dementia or mild cognitive impairment with respect to control subjects. However, the exact relationships between atrophy and hypometabolism are still unclear. To determine the extension and topographical distribution of hypometabolism and atrophy in the different cognitive states of Parkinson's disease, we examined 46 patients with Parkinson's disease (19 female, 27 male; 71.7 ± 5.9 years old; 14.6 ± 4.2 years of disease evolution; modified Hoehn and Yahr mean stage 3.1 ± 0.7). Cognitive status was diagnosed as normal in 14 patients, as mild cognitive impairment in 17 and as dementia in 15 patients. Nineteen normal subjects (eight female, 11 male; 68.1 ± 3.2 years old) were included as controls. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained, co-registered, corrected for partial volume effect and spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute space in each subject. Smoothing was applied to the positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans to equalize their effective smoothness and resolution (10 mm and 12 mm full-width at half-maximum and Gaussian kernel, respectively). Z-score maps for atrophy and for hypometabolism were obtained by comparing individual images to the data set of control subjects. For each group of patients, a paired Student's t-test was performed to statistically compare the two Z-map modalities (P < 0.05 false discovery rate corrected) using the direct voxel-based comparison technique. In patients with mild cognitive impairment, hypometabolism exceeded atrophy in the angular gyrus, occipital, orbital and anterior frontal lobes. In patients with dementia, the hypometabolic areas observed in the group with mild cognitive impairment were replaced by areas of atrophy, which were surrounded by extensive zones of hypometabolism. Areas where atrophy was more extended than hypometabolism were found in the precentral and supplementary motor areas in both patients with mild cognitive impairment and with dementia, and in the hippocampus and temporal lobe in patients with dementia. These findings suggest that there is a gradient of severity in cortical changes associated with the development of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease in which hypometabolism and atrophy represent consecutive stages of the same process in most of the cortical regions affected. PMID:24951642

González-Redondo, Rafael; García-García, David; Clavero, Pedro; Gasca-Salas, Carmen; García-Eulate, Reyes; Zubieta, José L; Arbizu, Javier; Obeso, José A; Rodríguez-Oroz, María C

2014-08-01

322

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate improves processing speed and memory in cognitively impaired MS patients: a phase II study.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes cognitive impairment including slowed processing speed and problems with learning and memory. Stimulants are attractive candidates for improving mental speed but carry risk of addiction and other adverse behavioral effects. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a D-amphetamine prodrug currently approved for attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder with the potential to be better tolerated due to its prolonged clinical effect. This phase II placebo-controlled, double-blind study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of LDX in cognitively impaired MS patients. Subjects were patients with clinically definite MS, aged 18-56 years, and impaired on either of two primary outcomes: the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) or the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Both SDMT and PASAT are measures of cognitive processing speed. Of 174 MS patients screened, 63 were randomized to 30 mg of LDX or placebo in a 2:1 fashion; the dose was increased as tolerated to 70 mg over 4 weeks and then maintained for another 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes were the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised (BVMTR), the California Verbal Learning Test 2nd edition (CVLT2), both measures of episodic memory, and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function for adults (BRIEF-A), a self-report measure of executive function. Fatigue and depression were also evaluated. There was significant improvement in the SDMT score (+4.6 vs. +1.3) and CVLT2 score (+4.7 vs. -0.9) in the LDX group compared with the placebo group among the 49 completers. There was no change on the other outcomes. A high proportion of both LDX-treated and placebo-treated subjects reported adverse events (73.5 % vs. 68.4 %). However, there were no serious adverse events noted in the study. These preliminary data indicate that LDX has the potential to be an efficacious treatment for MS patients with cognitive impairment. PMID:23001556

Morrow, Sarah A; Smerbeck, Audrey; Patrick, Kara; Cookfair, Diane; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B

2013-02-01

323

Cross-language phonological activation: Evidence from masked onset priming and ERPs.  

PubMed

The goal of the present research was to provide direct evidence for the cross-language interaction of phonologies at the sub-lexical level by using the masked onset priming paradigm. More specifically, we investigated whether there is a cross-language masked onset priming effect (MOPE) with L2 (English) primes and L1 (Russian) targets and whether it is modulated by the orthographic similarity of primes and targets. Primes and targets had onsets that overlapped either only phonologically, only orthographically, both phonologically and orthographically, or did not have any overlap. Phonological overlap, but not orthographic overlap, between primes and targets led to faster naming latencies. In contrast, the ERP data provided evidence for effects of both phonological and orthographic overlap. Finally, the time-course of phonological and orthographic processing for our bilinguals mirrored the time-course previously reported for monolinguals in the ERP data. These results provide evidence for shared representations at the sub-lexical level for a bilingual's two languages. PMID:24814580

Jouravlev, Olessia; Lupker, Stephen J; Jared, Debra

2014-07-01

324

Word Learning by Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment: Predictors and Poor Learners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI) and 20 age matches with normal language (NL) participated in a study to determine whether phonological memory or semantic knowledge predicted word-learning success. Poor learners' performance was analyzed to investigate whether phonology or semantics contributed more to word-learning…

Gray, Shelley

2004-01-01

325

Role of Phonotactic Frequency in Nonword Repetition by Children with Specific Language Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Children with specific language impairments (SLI) repeat nonwords less accurately than typically developing children, suggesting a phonological deficit. Much work has attempted to explain these results in terms of a phonological memory deficit. However, subsequent work revealed that these results might be explained better as a deficit…

Coady, Jeffry; Evans, Julia L.; Kluender, Keith R.

2010-01-01

326

Impact of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior in children with hearing impairment  

PubMed Central

In order to explore verbal–nonverbal integration, we investigated the influence of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior during spoken language conversation between children with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment (HI) and normal-hearing (NH) peers. Ten HI–NH and 10 NH-NH dyads performed a referential communication task requiring description of faces. During task performance, eye movements and speech were tracked. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model associations between performance on cognitive and linguistic tasks and the probability of gaze to the conversational partner’s face. Analyses compare the listeners in each dyad (HI: n = 10, mean age = 12; 6 years, SD = 2; 0, mean better ear pure-tone average 33.0 dB HL, SD = 7.8; NH: n = 10, mean age = 13; 7 years, SD = 1; 11). Group differences in gaze behavior – with HI gazing more to the conversational partner than NH – remained significant despite adjustment for ability on receptive grammar, expressive vocabulary, and complex working memory. Adjustment for phonological short term memory, as measured by non-word repetition, removed group differences, revealing an interaction between group membership and non-word repetition ability. Stratified analysis showed a twofold increase of the probability of gaze-to-partner for HI with low phonological short term memory capacity, and a decreased probability for HI with high capacity, as compared to NH peers. The results revealed differences in gaze behavior attributable to performance on a phonological short term memory task. Participants with HI and low phonological short term memory capacity showed a doubled probability of gaze to the conversational partner, indicative of a visual bias. The results stress the need to look beyond the HI in diagnostics and intervention. Acknowledgment of the finding requires clinical assessment of children with HI to be supported by tasks tapping phonological processing.

Sandgren, Olof; Andersson, Richard; van de Weijer, Joost; Hansson, Kristina; Sahlen, Birgitta

2013-01-01

327

Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories  

PubMed Central

Purpose The prelinguistic infant’s babbling repertoire of syllables—the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning—is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver’s role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning. In the present work, the authors begin to address this gap. Method The authors explored vocalizations produced by 8 infants at 3 ages (8, 10, and 12 months) in studies illustrating identification of phonological categories through caregiver report, laboratory procedures simulating the caregiver’s natural mode of listening, and the more traditional laboratory approach (phonetic transcription). Results Caregivers reported small repertoires of syllables for their infants. Repertoires of similar size and phonetic content were discerned in the laboratory by judges who simulated the caregiver’s natural mode of listening. However, phonetic transcription with repeated listening to infant recordings yielded repertoire sizes that vastly exceeded those reported by caregivers and naturalistic listeners. Conclusions The results suggest that caregiver report and naturalistic listening by laboratory staff can provide a new way to explore key characteristics of early infant vocal categories, a way that may provide insight into later speech and language development.

Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

2014-01-01

328

Suppression of the Macrophage Proteasome by Ethanol Impairs MHC Class I Antigen Processing and Presentation  

PubMed Central

Alcohol binge-drinking (acute ethanol consumption) is immunosuppressive and alters both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Antigen presentation by macrophages (and other antigen presenting cells) represents an important function of the innate immune system that, in part, determines the outcome of the host immune response. Ethanol has been shown to suppress antigen presentation in antigen presenting cells though mechanisms of this impairment are not well understood. The constitutive and immunoproteasomes are important components of the cellular proteolytic machinery responsible for the initial steps critical to the generation of MHC Class I peptides for antigen presentation. In this study, we used an in-vitro cell culture model of acute alcohol exposure to study the effect of ethanol on the proteasome function in RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, primary murine peritoneal macrophages obtained by peritoneal lavage from C57BL/6 mice were used to confirm our cell culture findings. We demonstrate that ethanol impairs proteasome function in peritoneal macrophages through suppression of chymotrypsin-like (Cht-L) proteasome activity as well as composition of the immunoproteasome subunit LMP7. Using primary murine peritoneal macrophages, we have further demonstrated that, ethanol-induced impairment of the proteasome function suppresses processing of antigenic proteins and peptides by the macrophage and in turn suppresses the presentation of these antigens to cells of adaptive immunity. The results of this study provide an important mechanism to explain the immunosuppressive effects of acute ethanol exposure.

D'Souza, Alain J.; Desai, Shyamal D.; Rudner, Xiaowen L.; Kelly, Michelle N.; Ruan, SanBao; Shellito, Judd E.

2013-01-01

329

Neural correlates of orthographic and phonological consistency effects in children.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the neural correlates of phonological inconsistency (relationship of spelling to sound) and orthographic inconsistency (relationship of sound to spelling) in visual word processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Children (9- to 15-year-old) performed a rhyming and spelling task in which two words were presented sequentially in the visual modality. Consistent with previous studies in adults, higher phonological inconsistency was associated with greater activation in several regions including left inferior frontal gyrus and medial frontal gyrus/anterior cingulate cortex. We additionally demonstrated an effect of orthographic inconsistency in these same areas, suggesting that these regions are involved in the integration of orthographic and phonological information and, with respect to the medial frontal/anterior cingulate, greater demands on executive function. Higher phonological and orthographic consistency was associated with greater activation in precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, the putative steady state system active during resting, suggesting lower demands on cognitive resources for consistent items. Both consistency effects were larger for the rhyming compared with the spelling task suggesting greater demands of integrating spelling and sound in the former task. Finally, accuracy on the rhyming task was negatively correlated with the consistency effect in left fusiform gyrus. In particular, this region showed insensitivity to consistency in low performers, sensitivity to inconsistency (higher activity) in moderate performers, and sensitivity to inconsistency (high activation) and to consistency (deactivation). In general, these results show that the influence of spelling-sound (and sound-spelling) correspondences on processing in fusiform gyrus develops as a function of skill. PMID:17957704

Bolger, Donald J; Hornickel, Jane; Cone, Nadia E; Burman, Douglas D; Booth, James R

2008-12-01

330

Neural interactions at the core of phonological and semantic priming of written words.  

PubMed

Word processing is often probed with experiments where a target word is primed by preceding semantically or phonologically related words. Behaviorally, priming results in faster reaction times, interpreted as increased efficiency of cognitive processing. At the neural level, priming reduces the level of neural activation, but the actual neural mechanisms that could account for the increased efficiency have remained unclear. We examined whether enhanced information transfer among functionally relevant brain areas could provide such a mechanism. Neural activity was tracked with magnetoencephalography while subjects read lists of semantically or phonologically related words. Increased priming resulted in reduced cortical activation. In contrast, coherence between brain regions was simultaneously enhanced. Furthermore, while the reduced level of activation was detected in the same area and time window (superior temporal cortex [STC] at 250-650 ms) for both phonological and semantic priming, the spatiospectral connectivity patterns appeared distinct for the 2 processes. Causal interactions further indicated a driving role for the left STC in phonological processing. Our results highlight coherence as a neural mechanism of priming and dissociate semantic and phonological processing via their distinct connectivity profiles. PMID:22056541

Kujala, Jan; Vartiainen, Johanna; Laaksonen, Hannu; Salmelin, Riitta

2012-10-01

331

Electrophysiological Correlates of Rapid Auditory and Linguistic Processing in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Brief tonal stimuli and spoken sentences were utilized to examine whether adolescents (aged 14;3-18;1) with specific language impairments (SLI) exhibit atypical neural activity for rapid auditory processing of non-linguistic stimuli and linguistic processing of verb-agreement and semantic constraints. Further, we examined whether the behavioral and electrophysiological indices for rapid auditory processing were correlated with those for linguistic processing. Fifteen adolescents with SLI and 15 adolescents with normal language met strict criteria for displaying consistent diagnoses from kindergarten through the eighth grade. The findings provide evidence that auditory processing for non-linguistic stimuli is atypical in a significant number of adolescents with SLI compared to peers with normal language and indicate that reduced efficiency in auditory processing in SLI is more vulnerable to rapid rates (200 ms ISI) of stimuli presentation (indexed by reduced accuracy, a tendency for longer RTs, reduced N100 over right anterior sites, and reduced amplitude P300). Many adolescents with SLI displayed reduced behavioral accuracy for detecting verb-agreement violations and semantic anomalies, along with less robust P600s elicited by verb-agreement violations. The results indicate that ERPs elicited by morphosyntactic aspects of language processing are atypical in many adolescents with SLI. Additionally, correlational analyses between behavioral and electrophysiological indices of processing non-linguistic stimuli and verb-agreement violations suggest that the integrity of neural functions for auditory processing may only account for a small proportion of the variance in morphosyntactic processing in some adolescents.

Weber-Fox, Christine; Leonard, Laurence B.; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2010-01-01

332

Clinical Implications of the Effects of Lexical Aspect and Phonology on Children's Production of the Regular Past Tense  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of lexical aspect and phonology on regular past-tense production. Data are presented from a group of 31 children, mean age 33 months, with typical language development. A case study of a 50-month-old child with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is also presented. Children imitated sentence pairs that included an…

Johnson, Bonnie W.; Morris, Sherrill R.

2007-01-01

333

Effect of Phonological Training in French Children with SLI: Perspectives on Voicing Identification, Discrimination and Categorical Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of auditory training on voicing perception in French children with specific language impairment (SLI). We used an adaptive discrimination training that was centred across the French phonological boundary (0 ms voice onset time--VOT). One group of nine children with SLI attended eighteen…

Collet, G.; Colin, C.; Serniclaes, W.; Hoonhorst, I.; Markessis, E.; Deltenre, P.; Leybaert, J.

2012-01-01

334

Exploring semantic and phonological picture-word priming in adults who stutter using event-related potentials  

PubMed Central

Objective Our aim was to investigate how semantic and phonological information is processed in adults who stutter (AWS) preparing to name pictures, following-up a report that event-related potentials (ERPs) in AWS evidenced atypical semantic picture-word priming (Maxfield et al., 2010). Methods Fourteen AWS and 14 typically-fluent adults (TFA) participated. Pictures, named at a delay, were followed by probe words. Design elements not used in Maxfield et al. (2010) let us evaluate both phonological and semantic picture-word priming. Results TFA evidenced typical priming effects in probe-elicited ERPs. AWS evidenced diminished Semantic priming, and reverse Phonological N400 priming. Conclusions Results point to atypical processing of semantic and phonological information in AWS. Discussion considers whether AWS ERP effects reflect unstable activation of target label semantic and phonological representations, strategic inhibition of target label phonological neighbors, and/or phonological label-probe competition. Significance Results raise questions about how mechanisms that regulate activation spreading operate in AWS.

Maxfield, Nathan D.; Pizon-Moore, Angela A.; Frisch, Stefan A.; Constantine, Joseph L.

2011-01-01

335

Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired childrenameliorated by training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with language-based learning impairments (LLIs) have major\\u000a\\u0009deficits in their recognition of some rapidly successive phonetic\\u000a\\u0009elements and nonspeech sound stimuli. In the current study, LLI children\\u000a\\u0009were engaged in adaptive training exercises mounted as computer ''games''\\u000a\\u0009designed to drive improvements in their ''temporal processing'' skills.\\u000a\\u0009With 8 to 16 hours of training during a 20-day period, LLI children

Michael M. Merzenich; W. M. Jenkins; Paul Johnston; Christoph Schreiner; S. L. Miller; Paula Tallal; Peter R. Schreiner

1996-01-01

336

Are patients with schizophrenia impaired in processing non-emotional features of human faces?  

PubMed Central

It is known that individuals with schizophrenia exhibit signs of impaired face processing, however, the exact perceptual and cognitive mechanisms underlying these deficits are yet to be elucidated. One possible source of confusion in the current literature is the methodological and conceptual inconsistencies that can arise from the varied treatment of different aspects of face processing relating to emotional and non-emotional aspects of face perception. This review aims to disentangle the literature by focusing on the performance of patients with schizophrenia in a range of tasks that required processing of non-emotional features of face stimuli (e.g., identity or gender). We also consider the performance of patients on non-face stimuli that share common elements such as familiarity (e.g., cars) and social relevance (e.g., gait). We conclude by exploring whether observed deficits are best considered as “face-specific” and note that further investigation is required to properly assess the potential contribution of more generalized attentional or perceptual impairments.

Darke, Hayley; Peterman, Joel S.; Park, Sohee; Sundram, Suresh; Carter, Olivia

2013-01-01

337

Impairment in Preattentive Processing among Patients with Hypertension Revealed by Visual Mismatch Negativity  

PubMed Central

Objective. Patients with hypertension show deficits in cognitive function. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the preattentive information processing in hypertensive patients are poorly understood. We seek to investigate whether hypertensive patients have impairments in preattentive information processing. Methods. We compared visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) between 15 hypertensive patients and 15 age-matched healthy controls, which was elicited by the change of visual duration randomly presented in both peripheral visual fields. In addition, the global cognitive function for all participants was assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results. The vMMN in deviant-standard comparison was observed at occipital-temporal regions. Compared with normal healthy controls, the amplitude of vMMN was significantly decreased in hypertensive patients (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the vMMN peak latency was delayed in the hypertensive group (P < 0.05). However, the MMSE scores of patients with hypertension were not significantly different from those of controls (P > 0.05), and there was no significant correlation between the mean amplitude of vMMN and SBP, DBP, and MMSE in hypertensive individuals, respectively. Conclusions. These data indicate dysfunction of automatically change detection processing in patients with hypertension. Moreover, the changes of vMMN provide a more objective and reliable assessment for cognitive impairment in hypertensive patients.

Si, Cuiping; Ren, Changjie; Wang, Peng; Bian, Hetao; Wang, Haiming; Yan, Zhongrui

2014-01-01

338

Ethnicity in Phonological Variation and Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of ethnicity, or the family and community, in determining linguistic variants (specifically, phonological variants) among Italians, Jews, and Irish in Boston. Implications for phonetic change and language acquisition are also discussed. (Author/AM)

Laferriere, Martha

1979-01-01

339

Phonology and orthography in reading aloud.  

PubMed

This study investigated the orthographic and phonological contribution of visually masked primes to reading aloud in Dutch. Although there is a relatively clear mapping between the spelling and sound of words in Dutch, words starting with the letter c are ambiguous as to whether they begin with the phoneme /s/ (e.g., citroen, "lemon") or with the phoneme /k/ (e.g., complot, "conspiracy"). Therefore, using words of this type, one can tease apart the contributions of orthographic and phonological activation in reading aloud. Dutch participants read aloud bisyllabic c-initial target words, which were preceded by visually masked, bisyllabic prime words that either shared the initial phoneme with the target (phonologically related) or the first grapheme (orthographically related) or both (phonologically and orthographically related). Unrelated primes did not share the first segment with the target. Response latencies in the phonologically related conditions were shorter than those in the unrelated condition. However, primes that were orthographically related did not speed up responses. One may conclude that the nature of the onset effect in reading aloud is phonological and not orthographic. PMID:17874588

Schiller, Niels O

2007-06-01

340

The Phonological Store of Working Memory: Is It Phonological and Is It a Store?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phonological store construct of the working memory model is critically evaluated. Three experiments test the prediction that the effect of irrelevant sound and the effect of phonological similarity each survive the action of articulatory suppression but only when presentation of to-be-remembered lists is auditory, not visual. No evidence was found to support the interaction predicted among irrelevant speech, modality,

Dylan M. Jones; William J. Macken; Alastair P. Nicholls

2004-01-01

341

Phonological Awareness and Phonological Hierarchy in Unintelligible Speech: What Does the Child Really "Know"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological awareness has been claimed to play an important role in the development of language skills, and it is essential that the child's phonological skills be assessed accurately in order to predict and to take early measures to help those that may encounter problems. Although the mora has attracted much attention in the discussion of…

Miyakoda, Haruko; Imatomi, Setsuko

2009-01-01

342

Phonological Awareness and the Use of Phonological Similarity in Letter-Sound Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…

de Jong, Peter F.

2007-01-01

343

What Models of Verbal Working Memory Can Learn from Phonological Theory: Decomposing the Phonological Similarity Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…

Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf

2011-01-01

344

Gene microarrays in hippocampal aging: statistical profiling identifies novel processes correlated with cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Gene expression microarrays provide a powerful new tool for studying complex processes such as brain aging. However, inferences from microarray data are often hindered by multiple comparisons, small sample sizes, and uncertain relationships to functional endpoints. Here we sought gene expression correlates of aging-dependent cognitive decline, using statistical profiling of gene microarrays in well powered groups of young, mid-aged, and aged rats (n = 10 per group). Animals were trained on two memory tasks, and the hippocampal CA1 region of each was analyzed on an individual microarray (one chip per animal). Aging- and cognition-related genes were identified by testing each gene by ANOVA (for aging effects) and then by Pearson's test (correlating expression with memory). Genes identified by this algorithm were associated with several phenomena known to be aging-dependent, including inflammation, oxidative stress, altered protein processing, and decreased mitochondrial function, but also with multiple processes not previously linked to functional brain aging. These novel processes included downregulated early response signaling, biosynthesis and activity-regulated synaptogenesis, and upregulated myelin turnover, cholesterol synthesis, lipid and monoamine metabolism, iron utilization, structural reorganization, and intracellular Ca2+ release pathways. Multiple transcriptional regulators and cytokines also were identified. Although most gene expression changes began by mid-life, cognition was not clearly impaired until late life. Collectively, these results suggest a new integrative model of brain aging in which genomic alterations in early adulthood initiate interacting cascades of decreased signaling and synaptic plasticity in neurons, extracellular changes, and increased myelin turnover-fueled inflammation in glia that cumulatively induce aging-related cognitive impairment. PMID:12736351

Blalock, Eric M; Chen, Kuey-Chu; Sharrow, Keith; Herman, James P; Porter, Nada M; Foster, Thomas C; Landfield, Philip W

2003-05-01

345

Auditory processing in dyslexia and specific language impairment: is there a deficit? What is its nature? Does it explain anything?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much controversy about the extent to which auditory processing deficits are important in the genesis of language disorders, particularly specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia (or specific reading disability—SRD). A review of the available literature reveals that some but not all auditory skills are impaired, on average, in groups of SLI\\/SRD listeners. Typically only a minority of SLI\\/SRD

Stuart Rosen

2003-01-01

346

Verbal and Nonverbal Semantic Processing in Children with Developmental Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to clarify whether semantic integration is impaired in verbal and nonverbal auditory domains in children with developmental language impairment (a.k.a., LI and SLI), the present study obtained behavioral and neural responses to words and environmental sounds in children with language impairment and their typically developing…

Cummings, Alycia; Ceponiene, Rita

2010-01-01

347

Impaired context processing as a potential marker of psychosis risk state.  

PubMed

While structural abnormalities of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) may pre-date and predict psychosis onset, the relationships between functional deficits, cognitive and psychosocial impairments has yet to be explored in the at-risk period. An established measure of cognitive control (AXCPT) was administered to demographically matched clinical-high-risk (CHR; n=25), first-episode schizophrenia (FE; n=35), and healthy control (HC; n=35) participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate these relationships. CHR and FE individuals demonstrated impaired context processing and reduced DLPFC activation relative to HC individuals during increased cognitive control demands. FE and CHR individuals' ability to increase DLPFC activity in response to cognitive control demands was associated with better task performance. Task performance was also associated with severity of disorganization and poverty symptoms in FE participants. These findings support more extensive studies using fMRI to examine the clinical significance of prefrontal cortical functioning in the earliest stages of psychosis. PMID:24120302

Niendam, Tara A; Lesh, Tyler A; Yoon, Jong; Westphal, Andrew J; Hutchison, Natalie; Daniel Ragland, J; Solomon, Marjorie; Minzenberg, Michael; Carter, Cameron S

2014-01-30

348

Auditory evoked potentials: predicting speech therapy outcomes in children with phonological disorders  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether neurophysiologic responses (auditory evoked potentials) differ between typically developed children and children with phonological disorders and whether these responses are modified in children with phonological disorders after speech therapy. METHODS: The participants included 24 typically developing children (Control Group, mean age: eight years and ten months) and 23 children clinically diagnosed with phonological disorders (Study Group, mean age: eight years and eleven months). Additionally, 12 study group children were enrolled in speech therapy (Study Group 1), and 11 were not enrolled in speech therapy (Study Group 2). The subjects were submitted to the following procedures: conventional audiological, auditory brainstem response, auditory middle-latency response, and P300 assessments. All participants presented with normal hearing thresholds. The study group 1 subjects were reassessed after 12 speech therapy sessions, and the study group 2 subjects were reassessed 3 months after the initial assessment. Electrophysiological results were compared between the groups. RESULTS: Latency differences were observed between the groups (the control and study groups) regarding the auditory brainstem response and the P300 tests. Additionally, the P300 responses improved in the study group 1 children after speech therapy. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that children with phonological disorders have impaired auditory brainstem and cortical region pathways that may benefit from speech therapy.

Leite, Renata Aparecida; Wertzner, Haydee Fiszbein; Goncalves, Isabela Crivellaro; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Matas, Carla Gentile

2014-01-01

349

Altered Connectivity of the Balance Processing Network After Tongue Stimulation in Balance-Impaired Individuals  

PubMed Central

Abstract Some individuals with balance impairment have hypersensitivity of the motion-sensitive visual cortices (hMT+) compared to healthy controls. Previous work showed that electrical tongue stimulation can reduce the exaggerated postural sway induced by optic flow in this subject population and decrease the hypersensitive response of hMT+. Additionally, a region within the brainstem (BS), likely containing the vestibular and trigeminal nuclei, showed increased optic flow-induced activity after tongue stimulation. The aim of this study was to understand how the modulation induced by tongue stimulation affects the balance-processing network as a whole and how modulation of BS structures can influence cortical activity. Four volumes of interest, discovered in a general linear model analysis, constitute major contributors to the balance-processing network. These regions were entered into a dynamic causal modeling analysis to map the network and measure any connection or topology changes due to the stimulation. Balance-impaired individuals had downregulated response of the primary visual cortex (V1) to visual stimuli but upregulated modulation of the connection between V1 and hMT+ by visual motion compared to healthy controls (p?1E–5). This upregulation was decreased to near-normal levels after stimulation. Additionally, the region within the BS showed increased response to visual motion after stimulation compared to both prestimulation and controls. Stimulation to the tongue enters the central nervous system at the BS but likely propagates to the cortex through supramodal information transfer. We present a model to explain these brain responses that utilizes an anatomically present, but functionally dormant pathway of information flow within the processing network.

Tyler, Mitchell E.; Danilov, Yuri P.; Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Meyerand, Mary E.

2013-01-01

350

Histamine H1 receptor blockade predominantly impairs sensory processes in human sensorimotor performance  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Centrally active antihistamines impair cognitive performance, particularly sensorimotor performance. The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the scarcely studied subprocesses involved in sensorimotor performance, which may be affected by H1 receptor blockade. Better knowledge about the cognitive deficits associated with histamine dysfunction can contribute to better treatment of clinical disorders in which histamine hypofunction may be a contributing factor, such as in schizophrenia. Experimental approach: Interactions of dexchlorpheniramine with specific task manipulations in a choice reaction time task were studied. Task demands were increased at the level of sensory subprocesses by decreasing stimulus quality, and at the level of motor subprocesses by increasing response complexity. A total of 18 healthy volunteers (9 female) aged between 18 and 45 years participated in a three-way, double-blind, crossover design. Treatments were single oral doses of 4 mg dexchlorpheniramine, 1 mg lorazepam and placebo. Behavioural effects were assessed by measuring reaction times and effects on brain activity by event-related potentials. Key results: Dexchlorpheniramine significantly slowed reaction times, but did not significantly interact with task manipulations. However, it did significantly interact with stimulus quality, as measured by event-related potentials. Lorazepam slowed reaction times and interacted with perceptual manipulations, as shown by effects on reaction times. Conclusions and implications: The results confirm that the histamine system is involved in sensory information processing and show that H1 blockade does not affect motoric information processing. Histamine hypofunction in clinical disorders may cause impaired sensory processing, which may be a drug target.

van Ruitenbeek, P; Vermeeren, A; Smulders, FTY; Sambeth, A; Riedel, WJ

2009-01-01

351

Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Rapid Automated Naming, toward Decoding Ability in Students with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual…

Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

2013-01-01

352

A Mouse with a Roof? Effects of Phonological Neighbors on Processing of Words in Sentences in a Non-Native Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The architecture of the language processing system for speakers of more than one language remains an intriguing topic of research. A common finding is that speakers of multiple languages are slower at responding to language stimuli in their non-native language (L2) than monolingual speakers. This may simply reflect participants' unfamiliarity with…

Ruschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Nojack, Agnes; Limbach, Maxi

2008-01-01

353

Neural Processing of Acoustic Duration and Phonological German Vowel Length: Time Courses of Evoked Fields in Response to Speech and Nonspeech Signals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent experiments showed that the perception of vowel length by German listeners exhibits the characteristics of categorical perception. The present study sought to find the neural activity reflecting categorical vowel length and the short-long boundary by examining the processing of non-contrastive durations and categorical length using MEG.…

Tomaschek, Fabian; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Hertrich, Ingo

2013-01-01

354

Evidence of Deficient Central Speech Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment: the T-Complex  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper examined neurophysiological correlates of speech in children with language impairment (LI) and typical language development (TLD) across four experiments using different speech stimuli and tasks. Method The T-complex event-related potential (ERP) components and other ERP components (e.g., mismatch negativity [MMN]; N400) were examined. A subset of the children participated in more than one of the experiments. Results 73% of the children with LI had poor T-complex measures compared to only 13% of children with TLD. The T-complex measures were more comparable, in terms of indicating typical versus deviant processing, to neurophysiological measures of language processing, such as lexical discrimination, than to other measures of auditory and speech processing, such as the MMN. Only one LI child showed no poor measures and 64% showed three or more poor neurophyisological measures. However, 50% of children with TLD showed no poor neurophysiological measures, and 82% of the TLD children showed no more than two poor measures. Conclusion These results suggest that poor auditory processing, as measured by the T-complex, is a marker for LI and that multiple deficits serve to mark LI. Significance The T-complex measures, indexing secondary auditory cortex, reflect an important aspect of processing in speech and language development.

Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Martin, Brett

2010-01-01

355

The role of stimulus cross-splicing in an event-related potentials study. Misleading formant transitions hinder automatic phonological processing.  

PubMed

The mental organization of linguistic knowledge and its involvement in speech processing can be investigated using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential. A contradiction arises, however, between the technical need for strict control of acoustic stimulus properties and the quest for naturalness and acoustic variability of the stimuli. Here, two methods of preparing speech stimulus material were compared. Focussing on the automatic processing of a phonotactic restriction in German, two corresponding sets of various vowel-fricative syllables were used as stimuli. The former syllables were naturally spoken while the latter ones were created by means of cross-splicing. Phonetically, natural and spliced syllables differed with respect to the appropriateness of coarticulatory information about the forthcoming fricative within the vowels. Spliced syllables containing clearly misleading phonetic information were found to elicit larger N2 responses compared to their natural counterparts. Furthermore, MMN results found for the natural syllables could not be replicated with these spliced stimuli. These findings indicate that the automatic processing of the stimuli was considerably affected by the stimulus preparation method. Thus, in spite of its unquestioned benefits for MMN experiments, the splicing technique may lead to interference effects on the linguistic factors under investigation. PMID:22501085

Steinberg, Johanna; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Jacobsen, Thomas

2012-04-01

356

Cognitive and physiological substrates of impaired sentence processing in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Abstract Sentence comprehension is a complex process involving at least a grammatical processor and a procedural component that supports language computations. One type of cerebral architecture that may underlie sentence processing is a network of distributed brain regions. We report two experiments designed to evaluate the cognitive and physiological substrate of sentence processing diaculties in nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In the first experiment, patients answered simple questions about sentences that varied in their computational demands. Group and individual patient analyses indicated that PD patients are significantly compromised on this task, and that their difficulties become more prominent as the computational demands of the sentences increase. We manipulated the set of sentences to stress performance aspects of sentence processing. PD patients were compromised in their ability to detect errors in the presence and nature of a sentence's grammatical morphemes, suggesting a deficit in selective attention, but their ability to answer questions about a sentence was not afFected by short-term memory factors. In the second experiment, positron emission tomography was used to correlate this pattern of sentence comprehension impairment with regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRgl) obtained at rest in a representative subset of these PD patients. Grammatical comprehension and attention in sentence processing correlated significantly with mesial frontal rCMRgl. Regression analyses confirmed the central role of left mesial frontal cortex, and identified a subsidiary role for left caudate in overall sentence comprehension, for left dorsolateral frontal cortex in grammatical processing, and for bilateral dorsolateral frontal cortex in attending to the presence of grammatical features. We conclude that compromised mesial frontal functioning underlies in part the sentence processing deficit of these patients, and these data illustrate one method for mapping portions of a sentence processing mechanism onto a distributed cerebral architecture. PMID:23964920

Grossman, M; Carvell, S; Gollomp, S; Stern, M B; Reivich, M; Morrison, D; Alavi, A; Hurtig, H I

1993-01-01

357

Defective number module or impaired access? Numerical magnitude processing in first graders with mathematical difficulties.  

PubMed

This study examined numerical magnitude processing in first graders with severe and mild forms of mathematical difficulties, children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) and children with low achievement (LA) in mathematics, respectively. In total, 20 children with MLD, 21 children with LA, and 41 regular achievers completed a numerical magnitude comparison task and an approximate addition task, which were presented in a symbolic and a nonsymbolic (dot arrays) format. Children with MLD and LA were impaired on tasks that involved the access of numerical magnitude information from symbolic representations, with the LA children showing a less severe performance pattern than children with MLD. They showed no deficits in accessing magnitude from underlying nonsymbolic magnitude representations. Our findings indicate that this performance pattern occurs in children from first grade onward and generalizes beyond numerical magnitude comparison tasks. These findings shed light on the types of intervention that may help children who struggle with learning mathematics. PMID:20974477

De Smedt, Bert; Gilmore, Camilla K

2011-02-01

358

Attention/Processing Speed Prospectively Predicts Social Impairment 18 Years Later in Mood Disorders  

PubMed Central

Cross-sectional studies suggest that cognitive deficits contribute to psychosocial impairment among individuals with mood disorders. However, studies examining whether cognition prospectively predicts psychosocial outcome are few, have employed short follow-up periods, and have not demonstrated incremental validity (i.e., that cognition predicts future functioning even when controlling for baseline functioning). In a sample of 51 individuals with unipolar depression or bipolar disorder, we investigated whether attention/processing speed (APS) performance predicted social functioning 18 years later. Baseline APS predicted 18-year social functioning even after controlling for baseline social functioning and depressive symptoms, demonstrating incremental validity. Individuals with high baseline APS had stable social functioning over 18 years, while functioning deteriorated among those with low APS. This finding helps clarify the temporal order of cognitive and psychosocial deficits associated with mood disorders, and suggests the clinical utility of cognitive measures in identifying those at risk for deterioration in social functioning.

Sarapas, Casey; Shankman, Stewart A.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.

2013-01-01

359

Impaired autophagy and APP processing in Alzheimer's disease: The potential role of Beclin 1 interactome.  

PubMed

The accumulation of amyloid-?-containing neuritic plaques and intracellular tau protein tangles are key histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This type of pathology clearly indicates that the mechanisms of neuronal housekeeping and protein quality control are compromised in AD. There is mounting evidence that the autophagosome-lysosomal degradation is impaired, which could disturb the processing of APP and provoke AD pathology. Beclin 1 is a molecular platform assembling an interactome with stimulating and suppressive components which regulate the initiation of the autophagosome formation. Recent studies have indicated that the expression Beclin 1 is reduced in AD brain. Moreover, the deficiency of Beclin 1 in cultured neurons and transgenic mice provokes the deposition of amyloid-? peptides whereas its overexpression reduces the accumulation of amyloid-?. There are several potential mechanisms, which could inhibit the function of Beclin 1 interactome and thus impair autophagy and promote AD pathology. The mechanisms include (i) reduction of Beclin 1 expression or its increased proteolytic cleavage by caspases, (ii) sequestration of Beclin 1 to non-functional locations, such as tau tangles, (iii) formation of inhibitory complexes between Beclin 1 and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins or inflammasomes, (iv) interaction of Beclin 1 with inhibitory neurovirulent proteins, e.g. herpex simplex ICP34.5, or (v) inhibition of the Beclin 1/Vps34 complex through the activation of CDK1 and CDK5. We will shortly introduce the function of Beclin 1 interactome in autophagy and phagocytosis, review the recent evidence indicating that Beclin 1 regulates autophagy and APP processing in AD, and finally examine the potential mechanisms through which Beclin 1 dysfunction could be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:23827971

Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu; Ojala, Johanna; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Soininen, Hilkka; Hiltunen, Mikko

2013-01-01

360

Impaired Temporal Processing of Tactile and Proprioceptive Stimuli in Cerebellar Degeneration  

PubMed Central

Performance of timed motor sequences relies on the cerebellum and basal ganglia, which integrate proprioceptive information during the motor task and set internal timing mechanisms. Accordingly, these structures are also involved in other temporal processes, such as the discrimination of the different afferent information in the domain of time. In the present study we tested temporal processing of proprioceptive and tactile stimuli in 20 patients with neurodegenerative cerebellar ataxia and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Tactile temporal discrimination threshold was defined as the value at which subjects recognized the two stimuli as asynchronous. Temporal discrimination movement threshold of the first dorsal interosseous and flexor carpi radialis was defined as the shortest interval between two paired electrical stimuli in which the subjects blindfolded perceived two separate index finger abductions and wrist flexions. Both tactile and movement temporal discrimination thresholds were higher in patients with cerebellar ataxia. No correlation was found with disease duration and severity. Our study demonstrates that temporal processing of tactile and proprioceptive stimuli is impaired in patients with cerebellar neurodegeneration and highlights the involvement of cerebellum in temporal processing of somatosensory stimuli of different type.

Peretti, Alessia; Mariotti, Caterina; Panzeri, Marta; Fiorio, Mirta; Fasano, Alfonso

2013-01-01

361

Investigation of auditory processing disorder and language impairment using the speech-evoked auditory brainstem response.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether there are differences in the Speech-Evoked Auditory Brainstem Response among children with Typical Development (TD), (Central) Auditory Processing Disorder (C)APD, and Language Impairment (LI). The speech-evoked Auditory Brainstem Response was tested in 57 children (ages 6-12). The children were placed into three groups: TD (n = 18), (C)APD (n = 18) and LI (n = 21). Speech-evoked ABR were elicited using the five-formant syllable/da/. Three dimensions were defined for analysis, including timing, harmonics, and pitch. A comparative analysis of the responses between the typical development children and children with (C)APD and LI revealed abnormal encoding of the speech acoustic features that are characteristics of speech perception in children with (C)APD and LI, although the two groups differed in their abnormalities. While the children with (C)APD might had a greater difficulty distinguishing stimuli based on timing cues, the children with LI had the additional difficulty of distinguishing speech harmonics, which are important to the identification of speech sounds. These data suggested that an inefficient representation of crucial components of speech sounds may contribute to the difficulties with language processing found in children with LI. Furthermore, these findings may indicate that the neural processes mediated by the auditory brainstem differ among children with auditory processing and speech-language disorders. PMID:22974503

Rocha-Muniz, Caroline N; Befi-Lopes, Debora M; Schochat, Eliane

2012-12-01

362

The Consequences of Progressive Phonological Impairment for Reading Aloud  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "primary systems" view of reading disorders proposes that there are no neural regions devoted exclusively to reading, and therefore that acquired dyslexias should reliably co-occur with deficits in more general underlying capacities. This perspective predicted that surface dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading aloud "exception" words (those…

Woollams, Anna M.; Patterson, Karalyn

2012-01-01

363

The Acquisition of Consonant Feature Sequences: Harmony, Metathesis, and Deletion Patterns in Phonological Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines three processes affecting consonants in child speech: harmony (long-distance assimilation) involving major place features as in "coat" [kouk]; long-distance metathesis as in "cup" [p[wedge]k]; and initial consonant deletion as in "fish" [is]. These processes are unattested in adult phonology, leading to proposals for…

Gerlach, Sharon Ruth

2010-01-01

364

Phonological Awareness Instruction for Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty middle school students with learning disabilities identified as having phonological awareness deficits were provided with phonological awareness instruction to investigate the effectiveness of the instruction on phonological awareness and word recognition skills. Results indicated that following instruction, students improved on word…

Bhat, Preetha; Griffin, Cynthia C.; Sindelar, Paul T.

2003-01-01

365

Phonological Knowledge Guides Two-year-olds' and Adults' Interpretation of Salient Pitch Contours in Word Learning  

PubMed Central

Phonology provides a system by which a limited number of types of phonetic variation can signal communicative intentions at multiple levels of linguistic analysis. Because phonologies vary from language to language, acquiring the phonology of a language demands learning to attribute phonetic variation appropriately. Here, we studied the case of pitch-contour variation. In English, pitch contour does not differentiate words, but serves other functions, like marking yes/no questions and conveying emotions. We show that, in accordance with their phonology, English-speaking adults and two-year-olds do not interpret salient pitch contours as inherent to novel words. We taught participants a new word with consistent segmental and pitch characteristics, and then tested word recognition for trained and deviant pronunciations using an eyegaze-based procedure. Vowel-quality mispronunciations impaired recognition, but large changes in pitch contour did not. By age two, children already apply their knowledge of English phonology to interpret phonetic consistencies in their experience with words.

Quam, Carolyn; Swingley, Daniel

2009-01-01

366

Neural processing of acoustic duration and phonological German vowel length: time courses of evoked fields in response to speech and nonspeech signals.  

PubMed

Recent experiments showed that the perception of vowel length by German listeners exhibits the characteristics of categorical perception. The present study sought to find the neural activity reflecting categorical vowel length and the short-long boundary by examining the processing of non-contrastive durations and categorical length using MEG. Using disyllabic words with varying /a/-durations and temporally-matched nonspeech stimuli, we found that each syllable elicited an M50/M100-complex. The M50-amplitude to the second syllable varied along the durational continuum, possibly reflecting the mapping of duration onto a rhythm representation. Categorical length was reflected by an additional response elicited when vowel duration exceeded the short-long boundary. This was interpreted to reflect the integration of an additional timing unit for long in contrast to short vowels. Unlike to speech, responses to short nonspeech durations lacked a M100 to the first and M50 to the second syllable, indicating different integration windows for speech and nonspeech signals. PMID:23314420

Tomaschek, Fabian; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Hertrich, Ingo

2013-01-01

367

Identification of a strategic brain network underlying processing speed deficits in vascular cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) commonly exhibit deficits in processing speed. This has been attributed to a disruption of frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits by ischemic lesions, but the exact mechanisms and underlying anatomical structures are poorly understood. We set out to identify a strategic brain network for processing speed by applying graph-based data-mining techniques to MRI lesion maps from patients with small vessel disease. We studied 235 patients with CADASIL, a genetic small vessel disease causing pure VCI. Using a probabilistic atlas in standard space we first determined the regional volumes of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and lacunar lesions (LL) within major white matter tracts. Conditional dependencies between the regional lesion volumes and processing speed were then examined using Bayesian network analysis. Exploratory analysis identified a network of five imaging variables as the best determinant of processing speed. The network included LL in the left anterior thalamic radiation and the left cingulum as well as WMH in the left forceps minor, the left parahippocampal white matter and the left corticospinal tract. Together these variables explained 34% of the total variance in the processing speed score. Structural equation modeling confirmed the findings obtained from the Bayesian models. In summary, using graph-based models we identified a strategic brain network having the highest predictive value for processing speed in our cohort of patients with pure small vessel disease. Our findings confirm and extend previous results showing a role of frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits, in particular dorsolateral prefrontal and cingulate circuits, in VCI. PMID:23153965

Duering, Marco; Gonik, Mariya; Malik, Rainer; Zieren, Nikola; Reyes, Sonia; Jouvent, Eric; Hervé, Dominique; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Opherk, Christian; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin

2012-11-13

368

Signal-Processing Strategy for Restoration of Cross-Channel Suppression in Hearing-Impaired Listeners  

PubMed Central

Because frequency components interact nonlinearly with each other inside the cochlea, the loudness growth of tones is relatively simple in comparison to the loudness growth of complex sounds. The term suppression refers to a reduction in the response growth of one tone in the presence of a second tone. Suppression is a salient feature of normal cochlear processing and contributes to psychophysical masking. Suppression is evident in many measurements of cochlear function in subjects with normal hearing, including distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Suppression is also evident, to a lesser extent, in subjects with mild-to-moderate hearing loss. This paper describes a hearing-aid signal-processing strategy that aims to restore both loudness growth and two-tone suppression in hearing-impaired listeners. The prescription of gain for this strategy is based on measurements of loudness by a method known as categorical loudness scaling. The proposed signal-processing strategy reproduces measured DPOAE suppression tuning curves and generalizes to any number of frequency components. The restoration of both normal suppression and normal loudness has the potential to improve hearing-aid performance and user satisfaction.

Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Gorga, Michael P.; Neely, Stephen T.

2013-01-01

369

Reduced Sensory Oscillatory Activity during Rapid Auditory Processing as a Correlate of Language-Learning Impairment  

PubMed Central

Successful language acquisition has been hypothesized to involve the ability to integrate rapidly presented, brief acoustic cues in sensory cortex. A body of work has suggested that this ability is compromised in language-learning impairment (LLI). The present research aimed to examine sensory integration during rapid auditory processing by means of electrophysiological measures of oscillatory brain activity using data from a larger longitudinal study. Twenty-nine children with LLI and control participants with typical language development (n=18) listened to tone doublets presented at a temporal interval that is essential for accurate speech processing (70-ms interstimulus interval). The children performed a deviant (pitch change of second tone) detection task, or listened passively. The electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 electrodes. Data were source-projected to the auditory cortices and submitted to wavelet analysis, resulting in time-frequency representations of electrocortical activity. Results show significantly reduced amplitude and phase-locking of early (45–75 ms) oscillations in the gamma-band range (29–52 Hz), specifically in the LLI group, for the second stimulus of the tone doublet. This suggests altered temporal organization of sensory oscillatory activity in LLI when processing rapid sequences.

Heim, Sabine; Friedman, Jennifer Thomas; Keil, Andreas; Benasich, April A.

2010-01-01

370

The interference of different background noises on speech processing in elderly hearing impaired subjects.  

PubMed

The objective of the investigation is to study the interference of different background noises on speech processing. For this purpose speech recognition with the Hagerman test and a test battery with speech comprehension tasks (SVIPS) were performed in speech-weighted background noises varying in temporal structure, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and meaningfulness. With different test criteria and a score of perceived effort, the aim was to get a more complete picture of speech comprehension under adverse listening situations. Twenty-four subjects, aged 56-83 years, with a bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, participated in the study. Differences in performance between the different background noises varied depending on the speech processing task, SNR, and on quantitative versus qualitative outcome measures. Age effects were seen in the Hagerman test and especially in background conditions of modulated noises (speech and reversed speech). Findings are discussed in relation to a hypothesis suggesting that masking and distraction interference from background noises on speech processing at peripheral, central auditory, and cognitive levels depends on the SNR used and the noise type and the listening task. PMID:19012115

Larsby, Birgitta; Hällgren, Mathias; Lyxell, Björn

2008-11-01

371

The role of consciousness in the phonological loop: hidden in plain sight  

PubMed Central

We know from everyday experience that when we need to keep a small amount of verbal information “in mind” for a short period, an effective cognitive strategy is to silently rehearse the words. This basic cognitive strategy has been elegantly codified in Baddeley and colleagues model of verbal working memory, the phonological loop. Here we explore how the intuitive appeal of the phonological loop is grounded in the phenomenological experience of subvocal rehearsal as consisting of an interaction between an “inner voice” and an “inner ear.” We focus particularly on how our intuitions about the phenomenological experience of “inner speech” might constrain or otherwise inform the functional architecture of information processing models of verbal working memory such as the phonological loop; and how, indeed, how ideas about consciousness may offer alternative explanations for the dual nature of inner speech in verbal working memory.

Buchsbaum, Bradley R.

2013-01-01

372

Chemical processing does not always impair heterogeneous ice nucleation of mineral dust particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral dust particles are the most abundant heterogeneous ice nuclei in the atmosphere. They also frequently become mixed with secondary material during atmospheric transport. The effect that such atmospheric processing has on the ice nucleation properties of dust particles remains under investigation. We have studied changes in the ice nucleation ability of various mineral dust sources after exposure to nitric acid in an aerosol flow tube, and after heterogeneous nucleation of ?-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the AIDA cloud expansion chamber. Both chemical treatments altered and homogenized the dust particles’ heterogeneous ice nucleation properties below water-saturation, but had no apparent impact on the immersion-freezing fraction well above water saturation. The fraction of particles capable of nucleating ice at fixed mixed-phase cloud temperatures between -35 and -15 °C was determined using a continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) as the relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) was scanned from 75% to 110% RHw. Exposure to both nitric acid and SOA impaired essentially all ice nucleation in the deposition-regime below water saturation, while causing the onset of condensation-freezing to occur in a step-wise manner over a small range of RHw just below water saturation. We interpret this as the result of an increase in particle hygroscopicity following chemical treatment. This allows the mineral particles to absorb enough water to overcome solute freezing point depression effects and nucleate ice via condensation-freezing at a slightly smaller and narrower range of RHw than the less hygroscopic untreated dust can. Immersion-freezing above water saturation was not affected by either treatment. This is in stark contrast to earlier experiments where dust was exposed to sulfuric acid from a heated vapor source; ice nucleation was notably impaired in both the deposition and immersion-freezing regimes following sulfuric acid treatment.

Sullivan, R. C.; Demott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; Minambres, L.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Moehler, O.

2010-12-01

373

Mapping Symbols to Sounds: Electrophysiological Correlates of the Impaired Reading Process in Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Dyslexic and control first-grade school children were compared in a Symbol-to-Sound matching test based on a non-linguistic audiovisual training which is known to have a remediating effect on dyslexia. Visual symbol patterns had to be matched with predicted sound patterns. Sounds incongruent with the corresponding visual symbol (thus not matching the prediction) elicited the N2b and P3a event-related potential (ERP) components relative to congruent sounds in control children. Their ERPs resembled the ERP effects previously reported for healthy adults with this paradigm. In dyslexic children, N2b onset latency was delayed and its amplitude significantly reduced over left hemisphere whereas P3a was absent. Moreover, N2b amplitudes significantly correlated with the reading skills. ERPs to sound changes in a control condition were unaffected. In addition, correctly predicted sounds, that is, sounds that are congruent with the visual symbol, elicited an early induced auditory gamma band response (GBR) reflecting synchronization of brain activity in normal-reading children as previously observed in healthy adults. However, dyslexic children showed no GBR. This indicates that visual symbolic and auditory sensory information are not integrated into a unitary audiovisual object representation in them. Finally, incongruent sounds were followed by a later desynchronization of brain activity in the gamma band in both groups. This desynchronization was significantly larger in dyslexic children. Although both groups accomplished the task successfully remarkable group differences in brain responses suggest that normal-reading children and dyslexic children recruit (partly) different brain mechanisms when solving the task. We propose that abnormal ERPs and GBRs in dyslexic readers indicate a deficit resulting in a widespread impairment in processing and integrating auditory and visual information and contributing to the reading impairment in dyslexia.

Widmann, Andreas; Schroger, Erich; Tervaniemi, Mari; Pakarinen, Satu; Kujala, Teija

2012-01-01

374

The nature of lexico-semantic processing deficits in mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Lexico-semantic impairments in Alzheimer disease (AD) have been attributed to abnormalities in both intentional and automatic access to semantic memory. However, the order in which these impairments appear during the course of the disease is unclear. We sought to answer this question by documenting lexico-semantic impairments in 61 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a pre-AD stage, and by comparing them to those of 39 AD and 60 normal elderly (NE) subjects. All subjects were tested with intentional access tasks (picture naming and semantic probes), automatic access tasks (lexical decision and priming), and executive function tasks (Stroop and Stroop-Picture naming). Results indicated that the MCI group was only impaired on tasks of intentional access relative to the AD group who was impaired on both types of tasks. Because most MCI subjects eventually develop AD, these results suggest that intentional access to semantic memory is impaired before automatic access. Further, impairments on the Stroop-Picture naming task but not on the Stroop task, suggest that lexico-semantic impairments in the MCI group may be related to inhibition deficits during semantic search. Findings are discussed in light of executive dysfunctions within the framework of semantic memory theories. PMID:16616942

Duong, Anh; Whitehead, Victor; Hanratty, Kate; Chertkow, Howard

2006-01-01

375

Language nonselective access to phonological representations: evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals.  

PubMed

Four experiments with Chinese-English bilinguals were conducted in order to investigate the hypothesis of language nonselective access to an integrated lexicon for bilingual phonological representations. Results of a naming task (in Experiments 1 and 2) and a lexical decision task (in Experiments 3 and 4) showed homophone priming effects regardless of priming direction (English to Chinese, or Chinese to English) or English proficiency. Our findings are compatible with the BIA+ model of bilingual processing, provide further support for the hypothesis of language nonselective access to an integrated lexicon for bilingual phonological representations, and extend the hypothesis to language pairs with very different writing systems. PMID:20486019

Zhou, Huixia; Chen, Baoguo; Yang, Meiying; Dunlap, Susan

2010-10-01

376

Processing of speech and non-speech stimuli in children with specific language impairment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a developmental language disorder in which children demonstrate varying degrees of difficulties in acquiring a spoken language. One possible underlying cause is that children with SLI have deficits in processing sounds that are of short duration or when they are presented rapidly. Studies so far have compared their performance on speech and nonspeech sounds of unequal complexity. Hence, it is still unclear whether the deficit is specific to the perception of speech sounds or whether it more generally affects the auditory function. The current study aims to answer this question by comparing the performance of children with SLI on speech and nonspeech sounds synthesized from sine-wave stimuli. The children will be tested using the classic categorical perception paradigm that includes both the identification and discrimination of stimuli along a continuum. If there is a deficit in the performance on both speech and nonspeech tasks, it will show that these children have a deficit in processing complex sounds. Poor performance on only the speech sounds will indicate that the deficit is more related to language. The findings will offer insights into the exact nature of the speech perception deficits in children with SLI. [Work supported by ASHF.

Basu, Madhavi L.; Surprenant, Aimee M.

2003-10-01

377

Modeling and Estimating Recall Processing Capacity: Sensitivity and Diagnostic Utility in Application to Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

We investigate the potential for using latency-based measures of retrieval processing capacity to assess changes in perfomance specific to individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a reliable precursor state to Alzheimer's Disease. Use of these capacity measures is motivated in part by exploration of the effects of atrophy on a computational model of a basic hippocampal circuit. We use this model to suggest that capacity may be a more sensitive indicator of undelying atrophy than speed of processing, and test this hypothesis by adapting a standard behavioral measure of memory (the free and cued selective reminding test, FCSRT) to allow for the collection of cued recall latencies. Participants were drawn from five groups: college-aged, middle-aged, healthy elderly, those with a diagnosis of MCI, and a sample of MCI control participants. The measure of capacity is shown to offer increased classificatory sensitivity relative to the standard behavioral measures, and is also shown to be the behavioral measure that correlated most strongly with hippocampal volume.

Wenger, Michael K.; Negash, Selamawit; Petersen, Ronald C.; Petersen, Lyndsay

2009-01-01

378

Auditory Processing and Speech Perception in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Relations with Oral Language and Literacy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study investigated temporal auditory processing (frequency modulation and between-channel gap detection) and speech perception (speech-in-noise and categorical perception) in three groups of 6 years 3 months to 6 years 8 months-old children attending grade 1: (1) children with specific language impairment (SLI) and literacy delay…

Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

2012-01-01

379

Depressive symptoms account for deficient information processing speed but not for impaired working memory in early phase multiple sclerosis (MS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depressive symptoms may influence neuropsychological functioning negatively. A substantial proportion of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients exhibit neuropsychological impairments and depressive symptomatology is more common in MS as compared to healthy controls and to other neurological diseases. The objectives of the present study were to assess information processing speed, working memory and executive functions in early phase MS and to investigate

Nils Inge Landrø; Elisabeth Gulowsen Celius; Helge Sletvold

2004-01-01

380

Auditory Processing Deficits in Children with Reading and Language Impairments: Can They (and Should They) Be Treated?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-five children with specific reading disability (SRD), 25 children with specific language impairment (SLI), and 37 age-matched controls were tested for their frequency discrimination, rapid auditory processing, vowel discrimination, and consonant-vowel discrimination. Subgroups of children with SRD or SLI produced abnormal frequency…

McArthur, G. M.; Ellis, D.; Atkinson, C. M.; Coltheart, M.

2008-01-01

381

Multisensory Spatial Attention Deficits Are Predictive of Phonological Decoding Skills in Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the dominant approach posits that developmental dyslexia arises from deficits in systems that are exclusively linguistic in nature (i.e., phonological deficit theory), dyslexics show a variety of lower level deficits in sensory and attentional processing. Although their link to the reading disorder remains contentious, recent empirical…

Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Ruffino, Milena; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cattaneo, Carmen; Galli, Raffaella; Molteni, Massimo; Zorzi, Marco

2010-01-01

382

Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence for Early and Automatic Detection of Phonological Equivalence in Variable Speech Inputs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech sounds are not always perceived in accordance with their acoustic-phonetic content. For example, an early and automatic process of perceptual repair, which ensures conformity of speech inputs to the listener's native language phonology, applies to individual input segments that do not exist in the native inventory or to sound sequences that…

Kharlamov, Viktor; Campbell, Kenneth; Kazanina, Nina

2011-01-01

383

Fine-Tuned: Phonology and Semantics Affect First- to Second-Language Zooming In  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate how L1 phonology and semantics affect processing of interlingual homographs by manipulating language context before, and auditory input during, a visual experiment in the L2. Three experiments contained German-English homograph primes ("gift" = German "poison") in English sentences and was performed by German (L1) learners of…

Elston-Guttler, Kerrie E.; Gunter, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

384

Modeling the Length Effect: Specifying the Relation with Visual and Phonological Correlates of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning readers' reading latencies increase as words become longer. This length effect is believed to be a marker of a serial reading process. We examined the effects of visual and phonological skills on the length effect. Participants were 184 second-grade children who read 3- to 5-letter words and nonwords. Results indicated that reading…

van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F.; Haentjens-van Meeteren, Marleen M.

2013-01-01

385

Event-Related Brain Potentials Elicited during Word Recognition by Adult Good and Poor Phonological Decoders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive processing of lexical and sub-lexical stimuli was compared for good and poor adult phonological decoders. Sixteen good decoders and 16 poor decoders, average age 19 years, silently read 150 randomly computer presented sentences ending in incongruous regular, irregular, or nonwords and 100 congruent filler sentences.…

Martin, Frances Heritage; Kaine, Alison; Kirby, Miriam

2006-01-01

386

Manipulability impairs association-memory: Revisiting effects of incidental motor processing on verbal paired-associates.  

PubMed

Imageability is known to enhance association-memory for verbal paired-associates. High-imageability words can be further subdivided by manipulability, the ease by which the named object can be functionally interacted with. Prior studies suggest that motor processing enhances item-memory, but impairs association-memory. However, these studies used action verbs and concrete nouns as the high- and low-manipulability words, respectively, confounding manipulability with word class. Recent findings demonstrated that nouns can serve as both high- and low-manipulability words (e.g., CAMERA and TABLE, respectively), allowing us to avoid this confound. Here participants studied pairs of words that consisted of all possible pairings of high- and low-manipulability words and were tested with immediate cued recall. Recall was worse for pairs that contained high-manipulability words. In free recall, participants recalled more high- than low-manipulability words. Our results provide further evidence that manipulability influences memory, likely occurring through automatic motor imagery. PMID:24686239

Madan, Christopher R

2014-06-01

387

Role of Phonology in Foreign Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights the importance of phonology in second language learning, comparing phonetic mistakes made by adult native speakers of English learning Georgian and adult native speakers of Georgian learning English. It emphasizes the importance of a holistic, systemic approach to teaching second languages that involves making the first…

Meskhi, Anna

388

A BINI GRAMMAR, PART 1--PHONOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A PHONOLOGY OF BINI GRAMMAR (A LANGUAGE OF WESTERN NIGERIA) HAS BEEN DESIGNED FOR A HIGHLY HETEROGENEOUS AUDIENCE. THE VOLUME IS AIMED AT (1) AREA SPECIALISTS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE OR CULTURE STUDIES OF AFRICA, (2) ETHNOGRAPHERS FOCUSING ON THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLES, (3) HISTORIANS WORKING ON THE BENIN PROJECT OF IBADAN…

WESCOTT, ROGER W.

389

Nonword Repetition, Phonological Storage, and Multiple Determinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposals that (a) nonword repetition and word learning both rely on phonological storage and (b) both are multiply determined are two of the major foci of Gathercole's (2006) Keynote Article, which marshals considerable evidence in support of each. In my view, the importance of these proposals cannot be overstated: these two notions go to the…

Gupta, Prahlad

2006-01-01

390

Early Bilingualism, Language Transfer, and Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relations between early bilingualism and phonological awareness in a sample of 75 Turkish-Dutch bilingual kindergarten children living in The Netherlands. In a longitudinal design, the children's first (L1) and second (L2) language abilities were measured at the beginning and end of…

Verhoeven, Ludo

2007-01-01

391

Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…

Suh, Yunju

2009-01-01

392

Assessment of Phonological Discrimination in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature indicated that conventional tests are inadequate for accurate assessment of phonological discrimination ability in children. Higher error rates on discrimination tests than those which would be predicted from articulation measures seemed to implicate task variables. To reduce task difficulty, repeated contrast test…

Rudegeair, Robert E.; Kamil, Michael L.

393

Phonological Skills and Writing of Presyllabic Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies causal relationships between the development of phonological abilities and progress in knowledge about writing in 90 middle-class Portuguese preschool children. Discusses how two experimental intervention programs proved equivalent in terms of the conceptual evolution they triggered, to the extent that the children in both experimental…

Silva, Cristina; Alves-Martins, Margarida

2002-01-01

394

Phonological Development in Urdu Speaking Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that examined phonological features of a group of 10 Urdu speaking children (20 to 30 months) to determine if a general theory of language learning can be deduced on the basis of Jakobson's theory of language universals. Addresses the question of how far such a theory is applicable to Urdu speaking children acquiring their native…

Khan, Farhat

1984-01-01

395

Stuttering, Cluttering, and Phonological Complexity: Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phonological complexity of dysfluencies in those who clutter and/or stutter may help us better understand phonetic factors in these two types of fluency disorders. In this preliminary investigation, cases were three 14-year-old males, diagnosed as a Stutterer, a Clutterer, and a Stutterer-Clutterer. Spontaneous speech samples were transcribed,…

LaSalle, Lisa R.; Wolk, Lesley

2011-01-01

396

Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

Rubrecht, August Weston

397

Perspectives on Interlanguage Phonetics and Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles in this special issue include the following: "Allophonic Splits in L2 Phonology: The Questions of Learnability" (Fred R. Eckman, Abdullah Elreyes, Gregory K. Iverson); "Native Language Influence in Learners' Assessment of English Focus" (M. L. Garcia Lecumberri); "Obstruent Voicing in English and Polish. A Pedagogical Perspective" (Wiktor…

Monroy, Rafael, Ed.; Gutierrez, Francisco, Ed.

2001-01-01

398

Fragile X Speech in Finnish: Phonological Observations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the phonological patterns of two physically normal boys, aged 5 and 8 years, with fragile X syndrome, an X-chromosomal abnormality usually connected with severe to moderate mental retardation, found language features similar to those found in other studies of fragile X speech. Some of these language features are: repetition of initial…

Niemi, Jussi; And Others

399

Classroom-Based Phonological Sensitivity Intervention (PSI) Using a Narrative Platform: An Experimental Study of First Graders at Risk for a Reading Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of classroom-based phonological sensitivity intervention (PSI) using a narrative platform for children in first grade who are at risk for a reading disability. Participants consisted of 59 first graders identified as at risk for later reading impairments. At-risk designation was dictated by…

Ritter, Michaela J.; Saxon, Terrill F.

2011-01-01

400

Letter Naming and Letter Writing Reversals in Children With Dyslexia: Momentary Inefficiency in the Phonological and Orthographic Loops of Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given mounting evidence for working memory impairments in dyslexia, letter reversals during rapid automatic letter naming (phonological loop) or rapid automatic letter writing (orthographic loop) may reflect momentary inefficiency of working memory. Few of the children, with or without dyslexia, in a multi-generational family genetics study, produced reversals, but those with dyslexia produced more than those without dyslexia. Working-memory component

Allison D. Brooks; Virginia W. Berninger; Robert D. Abbott

2011-01-01

401

Development of the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) test to assess key markers of specific language and literacy difficulties in young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite a large body of evidence regarding reliable indicators of language deficits in young children, there has not been a standardized, quick screen for language impairment. The Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) test was therefore designed as a short, reliable assessment of young children's language abilities. Aims: GAPS was designed to provide a quick screening test to assess whether

Hilary Gardner; Karen Froud; Alastair McClelland; Heather K. J. van der Lely

2006-01-01

402

Development of the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) Test to Assess Key Markers of Specific Language and Literacy Difficulties in Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite a large body of evidence regarding reliable indicators of language deficits in young children, there has not been a standardized, quick screen for language impairment. The Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) test was therefore designed as a short, reliable assessment of young children's language abilities. Aims: GAPS was…

Gardner, Hilary; Froud, Karen; McClelland, Alastair; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

2006-01-01

403

An Evaluation of the Written Texts of Children with SLI: The Contributions of Oral Language, Reading and Phonological Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we performed a fine grained analysis of writing by children with a specific language impairment (SLI) and examined the contribution of oral language, phonological short-term memory (STM), nonverbal ability, and word reading to three writing constructs (productivity, complexity and accuracy). Forty-six children with SLI were compared…

Mackie, Clare J.; Dockrell, Julie; Lindsay, Geoff

2013-01-01

404

Visuo-spatial processing and executive functions in children with specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Individual differences in complex working memory tasks reflect simultaneous processing, executive functions, and attention control. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show a deficit in verbal working memory tasks that involve simultaneous processing of information. Aims The purpose of the study was to examine executive functions and visuo-spatial processing and working memory in children with SLI and in their typically developing peers (TLD). Experiment 1 included 40 children with SLI (age=5;3–6;10) and 40 children with TLD (age=5;3–6;7); Experiment 2 included 25 children with SLI (age=8;2–11;2) and 25 children with TLD (age=8;3–11;0). It was examined whether the difficulties that children with SLI show in verbal working memory tasks are also present in visuo-spatial working memory. Methods & Procedures In Experiment 1, children's performance was measured with three visuo-spatial processing tasks: space visualization, position in space, and design copying. The stimuli in Experiment 2 were two widely used neuropsychological tests: the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test — 64 (WCST-64) and the Tower of London test (TOL). Outcomes & Results In Experiment 1, children with SLI performed more poorly than their age-matched peers in all visuo-spatial working memory tasks. There was a subgroup within the SLI group that included children whose parents and teachers reported a weakness in the child's attention control. These children showed particular difficulties in the tasks of Experiment 1. The results support Engle's attention control theory: individuals need good attention control to perform well in visuo-spatial working memory tasks. In Experiment 2, the children with SLI produced more perseverative errors and more rule violations than their peers. Conclusions Executive functions have a great impact on SLI children's working memory performance, regardless of domain. Tasks that require an increased amount of attention control and executive functions are more difficult for the children with SLI than for their peers. Most children with SLI scored either below average or in the low average range on the neuropsychological tests that measured executive functions.

Marton, Klara

2007-01-01

405

Damage to left anterior temporal cortex predicts impairment of complex syntactic processing: a lesion-symptom mapping study.  

PubMed

Sentence processing problems form a common consequence of left-hemisphere brain injury, in some patients to such an extent that their pattern of language performance is characterized as "agrammatic". However, the location of left-hemisphere damage that causes such problems remains controversial. It has been suggested that the critical site for syntactic processing is Broca's area of the frontal cortex or, alternatively, that a more widely distributed network is responsible for syntactic processing. The aim of this study was to identify brain regions that are required for successful sentence processing. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to identify brain regions where injury predicted impaired sentence processing in 50 native speakers of Icelandic with left-hemisphere stroke. Sentence processing was assessed by having individuals identify which picture corresponded to a verbally presented sentence. The VLSM analysis revealed that impaired sentence processing was best predicted by damage to a large left-hemisphere temporo-parieto-occipital area. This is likely due to the multimodal nature of the sentence processing task, which involves auditory and visual analysis, as well as lexical and syntactic processing. Specifically impaired processing of noncanonical sentence types, when compared with canonical sentence processing, was associated with damage to the left-hemisphere anterior superior and middle temporal gyri and the temporal pole. Anterior temporal cortex, therefore, appears to play a crucial role in syntactic processing, and patients with brain damage to this area are more likely to present with receptive agrammatism than patients in which anterior temporal cortex is spared. PMID:22522937

Magnusdottir, S; Fillmore, P; den Ouden, D B; Hjaltason, H; Rorden, C; Kjartansson, O; Bonilha, L; Fridriksson, J

2013-10-01

406

Investigating the Time Course of Spoken Word Recognition: Electrophysiological Evidence for the Influences of Phonological Similarity  

PubMed Central

Behavioral and modeling evidence suggests that words compete for recognition during auditory word identification, and that phonological similarity is a driving factor in this competition. The present study used event-related potentials [ERPs] to examine the temporal dynamics of different types of phonological competition (i.e., cohort and rhyme). ERPs were recorded during a novel picture-word matching task, where a target picture was followed by an auditory word that either matched the target (CONE-cone), or mismatched in one of three ways: rhyme (CONE-bone), cohort (CONE-comb), and unrelated (CONE-fox). Rhymes and cohorts differentially modulated two distinct ERP components, the Phonological Mismatch Negativity [PMN] and the N400, revealing the influences of pre-lexical and lexical processing components in speech recognition. Cohort mismatches resulted in late increased negativity in the N400, reflecting disambiguation of the later point of miscue and the combined influences of top-down expectations and misleading bottom-up phonological information on processing. In contrast, we observed a reduction in the N400 for rhyme mismatches, reflecting lexical activation of rhyme competitors. Moreover, the observed rhyme effects suggest that there is interaction between phoneme-level and lexical-level information in the recognition of spoken words. The results support the theory that both levels of information are engaged in parallel during auditory word recognition in a way that permits both bottom-up and top-down competition effects.

Desroches, Amy S.; Newman, Randy Lynn; Joanisse, Marc F.

2014-01-01

407

Investigating the time course of spoken word recognition: electrophysiological evidence for the influences of phonological similarity.  

PubMed

Behavioral and modeling evidence suggests that words compete for recognition during auditory word identification, and that phonological similarity is a driving factor in this competition. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the temporal dynamics of different types of phonological competition (i.e., cohort and rhyme). ERPs were recorded during a novel picture-word matching task, where a target picture was followed by an auditory word that either matched the target (CONE-cone), or mismatched in one of three ways: rhyme (CONE-bone), cohort (CONE-comb), and unrelated (CONE-fox). Rhymes and cohorts differentially modulated two distinct ERP components, the phonological mismatch negativity and the N400, revealing the influences of prelexical and lexical processing components in speech recognition. Cohort mismatches resulted in late increased negativity in the N400, reflecting disambiguation of the later point of miscue and the combined influences of top-down expectations and misleading bottom-up phonological information on processing. In contrast, we observed a reduction in the N400 for rhyme mismatches, reflecting lexical activation of rhyme competitors. Moreover, the observed rhyme effects suggest that there is an interaction between phoneme-level and lexical-level information in the recognition of spoken words. The results support the theory that both levels of information are engaged in parallel during auditory word recognition in a way that permits both bottom-up and top-down competition effects. PMID:18855555

Desroches, Amy S; Newman, Randy Lynn; Joanisse, Marc F

2009-10-01

408

Certification for vision impairment: researching perceptions, processes and practicalities in health and social care professionals and patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore the patient experience, and the role of ophthalmologists and other health and social care professionals in the certification and registration processes and examine the main barriers to the timely certification of patients. Design Qualitative study. Setting Telephone interviews with health and social care professionals and patients in three areas in England. Participants 43 health and social care professionals who are part of the certification or registration process. 46 patients certified as severely sight impaired (blind) or sight impaired (partially sighted) within the previous 12?months. Results Certification and registration are life changing for patients and the help they receive can substantially improve their lives. Despite this, ophthalmologists often found it difficult to ascertain when it is appropriate to certify patients, particularly for people with long-term conditions. Ophthalmologists varied in their comprehension of the certification process and many regarded certification as the ‘final stage’ in treatment. Administrative procedures meant the process of certification and registration could vary from a few weeks to many months. The avoidable delays in completing certification can be helped by Eye Clinic Liaison Officers (ECLO). Conclusions A better understanding of the certification and registration processes can help improve standards of support and service provision for people who are severely sighted impaired or sight impaired. Better education and support are required for ophthalmologists in recognising the importance of timely referral for rehabilitative support through certification and registration. ECLOs can improve the process of certification and registration. Finally, better education is needed for patients on the benefits of certification and registration.

Boyce, T; Leamon, Shaun; Slade, J; Simkiss, P; Rughani, S; Ghanchi, Faruque

2014-01-01

409

Can a "Single Hit" Cause Limitations in Language Development? A Comparative Study of Swedish Children with Hearing Impairment and Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Studies of language in children with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment (HI) indicate that they often have problems in phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and that they have linguistic weaknesses both in vocabulary and morphosyntax similar to children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, children with HI may be more…

Hansson, Kristina; Sahlen, Birgitta; Maki-Torkko, Elina

2007-01-01

410

Spared and impaired spoken discourse processing in schizophrenia: effects of local and global language context.  

PubMed

Individuals with schizophrenia are impaired in a broad range of cognitive functions, including impairments in the controlled maintenance of context-relevant information. In this study, we used ERPs in human subjects to examine whether impairments in the controlled maintenance of spoken discourse context in schizophrenia lead to overreliance on local associations among the meanings of individual words. Healthy controls (n = 22) and patients (n = 22) listened to short stories in which we manipulated global discourse congruence and local priming. The target word in the last sentence of each story was globally congruent or incongruent and locally associated or unassociated. ERP local association effects did not significantly differ between control participants and schizophrenia patients. However, in contrast to controls, patients only showed effects of discourse congruence when targets were primed by a word in the local context. When patients had to use discourse context in the absence of local priming, they showed impaired brain responses to the target. Our findings indicate that schizophrenia patients are impaired during discourse comprehension when demands on controlled maintenance of context are high. We further found that ERP measures of increased reliance on local priming predicted reduced social functioning, suggesting that alterations in the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension have functional consequences in the illness. PMID:24068824

Swaab, Tamara Y; Boudewyn, Megan A; Long, Debra L; Luck, Steve J; Kring, Ann M; Ragland, J Daniel; Ranganath, Charan; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Solomon, Marjorie; Mangun, George R; Carter, Cameron S

2013-09-25

411

Enhancement of phonological memory following Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Phonologically similar items (mell, rell, gell) are more difficult to remember than dissimilar items (shen, floy, stap), likely because of mutual interference of the items in the phonological store. Low-frequency transcranial magnetic,stimulation (TMS), guided by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to disrupt this phonological confusion by stimulation of the left inferior parietal (LIP) lobule. Subjects received TMS

Matthew P. Kirschen; Mathew S. Davis-ratner; Thomas E. Jerde; Pam Schraedley-desmond; John E. Desmond

2006-01-01

412

English­French bilingual children's phonological awareness and vocabulary skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between English-speaking children's vocabulary skills in English and in French and their phonological aware- ness skills in both languages. Forty-four kindergarten-aged children attending French immersion programs were administered a receptive vocabulary test, an expressive vocabulary test and a phonological awareness test in English and French. Results showed that French phonological awareness was largely explained by

Yu Chiang; Susan Rvachew

413

Semantic priming is affected by real-time phonological competition: evidence for continuous cascading systems.  

PubMed

Lexical-semantic access is affected by the phonological structure of the lexicon. What is less clear is whether such effects are the result of continuous activation between lexical form and semantic processing or whether they arise from a more modular system in which the timing of accessing lexical form determines the timing of semantic activation. This study examined this issue using the visual world paradigm by investigating the time course of semantic priming as a function of the number of phonological competitors. Critical trials consisted of high or low density auditory targets (e.g., horse) and a visual display containing a target, a semantically related object (e.g., saddle), and two phonologically and semantically unrelated objects (e.g., chimney, bikini). Results showed greater magnitude of priming for semantically related objects of low than of high density words, and no differences for high and low density word targets in the time course of looks to the word semantically related to the target. This pattern of results is consistent with models of cascading activation, which predict that lexical activation has continuous effects on the level of semantic activation, with no delays in the onset of semantic activation for phonologically competing words. PMID:21327343

Apfelbaum, Keith S; Blumstein, Sheila E; McMurray, Bob

2011-02-01

414

Semantic priming is affected by real-time phonological competition: Evidence for continuous cascading systems  

PubMed Central

Lexical-semantic access is affected by the phonological structure of the lexicon. What is less clear is whether such effects are the result of continuous activation between lexical form and semantic processing, or whether they arise from a more modular system in which the timing of accessing lexical form determines the timing of semantic activation. This study examined this issue using the visual world paradigm by investigating the time course of semantic priming as a function of the number of phonological competitors. Critical trials consisted of high or low density auditory targets (e.g. horse) and a visual display containing a target, a semantically related object (e.g. saddle), and two phonologically and semantically unrelated objects (e.g. chimney, bikini). Results showed greater magnitude of priming for semantically related objects of low than of high density words and no differences for high and low density word targets in the time course of looks to the word semantically related to the target. This pattern of results is consistent with models of cascading activation, which predict that lexical activation has continuous effects on the level of semantic activation, with no delays in the onset of semantic activation for phonologically-competing words.

Apfelbaum, Keith S.; Blumstein, Sheila E.; McMurray, Bob

2012-01-01

415

Are coffee and toffee served in a cup? Ortho-phonologically mediated associative priming.  

PubMed

We report three masked associative priming experiments with the lexical decision task that explore whether the initial activation flow of a visually presented word activates the semantic representations of that word's orthographic/phonological neighbours. The predictions of cascades and serial/modular models of lexical processing differ widely in this respect. Using a masked priming paradigm (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA = 50 ms), words preceded by ortho-phonologically mediated associated "neighbours" (oveja-MIEL, the Spanish for sheep-HONEY; note that oveja is a phonological neighbour of abeja, the Spanish for bee) were recognized more rapidly than words preceded by an unrelated word prime (Experiments 1 and 3). Furthermore, the magnitude of the ortho-phonologically mediated priming effect (oveja-MIEL) was similar to the magnitude of the associative priming effect (abeja-MIEL). With visible primes and a 250-ms SOA, only the directly associated words showed a priming effect (Experiment 2). These findings pose some problems for a modular account and are more easily interpreted in terms of cascaded models. PMID:19031156

Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel; Perea, Manuel

2008-01-01

416

Reading acquisition reorganizes the phonological awareness network only in alphabetic writing systems.  

PubMed

It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8-12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. PMID:22815229

Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R

2013-12-01

417

Language learning impairment: integrating research and remediation.  

PubMed

Timing cues present in the acoustic waveform of speech provide critical information for the recognition and segmentation of the ongoing speech signal. Research has demonstrated that deficient temporal perception rates, that have been shown to specifically disrupt acoustic processing of speech, are related to specific language-based learning impairments (LLI). Temporal processing deficits correlate highly with the phonological discrimination and processing deficits of these children. Electrophysiological single cell mapping studies of sensory cortex in brains of primates have shown that neural circuitry can be remapped after specific, temporally cohesive training regimens, demonstrating the dynamic plasticity of the brain. Recently, we combined these two lines of research in a series of studies that addressed whether the temporal processing deficits seen in LLIs can be significantly modified through adaptive training aimed at reducing temporal integration thresholds. Simultaneously, we developed a computer algorithm that expanded and enhanced the brief, rapidly changing acoustic segments within ongoing speech and used this to provide intensive speech and language training exercises to these children. Results to date from two independent laboratory experiments, as well as a large national clinical efficacy trial, demonstrate that dramatic improvements in temporal integration thresholds, together with speech and language comprehension abilities of LLI children, results from training with these new computer-based training procedures. PMID:9800537

Tallal, P; Merzenich, M; Miller, S; Jenkins, W

1998-09-01

418

Phonological learning and lexicality of treated stimuli  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to evaluate the lexicality of treated stimuli relative to phonological learning by preschool children with functional phonological disorders. Four children were paired in a single-subject alternating treatments design that was overlaid on a multiple baseline across subjects design. Within each pair, one child was taught one sound in real words and a second sound in non-words; for the other child of the pair, lexicality was reversed and counterbalanced. The dependent variable was production accuracy of the treated sounds as measured during the session-by-session course of instruction. Results indicated that production accuracy of the treated sound was as good as or better using non-word as opposed to real word stimuli. The clinical implications are considered, along with potential accounts of the patterns of learning.

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

419

Phonological similarity effects in simple and complex span tasks.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to examine the effect of phonological similarity in simple and complex memory span tasks. In Experiment 1, participants performed either a simple or a complex span task, and the memoranda within lists were either phonologically similar or distinct. Phonologically similar lists consisted of words that rhymed.The simple span task was word span. There were two complex span tasks; one was the original reading span task, and the other was a variant of reading span in which all the sentences within a list were contextually related. The classic phonological similarity decrement was observed in word span. In contrast, phonological similarity facilitation was observed in both versions of reading span. This facilitation effect was further investigated in Experiment 2 using two new versions of reading span. In Experiment 2, the sentences in reading span were either short or long, and the memoranda were presented separately from, and were unrelated to, the sentences. Again, words within phonologically similar lists rhymed, and again, facilitation was observed. In Experiment 3, phonological similarity was operationalized in terms of feature overlap, rather than rhyme. The classic phonological similarity decrement was still observed in word span, but facilitation was not observed in complex span. The results suggest that phonological similarity, when operationalized using words that rhyme, serves as a list retrieval cue and that complex span tasks are more dependent on cue-driven memory retrieval mechanisms than are simple span tasks. PMID:21503805

Macnamara, Brooke N; Moore, Adam B; Conway, Andrew R A

2011-10-01

420

An Across-Frequency Processing Deficit in Listeners with Hearing Impairment Is Supported by Acoustic Correlation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been recently suggested that listeners having a sensorineural hearing impairment (HI) may possess a deficit in their ability to integrate speech information across different frequencies. When presented with a task that required across-frequency integration of speech patterns, listeners with HI performed more poorly than their normal-hearing…

Healy, Eric W.; Kannabiran, Anand; Bacon, Sid P.

2005-01-01

421

Anticipatory Sentence Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from Eye Movements during Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-five children with specific language impairment (SLI; age 5 years, 3 months [5;3]-8;2), 50 typically developing children (3;3-8;2), and 31 normal adults participated in three eye-tracking experiments of spoken language comprehension that were designed to investigate the use of verb information during real-time sentence comprehension in…

Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Trueswell, John C.

2013-01-01

422

Specific Language Impairment Affects the Early Spelling Process Quantitatively but Not Qualitatively  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated whether children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) need a special spelling education program, by examining whether the early spelling of children with SLI is quantitatively and qualitatively different from the spelling of typically developing children. Two groups of first grade children participated: 39…

Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

2012-01-01

423

Prominence, Augmentation, and Neutralization in Phonology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain phonological phenomena, such as the lengthening of vowels in stressed sylla-bles or the attraction of stress to heavy syllables, are best accounted for by means of markedness constraints that make specific reference to strong positions (M\\/str con-straints). However, not just any markedness constraint can be relativized to strong positions. If an ordinary featural markedness constraint such as *MIDV ('output

JENNIFER L. SMITH

424

Phonological Awareness, Reading Accuracy and Spelling Ability of Children with Inconsistent Phonological Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although children with speech disorder are at increased risk of literacy impairments, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. They are also a heterogeneous population in terms of the number and type of speech errors and their identified speech processing deficits. One problem lies in determining which preschool children with…

Holm, Alison; Farrier, Faith; Dodd, Barbara

2008-01-01

425

Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule  

PubMed Central

Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X?XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

2014-01-01

426

Linguistic Humor Comprehension of Normal and Language-Impaired Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared to 12 normally achieving students, 12 language-impaired high school students had significantly poorer comprehension of humor elements of riddles, jokes, and puns classified according to their phonological, morphological, or syntactic elements. Especially poor were subjects' ability to grasp the nature of multimeaning words and to segment…

Spector, Cecile C.

1990-01-01

427

Narrative Skills Following Early Confirmation of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare spoken language production in children with permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) whose PCHI was confirmed either early or late. Method: Audio-taped spoken narrative was assessed for syntax, phonology, morphology, and narrative in transcripts from a population-based sample of 89 children (49 males,…

Worsfold, Sarah; Mahon, Merle; Yuen, Ho Ming; Kennedy, Colin

2010-01-01

428

Toward an executive origin for acquired phonological dyslexia: a case of specific deficit of context-sensitive grapheme-to- phoneme conversion rules.  

PubMed

Phonological dyslexia is a written language disorder characterized by poor reading of nonwords when compared with relatively preserved ability in reading real words. In this study, we report the case of FG, a 74-year-old man with phonological dyslexia. The nature and origin of his reading impairment were assessed using tasks involving activation and explicit manipulation of phonological representations as well as reading of words and nonwords in which the nature and complexity of grapheme-to-phoneme conversion rules (GPC rules) were manipulated. FG also underwent an extensive neuropsychological assessment battery in which he showed impaired performance in tests exploring verbal working memory and executive functions. FG showed no phonological impairment, and his performance was also largely unimpaired for reading words, with no effect of concreteness, grammatical class, morphological complexity, length or nature and complexity of the GPC rules. However, he showed substantial difficulties when asked to read nonwords with contextual GPC rules. The contribution of FG's executive deficits to his performance in reading is discussed. PMID:22713417

Auclair-Ouellet, Noémie; Fossard, Marion; St-Pierre, Marie-Catherine; Macoir, Joël

2013-01-01

429

Memory impairment induced by low doses of reserpine in rats: possible relationship with emotional processing deficits in Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

We have recently verified that the monoamine-depleting drug reserpine--at doses that do not modify motor function--impairs memory in a rodent model of aversive discrimination. In this study, the effects of reserpine (0.1-0.5 mg/kg) on the performance of rats in object recognition, spatial working memory (spontaneous alternation) and emotional memory (contextual freezing conditioning) tasks were investigated. While object recognition and spontaneous alternation behavior were not affected by reserpine treatment, contextual fear conditioning was impaired. Together with previous studies, these results suggest that low doses of reserpine would preferentially induce deficits in tasks involved with emotional contexts. Possible relationships with cognitive and emotional processing deficits in Parkinson disease are discussed. PMID:18579275

Fernandes, Valéria S; Ribeiro, Alessandra M; Melo, Thieza G; Godinho, Monique; Barbosa, Flavio F; Medeiros, Danielle S; Munguba, Hermany; Silva, Regina H

2008-08-01

430

Tumor necrosis factor-? impairs oligodendroglial differentiation through a mitochondria-dependent process.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial defects, affecting parameters such as mitochondrial number and shape, levels of respiratory chain complex components and markers of oxidative stress, have been associated with the appearance and progression of multiple sclerosis. Nevertheless, mitochondrial physiology has never been monitored during oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) differentiation, especially in OPCs challenged with proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) inhibits OPC differentiation, accompanied by altered mitochondrial calcium uptake, mitochondrial membrane potential, and respiratory complex I activity as well as increased reactive oxygen species production. Treatment with a mitochondrial uncoupler (FCCP) to mimic mitochondrial impairment also causes cells to accumulate at the progenitor stage. Interestingly, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels increase during TNF-? exposure and inhibit OPC differentiation. Overall, our data indicate that TNF-? induces metabolic changes, driven by mitochondrial impairment and AMPK activation, leading to the inhibition of OPC differentiation. PMID:24658399

Bonora, M; De Marchi, E; Patergnani, S; Suski, J M; Celsi, F; Bononi, A; Giorgi, C; Marchi, S; Rimessi, A; Duszy?ski, J; Pozzan, T; Wieckowski, M R; Pinton, P

2014-08-01

431

Grammatical Morpheme Effects on Sentence Processing by School-Aged Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Sixteen-year-olds with specific language impairment (SLI), nonspecific language impairment (NLI), and those showing typical language development (TD) responded to target words in sentences that were either grammatical or contained a grammatical error immediately before the target word. The TD participants showed the expected slower response times (RTs) when errors preceded the target word, regardless of error type. The SLI and NLI groups also showed the expected slowing, except when the error type involved the omission of a tense/agreement inflection. This response pattern mirrored an early developmental period of alternating between using and omitting tense/agreement inflections that is characteristic of SLI and NLI. The findings could not be readily attributed to factors such as insensitivity to omissions in general or insensitivity to the particular phonetic forms used to mark tense/agreement. The observed response pattern may represent continued difficulty with tense/agreement morphology that persists in subtle form into adolescence.

Leonard, Laurence B.; Miller, Carol A.; Finneran, Denise A.

2009-01-01

432

Lexico-semantic processing in children with specific language impairment: The overactivation hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis indicating an overactivation of the lexico-semantic network in children with specific language impairment (SLI) was tested using an auditory pair-primed paradigm (PPP), where participants made a lexical-decision on the second word of a noun pair that could be semantically related, or not, to the first one. Though children with SLI were proven to be as accurate as children

Fabrizio Pizzioli; Marie-Anne Schelstraete

2011-01-01

433

A left basal ganglia case of dynamic aphasia or impairment of extra-language cognitive processes?  

PubMed

We report the case of OTM who presented with dynamic aphasia following a stroke that occurred in the left basal ganglia. He showed drastically reduced spontaneous speech in the context of well preserved naming, repetition and comprehension skills. OTM was particularly impaired in generating words, sentences and phrases when cued by a stimulus allowing many response options. By contrast, when a single response was strongly suggested by a stimulus, he could generate verbal responses adequately. OTM's non-verbal response generation abilities varied across tasks. He performed in the normal range in a motor movement generation test and he produced as many figures as controls when tested on a figural fluency task. He showed, however, many perseverations on this test. Moreover in a random number generation task he produced more responses that were part of ascending and descending series of numbers. The patient's impairments are interpreted as a consequence of two deficits. The first of these consists of an inability to generate verbal responses particularly in situations of high competition and involves the function of left frontal regions. The second deficit is one of impaired novel thought generation as evidenced by perseverations. This second deficit has been proposed to be a function of basal ganglia damage. PMID:18569743

Crescentini, Cristiano; Lunardelli, Alberta; Mussoni, Alessandro; Zadini, Antonietta; Shallice, Tim

2008-01-01

434

A self-teaching image processing and voice-recognition-based, intelligent and interactive system to educate visually impaired children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self teaching image processing and voice recognition based system is developed to educate visually impaired children, chiefly in their primary education. System comprises of a computer, a vision camera, an ear speaker and a microphone. Camera, attached with the computer system is mounted on the ceiling opposite (on the required angle) to the desk on which the book is placed. Sample images and voices in the form of instructions and commands of English, Urdu alphabets, Numeric Digits, Operators and Shapes are already stored in the database. A blind child first reads the embossed character (object) with the help of fingers than he speaks the answer, name of the character, shape etc into the microphone. With the voice command of a blind child received by the microphone, image is taken by the camera which is processed by MATLAB® program developed with the help of Image Acquisition and Image processing toolbox and generates a response or required set of instructions to child via ear speaker, resulting in self education of a visually impaired child. Speech recognition program is also developed in MATLAB® with the help of Data Acquisition and Signal Processing toolbox which records and process the command of the blind child.

Iqbal, Asim; Farooq, Umar; Mahmood, Hassan; Asad, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Akrama; Atiq, Hafiz Muhammad

2010-02-01

435

Graphophonological Processes in Dyslexic Readers of French: A Longitudinal Study of the Explicitness Effect of Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the well-acknowledged phonological deficit found in dyslexic children, this study was aimed at investigating graphophonological processes in dyslexic readers of French over a 1-year period. Among the different types of phonological processing can be distinguished those related to phonological awareness based on knowledge of the oral language…

Daigle, Daniel; Berthiaume, Rachel; Plisson, Anne; Demont, Elisabeth

2012-01-01

436

Contribution of Phonological and Broader Language Skills to Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent models of reading ability propose that both phonological and broader language skills are important for the development of literacy. Whilst there are numerous studies that consider the role of phonological skills in literacy, fewer studies have considered the role of broader language skills and reading proficiency. Aims: To…

Fraser, Jill; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

2008-01-01

437

Age of Acquisition and the Completeness of Phonological Representations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests the Phonological Completeness Hypothesis of Brown and Watson, which proposes that early acquired words are recognized and produced faster than late acquired words because they have less fragmented phonological representations. Indicates that the results of the segmentation task failed to provide any support for Brown and Watson's (1987)…

Monaghan, Josephine; Ellis, Andrew W.

2002-01-01

438

Phonological Specificity of Vowels and Consonants in Early Lexical Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants become selectively sensitive to phonological distinctions relevant to their native language at an early age. One might expect that infants bring some of this phonological knowledge to bear in encoding the words they subsequently acquire. In line with this expectation, studies have found that 14-month-olds are sensitive to mispronunciations…

Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

2007-01-01

439

Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

Proctor, Michael Ian

2009-01-01

440

Phonological Memory Predicts Second Language Oral Fluency Gains in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and second language (L2) fluency gains in native English-speaking adults learning Spanish in two learning contexts: at their home university or abroad in an immersion context. Phonological memory (operationalized as serial nonword recognition) and Spanish oral fluency…

O'Brien, Irena; Segalowitz, Norman; Freed, Barbara; Collentine, Joe

2007-01-01

441

Interactive Influences on Phonological Behaviour: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An infant girl's unusual phonological behavior was evaluated in light of a maternal model which appeared to exaggerate features of normal conversational speech. Parental responses to immature speech patterns may account for selected case study behaviors which have been reported in both the child phonology and child fluency literatures. (KM)

Bernstein Ratner, Nan

1993-01-01

442

Phonology in syntax: The Somali optional agreement rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would

Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum

1983-01-01

443

Integration of Phonological Information in Obstruent Consonant Identification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech perception requires the integration of information from multiple phonetic and phonological dimensions. Numerous studies have investigated the mapping between multiple acoustic-phonetic dimensions and single phonological dimensions (e.g., spectral and temporal properties of stop consonants in voicing contrasts). Many fewer studies have…

Silbert, Noah H.

2009-01-01

444

Phonological Meanings in Literary Prose Texts and Their Translations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses phonological meanings and their realization in fiction texts and the problematics of their translations. The various views linguists appear to have about what phonological meanings are and how they are expressed linguistically are examined. Furthermore two linguistically oriented approaches on translation theory, Nida's and…

Ventola, Eija

445

Phonological Awareness and Decoding Skills in Deaf Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the phonological awareness skills of a group of deaf adolescents and how these skills correlated with decoding skills (single word and non-word reading) and receptive vocabulary. Twenty, congenitally profoundly deaf adolescents with at least average nonverbal cognitive skills were tested on a range of phonological awareness…

Gravenstede, L.

2009-01-01

446

Auditory Cortex Accesses Phonological Categories: An MEG Mismatch Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies presented here use an adapted oddball paradigm to show evidence that representations of discrete phonological categories are available to the human auditory cortex. Brain activity was recorded using a 37-channel biomagnetometer while eight subjects listened passively to synthetic speech sounds. In the phonological condition, which contrasted stimuli from an acoustic \\/dæ\\/-\\/tæ\\/ continuum, a magnetic mismatch field (MMF) was

Colin Phillips; Thomas Pellathy; Alec Marantz; Elron Yellin; Kenneth Wexler; David Poeppel; Martha McGinnis; Timothy Roberts

2000-01-01

447

Quantifying Phonological Representation Abilities in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed three important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

Anthony, Jason L.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Solari, Emily J.; Dunkelberger, Martha J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Liang, Lan

2011-01-01

448

Children with Down Syndrome Use Phonological Knowledge in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an experiment that links phonological awareness and reading performance in children with Down syndrome. Examines the results within the framework of the author's metalinguistic development theory in which alphabet reading is a pacemaker for the development of explicit phonological awareness. (PM)

Gombert, Jean-Emile

2002-01-01

449

Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

Farrell, Simon

2006-01-01

450

Effects of Frequency and Vocabulary Type on Phonological Speech Errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological speech errors only rarely occur in common function words. This paper explores whether this effect is due to these words' status as function (closed-class) morphemes, or simply their high frequency of usage. Experiments that elicit phonological speech errors revealed strong requency effects (the segments of frequent words tend not to be misordered) and no effect of vocabulary type-the segments

Gary S. Dell

1990-01-01

451

Visual Feedback in Treatment of Residual Phonological Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of visual biofeedback in the treatment of individuals who have residual phonological errors is discussed. Biofeedback is conceptualized as a cognitive treatment that requires the client's analysis of visual information and then use of that information in developing correct productions of residual phonological errors. Results suggest the…

Ruscello, Dennis M.

1995-01-01

452

Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

2012-01-01

453

Disfluency Patterns and Phonological Skills Near Stuttering Onset  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a substantial amount of literature reporting the incidence of phonological difficulties to be higher for children who stutter when compared to normally fluent children, suggesting a link between stuttering and phonology. In view of this, the purpose of the investigation was to determine whether, among children who stutter, there are…

Gregg, Brent Andrew; Yairi, Ehud

2012-01-01

454

Phonological Representations in Deaf Children: Rethinking the "Functional Equivalence" Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sources of knowledge that individuals use to make similarity judgments between words are thought to tap underlying phonological representations. We examined the effects of perceptual similarity between stimuli on deaf children's ability to make judgments about the phonological similarity between words at 3 levels of linguistic structure…

McQuarrie, Lynn; Parrila, Rauno

2009-01-01

455

Phonological Interference in Proofreading: Evidence for the Primacy of Phonological Recoding in Lexical Access.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments examined proofreading errors to test whether reading is mediated by a phonological recoding stage. In the first experiment, 162 undergraduates circled the misspelled words in a text as the experimenter read the passage aloud. In the second experiment, 165 undergraduates corrected misspellings as they read the same passage silently,…

McCusker, Leo X.; And Others