Sample records for impaired phonological processing

  1. PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT?

    E-print Network

    PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT? Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet, Michele Miozzo dyslexia. In languages like English or French, in which orthog- raphy allows only an imperfect realisation of phonology, patients with surface dyslexia fail more frequently with words that have an irregular orthography

  2. Impaired letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia: what visual-to-phonology code mapping disorder?

    PubMed

    Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

    2012-05-01

    Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In particular, report of poor letter/digit-string processing but preserved symbol-string processing was viewed as evidence of poor visual-to-phonology code mapping, in line with the phonological theory of developmental dyslexia. We assessed here the visual-to-phonological-code mapping disorder hypothesis. In Experiment 1, letter-string, digit-string and colour-string processing was assessed to disentangle a phonological versus visual familiarity account of the letter/digit versus symbol dissociation. Against a visual-to-phonological-code mapping disorder but in support of a familiarity account, results showed poor letter/digit-string processing but preserved colour-string processing in dyslexic children. In Experiment 2, two tasks of letter-string report were used, one of which was performed simultaneously to a high-taxing phonological task. Results show that dyslexic children are similarly impaired in letter-string report whether a concurrent phonological task is simultaneously performed or not. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence against a phonological account of poor letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia. PMID:22434589

  3. Dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonology and Auditory Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Jill; Goswami, Usha; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    We explore potential similarities between developmental dyslexia (specific reading disability [SRD]) and specific language impairment (SLI) in terms of phonological skills, underlying auditory processing abilities, and nonphonological language skills. Children aged 9 to 11 years with reading and/or language difficulties were recruited and compared…

  4. Phonological, temporal and spectral processing in vowel length discrimination is impaired in German primary school children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Steinbrink, Claudia; Klatte, Maria; Lachmann, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    It is still unclear whether phonological processing deficits are the underlying cause of developmental dyslexia, or rather a consequence of basic auditory processing impairments. To avoid methodological confounds, in the current study the same task and stimuli of comparable complexity were used to investigate both phonological and basic auditory (temporal and spectral) processing in dyslexia. German dyslexic children (Grades 3 and 4) were compared to age- and grade-matched controls in a vowel length discrimination task with three experimental conditions: In a phonological condition, natural vowels were used, differing both with respect to temporal and spectral information (in German, vowel length is phonemic, and vowel length differences are characterized by both temporal and spectral information). In a temporal condition, spectral information differentiating between the two vowels of a pair was eliminated, whereas in a spectral condition, temporal differences were removed. As performance measure, the sensitivity index d' was computed. At the group level, dyslexic children's performance was inferior to that of controls for phonological as well as temporal and spectral vowel length discrimination. At an individual level, nearly half of the dyslexic sample was characterized by deficits in all three conditions, but there were also some children showing no deficits at all. These results reveal on the one hand that phonological processing deficits in dyslexia may stem from impairments in processing temporal and spectral information in the speech signal. On the other hand they indicate, however, that not all dyslexic children might be characterized by phonological or auditory processing deficits. PMID:25128788

  5. Reading disabilities in SLI and dyslexia result from distinct phonological impairments.

    PubMed

    Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Majerus, Steve; Leybaert, Jacqueline; Poncelet, Martine; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noëlle

    2009-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) who show impaired phonological processing are at risk of developing reading disabilities, which raises the question of phonological impairment commonality between developmental dyslexia (DD) and SLI. In order to distinguish the failing phonological processes in SLI and DD, we investigated the different steps involved in speech processing going from perceptual discrimination through various aspects of phonological memory. Our results show that whereas the memory for sequence is likewise impaired in either disorder, children with SLI have to face additional impairment in phonological discrimination and short-term memory, which may account for even poorer phonological awareness than dyslexics'. PMID:19437205

  6. Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M.; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2014-01-01

    Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161

  7. Implementation processes associated with a home-based phonological awareness intervention for children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Skibbe, Lori E; Justice, Laura M; Bowles, Ryan P

    2011-04-01

    The implementation processes associated with a home-based phonological awareness intervention were observed for mothers and their 4-year-old children with specific language impairment (SLI). Mother-child dyads (n = 13) read books four times per week over 12 weeks; each book contained nine embedded phonological awareness (PA) tasks. Four hundred and ninety-eight book reading sessions were coded for three variables of interest: maternal support of concept development, quantity of maternal instructional support, and accuracy of children's responses to the PA tasks. Using growth curve modelling, results indicate that maternal support of concept development decreased over the course of the 12-week program, and the quantity of maternal supports changed considerably reflecting intra-individual differences among mothers. Both support of concept development and quantity of support decreased over the course of a given week. In addition, children's responses to the phonological awareness tasks significantly increased over the 12-week intervention. Overall, mothers did not provide support that consistently supported children's learning over time, and the increases in children's correct responses, although significant, were less than anticipated given the length of the intervention. These findings indicate that mothers may need additional supports when implementing emergent literacy programs with their children. PMID:21480808

  8. Impaired Letter-String Processing in Developmental Dyslexia: What Visual-to-Phonology Code Mapping Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In…

  9. Phonological processing in Parkinson's disease: a neuropsychological assessment.

    PubMed

    Elorriaga-Santiago, Sergio; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Carrasco-Vargas, Humberto

    2013-10-23

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have cognitive deficits that cause functional impairments across several domains, including language. There is experimental evidence that basal ganglia and frontostriatal circuits are implicated in phonological processing, which leads to the hypothesis that a dysfunction of these circuits could be expressed behaviorally as phonological deficiencies in patients with PD. Using neuropsychological assessments, the present study aimed to explore the phonological processing abilities of patients in the initial stages of PD while controlling for other cognitive processes. The results showed lower scores in patients with PD on phonological tests with respect to a control group and these differences were independent of processes such as attention/working memory, long-term memory, thinking, and verbal language comprehension. However, there was an association between phonological skills and reading comprehension abilities. This finding implies a specific phonological deficit in terms of word reading. PMID:23963326

  10. Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing.

    PubMed

    Kibby, Michelle Y; Lee, Sylvia E; Dyer, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    WE COMPARED THREE PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSING COMPONENTS (PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS, RAPID AUTOMATIZED NAMING AND PHONOLOGICAL MEMORY), VERBAL WORKING MEMORY, AND ATTENTION CONTROL IN TERMS OF HOW WELL THEY PREDICT THE VARIOUS ASPECTS OF READING: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8-12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley's model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081

  11. Reading performance is predicted by more than phonological processing

    PubMed Central

    Kibby, Michelle Y.; Lee, Sylvia E.; Dyer, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    We compared three phonological processing components (phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming and phonological memory), verbal working memory, and attention control in terms of how well they predict the various aspects of reading: word recognition, pseudoword decoding, fluency and comprehension, in a mixed sample of 182 children ages 8–12 years. Participants displayed a wide range of reading ability and attention control. Multiple regression was used to determine how well the phonological processing components, verbal working memory, and attention control predict reading performance. All equations were highly significant. Phonological memory predicted word identification and decoding. In addition, phonological awareness and rapid automatized naming predicted every aspect of reading assessed, supporting the notion that phonological processing is a core contributor to reading ability. Nonetheless, phonological processing was not the only predictor of reading performance. Verbal working memory predicted fluency, decoding and comprehension, and attention control predicted fluency. Based upon our results, when using Baddeley’s model of working memory it appears that the phonological loop contributes to basic reading ability, whereas the central executive contributes to fluency and comprehension, along with decoding. Attention control was of interest as some children with ADHD have poor reading ability even if it is not sufficiently impaired to warrant diagnosis. Our finding that attention control predicts reading fluency is consistent with prior research which showed sustained attention plays a role in fluency. Taken together, our results suggest that reading is a highly complex skill that entails more than phonological processing to perform well. PMID:25285081

  12. Different Origin of Auditory and Phonological Processing Problems in Children with Language Impairment: Evidence from a Twin Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, D. V. M.; Bishop, Sonia J.; Bright, Peter; James, Cheryl; Delaney, Tom; Tallal, Paula

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 55 children with a language impairment and 76 with normal language investigated the heritability of auditory processing impairment in same-sex twins (ages 7 to 13, selected from a sample of 37 pairs). Although correlations between co-twins were high, lack of significant difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins suggested…

  13. Exploring the nature of the phonological deficit in dyslexia: are phonological representations impaired

    E-print Network

    Dickie, Catherine Elizabeth

    2009-07-03

    Developmental dyslexia is widely believed to be caused either mainly or in part by an impairment of phonological representations. Although this hypothesis predicts that individuals with dyslexia should show deficits in ...

  14. Phonological and Motor Errors in Individuals with Acquired Sound Production Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchwald, Adam; Miozzo, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare sound production errors arising due to phonological processing impairment with errors arising due to motor speech impairment. Method: Two speakers with similar clinical profiles who produced similar consonant cluster simplification errors were examined using a repetition task. We compared both overall accuracy…

  15. Do deep dyslexia, dysphasia and dysgraphia share a common phonological impairment?

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2007-01-01

    This study directly compared four patients who, to varying degrees, showed the characteristics of deep dyslexia, dysphasia and/or dysgraphia – i.e., they made semantic errors in oral reading, repetition and/or spelling to dictation. The “primary systems” hypothesis proposes that these different conditions result from severe impairment to a common phonological system, rather than damage to task-specific mechanisms (i.e. grapheme-phoneme conversion). By this view, deep dyslexic/dysphasic patients should show overlapping deficits but previous studies have not directly compared them. All four patients in the current study showed poor phonological production across different tasks, including repetition, reading aloud and spoken picture naming, in line with the primary systems hypothesis. They also showed severe deficits in tasks that required the manipulation of phonology, such as phoneme addition and deletion. Some of the characteristics of the deep syndromes – namely lexicality and imageability effects – were typically observed in all of the tasks, regardless of whether semantic errors occurred or not, suggesting that the patients’ phonological deficits impacted on repetition, reading aloud and spelling to dictation in similar ways. Differences between the syndromes were accounted for by variation in other primary systems – particularly auditory processing. Deep dysphasic symptoms occurred when the impact of phonological input on spoken output was disrupted or reduced, either as a result of auditory/phonological impairment, or for patients with good phonological input analysis, when repetition was delayed. ‘Deep’ disorders of reading aloud, repetition and spelling can therefore be explained in terms of damage to interacting primary systems such as phonology, semantics and vision, with phonology playing a critical role. PMID:17227679

  16. Understanding the Role of the Prefrontal Cortex in Phonological Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Martha W.

    2009-01-01

    Lesion studies have demonstrated impairments of specific types of phonological processes. However, results from neuropsychological studies of speech sound processing have been inconclusive as to the role of specific brain regions because of a lack of a one-to-one correspondence between behavioural patterns and lesion location. Functional…

  17. Global Rules and Phonological Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussmann, Edmund

    1973-01-01

    It is asserted that the treatment of intonation within the framework of generative grammar has not shown whether surface syntactic structure is sufficient for formulation of phonological rules. An attempt is made to demonstrate that within English phonology reference to deep structure is necessary. (Available from: See FL 508 214). (RM)

  18. Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes

    MedlinePLUS

    Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech sound disorders ? Can adults have speech sound disorders ? What ... individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as they ...

  19. Specific phonological impairments in dyslexia revealed by eyetracking.

    PubMed

    Desroches, Amy S; Joanisse, Marc F; Robertson, Erin K

    2006-07-01

    Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a display (e.g., candle) were accompanied by distractors sharing a cohort (candy) or rhyme (sandal). Like controls, dyslexics showed slower recognition times when a cohort distractor was present than in a baseline condition with only phonologically unrelated distractors. However, unlike controls, dyslexic children did not show slowed recognition of targets with a rhyme distractor, suggesting they had not encoded rhyme relationships. This was further explored in an overt phonological awareness test of cohort and rhyme. Surprisingly, dyslexics showed normal rhyme performance but poorer judgment of initial sounds on these overt tests. The results implicate impaired knowledge of rhyme information in dyslexia; however they also indicate that testing methodology plays a critical role in how such problems are identified. PMID:16288732

  20. Reading impairments in schizophrenia relate to individual differences in phonological processing and oculomotor control: evidence from a gaze-contingent moving window paradigm.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Veronica; O'Driscoll, Gillian A; Pack, Christopher C; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok; Titone, Debra

    2013-02-01

    Language and oculomotor disturbances are 2 of the best replicated findings in schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined skilled reading in schizophrenia (e.g., Arnott, Sali, Copland, 2011; Hayes & O'Grady, 2003; Revheim et al., 2006; E. O. Roberts et al., 2012), and none have examined the contribution of cognitive and motor processes that underlie reading performance. Thus, to evaluate the relationship of linguistic processes and oculomotor control to skilled reading in schizophrenia, 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 demographically matched controls were tested using a moving window paradigm (McConkie & Rayner, 1975). Linguistic skills supporting reading (phonological awareness) were assessed with the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (R. K. Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999). Eye movements were assessed during reading tasks and during nonlinguistic tasks tapping basic oculomotor control (prosaccades, smooth pursuit) and executive functions (predictive saccades, antisaccades). Compared with controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited robust oculomotor markers of reading difficulty (e.g., reduced forward saccade amplitude) and were less affected by reductions in window size, indicative of reduced perceptual span. Reduced perceptual span in schizophrenia was associated with deficits in phonological processing and reduced saccade amplitudes. Executive functioning (antisaccade errors) was not related to perceptual span but was related to reading comprehension. These findings suggest that deficits in language, oculomotor control, and cognitive control contribute to skilled reading deficits in schizophrenia. Given that both language and oculomotor dysfunction precede illness onset, reading may provide a sensitive window onto cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia vulnerability and be an important target for cognitive remediation. PMID:22506755

  1. Revealing and Quantifying the Impaired Phonological Analysis Underpinning Impaired Comprehension in Wernicke's Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Holly; Keidel, James L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Sage, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Wernicke's aphasia is a condition which results in severely disrupted language comprehension following a lesion to the left temporo-parietal region. A phonological analysis deficit has traditionally been held to be at the root of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke's aphasia, a view consistent with current functional neuroimaging which finds…

  2. Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su-Yeon

    2011-01-01

    In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…

  3. Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model

    PubMed Central

    Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At least three different models have been proposed: the severity model, the additional deficit model and the component model. We address this issue by comparing children with specific language impairment only, those with dyslexia-only, those with specific language impairment and dyslexia and those with no impairment, using a broad test battery of language skills. We find that specific language impairment and dyslexia do not always co-occur, and that some children with specific language impairment do not have a phonological deficit. Using factor analysis, we find that language abilities across the four groups of children have at least three independent sources of variance: one for non-phonological language skills and two for distinct sets of phonological abilities (which we term phonological skills versus phonological representations). Furthermore, children with specific language impairment and dyslexia show partly distinct profiles of phonological deficit along these two dimensions. We conclude that a multiple-component model of language abilities best explains the relationship between specific language impairment and dyslexia and the different profiles of impairment that are observed. PMID:23413264

  4. Phonological processing in Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Peng, Gang

    2014-12-01

    Although there is an emerging consensus that both musical and linguistic pitch processing can be problematic for individuals with a developmental disorder termed congenital amusia, the nature of such a pitch-processing deficit, especially that demonstrated in a speech setting, remains unclear. Therefore, this study tested the performance of native Mandarin speakers, both with and without amusia, on discrimination and imitation tasks for Cantonese level tones, aiming to shed light on this issue. Results suggest that the impact of the phonological deficit, coupled with that of the domain-general pitch deficit, could provide a more comprehensive interpretation of Mandarin amusics' speech impairment. Specifically, when there was a high demand for pitch sensitivity, as in fine-grained pitch discriminations, the operation of the pitch-processing deficit played the more predominant role in modulating amusics' speech performance. But when the demand was low, as in discriminating naturally produced Cantonese level tones, the impact of the phonological deficit was more pronounced compared to that of the pitch-processing deficit. However, despite their perceptual deficits, Mandarin amusics' imitation abilities were comparable to controls'. Such selective impairment in tonal perception suggests that the phonological deficit more severely implicates amusics' input pathways. PMID:25480080

  5. Phonological Processing and Reading in Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rvachew, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergarten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological

  6. Phonological development in 4-6-year-old moderately hearing impaired children.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, K H

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition of clear phonological rules is of utmost importance for a child when he/she is learning to decode and convey meanings using spoken language. Fifteen Finnish-speaking children, five normally hearing (NH) 3-year-olds and 10 moderately hearing impaired (HId) 4-6-year-olds were studied here. Speech samples consisting of 62 words were collected from each child during a picture naming task. Frequent phonetic (articulation) errors together with normal (but delayed) and deviant phonological processes of HId children were found in this study. The frequency and quality of the processes seemed to be related more to the grade of HI than, for example, the age of the child. Implications for speech therapy are briefly discussed. PMID:11409782

  7. Separate Influences of Acoustic AM and FM Sensitivity on the Phonological Decoding Skills of Impaired and Normal Readers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline Witton; John F. Stein; Catherine J. Stoodley; Burton S. Rosner; Joel B. Talcott

    2002-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is associated with deficits in the processing of basic auditory stimuli. Yet it is unclear how these sensory impairments might contribute to poor reading skills. This study better characterizes the relationship between phonological decoding skills, the lack of which is generally accepted to comprise the core deficit in reading disabilities, and auditory sensitivity to amplitude modulation (AM) and

  8. Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims: The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity among…

  9. Explaining Lexical-Semantic Deficits in Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonological Similarity, Phonological Working Memory, and Lexical Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated potential explanations for sparse lexical-semantic representations in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers. The role of auditory perception, phonological working memory, and lexical competition were investigated. Method: Participants included 32 children…

  10. Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children with Language and Reading Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…

  11. Phonological Mean Length of Utterance in Specific Language Impairment: A Multi-Case Study of Children Acquiring Finnish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunnari, Sari; Saaristo-Helin, Katri; Savinainen-Makkonen, Tuula

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the phonological development of four Finnish-speaking children (ages 4;8, 4;9, 4;9 and 5;5) with specific language impairment (SLI) and dyspractic features in speech. The analysis is performed using the phonological mean length of utterance (pMLU) method. Moreover, the children's phonological abilities are evaluated…

  12. Specific Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia Revealed by Eyetracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desroches, Amy S.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Robertson, Erin K.

    2006-01-01

    Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a…

  13. Patterns of Impairments in AOS and Mechanisms of Interaction between Phonological and Phonetic Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laganaro, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: One reason why the diagnosis of apraxia of speech (AOS) and its underlying impairment are often debated may lie in the fact that most patients do not display pure patterns of AOS. Mixed patterns are clearly acknowledged at other levels of impairment (e.g., lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological), and they have contributed to debate…

  14. Phonological Deficits in Specific Language Impairment and Developmental Dyslexia: Towards a Multidimensional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

    2013-01-01

    An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At…

  15. Phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval: evidence from developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart

    2010-12-01

    The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact retrieval. The present study tested this proposal in 25 adults with developmental dyslexia and 25 matched controls by examining strategy use during single-digit multiplication and subtraction and its associations with phonological processing. Findings revealed that individuals with dyslexia retrieved fewer arithmetic facts from memory and were less efficient in doing so. At the same time, they showed deficits in phonological processing. Phonological processing, particularly phonological awareness, was related to arithmetic fact retrieval. This association was especially prominent in multiplication, indicating that fact retrieval in multiplication rather than subtraction is mediated by phonological processes. These data provide ground for future neuroimaging studies, who should examine the neural overlap between phonological processing and multiplication fact retrieval in the same sample of participants. PMID:20965205

  16. An fMRI Study of Multimodal Semantic and Phonological Processing in Reading Disabled Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landi, Nicole; Mencl, W. Einar; Frost, Stephen J.; Sandak, Rebecca; Pugh, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated multimodal (visual and auditory) semantic and unimodal (visual only) phonological processing in reading disabled (RD) adolescents and non-impaired (NI) control participants. We found reduced activation for RD relative to NI in a number of left-hemisphere reading-related areas across all…

  17. Phonological Processing In Adults with Deficits in Musical Pitch Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer L.; Lucker, Jay; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Drayna, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Educational Objectives The reader will 1) understand the broad range of deficits in phonological perception and processing that accompany deficits in musical pitch recognition, and 2) recognize the possible utility of musical evaluation measures and music-based therapies in the treatment of phonological and other speech disorders. PMID:19233383

  18. Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

  19. Phonological and Lexical Effects in Verbal Recall by Children with Specific Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Coady, Jeffry A.; Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims The present study examined how phonological and lexical knowledge influences memory in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work showed recall advantages for typical adults and children due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency and a recall disadvantage due to phonological similarity among words. While children with SLI have well documented memory difficulties, it is not clear whether these language knowledge factors also influence recall in this population. Methods & Procedures 16 children with SLI (mean age 10;2) and CAM controls recalled lists of words differing in phonological similarity, word frequency, and phonotactic pattern frequency. While previous studies used a small set of words appearing in multiple word lists, the current study used a larger set of words, without replacement, so that children could not gain practice with individual test items. Outcomes & Results All main effects were significant. Interactions revealed that children with SLI were affected by similarity, but less so than their peers, comparably affected by word frequency, and unaffected by phonotactic pattern frequency. Conclusions Results due to phonological similarity suggest that children with SLI use less efficient encoding, while results due to word frequency and phonotactic pattern frequency were mixed. Children with SLI used coarse-grained language knowledge (word frequency) comparably to peers, but were less able to use fine-grained knowledge (phonotactic pattern frequency). Paired with phonological similarity results, this suggests that children with SLI have difficulty establishing robust phonological knowledge for use in language tasks. PMID:23472955

  20. Low Intensity Phonological Awareness Training in a Preschool Classroom for Children with Communication Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Sandra P.; Espeland, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Phonological awareness is a term that refers to one's knowledge of the sound structure of spoken language. Children who understand that sounds in language represent the letters used in reading and writing typically learn to read more easily than children who do not. Children with language and/or speech impairments often demonstrate a lack of…

  1. Past-Tense Morphology and Phonological Deficits in Children with Dyslexia and Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Desroches, Amy S.; Terry, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated past-tense morphology problems in children with dyslexia compared to those classically observed in children with oral language impairment (LI). Children were tested on a past-tense elicitation task involving regulars ("look-looked"), irregulars ("take-took"), and nonwords ("murn-murned"). Phonological skills were also…

  2. How Do Children with Phonological Impairment Respond to Requests for Clarification Containing Polysyllables?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masso, Sarah; McCabe, Patricia; Baker, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Accurate production of polysyllables (words of three or more syllables) can be challenging for children with phonological impairment. Research with typically developing children has suggested that children can improve their polysyllable productions in response to requests for clarification containing an incorrect model of a target word (Gozzard et…

  3. Effectiveness of Early Phonological Awareness Interventions for Students with Speech or Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Zilkowski, Robin; Curran, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews research examining the efficacy of early phonological interventions for young students identified with Speech or Language impairments. Eighteen studies are included, providing results for nearly 500 students in preschool through third grade. Although findings were generally positive, there were large individual differences in response to intervention. Further, there was little evidence that interventions enabled students to catch up in phonological or reading skills to typically developing peers. Methodological issues are described and implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:20161557

  4. Reading Impairments in Schizophrenia Relate to Individual Differences in Phonological Processing and Oculomotor Control: Evidence from a Gaze-Contingent Moving Window Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitford, Veronica; O'Driscoll, Gillian A.; Pack, Christopher C.; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok; Titone, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Language and oculomotor disturbances are 2 of the best replicated findings in schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined skilled reading in schizophrenia (e.g., Arnott, Sali, Copland, 2011; Hayes & O'Grady, 2003; Revheim et al., 2006; E. O. Roberts et al., 2012), and none have examined the contribution of cognitive and motor processes that…

  5. Phonological working memory impairments in children with specific language impairment: where does the problem lie?

    PubMed Central

    Alt, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine which factors contribute to the lexical learning deficits of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Method Participants included 40 7-8-year old participants, half of whom were diagnosed with SLI and half of whom had normal language skills. We tested hypotheses about the contributions to word learning of the initial encoding of phonological information and the link to long-term memory. Children took part in a computer-based fast-mapping task which manipulated word length and phonotactic probability to address the hypotheses. The task had a recognition and a production component. Data were analyzed using mixed ANOVAs with post-hoc testing. Results Results indicate that the main problem for children with SLI is with initial encoding, with implications for limited capacity. There was not strong evidence for specific deficits in the link to long term memory. Conclusions We were able to ascertain which aspects of lexical learning are most problematic for children with SLI in terms of fast-mapping. These findings may allow clinicians to focus intervention on known areas of weakness. Future directions include extending these findings to slow mapping scenarios. PMID:20943232

  6. Developmental dyslexia and phonological processing in European Portuguese orthography.

    PubMed

    Moura, Octávio; Moreno, Joana; Pereira, Marcelino; Simões, Mário R

    2015-02-01

    This study analysed the performance of phonological processing, the diagnostic accuracy and the influence on reading in children who were native speakers of an orthography of intermediate depth. Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia (DD; N=24; aged 10-12?years), chronological age (CA)-matched controls (N=24; aged 10-12?years) and reading level (RL)-matched controls (N=24; aged 7-9?years) were tested on measures of phonological processing (phonological awareness, naming speed and verbal short-term memory) and reading. The results indicated that the children with DD performed significantly poorer in all measures compared with the CA and RL. Phonological awareness and naming speed showed a high accuracy (receiver operating characteristics curve analysis) for discriminating the children with DD from the CA and RL, whereas the presence of abnormally low scores in phonological awareness and naming speed was more frequent in the DD group than in the controls and the normative population. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that phonological awareness was the most important predictor of all reading accuracy measures, whereas naming speed was particularly related to text reading fluency. PMID:25530196

  7. Are phonological processing deficits part of the broad autism phenotype?

    PubMed

    Bishop, Dorothy V M; Maybery, Murray; Wong, Dana; Maley, Alana; Hill, Wayne; Hallmayer, Joachim

    2004-07-01

    Two tests of phonological processing, nonword repetition, and nonsense passage reading, were administered to 80 probands with autistic disorder or PDDNOS (index cases) and 59 typically developing controls, together with their parents and siblings. In addition, parents completed a questionnaire about history of language and literacy problems, and all participants were given tests of verbal (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ). Parents also completed the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, which was used to index the broad autism phenotype. Index probands scored well below control probands on the two phonological tests. However, on neither phonological measure did index relatives differ from control relatives. Within the index group, there was no relationship between the proband's level of VIQ, or age at achieving phrase speech, and phonological score of relatives. VIQ was the only measure to show any familiality within the index group. Reported history of language and literacy problems did not differentiate index parents from control parents overall, but those who were categorized as cases of the broad phenotype reported more history of language and literacy problems than did other index parents. However, they did not have poorer scores on the phonological measures. It is concluded that phonological processing deficits are not part of the broad autism phenotype. PMID:15211632

  8. The interface between morphology and phonology: Exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment—these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

  9. Phonological Awareness of Young Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatton, Deborah D.; Erickson, Karen A.; Lee, Donna Brostek

    2010-01-01

    The findings from a sample of 22 young children with visual impairments and no additional disabilities suggest that potential readers of braille or dual media had better syllable-segmentation, sound-isolation, and sound-segmentation skills than potential readers of print. Potential readers of print seemed to have slightly better…

  10. Practiced Connections of Orthographic and Phonological Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara R. Foorman

    \\u000a When one’s assignment is the clean-up act—the last chapter in a two-volume series on The Varieties of Orthographic\\u000a Knowledge—one can claim poetic license. Through a few rhymes and orthographic maneuvers I have tried to capture many of the themes\\u000a discussed in the nine chapters of this second volume relating orthography to phonology, reading, and writing. The themes,\\u000a organized into stanzas

  11. Phonological Processes in Kannada-Speaking Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R.; Velleman, Shelley L.

    2010-01-01

    Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some…

  12. Are phonological processing deficits part of the broad autism phenotype?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy V. M. Bishop; Murray Maybery; Dana Wong; Alana Maley; Wayne Hill; Joachim Hallmayer

    2004-01-01

    Two tests of phonological processing, nonword repetition, and nonsense passage reading, were administered to 80 probands with autistic disor- der or PDDNOS (index cases) and 59 typically developing controls, together with their parents and siblings. In addition, parents completed a questionnaire about history of language and literacy problems, and all participants were given tests of verbal (VIQ) and performance IQ

  13. Impaired Phonological and Orthographic Word Representations among Adult Dyslexic Readers: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyler, Ann; Breznitz, Zvia

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the processing of phonological and orthographic word representations among 17 dyslexic and 16 normal college-level readers using Event-Related Potential measures. They focused on 2 early components--the P200 and the P300. The results revealed P200 and P300 components of lower amplitude and later latency among dyslexic readers…

  14. Evidence for a Preserved Sensitivity to Orthographic Redundancy and an Impaired Access to Phonological Syllables in French Developmental Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doignon-Camus, Nadège; Seigneuric, Alix; Perrier, Emeline; Sisti, Aurélie; Zagar, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the orthographic and phonological processing skills of developmental dyslexics, we (a) examined their abilities to exploit properties of orthographic redundancy and (b) tested whether their phonological deficit extends to spelling-to-sound connections for large-grain size units such as syllables. To assess the processing skills in…

  15. Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

  16. Influence of Phonology on Morpho-Syntax in Romance Languages in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Serra-Raventos, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    Background: The profiles of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ greatly according to the language they speak. The Surface Hypothesis attempts to explain these differences through the theory that children with SLI will incorrectly produce elements in their language with low phonological weights or that are produced in a…

  17. A comparison of semantic feature analysis and phonological components analysis for the treatment of naming impairments in aphasia.

    PubMed

    van Hees, Sophia; Angwin, Anthony; McMahon, Katie; Copland, David

    2013-01-01

    Therapy for naming impairments post-stroke typically involves semantic and/or phonologically-based tasks. However, the relationship between individuals' locus of breakdown in word retrieval and their response to a particular treatment approach remains unclear, and direct comparisons of treatments with different targets (semantics, phonology) yet similar formats are lacking. This study examined eight people with aphasia who each received 12 treatment sessions; half the sessions involved a semantically-based treatment task, Semantic Feature Analysis (SFA), and the other half involved a phonologically-based treatment task, Phonological Components Analysis (PCA). Pre-therapy baseline accuracy scores were compared to naming accuracy post-treatment and at follow-up assessment. Seven of the eight participants showed significant improvements in naming items treated with PCA, with six of these seven participants maintaining improvements at follow-up. Four of the eight participants showed significant improvements for items treated with SFA, with three of the four maintaining improvements at follow-up. The semantic therapy was not beneficial for participants with semantic deficits. In contrast, the phonological therapy was beneficial for most participants, despite differences in underlying impairments. Understanding the relationship between an individual's locus of breakdown in word retrieval and response to different treatment tasks has the potential to optimise targeted treatment. PMID:23098246

  18. Children's recognition of their own recorded voice: influence of age and phonological impairment.

    PubMed

    Strömbergsson, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Children with phonological impairment (PI) often have difficulties perceiving insufficiencies in their own speech. The use of recordings has been suggested as a way of directing the child's attention toward his/her own speech, despite a lack of evidence that children actually recognize their recorded voice as their own. We present two studies of children's self-voice identification, one exploring developmental aspects, and one exploring potential effects of having a PI. The results indicate that children from 4 to 8 years recognize their recorded voice well (around 80% accuracy), regardless of whether they have a PI or not. A subtle change in this ability from 4 to 8 years is observed that could be linked to a development in short-term memory. Clinically, one can indeed expect an advantage of using recordings in therapy; this could constitute an intermediate step toward the more challenging task of online self-monitoring. PMID:23237416

  19. A Model of Phonological Processing, Language, and Reading for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R. Michael; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-aged children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using structural equation modeling. Phonological processing consisted of two distinct but correlated latent abilities: phonological awareness and naming speed. Phonological awareness had strong relationships with expressive and receptive language and reading skills. Naming speed had moderate relationships with these variables. Results suggest that children with ID bring the same skills to the task of learning to read as children with typical development, highlighting that phonologically based reading instruction should be considered a viable approach. PMID:24245730

  20. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

  1. An Investigation into Semantic and Phonological Processing in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheryl S.; Binder, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The current study examined semantic and phonological processing in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS). Previous research in language processing in individuals with WS suggests a complex linguistic system characterized by "deviant" semantic organization and differential phonological processing. Method: Two experiments…

  2. Phonological Processes in Fricative Acquisition. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Mary Louise

    The research reported here was carried out to help establish the normal course of fricative acquisition as a basis for comparisons with abnormal development. Three questions concerning phonological processes were investigated as part of a larger study of fricative acquisition: (1) the phonological processes that underlie children's fricative…

  3. Toddlers' Processing of Phonological Alternations: Early Compensation for Assimilation in English and French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoruppa, Katrin; Mani, Nivedita; Peperkamp, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Using a picture pointing task, this study examines toddlers' processing of phonological alternations that trigger sound changes in connected speech. Three experiments investigate whether 2;5- to 3-year-old children take into account assimilations--processes by which phonological features of one sound spread to adjacent sounds--for the purpose of…

  4. Response Inhibition and Its Relationship to Phonological Processing in Children with and without Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Johanna M.; Labuhn, Andju S.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates response inhibition and its relationship to phonological processing in third-graders with and without dyslexia. Children with dyslexia (n = 20) and children without dyslexia (n = 16) were administered a stop signal task and a digit span forwards task. Initial analyses revealed phonological processing deficits in terms of a…

  5. The Influence of Phonological Processing and Inattentive Behavior on Reading Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dally, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a longitudinal study investigating the influence of phonological processing and inattentive behavior on reading acquisition. Data from individually administered measures of phonological processing and reading, as well as teacher ratings of children's behavior, were collected from a cohort of 132 children at…

  6. Impaired learning of phonetic consistency and generalized neural adaptation deficits in dyslexia

    E-print Network

    Perrachione, Tyler K. (Tyler Kent)

    2012-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a neurological condition that specifically impairs the development of expert reading ability. Phonological processing deficits -- impaired representation of, or access to, the abstract units of ...

  7. Functional Specialization for Semantic and Phonological Processing in the Left Inferior Prefrontal Cortex1

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Anthony

    Functional Specialization for Semantic and Phonological Processing in the Left Inferior Prefrontal and neuropsychological studies have implicated left inferior prefrontal cortex (LIPC) in both semantic and phonological Academic Press The inferior cortex of the left frontal lobe is critically involved in language function

  8. Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

    2006-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (p<0.05) than normal-reading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

  9. Top-Down Processing in Vision 839 Goldsmith, J. (1990). Autosegmental and Metrical Phonology.

    E-print Network

    Cavanagh, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Top-Down Processing in Vision 839 References Goldsmith, J. (1990). Autosegmental and Metrical Phonology. Oxford: Blackwell. Goldsmith, J. (1994). Tone languages. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Pergamon Press. Goldsmith, J., Ed. (1995). The Handbook of Phonological Theory. Oxford: Blackwell. Hyman, L

  10. Efficacy of temporal processing training to improve phonological awareness among dyslexic and normal reading students.

    PubMed

    Fostick, Leah; Eshcoly, Reut; Shtibelman, Hila; Nehemia, Revital; Levi, Hadas

    2014-10-01

    One of the leading theories for dyslexia suggests that it is the result of a difficulty in auditory temporal processing (ATP). This theory, as well as others, is supported by studies showing group differences and correlation between phonological awareness and ATP. However, these studies do not provide causal relationship. In the current study the authors aimed to test causal relationship between ATP and phonological awareness by comparing the performance of dyslexic and normal reader students in phonological awareness tasks before and after a short-term (5-day) training in either temporal processing (dichotic temporal order judgment; TOJ), nontemporal processing (intensity discrimination), or no training. TOJ training resulted in significant reduction of TOJ threshold and increase in phonological awareness tasks' scores. Intensity discrimination training resulted in a decrease of intensity discrimination threshold, but with no change in phonological awareness tasks. Those who had no training, had no change in TOJ and intensity discrimination thresholds, as well as in the phonological awareness tasks. These results show that (a) a short-term training in temporal processing with no other perceptual cues for adult dyslexic and normal readers can be efficient in improving their phonological awareness; and (b) phonological awareness (dis) ability has causal relationship to ATP. PMID:25089573

  11. Cerebral Asymmetries in Early Orthographic and Phonological Reading Processes: Evidence from Backward Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halderman, Laura K.; Chiarello, Christine

    2005-01-01

    A lateralized backward masking paradigm was used to examine hemisphere differences in orthographic and phonological processes at an early time course of word recognition. Targets (e.g., bowl) were presented and backward masked by either pseudohomophones of the target word (orthographically and phonologically similar, e.g., BOAL), orthographically…

  12. Phonological profile of Spanish-Catalan children with specific language impairment at age 4: are there any changes over time?

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Serra-Raventós, Miquel

    2006-01-01

    The phonology of a group of Spanish-Catalan children with specific language impairment (SLI, n = 5), who had been analysed at age 3;10, is now analysed at age 4;09 and compared with two control groups: an age-matched control (n = 5) and a language level control (measured using the mean length of utterance by words; n = 5). The children with SLI continue to show a delay in the acquisition of segments, syllabic structures and in the use of the simplification processes, but not in word structures, compared with their age-matched controls. Children with SLI also display significant differences compared with their language level controls, but not in the same areas as observed at age 3: the differences are now in nasals and liquids at the segmental level, and in CCV, CVC and other complex structures at the syllabic level. There are also some simplification processes that seem to be more prevalent in these children than in their language level controls: absence of trill, cluster reductions and consonant deletions. The results enable us to interpret SLI as more than a delayed development and to show the differences in the profiles over time. PMID:17108698

  13. Semantic, syntactic, and phonological processing of written words in adult developmental dyslexic readers: an event-related brain potential study

    PubMed Central

    Rüsseler, Jascha; Becker, Petra; Johannes, Sönke; Münte, Thomas F

    2007-01-01

    Background The present study used event-related brain potentials to investigate semantic, phonological and syntactic processes in adult German dyslexic and normal readers in a word reading task. Pairs of German words were presented one word at a time. Subjects had to perform a semantic judgment task (house – window; are they semantically related?), a rhyme judgment task (house – mouse; do they rhyme?) and a gender judgment task (das – Haus [the – house]; is the gender correct? [in German, house has a neutral gender: das Haus]). Results Normal readers responded faster compared to dyslexic readers in all three tasks. Onset latencies of the N400 component were delayed in dyslexic readers in the rhyme judgment and in the gender judgment task, but not in the semantic judgment task. N400 and the anterior negativity peak amplitudes did not differ between the two groups. However, the N400 persisted longer in the dyslexic group in the rhyme judgment and in the semantic judgment tasks. Conclusion These findings indicate that dyslexics are phonologically impaired (delayed N400 in the rhyme judgment task) but that they also have difficulties in other, non-phonological aspects of reading (longer response times, longer persistence of the N400). Specifically, semantic and syntactic integration seem to require more effort for dyslexic readers and take longer irrespective of the reading task that has to be performed. PMID:17640332

  14. They played with the trade: MEG investigation of the processing of past tense verbs and their phonological twins

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Rachel; Brindley, Lisa; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Patterson, Karalyn

    2012-01-01

    How regular and irregular verbs are processed remains a matter of debate. Some English-speaking patients with nonfluent aphasia are especially impaired on regular past-tense forms like played, whether the task requires production, comprehension or even the judgement that “play” and “played” sound different. Within a dual-mechanism account of inflectional morphology, these deficits reflect disruption to the rule-based process that adds (or strips) the suffix -ed to regular verb stems; but the fact that the patients are also impaired at detecting the difference between word pairs like “tray” and “trade” (the latter being a phonological but not a morphological twin to “played”) suggests an important role for phonological characteristics of the regular past tense. The present study examined MEG brain responses in healthy participants evoked by spoken regular past-tense forms and phonological twin words (plus twin pseudowords and a non-speech control) presented in a passive oddball paradigm. Deviant forms (played, trade, kwade/kwayed) relative to their standards (play, tray, kway) elicited a pronounced neuromagnetic response at approximately 130 ms after the onset of the affix; this response was maximal at sensors over temporal areas of both hemispheres but stronger on the left, especially for played and kwayed. Relative to the same standards, a different set of deviants ending in /t/?—plate, trait and kwate—?produced stronger difference responses especially over the right hemisphere. Results are discussed with regard to dual- and single-mechanism theories of past tense processing and the need to consider neurobiological evidence in attempts to understand inflectional morphology. PMID:23103839

  15. Phonological Processing of Words in Right- and Left-Handers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Tania; Monetta, Laura; Joanette, Yves

    2004-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that phonology is the exclusive domain of the left hemisphere. However, this pattern of lateralization, which posits a right visual field advantage, has been questioned by several studies. In fact, certain factors such as characteristics of the stimuli and subjects' handedness can modulate the right visual field advantage.…

  16. Phonologic Processing in Adults Who Stutter: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Spruill, John E., III; Smith, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), judgment accuracy, and reaction times (RTs) were obtained for 11 adults who stutter and 11 normally fluent speakers as they performed a rhyme judgment task of visually presented word pairs. Half of the word pairs (i.e., prime and target) were phonologically and orthographically congruent across words. That…

  17. Phonological short-term memory impairment and the word length effect in children with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Poloczek, Sebastian; Büttner, Gerhard; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) of nonspecific aetiology perform poorer on phonological short-term memory tasks than children matched for mental age indicating a structural deficit in a process contributing to short-term recall of verbal material. One explanation is that children with ID of nonspecific aetiology do not activate subvocal rehearsal to refresh degrading memory traces. However, existing research concerning this explanation is inconclusive since studies focussing on the word length effect (WLE) as indicator of rehearsal have revealed inconsistent results for samples with ID and because in several existing studies, it is unclear whether the WLE was caused by rehearsal or merely appeared during output of the responses. We assumed that in children with ID only output delays produce a small WLE while in typically developing 6- to 8-year-olds rehearsal and output contribute to the WLE. From this assumption we derived several predictions that were tested in an experiment including 34 children with mild or borderline ID and 34 typically developing children matched for mental age (MA). As predicted, results revealed a small but significant WLE for children with ID that was significantly smaller than the WLE in the control group. Additionally, for children with ID, a WLE was not found for the first word of each trial but the effect emerged only in later serial positions. The findings corroborate the notion that in children with ID subvocal rehearsal does not develop in line with their mental age and provide a potential explanation for the inconsistent results on the WLE in children with ID. PMID:24361814

  18. A phonological investigation of four siblings with childhood autism.

    PubMed

    Wolk, L; Giesen, J

    2000-01-01

    Multiple autistic siblings of four or more are extremely rare. This study carried out a phonological investigation of four siblings in a unique family. Phonological investigations were carried out on four siblings with childhood autism (one female and three males). In addition, behavioral characteristics were described and compared among the four children. The two methods used for speech elicitation were object naming and spontaneous speech utterances. Data analyses included phonetic inventory and phonological process analyses. Phonological investigations showed that these autistic children, at least the more severely impaired ones, do not only exhibit delayed phonological behavior, but also show some atypical patterns that rarely occur in normal development. Findings from this study reveal five general patterns of phonological behavior, namely: (a) evidence of several phonological processes that are common in normal development; (b) persistence of several phonological processes, such as labialization, cluster reduction, or final consonant deletion, beyond the expected age; (c) evidence of unusual sound changes, such as extensive segment coalescence, frication of liquids, and velarization; (d) evidence of "chronological mismatch" (Grunwell, 1981), which is the notion of the absence of earlier sounds co-occurring with characteristics of later development; and (e) restricted use of contrasts. These findings support earlier work on a single autistic child using phonological investigations (Wolk & Edwards, 1993), but contrast with all previous research suggesting that autistic children exhibit delayed rather than unusual phonological development. Clinical implications are suggested. PMID:11081786

  19. The processing of English regular inflections: Phonological cues to morphological structure.

    PubMed

    Post, Brechtje; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that different neural and functional mechanisms are involved in the analysis of irregular (caught) and regular (filled) past tense forms in English. In particular, the comprehension and production of regular forms is argued to require processes of morpho-phonological assembly and disassembly, analysing these forms into a stem plus an inflectional affix (e.g., {fill}+{-ed}), as opposed to irregular forms, which do not have an overt stem+affix structure and must be analysed as full forms [Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Tyler, L. K. (1997). Dissociating types of mental computation. Nature, 387, 592-594; Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Tyler, L. K. (1998). Rules, representations, and the English past tense. Trends in Cognitive Science, 2, 428-435]. On this account, any incoming string that shows the critical diagnostic properties of an inflected form - a final coronal consonant (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/) that agrees in voicing with the preceding segment as in filled, mild, or nilled - will automatically trigger an attempt at segmentation. We report an auditory speeded judgment experiment which explored the contribution of these critical morpho-phonological properties (labelled as the English inflectional rhyme pattern) to the processing of English regular inflections. The results show that any stimulus that can be interpreted as ending in a regular inflection, whether it is a real inflection (filled-fill), a pseudo-inflection (mild-mile) or a phonologically matched nonword (nilled-nill), is responded to more slowly than an unambiguously monomorphemic stimulus pair (e.g., belt-bell). This morpho-phonological effect was independent of phonological effects of voicing and syllabicity. The findings are interpreted as evidence for a basic morpho-phonological parsing process that applies to all items with the criterial phonological properties. PMID:18834584

  20. The Influence of Working Memory and Phonological Processing on English Language Learner Children's Bilingual Reading and Language Acquisition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lee Swanson; Michael J. Orosco; Cathy M. Lussier; Michael M. Gerber; Danielle A. Guzman-Orth

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether the contribution of working memory (WM) to children's (N = 471) 2nd language (L2) reading and language acquisition was best accounted for by processing efficiency at a phonological level and\\/or by executive processes independent of phonological processing. Elementary school children (Grades 1, 2, & 3) whose 1st language (L1) was Spanish were administered a

  1. The Influence of Working Memory and Phonological Processing on English Language Learner Children's Bilingual Reading and Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Orosco, Michael J.; Lussier, Cathy M.; Gerber, Michael M.; Guzman-Orth, Danielle A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether the contribution of working memory (WM) to children's (N = 471) 2nd language (L2) reading and language acquisition was best accounted for by processing efficiency at a phonological level and/or by executive processes independent of phonological processing. Elementary school children (Grades 1, 2, & 3) whose 1st…

  2. The Nature of Preschool Phonological Processing Abilities and Their Relations to Vocabulary, General Cognitive Abilities, and Print Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Anthony, Jason L.; Phillips, Beth M.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; McQueen, Jessica D.

    2009-01-01

    The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities represents an important developmental milestone in the process of learning to read. In this cross-sectional study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of phonological processing abilities in 129 younger preschoolers (M = 40.88 months, SD = 4.65) and 304…

  3. Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Ability in Normal Readers and Readers with Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine M.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Bailey, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies explored the relationship between rapid auditory processing and phonological processing in 82 typical children and compared 17 children with dyslexia to controls. Children with dyslexia performed at a level similar to reading-age controls on auditory processing but obtained scores that were significantly below those of the…

  4. Mutation of Dcdc2 in mice leads to impairments in auditory processing and memory ability.

    PubMed

    Truong, D T; Che, A; Rendall, A R; Szalkowski, C E; LoTurco, J J; Galaburda, A M; Holly Fitch, R

    2014-11-01

    Dyslexia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reading ability despite normal intellect, and is associated with specific difficulties in phonological and rapid auditory processing (RAP), visual attention and working memory. Genetic variants in Doublecortin domain-containing protein 2 (DCDC2) have been associated with dyslexia, impairments in phonological processing and in short-term/working memory. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sensory and behavioral impairments can result directly from mutation of the Dcdc2 gene in mice. Several behavioral tasks, including a modified pre-pulse inhibition paradigm (to examine auditory processing), a 4/8 radial arm maze (to assess/dissociate working vs. reference memory) and rotarod (to examine sensorimotor ability and motor learning), were used to assess the effects of Dcdc2 mutation. Behavioral results revealed deficits in RAP, working memory and reference memory in Dcdc2(del2/del2) mice when compared with matched wild types. Current findings parallel clinical research linking genetic variants of DCDC2 with specific impairments of phonological processing and memory ability. PMID:25130614

  5. Phonological and semantic influences on auditory word perception in children with and without reading impairments using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG)

    E-print Network

    Wehner, Daniel T

    2007-01-01

    Children with dyslexia struggle with learning to read despite adequate intelligence, motivation, and schooling. Over the years, there has been a growing consensus about the role of phonological processing in reading ...

  6. Effective brain connectivity in children with reading difficulties during phonological processing

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fan; Bitan, Tali; Booth, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Using Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined effective connectivity between three left hemisphere brain regions (inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus) and bilateral medial frontal gyrus in 12 children with reading difficulties (M age = 12.4, range: 8.11–14.10) and 12 control children (M age = 12.3, range: 8.9–14.11) during rhyming judgments to visually presented words. More difficult conflicting trials either had similar orthography but different phonology (e.g. pint-mint) or similar phonology but different orthography (e.g. jazz-has). Easier non-conflicting trials had similar orthography and phonology (e.g. dime-lime) or different orthography and phonology (e.g. staff-gain). The modulatory effect from left fusiform gyrus to left inferior parietal lobule was stronger in controls than in children with reading difficulties only for conflicting trials. Modulatory effects from left fusiform gyrus and left inferior parietal lobule to left inferior frontal gyrus were stronger for conflicting trials than for non-conflicting trials only in control children but not in children with reading difficulties. Modulatory effects from left inferior frontal gyrus to inferior parietal lobule, from medial frontal gyrus to left inferior parietal lobule, and from left inferior parietal lobule to medial frontal gyrus were positively correlated with reading skill only in control children. These findings suggest that children with reading difficulties have deficits in integrating orthography and phonology utilizing left inferior parietal lobule, and in engaging phonological rehearsal/segmentation utilizing left inferior frontal gyrus possibly through the indirect pathway connecting posterior to anterior language processing regions, especially when the orthographic and phonological information is conflicting. PMID:18226833

  7. Improving the Early Literacy Skills of Children with Behavioral Disorders and Phonological Processing Deficits at School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, J. Ron; Benner, Gregory J.

    2005-01-01

    Improving the reading outcomes of children with concomitant emotional and behavior disorders (BD) and phonological processing deficits represents one of the greatest challenges facing educators today. For example, the results from a meta-analysis indicated that problem behavior (Z[sub r]=.46) was as important as phonological processing skills in…

  8. Process Dissociation of Sight Vocabulary and Phonetic Decoding in Reading: A New Perspective on Surface and Phonological Dyslexias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Patricia; Borowsky, Ron; MacKinnon, G. E.; Hymel, Shelley

    2005-01-01

    Recent research on developmental dyslexia has suggested a phonological core deficit hypothesis (e.g., Manis, Seidenberg, Doi, McBride-Chang, & Peterson, 1996; Stanovich, Siegel, & Gottardo, 1997) whereby pure cases of developmental phonological dyslexia (dysfunctional phonetic decoding processing but normal sight vocabulary processing) can exist,…

  9. Orthographic and Phonological Preview Benefits: Parafoveal Processing in Skilled and Less-skilled Deaf Readers

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Many deaf individuals do not develop the high-level reading skills that will allow them to fully take part into society. To attempt to explain this widespread difficulty in the deaf population, much research has honed in on the use of phonological codes during reading. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers, though not well supported, still lingers in the literature. We investigated skilled and less-skilled adult deaf readers’ processing of orthographic and phonological codes in parafoveal vision during reading by monitoring their eye movements and using the boundary paradigm. Orthographic preview benefits were found in early measures of reading for skilled hearing, skilled deaf, and less-skilled deaf readers, but only skilled hearing readers processed phonological codes in parafoveal vision. Crucially, skilled and less-skilled deaf readers showed a very similar pattern of preview benefits during reading. These results support the notion that reading difficulties in deaf adults are not linked to their failure to activate phonological codes during reading. PMID:23768045

  10. Phonological Dyslexia and Dysgraphia: Cognitive Mechanisms and Neural Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Beeson, Pélagie M.; Henry, Maya L.; Leyden, Anne; Kim, Esther; Rising, Kindle; Andersen, Sarah; Cho, HyeSuk

    2009-01-01

    To examine the validity of different theoretical assumptions about the neuropsychological mechanisms and lesion correlates of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia, we studied written and spoken language performance in a large cohort of patients with focal damage to perisylvian cortical regions implicated in phonological processing. Despite considerable variation in accuracy for both words and non-words, the majority of participants demonstrated the increased lexicality effects in reading and spelling that are considered the hallmark features of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia. Increased lexicality effects were also documented in spoken language tasks such as oral repetition, and patients performed poorly on a battery of phonological tests that did not involve an orthographic component. Furthermore, a composite measure of general phonological ability was strongly predictive of both reading and spelling accuracy, and we obtained evidence that the continuum of severity that characterized the written language disorder of our patients was attributable to an underlying continuum of phonological impairment. Although patients demonstrated qualitatively similar deficits across measures of written and spoken language processing, there were quantitative differences in levels of performance reflecting task difficulty effects. Spelling was more severely affected than reading by the reduction in phonological capacity and this differential vulnerability accounted for occasional disparities between patterns of impairment on the two written language tasks. Our findings suggest that phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia in patients with perisylvian lesions are manifestations of a central or modality-independent phonological deficit rather than the result of damage to cognitive components dedicated to reading or spelling. Our results also provide empirical support for shared-components models of written language processing, according to which the same central cognitive systems support both reading and spelling. Lesion-deficit correlations indicated that phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia may be produced by damage to a variety of perisylvian cortical regions, consistent with distributed network models of phonological processing. PMID:18625494

  11. Interaction of Phonological Awareness and "Magnocellular" Processing during Normal and Dyslexic Reading: Behavioural and fMRI Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen, Muna; Meffert, Elisabeth; Grabowska, Anna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether phonological deficits are a consequence of magnocellular processing deficits in dyslexic and control children. In Experiment 1, children were tested for reading ability, phonological awareness, visuo-magnocellular motion perception, and attention shifting (sometimes considered as magnocellular function). A two-step cluster…

  12. Communication, Listening, Cognitive and Speech Perception Skills in Children with Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Melanie A.; Hall, Rebecca L.; Riley, Alison; Moore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Parental reports of communication, listening, and behavior in children receiving a clinical diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) or auditory processing disorder (APD) were compared with direct tests of intelligence, memory, language, phonology, literacy, and speech intelligibility. The primary aim was to identify whether there…

  13. A functional toolkit for morphological and phonological processing, application to a Sanskrit tagger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérard P. Huet

    2005-01-01

    We present the Zen toolkit for morphological and phonological processing of natural lan- guages. This toolkit is presented in literate programming style, in the Pidgin ML subset of the Objective Caml functional programming language. This toolkit is based on a sys- tematic representation of nite state automata and transducers as decorated lexical trees. All operations on the state space data

  14. Phonological Processing Skills as Predictors of Literacy amongst Arabic Speaking Bahraini Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    al Mannai, Haya; Everatt, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the reading and spelling skills of grades 1-3 Arabic-speaking children in Bahrain. Children were tested on their literacy skills (single word reading and spelling), their ability to decode letter strings (non-word reading) and measures of phonological awareness, short-term memory, speed of processing and non-verbal…

  15. General Auditory Processing, Speech Perception and Phonological Awareness Skills in Chinese-English Biliteracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the associations of general auditory processing, speech perception, phonological awareness and word reading in Cantonese-speaking children from Hong Kong learning to read both Chinese (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). Children in Grades 2--4 ("N" = 133) participated and were administered measures of…

  16. An Analysis of Phonological Process Use in Young Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhler, Helen C.; DeThomasis, Betty; Chute, Pat; DeCora, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Phonological process use was investigated in five children who used Nucleus 24 cochlear implants (CIs). All participants were less than 3 years of age at the time of cochlear implantation and ranged from 4;2 to 4;7 years of age at onset of study. Speech samples obtained from the GFTA-2 were analyzed using the KLPA-2 to evaluate participants'…

  17. The Processing of English Regular Inflections: Phonological Cues to Morphological Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Brechtje; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that different neural and functional mechanisms are involved in the analysis of irregular ("caught") and regular ("filled") past tense forms in English. In particular, the comprehension and production of regular forms is argued to require processes of morpho-phonological assembly and disassembly, analysing these forms into…

  18. Evaluating Phonological Processing Skills in Children with Prelingual Deafness Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Linda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the phonological processing skills of 29 children with prelingual, profound hearing loss with 4 years of cochlear implant experience. Results were group matched with regard to word-reading ability and mother's educational level with the performance of 29 hearing children. Results revealed that it is possible to obtain a…

  19. The Relationship between Phonological and Auditory Processing and Brain Organization in Beginning Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Kenneth R.; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L.; Mencl, W. Einar; Austin, Alison C.; Sibley, Daragh; Fulbright, Robert K.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Molfese, Peter; Frost, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of…

  20. Modelling Relations between Sensory Processing, Speech Perception, Orthographic and Phonological Ability, and Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Smedt, Bert; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2008-01-01

    The general magnocellular theory postulates that dyslexia is the consequence of a multimodal deficit in the processing of transient and dynamic stimuli. In the auditory modality, this deficit has been hypothesized to interfere with accurate speech perception, and subsequently disrupt the development of phonological and later reading and spelling…

  1. Role of Visual Speech in Phonological Processing by Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerger, Susan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research assessed the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by children with hearing loss (HL). Method: Children with HL and children with normal hearing (NH) named pictures while attempting to ignore auditory or audiovisual speech distractors whose onsets relative to the pictures were either congruent, conflicting in…

  2. Individual Differences in Categorical Perception Are Related to Sublexical/Phonological Processing in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Zamora, Miguel; Luque, Juan L.; Alvarez, Carlos J.; Cobos, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between individual differences in speech perception and sublexical/phonological processing in reading. We used an auditory phoneme identification task in which a /ba/-/pa/ syllable continuum measured sensitivity to classify participants into three performance groups: poor, medium, and good categorizers. A…

  3. Evaluating Phonological Processing Skills in Children With Prelingual Deafness Who Use Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the phonological processing skills of 29 children with prelingual, profound hearing loss with 4 years of cochlear implant experience. Results were group matched with regard to word-reading ability and mother’s educational level with the performance of 29 hearing children. Results revealed that it is possible to obtain a valid measure of phonological processing (PP) skills in children using CIs. They could complete rhyming tasks and were able to complete sound-based tasks using standard test materials provided by a commercial test distributor. The CI children completed tasks measuring PP, but there were performance differences between the CI users and the hearing children. The process of learning phonological awareness (PA) for the children with CIs was characterized by a longer, more protracted learning phase than their counterparts with hearing. Tests of phonological memory skills indicated that when the tasks were controlled for presentation method and response modality, there were no differences between the performance of children with CIs and their counterparts with hearing. Tests of rapid naming revealed that there were no differences between rapid letter and number naming between the two groups. Results yielded a possible PP test battery for children with CI experience. PMID:18424771

  4. Evaluating phonological processing skills in children with prelingual deafness who use cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Linda J; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the phonological processing skills of 29 children with prelingual, profound hearing loss with 4 years of cochlear implant experience. Results were group matched with regard to word-reading ability and mother's educational level with the performance of 29 hearing children. Results revealed that it is possible to obtain a valid measure of phonological processing (PP) skills in children using CIs. They could complete rhyming tasks and were able to complete sound-based tasks using standard test materials provided by a commercial test distributor. The CI children completed tasks measuring PP, but there were performance differences between the CI users and the hearing children. The process of learning phonological awareness (PA) for the children with CIs was characterized by a longer, more protracted learning phase than their counterparts with hearing. Tests of phonological memory skills indicated that when the tasks were controlled for presentation method and response modality, there were no differences between the performance of children with CIs and their counterparts with hearing. Tests of rapid naming revealed that there were no differences between rapid letter and number naming between the two groups. Results yielded a possible PP test battery for children with CI experience. PMID:18424771

  5. Phonological processing in deaf signers and the impact of age of first language acquisition

    PubMed Central

    MacSweeney, Mairéad; Waters, Dafydd; Brammer, Michael J.; Woll, Bencie; Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    Just as words can rhyme, the signs of a signed language can share structural properties, such as location. Linguistic description at this level is termed phonology. We report that a left-lateralised fronto-parietal network is engaged during phonological similarity judgements made in both English (rhyme) and British Sign Language (BSL; location). Since these languages operate in different modalities, these data suggest that the neural network supporting phonological processing is, to some extent, supramodal. Activation within this network was however modulated by language (BSL/English), hearing status (deaf/hearing), and age of BSL acquisition (native/non-native). The influence of language and hearing status suggests an important role for the posterior portion of the left inferior frontal gyrus in speech-based phonological processing in deaf people. This, we suggest, is due to increased reliance on the articulatory component of speech when the auditory component is absent. With regard to age of first language acquisition, non-native signers activated the left inferior frontal gyrus more than native signers during the BSL task, and also during the task performed in English, which both groups acquired late. This is the first neuroimaging demonstration that age of first language acquisition has implications not only for the neural systems supporting the first language, but also for networks supporting languages learned subsequently. PMID:18282770

  6. Phonological and morphological processing in adult students with learning/reading disabilities.

    PubMed

    Leong, C K

    1999-01-01

    A target group of college students with learning/reading disabilities was compared with reading-level (RA) and chronological-age (CA) contrast groups on several phonological and morphological computerized information-processing tasks. Results confirm the importance of accurate and rapid processing of simple lexical items to the automatic level. The target students were less accurate and took longer reaction time, as compared with their CA controls, though not with the RA contrast group, in deciding if pseudohomophonics sounded like real words and if pairs of words with different rime conditions rhymed. The target students showed both quantitative and qualitative differences in processing morphological words and morphographic letter strings, in contrast to some earlier findings. The integration of phonological and morphological knowledge is emphasized in working with adult college students with learning/reading disabilities. PMID:15508242

  7. Dynamic causal modeling of spatiotemporal integration of phonological and semantic processes: an electroencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Yvert, Gaëtan; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Baciu, Monica; David, Olivier

    2012-03-21

    Integration of phonological and lexicosemantic processes is essential for visual word recognition. Here we used dynamic causal modeling of event-related potentials, combined with group source reconstruction, to estimate how those processes translate into context-dependent modulation of effective connectivity within the temporal-frontal language network. Fifteen healthy human subjects performed a phoneme detection task in pseudo-words and a semantic categorization task in words. Cortical current densities revealed the sequential activation of temporal regions, from the occipital-temporal junction toward the anterior temporal lobe, before reaching the inferior frontal gyrus. A difference of activation between phonology and semantics was identified in the anterior temporal lobe within the 240-300 ms peristimulus time window. Dynamic causal modeling indicated this increase of activation of the anterior temporal lobe in the semantic condition as a consequence of an increase of forward connectivity from the posterior inferior temporal lobe to the anterior temporal lobe. In addition, fast activation of the inferior frontal region, which allowed a feedback control of frontal regions on the superior temporal and posterior inferior temporal cortices, was found to be likely. Our results precisely describe spatiotemporal network mechanisms occurring during integration of phonological and semantic processes. In particular, they support the hypothesis of multiple pathways within the temporal lobe for language processing, where frontal regions would exert a top-down control on temporal regions in the recruitment of the anterior temporal lobe for semantic processing. PMID:22442091

  8. Letter knowledge, phonological processing, and print knowledge: skill development in nonreading preschool children.

    PubMed

    Molfese, Victoria J; Modglin, Arlene A; Beswick, Jennifer L; Neamon, Jessica D; Berg, Shelby A; Berg, C Jeffrey; Molnar, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Development of reading skills was examined in 4-year-old children from low-income homes attending a prekindergarten program. Fall to spring gains in letter identification were examined and compared with skills in phonological processing, rhyme detection, and environmental print, and with performance on a screening tool (Get Ready to Read). It was anticipated that participants might show slow skill development. However, the identification of a large group of children (n = 30) who made little or no gains in letter identification compared to their classmates (n = 27), whose gains averaged 7 letters, was not anticipated. Fall to spring gains in letter identification correlated with phonological processing, rhyme detection, environmental print, and Get Ready to Read! scores. Age and general cognitive skills influenced performance on some tasks. More knowledge of the characteristics of children who show the most variations in skill development may lead to insights on using classroom curriculum to focus on skill development. PMID:16895155

  9. Prosodic Phonology and Atypical Spoken Language Acquisition in Children who are Hearing Impaired

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Titterington

    The purpose of this paper is to look at the development of early syllable structure and the minimal prosodic word in the spoken language outputs of two children with hearing impairment who present with additional difficulties in the acquisition of spoken language on top of that expected due to their hearing difficulties. The speech productions of these two children are

  10. A Prospective Study of the Relationship between Specific Language Impairment, Phonological Disorders and Reading Retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. M. Bishop; C. Adams

    1990-01-01

    Language and literacy skills were assessed in 83 8 54 -year olds whose language development had been impaired at 4 years of age. Provided that language problems had resolved by age 5 V2 years, literacy development was normal, but many of the children who still had verbal deficits at 5 V2 years of age did have reading difficulties and persisting

  11. Phonological and Articulation Treatment Approaches in Portuguese Children with Speech and Language Impairments: A Randomized Controlled Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lousada, M.; Jesus, Luis M. T.; Capelas, S.; Margaca, C.; Simoes, D.; Valente, A.; Hall, A.; Joffe, V. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In Portugal, the routine clinical practice of speech and language therapists (SLTs) in treating children with all types of speech sound disorder (SSD) continues to be articulation therapy (AT). There is limited use of phonological therapy (PT) or phonological awareness training in Portugal. Additionally, at an international level there…

  12. Phonological facilitation of object naming in agrammatic and logopenic primary progressive aphasia (PPA)

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Jennifer E.; Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Kloet, James D.; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2013-01-01

    Phonological processing deficits are characteristic of both the agrammatic and logopenic subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L). However, it is an open question which substages of phonological processing (i.e., phonological word form retrieval, phonological encoding) are impaired in these subtypes of PPA, as well as how phonological processing deficits contribute to anomia. In the present study, participants with PPA-G (n=7), PPA-L (n=7), and unimpaired controls (n=17) named objects as interfering written words (phonologically related/unrelated) were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 0, +100, +300, and +500 ms. Phonological facilitation (PF) effects (faster naming times with phonologically related interfering words) were found for the controls and PPA-L group only at SOA=0 and +100 ms. However, the PPA-G group exhibited protracted PF effects (PF at SOA=0, +100, and +300 ms). These results may reflect deficits in phonological encoding in PPA-G, but not in PPA-L, supporting the neuropsychological reality of this substage of phonological processing and the distinction between these two PPA subtypes. PMID:24070176

  13. Phonological Processes in the Speech of Jordanian Arabic Children with Cleft Lip and/or Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Tamimi, Feda Y.; Owais, Arwa I.; Khabour, Omar F.; Khamaiseh, Zaidan A.

    2011-01-01

    The controlled and free speech of 15 Jordanian male and female children with cleft lip and/or palate was analyzed to account for the different phonological processes exhibited. Study participants were divided into three main age groups, 4 years 2 months to 4 years 7 months, 5 years 3 months to 5 years 6 months, and 6 years 4 months to 6 years 6…

  14. The Nature of Preschool Phonological Processing Abilities and Their Relations to Vocabulary, General Cognitive Abilities, and Print Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Anthony, Jason L.; Phillips, Beth M.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; McQueen, Jessica D.

    2011-01-01

    The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities (PPA) represents an important developmental milestone in the process of learning to read. In this cross-sectional study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of PPA in 129 younger preschoolers (M = 40.88 months, SD = 4.65) and 304 older preschoolers (M = 56.49 months, SD = 5.31). A 2-factor model in which phonological awareness and phonological memory was represented by one factor and lexical access was represented by a second factor provided the best fit for both samples and was largely invariant across samples. Measures of vocabulary, cognitive abilities, and print knowledge were significantly correlated with both factors, but phonological awareness/memory had unique relations with word reading. Despite significant development of PPA across the preschool years and into kindergarten, these results show that the structure of these skills remains invariant. PMID:22180662

  15. The roles of family history of dyslexia, language, speech production and phonological processing in predicting literacy progress.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Julia M; Mundy, Ian R; Cunningham, Anna J

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that speech, language and phonological skills are closely associated with literacy, and that children with a family risk of dyslexia (FRD) tend to show deficits in each of these areas in the preschool years. This paper examines what the relationships are between FRD and these skills, and whether deficits in speech, language and phonological processing fully account for the increased risk of dyslexia in children with FRD. One hundred and fifty-three 4-6-year-old children, 44 of whom had FRD, completed a battery of speech, language, phonology and literacy tasks. Word reading and spelling were retested 6 months later, and text reading accuracy and reading comprehension were tested 3 years later. The children with FRD were at increased risk of developing difficulties in reading accuracy, but not reading comprehension. Four groups were compared: good and poor readers with and without FRD. In most cases good readers outperformed poor readers regardless of family history, but there was an effect of family history on naming and nonword repetition regardless of literacy outcome, suggesting a role for speech production skills as an endophenotype of dyslexia. Phonological processing predicted spelling, while language predicted text reading accuracy and comprehension. FRD was a significant additional predictor of reading and spelling after controlling for speech production, language and phonological processing, suggesting that children with FRD show additional difficulties in literacy that cannot be fully explained in terms of their language and phonological skills. PMID:24581037

  16. The dorsal stream contribution to phonological retrieval in object naming

    PubMed Central

    Faseyitan, Olufunsho; Kim, Junghoon; Coslett, H. Branch

    2012-01-01

    Meaningful speech, as exemplified in object naming, calls on knowledge of the mappings between word meanings and phonological forms. Phonological errors in naming (e.g. GHOST named as ‘goath’) are commonly seen in persisting post-stroke aphasia and are thought to signal impairment in retrieval of phonological form information. We performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis of 1718 phonological naming errors collected from 106 individuals with diverse profiles of aphasia. Voxels in which lesion status correlated with phonological error rates localized to dorsal stream areas, in keeping with classical and contemporary brain-language models. Within the dorsal stream, the critical voxels were concentrated in premotor cortex, pre- and postcentral gyri and supramarginal gyrus with minimal extension into auditory-related posterior temporal and temporo-parietal cortices. This challenges the popular notion that error-free phonological retrieval requires guidance from sensory traces stored in posterior auditory regions and points instead to sensory-motor processes located further anterior in the dorsal stream. In a separate analysis, we compared the lesion maps for phonological and semantic errors and determined that there was no spatial overlap, demonstrating that the brain segregates phonological and semantic retrieval operations in word production. PMID:23171662

  17. Relationships Between First and Second Language Phonological Processing Skills and Reading in Chinese?English Speakers living in English?Speaking Contexts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Gottardo; Penny Chiappe; Bernice Yan; Linda Siegel; Yan Gu

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between phoneme categorisation, phonological processing, and reading performance were examined in Chinese?English speaking children in an English?speaking environment. Second language (L2, i.e., English) phonological processing but not phoneme categorisation was related to L2 reading. First language (L1) oral language skills were related to Chinese reading with L1 phonological processing being related to the Chinese reading task with a

  18. Effects of Phonological Contrast on Auditory Word Discrimination in Children with and without Reading Disability: A Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehner, Daniel T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Mody, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Poor readers perform worse than their normal reading peers on a variety of speech perception tasks, which may be linked to their phonological processing abilities. The purpose of the study was to compare the brain activation patterns of normal and impaired readers on speech perception to better understand the phonological basis in reading…

  19. Differences between Patterns of Brain Activity Associated with Semantics and Those Linked with Phonological Processing Diminish with Age

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ruben; Simard, France; Monchi, Oury

    2014-01-01

    It is widely believed that language function tends to show little age-related performance decline. Indeed, some older individuals seem to use compensatory mechanisms to maintain a high level of performance when submitted to lexical tasks. However, how these mechanisms affect cortical and subcortical activity during semantic and phonological processing has not been extensively explored. The purpose of this study was to look at the effect of healthy aging on cortico-subcortical routes related to semantic and phonological processing using a lexical analogue of the Wisconsin Cart-Sorting Task. Our results indicate that while young adults tend to show increased activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the fusiform gyrus, the ventral temporal lobe and the caudate nucleus during semantic decisions and in the posterior Broca's area (area 44), the temporal lobe (area 37), the temporoparietal junction (area 40) and the motor cortical regions during phonological decisions, older individuals showed increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and motor cortical regions during both semantic and phonological decisions. Furthermore, when semantic and phonological decisions were contrasted with each other, younger individuals showed significant brain activity differences in several regions while older individuals did not. Therefore, in older individuals, the semantic and phonological routes seem to merge into a single pathway. These findings represent most probably neural reserve/compensation mechanisms, characterized by a decrease in specificity, on which the elderly rely to maintain an adequate level of performance. PMID:24972020

  20. The role of segmentation in phonological processing: an fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Burton, M W; Small, S L; Blumstein, S E

    2000-07-01

    Phonological processes map sound information onto higher levels of language processing and provide the mechanisms by which verbal information can be temporarily stored in working memory. Despite a strong convergence of data suggesting both left lateralization and distributed encoding in the anterior and posterior perisylvian language areas, the nature and brain encoding of phonological subprocesses remain ambiguous. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the conditions under which anterior (lateral frontal) areas are activated during speech-discrimination tasks that differ in segmental processing demands. In two experiments, subjects performed "same/ different" judgments on the first sound of pairs of words. In the first experiment, the speech stimuli did not require overt segmentation of the initial consonant from the rest of the word, since the "different" pairs only varied in the phonetic voicing of the initial consonant (e.g., dip-tip). In the second experiment, the speech stimuli required segmentation since "different" pairs both varied in initial consonant voicing and contained different vowels and final consonants (e.g., dip-ten). These speech conditions were compared to a tone-discrimination control condition. Behavioral data showed that subjects were highly accurate in both experiments, but revealed different patterns of reaction-time latencies between the two experiments. The imaging data indicated that whereas both speech conditions showed superior temporal activation when compared to tone discrimination, only the second experiment showed consistent evidence of frontal activity. Taken together, the results of Experiments 1 and 2 suggest that phonological processing per se does not necessarily recruit frontal areas. We postulate that frontal activation is a product of segmentation processes in speech perception, or alternatively, working memory demands required for such processing. PMID:10936919

  1. Rhythmic Priming Enhances the Phonological Processing of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cason, Nia; Schon, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    While natural speech does not possess the same degree of temporal regularity found in music, there is recent evidence to suggest that temporal regularity enhances speech processing. The aim of this experiment was to examine whether speech processing would be enhanced by the prior presentation of a rhythmical prime. We recorded electrophysiological…

  2. Phonological iconicity

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2014-01-01

    The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062

  3. Phonological Process and Accuracy Measures in Typically Developing Punjabi Speaking Children between 3-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Simran; John, Sunila; Veena, K. D.; Rajashekhar, B.

    2013-01-01

    Phonology is an area of linguistics that is concerned with the sounds of language. Since each language has its own unique system of sound patterns, there is a need to study phonological development in different languages. However, lack of published data necessitates the present study on phonological developmental pattern in Punjabi language…

  4. Phonetics Is Not Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roca, Ignacio M.

    1975-01-01

    A re-examination of phonological rules called "reciprocal rules" for Catalan. Their use is disclaimed as being responsible for processes of stop deletion and stop insertion since the rules violate ordering constraints and morpheme structure conditions and confuse phonetics with phonology. (SC)

  5. Profiling the Phonological Processes Shaping the Fossilized IL of Adult Learners of English as a Foreign Language: Some Theoretical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroy, Rafael

    2001-01-01

    Describes the frozen interlanguage (IL) of adult learners of English in a natural setting to profile phonological processes that underlie their output. Also examines the impact on learners' oral behavior and the role played by transfer and developmental processes in such behavior. Analysis yields 10 processes shaping learners' IL that are…

  6. Exploring the Phenotype of Phonological Reading Disability as a Function of the Phonological Deficit Severity: Evidence from the Error Analysis Paradigm in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Haitham; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Khateb, Asaid

    2014-01-01

    The dominant error types were investigated as a function of phonological processing (PP) deficit severity in four groups of impaired readers. For this aim, an error analysis paradigm distinguishing between four error types was used. The findings revealed that the different types of impaired readers were characterized by differing predominant error…

  7. Phonological coding during reading.

    PubMed

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  8. White matter pathway supporting phonological encoding in speech production: a multi-modal imaging study of brain damage patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Zaizhu; Ma, Yujun; Gong, Gaolang; Huang, Ruiwang; Song, Luping; Bi, Yanchao

    2014-10-31

    In speech production, an important step before motor programming is the retrieval and encoding of the phonological elements of target words. It has been proposed that phonological encoding is supported by multiple regions in the left frontal, temporal and parietal regions and their underlying white matter, especially the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) or superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). It is unclear, however, whether the effects of AF/SLF are indeed related to phonological encoding for output and whether there are other white matter tracts that also contribute to this process. We comprehensively investigated the anatomical connectivity supporting phonological encoding in production by studying the relationship between the integrity of all major white matter tracts across the entire brain and phonological encoding deficits in a group of 69 patients with brain damage. The integrity of each white matter tract was measured both by the percentage of damaged voxels (structural imaging) and the mean fractional anisotropy value (diffusion tensor imaging). The phonological encoding deficits were assessed by various measures in two oral production tasks that involve phonological encoding: the percentage of nonword (phonological) errors in oral picture naming and the accuracy of word reading aloud with word comprehension ability regressed out. We found that the integrity of the left SLF in both the structural and diffusion tensor imaging measures consistently predicted the severity of phonological encoding impairment in the two phonological production tasks. Such effects of the left SLF on phonological production remained significant when a range of potential confounding factors were considered through partial correlation, including total lesion volume, demographic factors, lesions on phonological-relevant grey matter regions, or effects originating from the phonological perception or semantic processes. Our results therefore conclusively demonstrate the central role of the left SLF in phonological encoding in speech production. PMID:25359657

  9. Auditory Temporal Information Processing in Preschool Children at Family Risk for Dyslexia: Relations with Phonological Abilities and Developing Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2006-01-01

    In this project, the hypothesis of an auditory temporal processing deficit in dyslexia was tested by examining auditory processing in relation to phonological skills in two contrasting groups of five-year-old preschool children, a familial high risk and a familial low risk group. Participants were individually matched for gender, age, non-verbal…

  10. Individual Differences in Late Bilinguals' L2 Phonological Processes: From Acoustic-Phonetic Analysis to Lexical Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Begona; Mitterer, Holger; Broersma, Mirjam; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which the phonetic system of a second language is mastered varies across individuals. The present study evaluates the pattern of individual differences in late bilinguals across different phonological processes. Fifty-five late Dutch-English bilinguals were tested on their ability to perceive a difficult L2 speech contrast (the…

  11. Phonological processing in post-lingual deafness and cochlear implant outcome Lazard D.S1,2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Phonological processing in post-lingual deafness and cochlear implant outcome Lazard D.S1,2 , Lee e-mail: diane.lazard@bjn.aphp.fr Running title: Predictors of cochlear implant outcome inserm.neuroimage.2009.11.013 #12;2 Abstract Cochlear implants work well, yet the outcome is not fully accounted

  12. Processing of Phonological Variation in Children with Hearing Loss: Compensation for English Place Assimilation in Connected Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoruppa, Katrin; Rosen, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored phonological processing in connected speech in children with hearing loss. Specifically, the authors investigated these children's sensitivity to English place assimilation, by which alveolar consonants like t and n can adapt to following sounds (e.g., the word ten can be realized as tem in the…

  13. Effects of Phonological and Orthographic Shifts on Children's Processing of Written Morphology: A Time-Course Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quémart, Pauline; Casalis, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    We report two experiments that investigated whether phonological and/or orthographic shifts in a base word interfere with morphological processing by French 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders and adults (as a control group) along the time course of visual word recognition. In both experiments, prime-target pairs shared four possible relationships:…

  14. Phonological, lexical, and semantic errors produced by impairment at the output buffer in a Spanish aphasic patient.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Alberto; Socas, Rosario; Marrero, Hipólito; León, Nieves M; Cuetos, Fernando

    2014-05-16

    We present a single case of a right-handed female patient, RH, who was categorized as suffering from conduction aphasia. She presented no articulatory problems during spontaneous speech but made a significant number of phonological paraphasias in naming and repetition tasks. The number of errors increased for long words and pseudowords. This pattern of results points to damage in the "Phonological Output Buffer" (POB) as the basis of this disorder. However, this patient did not make mistakes when reading words and pseudowords aloud, even when we introduced a delay between the presentation of the word and its production to test the working memory resources of the phonological buffer. Furthermore, the patient's ability to name objects, repeat words, and write to dictation improved with her degree of familiarity with the items. The damage could be situated at the point where phonemes are selected and ordered to produce words. We posit that the deficits observed in this patient, and the differences encountered between her performance and that of others described in the literature, in particular in reading tasks, can be explained by considering POB damage to be gradual in nature. According to this explanation, the performance of patients with damage to the POB will depend on the amount of information provided by the stimulus (word/nonword), the language particularities (regular/irregular), and the nature of the task demands (repetition, writing, naming, or reading). PMID:24832136

  15. Neural Correlates of Phonological Processing in Speech Sound Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tkach, Jean A.; Chen, Xu; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Holland, Scott K.; Lewis, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Speech sound disorders (SSD) are the largest group of communication disorders observed in children. One explanation for these disorders is that children with SSD fail to form stable phonological representations when acquiring the speech sound system of their language due to poor phonological memory (PM). The goal of this study was to examine PM in…

  16. Contributions of Phonological Processing Skills to Reading Skills in Arabic Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taibah, Nadia J.; Haynes, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated contributions of phonological awareness (Elision and blending), rapid naming (object, color, letter, and digit), and phonological memory (nonword repetition and Digit Span) to basic decoding and fluency skills in Arabic. Participants were 237 Arabic speaking children from Grades K-3. Dependent measures…

  17. The phonological and visual basis of developmental dyslexia in Brazilian Portuguese reading children.

    PubMed

    Germano, Giseli D; Reilhac, Caroline; Capellini, Simone A; Valdois, Sylviane

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from opaque languages suggests that visual attention processing abilities in addition to phonological skills may act as cognitive underpinnings of developmental dyslexia. We explored the role of these two cognitive abilities on reading fluency in Brazilian Portuguese, a more transparent orthography than French or English. Sixty-six children with developmental dyslexia and normal Brazilian Portuguese children participated. They were administered three tasks of phonological skills (phoneme identification, phoneme, and syllable blending) and three visual tasks (a letter global report task and two non-verbal tasks of visual closure and visual constancy). Results show that Brazilian Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia are impaired not only in phonological processing but further in visual processing. The phonological and visual processing abilities significantly and independently contribute to reading fluency in the whole population. Last, different cognitively homogeneous subtypes can be identified in the Brazilian Portuguese population of children with developmental dyslexia. Two subsets of children with developmental dyslexia were identified as having a single cognitive disorder, phonological or visual; another group exhibited a double deficit and a few children showed no visual or phonological disorder. Thus the current findings extend previous data from more opaque orthographies as French and English, in showing the importance of investigating visual processing skills in addition to phonological skills in children with developmental dyslexia whatever their language orthography transparency. PMID:25352822

  18. The phonological and visual basis of developmental dyslexia in Brazilian Portuguese reading children

    PubMed Central

    Germano, Giseli D.; Reilhac, Caroline; Capellini, Simone A.; Valdois, Sylviane

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from opaque languages suggests that visual attention processing abilities in addition to phonological skills may act as cognitive underpinnings of developmental dyslexia. We explored the role of these two cognitive abilities on reading fluency in Brazilian Portuguese, a more transparent orthography than French or English. Sixty-six children with developmental dyslexia and normal Brazilian Portuguese children participated. They were administered three tasks of phonological skills (phoneme identification, phoneme, and syllable blending) and three visual tasks (a letter global report task and two non-verbal tasks of visual closure and visual constancy). Results show that Brazilian Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia are impaired not only in phonological processing but further in visual processing. The phonological and visual processing abilities significantly and independently contribute to reading fluency in the whole population. Last, different cognitively homogeneous subtypes can be identified in the Brazilian Portuguese population of children with developmental dyslexia. Two subsets of children with developmental dyslexia were identified as having a single cognitive disorder, phonological or visual; another group exhibited a double deficit and a few children showed no visual or phonological disorder. Thus the current findings extend previous data from more opaque orthographies as French and English, in showing the importance of investigating visual processing skills in addition to phonological skills in children with developmental dyslexia whatever their language orthography transparency. PMID:25352822

  19. An fMRI study of multimodal semantic and phonological processing in reading disabled adolescents

    E-print Network

    2009 /Accepted: 11 September 2009 # The International Dyslexia Association 2009 Abstract Using Dyslexia . fMRI . Performance . Phonology. Reading disability. Semantics Introduction The neurobiology of reading disability An increasing body of research suggests that the core deficit in developmental dyslexia

  20. Phonological Representations and Early Literacy in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Joanna C.; Shum, Kathy Kar-Man; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2015-01-01

    Phonological processing skills predict early reading development, but what underlies developing phonological processing skills? Phonological representations of 140 native Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (age 4-10) were assessed with speech gating, mispronunciation detection, and nonword repetition tasks; their nonverbal IQ, reading, and…

  1. A visual processing but no phonological disorder in a child with mixed dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Valdois, Sylviane; Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Reilhac, Caroline; N'guyen-Morel, Marie-Ange; Guinet, Eric; Orliaguet, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The case study of Martial, a French 9-year-old boy, who exhibits severe mixed dyslexia and surface dysgraphia is reported. Despite very poor pseudo-word reading, Martial has preserved phonological processing skills as his good oral language, good phoneme awareness and good verbal short-term memory show. He exhibited a strong length effect when reading briefly presented words but no sign of mini-neglect. His letter-string processing abilities were assessed through tasks of whole and partial report. In whole report, Martial could only name a few letters from briefly displayed 5-consonant strings. He showed an initial-position advantage and a sharper than expected left-to-right gradient of performance. He performed better when asked to report a single cued letter within the string but then showed an atypical right-side advantage. The same rightward attentional bias was observed in whole report when top-down control was prevented. Otherwise, Martial showed preserved single letter identification skills and good processing of 5-letter strings when letters were sequentially displayed one at a time. His poor letter-string processing thus reflects a parallel visual processing disorder that is compatible with either a visual attention (VA) span or a visual short-term memory disorder. Martial was further engaged in a complex reaching movement task involving VA and simultaneous processing. He performed motor sequences not as a whole but as a succession of independent motor units, suggesting that his attention was not allocated in parallel to the two to-be-reached targets prior to movement execution. Against a more basic motor disorder however, he showed good performance in a task of cyclical pointing movements. The overall findings suggest that Martial suffers from a visual simultaneous processing disorder that disturbs letter identification in strings. Instead of being restricted to letter-string processing, this VA disorder might extend to non-verbal task. PMID:21704984

  2. Mathematical Problem Solving and Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities: Both Executive and Phonological Processes Are Important

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lee Swanson; Carole Sachse-Lee

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore the relationship between working memory (WM) and mathematical problem solving in children with learning disabilities (LD). Children with LD (age 11.5 years) were compared to chronologically age-matched (CA-M) and younger comprehension\\/computation achievement-matched children (age 8.9 years) on measures of verbal and visual-spatial WM, phonological processing, components of problem solving, and word-problem solving

  3. Raspberry, not a car: context predictability and a phonological advantage in early and late learners' processing of speech in noise.

    PubMed

    Gor, Kira

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners perform worse than native speakers under adverse listening conditions, such as speech in noise (SPIN). No data are available on heritage language speakers' (early naturalistic interrupted learners') ability to perceive SPIN. The current study fills this gap and investigates the perception of Russian speech in multi-talker babble noise by the matched groups of high- and low-proficiency heritage speakers (HSs) and late second language learners of Russian who were native speakers of English. The study includes a control group of Russian native speakers. It manipulates the noise level (high and low), and context cloze probability (high and low). The results of the SPIN task are compared to the tasks testing the control of phonology, AXB discrimination and picture-word discrimination, and lexical knowledge, a word translation task, in the same participants. The increased phonological sensitivity of HSs interacted with their ability to rely on top-down processing in sentence integration, use contextual cues, and build expectancies in the high-noise/high-context condition in a bootstrapping fashion. HSs outperformed oral proficiency-matched late second language learners on SPIN task and two tests of phonological sensitivity. The outcomes of the SPIN experiment support both the early naturalistic advantage and the role of proficiency in HSs. HSs' ability to take advantage of the high-predictability context in the high-noise condition was mitigated by their level of proficiency. Only high-proficiency HSs, but not any other non-native group, took advantage of the high-predictability context that became available with better phonological processing skills in high-noise. The study thus confirms high-proficiency (but not low-proficiency) HSs' nativelike ability to combine bottom-up and top-down cues in processing SPIN. PMID:25566130

  4. Raspberry, not a car: context predictability and a phonological advantage in early and late learners’ processing of speech in noise

    PubMed Central

    Gor, Kira

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners perform worse than native speakers under adverse listening conditions, such as speech in noise (SPIN). No data are available on heritage language speakers’ (early naturalistic interrupted learners’) ability to perceive SPIN. The current study fills this gap and investigates the perception of Russian speech in multi-talker babble noise by the matched groups of high- and low-proficiency heritage speakers (HSs) and late second language learners of Russian who were native speakers of English. The study includes a control group of Russian native speakers. It manipulates the noise level (high and low), and context cloze probability (high and low). The results of the SPIN task are compared to the tasks testing the control of phonology, AXB discrimination and picture-word discrimination, and lexical knowledge, a word translation task, in the same participants. The increased phonological sensitivity of HSs interacted with their ability to rely on top–down processing in sentence integration, use contextual cues, and build expectancies in the high-noise/high-context condition in a bootstrapping fashion. HSs outperformed oral proficiency-matched late second language learners on SPIN task and two tests of phonological sensitivity. The outcomes of the SPIN experiment support both the early naturalistic advantage and the role of proficiency in HSs. HSs’ ability to take advantage of the high-predictability context in the high-noise condition was mitigated by their level of proficiency. Only high-proficiency HSs, but not any other non-native group, took advantage of the high-predictability context that became available with better phonological processing skills in high-noise. The study thus confirms high-proficiency (but not low-proficiency) HSs’ nativelike ability to combine bottom–up and top–down cues in processing SPIN. PMID:25566130

  5. Directional Effects between Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erin Phinney; Pennington, Bruce F.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Boada, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Deficient rapid auditory processing (RAP) has been associated with early language impairment and dyslexia. Using an auditory masking paradigm, children with language disabilities perform selectively worse than controls at detecting a tone in a backward masking (BM) condition (tone followed by white noise) compared to a forward masking…

  6. Left dorsal speech stream components and their contribution to phonological processing.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takenobu; Kell, Christian A; Restle, Julia; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Ziemann, Ulf

    2015-01-28

    Models propose an auditory-motor mapping via a left-hemispheric dorsal speech-processing stream, yet its detailed contributions to speech perception and production are unclear. Using fMRI-navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we virtually lesioned left dorsal stream components in healthy human subjects and probed the consequences on speech-related facilitation of articulatory motor cortex (M1) excitability, as indexed by increases in motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude of a lip muscle, and on speech processing performance in phonological tests. Speech-related MEP facilitation was disrupted by rTMS of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), the sylvian parieto-temporal region (SPT), and by double-knock-out but not individual lesioning of pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), and not by rTMS of the ventral speech-processing stream or an occipital control site. RTMS of the dorsal stream but not of the ventral stream or the occipital control site caused deficits specifically in the processing of fast transients of the acoustic speech signal. Performance of syllable and pseudoword repetition correlated with speech-related MEP facilitation, and this relation was abolished with rTMS of pSTS, SPT, and pIFG. Findings provide direct evidence that auditory-motor mapping in the left dorsal stream causes reliable and specific speech-related MEP facilitation in left articulatory M1. The left dorsal stream targets the articulatory M1 through pSTS and SPT constituting essential posterior input regions and parallel via frontal pathways through pIFG and dPMC. Finally, engagement of the left dorsal stream is necessary for processing of fast transients in the auditory signal. PMID:25632119

  7. Left Dorsal Speech Stream Components and Their Contribution to Phonological Processing

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Takenobu; Kell, Christian A.; Restle, Julia; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Models propose an auditory-motor mapping via a left-hemispheric dorsal speech-processing stream, yet its detailed contributions to speech perception and production are unclear. Using fMRI-navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we virtually lesioned left dorsal stream components in healthy human subjects and probed the consequences on speech-related facilitation of articulatory motor cortex (M1) excitability, as indexed by increases in motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude of a lip muscle, and on speech processing performance in phonological tests. Speech-related MEP facilitation was disrupted by rTMS of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), the sylvian parieto-temporal region (SPT), and by double-knock-out but not individual lesioning of pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), and not by rTMS of the ventral speech-processing stream or an occipital control site. RTMS of the dorsal stream but not of the ventral stream or the occipital control site caused deficits specifically in the processing of fast transients of the acoustic speech signal. Performance of syllable and pseudoword repetition correlated with speech-related MEP facilitation, and this relation was abolished with rTMS of pSTS, SPT, and pIFG. Findings provide direct evidence that auditory-motor mapping in the left dorsal stream causes reliable and specific speech-related MEP facilitation in left articulatory M1. The left dorsal stream targets the articulatory M1 through pSTS and SPT constituting essential posterior input regions and parallel via frontal pathways through pIFG and dPMC. Finally, engagement of the left dorsal stream is necessary for processing of fast transients in the auditory signal. PMID:25632119

  8. Phonological Priming and Irregular Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemberger, Joseph Paul

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that the processing of irregular past-tense forms is affected by phonological factors that are inherent in the relationship of the past-tense forms to other words in the lexicon (rhyming families of irregulars) or to their base forms (vowel dominance effects). This paper addresses more ephemeral phonological effects. In a…

  9. Literacy and linguistic development in bilingual deaf children: implications of the "and" for phonological processing.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Lynn; Parrila, Rauno

    2014-01-01

    Cumulating evidence suggests that the establishment of high-quality phonological representations is the cognitive precursor that facilitates the acquisition of language (spoken, signed, and written). The authors present two studies that contrast the nature of bilingual profoundly deaf children's phonological representations derived from a spoken language and from a signed language using the framework of "functional equivalence" as outlined in McQuarrie and Parilla (2009). The authors argue further that a signed-language phonological system is suited in establishing the "functional" representational base that will support reading acquisition for bilingual deaf learners. They highlight rapidly developing empirical research on dual-language interactions between signed language and written language is highlighted, and discuss the need to take such data into account in any discussion of fundamental skills necessary to support reading achievement in bilingual profoundly deaf learners. PMID:25669019

  10. Preventing reading failure in young children with phonological processing disabilities: Group and individual responses to instruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph K. Torgesen; Richard K. Wagner; Carol A. Rashotte; Elaine Rose; Patricia Lindamood; Tim Conway; Cyndi Garvan

    1999-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of three instructional approaches for the prevention of reading disabilities in young children with weak phonological skills was examined. Two programs varying in the intensity of instruction in phonemic decoding were contrasted with each other and with a third approach that supported the children's regular classroom reading program. The children were provided with 88 hours of one-to-one

  11. Reading Aloud Is Not Automatic: Processing Capacity Is Required to Generate a Phonological Code from Print

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Michael; Besner, Derek

    2006-01-01

    The present experiments tested the claim that phonological recoding occurs "automatically" by assessing whether it uses central attention in the context of the psychological refractory period paradigm. Task 1 was a tone discrimination task and Task 2 was reading aloud. The joint effects of long-lag word repetition priming and stimulus onset…

  12. Phonological Processing in Printed Word Recognition: Effects of Age and Writing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oney, Banu; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Investigates whether readers of Turkish (which has a simple relation between spelling and sound) depend more on decoding for word recognition than readers of English (which has an "opaque" orthography). Suggests that readers become less dependent on phonological mediation with experience and that this reduction is more rapid for readers of opaque…

  13. Production and Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement in Monolingual Dutch Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. Method: An SLI…

  14. Trajectories Emerging from Discrete versus Continuous Processing Models in Phonological Competitor Tasks: A Commentary on Spivey, Grosjean, and Knoblich (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Wel, Robrecht P. R. D.; Eder, Jeffrey R.; Mitchel, Aaron D.; Walsh, Matthew M.; Rosenbaum, David A.

    2009-01-01

    M. J. Spivey, M. Grosjean, and G. Knoblich (2005) showed that in a phonological competitor task, participants' mouse cursor movements showed more curvature toward the competitor item when the competitor and target were phonologically similar than when the competitor and target were phonologically dissimilar. Spivey et al. interpreted this result…

  15. The Nature of the Phonological Processing in French Dyslexic Children: Evidence for the Phonological Syllable and Linguistic Features' Role in Silent Reading and Speech Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the status of phonological representations in French dyslexic children (DY) compared with reading level- (RL) and chronological age-matched (CA) controls. We focused on the syllable's role and on the impact of French linguistic features. In Experiment 1, we assessed oral discrimination abilities of pairs of syllables that…

  16. Predictive influence of phonological processing, morphological\\/syntactic skill, and naming speed on spelling performanceq

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monique Plaza; Henri Cohen

    This paper focuses on the predictive influence of phonological awareness, morphological\\/syntactic skill, and naming speed on spelling. The retrospective study correlated spelling performance in a group of 199 French-speaking children at the end of grade 2 with earlier capacities for phonemic manipulation, morphological\\/syntactic correction, and naming speed, assessed at the end of grade 1. The results are consistent with an

  17. Left posterior superior temporal gyrus participates specifically in accessing lexical phonology

    PubMed Central

    Graves, William W.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Mehta, Sonya; Gupta, Prahlad

    2008-01-01

    Impairments in phonological processing have been associated with damage to the region of the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), but the extent to which this area supports phonological processing, independent of semantic processing, is less clear. We used repetition priming and neural repetition suppression during fMRI in an auditory pseudoword repetition task as a semantics-free model of lexical (whole-word) phonological access. Across six repetitions, we observed repetition priming in terms of decreased reaction time and repetition suppression in terms of reduced neural activity. An additional analysis aimed at sublexical phonology did not show significant effects in the areas where repetition suppression was observed. To test if these areas were relevant to real word production, we performed a conjunction analysis with data from a separate fMRI experiment which manipulated word frequency (a putative index of lexical phonological access) in picture naming. The left pSTG demonstrated significant effects independently in both experiments, suggesting that this area participates specifically in accessing lexical phonology. PMID:18345989

  18. The neural basis of inhibitory effects of semantic and phonological neighbors in spoken word production

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

    2014-01-01

    Theories of word production and word recognition generally agree that multiple word candidates are activated during processing. The facilitative and inhibitory effects of these “lexical neighbors” have been studied extensively using behavioral methods and have spurred theoretical development in psycholinguistics, but relatively little is known about the neural basis of these effects and how lesions may affect them. The present study used voxel-wise lesion overlap subtraction to examine semantic and phonological neighbor effects in spoken word production following left hemisphere stroke. Increased inhibitory effects of near semantic neighbors were associated with inferior frontal lobe lesions, suggesting impaired selection among strongly activated semantically-related candidates. Increased inhibitory effects of phonological neighbors were associated with posterior superior temporal and inferior parietal lobe lesions. In combination with previous studies, these results suggest that such lesions cause phonological-to-lexical feedback to more strongly activate phonologically-related lexical candidates. The comparison of semantic and phonological neighbor effects and how they are affected by left hemisphere lesions provides new insights into the cognitive dynamics and neural basis of phonological, semantic, and cognitive control processes in spoken word production. PMID:23647518

  19. Tonguetwisting and dyslexia: Investigating the phonological deficit hypothesis 

    E-print Network

    Fraser, Catriona

    2012-06-27

    There is growing agreement that people with dyslexia have difficulty processing speech sounds. Proponents of the phonological deficit hypothesis argue that the core difficulty in dyslexia lies with phonological processing itself, either in encoding...

  20. Early Difficulties of Chinese Preschoolers at Familial Risk for Dyslexia: Deficits in Oral Language, Phonological Processing Skills, and Print-Related Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Leung, Man-Tak; Cheung, Him

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined some early performance difficulties of Chinese preschoolers at familial risk for dyslexia. Seventy-six high-risk (40 good and 36 poor readers) and 25 low-risk Chinese children were tested on oral language, reading-related cognitive skills (e.g. phonological processing skills, rapid naming, and morphological awareness),…

  1. Concurrent Validity and Diagnostic Accuracy of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintze, John M.; Ryan, Amanda L.; Stoner, Gary

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the concurrent validity of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) with the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP), and (b) explore the diagnostic accuracy of the DIBELS in predicting CTOPP performance using suggested and alternative cut-scores. Eighty-six students…

  2. The Role of Orthographic and Phonological Processing Skills in the Reading and Spelling of Monolingual Persian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Senechal, Monique; Arab-Moghaddam, Narges

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of phonological and orthographic skills to Persian reading and spelling. The Persian language is of interest because it has very consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences, but somewhat inconsistent phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences. Reading, spelling, phonological, and…

  3. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

  4. Phonological and Phonetic Biases in Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Michael Parrish

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how knowledge of phonological generalizations influences speech perception, with a particular focus on evidence that phonological processing is autonomous from (rather than interactive with) auditory processing. A model is proposed in which auditory cue constraints and markedness constraints interact to determine a…

  5. Language and phonological skills in children at high risk of reading difficulties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia M. Carroll; Margaret J. Snowling

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dyslexia is now generally acknowledged to involve difficulties in phonological processing. However, the links between reading difficulties and speech difficulties remain unclear. Method: In the present study, 17 children with speech difficulties between the ages of four and six were compared to children with a family history of dyslexia and normally developing controls on phonological processing, phonological learning, phonological

  6. Sensory contributions to impaired emotion processing in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Butler, Pamela D; Abeles, Ilana Y; Weiskopf, Nicole G; Tambini, Arielle; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Legatt, Michael E; Zemon, Vance; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C; Javitt, Daniel C

    2009-11-01

    Both emotion and visual processing deficits are documented in schizophrenia, and preferential magnocellular visual pathway dysfunction has been reported in several studies. This study examined the contribution to emotion-processing deficits of magnocellular and parvocellular visual pathway function, based on stimulus properties and shape of contrast response functions. Experiment 1 examined the relationship between contrast sensitivity to magnocellular- and parvocellular-biased stimuli and emotion recognition using the Penn Emotion Recognition (ER-40) and Emotion Differentiation (EMODIFF) tests. Experiment 2 altered the contrast levels of the faces themselves to determine whether emotion detection curves would show a pattern characteristic of magnocellular neurons and whether patients would show a deficit in performance related to early sensory processing stages. Results for experiment 1 showed that patients had impaired emotion processing and a preferential magnocellular deficit on the contrast sensitivity task. Greater deficits in ER-40 and EMODIFF performance correlated with impaired contrast sensitivity to the magnocellular-biased condition, which remained significant for the EMODIFF task even when nonspecific correlations due to group were considered in a step-wise regression. Experiment 2 showed contrast response functions indicative of magnocellular processing for both groups, with patients showing impaired performance. Impaired emotion identification on this task was also correlated with magnocellular-biased visual sensory processing dysfunction. These results provide evidence for a contribution of impaired early-stage visual processing in emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and suggest that a bottom-up approach to remediation may be effective. PMID:19793797

  7. Is Processing Speed Related to Severity of Language Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Margaret; Edwards, Jan; Munson, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Data from a study on lexical processing involving 66 children (mean age 6 years 9 months) with specific language impairments and 66 typically developing children. No significant correlations were found between response times on a series of tasks and language test scores. Results suggest that there is no linear relation between speed of processing

  8. Prevalence and Profile of Phonological and Surface Subgroups in College Students With a History of Reading Disability.

    PubMed

    Birch, Stacy L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify and characterize surface and phonological subgroups of readers among college students with a prior diagnosis of developmental reading disability (RD). Using a speeded naming task derived from Castles and Coltheart's subtyping study, we identified subgroups of readers from among college students with RD and then compared them on a number of component reading tasks. Most of our adults with RD showed a discrepancy in lexical versus sublexical reading skills. The majority of classified individuals were in the phonological dyslexia group, and this group's performance was worse than that of other groups on a range of reading-related tasks. Specifically, being relatively less skilled at reading nonwords compared to irregular words was associated with deficits in both sublexical and lexical tasks, and with unique deficits compared to the surface dyslexia group not only in an independent measure of phonological coding but also in spelling, rapid automatized naming, and speeded oral reading. The surface dyslexia group was small, and the pattern of results for these readers was not consistent with the predicted profile of a specific deficit in lexical and automatized reading processes. Our surface group did not show reduced skill in lexical mechanisms specifically, nor any unique deficit compared to the phonological group. These results seem more supportive of models of reading that place phonological processing impairments at the core of RD, with all other impairments being clearly subsidiary. PMID:25297383

  9. The Word Complexity Measure: Description and Application to Developmental Phonology and Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Miccio's work included a number of articles on the assessment of phonology in children with phonological disorders, typically using measures of correct articulation, using the PCC, or analyses of errors, using the framework of phonological processes. This paper introduces an approach to assessing phonology by examining the phonetic complexity of…

  10. Incremental Phonological Encoding during Unscripted Sentence Production

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, T. Florian; Furth, Katrina; Hilliard, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate phonological encoding during unscripted sentence production, focusing on the effect of phonological overlap on phonological encoding. Previous work on this question has almost exclusively employed isolated word production or highly scripted multi-word production. These studies have led to conflicting results: some studies found that phonological overlap between two words facilitates phonological encoding, while others found inhibitory effects. One worry with many of these paradigms is that they involve processes that are not typical to everyday language use, which calls into question to what extent their findings speak to the architectures and mechanisms underlying language production. We present a paradigm to investigate the consequences of phonological overlap between words in a sentence while leaving speakers much of the lexical and structural choices typical in everyday language use. Adult native speakers of English described events in short video clips. We annotated the presence of disfluencies and the speech rate at various points throughout the sentence, as well as the constituent order. We find that phonological overlap has an inhibitory effect on phonological encoding. Specifically, if adjacent content words share their phonological onset (e.g., hand the hammer), they are preceded by production difficulty, as reflected in fluency and speech rate. We also find that this production difficulty affects speakers’ constituent order preferences during grammatical encoding. We discuss our results and previous works to isolate the properties of other paradigms that resulted in facilitatory or inhibitory results. The data from our paradigm also speak to questions about the scope of phonological planning in unscripted speech and as to whether phonological and grammatical encoding interact. PMID:23162515

  11. Phonological patterns in Mandarin-English bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lu-Chun; Johnson, Cynthia J

    2010-01-01

    Adele Miccio recognized the paucity of information on the phonological development of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, and emphasized the need to apply advances in bilingual phonological research toward an appropriate phonological measure for bilingual children. In the spirit of her pioneering work, the present study investigated both Mandarin and English phonological patterns in typically-developing 5-year-old bilingual children in an English-immersion programme in Taiwan. Consonant and vowel accuracy, number and types of phonological processes, and Mandarin-influenced English patterns were assessed on a single-word assessment in each language. Results indicated comparable levels of phoneme accuracy and similar rates and types of phonological processes for bilinguals and their monolingual counterparts. A number of English phonological processes for bilinguals, however, suggested a possible Mandarin influence. The present results reiterate Dr Miccio's call for interdisciplinary collaboration to enhance one's understanding of bilingual language development, to advance successful intervention for bilingual children. PMID:20345265

  12. Impairment in preattentive visual processing in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Lieb; S. Brucker; M. Bach; T. Els; C. H. Lucking; M. W. Greenlee

    1999-01-01

    Summary We explored the possibility of whether preattentive visual processing is impaired in Parkinson's disease. With this aim, visual discrimination thresholds for orientation texture stimuli were determined in two separate measurement sessions in 16 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results were compared with those of 16 control subjects age-matched and 16 young healthy volunteers. Discrimination thresholds were measured in

  13. Developmental Dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment: Same or Different?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy V. M. Bishop; Margaret J. Snowling

    2004-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment (SLI) were for many years treated as distinct disorders but are now often regarded as different manifestations of the same underlying problem, differing only in severity or developmental stage. The merging of these categories has been motivated by the reconceptualization of dyslexia as a language disorder in which phonological processing is deficient. The authors

  14. Research Article Phonological Dyslexia

    E-print Network

    Research Article Phonological Dyslexia A Test Case for Reading Models Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet,1 words, a type of deficit referred to as phonological dyslexia. We report on 2 individuals with Alzheimer's disease who show phonological dyslexia. Although highly accurate in reading familiar words aloud (even

  15. Phonologically driven variability: the case of determiners.

    PubMed

    Bürki, Audrey; Laganaro, Marina; Alario, F Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Speakers usually produce words in connected speech. In such contexts, the form in which many words are uttered is influenced by the phonological properties of neighboring words. The current article examines the representations and processes underlying the production of phonologically constrained word form variations. For this purpose, we consider determiners whose form is sensitive to phonological context (e.g., in English: a car vs. an animal; in French: le chien 'the dog' vs. l'âne 'the donkey'). Two hypotheses have been proposed regarding how these words are processed. Determiners either are thought to have different representations for each of their surface forms, or they are thought to have only 1 representation while other forms are generated online after selection through a rule-based process. We tested the predictions derived from these 2 views in 3 picture naming experiments. Participants named pictures using determiner-adjective-noun phrases (e.g., la nouvelle table 'the new table'). Phonologically consistent or inconsistent conditions were contrasted, based on the phonological onsets of the adjective and the noun. Results revealed shorter naming latencies for consistent than for inconsistent sequences (i.e., a phonological consistency effect) for all the determiner types tested. Our interpretation of these findings converges on the assumption that determiners with varying surface forms are represented in memory with multiple phonological-lexical representations. This conclusion is discussed in relation to models of determiner processing and models of lexical variability. PMID:24797443

  16. Impairment in Non-Word Repetition: A Marker for Language Impairment or Reading Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Gillian; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily; Dworzynski, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Aim: A deficit in non-word repetition (NWR), a measure of short-term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment. We evaluated the strength of association between language impairment and reading impairment in children with current, past, and no language…

  17. The Link between Prosody and Language Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and/or Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, C. R.; Harcourt-Brown, S.; Ramus, F.; van der Lely, H. K. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are known to have impairments in various aspects of phonology, which have been claimed to cause their language and literacy impairments. However, "phonology" encompasses a wide range of skills, and little is known about whether these phonological impairments extend to…

  18. Language-based intervention for phonological disorders.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Ann A

    2002-02-01

    Children with phonological disorders often display difficulty in other domains of language. Language-based approaches focus on all aspects of language; therefore, little attention may be drawn to sound errors and these may not be specific targets of intervention. These approaches involve a variety of naturalistic, conversationally based techniques such as focused stimulation in the form of expansions and recasts, scaffolding narratives, and elicited production devices such as forced choice questions, cloze tasks, and preparatory sets. Results from well-controlled group studies are inconclusive regarding the cross-domain effects of morphosyntax approaches on phonology. There are, however, individual children whose phonology improves with a language-based approach. Preliminary evidence suggests that such an approach may be an appropriate choice for children with both speech and language impairments whose phonological systems are highly inconsistent. One advantage of a language-based approach is that it may lead to simultaneous improvements in both speech and language for children with difficulty in both these domains. It is also a viable option when service delivery dictates classroom and collaborative settings. When a language-based approach is chosen for children with phonological disorders, it is imperative that the practitioner monitor phonological progress closely to ensure its effectiveness. PMID:11938492

  19. Developmental Increase in Top–Down and Bottom–Up Processing in a Phonological Task: An Effective Connectivity, fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Bitan, Tali; Cheon, Jimmy; Lu, Dong; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

    2010-01-01

    We examined age-related changes in the interactions among brain regions in children performing rhyming judgments on visually presented words. The difficulty of the task was manipulated by including a conflict between task-relevant (phonological) information and task-irrelevant (orthographic) information. The conflicting conditions included pairs of words that rhyme despite having different spelling patterns ( jazz–has), or words that do not rhyme despite having similar spelling patterns ( pint–mint). These were contrasted with nonconflicting pairs that have similar orthography and phonology (dime–lime) or different orthography and phonology ( press–list). Using fMRI, we examined effective connectivity among five left hemisphere regions of interest: fusiform gyrus (FG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), intraparietal sulcus (IPS), lateral temporal cortex (LTC), and medial frontal gyrus (MeFG). Age-related increases were observed in the influence of the IFG and FG on the LTC, but only in conflicting conditions. These results reflect a developmental increase in the convergence of bottom–up and top–down information on the LTC. In older children, top–down control process may selectively enhance the sensitivity of the LTC to bottom–up information from the FG. This may be evident especially in situations that require selective enhancement of task-relevant versus task-irrelevant information. Altogether these results provide a direct evidence for a developmental increase in top–down control processes in language processing. The developmental increase in bottom–up processing may be secondary to the enhancement of top–down processes. PMID:18702576

  20. Left and right basal ganglia and frontal activity during language generation: Contributions to lexical, semantic, and phonological processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUCE CROSSON; HOPE BENEFIELD; M. ALLISON CATO; JOSEPH R. SADEK; ANNA BACON MOORE; CHRISTINA E. WIERENGA; KAUNDINYA GOPINATH; DAVID SOLTYSIK; RUSSELL M. BAUER; EDWARD J. AUERBACH; DIDEM GÖKÇAY; CHRISTIANA M. LEONARD; RICHARD W. BRIGGS

    2003-01-01

    f MRI was used to determine the frontal, basal ganglia, and thalamic structures engaged by three facets of language generation: lexical status of generated items, the use of semantic vs. phonological information during language generation, and rate of generation. During f MRI, 21 neurologically normal subjects performed four tasks: generation of nonsense syllables given beginning and ending consonant blends, generation

  1. Phonological Processing Deficits and the Acquisition of the Alphabetic Principle in a Severely Delayed Reader: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Catherine G.; Drover, James; Dyck, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    At the end of first grade, TM did not know the alphabet and could read no words. He could not tap syllables in words, had difficulty producing rhyming words and retrieving the phonological representations of words, and he could not discriminate many phoneme contrasts. He learned letter-sound correspondences first for single-consonant onsets and…

  2. Auditory processing efficiency deficits in children with developmental language impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.

    2002-12-01

    The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.

  3. Visual and Phonological Processing of Words: A Comparison of Good and Poor Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Liberman, Dov

    Investigating how good and poor readers process words, a study examined the spelling and reading processes of 80 middle-class first grade students from three schools in Houston, Texas, 40 who were receiving whole word instruction, and 40 receiving phonics instruction. Based on scores from the Gates-McGinitie Reading Test, Basic R (administered in…

  4. The phonetics of metrical prominence and its consequences on segmental phonology

    E-print Network

    Giavazzi, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Only very few phonological processes are reported to be conditioned by stress. There are two major patterns of stress-sensitive processes: segments are lengthened under stress, and vowels become louder. Two other phonological ...

  5. Word and pseudoword reading in children with specific speech and language impairment.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Lucie; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne; Casalis, Séverine

    2014-12-01

    Children with specific language impairment frequently encounter difficulties in learning to read and in particular, in word recognition. The present study set out to determine the precise impact of language impairment on word reading skills. We investigated single-word reading in 27 French children with specific speech and language impairment (2 SLI). Precise quantification of reading levels in the 2 SLI group showed an average delay of 3.5 years. Approximately 90% of these children were affected by a reading disorder, whereas for the remaining 10%, reading performance was within normal limits. Word reading procedures are analyzed using the so-called 'dual route model', which proposes that reading is achieved through two processes, the phonological and the orthographic procedures. Group comparison analyses of 27 reading level-matched control children, revealed an increased lexicality effect in the 2 SLI group, indicating a specific deficit in the phonological procedure. Moreover, multiple case analyses revealed interindividual differences among the children with 2 SLI, with four reading subtypes. Approximately 60% of these children reached the standard levels expected of younger children with identical reading levels (delayed reading profile) in both procedures. Twenty percent displayed qualitatively different reading mechanisms, with a greater deficit in the phonological procedure (phonological profile). These children showed a severe impairment in language production at the phonological level. Ten percent exhibited a greater orthographic deficit (surface profile) and 10% had normal reading skills (normal profile). Further research is required to improve our understanding of the relationships between 2 SLI or specific language impairment and reading acquisition. The present results suggest that in clinical practice, both reading procedures should be exercised, with emphasis on the phonological procedure for children with more severe deficits in phonological production. PMID:25187097

  6. Representing the Environments for Phonological Processes in an Accent-Independent Lexicon for Synthesis of English 

    E-print Network

    Fitt, Susan; Isard, Stephen

    This paper reports on work developing an accent-independent lexicon for use in synthesising speech in English. Developing a lexicon for a new accent is a long process, and one potential solution to this problem involves ...

  7. Re-Evaluating the Time Course of Gender and Phonological Encoding during Silent Monitoring Tasks Estimated by ERP: Serial or Parallel Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camen, Christian; Morand, Stephanie; Laganaro, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Neurolinguistic and psycholinguistic studies suggest that grammatical (gender) and phonological information are retrieved independently and that gender can be accessed before phonological information. This study investigated the relative time courses of gender and phonological encoding using topographic evoked potentials mapping methods.…

  8. Impaired allocentric spatial processing in posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kirsten V.; Burgess, Neil; Brewin, Chris R.; King, John A.

    2015-01-01

    A neurobiological dual representation model of PTSD proposes that reduced hippocampus-dependent contextual processing contributes to intrusive imagery due to a loss of control over hippocampus-independent sensory and affective representations. We investigated whether PTSD sufferers show impaired allocentric spatial processing indicative of reduced hippocampal functioning. Trauma-exposed individuals with (N = 29) and without (N = 30) a diagnosis of PTSD completed two tests of spatial processing: a topographical recognition task comprising perceptual and memory components, and a test of memory for objects’ locations within a virtual environment in which the test is from either the same viewpoint as presentation (solvable with egocentric memory) or a different viewpoint (requiring allocentric memory). Participants in the PTSD group performed significantly worse on allocentric spatial processing than trauma-exposed controls. Groups performed comparably on egocentric memory and non-spatial memory for lists of objects. Exposure to repeated incident trauma was also associated with significantly worse spatial processing in the PTSD group. Results show a selective impairment in allocentric spatial processing, implicating weak hippocampal functioning, as predicted by a neurobiological dual representation model of PTSD. These findings have important clinical implications for cognitive therapy. PMID:25636201

  9. Impaired allocentric spatial processing in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirsten V; Burgess, Neil; Brewin, Chris R; King, John A

    2015-03-01

    A neurobiological dual representation model of PTSD proposes that reduced hippocampus-dependent contextual processing contributes to intrusive imagery due to a loss of control over hippocampus-independent sensory and affective representations. We investigated whether PTSD sufferers show impaired allocentric spatial processing indicative of reduced hippocampal functioning. Trauma-exposed individuals with (N=29) and without (N=30) a diagnosis of PTSD completed two tests of spatial processing: a topographical recognition task comprising perceptual and memory components, and a test of memory for objects' locations within a virtual environment in which the test is from either the same viewpoint as presentation (solvable with egocentric memory) or a different viewpoint (requiring allocentric memory). Participants in the PTSD group performed significantly worse on allocentric spatial processing than trauma-exposed controls. Groups performed comparably on egocentric memory and non-spatial memory for lists of objects. Exposure to repeated incident trauma was also associated with significantly worse spatial processing in the PTSD group. Results show a selective impairment in allocentric spatial processing, implicating weak hippocampal functioning, as predicted by a neurobiological dual representation model of PTSD. These findings have important clinical implications for cognitive therapy. PMID:25636201

  10. Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

  11. Looking through phonological shape to lexical meaning: The bottleneck of non-native sign language processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RACHEL I. MAYBERRY; SUSAN D. FISCHER

    1989-01-01

    In two studies, we find that native and non-native acquisition show different effects on sign language processing. Subjects were all born deaf and used sign language for interpersonal com- munication, but first acquired it at ages ranging from birth to 18. In the first study, deaf signers shadowed (simultaneously watched and reproduced) sign language narratives given in two di- alects,

  12. Reading and Phonological Skills in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W; Mirrett, Penny L; Hatton, Deborah D; Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Jane E; Bailey, Donald B

    2014-12-01

    Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in standardized assessments of reading and phonological skills. Phonological skills were impaired in FXS, while reading was on-par with that of controls. Phonological awareness predicted reading ability and ASD severity predicted poorer phonological abilities in FXS. Boys with FXS are capable of attaining reading skills that are commensurate with developmental level and phonological awareness skills may play a critical role in reading achievement in FXS. PMID:25448919

  13. Developmental differences in the influence of phonological similarity on spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Malins, Jeffrey G; Gao, Danqi; Tao, Ran; Booth, James R; Shu, Hua; Joanisse, Marc F; Liu, Li; Desroches, Amy S

    2014-11-01

    The developmental trajectory of spoken word recognition has been well established in Indo-European languages, but to date remains poorly characterized in Mandarin Chinese. In this study, typically developing children (N=17; mean age 10; 5) and adults (N=17; mean age 24) performed a picture-word matching task in Mandarin while we recorded ERPs. Mismatches diverged from expectations in different components of the Mandarin syllable; namely, word-initial phonemes, word-final phonemes, and tone. By comparing responses to different mismatch types, we uncovered evidence suggesting that both children and adults process words incrementally. However, we also observed key developmental differences in how subjects treated onset and rime mismatches. This was taken as evidence for a stronger influence of top-down processing on spoken word recognition in adults compared to children. This work therefore offers an important developmental component to theories of Mandarin spoken word recognition. PMID:25278419

  14. Processing of Arabic diacritical marks: Phonological-syntactic disambiguation of homographic verbs and visual crowding effects.

    PubMed

    Hermena, Ehab W; Drieghe, Denis; Hellmuth, Sam; Liversedge, Simon P

    2015-04-01

    Diacritics convey vowel sounds in Arabic, allowing accurate word pronunciation. Mostly, modern Arabic is printed nondiacritized. Otherwise, diacritics appear either only on homographic words when not disambiguated by surrounding text or on all words as in religious or educational texts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we examined sentence processing in the absence of diacritics and when diacritics were presented in either modes. Heterophonic homographic target verbs that have different pronunciations in active and passive (e.g., /daraba/, hit; /doriba/, was hit) were embedded in temporarily ambiguous sentences in which in the absence of diacritics, readers cannot be certain whether the verb was active or passive. Passive sentences were disambiguated by an extra word (e.g., /bijad/, by the hand of). Our results show that readers benefitted from the disambiguating diacritics when present only on the homographic verb. When disambiguating diacritics were absent, Arabic readers followed their parsing preference for active verb analysis, and garden path effects were observed. When reading fully diacritized sentences, readers incurred only a small cost, likely due to increased visual crowding, but did not extensively process the (mostly superfluous) diacritics, thus resulting in a lack of benefit from the disambiguating diacritics on the passive verb. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25706771

  15. Dynamic auditory processing, musical experience and language development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Tallal; Nadine Gaab

    2006-01-01

    Children with language-learning impairments (LLI) form a heterogeneous population with the majority having both spoken and written language deficits as well as sensorimotor deficits, specifically those related to dynamic processing. Research has focused on whether or not sensorimotor deficits, specifically auditory spec- trotemporal processing deficits, cause phonological deficit, leading to language and reading impairments. New trends aimed at resolving this

  16. Impaired tactile processing in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Puts, Nicolaas A J; Wodka, Ericka L; Tommerdahl, Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Edden, Richard A E

    2014-05-01

    Impaired responses to tactile stimulation are a commonly reported symptom among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Furthermore, impairments in filtering or habituation to tactile input have been described in ASD. This study measured different aspects of tactile processing to investigate atypical touch sensitivity in children with ASD, methodology that has not been previously used in this population. Sixty-seven typically developing children (TDC) and 32 children with ASD (ages 8-12) completed vibrotactile tasks assessing: reaction time (RT); static and dynamic detection threshold (DT); amplitude discrimination with and without single-site adaptation; frequency discrimination; and temporal order judgment (TOJ) with and without concurrent stimulation. Children with ASD showed raised static detection thresholds and an absence of the effect of a dynamically increasing subthreshold stimulus on static detection threshold. Children with ASD also showed poorer amplitude discrimination than TDC, as well as decreased adaptation. There were no significant differences in frequency discrimination or TOJ performance between the groups. Differences in the effect of dynamic stimulation on detection threshold suggest impaired feed-forward inhibition in autism, which may be linked to poor sensory filtering. Increased baseline amplitude discrimination thresholds in ASD suggest that lateral inhibitory connections are weaker in ASD, and an absence of the effect of adaptation suggests impaired modulation of lateral inhibitory connections in ASD, which may relate to aberrant habituation. These results suggest a functional deficit in the somatosensory inhibitory system in autism. Understanding the specific mechanisms underlying sensory symptoms in autism may allow for more specific therapeutic or drug targeting in the near future. PMID:24523518

  17. Altered neuronal response during rapid auditory processing and its relation to phonological processing in prereading children at familial risk for dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Raschle, Nora M; Stering, Patrice L; Meissner, Sarah N; Gaab, Nadine

    2014-09-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a learning disability affecting 5-17% of children. Although researchers agree that DD is characterized by deficient phonological processing (PP), its cause is debated. It has been suggested that altered rapid auditory processing (RAP) may lead to deficient PP in DD and studies have shown deficient RAP in individuals with DD. Functional neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have implicated hypoactivations in left prefrontal brain regions during RAP in individuals with DD. When and how these neuronal alterations evolve remains unknown. In this article, we investigate functional networks during RAP in 28 children with (n = 14) and without (n = 14) a familial risk for DD before reading onset (mean: 5.6 years). Results reveal functional alterations in left-hemispheric prefrontal regions during RAP in prereading children at risk for DD, similar to findings in individuals with DD. Furthermore, activation during RAP in left prefrontal regions positively correlates with prereading measures of PP and with neuronal activation during PP in posterior dorsal and ventral brain areas. Our results suggest that neuronal differences during RAP predate reading instruction and thus are not due to experience-dependent brain changes resulting from DD itself and that there is a functional relationship between neuronal networks for RAP and PP within the prereading brain. PMID:23599167

  18. Morphosyntax and phonological awareness in children with speech sound disorders.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Jennifer; Rvachew, Susan

    2008-12-01

    The goals of the current study were to examine concurrent and longitudinal relationships of expressive morphosyntax and phonological awareness in a group of children with speech sound disorders. Tests of phonological awareness were administered to 38 children at the end of their prekindergarten and kindergarten years. Speech samples were elicited and analyzed to obtain a set of expressive morphosyntax variables. Finite verb morphology and inflectional suffix use by prekindergarten children were found to predict significant unique variance in change in phonological awareness a year later. These results are consistent with previous research showing finite verb morphology to be a sensitive indicator of language impairment in English. PMID:19076403

  19. Language Deficits in Dyslexic Children: Speech Perception, Phonology, and Morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc F. Joanisse; Franklin R. Manis; Patricia Keating; Mark S. Seidenberg

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between dyslexia and three aspects of language: speech perception, phonology, and morphology. Reading and language tasks were administered to dyslexics aged 8–9 years and to two normal reader groups (age-matched and reading-level matched). Three dyslexic groups were identified: phonological dyslexics (PD), developmentally language impaired (LI), and globally delayed (delay-type dyslexics). The LI and PD groups exhibited

  20. Short-Term and Working Memory Skills in Primary School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment and Children with Pragmatic Language Impairment: Phonological, Linguistic and Visuo-Spatial Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Jenny; Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) are consistently reported to have short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) difficulties. Aim: To compare STM and WM abilities in CwSLI with children with pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI). Methods & Procedures: Primary school-aged CwSLI (n = 12) and CwPLI (n = 23) were…

  1. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  2. Neglect Impairs Explicit Processing of the Mental Number Line

    PubMed Central

    Zorzi, Marco; Bonato, Mario; Treccani, Barbara; Scalambrin, Giovanni; Marenzi, Roberto; Priftis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that visuospatial attention plays a pivotal role in numerical processing, especially when the task involves the manipulation of numerical magnitudes. Visuospatial neglect impairs contralesional attentional orienting not only in perceptual but also in numerical space. Indeed, patients with left neglect show a bias toward larger numbers when mentally bisecting a numerical interval, as if they were neglecting its leftmost part. In contrast, their performance in parity judgments is unbiased, suggesting a dissociation between explicit and implicit processing of numerical magnitude. Here we further investigate the consequences of these visuospatial attention impairments on numerical processing and their interaction with task demands. Patients with right hemisphere damage, with and without left neglect, were administered both a number comparison and a parity judgment task that had identical stimuli and response requirements. Neglect patients’ performance was normal in the parity task, when processing of numerical magnitude was implicit, whereas they showed characteristic biases in the number comparison task, when access to numerical magnitude was explicit. Compared to patients without neglect, they showed an asymmetric distance effect, with slowing of the number immediately smaller than (i.e., to the left of) the reference and a stronger SNARC effect, particularly for large numbers. The latter might index an exaggerated effect of number-space compatibility after ipsilesional (i.e., rightward) orienting in number space. Thus, the effect of neglect on the explicit processing of numerical magnitude can be understood in terms of both a failure to orient to smaller (i.e., contralesional) magnitudes and a difficulty to disengage from larger (i.e., ipsilesional) magnitudes on the number line, which resembles the disrupted pattern of attention orienting in visual space. PMID:22661935

  3. Community structure in the phonological network

    PubMed Central

    Siew, Cynthia S. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language. PMID:23986735

  4. Repetition priming in oral text reading: a therapeutic strategy for phonologic text alexia

    PubMed Central

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Sperling, Anne J.; Watson, Nora L.; Friedman, Rhonda B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Phonologic text alexia (PhTA) is a reading disorder in which reading of pseudowords is impaired, but reading of real words is impaired only when reading text. Oral reading accuracy remains well preserved when words are presented individually, but when presented in text the part-of-speech effect that is often seen in phonologic alexia (PhA) emerges. Aims To determine whether repetition priming could strengthen and/or maintain the activation of words during text reading. Methods & Procedures We trained NYR, a patient with PhTA, to use a strategy, Sentence Building, designed to improve accuracy of reading words in text. The strategy required NYR to first read the initial word, and then build up the sentence by adding on sequential words, in a step-wise manner, utilizing the benefits of repetition priming to enhance accuracy. Outcomes & Results When using the strategy, NYR displayed improved accuracy not only for sentences she practiced using the strategy, but unpracticed sentences as well. Additionally, NYR performed better on a test of comprehension when using the strategy, as compared to without the strategy. Conclusions In light of research linking repetition priming to increased neural processing efficiency, our results suggest that use of this compensatory strategy improves reading accuracy and comprehension by temporarily boosting phonologic activation levels. PMID:20664804

  5. Conceptual Coherence Affects Phonological Activation of Context Objects during Object Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Schriefers, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    In 4 picture-word interference experiments, speakers named a target object that was presented with a context object. Using auditory distractors that were phonologically related or unrelated either to the target object or the context object, the authors assessed whether phonological processing was confined to the target object or not. Phonological

  6. Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

  7. Phonological Mediation and Semantic and Orthographic Factors in Silent Reading in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane; Siegel, Linda S.; Bechennec, Danielle

    1998-01-01

    Assesses 48 French children's phonological skills from kindergarten to the end of grade two. Finds that the French-speaking children used phonological mediation in silent-reading tasks and that phonological processing contributes to the construction of the orthographic lexicon. (RS)

  8. School-Aged Children's Phonological Production of Derived English Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about the phonological aspects of derivational processes. Neutral suffixes (e.g., "-ness") that do not change stress and rhythmic or nonneutral suffixes (e.g., "-ity") that alter stem stress were used in a production task that explored developmental changes in phonological accuracy of derived English words. Method: Three…

  9. Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia—a developmental analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maggie Snowling; Joy Stackhouse; John Rack

    1986-01-01

    The present paper presents data from seven developmental dyslexics who exhibit the profile of abilities which can be described as “phonological” dyslexia. Three of the cases, all children, were of low reading age; four cases, one of which was an adult, had reading ages above ten years. Tests of reading, spelling and auditory processing revealed a range of phonological deficits

  10. The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process, but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic, and phonological abilities. The present article reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of…

  11. Differentiating Word Learning Processes May Yield New Insights--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storkel, Holly L.

    2011-01-01

    Stoel-Gammon (this issue) states that "from birth to age 2 ; 6, the developing phonological system affects lexical acquisition to a greater degree than lexical factors affect phonological development" (this issue). This conclusion is based on a wealth of data; however, the available data are somewhat limited in scope, focusing on rather holistic…

  12. Preserved subliminal processing and impaired conscious access in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Del Cul, Antoine; Dehaene, Stanislas; Leboyer, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies of visual backward masking have frequently revealed an elevated masking threshold in schizophrenia. This finding has frequently been interpreted as indicating a low-level visual deficit. However, more recent models suggest that masking may also involve late and higher-level integrative processes, while leaving intact early “bottom-up” visual processing. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that the backward masking deficit in schizophrenia corresponds to a deficit in the late stages of conscious perception, whereas the subliminal processing of masked stimuli is fully preserved. Method 28 patients with schizophrenia and 28 normal controls performed two backward-masking experiments. We used Arabic digits as stimuli and varied quasi-continuously the interval with a subsequent mask, thus allowing us to progressively “unmask” the stimuli. We finely quantified their degree of visibility using both objective and subjective measures to evaluate the threshold duration for access to consciousness. We also studied the priming effect caused by the variably masked numbers on a comparison task performed on a subsequently presented and highly visible target number. Results The threshold delay between digit and mask necessary for the conscious perception of the masked stimulus was longer in patients compared to control subjects. This higher consciousness threshold in patients was confirmed by an objective and a subjective measure, and both measures were highly correlated for patients as well as for controls. However, subliminal priming of masked numbers was effective and identical in patients compared to controls. Conclusions Access to conscious report of masked stimuli is impaired in schizophrenia, while fast bottom-up processing of the same stimuli, as assessed by subliminal priming, is preserved. These findings suggest a high-level origin of the masking deficit in schizophrenia, although they leave open for further research its exact relation to previously identified bottom-up visual processing abnormalities. PMID:17146006

  13. Neural correlates of impaired emotion processing in manifest Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Imis; Saß, Christian; Mirzazade, Shahram; Kleiman, Alexandra; Werner, Cornelius J; Pohl, Anna; Schiefer, Johannes; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Schulz, Jörg B; Shah, N Jon; Reetz, Kathrin

    2014-05-01

    The complex phenotype of Huntington's disease (HD) encompasses motor, psychiatric and cognitive dysfunctions, including early impairments in emotion recognition. In this first functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated emotion-processing deficits in 14 manifest HD patients and matched controls. An emotion recognition task comprised short video clips displaying one of six basic facial expressions (sadness, happiness, disgust, fear, anger and neutral). Structural changes between patients and controls were assessed by means of voxel-based morphometry. Along with deficient recognition of negative emotions, patients exhibited predominantly lower neural response to stimuli of negative valences in the amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, insula, cingulate and prefrontal cortices, as well as in sensorimotor, temporal and visual areas. Most of the observed reduced activity patterns could not be explained merely by regional volume loss. Reduced activity in the thalamus during fear correlated with lower thalamic volumes. During the processing of sadness, patients exhibited enhanced amygdala and hippocampal activity along with reduced recruitment of the medial prefrontal cortex. Higher amygdala activity was related to more pronounced amygdala atrophy and disease burden. Overall, the observed emotion-related dysfunctions in the context of structural neurodegeneration suggest both disruptions of striatal-thalamo-cortical loops and potential compensation mechanism with greater disease severity in manifest HD. PMID:23482620

  14. Impaired neural processing of social attribution in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    McAdams, Carrie J; Krawczyk, Daniel C

    2011-10-31

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) patients have been found to have problems in social cognition, including the process of thinking about other people's thoughts and feelings, often referred to as Theory of Mind (ToM). We examined neural correlates relating to thinking about social relationships in 17 women in recovery from anorexia (RAN) and 17 healthy women (CON) using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task. The task consisted of short videos of moving shapes that subjects viewed either in the context of performing a social decision related to how the shapes interacted: "People: All friends?" or in the context of performing a visuospatial task related to how the shapes moved after bumping into each other: "Bumper cars: Same weight?". The RAN participants showed reduced activation in the social cognition network, with the most robust differences in the right temporoparietal junction (RTPJ). There were no significant differences between the CON and RAN groups in regions more active during the visuospatial task. These neural correlates show differences in the processing of social knowledge in RAN subjects suggesting that biological impairments in social cognition may contribute to pathology in AN. PMID:21872451

  15. Dystypia: isolated typing impairment without aphasia, apraxia or visuospatial impairment.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Mika; Soma, Yoshiaki; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term 'dystypia' for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient's typing impairment was not attributable to a disturbance of the linguistic process, since he had no aphasia or agraphia. The impairment was not attributable to the impairment of the motor execution process either, since he had no apraxia. Thus, his typing impairment was deduced to be based on a disturbance of the intermediate process where the linguistic phonological information is converted into the corresponding performance. We hypothesized that there is a specific process for typing which branches from the motor programming process presented in neurolinguistic models. The foot of the left second frontal convolution and the operculum may play an important role in the manifestation of 'dystypia'. PMID:11914550

  16. Acoustic evidence for phonologically mismatched speech errors.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Speech errors are generally said to accommodate to their new phonological context. This accommodation has been validated by several transcription studies. The transcription methodology is not the best choice for detecting errors at this level, however, as this type of error can be difficult to perceive. This paper presents an acoustic analysis of speech errors that uncovers non-accommodated or mismatch errors. A mismatch error is a sub-phonemic error that results in an incorrect surface phonology. This type of error could arise during the processing of phonological rules or they could be made at the motor level of implementation. The results of this work have important implications for both experimental and theoretical research. For experimentalists, it validates the tools used for error induction and the acoustic determination of errors free of the perceptual bias. For theorists, this methodology can be used to test the nature of the processes proposed in language production. PMID:24389843

  17. Learning Novel Words: Detail and Vulnerability of Initial Representations for Children with Specific Language Impairment and Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary; Suddarth, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the phonological representations that children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers (TD) have during the initial process of word learning. The goals of this study were to determine if children with SLI attended to different components of words than peers, and whether they were more vulnerable…

  18. The Structure of Phonological Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Bridget D.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…

  19. A longitudinal case study of developmental phonological dyslexia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maggie Snowling; Charles Hulme

    1989-01-01

    We present a four-year follow-up study of JM, a developmental phonological dyslexic previously described by Snowling, Stackhouse, and Rack (1986). JM has made some progress in reading and spelling although these skills remain severely impaired. His reading and spelling skills are consistent with arrest in the logographic phase of literacy development as described by Frith (1985); reading errors are primarily

  20. Contrasting Effects of Phonological Priming in Aphasic Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilshire, Carolyn E.; Saffran, Eleanor M.

    2005-01-01

    Two fluent aphasics, IG and GL, performed a phonological priming task in which they repeated an auditory prime then named a target picture. The two patients both had selective deficits in word production: they were at or near ceiling on lexical comprehension tasks, but were significantly impaired in picture naming. IG's naming errors included both…

  1. Language evolution: syntax before phonology?

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P.; Manser, Marta B.; Townsend, Simon W.

    2014-01-01

    Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364

  2. Language and Learning in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: Syntactic Processing and the Role of Phonological Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, Sara T.

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. Most boys with fragile X syndrome have impaired cognition and language deficits, with significant within-syndrome variability. Syntax may be especially delayed relative to nonverbal cognition; however, little is known about the specificity of delay, the sources of that…

  3. Phonological Awareness for American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…

  4. Impaired emotion processing in remitted patients with bipolar disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasils P. Bozikas; Thomy Tonia; Kostas Fokas; Athanasios Karavatos; Mary H. Kosmidis

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether there is an impairment in affect matching abilities in remitted patients with bipolar disorder and if this could be attributed to problems with facial perception per se and\\/or the ability to perceive the relative valence of facial expressions indicating emotions.We examined 19 patients with bipolar disorder I, currently remitted, and 30 healthy controls

  5. A dual-route perspective on poor reading in a regular orthography: Evidence from phonological and orthographic lexical decisions

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Jürgen; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit. PMID:18642138

  6. Phonetics and Phonology. Occasional Papers, No. 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex Univ., Colchester (England). Dept. of Language and Linguistics.

    This volume is devoted to phonetics and phonology. It consists of the following papers: (1) "Generative Phonology, Dependency Phonology and Southern French," by J. Durand, which discusses aspects of a regional pronunciation of French, the status of syllables in generative phonology, and concepts of dependency phonology; (2) "On the Role of…

  7. Learning Phonological Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris

    2009-01-01

    This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…

  8. Dual-task information processing in schizotypal personality disorder: evidence of impaired processing capacity.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip D; Reichenberg, Abraham; Romero, Michelle; Granholm, Eric; Siever, Larry J

    2006-07-01

    Working memory theories heavily rely on the concept of processing resources and the their efficient deployment. Some recent work with schizophrenia-spectrum patients has suggested that many associated cognitive impairments may be reduced to deficits in working memory, possibly related to reductions in information-processing capacity resources. In this study, 38 patients with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), 22 patients with other personality disorders, and 14 healthy comparison participants performed a dual-task processing assessment that was designed specifically for use in this type of study. Participants recalled lists of digits at their predetermined maximum digit span and performed box-checking tests, first alone and then in a dual-task format. Instructions included equal prioritization of both tasks. SPD patients had significantly shorter digit spans, and they also showed more deterioration on both tasks. Performance operating characteristics curves indicated that SPD patients' reduced performance was not due to abnormal resource allocation strategies leading to strategic failures. The authors discuss the implications of these processing capacity limitations for understanding both the signature of cognitive impairment within the schizophrenia spectrum and general abnormalities in working memory. PMID:16846263

  9. Understanding the nature of face processing impairment in autism: insights from behavioral and electrophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara Jane; McPartland, James

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews behavioral and electrophysiological studies of face processing and discusses hypotheses for understanding the nature of face processing impairments in autism. Based on results of behavioral studies, this study demonstrates that individuals with autism have impaired face discrimination and recognition and use atypical strategies for processing faces characterized by reduced attention to the eyes and piecemeal rather than configural strategies. Based on results of electrophysiological studies, this article concludes that face processing impairments are present early in autism, by 3 years of age. Such studies have detected abnormalities in both early (N170 reflecting structural encoding) and late (NC reflecting recognition memory) stages of face processing. Event-related potential studies of young children and adults with autism have found slower speed of processing of faces, a failure to show the expected speed advantage of processing faces versus nonface stimuli, and atypical scalp topography suggesting abnormal cortical specialization for face processing. Other electrophysiological studies have suggested that autism is associated with early and late stage processing impairments of facial expressions of emotion (fear) and decreased perceptual binding as reflected in reduced gamma during face processing. This article describes two types of hypotheses-cognitive/perceptual and motivational/affective--that offer frameworks for understanding the nature of face processing impairments in autism. This article discusses implications for intervention. PMID:15843104

  10. Research report Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia: Cognitive

    E-print Network

    Research report Phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia: Cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates Jordan Grafman Published online 5 June 2008 Keywords: Phonological dyslexia/dysgraphia Perisylvian cortex the neuropsychological mechanisms and lesion correlates of phonological dyslexia and dysgraphia, we studied written

  11. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the ?-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational ?-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  12. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  13. Processing Limitations in Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have processing limitations; however, the mechanisms involved have not been well defined or investigated in a theory-guided manner. The theory of constructive operators was used as a framework to explore processes underlying limited processing capacity in children with SLI.…

  14. Developmental Increase in Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processing in a Phonological Task: An Effective Connectivity, fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitan, Tali; Cheon, Jimmy; Lu, Dong; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined age-related changes in the interactions among brain regions in children performing rhyming judgments on visually presented words. The difficulty of the task was manipulated by including a conflict between task-relevant (phonological) information and task-irrelevant (orthographic) information. The conflicting conditions included pairs…

  15. Understanding Phonological Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Dissociation of Short-Term Storage and Articulatory Rehearsal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Jennifer; Rapport, Mark D.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study dissociated and examined the two primary components of the phonological working memory subsystem--the short-term store and articulatory rehearsal mechanism--in boys with ADHD (n = 18) relative to typically developing boys (n = 15). Word lists of increasing length (2, 4, and 6 words per trial) were presented to and recalled by…

  16. The Role of Visual and Phonological Representations in the Processing of Written Words by Readers with Diagnosed Dyslexia: Evidence from a Working Memory Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul; Kupfermann, Amirit

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the nature and efficiency of the strategies that readers with phonological dyslexia use for temporary retention of written words in Working Memory (WM). Data was gathered through a paradigm whereby participants had to identify serially presented written (target) words from within larger word pools according to…

  17. Speed of processing and depression affect function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Patrick J.; Liu, Xinhua; Sneed, Joel R.; Pimontel, Monique A.; Devanand, D.P.; Roose, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of depression and cognition on function in older adults with amnestic and nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI; nonaMCI). Design The study uses baseline data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center. Setting Data was collected at multiple Alzheimer’s Disease Centers in the United States. Participants The sample included a total of 3117 individuals with MCI, mean age = 74.37 years, SD = 9.37 (aMCI n =2488; nonaMCI n = 629). Measurements The 10-item Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessed function. Results Depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale), memory impairment (Logical Memory II), and processing speed decrements (Digit Symbol Substitution Test) were significantly associated with functional impairment (p < .001). Processing speed partially mediated the effect of depression on function and fully mediated the effect of executive dysfunction on function (p < .001) in the total MCI and aMCI subsample, while in the nonaMCI subsample processing speed mediated the effect of executive function but not the effect of depression (p = .20) on function. Conclusions The findings show that processing speed is central to the effect that depression and executive dysfunction have on functional impairment in cognitively impaired older adults. Future studies are needed to better understand the physiological underpinnings in age-related and disease-specific decrements in processing speed, and to address the problems in the assessment of processing speed in clinical samples. PMID:23567401

  18. Prefrontal cortex activity during response selection predicts processing speed impairment in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Neil D.; Duffy-Alberto, Brittney; Karbasforoushan, Haleh

    2014-01-01

    Processing speed is the most impaired neuropsychological domain in schizophrenia and a robust predictor of functional outcome. Determining the specific cognitive operations underlying processing speed dysfunction and indentifying their neural correlates may assist in developing pro-cognitive interventions. Response selection, the process of mapping stimuli onto motor responses, correlates with neuropsychological tests of processing speed and may contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. This study investigated the relationship between behavioral and neural measures of response selection, and a neuropsychological index of processing speed in schizophrenia. 26 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning during performance of 2 and 4-choice-reaction time (RT) tasks and completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS) Processing Speed Index (PSI). Response selection, defined as RT slowing between 2 and 4-choice RT, was impaired in schizophrenia and correlated with psychometric processing speed. Greater activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) was observed in schizophrenia and correlated with poorer WAIS PSI scores. Deficient response selection and abnormal recruitment of the dorsolateral PFC during response selection contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. Interventions that improve response selection and normalize dorsolateral PFC function may improve processing speed in schizophrenia. PMID:23816240

  19. Lexical and Phonological Development in Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech--A Commentary on Stoel-Gammon's "Relationships between Lexical and Phonological Development in Young Children"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velleman, Shelley L.

    2011-01-01

    Although not the focus of her article, phonological development in young children with speech sound disorders of various types is highly germane to Stoel-Gammon's discussion (this issue) for at least two primary reasons. Most obvious is that typical processes and milestones of phonological development are the standards and benchmarks against which…

  20. Addressing phonological questions with ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Davidson

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of consonant cluster phonotactics is presented as an example of how ultrasound

  1. The Dynamics of Phonological Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roon, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a dynamical computational model of the timecourse of phonological parameter setting. In the model, phonological representations embrace phonetic detail, with phonetic parameters represented as activation fields that evolve over time and determine the specific parameter settings of a planned utterance. Existing models of…

  2. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  3. Selective impairment of self body-parts processing in right brain-damaged patients.

    PubMed

    Frassinetti, Francesca; Maini, Manuela; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Avanzi, Stefano; Cantagallo, Anna; Farnè, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    To investigate whether the processing of the visual appearance of one's own body, that is the corporeal self is a unified or modular function we submitted eight right brain-damaged (RBD) patients and a group of fourteen age-matched neurologically healthy subjects, to a visual matching-to-sample task testing for corporeal self processing. If corporeal self processing is a unique function (i.e., body- and face-parts are processed by the same network), patients impaired in self body-parts (i.e., showing no self-advantage) should be impaired also in self face-parts; alternatively, if corporeal self processing is a modular function (i.e., body- and face-parts are processed by different networks), patients impaired in self body-parts should be unimpaired in self face-parts, unless the face-module is also damaged by the lesion. Results showed that healthy participants were more accurate in processing pictures representing their own as compared to other people's body- and face-parts, showing the so-called self-advantage. The patients' findings revealed a simple dissociation, in that patients who were impaired in the processing of self-related body-parts showed a preserved self-advantage when processing self-related face-parts, thus providing initial evidence of a modular representation of the corporeal self. PMID:19482271

  4. Bilateral hemispheric processing of words and faces: evidence from word impairments in prosopagnosia and face impairments in pure alexia.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Marlene; Plaut, David C

    2014-04-01

    Considerable research has supported the view that faces and words are subserved by independent neural mechanisms located in the ventral visual cortex in opposite hemispheres. On this view, right hemisphere ventral lesions that impair face recognition (prosopagnosia) should leave word recognition unaffected, and left hemisphere ventral lesions that impair word recognition (pure alexia) should leave face recognition unaffected. The current study shows that neither of these predictions was upheld. A series of experiments characterizing speed and accuracy of word and face recognition were conducted in 7 patients (4 pure alexic, 3 prosopagnosic) and matched controls. Prosopagnosic patients revealed mild but reliable word recognition deficits, and pure alexic patients demonstrated mild but reliable face recognition deficits. The apparent comingling of face and word mechanisms is unexpected from a domain-specific perspective, but follows naturally as a consequence of an interactive, learning-based account in which neural processes for both faces and words are the result of an optimization procedure embodying specific computational principles and constraints. PMID:23250954

  5. Orthographic and Phonological Contributions to Reading Development: Tracking Developmental Trajectories Using Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Bertrand, Daisy; Lété, Bernard; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a variant of masked priming to track the development of 2 marker effects of orthographic and phonological processing from Grade 1 through Grade 5 in a cross-sectional study. Pseudohomophone (PsH) priming served as a marker for phonological processing, whereas transposed-letter (TL) priming was a marker for coarse-grained…

  6. Gesture and the Nature of Semantic Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.

    2009-01-01

    Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…

  7. Word processing in Parkinson's Disease is impaired for action verbs but not for concrete nouns

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Word processing in Parkinson's Disease is impaired for action verbs but not for concrete nouns Lyon I, INSERM U864, Lyon, France. Running Title: Action word processing in Parkinson's Disease by examining the impact of Parkinson's Disease (PD) on lexical decision performance for action words, relative

  8. Visuo-Spatial Processing and Executive Functions in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Klara

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individual differences in complex working memory tasks reflect simultaneous processing, executive functions, and attention control. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show a deficit in verbal working memory tasks that involve simultaneous processing of information. Aims: The purpose of the study was to examine executive…

  9. Musical plus phonological input for young foreign language readers

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Mora, M. C.; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María

    2015-01-01

    Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7–8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills.

  10. Phonological Distance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Nathan C; Chin, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    Phonological distance can be measured computationally using formally specified algorithms. This work investigates two such measures, one developed by Nerbonne and Heeringa (1997) based on Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1965) and the other an adaptation of Dunning’s (1994) language classifier that uses maximum likelihood distance. These two measures are compared against naïve transcriptions of the speech of pediatric cochlear implant users. The new measure, maximum likelihood distance, correlates highly with Levenshtein distance and naïve transcriptions; results from this corpus are easier to obtain since cochlear implant speech has a lower intelligibility than the usually high intelligibility of the speech of a different dialect. PMID:20407614

  11. Processing load impairs coordinate integration for the localization of touch.

    PubMed

    Badde, Stephanie; Heed, Tobias; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-05-01

    To perform an action toward a touch, the tactile spatial representation must be transformed from a skin-based, anatomical reference frame into an external reference frame. Evidence suggests that, after transformation, both anatomical and external coordinates are integrated for the location estimate. The present study investigated whether the calculation and integration of external coordinates are automatic processes. Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs) of two tactile stimuli, one applied to each hand, in crossed and uncrossed postures. The influence of the external coordinates of touch was indicated by the performance difference between crossed and uncrossed postures, referred to as the crossing effect. To assess automaticity, the TOJ task was combined with a working memory task that varied in difficulty (size of the working memory set) and quality (verbal vs. spatial). In two studies, the crossing effect was consistently reduced under processing load. When the load level was adaptively adjusted to individual performance (Study 2), the crossing effect additionally varied as a function of the difficulty of the secondary task. These modulatory effects of processing load on the crossing effect were independent of the type of working memory. The sensitivity of the crossing effect to processing load suggests that coordinate integration for touch localization is not fully automatic. To reconcile the present results with previous findings, we suggest that the genuine remapping process-that is, the transformation of anatomical into external coordinates-proceeds automatically, whereas their integration in service of a combined location estimate is subject to top-down control. PMID:24550040

  12. Aberrant Pattern of Scanning in Prosopagnosia Reflects Impaired Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Blossom Christa Maree; Caine, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Visual scanpath recording was used to investigate the information processing strategies used by a prosopagnosic patient, SC, when viewing faces. Compared to controls, SC showed an aberrant pattern of scanning, directing attention away from the internal configuration of facial features (eyes, nose) towards peripheral regions (hair, forehead) of the…

  13. The Dyslexia Spectrum: Continuities between Reading, Speech, and Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.

    2006-01-01

    D. V. M. Bishop and M. J. Snowling (2004) proposed that 2 dimensions of language are required to conceptualize the relationship between dyslexia and specific language impairment: phonological skills and wider language skills beyond phonology (grammatical, semantic, and pragmatic skills). In this article, we discuss the commonalities between…

  14. Preserved Feedforward But Impaired Top-Down Processes in the Vegetative State

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie Boly; Marta Isabel Garrido; Olivia Gosseries; Marie-Aurélie Bruno; Pierre Boveroux; Caroline Schnakers; Marcello Massimini; Vladimir Litvak; Steven Laureys; Karl Friston

    2011-01-01

    Frontoparietal cortex is involved in the explicit processing (awareness) of stimuli. Frontoparietal activation has also been found in studies of subliminal stimulus processing. We hypothesized that an impairment of top-down processes, involved in recurrent neuronal message-passing and the generation of long-latency electrophysiological responses, might provide a more reliable correlate of consciousness in severely brain-damaged patients, than frontoparietal responses. We measured

  15. Multisensory Spatial Attention Deficits Are Predictive of Phonological Decoding Skills in Developmental Dyslexia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Facoetti; Anna Noemi Trussardi; Milena Ruffino; Maria Luisa Lorusso; Carmen Cattaneo; Raffaella Galli; Massimo Molteni; Marco Zorzi

    2009-01-01

    Although the dominant approach posits that developmental dyslexia arises from deficits in systems that are exclusively linguistic in nature (i.e., phonological deficit theory), dyslexics show a variety of lower level deficits in sensory and attentional processing. Although their link to the reading disorder remains contentious, recent empirical and computational studies suggest that spatial attention plays an important role in phonological

  16. Phonological Patterns in the Conversational Speech of Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flipsen, Peter, Jr.; Parker, Rhonda G.

    2008-01-01

    In this descriptive, longitudinal study, phonological patterns (i.e., natural phonological processes) were examined in a set of conversational speech samples obtained from six young children fitted with cochlear implants. Both developmental and non-developmental patterns were observed. This is consistent with findings from previous studies of the…

  17. Phonology and Language Development in Italian Children: An Analysis of Production and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanobini, Mirella; Viterbori, Paola; Saraceno, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The principal aims of this study were to detect phonetic measures (consonant inventory, intelligibility, frequency, and types of phonological errors) associated with lexical and morphosyntactic ability and to analyze the types of phonological processes in children with different language skills. Method: The sample was composed of 30…

  18. Cross-Language Phonological Activation of Meaning: Evidence from Category Verification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Jared, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated phonological processing in bilingual reading for meaning. English-French and French-English bilinguals performed a category verification task in either their first or second language. Interlingual homophones (words that share phonology across languages but not orthography or meaning) and single language control words served…

  19. Maintenance and Generalization Effects of Semantic and Phonological Treatments of Anomia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macoir, Joel; Routhier, Sonia; Simard, Anne; Picard, Josee

    2012-01-01

    Anomia is one of the most frequent manifestations in aphasia. Model-based treatments for anomia usually focus on semantic and/or phonological levels of processing. This study reports treatment of anomia in an individual with chronic aphasia. After baseline testing, she received a training program in which semantic and phonological treatments were…

  20. Reading and Spelling Acquisition in French: The Role of Phonological Mediation and Orthographic Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliane Sprenger-Charolles; Linda S. Siegel; Philippe Bonnet

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the development of reading and spelling in French. The two main hypotheses were that (1) phonological mediation is the primary process in the acquisition of these skills and that (2) the use of phonological mediation may allow the construction of the orthographic lexicon. In January and June, first graders (n= 57) were

  1. Priming vs. Rhyming: Orthographic and Phonological Representations in the Left and Right Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Annukka K.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2008-01-01

    The right cerebral hemisphere has long been argued to lack phonological processing capacity. Recently, however, a sex difference in the cortical representation of phonology has been proposed, suggesting discrete left hemisphere lateralization in males and more distributed, bilateral representation of function in females. To evaluate this…

  2. Neural Changes after Phonological Treatment for Anomia: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochon, Elizabeth; Leonard, Carol; Burianova, Hana; Laird, Laura; Soros, Peter; Graham, Simon; Grady, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural processing characteristics associated with word retrieval abilities after a phonologically-based treatment for anomia in two stroke patients with aphasia. Neural activity associated with a phonological and a semantic task was compared before and after treatment with…

  3. Brainstem Correlates of Temporal Auditory Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, Madhavi; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in identification and discrimination of sounds with short inter-stimulus intervals or short formant transitions in children with specific language impairment (SLI) have been taken to reflect an underlying temporal auditory processing deficit. Using the sustained frequency following response (FFR) and the onset auditory brainstem responses…

  4. Using Compressed Speech to Measure Simultaneous Processing in Persons with and without Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, William J.; Jones, W. Paul; Loe, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the use of compressed speech as a modality for assessment of the simultaneous processing function for participants with visual impairment. A 24-item compressed speech test was created using a sound editing program to randomly remove sound elements from aural stimuli, holding pitch constant, with the objective to emulate the…

  5. Spectral vs. Temporal Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment: A Developmental ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceponiene, R.; Cummings, A.; Wulfeck, B.; Ballantyne, A.; Townsend, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pre-linguistic sensory deficits, especially in "temporal" processing, have been implicated in developmental language impairment (LI). However, recent evidence has been equivocal with data suggesting problems in the spectral domain. The present study examined event-related potential (ERP) measures of auditory sensory temporal and spectral…

  6. Preserved subliminal processing and1 impaired conscious access in Schizophrenia.3

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Preserved subliminal processing and1 2 impaired conscious access in Schizophrenia.3 4 5 6 7 Authors threshold in schizophrenia. This finding has frequently been interpreted as indicating a low-36 level visual the hypothesis that the backward masking deficit in schizophrenia41 corresponds to a deficit in the late stages

  7. Behavioral Profiles Associated with Auditory Processing Disorder and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol A.; Wagstaff, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe and compare behavioral profiles associated with auditory processing disorder (APD) and specific language impairment (SLI) in school-age children. Method: The participants in this cross-sectional observational study were 64 children (mean age 10.1 years) recruited through clinician referrals. Thirty-five participants had a…

  8. Poorer results of mice with latent toxoplasmosis in learning tests: impaired learning processes or the

    E-print Network

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    scores in the learning tests but showed higher spontaneous activity in the wheel running test. HoweverPoorer results of mice with latent toxoplasmosis in learning tests: impaired learning processes of manipulative activity of the parasite aimed to increase the probability of its transmission to the definitive

  9. Impaired conscious and preserved unconscious inhibitory processing in recent onset schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Aron, Adam

    with a first episode of psychosis (27 with schizophrenia and six with schizo-affective disorder) and 24 healthyImpaired conscious and preserved unconscious inhibitory processing in recent onset schizophrenia V Division of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Imperial College London, UK 2 Department of Psychology

  10. Mouse fukutin deletion impairs dystroglycan processing and recapitulates muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Beedle, Aaron M.; Turner, Amy J.; Saito, Yoshiaki; Lueck, John D.; Foltz, Steven J.; Fortunato, Marisa J.; Nienaber, Patricia M.; Campbell, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01

    Dystroglycan is a transmembrane glycoprotein that links the extracellular basement membrane to cytoplasmic dystrophin. Disruption of the extensive carbohydrate structure normally present on ?-dystroglycan causes an array of congenital and limb girdle muscular dystrophies known as dystroglycanopathies. The essential role of dystroglycan in development has hampered elucidation of the mechanisms underlying dystroglycanopathies. Here, we developed a dystroglycanopathy mouse model using inducible or muscle-specific promoters to conditionally disrupt fukutin (Fktn), a gene required for dystroglycan processing. In conditional Fktn-KO mice, we observed a near absence of functionally glycosylated dystroglycan within 18 days of gene deletion. Twenty-week-old KO mice showed clear dystrophic histopathology and a defect in glycosylation near the dystroglycan O-mannose phosphate, whether onset of Fktn excision driven by muscle-specific promoters occurred at E8 or E17. However, the earlier gene deletion resulted in more severe phenotypes, with a faster onset of damage and weakness, reduced weight and viability, and regenerating fibers of smaller size. The dependence of phenotype severity on the developmental timing of muscle Fktn deletion supports a role for dystroglycan in muscle development or differentiation. Moreover, given that this conditional Fktn-KO mouse allows the generation of tissue- and timing-specific defects in dystroglycan glycosylation, avoids embryonic lethality, and produces a phenotype resembling patient pathology, it is a promising new model for the study of secondary dystroglycanopathy. PMID:22922256

  11. Genetic variance in a component of the language acquisition device: ROBO1 polymorphisms associated with phonological buffer deficits.

    PubMed

    Bates, Timothy C; Luciano, Michelle; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-01-01

    The region containing ROBO1 (Chromosome 3p12.3) has been implicated as a susceptibility gene for reading disorder and language deficit by translocation and linkage data. No association studies have yet been reported supporting any candidate gene. Here we report the first association of this gene with language deficits, specifically with phonological buffer deficits (a phenotype implicated in language acquisition, Specific Language Impairment and Speech Sound Disorder) and dyslexia (reading and spelling ability traits) in an unselected sample of adolescent twins and their siblings. Family-based analyses were performed on 144 tag SNPs in ROBO1, typed in 538 families with up to five offspring and tested for association with a developmental marker of language impairment (phonological buffer capacity, assessed using non word repetition). A reading and spelling ability measure--based on validated measures of lexical processing (irregular word) and grapheme-phoneme decoding (pseudo word)--and measures of short-term and working memory were also analysed. Significant association for phonological buffer capacity was observed for 21 of 144 SNPs tested, peaking at 8.70 × 10(-05) and 9.30 × 10(-05) for SNPs rs6803202 and rs4535189 respectively for nonword repetition, values that survive correction for multiple testing. Twenty-two SNPs showed significant associations for verbal storage (forward digit span)--a trait linked to phonological span. By contrast, just 5 SNPs reached nominal significance for working-memory, not surviving correction, and, importantly, only one SNP in the 144 tested reached nominal significance (0.04) for association with reading and spelling ability. These results provide strong support for ROBO1 as a gene involved in a core trait underpinning language acquisition, with a specific function in supporting a short-term buffer for arbitrary phonological strings. These effects of ROBO1 appear to be unrelated to brain mechanisms underpinning reading ability, at least by adolescence. While replication will be critical, the present results strongly support ROBO1 as the first gene discovered to be associated with language deficits affecting normal variation in language ability. Its functional role in neuronal migration underlying bilateral symmetry and lateralization of neuronal function further suggests a role in the evolution of human language ability. PMID:20949370

  12. Biased learning of phonological alternations

    E-print Network

    Do, Young Ah

    2013-01-01

    What is the initial state of the grammar when children begin to figure out patterns of phonological alternations? This thesis documents the developmental stages of children acquiring Korean verb and noun paradigms, and ...

  13. Fall 2012 Phonetics and Phonology

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    80282 Fall 2012 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will learn to make phonetic transcriptions of raw data from unfamiliar

  14. Temporal Processing Deficits in Remediation-Resistant Reading-Impaired Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony T. Cacace; Dennis J. McFarland; John R. Ouimet; Edward J. Schrieber; Peggy Marro

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in whether a deficit in temporal processing underlies specific learning and language disabilities in school-aged children. This view is particularly controversial in the area of developmental reading problems. The temporal-processing hypothesis was tested in a sample of normal children, 9–11 years of age, and in a sample of age-matched children with reading impairments, by assessing temporal-order

  15. Orbito-frontal lesions cause impairment during late but not early emotional prosodic processing.

    PubMed

    Paulmann, Silke; Seifert, Sebastian; Kotz, Sonja A

    2010-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is functionally linked to a variety of cognitive and emotional functions. In particular, lesions of the human OFC lead to large-scale changes in social and emotional behavior. For example, patients with OFC lesions are reported to suffer from deficits in affective decision-making, including impaired emotional face and voice expression recognition (e.g., Hornak et al., 1996, 2003). However, previous studies have failed to acknowledge that emotional processing is a multistage process. Thus, different stages of emotional processing (e.g., early vs. late) in the same patient group could be affected in a qualitatively different manner. The present study investigated this possibility and tested implicit emotional speech processing in an ERP experiment followed by an explicit behavioral emotional recognition task. OFC patients listened to vocal emotional expressions of anger, fear, disgust, and happiness compared to a neutral baseline spoken either with or without lexical content. In line with previous evidence (Paulmann & Kotz, 2008b), both patients and healthy controls differentiate emotional and neutral prosody within 200 ms (P200). However, the recognition of emotional vocal expressions is impaired in OFC patients as compared to healthy controls. The current data serve as first evidence that emotional prosody processing is impaired only at a late, and not at an early processing stage in OFC patients. PMID:19658025

  16. The Role of Visual and Auditory Temporal Processing for Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Simpson W. L.; Cheung, Him; Penney, Trevor B.; Ho, Connie S. -H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined temporal processing in relation to Chinese reading acquisition and impairment. The performances of 26 Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia on tasks of visual and auditory temporal order judgement, rapid naming, visual-orthographic knowledge, morphological, and phonological awareness were compared with…

  17. Differences in somatosensory processing due to dominant hemispheric motor impairment in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although cerebral palsy (CP) is usually defined as a group of permanent motor disorders due to non-progressive disturbances in the developing fetal or infant brain, recent research has shown that CP individuals are also characterized by altered somatosensory perception, increased pain and abnormal activation of cortical somatosensory areas. The present study was aimed to examine hemispheric differences on somatosensory brain processing in individuals with bilateral CP and lateralized motor impairments compared with healthy controls. Nine CP individuals with left-dominant motor impairments (LMI) (age range 5–28 yrs), nine CP individuals with right-dominant motor impairments (RMI) (age range 7–29 yrs), and 12 healthy controls (age range 5–30 yrs) participated in the study. Proprioception, touch and pain thresholds, as well as somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) elicited by tactile stimulation of right and left lips and thumbs were compared. Results Pain sensitivity was higher, and lip stimulation elicited greater beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with CP than in healthy controls. In addition, although there was no significant differences between individuals with RMI and LMI on pain or touch sensitivity, lip and thumb stimulation elicited smaller beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with LMI than with RMI. Conclusions Our data revealed that brain processing of somatosensory stimulation was abnormal in CP individuals. Moreover, this processing was different depending if they presented right- or left-dominant motor impairments, suggesting that different mechanisms of sensorimotor reorganization should be involved in CP depending on dominant side of motor impairment. PMID:24410983

  18. Perceptual organization, phonological awareness, and reading comprehension in adults with and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Stothers, Margot; Klein, Perry D

    2010-12-01

    It is not clear from research whether, or to what extent, reading comprehension is impaired in adults who have learning disabilities (LD). The influence of perceptual organization (PO) and phonological awareness (PA) on reading comprehension was investigated. PO and PA are cognitive functions that have been examined in previous research for their roles in nonverbal LD and phonological dyslexia, respectively. Nonverbal tests of PO and non-reading tests of PA were administered to a sample of adults with postsecondary education. Approximately two thirds of the sample had previously been diagnosed as having LD. In a multiple regression analysis, tests of PO and PA were used to predict scores for tests of reading comprehension and mechanics. Despite the nonverbal nature of the perceptual organizational test stimuli, PO strongly predicted reading comprehension. Tests of PA predicted decoding and reading speed. Results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that integrative processes usually characterized as nonverbal were nonetheless used by readers with and without disabilities to understand text. The study's findings have implications for understanding the reading of adults with learning disabilities, and the nature of reading comprehension in general. PMID:20838941

  19. Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological evidence from Tashlhiyt Berber* Rachid Ridouane syllables do exist in Tashlhiyt, both at the phonetic and phonological levels. Acoustic, fibrescopic due to subject consultants for their participation to the phonetic experiments. Any errors

  20. Transcranial direct current stimulation modulates efficiency of reading processes

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Jennifer M.; Doruk, Deniz; Mascio, Bryan; Fregni, Felipe; Cerruti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that offers promise as an investigative method for understanding complex cognitive operations such as reading. This study explores the ability of a single session of tDCS to modulate reading efficiency and phonological processing performance within a group of healthy adults. Half the group received anodal or cathodal stimulation, on two separate days, of the left temporo-parietal junction while the other half received anodal or cathodal stimulation of the right homologue area. Pre- and post-stimulation assessment of reading efficiency and phonological processing was carried out. A larger pre-post difference in reading efficiency was found for participants who received right anodal stimulation compared to participants who received left anodal stimulation. Further, there was a significant post-stimulation increase in phonological processing speed following right hemisphere anodal stimulation. Implications for models of reading and reading impairment are discussed. PMID:25852513

  1. Remediation of language processing in aphasia: Improving activation and maintenance of linguistic representations in (verbal) short-term memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelene Kalinyak-Fliszar; Francine Kohen; Nadine Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Verbal short-term memory (STM) impairments are invariably present in aphasia. Word processing involves a minimal form of verbal STM, i.e., the time course over which semantic and phonological representations are activated and maintained until they are comprehended, produced, or repeated. Thus it is reasonable that impairments of word processing and verbal STM may co-occur. The co-occurrence of language and

  2. Patients with impaired verb-tense processing: do they know that yesterday is past?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Karalyn; Holland, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This paper begins with a focus on the task of stem inflection, where participants are given a verb stem and asked to produce the verb's past-tense form, which can produce a neuropsychological double dissociation with respect to regular versus irregular verbs. Two differing theoretical interpretations are outlined: one is based on specifically morphological and separate brain mechanisms for processing regular versus irregular verbs; the other argues that the two sides of the dissociation can arise from one procedure, which is not specifically morphological, and which relies to differing extents on phonological versus semantic information for regular versus irregular verbs. We then present data from a different version of the task, in which patients were given past-tense forms and asked to produce the present-tense or stem forms (talked ? talk and ate ? eat). This change yielded a very different pattern of performance in four non-fluent aphasic patients as a function of the regular–irregular manipulation, an outcome which is argued to be more compatible with the single- than the dual-mechanism account. Finally, we present a small amount of data from a task in which the patient was asked to judge whether spoken regular and irregular verb stems and past-tense forms indicated actions occurring today or yesterday. This task produced an even more different and intriguing pattern of performance suggesting a deficit in morpho-syntactic knowledge: not how to produce past-tense forms but what such forms mean and how that understanding interacts with verb regularity. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the research field of acquired disorders of tense processing might advance as a result of new approaches, in particular those informed by studies of developmental disorders. PMID:24324243

  3. Patients with impaired verb-tense processing: do they know that yesterday is past?

    PubMed

    Patterson, Karalyn; Holland, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This paper begins with a focus on the task of stem inflection, where participants are given a verb stem and asked to produce the verb's past-tense form, which can produce a neuropsychological double dissociation with respect to regular versus irregular verbs. Two differing theoretical interpretations are outlined: one is based on specifically morphological and separate brain mechanisms for processing regular versus irregular verbs; the other argues that the two sides of the dissociation can arise from one procedure, which is not specifically morphological, and which relies to differing extents on phonological versus semantic information for regular versus irregular verbs. We then present data from a different version of the task, in which patients were given past-tense forms and asked to produce the present-tense or stem forms (talked ? talk and ate ? eat). This change yielded a very different pattern of performance in four non-fluent aphasic patients as a function of the regular-irregular manipulation, an outcome which is argued to be more compatible with the single- than the dual-mechanism account. Finally, we present a small amount of data from a task in which the patient was asked to judge whether spoken regular and irregular verb stems and past-tense forms indicated actions occurring today or yesterday. This task produced an even more different and intriguing pattern of performance suggesting a deficit in morpho-syntactic knowledge: not how to produce past-tense forms but what such forms mean and how that understanding interacts with verb regularity. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the research field of acquired disorders of tense processing might advance as a result of new approaches, in particular those informed by studies of developmental disorders. PMID:24324243

  4. Phonologic abilities of a preschool child with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dyson, A T; Lombardino, L J

    1989-02-01

    The case study follows the development of phonologic abilities in a child with Prader-Willi syndrome from age 2:7 to 6:1 during a period in which she was enrolled in language and phonologic remediation. Changes in her phonetic inventory, in the set of phonemes used correctly, and in phonologic processes are described. Although her phonologic system appeared to parallel those of normally developing children in many ways, some unusual sounds and patterns of usage were also seen. Because the effect of the treatment program on the development of her phonologic system cannot be adequately determined, clinicians should use caution when generalizing these results to other children with this syndrome. PMID:2915526

  5. Effects of Word Position and Stress on Onset Cluster Production: Evidence from Typical Development, Specific Language Impairment, and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Chloe R.; van der Lely, Heather K. J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia have phonological deficits that are claimed to cause their language and literacy impairments and to be responsible for the overlap between the two disorders. Little is known, however, about the phonological grammar of children with SLI and dyslexia, and indeed whether they show…

  6. Impairment of inhibitory control processing related to acute psychotomimetic effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Atakan, Z; Martin-Santos, R; Crippa, J A; Kambeitz, J; Malhi, S; Giampietro, V; Williams, S; Brammer, M; Rubia, K; Collier, D A; McGuire, P K

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis use can induce acute psychotic symptoms and increase the risk of schizophrenia. Impairments in inhibitory control and processing are known to occur both under the influence of cannabis and in schizophrenia. Whether cannabis-induced impairment in inhibitory processing is related to the acute induction of psychotic symptoms under its influence is unclear. We investigated the effects of acute oral administration of 10mg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, on inhibitory control and regional brain activation during inhibitory processing in humans and examined whether these effects are related to the induction of psychotic symptoms under its influence using a repeated-measures, placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-subject design. We studied thirty-six healthy, English-speaking, right-handed men with minimal previous exposure to cannabis and other illicit drugs twice using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they performed a response inhibition (Go/No-Go) task. Relative to placebo, delta-9-THC caused transient psychotic symptoms, anxiety, intoxication and sedation, inhibition errors and impaired inhibition efficiency. Severity of psychotic symptoms was directly correlated with inhibition error frequency and inversely with inhibition efficiency under the influence of delta-9-THC. Delta-9-THC attenuated left inferior frontal activation which was inversely correlated with the frequency of inhibition errors and severity of psychotic symptoms and positively with inhibition efficiency under its influence. These results provide experimental evidence that impairments in cognitive processes involved in the inhibitory control of thoughts and actions and inferior frontal function under the influence of cannabis may have a role in the emergence of transient psychotic symptoms under its influence. PMID:25532865

  7. Sentence processing strategies in children with expressive and expressive receptive specié c language impairments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia L. Evans; Brian MacWhinney

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sentence comprehension strategies used by children with expressive and expressive- receptive specié c language impairments (SLI) within a language processing framework. Fourteen children with SLI (ages 6;10- 7;11) meeting strict selection criteria were com- pared to seven age-matched and seven younger normal controls. Children were asked to determine the agent in

  8. Phonology and arithmetic in the language-calculation network.

    PubMed

    Andin, Josefine; Fransson, Peter; Rönnberg, Jerker; Rudner, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Arithmetic and language processing involve similar neural networks, but the relative engagement remains unclear. In the present study we used fMRI to compare activation for phonological, multiplication and subtraction tasks, keeping the stimulus material constant, within a predefined language-calculation network including left inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus (AG) as well as superior parietal lobule and the intraparietal sulcus bilaterally. Results revealed a generally left lateralized activation pattern within the language-calculation network for phonology and a bilateral activation pattern for arithmetic, and suggested regional differences between tasks. In particular, we found a more prominent role for phonology than arithmetic in pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus but domain generality in pars triangularis. Parietal activation patterns demonstrated greater engagement of the visual and quantity systems for calculation than language. This set of findings supports the notion of a common, but regionally differentiated, language-calculation network. PMID:25797099

  9. The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural.

    PubMed

    Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic and phonological abilities. The present paper reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of plural forms for both production and comprehension. In Experiments 1 and 2 plural productions were elicited from eighty two-year-old children for nouns with codas with varying phonological properties. The results provide evidence that production of the plural morpheme is partly governed by the complexity of the coda and its sonority. Experiments 3 and 4 show that these constraints on codas also hold for comprehension as well, suggesting this effect is not simply articulatory, but also impacts the morphophonology of the plural. PMID:22544999

  10. The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural

    PubMed Central

    Ettlinger, Marc; Zapf, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic and phonological abilities. The present paper reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of plural forms for both production and comprehension. In Experiments 1 and 2 plural productions were elicited from eighty two-year-old children for nouns with codas with varying phonological properties. The results provide evidence that production of the plural morpheme is partly governed by the complexity of the coda and its sonority. Experiments 3 and 4 show that these constraints on codas also hold for comprehension as well, suggesting this effect is not simply articulatory, but also impacts the morphophonology of the plural. PMID:22544999

  11. Spatio-Visual Memory of Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence for Generalized Processing Problems. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavin, Edith L.; Wilson, Peter H.; Maruff, Paul; Sleeman, Felicity

    2005-01-01

    Children with Specific language Impairment (SLI) have problems with verbal memory, particularly with tasks that have more processing demands. They also have slower speeds of responding for some tasks. To identify the extent to which young children with SLI would differ in performance from age-matched non-impaired children on a set of spatio-visual…

  12. Cognitive impairment in relapsing remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients: efficacy of a computerized cognitive screening battery.

    PubMed

    Papathanasiou, Athanasios; Messinis, Lambros; Georgiou, Vasileios L; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the pattern of cognitive impairment in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients using a computerized battery. Methods. RRMS patients (N = 50), SPMS patients (N = 30), and controls (N = 31) were assessed by Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) computerized battery, Trail Making Tests (TMT) A and B, and semantic and phonological verbal fluency tasks. Results. The overall prevalence of cognitive dysfunction was 53.75% (RRMS 38%, SPMS 80%). RRMS patients differed from controls with large effect size on reaction time, medium effect size on TMT A and small on TMT B, phonological verbal fluency, composite memory, psychomotor speed, and cognitive flexibility. SPMS patients differed from controls in all neuropsychological measures (except complex attention) with large effect sizes on TMT A and B, phonological verbal fluency, composite memory, psychomotor speed, reaction time, and cognitive flexibility. Between patient groups, medium effect sizes were present on TMT B and psychomotor speed, while small effect sizes were present on composite memory and processing speed. Conclusion. CNS VS is sensitive in detecting cognitive impairment in RRMS and SPMS patients. Significant impairment in episodic memory, executive function, and processing speed were identified, with gradual increment of the frequency as disease progresses. PMID:25006497

  13. Face processing impairments after encephalitis: amygdala damage and recognition of fear.

    PubMed

    Broks, P; Young, A W; Maratos, E J; Coffey, P J; Calder, A J; Isaac, C L; Mayes, A R; Hodges, J R; Montaldi, D; Cezayirli, E; Roberts, N; Hadley, D

    1998-01-01

    Face processing and facial emotion recognition were investigated in five post-encephalitic people of average or above-average intelligence. Four of these people (JC, YW, RB and SE) had extensive damage in the region of the amygdala. A fifth post-encephalitic person with predominantly hippocampal damage and relative sparing of the amygdala (RS) participated, allowing us to contrast the effects of temporal lobe damage including and excluding the amygdala region. The findings showed impaired recognition of fear following bilateral temporal lobe damage when this included the amygdala. For JC, this was part of a constellation of deficits on face processing tasks, with impaired recognition of several emotions. SE, YW and RB, however, showed relatively circumscribed deficits. Although they all had some problems in recognizing or naming famous faces, and had poor memory for faces on the Warrington Recognition Memory Test, none showed a significant impairment on the Benton Test of Facial Recognition, indicating relatively good perception of the face's physical structure. In a test of recognition of basic emotions (happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, disgust and anger), SE, YW and RB achieved normal levels of performance in comparison to our control group for all emotions except fear. Their results contrast with those of RS, with relative sparing of the amygdala region and unimpaired recognition of emotion, pointing clearly toward the importance of the amygdala in the recognition of fear. PMID:9533388

  14. Grey matter hypometabolism and atrophy in Parkinson's disease with cognitive impairment: a two-step process.

    PubMed

    González-Redondo, Rafael; García-García, David; Clavero, Pedro; Gasca-Salas, Carmen; García-Eulate, Reyes; Zubieta, José L; Arbizu, Javier; Obeso, José A; Rodríguez-Oroz, María C

    2014-08-01

    The pathophysiological process underlying cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease is not well understood. Cerebral atrophy and hypometabolism have been described in patients with Parkinson's disease and dementia or mild cognitive impairment with respect to control subjects. However, the exact relationships between atrophy and hypometabolism are still unclear. To determine the extension and topographical distribution of hypometabolism and atrophy in the different cognitive states of Parkinson's disease, we examined 46 patients with Parkinson's disease (19 female, 27 male; 71.7 ± 5.9 years old; 14.6 ± 4.2 years of disease evolution; modified Hoehn and Yahr mean stage 3.1 ± 0.7). Cognitive status was diagnosed as normal in 14 patients, as mild cognitive impairment in 17 and as dementia in 15 patients. Nineteen normal subjects (eight female, 11 male; 68.1 ± 3.2 years old) were included as controls. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained, co-registered, corrected for partial volume effect and spatially normalized to the Montreal Neurological Institute space in each subject. Smoothing was applied to the positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans to equalize their effective smoothness and resolution (10 mm and 12 mm full-width at half-maximum and Gaussian kernel, respectively). Z-score maps for atrophy and for hypometabolism were obtained by comparing individual images to the data set of control subjects. For each group of patients, a paired Student's t-test was performed to statistically compare the two Z-map modalities (P < 0.05 false discovery rate corrected) using the direct voxel-based comparison technique. In patients with mild cognitive impairment, hypometabolism exceeded atrophy in the angular gyrus, occipital, orbital and anterior frontal lobes. In patients with dementia, the hypometabolic areas observed in the group with mild cognitive impairment were replaced by areas of atrophy, which were surrounded by extensive zones of hypometabolism. Areas where atrophy was more extended than hypometabolism were found in the precentral and supplementary motor areas in both patients with mild cognitive impairment and with dementia, and in the hippocampus and temporal lobe in patients with dementia. These findings suggest that there is a gradient of severity in cortical changes associated with the development of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease in which hypometabolism and atrophy represent consecutive stages of the same process in most of the cortical regions affected. PMID:24951642

  15. Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children with SLI: Semantic, Phonological, and Repetition Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Melinda; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current understanding of how children with specific language impairment (SLI) organize their mental lexicons. The study examined semantic and phonological priming in children with and without SLI. Method: Thirteen children (7;0-11;3 [years;months]) with SLI and 13 age-matched children…

  16. Perceptual Organization, Phonological Awareness, and Reading Comprehension in Adults with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stothers, Margot; Klein, Perry D.

    2010-01-01

    It is not clear from research whether, or to what extent, reading comprehension is impaired in adults who have learning disabilities (LD). The influence of perceptual organization (PO) and phonological awareness (PA) on reading comprehension was investigated. PO and PA are cognitive functions that have been examined in previous research for their…

  17. Children with speech sound disorder: comparing a non-linguistic auditory approach with a phonological intervention approach to improve phonological skills

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Cristina F. B.; Pagan-Neves, Luciana O.; Wertzner, Haydée F.; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder (SSD). A total of 17 children, aged 7–12 years, with SSD were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2) or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2). The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills) and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production, and phonological awareness skills). The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (e.g., backward masking and frequency discrimination), whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (e.g., phonological organization and awareness). Both interventions consisted of 12 45-min sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of 9 h. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills. PMID:25698997

  18. Children with speech sound disorder: comparing a non-linguistic auditory approach with a phonological intervention approach to improve phonological skills.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Pagan-Neves, Luciana O; Wertzner, Haydée F; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder (SSD). A total of 17 children, aged 7-12 years, with SSD were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2) or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2). The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills) and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production, and phonological awareness skills). The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (e.g., backward masking and frequency discrimination), whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (e.g., phonological organization and awareness). Both interventions consisted of 12 45-min sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of 9 h. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills. PMID:25698997

  19. Clinical applications of a cognitive phonology.

    PubMed

    Ball, Martin J

    2003-01-01

    It is noted that much previous work in phonology has attempted to provide economical theories of sound systems without explicitly attempting to provide theories that have psycholinguistic validity. The work of Bybee on a cognitive approach to phonology is described, and its possible application to disordered speech is considered. It is discussed that cognitive phonology, coupled with gestural phonology, provides descriptive as well as explanatory accounts of disordered speech, and has specific implications for approaches to therapy. The article concludes with a case study of child with severely unintelligible speech, where it seems that the insights of cognitive phonology provide both an explanation for and a description of her speech behaviors. PMID:14582829

  20. Orienting responses to various visual stimuli in children with visual processing impairments or infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pel, J J M; Kooiker, M J G; van der Does, J M E; Boot, F H; de Faber, J T; van der Steen-Kant, S P; van der Steen, J

    2014-12-01

    Quantification of orienting responses can be used to differentiate between children with cerebral visual impairment and infantile nystagmus syndrome. To further improve the sensitivity of this method, we compared orienting responses to a Cartoon stimulus, which contains all sorts of visual information, to stimuli that contain only Contrast, Form coherence, Motion coherence, Color and Motion detection. The stimuli were shown on an eye tracker monitor using a preferential looking paradigm. We found that both groups of children showed general slowing in orienting responses compared to controls. The children with cerebral visual impairment had significantly prolonged responses to Cartoon compared to the children with nystagmus, whereas the children with nystagmus had prolonged responses to Motion detection and larger fixation areas. Previously reported differences in orienting responses to Cartoon were replicated. Application of specific visual information did not alter the sensitivity of the method to distinguish between children with visual processing deficits. PMID:24334347

  1. Activation of Phonological and Semantic Codes in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Nivedita; Durrant, Samantha; Floccia, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    What are the processes underlying word recognition in the toddler lexicon? Work with adults suggests that, by 5-years of age, hearing a word leads to cascaded activation of other phonologically, semantically and phono-semantically related words (Huang & Snedeker, 2010; Marslen-Wilson & Zwitserlood, 1989). Given substantial differences in…

  2. Effects of background music on phonological short-term memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Salamé; Alan Baddeley

    1989-01-01

    Immediate memory for visually presented verbal material is disrupted by concurrent speech, even when the speech is unattended and in a foreign language. Unattended noise does not produce a reliable decrement. These results have been interpreted in terms of a phonological short-term store that excludes non-speechlike sounds. The characteristics of this exclusion process were explored by studying the effects of

  3. Cocaine Users Manifest Impaired Prosodic and Cross-Modal Emotion Processing

    PubMed Central

    Hulka, Lea M.; Preller, Katrin H.; Vonmoos, Matthias; Broicher, Sarah D.; Quednow, Boris B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A small number of previous studies have provided evidence that cocaine users (CU) exhibit impairments in complex social cognition tasks, while the more basic facial emotion recognition is widely unaffected. However, prosody and cross-modal emotion processing has not been systematically investigated in CU so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess complex multisensory emotion processing in CU in comparison to controls and to examine a potential association with drug use patterns. Method: The abbreviated version of the comprehensive affect testing system (CATS-A) was used to measure emotion perception across the three channels of facial affect, prosody, and semantic content in 58 CU and 48 healthy control (HC) subjects who were matched for age, sex, verbal intelligence, and years of education. Results: CU had significantly lower scores than controls in the quotient scales of “emotion recognition” and “prosody recognition” and the subtests “conflicting prosody/meaning – attend to prosody” and “match emotional prosody to emotional face” either requiring to attend to prosody or to integrate cross-modal information. In contrast, no group difference emerged for the “affect recognition quotient.” Cumulative cocaine doses and duration of cocaine use correlated negatively with emotion processing. Conclusion: CU show impaired cross-modal integration of different emotion processing channels particularly with regard to prosody, whereas more basic aspects of emotion processing such as facial affect perception are comparable to the performance of HC. PMID:24046750

  4. Phonological Attentional Blink 1 Running Head: Phonological Attentional Blink

    E-print Network

    Chun, Marvin M.

    of Phonological Length on the Attentional Blink for Words Ingrid R. Olson Yale University Marvin M. Chun; Chun & Potter, 1995; Duncan, 1980; Raymond, Shapiro, & Arnell, 1992; Sperling, 1960; Weichselgartner store (Chun, 1997; Chun & Potter, 1995; Jolicoeur, 1998; Shapiro, Raymond, & Arnell, 1994; Shapiro

  5. Phonology, reading acquisition, and dyslexia: Insights from connectionist models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Harm; Mark S. Seidenberg

    1999-01-01

    The development of reading skill and bases of developmental dyslexia were explored using con- nectionist models. Four issues were examined: the acquisition of phonological knowledge prior to reading, how this knowledge facilitates learning to read, phonological and non phonological bases of dyslexia, and effects of literacy on phonological representation. Compared with simple feedforward networks, representing phonological knowledge in an attractor

  6. Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Phonological Awareness Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning. Phonological awareness is a precursor to reading. "Phonological Awareness Training" can involve various…

  7. Variability in Speed of Information Processing: A New Measure of Cognitive Impairment in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    E-print Network

    Bodling, Angela Michelle

    2010-06-14

    Cognitive slowing has been firmly established as one of the few primary cognitive deficits associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Numerous studies have documented impairments in speed of information processing for MS patients relative to healthy...

  8. Suppression of the Macrophage Proteasome by Ethanol Impairs MHC Class I Antigen Processing and Presentation

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Alain J.; Desai, Shyamal D.; Rudner, Xiaowen L.; Kelly, Michelle N.; Ruan, SanBao; Shellito, Judd E.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol binge-drinking (acute ethanol consumption) is immunosuppressive and alters both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Antigen presentation by macrophages (and other antigen presenting cells) represents an important function of the innate immune system that, in part, determines the outcome of the host immune response. Ethanol has been shown to suppress antigen presentation in antigen presenting cells though mechanisms of this impairment are not well understood. The constitutive and immunoproteasomes are important components of the cellular proteolytic machinery responsible for the initial steps critical to the generation of MHC Class I peptides for antigen presentation. In this study, we used an in-vitro cell culture model of acute alcohol exposure to study the effect of ethanol on the proteasome function in RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, primary murine peritoneal macrophages obtained by peritoneal lavage from C57BL/6 mice were used to confirm our cell culture findings. We demonstrate that ethanol impairs proteasome function in peritoneal macrophages through suppression of chymotrypsin-like (Cht-L) proteasome activity as well as composition of the immunoproteasome subunit LMP7. Using primary murine peritoneal macrophages, we have further demonstrated that, ethanol-induced impairment of the proteasome function suppresses processing of antigenic proteins and peptides by the macrophage and in turn suppresses the presentation of these antigens to cells of adaptive immunity. The results of this study provide an important mechanism to explain the immunosuppressive effects of acute ethanol exposure. PMID:23451104

  9. Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…

  10. REFERRAL FORM PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS CLINIC

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    REFERRAL FORM PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS CLINIC Concerns regarding communication Please return this form to: Clinical Administrator Email: clinic@cmds.canterbury.ac.nz Department of Communication/s: Home Phone: Work Phone: Mobile Phone: Email: Preferred method of contact during the day: (Between 9am

  11. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  12. GENERATIVE RULES FOR ITALIAN PHONOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DI PIETRO, ROBERT J.

    TWO MODELS OF DESCRIPTION, GENERATIVE AND NONGENERATIVE, ARE APPLIED TO THE PHONOLOGY OF ITALIAN TO DETERMINE WHICH OF THE TWO OFFERS A SIMPLER YET MORE COMPREHENSIVE STATEMENT. THE NONGENERATIVE MODEL IS GIVEN IN A LISTING OF PHONEMES AND A BRIEF STATEMENT OF THE PHONOTACTICS AND ALLOPHONICS. THE GENERATIVE MODEL STATES THE FACTS IN 11 REWRITE…

  13. The Phonological Assimilation of Borrowing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Saleh M.

    Linguistic borrowing from English to Jordanian Arabic at the lexical level is described, focusing on phonology and the extent to which Jordanian Arabic has affected the phonetic structure of English loans assimilated partially or completely into it. Conspicuous distinctive sound features in the two languages that may affect non-native speakers'…

  14. Phonetics and Phonology Course goals

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    80282 Fall 2013 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course picks up where Nature of Language leaves off in the investigation of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will practice reading and producing phonetic transcriptions of data from natural languages

  15. Twin Language or Phonological Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Barbara; McEvoy, Sandra

    1994-01-01

    The claim that multiple-birth children use "twin language" was investigated by describing and comparing the phonological characteristics of the speech of 19 sets of multiple birth children (aged 2-4) and by measuring multiple-birth children's understanding of their twins' or triplets' context-free speech. Results indicated that multiple birth…

  16. Confronting Professional Impairment During the Internship: Identification, Due Process, and Remediation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas H. Lamb; Nan R. Presser; Karen S. Pfost; Michael C. Baum; Vivian R. Jackson; Paul A. Jarvis

    1987-01-01

    Although increasing efforts have been made in recent years to address impairment in practicing psychologists, little regarding how to deal with impairment early in the professional career has been reported. The predoctoral internship is a pivotal training experience, which makes it a critical stage at which to assess and deal with impairment. We identify criteria of impairment, suggest components to

  17. Infants’ Learning of Phonological Status

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

    2012-01-01

    There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants’ discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I’m should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in I’d, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants’ sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11?months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions. PMID:23130004

  18. Impaired processing speed and attention in first-episode drug naive schizophrenia with deficit syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ce; Jiang, Wenhui; Zhong, Na; Wu, Jin; Jiang, Haifeng; Du, Jiang; Li, Ye; Ma, Xiancang; Zhao, Min; Hashimoto, Kenji; Gao, Chengge

    2014-11-01

    Although first-episode drug naive patients with schizophrenia are known to show cognitive impairment, the cognitive performances of these patients, who suffer deficit syndrome, compared with those who suffer non-deficit syndrome is undetermined. The aim of this study was to compare cognitive performances in first-episode drug-naive schizophrenia with deficit syndrome or non-deficit syndrome. First-episode drug naive patients (n=49) and medicated patients (n=108) with schizophrenia, and age, sex, and education matched healthy controls (n=57 for the first-episode group, and n=128 for the medicated group) were enrolled. Patients were divided into deficit or non-deficit syndrome groups, using the Schedule for Deficit Syndrome. Cognitive performance was assessed using the CogState computerized cognitive battery. All cognitive domains in first-episode drug naive and medicated patients showed significant impairment compared with their respective control groups. Furthermore, cognitive performance in first-episode drug naive patients was significantly worse than in medicated patients. Interestingly, the cognitive performance markers of processing speed and attention, in first-episode drug naive patients with deficit syndrome, were both significantly worse than in equivalent patients without deficit syndrome. In contrast, no differences in cognitive performance were found between the two groups of medicated patients. In conclusion, this study found that first-episode drug naive schizophrenia with deficit syndrome showed significantly impaired processing speed and attention, compared with patients with non-deficit syndrome. These findings highlight processing speed and attention as potential targets for pharmacological and psychosocial interventions in first-episode schizophrenia with deficit syndrome, since these domains are associated with social outcomes. PMID:25261044

  19. Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?

    PubMed Central

    De-Torres, Irene; Dávila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Seán Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460

  20. Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired childrenameliorated by training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M. Merzenich; W. M. Jenkins; Paul Johnston; Christoph Schreiner; S. L. Miller; Paula Tallal; Peter R. Schreiner

    1996-01-01

    Children with language-based learning impairments (LLIs) have major\\u000a\\u0009deficits in their recognition of some rapidly successive phonetic\\u000a\\u0009elements and nonspeech sound stimuli. In the current study, LLI children\\u000a\\u0009were engaged in adaptive training exercises mounted as computer ''games''\\u000a\\u0009designed to drive improvements in their ''temporal processing'' skills.\\u000a\\u0009With 8 to 16 hours of training during a 20-day period, LLI children

  1. Phonological Priming Effects on Word Retrieval and Tip-of-the-Tongue Experiences in Young and Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori E. James; Deborah M. Burke

    2000-01-01

    In a repetition priming paradigm, young and older participants read aloud prime words that sometimes shared phonological components with a target word that answered a general knowledge question. In Experiment 1, prior processing of phonologically related words decreased tip-of-the-tongue states (TOTs) and increased correct responses to subsequent questions. In Experiment 2, the priming task occurred only when the participant could

  2. Comparative Study of the Phonology of Preschool Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine and Multiple Drugs and Non-Exposed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, Charles L.; Johnson, Jeanne M.; Seikel, J. Anthony; Arnold, Marjorie; Schultheis, Leanne

    1998-01-01

    This study compared phonological patterns in the speech of 25 children prenatally exposed to cocaine and multiple drugs and with 25 non-exposed children (all children ages 22 to 51 months). Prenatal exposure to drugs was associated with an increase in the use of phonological processes. Results suggest that these children's speech development is…

  3. Are patients with schizophrenia impaired in processing non-emotional features of human faces?

    PubMed Central

    Darke, Hayley; Peterman, Joel S.; Park, Sohee; Sundram, Suresh; Carter, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    It is known that individuals with schizophrenia exhibit signs of impaired face processing, however, the exact perceptual and cognitive mechanisms underlying these deficits are yet to be elucidated. One possible source of confusion in the current literature is the methodological and conceptual inconsistencies that can arise from the varied treatment of different aspects of face processing relating to emotional and non-emotional aspects of face perception. This review aims to disentangle the literature by focusing on the performance of patients with schizophrenia in a range of tasks that required processing of non-emotional features of face stimuli (e.g., identity or gender). We also consider the performance of patients on non-face stimuli that share common elements such as familiarity (e.g., cars) and social relevance (e.g., gait). We conclude by exploring whether observed deficits are best considered as “face-specific” and note that further investigation is required to properly assess the potential contribution of more generalized attentional or perceptual impairments. PMID:23970872

  4. Impaired microRNA processing causes corpus luteum insufficiency and infertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Motoyuki; Zheng, Min; Hayashi, Masaaki; Lee, Jing-Dwan; Yoshino, Osamu; Lin, Shengcai; Han, Jiahuai

    2008-05-01

    The microRNA (miRNA) processing enzyme Dicer1 is required for zygotic and embryonic development, but the early embryonic lethality of Dicer1 null alleles in mice has limited our ability to address the role of Dicer1 in normal mouse growth and development. To address this question, we used a mouse mutant with a hypomorphic Dicer1 allele (Dicer(d/d)) and found that Dicer1 deficiency resulted in female infertility. This defect in female Dicer(d/d) mice was caused by corpus luteum (CL) insufficiency and resulted, at least in part, from the impaired growth of new capillary vessels in the ovary. We found that the impaired CL angiogenesis in Dicer(d/d) mice was associated with a lack of miR17-5p and let7b, 2 miRNAs that participate in angiogenesis by regulating the expression of the antiangiogenic factor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1. Furthermore, injection of miR17-5p and let7b into the ovaries of Dicer(d/d) mice partially normalized tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 expression and CL angiogenesis. Our data indicate that the development and function of the ovarian CL is a physiological process that appears to be regulated by miRNAs and requires Dicer1 function. PMID:18398510

  5. Impact of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior in children with hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Sandgren, Olof; Andersson, Richard; van de Weijer, Joost; Hansson, Kristina; Sahlén, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    In order to explore verbal-nonverbal integration, we investigated the influence of cognitive and linguistic ability on gaze behavior during spoken language conversation between children with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment (HI) and normal-hearing (NH) peers. Ten HI-NH and 10 NH-NH dyads performed a referential communication task requiring description of faces. During task performance, eye movements and speech were tracked. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model associations between performance on cognitive and linguistic tasks and the probability of gaze to the conversational partner's face. Analyses compare the listeners in each dyad (HI: n = 10, mean age = 12; 6 years, SD = 2; 0, mean better ear pure-tone average 33.0 dB HL, SD = 7.8; NH: n = 10, mean age = 13; 7 years, SD = 1; 11). Group differences in gaze behavior - with HI gazing more to the conversational partner than NH - remained significant despite adjustment for ability on receptive grammar, expressive vocabulary, and complex working memory. Adjustment for phonological short term memory, as measured by non-word repetition, removed group differences, revealing an interaction between group membership and non-word repetition ability. Stratified analysis showed a twofold increase of the probability of gaze-to-partner for HI with low phonological short term memory capacity, and a decreased probability for HI with high capacity, as compared to NH peers. The results revealed differences in gaze behavior attributable to performance on a phonological short term memory task. Participants with HI and low phonological short term memory capacity showed a doubled probability of gaze to the conversational partner, indicative of a visual bias. The results stress the need to look beyond the HI in diagnostics and intervention. Acknowledgment of the finding requires clinical assessment of children with HI to be supported by tasks tapping phonological processing. PMID:24302915

  6. Phonological Awareness Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia and the Phonological Representations Hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Swan; Usha Goswami

    1997-01-01

    The claim that the well-documented difficulties shown by dyslexic children in phonological awareness tasks may arise from deficits in the accuracy and the segmental organization of the phonological representations of words in their mental lexicons is receiving increasing interest from researchers. In this experiment, two versions of the phonological representations hypothesis were investigated by using a picture naming task and

  7. Density, Frequency and the Expressive Phonology of Children with Phonological Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were…

  8. Assessment of individual differences in phonological representation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason L. Anthony; Jeffrey M. Williams; Rachel G. Aghara; Martha Dunkelberger; Barbara Novak; Anuja Divatia Mukherjee

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the\\u000a development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement\\u000a of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the dimensionality of phonological\\u000a representation abilities. Second, we empirically compared how well typical measures index various

  9. Auditory processing in dyslexia and specific language impairment: is there a deficit? What is its nature? Does it explain anything?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart Rosen

    2003-01-01

    There is much controversy about the extent to which auditory processing deficits are important in the genesis of language disorders, particularly specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia (or specific reading disability—SRD). A review of the available literature reveals that some but not all auditory skills are impaired, on average, in groups of SLI\\/SRD listeners. Typically only a minority of SLI\\/SRD

  10. Acute Neuroinflammation Impairs Context Discrimination Memory and Disrupts Pattern Separation Processes in Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Czerniawski, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Although it is known that immune system activation can impair cognition, no study to date has linked cognitive deficits during acute neuroinflammation to dysregulation of task-relevant neuronal ensemble activity. Here, we assessed both neural circuit activity and context discrimination memory retrieval, in a within-subjects design, of male rats given systemic administration of saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were exposed over several days to two similar contexts: one of which was paired with weak foot shock and the other was not. After reaching criteria for discriminative freezing, rats were given systemic LPS or saline injection and tested for retrieval of context discrimination 6 h later. Importantly, LPS administration produced an acute neuroinflammatory response in dorsal hippocampus at this time (as assessed by elevation of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels) and abolished retrieval of the previously acquired discrimination. The impact of neuroinflammation on hippocampal CA3 and CA1 neural circuit activity was assessed using the Arc/Homer1a cellular analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization imaging method. Whereas the saline-treated subjects discriminated and had low overlap of hippocampal ensembles activated in the two contexts, LPS-treated subjects did not discriminate and had greater ensemble overlap (i.e., reduced orthogonalization). Additionally, retrieval of standard contextual fear conditioning, which does not require context discrimination, was not affected by pretesting LPS administration. Together, the behavioral and circuit analyses data provide compelling evidence that LPS administration impairs context discrimination memory by disrupting cellular pattern separation processes within the hippocampus, thus linking acute neuroinflammation to disruption of specific neural circuit functions and cognitive impairment. PMID:25209285

  11. Testing the attentional boundary conditions of subliminal semantic priming: the influence of semantic and phonological task sets.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sarah C; Kiefer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies challenged the classical notion of automaticity and indicated that even unconscious automatic semantic processing is under attentional control to some extent. In line with our attentional sensitization model, these data suggest that a sensitization of semantic pathways by a semantic task set is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to occur while non-semantic task sets attenuate priming. In the present study, we tested whether masked semantic priming is also reduced by phonological task sets using the previously developed induction task paradigm. This would substantiate the notion that attention to semantics is necessary for eliciting unconscious semantic priming. Participants first performed semantic and phonological induction tasks that should either activate a semantic or a phonological task set. Subsequent to the induction task, a masked prime word, either associated or non-associated with the following lexical decision target word, was presented. Across two experiments, we varied the nature of the phonological induction task (word phonology vs. letter phonology) to assess whether the attentional focus on the entire word vs. single letters modulates subsequent masked semantic priming. In both experiments, subliminal semantic priming was only found subsequent to the semantic induction task, but was attenuated following either phonological induction task. These results indicate that attention to phonology attenuates subsequent semantic processing of unconsciously presented primes whether or not attention is directed to the entire word or to single letters. The present findings therefore substantiate earlier evidence that an attentional orientation toward semantics is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to be elicited. PMID:22952461

  12. Importance of “Process Evaluation” in Audiological Rehabilitation: Examples from Studies on Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Danermark, Berth; Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is to discuss the importance of “evaluating the process of change” (i.e., process evaluation) in people with disability by studying their lived experiences. Detailed discussion is made about “why and how to investigate the process of change in people with disability?” and some specific examples are provided from studies on patient journey of persons with hearing impairment (PHI) and their communication partners (CPs). In addition, methodological aspects in process evaluation are discussed in relation to various metatheoretical perspectives. The discussion has been supplemented with relevant literature. The healthcare practice and disability research in general are dominated by the use of outcome measures. Even though the values of outcome measures are not questioned, there seems to be a little focus on understanding the process of change over time in relation to health and disability. We suggest that the process evaluation has an additional temporal dimension and has applications in both clinical practice and research in relation to health and disability. PMID:25276135

  13. Theory of mind and decision-making processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Xi, Chunhua; Zhu, Youling; Mu, Yanfang; Chen, Bing; Dong, Bin; Cheng, Huaidong; Hu, Panpan; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Kai

    2015-02-15

    Prefrontal cortex plays a vital role in the theory of mind (ToM) and decision making, as shown in functional brain imaging and lesion studies. Considering the primary neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the frontal lobe system, patients with PD are expected to exhibit deficits in ToM and social decision making. The aim of this study was to investigate affective ToM and decision making in patients with PD and healthy controls (HC) in a task assessing affective ToM (Reading the Mind in the Eyes, RME) and two decision-making tasks (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT; Game of Dice Task, GDT). Consistent with previous findings, patients with PD were impaired in the affective ToM task, and when making decisions under ambiguity and in risk situations. The score of emotion recognition in the RME task was negatively correlated with the severity of the disease and positively correlated with the total number of advantageous cards chosen in the IGT. However, the final capital in the GDT was correlated with memory impairment. The present study implies that affective ToM and decision making under ambiguity may share similar neural mechanisms, while decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk may involve processing within different neural networks. PMID:25435317

  14. Impaired emotion processing from vocal and facial cues in frontotemporal dementia compared to right hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Dara, Chinar; Kirsch-Darrow, Lindsey; Ochfeld, E; Slenz, Jamie; Agranovich, Anna; Vasconcellos-Faria, Andreia; Ross, Elliott; Hillis, Argye E; Kortte, Kathleen B

    2013-01-01

    To advance our understanding about the emotional and cognitive deficits of patients with frontotemporal dementia with behavioral variant (bvFTD), the current study examined comprehension and expression of emotions from prosodic and facial cues in a 66-year-old woman. The patient diagnosed with bvFTD is compared to six patients with acute right hemisphere stroke. Recognition of emotion from prosodic cues was assessed using an identification task in four conditions with decreasing verbal demands (neutral sentences, language-like pseudo sentences, monosyllables, and asyllabic vowel sounds). Repetition of utterances with emotional connotations and self-generated conversations were analyzed to measure relative changes in mean fundamental frequency (f0), f0 variance, speech rate, and intensity along with the facial musculature pattern. The patient showed a marked deficit in identifying emotions in all four prosody conditions; and she did not show much variation in modulating mean f0, f0 variance, speech rate and intensity for all emotion categories when compared to neutral utterances. In addition, this patient demonstrated little to no facial expressions during emotionally provoking tasks, but demonstrated no difficulty recognizing emotions from facial expressions or verbal scenarios. Results show that the patient seems to have selective impairment in recognition of emotions from prosody and expression of emotions using both prosodic and facial features. Impaired processing of emotional prosody and facial expressions could be important for detecting bvFTD with greater right hemisphere atrophy. PMID:22827701

  15. Altered Connectivity of the Balance Processing Network After Tongue Stimulation in Balance-Impaired Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Mitchell E.; Danilov, Yuri P.; Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Meyerand, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Some individuals with balance impairment have hypersensitivity of the motion-sensitive visual cortices (hMT+) compared to healthy controls. Previous work showed that electrical tongue stimulation can reduce the exaggerated postural sway induced by optic flow in this subject population and decrease the hypersensitive response of hMT+. Additionally, a region within the brainstem (BS), likely containing the vestibular and trigeminal nuclei, showed increased optic flow-induced activity after tongue stimulation. The aim of this study was to understand how the modulation induced by tongue stimulation affects the balance-processing network as a whole and how modulation of BS structures can influence cortical activity. Four volumes of interest, discovered in a general linear model analysis, constitute major contributors to the balance-processing network. These regions were entered into a dynamic causal modeling analysis to map the network and measure any connection or topology changes due to the stimulation. Balance-impaired individuals had downregulated response of the primary visual cortex (V1) to visual stimuli but upregulated modulation of the connection between V1 and hMT+ by visual motion compared to healthy controls (p?1E–5). This upregulation was decreased to near-normal levels after stimulation. Additionally, the region within the BS showed increased response to visual motion after stimulation compared to both prestimulation and controls. Stimulation to the tongue enters the central nervous system at the BS but likely propagates to the cortex through supramodal information transfer. We present a model to explain these brain responses that utilizes an anatomically present, but functionally dormant pathway of information flow within the processing network. PMID:23216162

  16. Impaired Cross-Talk between Mesolimbic Food Reward Processing and Metabolic Signaling Predicts Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Joe J.; Skunde, Mandy; Hamze Sinno, Maria; Brockmeyer, Timo; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Bendszus, Martin; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The anticipation of the pleasure derived from food intake drives the motivation to eat, and hence facilitate overconsumption of food, which ultimately results in obesity. Brain imaging studies provide evidence that mesolimbic brain regions underlie both general as well as food-related anticipatory reward processing. In light of this knowledge, the present study examined the neural responsiveness of the ventral striatum (VS) in participants with a broad BMI spectrum. The study differentiated between general (i.e., monetary) and food-related anticipatory reward processing. We recruited a sample of volunteers with greatly varying body weights, ranging from a low BMI (below 20?kg/m2) over a normal (20–25?kg/m2) and overweight (25–30?kg/m2) BMI, to class I (30–35?kg/m2) and class II (35–40?kg/m2) obesity. A total of 24 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing both a food and monetary incentive delay task, which allows to measure neural activation during the anticipation of rewards. After the presentation of a cue indicating the amount of food or money to be won, participants had to react correctly in order to earn “snack points” or “money coins,” which could then be exchanged for real food or money, respectively, at the end of the experiment. During the anticipation of both types of rewards, participants displayed activity in the VS, a region that plays a pivotal role in the anticipation of rewards. Additionally, we observed that specifically anticipatory food reward processing predicted the individual BMI (current and maximum lifetime). This relation was found to be mediated by impaired hormonal satiety signaling, i.e., increased leptin levels and insulin resistance. These findings suggest that heightened food reward motivation contributes to obesity through impaired metabolic signaling. PMID:25368558

  17. Is reading different for deaf individuals? Reexamining the role of phonology.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Connie; Trezek, Beverly J

    2014-01-01

    Quarter century ago, Hanson (1989) asked, "Is reading different for deaf individuals?" (p. 85). Appealing to evidence available at the time, she argued that skilled deaf readers, like their hearing counterparts, relied on their knowledge of English structure, including phonological information. This perspective on the role phonology plays in the reading process for deaf learners continues to generate much debate in the field, and little consensus exists on whether it is a necessary aspect of learning to read for this population. The present article revisits this question in terms of what is known about phonology and reading in typically developing learners, and in light of two reviews of the research from the field of deafness. The authors conclude that there is stronger empirical evidence for the argument for a relationship between phonology and reading in the population of deaf readers than for the counter-argument. PMID:25669018

  18. Neural decoding reveals impaired face configural processing in the right fusiform face area of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiedong; Liu, Jia; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-01-28

    Most of human daily social interactions rely on the ability to successfully recognize faces. Yet ?2% of the human population suffers from face blindness without any acquired brain damage [this is also known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP) or congenital prosopagnosia]). Despite the presence of severe behavioral face recognition deficits, surprisingly, a majority of DP individuals exhibit normal face selectivity in the right fusiform face area (FFA), a key brain region involved in face configural processing. This finding, together with evidence showing impairments downstream from the right FFA in DP individuals, has led some to argue that perhaps the right FFA is largely intact in DP individuals. Using fMRI multivoxel pattern analysis, here we report the discovery of a neural impairment in the right FFA of DP individuals that may play a critical role in mediating their face-processing deficits. In seven individuals with DP, we discovered that, despite the right FFA's preference for faces and it showing decoding for the different face parts, it exhibited impaired face configural decoding and did not contain distinct neural response patterns for the intact and the scrambled face configurations. This abnormality was not present throughout the ventral visual cortex, as normal neural decoding was found in an adjacent object-processing region. To our knowledge, this is the first direct neural evidence showing impaired face configural processing in the right FFA in individuals with DP. The discovery of this neural impairment provides a new clue to our understanding of the neural basis of DP. PMID:25632131

  19. Impaired autophagy and APP processing in Alzheimer's disease: The potential role of Beclin 1 interactome.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu; Ojala, Johanna; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Soininen, Hilkka; Hiltunen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of amyloid-?-containing neuritic plaques and intracellular tau protein tangles are key histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This type of pathology clearly indicates that the mechanisms of neuronal housekeeping and protein quality control are compromised in AD. There is mounting evidence that the autophagosome-lysosomal degradation is impaired, which could disturb the processing of APP and provoke AD pathology. Beclin 1 is a molecular platform assembling an interactome with stimulating and suppressive components which regulate the initiation of the autophagosome formation. Recent studies have indicated that the expression Beclin 1 is reduced in AD brain. Moreover, the deficiency of Beclin 1 in cultured neurons and transgenic mice provokes the deposition of amyloid-? peptides whereas its overexpression reduces the accumulation of amyloid-?. There are several potential mechanisms, which could inhibit the function of Beclin 1 interactome and thus impair autophagy and promote AD pathology. The mechanisms include (i) reduction of Beclin 1 expression or its increased proteolytic cleavage by caspases, (ii) sequestration of Beclin 1 to non-functional locations, such as tau tangles, (iii) formation of inhibitory complexes between Beclin 1 and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins or inflammasomes, (iv) interaction of Beclin 1 with inhibitory neurovirulent proteins, e.g. herpex simplex ICP34.5, or (v) inhibition of the Beclin 1/Vps34 complex through the activation of CDK1 and CDK5. We will shortly introduce the function of Beclin 1 interactome in autophagy and phagocytosis, review the recent evidence indicating that Beclin 1 regulates autophagy and APP processing in AD, and finally examine the potential mechanisms through which Beclin 1 dysfunction could be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:23827971

  20. Impaired temporal processing of tactile and proprioceptive stimuli in cerebellar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Tinazzi, Michele; Morgante, Francesca; Peretti, Alessia; Mariotti, Caterina; Panzeri, Marta; Fiorio, Mirta; Fasano, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Performance of timed motor sequences relies on the cerebellum and basal ganglia, which integrate proprioceptive information during the motor task and set internal timing mechanisms. Accordingly, these structures are also involved in other temporal processes, such as the discrimination of the different afferent information in the domain of time. In the present study we tested temporal processing of proprioceptive and tactile stimuli in 20 patients with neurodegenerative cerebellar ataxia and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Tactile temporal discrimination threshold was defined as the value at which subjects recognized the two stimuli as asynchronous. Temporal discrimination movement threshold of the first dorsal interosseous and flexor carpi radialis was defined as the shortest interval between two paired electrical stimuli in which the subjects blindfolded perceived two separate index finger abductions and wrist flexions. Both tactile and movement temporal discrimination thresholds were higher in patients with cerebellar ataxia. No correlation was found with disease duration and severity. Our study demonstrates that temporal processing of tactile and proprioceptive stimuli is impaired in patients with cerebellar neurodegeneration and highlights the involvement of cerebellum in temporal processing of somatosensory stimuli of different type. PMID:24244328

  1. The Proximate Phonological Unit of Chinese-English Bilinguals: Proficiency Matters

    PubMed Central

    Verdonschot, Rinus Gerardus; Nakayama, Mariko; Zhang, Qingfang; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Schiller, Niels Olaf

    2013-01-01

    An essential step to create phonology according to the language production model by Levelt, Roelofs and Meyer is to assemble phonemes into a metrical frame. However, recently, it has been proposed that different languages may rely on different grain sizes of phonological units to construct phonology. For instance, it has been proposed that, instead of phonemes, Mandarin Chinese uses syllables and Japanese uses moras to fill the metrical frame. In this study, we used a masked priming-naming task to investigate how bilinguals assemble their phonology for each language when the two languages differ in grain size. Highly proficient Mandarin Chinese-English bilinguals showed a significant masked onset priming effect in English (L2), and a significant masked syllabic priming effect in Mandarin Chinese (L1). These results suggest that their proximate unit is phonemic in L2 (English), and that bilinguals may use different phonological units depending on the language that is being processed. Additionally, under some conditions, a significant sub-syllabic priming effect was observed even in Mandarin Chinese, which indicates that L2 phonology exerts influences on L1 target processing as a consequence of having a good command of English. PMID:23646107

  2. Phonological awareness for american sign language.

    PubMed

    Corina, David P; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers exposed to ASL from infancy perform better than deaf signers exposed to ASL later in life and that this relationship remains even after controlling for the number of years of experience with a signed language. For a subset of participants, we examine the relationship between PA for ASL and performance on a PA test of English and report a positive correlation between ASL PA and English PA in native signers. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to the development of reading skills in deaf children. PMID:25149961

  3. Impaired holistic processing of left-right composite faces in congenital prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tina T.; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Congenital prosopagnosia (CP) refers to a lifelong impairment in face processing despite normal visual and intellectual skills. Many studies have suggested that the key underlying deficit in CP is one of a failure to engage holistic processing. Moreover, there has been some suggestion that, in normal observers, there may be greater involvement of the right than left hemisphere in holistic processing. To examine the proposed deficit in holistic processing and its potential hemispheric atypicality in CP, we compared the performance of 8 CP individuals with both matched controls and a large group of non-matched controls on a novel, vertical composite task. In this task, participants judged whether a cued half of a face (either left or right half) was the same or different at study and test, and the two face halves could be either aligned or misaligned. The standard index of holistic processing is one in which the unattended face half influences performance on the cued half and this influence is greater in the aligned than in the misaligned condition. Relative to controls, the CP participants, both at a group and at an individual level, did not show holistic processing in the vertical composite task. There was also no difference in performance as a function of hemifield of the cued face half in the CP individuals, and this was true in the control participants, as well. The findings clearly confirm the deficit in holistic processing in CP and reveal the useful application of this novel experimental paradigm to this population and potentially to others as well. PMID:25324755

  4. Damage to the lateral prefrontal cortex impairs familiarity but not recollection

    PubMed Central

    Aly, Mariam; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Kishiyama, Mark M.; Knight, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Frontal lobe lesions impair recognition memory but it is unclear whether the deficits arise from impaired recollection, impaired familiarity, or both. In the current study, recognition memory for verbal materials was examined in patients with damage to the left or right lateral prefrontal cortex. Words were incidentally encoded under semantic or phonological orienting conditions, and recognition memory was tested using a 6-point confidence procedure. Receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) were examined in order to measure the contributions of recollection and familiarity to recognition memory. In both encoding conditions, lateral prefrontal cortex damage led to a deficit in familiarity but not recollection. Similar deficits were observed in left and right hemisphere patients. The results indicate that the lateral prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in the monitoring or decision processes required for accurate familiarity-based recognition responses. PMID:21827792

  5. Phonological Fluency Strategy of Switching Differentiates Relapsing-Remitting and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Messinis, L.; Kosmidis, M. H.; Vlahou, C.; Malegiannaki, A. C.; Gatzounis, G.; Dimisianos, N.; Karra, A.; Kiosseoglou, G.; Gourzis, P.; Papathanasopoulos, P.

    2013-01-01

    The strategies used to perform a verbal fluency task appear to be reflective of cognitive abilities necessary for successful daily functioning. In the present study, we explored potential differences in verbal fluency strategies (switching and clustering) used to maximize word production by patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) versus patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We further assessed impairment rates and potential differences in the sensitivity and specificity of phonological versus semantic verbal fluency tasks in discriminating between those with a diagnosis of MS and healthy adults. We found that the overall rate of impaired verbal fluency in our MS sample was consistent with that in other studies. However, we found no differences between types of MS (SPMS, RRMS), on semantic or phonological fluency word production, or the strategies used to maximize semantic fluency. In contrast, we found that the number of switches differed significantly in the phonological fluency task between the SPMS and RRMS subtypes. The clinical utility of semantic versus phonological fluency in discriminating MS patients from healthy controls did not indicate any significant differences. Further, the strategies used to maximize performance did not differentiate MS subgroups or MS patients from healthy controls. PMID:23401793

  6. The "No Crossing Constraint" in Autosegmental Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, John; Local, John

    A discussion of autosegmental phonology (AP), a theory of phonological representation that uses graphs rather than strings as the central data structure, considers its principal constraint, the "No Crossing Constraint" (NCC). The NCC is the statement that in a well-formed autosegmental diagram, lines of association may not cross. After an…

  7. Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

  8. Assessment of Individual Differences in Phonological Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Dunkelberger, Martha; Novak, Barbara; Mukherjee, Anuja Divatia

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

  9. Phonology in Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrah, Ali Saleh

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at absorbing the pronunciation teachers task and how much phonology should teachers know. Teachers and future teachers need a well-rounded concept of the phonology of the language they are going to teach and the native language of learners. Emphasis must be placed on the understanding of language as a system of rules and as a…

  10. Phonological Priming and Cohort Effects in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Adult word recognition is influenced by prior exposure to phonologically or semantically related words ("cup" primes "cat" or "plate") compared to unrelated words ("door"), suggesting that words are organised in the adult lexicon based on their phonological and semantic properties and that word recognition implicates not just the heard word, but…

  11. Phonological Skills in English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Alyse; Goldstein, Brian A.; Gilhool, Amanda; Paradis, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the English phonological skills of English language learners (ELLs) over 5 time points. Method: Sound class accuracy, whole-word accuracy, percentage of occurrence of phonological patterns, and sociolinguistic correlational analyses were investigated in 19 ELLs ranging in age from 5;0…

  12. Information Processing and Proactive Interference in Children With and Without Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Eichorn, Naomi; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Increasing evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a deficit in inhibition control, but research isolating specific abilities is scarce. The goal of this study was to examine whether children with SLI differ from their peers in resistance to proactive interference under different conditions. Method An information processing battery with manipulations in interference was administered to 66 children (SLI, age-matched peers, and language-matched controls). In Experiment 1, previously relevant targets were used as distractors to create conflict. Experiment 2 used item repetitions to examine how practice strengthens word representations and how the strength of a response impacts performance on the following item. Results Children with SLI performed similarly to their peers in the baseline condition but were more susceptible to proactive interference than the controls in both experimental conditions. Children with SLI demonstrated difficulty suppressing irrelevant information, made significantly more interference errors than their peers, and showed a slower rate of implicit learning. Conclusion Children with SLI show weaker resistance to proactive interference than their peers, and this deficit impacts their information processing abilities. The coordination of activation and inhibition is less efficient in these children, but future research is needed to further examine the interaction between these two processes. PMID:23900030

  13. Reduced Sensory Oscillatory Activity during Rapid Auditory Processing as a Correlate of Language-Learning Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Sabine; Friedman, Jennifer Thomas; Keil, Andreas; Benasich, April A.

    2010-01-01

    Successful language acquisition has been hypothesized to involve the ability to integrate rapidly presented, brief acoustic cues in sensory cortex. A body of work has suggested that this ability is compromised in language-learning impairment (LLI). The present research aimed to examine sensory integration during rapid auditory processing by means of electrophysiological measures of oscillatory brain activity using data from a larger longitudinal study. Twenty-nine children with LLI and control participants with typical language development (n=18) listened to tone doublets presented at a temporal interval that is essential for accurate speech processing (70-ms interstimulus interval). The children performed a deviant (pitch change of second tone) detection task, or listened passively. The electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 electrodes. Data were source-projected to the auditory cortices and submitted to wavelet analysis, resulting in time-frequency representations of electrocortical activity. Results show significantly reduced amplitude and phase-locking of early (45–75 ms) oscillations in the gamma-band range (29–52 Hz), specifically in the LLI group, for the second stimulus of the tone doublet. This suggests altered temporal organization of sensory oscillatory activity in LLI when processing rapid sequences. PMID:21822356

  14. Signal-Processing Strategy for Restoration of Cross-Channel Suppression in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Gorga, Michael P.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    Because frequency components interact nonlinearly with each other inside the cochlea, the loudness growth of tones is relatively simple in comparison to the loudness growth of complex sounds. The term suppression refers to a reduction in the response growth of one tone in the presence of a second tone. Suppression is a salient feature of normal cochlear processing and contributes to psychophysical masking. Suppression is evident in many measurements of cochlear function in subjects with normal hearing, including distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Suppression is also evident, to a lesser extent, in subjects with mild-to-moderate hearing loss. This paper describes a hearing-aid signal-processing strategy that aims to restore both loudness growth and two-tone suppression in hearing-impaired listeners. The prescription of gain for this strategy is based on measurements of loudness by a method known as categorical loudness scaling. The proposed signal-processing strategy reproduces measured DPOAE suppression tuning curves and generalizes to any number of frequency components. The restoration of both normal suppression and normal loudness has the potential to improve hearing-aid performance and user satisfaction. PMID:23925364

  15. A Probabilistic Model of Phonological Relationships from Contrast to Allophony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kathleen Currie

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…

  16. Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Phonological awareness, or the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning, has been identified as a key early literacy skill and precursor to reading. For the purposes of this review, "phonological awareness training" refers to any practice targeting young children's phonological awareness abilities. "Phonological

  17. Chemical processing does not always impair heterogeneous ice nucleation of mineral dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, R. C.; Demott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; Minambres, L.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Moehler, O.

    2010-12-01

    Mineral dust particles are the most abundant heterogeneous ice nuclei in the atmosphere. They also frequently become mixed with secondary material during atmospheric transport. The effect that such atmospheric processing has on the ice nucleation properties of dust particles remains under investigation. We have studied changes in the ice nucleation ability of various mineral dust sources after exposure to nitric acid in an aerosol flow tube, and after heterogeneous nucleation of ?-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the AIDA cloud expansion chamber. Both chemical treatments altered and homogenized the dust particles’ heterogeneous ice nucleation properties below water-saturation, but had no apparent impact on the immersion-freezing fraction well above water saturation. The fraction of particles capable of nucleating ice at fixed mixed-phase cloud temperatures between -35 and -15 °C was determined using a continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) as the relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) was scanned from 75% to 110% RHw. Exposure to both nitric acid and SOA impaired essentially all ice nucleation in the deposition-regime below water saturation, while causing the onset of condensation-freezing to occur in a step-wise manner over a small range of RHw just below water saturation. We interpret this as the result of an increase in particle hygroscopicity following chemical treatment. This allows the mineral particles to absorb enough water to overcome solute freezing point depression effects and nucleate ice via condensation-freezing at a slightly smaller and narrower range of RHw than the less hygroscopic untreated dust can. Immersion-freezing above water saturation was not affected by either treatment. This is in stark contrast to earlier experiments where dust was exposed to sulfuric acid from a heated vapor source; ice nucleation was notably impaired in both the deposition and immersion-freezing regimes following sulfuric acid treatment.

  18. A double dissociation between sensorimotor impairments and reading disability: A comparison of autistic and dyslexic children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah White; Uta Frith; Elizabeth Milne; Stuart Rosen; John Swettenham; Franck Ramus

    2006-01-01

    Does sensorimotor dysfunction underlie reading impairment? To investigate this question, a battery of literacy, phonology, auditory, visual, and motor tests were administered to age- and ability-matched groups of dyslexic, autistic, and control children. As in previous studies, only a subset of the dyslexic children had sensory and\\/or motor impairments, whilst some dyslexics were entirely spared, suggesting that sensorimotor impairments are

  19. Effect of Phonological Training in French Children with SLI: Perspectives on Voicing Identification, Discrimination and Categorical Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, G.; Colin, C.; Serniclaes, W.; Hoonhorst, I.; Markessis, E.; Deltenre, P.; Leybaert, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of auditory training on voicing perception in French children with specific language impairment (SLI). We used an adaptive discrimination training that was centred across the French phonological boundary (0 ms voice onset time--VOT). One group of nine children with SLI attended eighteen…

  20. Reading speed and phonological awareness deficits among Arabic-speaking children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Layes, Smail; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Although reading accuracy of isolated words and phonological awareness represent the main criteria of subtyping developmental dyslexia, there is increasing evidence that reduced reading speed also represents a defining characteristic. In the present study, reading speed and accuracy were measured in Arabic-speaking phonological and mixed dyslexic children matched with controls of the same age. Participants in third and fourth grades, aged from 9-10 to 9-8 years, were given single frequent and infrequent word and pseudo-word reading and phonological awareness tasks. Results showed that the group with dyslexia scored significantly lower than controls in accuracy and speed in reading tasks. Phonological and mixed dyslexic subgroups differed in infrequent and frequent word reading accuracy, the latter being worse. In contrast, the subgroups were comparable in pseudo-word identification and phonological awareness. Delayed phonological and recognition processes of infrequent and frequent words, respectively, were placed in the context of the dual route model of reading and the specific orthographic features of the Arabic language. PMID:25515022

  1. Phonological sensitivity and the acquisition of new words in children.

    PubMed

    de Jong, P F; Seveke, M J; van Veen, M

    2000-08-01

    Two studies are reported which aimed to examine the relationship between phonological sensitivity and the acquisition of new words that systematically differed in the familiarity of their sound structures. In the first study measures of phonological sensitivity, phonological short-term memory, vocabulary, and nonverbal ability were administered to forty-one 5-year-old children. Phonological sensitivity was related to the paired-associate learning of phonologically unfamiliar words, but not to the learning of familiar words. In the second study a group of 14 nonreading 5-year-old children received phonological sensitivity training. A control group was trained in semantic categorization. After the training, the phonological sensitivity group did perform better on measures of letter knowledge and phonological sensitivity (rhyme and first-sound categorization) and appeared to learn phonologically unfamiliar words more easily. The findings of both studies suggest that phonological sensitivity can support the acquisition of novel words. PMID:10882476

  2. Processing of speech and non-speech stimuli in children with specific language impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Madhavi L.; Surprenant, Aimee M.

    2003-10-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a developmental language disorder in which children demonstrate varying degrees of difficulties in acquiring a spoken language. One possible underlying cause is that children with SLI have deficits in processing sounds that are of short duration or when they are presented rapidly. Studies so far have compared their performance on speech and nonspeech sounds of unequal complexity. Hence, it is still unclear whether the deficit is specific to the perception of speech sounds or whether it more generally affects the auditory function. The current study aims to answer this question by comparing the performance of children with SLI on speech and nonspeech sounds synthesized from sine-wave stimuli. The children will be tested using the classic categorical perception paradigm that includes both the identification and discrimination of stimuli along a continuum. If there is a deficit in the performance on both speech and nonspeech tasks, it will show that these children have a deficit in processing complex sounds. Poor performance on only the speech sounds will indicate that the deficit is more related to language. The findings will offer insights into the exact nature of the speech perception deficits in children with SLI. [Work supported by ASHF.

  3. Elevated copper ion levels as potential cause of impaired kinesin-dependent transport processes.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Konrad J

    2015-04-01

    Copper is a trace element required to maintain essential life processes. In healthy organisms, copper metabolism is well balanced. If this balance is destroyed, the cellular level of free copper might increase and cause toxic effects. So far, the molecular mechanisms of copper intoxication are understood only partly. The present study revealed that the kinesin-dependent transport system is strongly affected by copper(II) ions. Both the microtubules, along which kinesin moves, and the kinesin itself were found to be the target structures of copper ions: Microtubule formation was suppressed by copper ions (IC50 26-70 µM) apparently chiefly by inhibition of binding of microtubule-associated proteins to tubulin. This inhibition could be widely compensated by the microtubule-stabilising agent paclitaxel. In addition, copper ions strongly inhibited the ATPase activity of neuron-specific kinesin KIF5A. At final KIF5A concentration of 112 nM, an IC50 of 1.3 µM was determined. Correspondingly, the motility activity of KIF5A, measured as velocity of microtubules gliding across a kinesin-covered surface, was blocked. The effects of copper ions on microtubules and on KIF5A are suggested to contribute to impaired transport processes within brain and other organs in cases of copper ion surplus. PMID:24853401

  4. Modeling and Estimating Recall Processing Capacity: Sensitivity and Diagnostic Utility in Application to Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Michael K.; Negash, Selamawit; Petersen, Ronald C.; Petersen, Lyndsay

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the potential for using latency-based measures of retrieval processing capacity to assess changes in perfomance specific to individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a reliable precursor state to Alzheimer's Disease. Use of these capacity measures is motivated in part by exploration of the effects of atrophy on a computational model of a basic hippocampal circuit. We use this model to suggest that capacity may be a more sensitive indicator of undelying atrophy than speed of processing, and test this hypothesis by adapting a standard behavioral measure of memory (the free and cued selective reminding test, FCSRT) to allow for the collection of cued recall latencies. Participants were drawn from five groups: college-aged, middle-aged, healthy elderly, those with a diagnosis of MCI, and a sample of MCI control participants. The measure of capacity is shown to offer increased classificatory sensitivity relative to the standard behavioral measures, and is also shown to be the behavioral measure that correlated most strongly with hippocampal volume. PMID:20436932

  5. A comparison of phonological skills of boys with fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Joanne; Long, Steven H; Malkin, Cheryl; Barnes, Elizabeth; Skinner, Martie; Hennon, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Kathleen

    2005-10-01

    In this study, the authors compared the phonological accuracy and patterns of sound change of boys with fragile X syndrome, boys with Down syndrome, and typically developing mental-age-matched boys. Participants were 50 boys with fragile X syndrome, ages 3 to 14 years; 32 boys with Down syndrome, ages 4 to 13 years; and 33 typically developing boys, ages 2 to 6 years, who were matched for nonverbal mental age to both the boys with fragile X syndrome and the boys with Down syndrome. All participants were administered a standardized articulation test, and their sound accuracy, phonological process, and proportion of whole-word proximity scores were analyzed. Although boys with fragile X syndrome were delayed in their speech development, they did not differ from the typically developing, mental-age-matched boys in the percentage of correct early-, middle-, and late-developing consonants; phonological processes; or whole-word proximity scores. Furthermore, boys with fragile X syndrome had fewer errors on early-, middle-, and late-developing consonants; fewer syllable structure processes; and higher whole-word proximity scores than did boys with Down syndrome. Boys with Down syndrome also were delayed in their speech development, yet their phonological inventories, occurrences of phonological processes, and proportion of whole-word proximity scores indicated greater delays in their phonological development than the younger, typically developing boys. These results suggest that males with fragile X syndrome display phonological characteristics in isolated words similar to younger, typically developing children, whereas males with Down syndrome show greater delays as well as some developmental differences compared with both the males with fragile X syndrome and typically developing males. PMID:16411789

  6. Auditory Processing Deficits in Children with Reading and Language Impairments: Can They (and Should They) Be Treated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, G. M.; Ellis, D.; Atkinson, C. M.; Coltheart, M.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five children with specific reading disability (SRD), 25 children with specific language impairment (SLI), and 37 age-matched controls were tested for their frequency discrimination, rapid auditory processing, vowel discrimination, and consonant-vowel discrimination. Subgroups of children with SRD or SLI produced abnormal frequency…

  7. Auditory Processing and Speech Perception in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Relations with Oral Language and Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated temporal auditory processing (frequency modulation and between-channel gap detection) and speech perception (speech-in-noise and categorical perception) in three groups of 6 years 3 months to 6 years 8 months-old children attending grade 1: (1) children with specific language impairment (SLI) and literacy delay…

  8. Effects of Acoustic Manipulation on the Real-Time Inflectional Processing of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James W.; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports the findings of an investigation designed to examine the effects of acoustic enhancement on the processing of low-phonetic-substance inflections (e.g., 3rd-person singular "-s," possessive "-s") versus a high-phonetic-substance inflection (e.g., present progressive "-ing") by children with specific language impairment

  9. Sensitivity and Specificity of French Language and Processing Measures for the Identification of Primary Language Impairment at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thordardottir, Elin; Kehayia, Eva; Mazer, Barbara; Lessard, Nicole; Majnemer, Annette; Sutton, Ann; Trudeau, Natacha; Chilingaryan, Gevorg

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Research on the diagnostic accuracy of different language measures has focused primarily on English. This study examined the sensitivity and specificity of a range of measures of language knowledge and language processing for the identification of primary language impairment (PLI) in French-speaking children. Because of the lack of…

  10. Selecting process quality indicators for the integrated care of vulnerable older adults affected by cognitive impairment or dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edeltraut Kröger; André Tourigny; Diane Morin; Lise Côté; Marie-Jeanne Kergoat; Paule Lebel; Line Robichaud; Shirley Imbeault; Solange Proulx; Zohra Benounissa

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed at evaluating face and content validity, feasibility and reliability of process quality indicators developed previously in the United States or other countries. The indicators can be used to evaluate care and services for vulnerable older adults affected by cognitive impairment or dementia within an integrated service system in Quebec, Canada. METHODS: A total of 33 clinical

  11. Language Impairment in Less Skilled Comprehenders: The On-Line Processing of Anaphoric Pronouns in a Listening Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megherbi, Hakima; Ehrlich, Marie-France

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment, conducted with second-grade children (mean age: 7;8), was to examine the hypothesis that less skilled comprehenders in a reading situation suffer an impairment in spoken language comprehension and, more specifically, in the on-line processing of anaphoric pronouns. Skilled and less skilled comprehenders performed a…

  12. Schizophrenia and risk-taking: impaired reward but preserved punishment processing.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gordon L F; Tang, Joey C Y; Li, Frendi W S; Lau, Esther Y Y; Lee, Tatia M C

    2012-04-01

    Risky decision-making is subserved by the frontostriatal system, which includes a network of interconnected brain regions known to be dysfunctional in patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to investigate whether and to what extent patients with schizophrenia display a different pattern of risk-taking behavior relative to matched healthy controls. The Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the Risky-Gains Task were used as naturalistic measures of risk-taking behavior in 25 patients with schizophrenia and 25 controls. Results of the BART revealed that patients behaved more conservatively, and this in turn led to suboptimal risky decision-making. Consistently, patients behaved more conservatively in the Risky-Gains Task. Interestingly, however, they adjusted the pattern of risk-taking following a punished trial similar to controls. These findings indicate that patients have impaired reward but preserved punishment processing. This study complements previous studies on decision-making in schizophrenia and suggests specific rather than widespread abnormalities along the frontostriatal system in schizophrenia. PMID:22285654

  13. Manipulability impairs association-memory: revisiting effects of incidental motor processing on verbal paired-associates.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R

    2014-06-01

    Imageability is known to enhance association-memory for verbal paired-associates. High-imageability words can be further subdivided by manipulability, the ease by which the named object can be functionally interacted with. Prior studies suggest that motor processing enhances item-memory, but impairs association-memory. However, these studies used action verbs and concrete nouns as the high- and low-manipulability words, respectively, confounding manipulability with word class. Recent findings demonstrated that nouns can serve as both high- and low-manipulability words (e.g., CAMERA and TABLE, respectively), allowing us to avoid this confound. Here participants studied pairs of words that consisted of all possible pairings of high- and low-manipulability words and were tested with immediate cued recall. Recall was worse for pairs that contained high-manipulability words. In free recall, participants recalled more high- than low-manipulability words. Our results provide further evidence that manipulability influences memory, likely occurring through automatic motor imagery. PMID:24686239

  14. Gaze Position Reveals Impaired Attentional Shift during Visual Word Recognition in Dysfluent Readers

    PubMed Central

    Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level. PMID:25268909

  15. Celastrol Potentiates Radiotherapy by Impairment of DNA Damage Processing in Human Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Yao; DeSano, Jeffrey T.; Meng Yang; J, Qing; Ljungman, Mats; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Xu Liang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)], E-mail: liangxu@umich.edu

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Celastrol is an active ingredient of traditional herbal medicine and has recently been identified as a potent natural proteasome inhibitor. In the present study, we evaluated the radiosensitizing potential of celastrol in the human prostate cancer PC-3 model. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic assays were performed to determine the radiosensitizing effect of celastrol. Apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide staining and by a caspase-3 activation assay. DNA damage processing was examined by immunofluorescent staining and Western blot for phosphorylated H2AX ({gamma}H2AX). The PC-3 xenograft model in the athymic nude mouse was used for the determination of the in vivo efficacy of celastrol combined with radiotherapy. The tumor samples were also analyzed for apoptosis and angiogenesis. Results: Celastrol sensitized PC-3 cells to ionizing radiation (IR) in a dose- and schedule-dependent manner, in which pretreatment with celastrol for 1 h followed by IR achieved maximal radiosensitization. Celastrol significantly prolonged the presence of IR-induced {gamma}H2AX and increased IR-induced apoptosis. Celastrol, combined with fractionated radiation, significantly inhibited PC-3 tumor growth in vivo without obvious systemic toxicity. The combination treatment increased {gamma}H2AX levels and apoptosis, induced cleavage of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose)polymerase and Mcl-1, and reduced angiogenesis in vivo compared with either treatment alone. Conclusion: Celastrol sensitized PC-3 cells to radiation both in vitro and in vivo by impairing DNA damage processing and augmenting apoptosis. Celastrol might represent a promising new adjuvant regimen for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

  16. Phonological working memory and reading in students with dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Carolina A. F.; Kida, Adriana de S. B.; Capellini, Simone A.; de Avila, Clara R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate parameters related to fluency, reading comprehension and phonological processing (operational and short-term memory) and identify potential correlation between the variables in Dyslexia and in the absence of reading difficulties. Method: One hundred and fifteen students from the third to eighth grade of elementary school were grouped into a Control Group (CG) and Group with Dyslexia (GDys). Reading of words, pseudowords and text (decoding); listening and reading comprehension; phonological short-term and working memory (repetition of pseudowords and Digit Span) were evaluated. Results: The comparison of the groups showed significant differences in decoding, phonological short-term memory (repetition of pseudowords) and answers to text-connecting questions (TC) on reading comprehension, with the worst performances identified for GDys. In this group there were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both on listening comprehension. No correlations were found between operational and short-term memory (Digit Span) and parameters of fluency and reading comprehension in dyslexia. For the sample without complaint, there were positive correlations between some parameters of reading fluency and repetition of pseudowords and also between answering literal questions in listening comprehension and repetition of digits on the direct and reverse order. There was no correlation with the parameters of reading comprehension. Conclusion: GDys and CG showed similar performance in listening comprehension and in understanding of explicit information and gap-filling inference on reading comprehension. Students of GDys showed worst performance in reading decoding, phonological short-term memory (pseudowords) and on inferences that depends on textual cohesion understanding in reading. There were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both in listening comprehension. PMID:25101021

  17. Speech synthesis by phonological structure matching. 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Paul; Black, Alan W

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for speech synthesis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonological trees, and using a selection algorithm which ...

  18. The Consequences of Progressive Phonological Impairment for Reading Aloud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollams, Anna M.; Patterson, Karalyn

    2012-01-01

    The "primary systems" view of reading disorders proposes that there are no neural regions devoted exclusively to reading, and therefore that acquired dyslexias should reliably co-occur with deficits in more general underlying capacities. This perspective predicted that surface dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading aloud "exception" words (those…

  19. Auditory evoked potentials: predicting speech therapy outcomes in children with phonological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Renata Aparecida; Wertzner, Haydée Fiszbein; Gonçalves, Isabela Crivellaro; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Matas, Carla Gentile

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether neurophysiologic responses (auditory evoked potentials) differ between typically developed children and children with phonological disorders and whether these responses are modified in children with phonological disorders after speech therapy. METHODS: The participants included 24 typically developing children (Control Group, mean age: eight years and ten months) and 23 children clinically diagnosed with phonological disorders (Study Group, mean age: eight years and eleven months). Additionally, 12 study group children were enrolled in speech therapy (Study Group 1), and 11 were not enrolled in speech therapy (Study Group 2). The subjects were submitted to the following procedures: conventional audiological, auditory brainstem response, auditory middle-latency response, and P300 assessments. All participants presented with normal hearing thresholds. The study group 1 subjects were reassessed after 12 speech therapy sessions, and the study group 2 subjects were reassessed 3 months after the initial assessment. Electrophysiological results were compared between the groups. RESULTS: Latency differences were observed between the groups (the control and study groups) regarding the auditory brainstem response and the P300 tests. Additionally, the P300 responses improved in the study group 1 children after speech therapy. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that children with phonological disorders have impaired auditory brainstem and cortical region pathways that may benefit from speech therapy. PMID:24626949

  20. A case for the involvement of phonological loop in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Romero Lauro, Leonor J.; Reis, Janine; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Cecchetto, Carlo; Papagno, Costanza

    2010-01-01

    The specific role of the phonological loop in sentence comprehension is still a matter of debate. We tested the behavioural consequences of activity disruption in left BA 40 and BA 44, key regions of the phonological loop, on language comprehension using 1 Hz rTMS. Comprehension was assessed by means of two tasks: a sentence-to-picture matching task, with sentences varying in length and syntactic complexity (Experiment 1), and a sentence verification task (Experiment 2). rTMS over left BA40 significantly reduced accuracy for syntactically complex sentences and long, but syntactically simpler sentences, while rTMS over left BA 44 significantly reduced accuracy only for syntactically complex sentences. rTMS applied over left BA40 also impaired performance on sentences in which word order was crucial. We suggest that the neural correlates of the phonological loop, left BA40 and BA44, are both involved in the comprehension of syntactically complex sentences, while only left BA40, corresponding to the short-term store, is recruited for the comprehension of long but syntactically simple sentences. Therefore, in contrast with the dominant view, we showed that sentence comprehension is a function of the phonological loop. PMID:20969883

  1. The deaf utilize phonological representations in visually presented verbal memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Okada, Rieko; Nakagawa, Jun; Takahashi, Muneyoshi; Kanaka, Noriko; Fukamauchi, Fumihiko; Watanabe, Katsumi; Namatame, Miki; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The phonological abilities of congenitally deaf individuals are inferior to those of people who can hear. However, deaf individuals can acquire spoken languages by utilizing orthography and lip-reading. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show that deaf individuals utilize phonological representations via a mnemonic process. We compared the brain activation of deaf and hearing participants while they memorized serially visually presented Japanese kana letters (Kana), finger alphabets (Finger), and Arabic letters (Arabic). Hearing participants did not know which finger alphabets corresponded to which language sounds, whereas deaf participants did. All of the participants understood the correspondence between Kana and their language sounds. None of the participants knew the correspondence between Arabic and their language sounds, so this condition was used as a baseline. We found that the left superior temporal gyrus (STG) was activated by phonological representations in the deaf group when memorizing both Kana and Finger. Additionally, the brain areas associated with phonological representations for Finger in the deaf group were the same as the areas for Kana in the hearing group. Overall, despite the fact that they are superior in visual information processing, deaf individuals utilize phonological rather than visual representations in visually presented verbal memory. PMID:25498951

  2. Spared and Impaired Spoken Discourse Processing in Schizophrenia: Effects of Local and Global Language Context

    PubMed Central

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Long, Debra L.; Luck, Steve J.; Kring, Ann M.; Ragland, J. Daniel; Ranganath, Charan; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Solomon, Marjorie; Mangun, George R.; Carter, Cameron S.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia are impaired in a broad range of cognitive functions, including impairments in the controlled maintenance of context-relevant information. In this study, we used ERPs in human subjects to examine whether impairments in the controlled maintenance of spoken discourse context in schizophrenia lead to overreliance on local associations among the meanings of individual words. Healthy controls (n = 22) and patients (n = 22) listened to short stories in which we manipulated global discourse congruence and local priming. The target word in the last sentence of each story was globally congruent or incongruent and locally associated or unassociated. ERP local association effects did not significantly differ between control participants and schizophrenia patients. However, in contrast to controls, patients only showed effects of discourse congruence when targets were primed by a word in the local context. When patients had to use discourse context in the absence of local priming, they showed impaired brain responses to the target. Our findings indicate that schizophrenia patients are impaired during discourse comprehension when demands on controlled maintenance of context are high. We further found that ERP measures of increased reliance on local priming predicted reduced social functioning, suggesting that alterations in the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension have functional consequences in the illness. PMID:24068824

  3. Phonological awareness and the use of phonological similarity in letter-sound learning.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Peter F

    2007-11-01

    The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were taught the letter sounds that were paired to these same symbols. Each letter sound corresponded to the first sound of the word that was previously associated with that symbol in the phonological similarity group, whereas such a relation was absent in the other group. In addition, measures of vocabulary, letter knowledge, and phonological awareness were administered. Phonological similarity facilitated letter-sound learning. Individual differences in phonological awareness had a strong effect on letter-sound learning even after current letter knowledge was controlled. Unexpectedly, the effects of phonological awareness and the ability to use phonological similarity on letter-sound learning were found to be independent. PMID:17692331

  4. The Phonological Store of Working Memory: Is It Phonological and Is It a Store?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dylan M.; Macken, William J.; Nicholls, Alastair P.

    2004-01-01

    The phonological store construct of the working memory model is critically evaluated. Three experiments test the prediction that the effect of irrelevant sound and the effect of phonological similarity each survive the action of articulatory suppression but only when presentation of to-be-remembered lists is auditory, not visual. No evidence was…

  5. Phonological Awareness and the Use of Phonological Similarity in Letter-Sound Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…

  6. The “Not Letting Go” phenomenon: accuracy instructions can impair behavioral and metacognitive effects of implicit learning processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Hoyndorf; Hilde Haider

    2009-01-01

    One major assumption in the field of implicit learning is that implicit learning processes directly affect performance without\\u000a further top-down control (e.g., Destrebecqz and Cleeremans 2003). In three related experiments, the authors tested the so-called\\u000a “Not Letting Go Phenomenon” (Schneider and Fisk in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 8:261–278, 1982); that is, the assumption\\u000a that accuracy instructions might impair

  7. Can a "Single Hit" Cause Limitations in Language Development? A Comparative Study of Swedish Children with Hearing Impairment and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Kristina; Sahlen, Birgitta; Maki-Torkko, Elina

    2007-01-01

    Background: Studies of language in children with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment (HI) indicate that they often have problems in phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and that they have linguistic weaknesses both in vocabulary and morphosyntax similar to children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, children with HI may be more…

  8. A Mouse with a Roof? Effects of Phonological Neighbors on Processing of Words in Sentences in a Non-Native Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Nojack, Agnes; Limbach, Maxi

    2008-01-01

    The architecture of the language processing system for speakers of more than one language remains an intriguing topic of research. A common finding is that speakers of multiple languages are slower at responding to language stimuli in their non-native language (L2) than monolingual speakers. This may simply reflect participants' unfamiliarity with…

  9. The Acquisition of Consonant Feature Sequences: Harmony, Metathesis, and Deletion Patterns in Phonological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Sharon Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines three processes affecting consonants in child speech: harmony (long-distance assimilation) involving major place features as in "coat" [kouk]; long-distance metathesis as in "cup" [p[wedge]k]; and initial consonant deletion as in "fish" [is]. These processes are unattested in adult phonology, leading to proposals for…

  10. Aspects of phonetics, phonology and morphophonology of Thok Reel 

    E-print Network

    Reid, Tatiana

    2010-11-24

    of Thok Reel phonetics, phonology and morphophonology. The description follows the topics on word and syllable structure, consonants, vowels, and tone. Each section accounts for the phonological distinctions and provides the phonetic description...

  11. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Specific Language Impairment: A New Look at an Old Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corriveau, Kathleen; Pasquini, Elizabeth; Goswami, Usha

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the sensitivity of children with specific language impairment (SLI) to amplitude-modulated and durational cues that are important for perceiving suprasegmental speech rhythm and stress patterns. Method: Sixty-three children between 7 and 11 years of age were tested, 21 of whom had a diagnosis of SLI, 21 of whom were matched for…

  12. Anticipatory Sentence Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from Eye Movements during Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Trueswell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five children with specific language impairment (SLI; age 5 years, 3 months [5;3]-8;2), 50 typically developing children (3;3-8;2), and 31 normal adults participated in three eye-tracking experiments of spoken language comprehension that were designed to investigate the use of verb information during real-time sentence comprehension in…

  13. Impairment of Verb Processing in Frontal Variant-Frontotemporal Dementia: A Dysexecutive Symptom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Silveri; B. L. Salvigni; A. Cappa; C. Della Vedova; M. Puopolo

    2003-01-01

    Object and action naming and comprehension were tested in frontotemporal dementia (frontal variant, FTD), in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and in controls. Although lower scores were obtained by all groups, we can confirm that actions were proportionally more impaired in FTD. The correlation between action naming deficit and severity of dementia was stronger in this group than in AD. The correlation

  14. Information Processing and Proactive Interference in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Eichorn, Naomi; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a deficit in inhibition control, but research isolating specific abilities is scarce. The goal of this study was to examine whether children with SLI differ from their peers in resistance to proactive interference under different conditions. Method: An…

  15. Models of phonology in the education of speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ryan; Ball, Martin J

    2003-01-01

    We discuss developments in theoretical phonology and, in particular, at the divide between theories aiming to be adequate accounts of the data, as opposed to those claiming psycholinguistic validity. It would seem that the latter might have greater utility for thye speech-language pathologist. However, we need to know the dominant models of clinical phonology, in both clinical education and practise, before we can promote other theoretical approaches. This article describes preliminary results from a questionnaire designed to discover what models of phonology are taught in institutions training speech-language pathologists in the United States. Results support anecdotal evidence that only a limited number of approaches (phonemic, distinctive features, and processes) are taught in many instances. They also demonstrate that some correspondents were unable to distinguish aspects of theoretical phonology from similar sounding (but radically different) models of intervention. This ties in with the results showing that some instructors of phonology courses have little or no background in the subject. PMID:12945616

  16. Phonological bases for L2 morphological learning.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2010-08-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g., inflate - inflation) from multiple exposures. Experiment 2 further assessed children's ability to use morphological cues for syntactic categorization through exposures to novel morphologically varying forms (e.g., lutate vs. lutant) presented in the corresponding sentential positions (noun vs. verb). The third-grade EFL learners revealed emergent sensitivity to the morphological cues in the input but failed in fully processing intraword variations. The learners with poorer L1 PA were likely to encounter difficulties in identifying morphological alternation rules and in discovering the syntactic properties of L2 morphology. In addition to L1 PA, L2 vocabulary knowledge also contributed significantly to L2 morphological learning. PMID:20091121

  17. A Tale of Two Studies on Auditory Training in Children: A Response to the Claim that ‘Discrimination Training of Phonemic Contrasts Enhances Phonological Processing in Mainstream School Children’ by Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (2005)

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Lorna F

    2014-01-01

    In a previous article, Moore, Rosenberg and Coleman (Brain and Language, 2005, 94, 72-85) reported evidence for significant improvements in phonological awareness in mainstream children following 6 h of exposure to a commercially available phoneme discrimination training programme, but not in a control group. In a follow-up study, we failed to replicate this finding, despite using an almost identical training programme (Halliday, Taylor, Millward, & Moore, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2012, 55, 168-181). This paper directly compares the methods and the results of the two studies, in an effort to explain the discrepant findings. It reports that the trained group in Moore et al. (2005) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness following training than the trained group in Halliday et al. (2012). However, the control group in Halliday et al. (2012) showed significantly greater improvements in phonological awareness than the control group in Moore et al. (2005). The paper concludes that differences in the randomization, blinding, experimenter familiarity and treatment of trained and control groups contributed to the different outcomes of the two studies. The results indicate that a plethora of factors can contribute to training effects and highlight the importance of well-designed randomized controlled trials in assessing the efficacy of a given intervention. © 2014 The Authors. Dyslexia published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24470350

  18. Phonological Patterns in Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lu-Chun; Johnson, Cynthia J.

    2010-01-01

    Adele Miccio recognized the paucity of information on the phonological development of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, and emphasized the need to apply advances in bilingual phonological research toward an appropriate phonological measure for bilingual children. In the spirit of her pioneering work, the present study…

  19. ITRI-00-36 Phonological feature based multilingual lexical description

    E-print Network

    van Deemter, Kees

    applies to words within one language, but also across different languages, allowing high level cross morphological machinery. Our proposal extends the PolyLex word model down to the level of phonological features as morphology and phonology in a single phonology-based representation. This representation is more uniform

  20. Quality of Phonological Representations: A Window into the Lexicon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessen, Mary; Heath, Steve; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John; Leitao, Suze

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is a great deal of evidence to support the robust relationship between phonological awareness and literacy development. Researchers are beginning to understand the relationship between the accuracy and distinctiveness of stored phonological representations and performance on phonological awareness tasks. However, many of the…

  1. The different P200 effects of phonological and orthographic syllable frequency in visual word recognition in Korean.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Youan; Lee, Yoonhyoung; Nam, Kichun

    2011-08-26

    The principal purpose of this study was to examine whether event-related potential (ERP) waveform amplitudes at around 200 ms are affected by first-syllable frequency. Another purpose of this study was to investigate whether the source of the amplitude at around 200 ms is phonological syllable frequency or orthographic syllable frequency. The phonological first-syllable frequency and the orthographic first-syllable frequency of Korean pseudo-words were manipulated, and ERPs were collected during a go/no-go lexical decision task. The results of this study showed that the P200 waveform is sensitive to the frequency of the first phonological syllable; specifically, pseudo-words with higher phonological first-syllable frequency produced a lower P200 amplitude than those with lower phonological first-syllable frequency. The orthographic syllable frequency did not affect the P200 waveform. The present result implies that there may be different routes by which phonological syllables and orthographic syllables are processed during the early stage of the visual word recognition process. PMID:21782003

  2. Neural activity associated with semantic versus phonological anomia treatments in aphasia.

    PubMed

    van Hees, Sophia; McMahon, Katie; Angwin, Anthony; de Zubicaray, Greig; Copland, David A

    2014-02-01

    Naming impairments in aphasia are typically targeted using semantic and/or phonologically based tasks. However, it is not known whether these treatments have different neural mechanisms. Eight participants with aphasia received twelve treatment sessions using an alternating treatment design, with fMRI scans pre- and post-treatment. Half the sessions employed Phonological Components Analysis (PCA), and half the sessions employed Semantic Feature Analysis (SFA). Pre-treatment activity in the left caudate correlated with greater immediate treatment success for items treated with SFA, whereas recruitment of the left supramarginal gyrus and right precuneus post-treatment correlated with greater immediate treatment success for items treated with PCA. The results support previous studies that have found greater treatment outcome to be associated with activity in predominantly left hemisphere regions, and suggest that different mechanisms may be engaged dependent on the type of treatment employed. PMID:24556337

  3. A self-teaching image processing and voice-recognition-based, intelligent and interactive system to educate visually impaired children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Asim; Farooq, Umar; Mahmood, Hassan; Asad, Muhammad Usman; Khan, Akrama; Atiq, Hafiz Muhammad

    2010-02-01

    A self teaching image processing and voice recognition based system is developed to educate visually impaired children, chiefly in their primary education. System comprises of a computer, a vision camera, an ear speaker and a microphone. Camera, attached with the computer system is mounted on the ceiling opposite (on the required angle) to the desk on which the book is placed. Sample images and voices in the form of instructions and commands of English, Urdu alphabets, Numeric Digits, Operators and Shapes are already stored in the database. A blind child first reads the embossed character (object) with the help of fingers than he speaks the answer, name of the character, shape etc into the microphone. With the voice command of a blind child received by the microphone, image is taken by the camera which is processed by MATLAB® program developed with the help of Image Acquisition and Image processing toolbox and generates a response or required set of instructions to child via ear speaker, resulting in self education of a visually impaired child. Speech recognition program is also developed in MATLAB® with the help of Data Acquisition and Signal Processing toolbox which records and process the command of the blind child.

  4. Linguistic Humor Comprehension of Normal and Language-Impaired Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Cecile C.

    1990-01-01

    Compared to 12 normally achieving students, 12 language-impaired high school students had significantly poorer comprehension of humor elements of riddles, jokes, and puns classified according to their phonological, morphological, or syntactic elements. Especially poor were subjects' ability to grasp the nature of multimeaning words and to segment…

  5. Narrative Skills Following Early Confirmation of Permanent Childhood Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worsfold, Sarah; Mahon, Merle; Yuen, Ho Ming; Kennedy, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare spoken language production in children with permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) whose PCHI was confirmed either early or late. Method: Audio-taped spoken narrative was assessed for syntax, phonology, morphology, and narrative in transcripts from a population-based sample of 89 children (49 males,…

  6. Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for early and automatic detection of phonological equivalence in variable speech inputs.

    PubMed

    Kharlamov, Viktor; Campbell, Kenneth; Kazanina, Nina

    2011-11-01

    Speech sounds are not always perceived in accordance with their acoustic-phonetic content. For example, an early and automatic process of perceptual repair, which ensures conformity of speech inputs to the listener's native language phonology, applies to individual input segments that do not exist in the native inventory or to sound sequences that are illicit according to the native phonotactic restrictions on sound co-occurrences. The present study with Russian and Canadian English speakers shows that listeners may perceive phonetically distinct and licit sound sequences as equivalent when the native language system provides robust evidence for mapping multiple phonetic forms onto a single phonological representation. In Russian, due to an optional but productive t-deletion process that affects /stn/ clusters, the surface forms [sn] and [stn] may be phonologically equivalent and map to a single phonological form /stn/. In contrast, [sn] and [stn] clusters are usually phonologically distinct in (Canadian) English. Behavioral data from identification and discrimination tasks indicated that [sn] and [stn] clusters were more confusable for Russian than for English speakers. The EEG experiment employed an oddball paradigm with nonwords [asna] and [astna] used as the standard and deviant stimuli. A reliable mismatch negativity response was elicited approximately 100 msec postchange in the English group but not in the Russian group. These findings point to a perceptual repair mechanism that is engaged automatically at a prelexical level to ensure immediate encoding of speech inputs in phonological terms, which in turn enables efficient access to the meaning of a spoken utterance. PMID:21254800

  7. The Role of Phonology and Phonologically Related Skills in Reading Instruction for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ye; Trezek, Beverly J.; Luckner, John L.; Paul, Peter V.

    2008-01-01

    The article challenges educators to rethink reading instruction practices for students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The authors begin with a discussion of the role of phonology in reading, then summarize the evidence of phonological coding among skilled deaf readers and investigate alternative routes for acquiring phonologically related skills…

  8. Phonological manipulation between speech perception and production activates a parieto-frontal circuit.

    PubMed

    Peschke, Claudia; Ziegler, Wolfram; Eisenberger, Juliane; Baumgaertner, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Repetition has been shown to activate the so-called 'dorsal stream', a network of temporo-parieto-frontal areas subserving the mapping of acoustic speech input onto articulatory-motor representations. Among these areas, a region in the posterior Sylvian fissure at the temporo-parietal boundary (also called 'area Spt') has been suggested to play a central role particularly with increasing computational demands on phonological processing. Most of the relevant evidence stems from tasks requiring metalinguistic processing. To date, the relevance of area Spt in natural phonological operations based on implicit linguistic knowledge has not yet been investigated. We examined two types of phonological processes assumed to be lateralized differently, i.e., the processing of syllabic stress versus subsyllabic segmental processing. In two ways, subjects modified an auditorily presented pseudoword before reproducing it overtly: (a) by a prosodic manipulation involving a stress shift across syllable boundaries, (b) by a segmental manipulation involving a vowel substitution. Manipulation per se was expected to engage area Spt. Segmental compared to prosodic processing was expected to reveal predominantly left lateralized activation, while prosodic compared to segmental processing was expected to result in bilateral or right-lateralized activation. Contrary to expectation, activation in area Spt did not vary with increased phonological processing demand. Instead, area Spt was engaged regardless of whether subjects simply repeated a pseudoword or performed a phonological manipulation before reproduction. However, for both segmental and prosodic stimuli, reproduction after manipulation (compared to repetition) activated the left intraparietal sulcus and left inferior frontal cortex. We propose that these parieto-frontal regions are recruited when the task requires phonological manipulation over and above the more automated transfer of auditory into articulatory verbal codes, which appears to involve area Spt. When directly contrasted with prosodic manipulation, segmental manipulation resulted in increased activation predominantly in left inferior frontal areas. This may be due to an increased demand on phonological sequencing operations at the subsyllabic phoneme level. Contrasted with segmental manipulations, prosodic manipulation did not result in increased activation, which may be due to a lower degree of morphosyntactic and to syllable-level processing. PMID:21787870

  9. Bridging the gap between neurocognitive processing theory and performance validity assessment among the cognitively impaired: a review and methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Angela; Weinborn, Michael; Maybery, Murray

    2014-10-01

    Bigler (2012) and Larrabee (2012) recently addressed the state of the science surrounding performance validity tests (PVTs) in a dialogue highlighting evidence for the valid and increased use of PVTs, but also for unresolved problems. Specifically, Bigler criticized the lack of guidance from neurocognitive processing theory in the PVT literature. For example, individual PVTs have applied the simultaneous forced-choice methodology using a variety of test characteristics (e.g., word vs. picture stimuli) with known neurocognitive processing implications (e.g., the "picture superiority effect"). However, the influence of such variations on classification accuracy has been inadequately evaluated, particularly among cognitively impaired individuals. The current review places the PVT literature in the context of neurocognitive processing theory, and identifies potential methodological factors to account for the significant variability we identified in classification accuracy across current PVTs. We subsequently evaluated the utility of a well-known cognitive manipulation to provide a Clinical Analogue Methodology (CAM), that is, to alter the PVT performance of healthy individuals to be similar to that of a cognitively impaired group. Initial support was found, suggesting the CAM may be useful alongside other approaches (analogue malingering methodology) for the systematic evaluation of PVTs, particularly the influence of specific neurocognitive processing components on performance. PMID:25383483

  10. Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-Term Memory--An Aggregate Analysis of Lesion and fMRI Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways,…

  11. Physiologic discrimination of stop consonants relates to phonological skills in pre-readers: a biomarker for subsequent reading ability?†

    PubMed Central

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Reading development builds upon the accurate representation of the phonological structure of spoken language. This representation and its neural foundations have been studied extensively with respect to reading due to pervasive performance deficits on basic phonological tasks observed in children with dyslexia. The subcortical auditory system – a site of intersection for sensory and cognitive input – is exquisitely tuned to code fine timing differences between phonemes, and so likely plays a foundational role in the development of phonological processing and, eventually, reading. This temporal coding of speech varies systematically with reading ability in school age children. Little is known, however, about subcortical speech representation in pre-school age children. We measured auditory brainstem responses to the stop consonants [ba] and [ga] in a cohort of 4-year-old children and assessed their phonological skills. In a typical auditory system, brainstem responses to [ba] and [ga] are out of phase (i.e., differ in time) due to formant frequency differences in the consonant-vowel transitions of the stimuli. We found that children who performed worst on the phonological awareness task insufficiently code this difference, revealing a physiologic link between early phonological skills and the neural representation of speech. We discuss this finding in light of existing theories of the role of the auditory system in developmental dyslexia, and argue for a systems-level perspective for understanding the importance of precise temporal coding for learning to read. PMID:24399956

  12. Graded Semantic and Phonological Similarity Effects in Priming: Evidence for a Distributed Connectionist Approach to Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonnerman, Laura M.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Andersen, Elaine S.

    2007-01-01

    A considerable body of empirical and theoretical research suggests that morphological structure governs the representation of words in memory and that many words are decomposed into morphological components in processing. The authors investigated an alternative approach in which morphology arises from the interaction of semantic and phonological

  13. Modeling the Length Effect: Specifying the Relation with Visual and Phonological Correlates of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F.; Haentjens-van Meeteren, Marleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning readers' reading latencies increase as words become longer. This length effect is believed to be a marker of a serial reading process. We examined the effects of visual and phonological skills on the length effect. Participants were 184 second-grade children who read 3- to 5-letter words and nonwords. Results indicated that reading…

  14. Phonological Effects in Handwriting Production : Evidence from the Implicit Priming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afonso, Olivia; Alvarez, Carlos J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, we report 3 experiments using the odd-man-out variant of the implicit priming paradigm, aimed at determining the role played by phonological information during the handwriting process. Participants were asked to write a small set of words learned in response to prompts. Within each block, response words could share initial…

  15. Event-Related Brain Potentials Elicited during Word Recognition by Adult Good and Poor Phonological Decoders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Frances Heritage; Kaine, Alison; Kirby, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive processing of lexical and sub-lexical stimuli was compared for good and poor adult phonological decoders. Sixteen good decoders and 16 poor decoders, average age 19 years, silently read 150 randomly computer presented sentences ending in incongruous regular, irregular, or nonwords and 100 congruent filler sentences.…

  16. The Roles of Semantic and Phonological Information in Word Production: Evidence from Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennison, Shelia M.; Fernandez, Elaine C.; Bowers, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    The research investigated the roles of semantic and phonological processing in word production. Spanish-English bilingual individuals produced English target words when cued with definitions that were also written in English. When the correct word was not produced, a secondary task was performed in which participants rated the ease of…

  17. The Ontogeny of Phonological Categories and the Primacy of Lexical Learning in Linguistic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Mary E.; Edwards, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Presents evidence from studies on adults' language processing and children's language acquisition that the lexicon is at the core of grammatical generalizations at several levels of representation. Proposes that phonological acquisition might provide the bootstrapping into grammatical generalization in general. Concludes that age-appropriate…

  18. Native Language Phonological Skills in Low-Proficiency Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borodkin, Katy; Faust, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the link between low second language performance and difficulties with native language phonological processing. Participants were native Hebrew speakers, 19-31 years of age, who learned English as a second language in a school setting. Individuals with dyslexia performed below high-proficiency second language learners on…

  19. Phonological and Sensory Short-Term Memory Are Correlates and Both Affected in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Virsu, Veijo; Oinonen, Suvi; Sandbacka, Mirja; Salakari, Anita; Service, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether poor short-term memory (STM) in developmental dyslexia affects the processing of sensory stimulus sequences in addition to phonological material. STM for brief binary non-verbal stimuli (light flashes, tone bursts, finger touches, and their crossmodal combinations) was studied in 20 Finnish adults with dyslexia and 24…

  20. Multisensory Spatial Attention Deficits Are Predictive of Phonological Decoding Skills in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Ruffino, Milena; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cattaneo, Carmen; Galli, Raffaella; Molteni, Massimo; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Although the dominant approach posits that developmental dyslexia arises from deficits in systems that are exclusively linguistic in nature (i.e., phonological deficit theory), dyslexics show a variety of lower level deficits in sensory and attentional processing. Although their link to the reading disorder remains contentious, recent empirical…

  1. Levels of Phonology Related to Reading and Writing in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Campo, Roxana; Buchanan, William R.; Abbott, Robert D.; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2015-01-01

    The relationships of different levels of phonological processing (sounds in heard and spoken words for whole words, syllables, phonemes, and rimes) to multi-leveled functional reading or writing systems were studied. Participants in this cross-sectional study were students in fourth-grade (n = 119, mean age 116.5 months) and sixth-grade (n = 105,…

  2. Cortical Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Underlying Phonological Target Detection in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Edward F.; Edwards, Erik; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Fogelson, Noa; Dalal, Sarang S.; Canolty, Ryan T.; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Barbaro, Nicholas M.; Knight, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Selective processing of task-relevant stimuli is critical for goal-directed behavior. We used electrocorticography to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical activation during a simple phonological target detection task, in which subjects press a button when a prespecified target syllable sound is heard. Simultaneous surface potential…

  3. Decoding Ability Makes Waves in Reading: Deficient Interactions between Attention and Phonological Analysis in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savill, Nicola J.; Thierry, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Whilst there is general consensus that phonological processing is deficient in developmental dyslexia, recent research also implicates visuo-attentional contributions. Capitalising on the P3a wave of event-related potentials as an index of attentional capture, we tested dyslexic and normal readers on a novel variant of a visual oddball task to…

  4. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence for Early and Automatic Detection of Phonological Equivalence in Variable Speech Inputs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kharlamov, Viktor; Campbell, Kenneth; Kazanina, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Speech sounds are not always perceived in accordance with their acoustic-phonetic content. For example, an early and automatic process of perceptual repair, which ensures conformity of speech inputs to the listener's native language phonology, applies to individual input segments that do not exist in the native inventory or to sound sequences that…

  5. Phonological Planning during Sentence Production: Beyond the Verb

    PubMed Central

    Schnur, Tatiana T.

    2011-01-01

    The current study addresses the extent of phonological planning during spontaneous sentence production. Previous work shows that at articulation, phonological encoding occurs for entire phrases, but encoding beyond the initial phrase may be due to the syntactic relevance of the verb in planning the utterance. I conducted three experiments to investigate whether phonological planning crosses multiple grammatical phrase boundaries (as defined by the number of lexical heads of phrase) within a single phonological phrase. Using the picture–word interference paradigm, I found in two separate experiments a significant phonological facilitation effect to both the verb and noun of sentences like “He opens the gate.” I also altered the frequency of the direct object and found longer utterance initiation times for sentences ending with a low-frequency vs. high-frequency object offering further support that the direct object was phonologically encoded at the time of utterance initiation. That phonological information for post-verbal elements was activated suggests that the grammatical importance of the verb does not restrict the extent of phonological planning. These results suggest that the phonological phrase is unit of planning, where all elements within a phonological phrase are encoded before articulation. Thus, consistent with other action sequencing behavior, there is significant phonological planning ahead in sentence production. PMID:22069396

  6. Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing

    E-print Network

    Lee, Su-Yeon

    2011-08-31

    1, three groups of children participated: English monolinguals, Korean monolinguals, and Korean-English bilinguals. A same-different task with nonword stimuli was used. The nonwords were matched in phonotactic probability across the two languages (i.e...

  7. Research Note Processing of Phonological Variation

    E-print Network

    Allen, Jont

    intelligibility, or standardized language scores (for recent reviews see Eisenberg 2007; Moeller, Tomblin (but see Kishon-Rabin et al., 2002, for a different acquisition order in Hebrew). Eisenberg, Martinez

  8. Differential impairment of psychomotor efficiency and processing speed in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarbjit V. Jassal; Janet Roscoe; Denise LeBlanc; Gerald M. Devins; Sean Rourke

    2008-01-01

    Background  Cognitive impairment has been documented in patients with chronic kidney disease. In a recent paper, improvements in cognitive\\u000a function were seen in hemodialysis (HD) patients switched from conventional HD to nocturnal HD, in two of three domains of\\u000a cognitive function. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that functional decline may occur differentially in some domains\\u000a more than others.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Using a

  9. Lexical learning and lexical processing in children with developmental language impairments

    PubMed Central

    Nation, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Lexical skills are a crucial component of language comprehension and production. This paper reviews evidence for lexical-level deficits in children and young people with developmental language impairment (LI). Across a range of tasks, LI is associated with reduced vocabulary knowledge in terms of both breadth and depth and difficulty with learning and retaining new words; evidence is emerging from on-line tasks to suggest that low levels of language skill are associated with differences in lexical competition in spoken word recognition. The role of lexical deficits in understanding the nature of LI is also discussed. PMID:24324231

  10. Brain and behavior in children with phonological delays : phonological, lexical, and sensory system interactions

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Alycia Erin

    2009-01-01

    of their treated sound in high frequency words, as compareda given sound within the context of high frequency words washigh-frequency words induced phonological change in both treated and untreated sounds (in untreated words), while low-frequency

  11. Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

  12. Lead-Induced Impairments in the Neural Processes Related to Working Memory Function

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Seong-Uk; Park, Jang Woo; Kim, Yang-Tae; Ryeom, Hun-Kyu; Lee, Jongmin; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Suk Hwan; Park, Sin-Jae; Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Ham, Jung-O; Kim, Yangho; Chang, Yongmin

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well known that lead exposure induces neurotoxic effects, which can result in a variety of neurocognitive dysfunction. Especially, occupational lead exposures in adults are associated with decreases in cognitive performance including working memory. Despite recent advances in human neuroimaging techniques, the neural correlates of lead-exposed cognitive impairment remain unclear. Therefore, this study was aimed to compare the neural activations in relation to working memory function between the lead-exposed subjects and healthy controls. Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-one lead-exposed subjects and 34 healthy subjects performed an n-back memory task during MRI scan. We performed fMRI using the 1-back and 2-back memory tasks differing in cognitive demand. Functional MRI data were analyzed using within- and between-group analysis. We found that the lead-exposed subjects showed poorer working memory performance during high memory loading task than the healthy subjects. In addition, between-group analyses revealed that the lead-exposed subjects showed reduced activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, pre supplementary motor areas, and inferior parietal cortex. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that functional abnormalities in the frontoparietal working memory network might contribute to impairments in maintenance and manipulation of working memory in the lead-exposed subjects. PMID:25141213

  13. Glides and Phonological Change in Mombasan Swahili.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, John

    1991-01-01

    A study of the pronunciation of an adult male Swahili speaker, a native and long-term resident of Mombasa Old Town, supplemented with notes on other adult speakers, suggests a new account of glides and phonological change in this variation of the language. The asymmetrical distribution of the two glide types (palatal and labiovelar) is analyzed…

  14. Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Yunju

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…

  15. A Structural Account of Phonological Paraphasias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a partial theory of phonological paraphasias which has some cross-syndrome and cross-linguistic validity. It is based on the distinction between content and structural units and emphasizes the role of the latter. The notion of structure holds the key to an understanding of the differences among the following…

  16. A Structural Account of Phonological Paraphasias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, T.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a partial theory of phonological paraphasias which has some cross-syndrome and cross-linguistic validity. It is based on the distinction between content and structural units and emphasizes the role of the latter. The notion of structure holds the key to an understanding of the differences among the following…

  17. Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

  18. Phonological Skills and Writing of Presyllabic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Cristina; Alves-Martins, Margarida

    2002-01-01

    Identifies causal relationships between the development of phonological abilities and progress in knowledge about writing in 90 middle-class Portuguese preschool children. Discusses how two experimental intervention programs proved equivalent in terms of the conceptual evolution they triggered, to the extent that the children in both experimental…

  19. Perspectives on Interlanguage Phonetics and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroy, Rafael, Ed.; Gutierrez, Francisco, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this special issue include the following: "Allophonic Splits in L2 Phonology: The Questions of Learnability" (Fred R. Eckman, Abdullah Elreyes, Gregory K. Iverson); "Native Language Influence in Learners' Assessment of English Focus" (M. L. Garcia Lecumberri); "Obstruent Voicing in English and Polish. A Pedagogical Perspective" (Wiktor…

  20. Phonological Precedence in Dyslexia: A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Schneider-Zioga

    2012-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A very frequent reading error of the case is to misread

  1. Rational Transductions for Phonetic Conversion and Phonology

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Rational Transductions for Phonetic Conversion and Phonology Eric Laporte Institut Gaspard-Monge France laporte@univ-mlv.fr August 1995 Abstract Phonetic conversion, and other conversion problems related to phonetics, can be performed by nite-state tools. We present a nite-state conversion system, Bi

  2. The Phonology and Phonetics of Tone Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramadoss, Deepti

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…

  3. Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubrecht, August Weston

    Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

  4. Grammatical and Phonological Influences on Word Order

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Niels; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    During the grammatical encoding of spoken multiword utterances, various kinds of information must be used to determine the order of words. For example, whereas in adjective-noun utterances like “red car”, word order can be determined on the basis of the word's grammatical class information, in noun-noun utterances like “…by car, bus, or…”, word order cannot be determined on the basis of a word's grammatical class information. We investigated whether a word's phonological properties play a role in grammatical encoding. In four experiments participants produced multiword utterances in which the words' onset phonology was manipulated. Phonological-onset relatedness yielded inhibitory effects in noun-noun utterances, no effects in noun-adjective utterances, and facilitatory effects in adjective-noun, noun-verb, and adjective-adjective-noun utterances. These results cannot be explained by differences in the stimulus displays used to elicit the utterances and suggest that grammatical encoding is sensitive to the phonological properties of words. PMID:19694981

  5. Dysregulated Striatal Neuronal Processing and Impaired Motor Behavior in Mice Lacking Huntingtin Interacting Protein 14 (HIP14)

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Sánchez, Ana María; Barton, Scott J.; Burroughs, Courtney L.; Doyle, Amanda R.; Rebec, George V.

    2013-01-01

    Palmitoyl acyl transferases (PATs) play a critical role in protein trafficking and function. Huntingtin interacting protein 14 (HIP14) is a PAT that acts on proteins associated with neuronal transmission, suggesting that deficient protein palmitoylation by HIP14, which occurs in the YAC128 model of Huntington’s disease (HD), might have deleterious effects on neurobehavioral processing. HIP14 knockout mice show biochemical and neuropathological changes in the striatum, a forebrain region affected by HD that guides behavioral choice and motor flexibility. Thus, we evaluated the performance of these mice in two tests of motor ability: nest-building and plus maze turning behavior. Relative to wild-type controls, HIP14 knockout mice show impaired nest building and decreased turning in the plus maze. When we recorded the activity of striatal neurons during plus-maze performance, we found faster firing rates and dysregulated spike bursting in HIP14 knockouts compared to wild-type. There was also less correlated firing between simultaneously recorded neuronal pairs in the HIP14 knockouts. Overall, our results indicate that HIP14 is critically involved in behavioral modulation of striatal processing. In the absence of HIP14, striatal neurons become dysfunctional, leading to impaired motor behavior. PMID:24376823

  6. Chemical processing does not always impair heterogeneous ice nucleation of mineral dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Ryan C.; Miñambres, Lorena; DeMott, Paul J.; Prenni, Anthony J.; Carrico, Christian M.; Levin, Ezra J. T.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.

    2010-12-01

    Exposing Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles to nitric acid vapor in an aerosol flow tube impaired subsequent deposition ice nucleation below water-saturation, but promoted condensation/immersion-freezing on approach to water saturation and had no apparent impact on freezing of activated droplets above water saturation. The fraction of particles capable of nucleating ice at -30°C was determined using a continuous flow diffusion chamber. Exposure to HNO3 at 26% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) reduced the fraction of particles subsequently nucleating ice to below our quantification limit in the deposition nucleation regime below 97% RHw, while leading to a sharper step-wise increase in ice nucleation between 97-100% RHw compared to unreacted dust. These observations contrast with the effect of concentrated sulfuric acid condensation, which in most cases has been reported to reduce ice nucleation of ATD and other dusts both below and above water saturation.

  7. Losing the sound of concepts: damage to auditory association cortex impairs the processing of sound-related concepts.

    PubMed

    Trumpp, Natalie M; Kliese, Daniel; Hoenig, Klaus; Haarmeier, Thomas; Kiefer, Markus

    2013-02-01

    Conceptual knowledge is classically supposed to be abstract and represented in an amodal unitary system, distinct from the sensory and motor brain systems. A more recent embodiment view of conceptual knowledge, however, proposes that concepts are grounded in distributed modality-specific brain areas which typically process sensory or action-related object information. Recent neuroimaging evidence suggested the significance of left auditory association cortex encompassing posterior superior and middle temporal gyrus in coding conceptual sound features of everyday objects. However, a causal role of this region in processing conceptual sound information has yet to be established. Here we had the unique chance to investigate a patient, JR, with a focal lesion in left posterior superior and middle temporal gyrus. To test the necessity of this region in conceptual and perceptual processing of sound information we administered four different experimental tasks to JR: Visual word recognition, category fluency, sound recognition and voice classification. Compared with a matched control group, patient JR was consistently impaired in conceptual processing of sound-related everyday objects (e.g., "bell"), while performance for non-sound-related everyday objects (e.g., "armchair"), animals, whether they typically produce sounds (e.g., "frog") or not (e.g., "tortoise"), and musical instruments (e.g., "guitar") was intact. An analogous deficit pattern in JR was also obtained for perceptual recognition of the corresponding sounds. Hence, damage to left auditory association cortex specifically impairs perceptual and conceptual processing of sounds from everyday objects. In support of modality-specific theories, these findings strongly evidence the necessity of auditory association cortex in coding sound-related conceptual information. PMID:22405961

  8. Phonological Evidence for Coordinate and Compound Bilingualism. Papers in Linguistics, 1974-1977: A Collection of M.A. Papers from Students in the Linguistics Department of Northeastern Illinois University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sienkiewicz, Linda

    The phonological switching processes of 16 bilingual (Spanish-English) adults were observed to provide phonological evidence for the coordinate/compound theory of bilingualism. Each subject was categorized as a coordinate or compound based on responses to a questionnaire. Subjects were recorded reading a mixed list of Spanish and English words.…

  9. Basic Auditory Processing and Developmental Dyslexia in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Huss, Martina; Hamalainen, Jarmo A.; Goswami, Usha

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between basic auditory processing of sound rise time, frequency, duration and intensity, phonological skills (onset-rime and tone awareness, sound blending, RAN, and phonological memory) and reading disability in Chinese. A series of psychometric, literacy, phonological, auditory, and character…

  10. Attentional Blink Is Hierarchically Modulated by Phonological, Morphological, Semantic and Lexical Connections between Two Chinese Characters

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hong-Wen; Jin, Kai-Bin; Li, Chao-Yi; Yan, Hong-Mei

    2014-01-01

    The ability to identify the second of two targets (T2) is impaired if that target is presented less than ?500 ms after the first (T1). This transient deficit is known as attentional blink (AB). Previous studies have suggested that the magnitude of the AB effect can be modulated by manipulating the allocation of attentional resources to T1 or T2. However, few experiments have used Chinese characters and words to explore this phenomenon. The existence of lexical, semantic, phonological and morphological connections between Chinese characters has been well established, and understanding these connections may improve our knowledge of reading Chinese. In this study, we employed varying connections between T1 and T2 and examined how these connections modulate the AB effect. We found that the strongest AB was observed when the two Chinese characters were completely unrelated, while the AB was reduced when T1 and T2 were phonologically, orthographically or semantically related and was almost completely eliminated when T1 and T2 were united in a lexical phrase. The order of activation between Chinese characters was identified as follows: (a) lexical phrases, (b) semantic connection, (c) morphological connection, (d) phonological connection and (e) unrelated words. PMID:25101959

  11. The Rhymes that the Reader Perused Confused the Meaning: Phonological Effects during On-line Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2011-01-01

    Research on written language comprehension has generally assumed that the phonological properties of a word have little effect on sentence comprehension beyond the processes of word recognition. Two experiments investigated this assumption. Participants silently read relative clauses in which two pairs of words either did or did not have a high degree of phonological overlap. Participants were slower reading and less accurate comprehending the overlap sentences compared to the non-overlapping controls, even though sentences were matched for plausibility and differed by only two words across overlap conditions. A comparison across experiments showed that the overlap effects were larger in the more difficult object relative than in subject relative sentences. The reading patterns showed that phonological representations affect not only memory for recently encountered sentences but also the developing sentence interpretation during on-line processing. Implications for theories of sentence processing and memory are discussed. PMID:21743771

  12. fMRI evidence for the interaction between orthography and phonology in reading Chinese compound words

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Jiayu; Yu, Hongbo; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-01-01

    Compound words make up a major part of modern Chinese vocabulary. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that access to lexical semantics of compound words is driven by the interaction between orthographic and phonological information. However, little is known about the neural underpinnings of compound word processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we asked participants to perform lexical decisions to pseudohomophones, which were constructed by replacing one or both constituents of two-character compound words with orthographically dissimilar homophonic characters. Mixed pseudohomophones, which shared the first constituent with the base words, were more difficult to reject than non-pseudohomophone non-words. This effect was accompanied by the increased activation of bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and left angular gyrus. The pure pseudohomophones, which shared no constituent with their base words, were rejected as quickly as non-word controls and did not elicit any significant neural activation. The effective connectivity of a phonological pathway from left IPL to left IFG was enhanced for the mixed pseudohomophones but not for pure pseudohomophones. These findings demonstrated that phonological activation alone, as in the case of the pure pseudohomophones, is not sufficient to drive access to lexical representations of compound words, and that orthographic information interacts with phonology, playing a gating role in the recognition of Chinese compound words. PMID:24319418

  13. Are coffee and toffee served in a cup? Ortho-phonologically mediated associative priming.

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel; Perea, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    We report three masked associative priming experiments with the lexical decision task that explore whether the initial activation flow of a visually presented word activates the semantic representations of that word's orthographic/phonological neighbours. The predictions of cascades and serial/modular models of lexical processing differ widely in this respect. Using a masked priming paradigm (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA = 50 ms), words preceded by ortho-phonologically mediated associated "neighbours" (oveja-MIEL, the Spanish for sheep-HONEY; note that oveja is a phonological neighbour of abeja, the Spanish for bee) were recognized more rapidly than words preceded by an unrelated word prime (Experiments 1 and 3). Furthermore, the magnitude of the ortho-phonologically mediated priming effect (oveja-MIEL) was similar to the magnitude of the associative priming effect (abeja-MIEL). With visible primes and a 250-ms SOA, only the directly associated words showed a priming effect (Experiment 2). These findings pose some problems for a modular account and are more easily interpreted in terms of cascaded models. PMID:19031156

  14. Reading acquisition reorganizes the phonological awareness network only in alphabetic writing systems.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Christine; Cao, Fan; Pedroarena-Leal, Nicole; McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R

    2013-12-01

    It is unknown how experience with different types of orthographies influences the neural basis of oral language processing. In order to determine the effects of alphabetic and nonalphabetic writing systems, the current study examined the influence of learning to read on oral language in English and Chinese speakers. Children (8-12 years olds) and adults made rhyming judgments to pairs of spoken words during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Developmental increases were seen only for English speakers in the left hemisphere phonological network (superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus). The increase in the STG was more pronounced for words with conflicting orthography (e.g. pint-mint; jazz-has) even though access to orthography was irrelevant to the task. Moreover, higher reading skill was correlated with greater activation in the STG only for English speaking children. The effects suggest that learning to read reorganizes the phonological awareness network only for alphabetic and not logographic writing systems because of differences in the principles for mapping between orthographic and phonological representations. The reorganization of the auditory cortex may result in better phonological awareness skills in alphabetic readers. PMID:22815229

  15. The neural bases of the pseudohomophone effect: Phonological constraints on lexico-semantic access in reading.

    PubMed

    Braun, M; Hutzler, F; Münte, T F; Rotte, M; Dambacher, M; Richlan, F; Jacobs, A M

    2015-06-01

    We investigated phonological processing in normal readers to answer the question to what extent phonological recoding is active during silent reading and if or how it guides lexico-semantic access. We addressed this issue by looking at pseudohomophone and baseword frequency effects in lexical decisions with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed greater activation in response to pseudohomophones than for well-controlled pseudowords in the left inferior/superior frontal and middle temporal cortex, left insula, and left superior parietal lobule. Furthermore, we observed a baseword frequency effect for pseudohomophones (e.g., FEAL) but not for pseudowords (e.g., FEEP). This baseword frequency effect was qualified by activation differences in bilateral angular and left supramarginal, and bilateral middle temporal gyri for pseudohomophones with low- compared to high-frequency basewords. We propose that lexical decisions to pseudohomophones involves phonology-driven lexico-semantic activation of their basewords and that this is converging neuroimaging evidence for automatically activated phonological representations during silent reading in experienced readers. PMID:25805695

  16. Neural correlates of mapping from phonology to orthography in children performing an auditory spelling task

    PubMed Central

    Booth, James R.; Cho, Soojin; Burman, Douglas D.; Bitan, Tali

    2009-01-01

    Age-related differences (9- to 15-year-olds) in the neural correlates of mapping from phonology to orthography were examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were asked to determine if two spoken words had the same spelling for the rime (corresponding letters after the first consonant or consonant cluster). Some of the word pairs had conflicting orthography and phonology (e.g. jazz-has, pint-mint) whereas other pairs had non-conflicting information (e.g. press-list, gate-hate) (see Table 1). There were age-related increases in activation for lexical processing (across conflicting and non-conflicting conditions) in left inferior parietal lobule, suggesting that older children have a more elaborated system for mapping between phonology and orthography that includes connections at different grain sizes (e.g. phonemes, onset-rimes, syllables). In addition, we found that the conflicting conditions had lower accuracy, slower reaction time and greater activation in left inferior frontal gyrus as compared to non-conflicting conditions. Higher accuracy was also correlated with greater activation in left inferior frontal gyrus for the most difficult conflicting condition (e.g. jazz-has). The finding of both a conflict effect and a correlation with accuracy in left inferior frontal gyrus suggests that this region may be involved in resolving the conflict between orthographic and phonological representations. PMID:17552934

  17. Sustained Attention is Associated with Error Processing Impairment: Evidence from Mental Fatigue Study in Four-Choice Reaction Time Task.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yi; Ma, Feng; Lv, Yixuan; Cai, Gui; Teng, Peng; Xu, FengGang; Chen, Shanguang

    2015-01-01

    Attention is important in error processing. Few studies have examined the link between sustained attention and error processing. In this study, we examined how error-related negativity (ERN) of a four-choice reaction time task was reduced in the mental fatigue condition and investigated the role of sustained attention in error processing. Forty-one recruited participants were divided into two groups. In the fatigue experiment group, 20 subjects performed a fatigue experiment and an additional continuous psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) for 1 h. In the normal experiment group, 21 subjects only performed the normal experimental procedures without the PVT test. Fatigue and sustained attention states were assessed with a questionnaire. Event-related potential results showed that ERN (p < 0.005) and peak (p < 0.05) mean amplitudes decreased in the fatigue experiment. ERN amplitudes were significantly associated with the attention and fatigue states in electrodes Fz, FC1, Cz, and FC2. These findings indicated that sustained attention was related to error processing and that decreased attention is likely the cause of error processing impairment. PMID:25756780

  18. Sustained Attention is Associated with Error Processing Impairment: Evidence from Mental Fatigue Study in Four-Choice Reaction Time Task

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yi; Ma, Feng; Lv, Yixuan; Cai, Gui; Teng, Peng; Xu, FengGang; Chen, Shanguang

    2015-01-01

    Attention is important in error processing. Few studies have examined the link between sustained attention and error processing. In this study, we examined how error-related negativity (ERN) of a four-choice reaction time task was reduced in the mental fatigue condition and investigated the role of sustained attention in error processing. Forty-one recruited participants were divided into two groups. In the fatigue experiment group, 20 subjects performed a fatigue experiment and an additional continuous psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) for 1 h. In the normal experiment group, 21 subjects only performed the normal experimental procedures without the PVT test. Fatigue and sustained attention states were assessed with a questionnaire. Event-related potential results showed that ERN (p < 0.005) and peak (p < 0.05) mean amplitudes decreased in the fatigue experiment. ERN amplitudes were significantly associated with the attention and fatigue states in electrodes Fz, FC1, Cz, and FC2. These findings indicated that sustained attention was related to error processing and that decreased attention is likely the cause of error processing impairment. PMID:25756780

  19. Temporal Processing Impairment in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jia; Yang, Bin-rang; Zou, Xiao-bing; Jing, Jin; Pen, Gang; McAlonan, Grainne M.; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate temporal processing in Chinese children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) using time production, time reproduction paradigm and duration discrimination tasks. A battery of tests specifically designed to measure temporal processing was administered to 94 children with ADHD and 100…

  20. Inhibitory control of memory in normal ageing: Dissociation between impaired intentional and preserved unintentional processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabienne Collette; Sophie Germain; Michaël Hogge; Martial Van der Linden

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of elderly and young participants on a series of memory tasks involving either intentional or unintentional inhibitory control of memory content. Intentional inhibition processes in working and episodic memory were explored with directed forgetting tasks and in semantic memory with the Hayling task. Unintentional inhibitory processes in working memory, long-term

  1. The Complexities of Complex Memory Span: Storage and Processing Deficits in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the verbal and visuospatial processing and storage skills of children with SLI and typically developing children. Fourteen school-age children with SLI, and two groups of typically developing children matched either for age or language abilities, completed measures of processing speed and storage capacity, and a set of…

  2. Trichotomous Processes in Early Memory Development, Aging, and Neurocognitive Impairment: A Unified Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Howe, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most extensively investigated topics in the adult memory literature, dual memory processes, has had virtually no impact on the study of early memory development. The authors remove the key obstacles to such research by formulating a trichotomous theory of recall that combines the traditional dual processes of recollection and…

  3. Impaired perceptual processing and conceptual cognition in patients with anxiety disorders: a pilot study with the binocular depth inversion paradigm.

    PubMed

    Passie, Torsten; Schneider, Udo; Borsutzky, Mathias; Breyer, Roger; Emrich, Hinderk M; Bandelow, Borwin; Schmid-Ott, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The binocular depth inversion test (BDIT) measures a common illusion of visual perception whereby implausible objects are seen as normal, e.g., a hollow face is perceived as a normal, convex face. Such inversion is frequent, especially for objects with a high degree of familiarity. Under normal conditions, cognitive factors apparently override the binocular disparity cues of stereopsis. This internal mechanism of "censorship" of perception, which balances "top-down" and "bottom-up" processes of perception to come to a cognitive coherence, which is congruent to previous experience and concepts, appears to be disturbed in (pro-)psychotic states. The BDIT has been shown to be a sensitive measure of impaired higher visual processing and conceptual cognition common to conditions including schizophrenia, cannabinoid-intoxication, and sleep deprivation but not depression. In this pilot study, we tested the performance of patients with anxiety disorders (ICD-10 F40 and F41) compared to matched controls using the BDIT paradigm. Anxiety patients scored significantly higher on the BDIT than controls, in a range comparable to propsychotic conditions. The findings suggest that anxiety patients could have abnormalities in central perceptual processing, top-down processing (conceptual cognition), and reality testing similar to (pro-)psychotic conditions. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to therapeutic interventions with anxiety disorders. PMID:23186162

  4. Obesity Induces Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Impairs Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) Post-translational Processing*

    PubMed Central

    Çakir, Isin; Cyr, Nicole E.; Perello, Mario; Litvinov, Bogdan Patedakis; Romero, Amparo; Stuart, Ronald C.; Nillni, Eduardo A.

    2013-01-01

    It was shown previously that abnormal prohormone processing or inactive proconverting enzymes that are responsible for this processing cause profound obesity. Our laboratory demonstrated earlier that in the diet-induced obesity (DIO) state, the appetite-suppressing neuropeptide ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH) is reduced, yet the mRNA of its precursor protein proopiomelanocortin (POMC) remained unaltered. It was also shown that the DIO condition promotes the development of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and leptin resistance. In the current study, using an in vivo model combined with in vitro experiments, we demonstrate that obesity-induced ER stress obstructs the post-translational processing of POMC by decreasing proconverting enzyme 2, which catalyzes the conversion of adrenocorticotropin to ?-MSH, thereby decreasing ?-MSH peptide production. This novel mechanism of ER stress affecting POMC processing in DIO highlights the importance of ER stress in regulating central energy balance in obesity. PMID:23640886

  5. Emotional Face Processing in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Functional Impairments in the Fusiform Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Susan B.; Fournier, Jay C.; Bebko, Genna; Bertocci, Michele A.; Hinze, Amanda K.; Bonar, Lisa; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Versace, Amelia; Schirda, Claudiu; Travis, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Demeter, Christine; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Sunshine, Jeffrey L.; Holland, Scott K.; Kowatch, Robert. A.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Fristad, Mary. A; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Findling, Robert L.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pediatric bipolar disorder involves poor social functioning, but the neural mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Previous neuroimaging studies have found deficits in emotional face processing localized to emotional brain regions. However, few studies have examined dysfunction in other regions of the face processing circuit. This study assessed hypoactivation in key face processing regions of the brain in pediatric bipolar disorder. Method Youth with a bipolar spectrum diagnosis (n=20) were matched to a nonbipolar clinical group (n=20), with similar demographics and comorbid diagnoses, and a healthy control group (n=20). Youth participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning which employed a task-irrelevant emotion processing design in which processing of facial emotions was not germane to task performance. Results Hypoactivation, isolated to the fusiform gyrus, was found when viewing animated, emerging facial expressions of happiness, sadness, fearfulness, and especially anger in pediatric bipolar participants relative to matched clinical and healthy control groups. Conclusions The results of the study imply that differences exist in visual regions of the brain’s face processing system and are not solely isolated to emotional brain regions, such as the amygdala. Findings are discussed in relation to facial emotion recognition and fusiform gyrus deficits previously reported in the autism literature. Behavioral interventions targeting attention to facial stimuli might be explored as possible treatments for bipolar disorder in youth. PMID:24290464

  6. Memory and Language in Middle Childhood in Individuals with a History of Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hesketh, Anne; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the sensitivity of sentence repetition as a marker of specific language impairment (SLI) in different subgroups of children in middle childhood and examines the role of memory and grammatical knowledge in the performance of children with and without language difficulties on this task. Eleven year old children, 197 with a history of SLI and 75 typically developing (TD) peers were administered sentence repetition, phonological short term memory (PSTM) and grammatical morphology tasks. Children with a history of SLI were divided into four subgroups: specific language impairment, non-specific language impairment, low cognition with resolved language and resolved. Performance on the sentence repetition task was significantly impaired in all four subgroups of children with a history of SLI when compared to their age peers. Regression analyses revealed grammatical knowledge was predictive of performance for TD children and children with a history of SLI. However, memory abilities were significantly predictive of sentence repetition task performance for children with a history of SLI only. Processes involved in sentence repetition are more taxing of PSTM for individuals with a history of SLI in middle childhood in a way that does not appear to be the case for TD children. PMID:23409172

  7. Beyond Words: Phonological Short-Term Memory and Syntactic Impairment in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of nonword repetition in children goes back at least to 1974, when the Goldman-Fristoe-Woodcock Auditory Skills Battery was published, including a subtest (Sound Mimicry) assessing nonword repetition (Goldman, Fristoe, & Woodcock, 1974). Nevertheless, it was not until 20 years later, when Gathercole and Baddeley (1990) reported a…

  8. THE PHONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF SIGN LANGUAGES

    PubMed Central

    SANDLER, WENDY

    2013-01-01

    Visually perceivable and movable parts of the body – the hands, facial features, head, and upper body – are the articulators of sign language. It is through these articulators that that words are formed, constrained, and contrasted with one another, and that prosody is conveyed. This article provides an overview of the way in which phonology is organized in the alternative modality of sign language. PMID:23539295

  9. Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule

    PubMed Central

    Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X?XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal. PMID:24959158

  10. Individual Differences in the Effect of Orthographic/Phonological Conflict on Rhyme and Spelling Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Alton, Amanda C.

    2015-01-01

    In typical readers, orthographic knowledge has been shown to influence phonological decisions. In the present study, we used visual rhyme and spelling tasks to investigate the interaction of orthographic and phonological information in adults with varying reading skill. Word pairs that shared both orthography and phonology (e.g., throat/boat), differed in both orthography and phonology (e.g., snow/arm), shared only orthography (e.g., farm/warm), and shared only phonology (e.g., vote/boat) were visually presented to university students who varied in reading ability. For rhyme judgment, participants were slower and less accurate to accept rhyming pairs when words were spelled differently and to reject non-rhyming pairs when words were spelled similarly. Similarly, for spelling judgments, participants were slower and less accurate when indicating that word endings were spelled differently when words rhymed, and slower and less accurate when indicating that words were spelled similarly when words did not rhyme. Crucially, while these effects were clear at the group level, there were large individual differences in the extent to which participants were impacted by conflict. In two separate samples, reading skill was associated with the extent to which orthographic conflict impacted rhyme decisions such that individuals with better nonword reading performance were less impacted by orthographic conflict. Thus, university students with poorer reading skills may differ from their peers either in the reading strategies they use or in the degree to which they automatically access word form information. Understanding these relationships is important for understanding the roles that reading processes play in readers of different skill. PMID:25751539

  11. Premature processing of mouse mammary tumor virus Gag polyprotein impairs intracellular capsid assembly.

    PubMed

    Zábranský, Ales; Hadravová, Romana; Stokrová, Jitka; Sakalian, Michael; Pichová, Iva

    2009-02-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is the prototypical member of the Betaretrovirus genus, but the processes of its morphogenesis are poorly characterized. In this report, we describe an unusual intracellular processing of MMTV Gag polyprotein in human 293T cells transiently expressing MMTV from heterologous promoter. The same specific cleavage products of the viral protease were seen for the wild type as well as for nonmyristylated mutant of MMTV Gag polyprotein completely defective in the particle release. Inactivation of the viral protease resulted in more stable Gag polyprotein and in accumulation of intracytoplasmic particles for nonmyristylated Gag. The intracellular processing of nonmyristylated MMTV Gag indicates that protease activation in betaretrovirus can occur independently of budding. PMID:19046754

  12. Acoustics and sociolinguistics: Patterns of communication in hearing impairing classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKellin, William; Shahin, Kimary; Jamieson, Janet; Hodgson, Murray; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen

    2005-04-01

    In elementary school classes, noise during student led activities is often taken as evidence of successful interaction and learning. In this complex social environment of elementary school classrooms, acquisition of complex language and social skills-the focus of activities in early education-is expected to take place in hearing-hostile environments. Communication and language processing in these contexts requires interactive strategies, discourse forms, and syntactic structures different from the educationally desired forms used in acoustically advantageous environments. Recordings were made of the interaction of groups of students in grades 1-3, 5, and 7 during collaborative group work in their regular classrooms. Each student wore microphones at the ear level and head-mounted video cameras. Each group as a whole was also audio- and videotaped and noise level readings were recorded. Analysis of the acoustical and phonological properties of language heard by each student has demonstrated that the language variety used in these noisy and reverberant settings is similar to that of individuals with hearing impairments. This paper reports similarities between the syntactic structures and pragmatic strategies used by hearing impaired children and normally hearing children in noisy contexts. [Work supported by Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, University of British Columbia.

  13. Impairments in an early stage of the decision-making process in patients with ventromedial prefrontal damage: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Eggen, Céline; Huber, Oswald; Bär, Arlette; Huber, Odilo W; Perrig, Walter J; Müri, René; Gutbrod, Klemens

    2015-08-01

    Lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex can result in a deficient decision-making behavior. So far, most experimental results in the neuropsychological decision-making research have been obtained with gambling tasks. Due to their high complexity, it is difficult to evaluate the underlying processes of the decision-making deficits. The aim of this study was to assess if patients with ventromedial prefrontal damage compared to patients with dorsolateral prefrontal damage and controls show a deficit in an early stage of the decision-making process. Nine patients with ventromedial prefrontal damage, three with dorsolateral prefrontal damage, and eleven healthy controls were tested with a newly developed decision task in which they had to search actively for the information they needed for their decisions. Our results show that patients with ventromedial prefrontal damage compared to the brain-lesioned dorsolateral prefrontal control group and healthy controls searched less for information with regard to risk defusing operators or consequences of their decisions indicating impairment already in the early stage of the decision-making process. PMID:25080839

  14. Frontal Lobe Damage Impairs Process and Content in Semantic Memory: Evidence from Category Specific Effects in Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Jamie; Rodriguez, Amy D.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Grossman, Murray

    2010-01-01

    Portions of left inferior frontal cortex have been linked to semantic memory both in terms of the content of conceptual representation (e.g., motor aspects in an embodied semantics framework) and the cognitive processes used to access these representations (e.g., response selection). Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia (PNFA) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive atrophy of left inferior frontal cortex. PNFA can, therefore, provide a lesion model for examining the impact of frontal lobe damage on semantic processing and content. In the current study we examined picture naming in a cohort of PNFA patients across a variety of semantic categories. An embodied approach to semantic memory holds that sensorimotor features such as self-initiated action may assume differential importance for the representation of manufactured artifacts (e.g., naming hand tools). Embodiment theories might therefore predict that patients with frontal damage would be differentially impaired on manufactured artifacts relative to natural kinds, and this prediction was borne out. We also examined patterns of naming errors across a wide range of semantic categories and found that naming error distributions were heterogeneous. Although PNFA patients performed worse overall on naming manufactured artifacts, there was no reliable relationship between anomia and manipulability across semantic categories. These results add to a growing body of research arguing against a purely sensorimotor account of semantic memory, suggesting instead a more nuanced balance of process and content in how the brain represents conceptual knowledge. PMID:20576258

  15. Altered Evoked Gamma-Band Responses Reveal Impaired Early Visual Processing in ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Daniel; Krauel, Kerstin; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Schadow, Jeanette; Hinrichs, Hermann; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2010-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies yield contrary results whether attentional problems of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to early visual processing deficits or not. Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs), being among the first cortical responses occurring as early as 90 ms after visual stimulation in human EEG, have…

  16. Defective Number Module or Impaired Access? Numerical Magnitude Processing in First Graders with Mathematical Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Gilmore, Camilla K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined numerical magnitude processing in first graders with severe and mild forms of mathematical difficulties, children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) and children with low achievement (LA) in mathematics, respectively. In total, 20 children with MLD, 21 children with LA, and 41 regular achievers completed a numerical…

  17. Spontaneous but Not Explicit Processing of Positive Sentences Impaired in Asperger's Syndrome: Pupillometric Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, Lars; Schneider, Dana; Kotz, Sonja A.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional prosody provides important cues for understanding the emotions of others in every day communication. Asperger's syndrome (AS) is a developmental disorder characterised by pronounced deficits in socio-emotional communication, including difficulties in the domain of prosody processing. We measured pupillary responses as an index of…

  18. Impaired top-down processes in schizophrenia: A DCM study of ERPs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danai Dima; Detlef E. Dietrich; Wolfgang Dillo; Hinderk M. Emrich

    2010-01-01

    Perception is not simply based on a hierarchical organization of the brain; it arises from an interplay between inputs from the environment and internal predictions of these inputs. It is an active process which involves an interaction between bottom-up information coming from the senses and feedback connections coming from higher-order cortical areas. In our experiment, we use the hollow-mask illusion

  19. Neuroscience illuminating the influence of auditory or phonological intervention on language-related deficits.

    PubMed

    Ylinen, Sari; Kujala, Teija

    2015-01-01

    Remediation programs for language-related learning deficits are urgently needed to enable equal opportunities in education. To meet this need, different training and intervention programs have been developed. Here we review, from an educational perspective, studies that have explored the neural basis of behavioral changes induced by auditory or phonological training in dyslexia, specific language impairment (SLI), and language-learning impairment (LLI). Training has been shown to induce plastic changes in deficient neural networks. In dyslexia, these include, most consistently, increased or normalized activation of previously hypoactive inferior frontal and occipito-temporal areas. In SLI and LLI, studies have shown the strengthening of previously weak auditory brain responses as a result of training. The combination of behavioral and brain measures of remedial gains has potential to increase the understanding of the causes of language-related deficits, which may help to target remedial interventions more accurately to the core problem. PMID:25741305

  20. Neuroscience illuminating the influence of auditory or phonological intervention on language-related deficits

    PubMed Central

    Ylinen, Sari; Kujala, Teija

    2015-01-01

    Remediation programs for language-related learning deficits are urgently needed to enable equal opportunities in education. To meet this need, different training and intervention programs have been developed. Here we review, from an educational perspective, studies that have explored the neural basis of behavioral changes induced by auditory or phonological training in dyslexia, specific language impairment (SLI), and language-learning impairment (LLI). Training has been shown to induce plastic changes in deficient neural networks. In dyslexia, these include, most consistently, increased or normalized activation of previously hypoactive inferior frontal and occipito-temporal areas. In SLI and LLI, studies have shown the strengthening of previously weak auditory brain responses as a result of training. The combination of behavioral and brain measures of remedial gains has potential to increase the understanding of the causes of language-related deficits, which may help to target remedial interventions more accurately to the core problem. PMID:25741305

  1. The effects of context processing on social cognition impairments in adults with Asperger's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baez, Sandra; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition—the basis of all communicative and otherwise interpersonal relationships—is embedded in specific contextual circumstances which shape intrinsic meanings. This domain is compromised in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Asperger's syndrome (AS) (DSM-V). However, the few available reports of social cognition skills in adults with AS have largely neglected the effects of contextual factors. Moreover, previous studies on this population have also failed to simultaneously (a) assess multiple social cognition domains, (b) examine executive functions, (c) follow strict sample selection criteria, and (d) acknowledge the cognitive heterogeneity typical of the disorder. The study presently reviewed (Baez et al., 2012), addressed all these aspects in order to establish the basis of social cognition deficits in adult AS patients. Specifically, we assessed the performance of AS adults in multiple social cognition tasks with different context-processing requirements. The results suggest that social cognition deficits in AS imply a reduced ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual cues needed to access social meaning. Nevertheless, the patients' performance was normal when explicit social information was presented or when the situation could be navigated with abstract rules. Here, we review the results of our study and other relevant data, and discuss their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AS and other neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, frontotemporal dementia). Finally, we analyze previous results in the light of a current neurocognitive model of social-context processing. PMID:25232301

  2. Is the comprehension of idiomatic sentences indeed impaired in paranoid Schizophrenia? A window into semantic processing deficits

    PubMed Central

    Pesciarelli, Francesca; Gamberoni, Tania; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Lo Russo, Leo; Pedrazzi, Francesca; Melati, Ermanno; Cacciari, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients have been reported to be more impaired in comprehending non-literal than literal language since early studies on proverbs. Preference for literal rather than figurative interpretations continues to be documented. The main aim of this study was to establish whether patients are indeed able to use combinatorial semantic processing to comprehend literal sentences and both combinatorial analysis, and retrieval of pre-stored meanings to comprehend idiomatic sentences. The study employed a sentence continuation task in which subjects were asked to decide whether a target word was a sensible continuation of a previous sentence fragment to investigate idiomatic and literal sentence comprehension in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Patients and healthy controls were faster in accepting sensible continuations than in rejecting non-sensible ones in both literal and idiomatic sentences. Patients were as accurate as controls in comprehending literal and idiomatic sentences, but they were overall slower than controls in all conditions. Once the contribution of cognitive covariates was partialled out, the response times (RTs) to sensible idiomatic continuations of patients did not significantly differ from those of controls. This suggests that the state of residual schizophrenia did not contribute to slower processing of sensible idioms above and beyond the cognitive deficits that are typically associated with schizophrenia. PMID:25346676

  3. Coexistence of stuttering and disordered phonology in young children.

    PubMed

    Wolk, L; Edwards, M L; Conture, E G

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess differences in stuttering, phonological, and diadochokinetic behaviors in young children who exhibit both stuttering and disordered phonology and children who exhibit only one of the disorders. Subjects were 21 male children (aged 4 to 6 years), representing three groups of seven children each: (a) stuttering and normal phonological abilities (S+NP), (b) stuttering and disordered phonology (S+DP), and (c) normal fluency and disordered phonology (NF+DP). Stuttering behavior was assessed during a 30-minute conversational speech task; phonological behavior was assessed during a 162 item picture-naming task; and diadochokinetic abilities were assessed during bi- and multisyllable productions. Results indicated that the S+DP group produced significantly more sound prolongations and significantly fewer iterations per whole-word repetition than the S+NP group. However, there were no differences between the two groups in other stuttering indices. Moreover, no differences were noted between the S+DP and NF+DP groups in phonological behavior. Diadochokinetic rates did not differ among the three groups. The possibility of two types of stuttering, one occurring with and one without disordered phonology, is discussed. PMID:8246479

  4. Visual Feedback in Treatment of Residual Phonological Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruscello, Dennis M.

    1995-01-01

    The use of visual biofeedback in the treatment of individuals who have residual phonological errors is discussed. Biofeedback is conceptualized as a cognitive treatment that requires the client's analysis of visual information and then use of that information in developing correct productions of residual phonological errors. Results suggest the…

  5. Children with Down Syndrome Use Phonological Knowledge in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gombert, Jean-Emile

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an experiment that links phonological awareness and reading performance in children with Down syndrome. Examines the results within the framework of the author's metalinguistic development theory in which alphabet reading is a pacemaker for the development of explicit phonological awareness. (PM)

  6. Dynamic Assessment in Phonological Disorders: The Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaspey, Amy M.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic assessment is applied to phonological disorders with the Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability (SSS). The SSS comprises a 21-point hierarchical scale of cues and linguistic environments. With the SSS, clinicians assess stimulability as a diagnostic indicator and use the measure to monitor progress across treatment. Unlike other phonological

  7. Evidence-Based Practice: A Matrix for Predicting Phonological Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierut, Judith A.; Hulse, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a matrix for clinical use in the selection of phonological treatment targets to induce generalization, and in the identification of probe sounds to monitor during the course of intervention. The matrix appeals to a set of factors that have been shown to promote phonological generalization in the research literature, including…

  8. Phonological Awareness and Reading Proficiency in Adults with Profound Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlonger, Brett; Holmes, Virginia M.; Rickards, Field W.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the phonological knowledge and reading skill of deaf adults using three experimental conditions that tested sensitivity to syllables, rhyme, and phonemes. Analysis of response latencies and accuracy in the three awareness tasks demonstrated that skilled deaf readers had superior phonological awareness skill…

  9. Mixed-List Phonological Similarity Effects in Delayed Serial Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that placing dissimilar items on lists of phonologically similar items enhances accuracy of ordered recall of the dissimilar items [Farrell, S., & Lewandowsky, S. (2003). Dissimilar items benefit from phonological similarity in serial recall. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 29,…

  10. Phonological and Surface Subtypes among University Students with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of phonological and surface dyslexia subtypes among Swedish university students with dyslexia (n = 40) was examined using both the regression method, developed by Castles and Coltheart, and latent profile analysis. When an academic-level control group was used as a reference group in a regression, eight students with phonological

  11. Speech Perception Deficits by Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang

    2009-01-01

    Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…

  12. Phonology in syntax: The Somali optional agreement rule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum

    1983-01-01

    The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would

  13. Phonological Development in Lexically Precocious 2-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce L.; McGregor, Karla K.; Demille, Darcie

    2006-01-01

    To examine interactions between young children's vocabulary size and their phonological abilities, spontaneous language samples were collected from 24-month-olds with precocious lexicons, their age mates (24-month-olds with average-sized lexicons), and their vocabulary mates (30-month-olds with average-sized lexicons). Phonological ability was…

  14. Hyphenation can improve reading in acquired phonological dyslexia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor A. Harley; David A. OMara

    2006-01-01

    Background: We describe JD, a person with severe phonological dyslexia. JD is good at reading words yet is extremely poor at reading nonwords. She shows no effect of word regularity on her reading performance. However, she has only a very mild general phonological deficit. Although it is known that teaching grapheme–phoneme correspondence rules and learning bigraph syllables can improve dyslexic

  15. Phonological Memory and Children's Second Language Grammar Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Leif M.; O'Brien, Irena

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of phonological memory in second language (L2) grammar learning in a group of native French-speaking children undergoing a 5-month intensive English program. Phonological memory (as referenced by Arabic [ANWR] and English [ENWR] nonword repetition tasks), L2 vocabulary (receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge),…

  16. Quantifying Phonological Representation Abilities in Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Jason L.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Solari, Emily J.; Dunkelberger, Martha J.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Liang, Lan

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed three important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

  17. Phonological Similarity, Markedness, and Rate of L2 Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Roy C.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the interrelationship of several factors--phonological similarity between L1 and L2, transfer, and markedness as they relate to the acquisition of two English vowel phonemes by native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Phonetic and phonological similarity between L1 and L2 appear to be important factors. (LMO)

  18. The Structure of Phonological Awareness among Kindergarten Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Timothy J.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2006-01-01

    Phonological awareness, an understanding that spoken language is comprised of individual sounds, is an important construct that has implications for educational assessment and intervention. Unfortunately, the relationship between phonological awareness and its many operationalizations is ambiguous, resulting in both theoretical and practical…

  19. The Effect of Phonological Neighborhood Density on Vowel Articulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Benjamin; Solomon, Nancy Pearl

    2004-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that phonological neighborhood density and word frequency can affect speech production, in addition to the well-documented effects that they have on speech perception. This article describes 2 experiments that examined how phonological neighborhood density influences the durations and formant frequencies of adults'…

  20. THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE* SÃ?NIA FROTA1 , MARIAPAOLA D, 5 Universidade do Minho Abstract This paper examines the phonetics and phonology of intonational rise (H) and sustained pitch (!H). A detailed analysis of the phonetics of the H boundary tone, which