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1

Impaired letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia: what visual-to-phonology code mapping disorder?  

PubMed

Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In particular, report of poor letter/digit-string processing but preserved symbol-string processing was viewed as evidence of poor visual-to-phonology code mapping, in line with the phonological theory of developmental dyslexia. We assessed here the visual-to-phonological-code mapping disorder hypothesis. In Experiment 1, letter-string, digit-string and colour-string processing was assessed to disentangle a phonological versus visual familiarity account of the letter/digit versus symbol dissociation. Against a visual-to-phonological-code mapping disorder but in support of a familiarity account, results showed poor letter/digit-string processing but preserved colour-string processing in dyslexic children. In Experiment 2, two tasks of letter-string report were used, one of which was performed simultaneously to a high-taxing phonological task. Results show that dyslexic children are similarly impaired in letter-string report whether a concurrent phonological task is simultaneously performed or not. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence against a phonological account of poor letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia. PMID:22434589

Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

2012-03-21

2

Dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonology and Auditory Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We explore potential similarities between developmental dyslexia (specific reading disability [SRD]) and specific language impairment (SLI) in terms of phonological skills, underlying auditory processing abilities, and nonphonological language skills. Children aged 9 to 11 years with reading and/or language difficulties were recruited and…

Fraser, Jill; Goswami, Usha; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

2010-01-01

3

Impairment in processing meaningless verbal material in several modalities: The relationship between short-term memory and phonological skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological processing abilities were studied in a patient who, following focal brain damage, showed selective impairment in non-word reading, writing, and repetition and also a severe short-term memory (STM) deficit specific for auditorily presented verbal material. The patient could execute tasks involving phonemic manipulation and awareness perfectly. Our data, in contrast with earlier observations in a case of developmental phonological

Patrizia S. Bisiacchi; Lisa Cipolotti; Gianfranco Denes

1989-01-01

4

Semantic memory impairment does not impact on phonological and orthographic processing in a case of developmental hyperlexia.  

PubMed

Recent evidence from patients with progressive language disorders and dementia has been used to suggest that phonological and orthographic processing depend on intact semantic memory. These claims challenge the traditional view that there are functionally separate modules in the language system. The effect of a severe, but nonprogressive, semantic impairment on phonological and orthographic processing was evaluated in LA, a mentally retarded child with hyperlexia. Knowledge of a word's meaning did not affect LA's word repetition, a measure of phonological processing, or his acquisition and retention of orthographic patterns for writing to dictation low-frequency words with exceptional spellings. These findings support the assertion that both orthographic and phonological whole-word representations can be acquired, stored, and retrieved in the absence of a functional link to semantic memory. PMID:9027372

Glosser, G; Grugan, P; Friedman, R B

1997-02-01

5

Effects of Onset- and Rhyme-Related Distractors on Phonological Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This study used the cross-modal picture-word interference task of P. J. Brooks and B. MacWhinney (2000) to compare effects of phonologically related words on lexical access in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Children (7;1 [years;months]-11;2) named pictures while ignoring auditory distractors. Three stimulus…

Seiger-Gardner, Liat; Brooks, Patricia J.

2008-01-01

6

Dyslexia impairs speech recognition but can spare phonological competence.  

PubMed

Dyslexia is associated with numerous deficits to speech processing. Accordingly, a large literature asserts that dyslexics manifest a phonological deficit. Few studies, however, have assessed the phonological grammar of dyslexics, and none has distinguished a phonological deficit from a phonetic impairment. Here, we show that these two sources can be dissociated. Three experiments demonstrate that a group of adult dyslexics studied here is impaired in phonetic discrimination (e.g., ba vs. pa), and their deficit compromises even the basic ability to identify acoustic stimuli as human speech. Remarkably, the ability of these individuals to generalize grammatical phonological rules is intact. Like typical readers, these Hebrew-speaking dyslexics identified ill-formed AAB stems (e.g., titug) as less wordlike than well-formed ABB controls (e.g., gitut), and both groups automatically extended this rule to nonspeech stimuli, irrespective of reading ability. The contrast between the phonetic and phonological capacities of these individuals demonstrates that the algebraic engine that generates phonological patterns is distinct from the phonetic interface that implements them. While dyslexia compromises the phonetic system, certain core aspects of the phonological grammar can be spared. PMID:23028654

Berent, Iris; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered; Balaban, Evan; Galaburda, Albert M

2012-09-19

7

Development of Phonological Processing Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment with and without Literacy Delay: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To compare the development of phonological skills in children with specific language impairment (SLI) with and without literacy delay and to examine whether kindergarten phonological skills could discriminate these 2 groups. Method: In a longitudinal study, 8 children with SLI and literacy delay, 10 children with SLI and normal literacy,…

Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

2012-01-01

8

Impaired Letter-String Processing in Developmental Dyslexia: What Visual-to-Phonology Code Mapping Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In…

Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

2012-01-01

9

Impaired Letter-String Processing in Developmental Dyslexia: What Visual-to-Phonology Code Mapping Disorder?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In…

Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

2012-01-01

10

Phonological typicality and sentence processing.  

PubMed

In studies of language, it is widely accepted that the form of a word is independent of its meaning and syntactic category. Thus, the relationship between phonological form and grammatical class would not be expected to affect reading time. However, Farmer et al. have now shown that the phonological typicality of a noun or verb influences how rapidly it is read. This finding has implications for both sentence processing and the interpretation of fixation patterns in reading. PMID:17207653

Tanenhaus, Michael K; Hare, Mary

2007-01-04

11

The phonological short-term store-rehearsal system: Patterns of impairment and neural correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two left brain-damaged patients (L.A. and T.O.) with a selective impairment of auditory–verbal span are reported. Patient L.A. was unable to hold auditory–verbal material in the phonological store component of short-term memory. His performance was however normal on tasks requiring phonological judgements, which specifically involve the phonological output buffer component of the rehearsal process. He also showed some evidence that

Giuseppe Vallar; Anna Maria Di Betta; Maria Caterina Silveri

1997-01-01

12

Does phonological working memory impairment affect sentence comprehension? A study of conduction aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The nature of the relation between phonological working memory and sentence comprehension is still an open question. This question has theoretical implications with respect to the existence of various working memory resources and their involvement in sentence processing. It also bears clinical implications for the language impairment of patients with phonological working memory limitation, such as individuals with conduction

Aviah Gvion; Naama Friedmann

2012-01-01

13

Different Origin of Auditory and Phonological Processing Problems in Children With Language Impairment: Evidence From a Twin Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the heritability of auditory processing impairment, as assessed by Tallal's Auditory Repetition Test (ART). The sample consisted of 37 same-sex twin pairs who had previously been selected because one or both twins met criteria for language impairment (LI) and 104 same-sex twin pairs in the same age range (7 to 13 years) from the general population. These

D. V. M. Bishop; Sonia J. Bishop; Peter Bright; Cheryl James; Tom Delaney; Paula Tallal

14

Phonological Processing, Language, and Literacy: A Comparison of Children with Mild-to-moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Those with Specific Language Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological skills, language ability, and literacy scores were compared for four groups: 19 children with mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss (SNH), 20 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 20 controls matched on chronological age to the SNH group (CA), and 15 controls matched on receptive vocabulary level to a subset of the SLI group (CB). In common with the SLI group,

Josie Briscoe; Dorothy V. M. Bishop; Courtenay Frazier Norbury

2001-01-01

15

Written Language Impairments in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Reflection of Damage to Central Semantic and Phonological Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Connectionist theories of language propose that written language deficits arise as a result of damage to semantic and phonological systems that also support spoken language production and comprehension, a view referred to as the "primary systems" hypothesis. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the primary systems account in a mixed…

Henry, Maya L.; Beeson, Pelagie M.; Alexander, Gene E.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

2012-01-01

16

Outstanding Questions about Phonological Processing in Dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that developmental dyslexia results from some sort of phonological deficit. Yet, it can be argued that phonological representations and their processing have been insufficiently tested in dyslexia research. Firstly, claims about how tasks tap into certain kinds of representations or processes are best appreciated in the light of an explicit information-processing model. Here, a cognitive model

Franck Ramusn

17

Phonological Recoding in the Second Language Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A phonological priming task was conducted in order to determine the presence of second language phonological recoding. Eighteen\\u000a Koreans who had acquired English after a critical language learning period participated in the experiment. Compared with controls,\\u000a the phonological condition (e.g., TOWED -> toad) was more advantageous in processing the target in the priming task than the\\u000a orthographic condition (e.g., TOLD

Chang H. Lee; Kyungill Kim; HeuiSeok Lim

2010-01-01

18

Evidence for a preserved sensitivity to orthographic redundancy and an impaired access to phonological syllables in French developmental dyslexics.  

PubMed

To evaluate the orthographic and phonological processing skills of developmental dyslexics, we (a) examined their abilities to exploit properties of orthographic redundancy and (b) tested whether their phonological deficit extends to spelling-to-sound connections for large-grain size units such as syllables. To assess the processing skills in dyslexics, we utilized the illusory conjunction paradigm to investigate the nature of reading units in French dyslexic and control children matched in reading age. In control children, reading units were defined by both orthographic redundancy and phonological syllable information. In dyslexics, however, reading units were defined only by orthographic redundancy. Therefore, despite their impairment in reading acquisition, developmental dyslexics have the ability to encode and exploit letter frequency co-occurrences. In contrast, their access to phonological syllables from letters was impaired, suggesting that their phonological deficit extends to large grain-size phonological units. PMID:22815106

Doignon-Camus, Nadège; Seigneuric, Alix; Perrier, Emeline; Sisti, Aurélie; Zagar, Daniel

2012-07-20

19

Learning Novel Phonological Representations in Developmental Dyslexia: Associations with Basic Auditory Processing of Rise Time and Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across languages, children with developmental dyslexia are known to have impaired lexical phonological representations. Here, we explore associations between learning new phonological representations, phonological awareness, and sensitivity to amplitude envelope onsets (rise time). We show that individual differences in learning novel phonological

Thomson, Jennifer M.; Goswami, Usha

2010-01-01

20

Processing abilities associated with phonologic and orthographic skills in adult learning disability.  

PubMed

Measures of orthographic and phonologic skills were related to co-normed Woodcock Johnson-Revised (WJ-R) cognitive measures in 138 college age, learning problem adults. Only orthographic deficits were associated with a processing disorder (p<.001). Selective processing abilities were associated with phonologic (p<.001, Delta adj R(2)=.053) and orthographic (p<.001, Delta adj R(2)=.047) skills after removal of variance associated with general intelligence. Analyses found common processing abilities across both phonologic and orthographic skills for WJ-R visual processing (-Gv) and short-term memory processing factors (Gsm) (p<.001). Cluster analysis established a phonologic deficit and a double deficit (phonologic and orthographic) group. Discussion relates results to the differences between adult and child reading decoding deficits, the lack of a selective orthographically impaired subtype of dyslexia, and the evidence of visual processing compensation for reading problems. PMID:16019631

Osmon, David C; Braun, Michelle M; Plambeck, Elizabeth A

2005-07-01

21

Speech and non-speech processing in children with phonological disorders: an electrophysiological study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neurophysiological auditory brainstem responses to clicks and repeated speech stimuli differ between typically developing children and children with phonological disorders. INTRODUCTION: Phonological disorders are language impairments resulting from inadequate use of adult phonological language rules and are among the most common speech and language disorders in children (prevalence: 8 ? 9%). Our hypothesis is that children with phonological disorders have basic differences in the way that their brains encode acoustic signals at brainstem level when compared to normal counterparts. METHODS: We recorded click and speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in 18 typically developing children (control group) and in 18 children who were clinically diagnosed with phonological disorders (research group). The age range of the children was from 7?11 years. RESULTS: The research group exhibited significantly longer latency responses to click stimuli (waves I, III and V) and speech stimuli (waves V and A) when compared to the control group. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that the abnormal encoding of speech sounds may be a biological marker of phonological disorders. However, these results cannot define the biological origins of phonological problems. We also observed that speech?evoked auditory brainstem responses had a higher specificity/sensitivity for identifying phonological disorders than click?evoked auditory brainstem responses. CONCLUSIONS: Early stages of the auditory pathway processing of an acoustic stimulus are not similar in typically developing children and those with phonological disorders. These findings suggest that there are brainstem auditory pathway abnormalities in children with phonological disorders.

Goncalves, Isabela Crivellaro; Wertzner, Haydee Fiszbein; Samelli, Alessandra Giannella; Matas, Carla Gentile

2011-01-01

22

Semantic and phonological processing in illiteracy.  

PubMed

Researchers of cognitive processing in illiteracy have proposed that the acquisition of literacy modifies the functional organization of the brain. They have suggested that, while illiterate individuals have access only to innate semantic processing skills, those who have learned the correspondence between graphemes and phonemes have several mechanisms available to them through which to process oral language. We conducted 2 experiments to verify that suggestion with respect to language processing, and to elucidate further the differences between literate and illiterate individuals in the cognitive strategies used to process oral language, as well as hemispheric specialization for these processes. Our findings suggest that semantic processing strategies are qualitatively the same in literates and illiterates, despite the fact that overall performance is augmented by increased education. In contrast, explicit processing of oral information based on phonological characteristics appears to be qualitatively different between literates and illiterates: effective strategies in the processing of phonological information depend upon having had a formal education, regardless of the level of education. We also confirmed the differential abilities needed for the processing of semantic and phonological information and related them to hemisphere-specific processing. PMID:15637772

Kosmidis, Mary H; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Folia, Vasiliki; Vlahou, Christina H; Kiosseoglou, Grigoris

2004-10-01

23

Revealing and Quantifying the Impaired Phonological Analysis Underpinning Impaired Comprehension in Wernicke's Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Wernicke's aphasia is a condition which results in severely disrupted language comprehension following a lesion to the left temporo-parietal region. A phonological analysis deficit has traditionally been held to be at the root of the comprehension impairment in Wernicke's aphasia, a view consistent with current functional neuroimaging which finds…

Robson, Holly; Keidel, James L.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.; Sage, Karen

2012-01-01

24

Explaining Lexical-Semantic Deficits in Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonological Similarity, Phonological Working Memory, and Lexical Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated potential explanations for sparse lexical-semantic representations in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers. The role of auditory perception, phonological working memory, and lexical competition were investigated. Method: Participants included 32 children…

Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Coady, Jeffry A.

2010-01-01

25

Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children with Language and Reading Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…

Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne

2012-01-01

26

Phonological processing in first-degree relatives of individuals with autism: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Twin studies have provided heritability estimates as high as 90% for idiopathic ASD. Further evidence for the spectrum's heritability is provided by the presence of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) in unaffected first-degree relatives. Language ability, specifically phonological processing, is proposed to be a core BAP trait. To date, however, no functional neuroimaging investigations of phonological processing in relatives of individuals with ASD have been undertaken. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in parents of children with ASD utilizing a priming task probing implicit phonological processing. In our condition that placed heavier demands on phonological recoding, parents exhibited greater hemodynamic responses than controls in a network of cortical regions involved in phonological processing. Across conditions, parents exhibited enhanced priming-induced response suppression suggesting compensatory neural processing. A nonword repetition test used in previous studies of relatives was also administered. Correlations between this measure and our functional measures also suggested compensatory processing in parents. Regions exhibiting atypical responses in parents included regions previously implicated in the spectrum's language impairments and found to exhibit structural abnormalities in a parent study. These results suggest a possible neurobiological substrate of the phonological deficits proposed to be a core BAP trait. However, these results should be considered preliminary. No previous fMRI study has investigated phonological processing in ASD, so replication is required. Furthermore, interpretation of our fMRI results is limited by the fact that the parent group failed to exhibit behavioral evidence of phonological impairments. PMID:22419478

Wilson, Lisa B; Tregellas, Jason R; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E; Hepburn, Susan; Rojas, Donald C

2012-03-15

27

Phonological Processing and Arithmetic Fact Retrieval: Evidence from Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact…

De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart

2010-01-01

28

Phonological Processing Skills of Adolescents with Residual Speech Sound Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Research has shown that young children with speech sound disorders may have weaknesses in phonological processing. However, such skills have not been thoroughly examined in adolescents with residual speech sound errors. Therefore, this study compared the phonological processing abilities of adolescents with residual speech sound errors to…

Preston, Jonathan L.; Edwards, Mary Louise

2007-01-01

29

Phonology and syntax in specific language impairment: Evidence from a connectionist modelq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in resolving pronominal anaphora have been taken as evidence that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) involves a grammar-specific impairment. The present study ex- plores an alternative view, that grammatical deficits in SLI are sequelae of impaired speech perception. This perceptual deficit specifically affects the use of phonological information in working memory, which in turn leads to poorer than expected syntactic

Marc F. Joanisse; Mark S. Seidenberg

30

Specific Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia Revealed by Eyetracking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phonological deficits in dyslexia are typically assessed using metalinguistic tasks vulnerable to extraneous factors such as attention and memory. The present work takes the novel approach of measuring phonology using eyetracking. Eye movements of dyslexic children were monitored during an auditory word recognition task in which target items in a…

Desroches, Amy S.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Robertson, Erin K.

2006-01-01

31

Developmental changes in activation and effective connectivity in phonological processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined developmental changes in activation and effective connectivity among brain regions during a phonological processing task, using fMRI. Participants, ages 9–15, were scanned while performing rhyming judgments on pairs of visually presented words. The orthographic and phonological similarity between words in the pair was independently manipulated, so that rhyming judgment could not be based on orthographic similarity.

Tali Bitan; Jimmy Cheon; Dong Lu; Douglas D. Burman; Darren R. Gitelman; M-Marsel Mesulam; James R. Booth

2007-01-01

32

Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

2012-01-01

33

Density pervades: An analysis of phonological neighbourhood density effects in aphasic speakers with different types of naming impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of phonological neighbourhood density (PND) on the performance of aphasic speakers whose naming impairments differentially implicate phonological or semantic stages of lexical access. A word comes from a dense phonological neighbourhood if many words sound like it. Limited evidence suggests that higher density facilitates naming in aphasic speakers, as it does in healthy speakers. Using well-controlled

Erica L. Middleton; Myrna F. Schwartz

2010-01-01

34

What Is the deficit in Phonological Processing Deficits: Auditory Sensitivity, Masking, or Category Formation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although children with language impairments, including those associated with reading, usually demonstrate deficits in phonological processing, there is minimal agreement as to the source of those deficits. This study examined two problems hypothesized to be possible sources: either poor auditory sensitivity to speech-relevant acoustic properties,…

Nittrouer, Susan; Shune, Samantha; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

2011-01-01

35

Effectiveness of Early Phonological Awareness Interventions for Students with Speech or Language Impairments  

PubMed Central

This article reviews research examining the efficacy of early phonological interventions for young students identified with Speech or Language impairments. Eighteen studies are included, providing results for nearly 500 students in preschool through third grade. Although findings were generally positive, there were large individual differences in response to intervention. Further, there was little evidence that interventions enabled students to catch up in phonological or reading skills to typically developing peers. Methodological issues are described and implications for practice and future research are discussed.

Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Puranik, Cynthia; Zilkowski, Robin; Curran, Tricia

2009-01-01

36

A Treatment Sequence for Phonological Alexia/Agraphia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Damage to left perisylvian cortex often results in impaired phonological processing abilities with written language profiles consistent with phonological alexia and phonological agraphia. The purpose of this article was to examine a behavioral treatment sequence for such individuals intended to strengthen phonological processing and links…

Beeson, Pelagie M.; Rising, Kindle; Kim, Esther S.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

2010-01-01

37

Characterizing the morphosyntactic processing deficit and its relationship to phonology in developmental dyslexia.  

PubMed

This study explores the morphosyntactic processing deficit in developmental dyslexia, addressing the on-going debate on the linguistic nature of the disorder, and directly testing the hypothesis that the deficit is based on underlying processing difficulties, such as acoustic and/or phonological impairments. Short German sentences consisting of a pronoun and a verb, either correct or containing a morphosyntactic violation, were auditorily presented to 17 German-speaking adults with dyslexia, and 17 matched control participants, while an EEG was recorded. In order to investigate the interaction between low-level phonological processing and morphosyntactic processing, the verbal inflections were manipulated to consist of different levels of acoustic salience. The event-related potential (ERP) results confirm altered morphosyntactic processing in participants with dyslexia, especially when morphosyntactic violations are expressed by both lexical and inflectional changes. Moreover, ERP data on phoneme discrimination and behavioural data on phonemic awareness and verbal short-term memory reveal phonological deficits in dyslexic participants. However, a causal relationship between phonological and morphosyntactic processing was not conclusive, because anomalous morphosyntactic processing in dyslexia is not directly mediated by acoustic salience, rather it correlates with high-level phonological skills and is mediated by lexical cues. PMID:23628368

Cantiani, Chiara; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Sabisch, Beate; Männel, Claudia

2013-04-27

38

Comparing Phonological Skills and Spelling Abilities in Children with Reading and Language Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Bishop and Snowling (2004) proposed that children with language impairments (LI) and children with reading difficulties (RD) can be considered to be on a (phonological) continuum of risk for reading impairments. Aims: The first aim of the present study was to address two specific hypotheses about the relationship between RD and LI.…

Larkin, Rebecca F.; Snowling, Margaret J.

2008-01-01

39

The Structure of Phonological Processing and Its Relationship to Basic Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated various structural models of phonological processing and the relationship of phonological processing abilities to basic reading. Data were collected on 116 kindergarten and first grade students. The specific ability model, which included phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming as separate…

Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will; Denis, Daniel

2012-01-01

40

Phonological processing is uniquely associated with neuro-metabolic concentration.  

PubMed

Reading is a complex process involving recruitment and coordination of a distributed network of brain regions. The present study sought to establish a methodologically sound evidentiary base relating specific reading and phonological skills to neuro-metabolic concentration. Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed to measure metabolite concentration in a left hemisphere region around the angular gyrus for 31 young adults with a range of reading and phonological abilities. Correlation data demonstrated a significant negative association between phonological decoding and normalized choline concentration and as well as a trend toward a significant negative association between sight word reading and normalized choline concentration, indicating that lower scores on these measures are associated with higher concentrations of choline. Regression analyses indicated that choline concentration accounted for a unique proportion of variance in the phonological decoding measure after accounting for age, cognitive ability and sight word reading skill. This pattern of results suggests some specificity for the negative relationship between choline concentration and phonological decoding. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence that choline concentration in the angular region may be related to phonological skills independently of other reading skills, general cognitive ability, and age. These results may have important implications for the study and treatment of reading disability, a disorder which has been related to deficits in phonological decoding and abnormalities in the angular gyrus. PMID:23147236

Bruno, Jennifer Lynn; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Manis, Franklin R

2012-11-10

41

Cortical Dynamics of Acoustic and Phonological Processing in Speech Perception  

PubMed Central

In speech perception, a functional hierarchy has been proposed by recent functional neuroimaging studies: Core auditory areas on the dorsal plane of superior temporal gyrus (STG) are sensitive to basic acoustic characteristics, whereas downstream regions, specifically the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG) ventral to Heschl's gyrus (HG) are responsive to abstract phonological features. What is unclear so far is the relationship between the dorsal and ventral processes, especially with regard to whether low-level acoustic processing is modulated by high-level phonological processing. To address the issue, we assessed sensitivity of core auditory and downstream regions to acoustic and phonological variations by using within- and across-category lexical tonal continua with equal physical intervals. We found that relative to within-category variation, across-category variation elicited stronger activation in the left middle MTG (mMTG), apparently reflecting the abstract phonological representations. At the same time, activation in the core auditory region decreased, resulting from the top-down influences of phonological processing. These results support a hierarchical organization of the ventral acoustic-phonological processing stream, which originates in the right HG/STG and projects to the left mMTG. Furthermore, our study provides direct evidence that low-level acoustic analysis is modulated by high-level phonological representations, revealing the cortical dynamics of acoustic and phonological processing in speech perception. Our findings confirm the existence of reciprocal progression projections in the auditory pathways and the roles of both feed-forward and feedback mechanisms in speech perception.

Xu, Guoqing; Shu, Hua; Wang, Xiaoyi; Li, Ping

2011-01-01

42

Children's Recognition of Their Own Recorded Voice: Influence of Age and Phonological Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with phonological impairment (PI) often have difficulties perceiving insufficiencies in their own speech. The use of recordings has been suggested as a way of directing the child's attention toward his/her own speech, despite a lack of evidence that children actually recognize their recorded voice as their own. We present two studies of…

Strombergsson, Sofia

2013-01-01

43

Children's Recognition of Their Own Recorded Voice: Influence of Age and Phonological Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with phonological impairment (PI) often have difficulties perceiving insufficiencies in their own speech. The use of recordings has been suggested as a way of directing the child's attention toward his/her own speech, despite a lack of evidence that children actually recognize their recorded voice as their own. We present two studies of…

Strombergsson, Sofia

2013-01-01

44

Early and Sustained Supramarginal Gyrus Contributions to Phonological Processing  

PubMed Central

Reading is a difficult task that, at a minimum, requires recognizing a visual stimulus and linking it with its corresponding sound and meaning. Neurologically, this involves an anatomically distributed set of brain regions cooperating to solve the problem. It has been hypothesized that the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) contributes preferentially to phonological aspects of word processing and thus plays an important role in visual word recognition. Here, we used chronometric transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the functional specificity and timing of SMG involvement in reading visually presented words. Participants performed tasks designed to focus on either the phonological, semantic, or visual aspects of written words while double pulses of TMS (delivered 40?ms apart) were used to temporarily interfere with neural information processing in the left SMG at five different time windows. Stimulation at 80/120, 120/160, and 160/200?ms post-stimulus onset significantly slowed subjects’ reaction times in the phonological task. This inhibitory effect was specific to the phonological condition, with no effect of TMS in the semantic or visual tasks, consistent with claims that SMG contributes preferentially to phonological aspects of word processing. The fact that the effect began within 80–120?ms of the onset of the stimulus and continued for approximately 100?ms, indicates that phonological processing initiates early and is sustained over time. These findings are consistent with accounts of visual word recognition that posit parallel activation of orthographic, phonological, and semantic information that interact over time to settle into a distributed, but stable, representation of a word.

Sliwinska, Magdalena W.; Khadilkar, Manali; Campbell-Ratcliffe, Jonathon; Quevenco, Frances; Devlin, Joseph T.

2012-01-01

45

Electrophysiological Evidence for Impaired Attentional Engagement with Phonologically Acceptable Misspellings in Developmental Dyslexia  

PubMed Central

Event-related potential (ERP) studies of word recognition have provided fundamental insights into the time-course and stages of visual and auditory word form processing in reading. Here, we used ERPs to track the time-course of phonological processing in dyslexic adults and matched controls. Participants engaged in semantic judgments of visually presented high-cloze probability sentences ending either with (a) their best completion word, (b) a homophone of the best completion, (c) a pseudohomophone of the best completion, or (d) an unrelated word, to examine the interplay of phonological and orthographic processing in reading and the stage(s) of processing affected in developmental dyslexia. Early ERP peaks (N1, P2, N2) were modulated in amplitude similarly in the two groups of participants. However, dyslexic readers failed to show the P3a modulation seen in control participants for unexpected homophones and pseudohomophones (i.e., sentence completions that are acceptable phonologically but are misspelt). Furthermore, P3a amplitudes significantly correlated with reaction times in each experimental condition. Our results showed no sign of a deficit in accessing phonological representations during reading, since sentence primes yielded phonological priming effects that did not differ between participant groups in the early phases of processing. On the other hand, we report new evidence for a deficient attentional engagement with orthographically unexpected but phonologically expected words in dyslexia, irrespective of task focus on orthography or phonology. In our view, this result is consistent with deficiency in reading occurring from the point at which attention is oriented to phonological analysis, which may underlie broader difficulties in sublexical decoding.

Savill, Nicola J.; Thierry, Guillaume

2011-01-01

46

Nonword repetition in specific language impairment: More than a phonological short-term memory deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible role of phonological short-term memory in the nonword repetition deficit of children with specific language impairment\\u000a (SLI) was investigated in a study comparing serial recall and nonword repetition of sequences of auditorily presented CV syllables.\\u000a The SLI group showed impairments in both serial recall and nonword repetition relative to typically developing children of\\u000a the same age, however the

Lisa M. D. Archibald; Susan E. Gathercole

2007-01-01

47

Reading Impairments in Schizophrenia Relate to Individual Differences in Phonological Processing and Oculomotor Control: Evidence from a Gaze-Contingent Moving Window Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Language and oculomotor disturbances are 2 of the best replicated findings in schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined skilled reading in schizophrenia (e.g., Arnott, Sali, Copland, 2011; Hayes & O'Grady, 2003; Revheim et al., 2006; E. O. Roberts et al., 2012), and none have examined the contribution of cognitive and motor processes that…

Whitford, Veronica; O'Driscoll, Gillian A.; Pack, Christopher C.; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok; Titone, Debra

2013-01-01

48

Learning word meanings during reading: effects of phonological and semantic cues on children with language impairment.  

PubMed

Phonological and semantic deficits in spoken word learning have been documented in children with language impairment (LI), and cues that address these deficits have been shown to improve their word learning performance. However, the effects of such cues on word learning during reading remain largely unexplored. This study investigated whether (a) control, (b) phonological, (c) semantic, and (d) combined phonological-semantic conditions affected semantic word learning during reading in 9- to 11-year-old children with LI (n =?12) and with typical language (TL, n =?11) from low-income backgrounds. Children were exposed to 20 novel words across these four conditions prior to reading passages containing the novel words. After reading, a dynamic semantic assessment was given, which included oral definitions, contextual clues, and multiple choices. Results indicated that the LI group performed more poorly than the TL group in phonological and combined conditions, but not in the control or semantic conditions. Also, a similar trend for both groups was suggested, with improved performance in the semantic and combined conditions relative to the control and phonological conditions. Clinical implications include a continued need for explicit instruction in semantic properties of novel words to facilitate semantic word learning during reading in children with LI. PMID:22934530

Steele, Sara C; Willoughby, Lisa M; Mills, Monique T

2012-08-30

49

Specialization of phonological and semantic processing in Chinese word reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the neurocognitive network for processing visual word forms in native Chinese speakers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In order to compare the processing of phonological and semantic representations, we developed parallel rhyming and meaning association judgment tasks that required explicit access and manipulation of these representations. Subjects showed activation in left

James R. Booth; Dong Lu; Douglas D. Burman; Tai-Li Chou; Zhen Jin; Dan-Ling Peng; Lei Zhang; Guo-Sheng Ding; Yuan Deng; Li Liu

2006-01-01

50

A Critical Review of PET Studies of Phonological Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of positron emission tomography to identify sensory and motor systems in humans in vivo has been very successful. In contrast, studies of cognitive processes have not always generated results that can be reliably interpreted. A meta-analysis of five positron emission tomography studies designed to engage phonological processing (Petersen, Fox, Posner, Mintun, & Raichle, 1989; Zatorre, Evans, Meyer, &

David Poeppel

1996-01-01

51

The interface between morphology and phonology: exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production.  

PubMed

Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment-these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-03-06

52

Neural Correlates of Sublexical Processing in Phonological Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural…

McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; Eisner, Frank; Marshall, Chloe R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Scott, Sophie K.

2011-01-01

53

Are phonological processing deficits part of the broad autism phenotype?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two tests of phonological processing, nonword repetition, and nonsense passage reading, were administered to 80 probands with autistic disor- der or PDDNOS (index cases) and 59 typically developing controls, together with their parents and siblings. In addition, parents completed a questionnaire about history of language and literacy problems, and all participants were given tests of verbal (VIQ) and performance IQ

Dorothy V. M. Bishop; Murray Maybery; Dana Wong; Alana Maley; Wayne Hill; Joachim Hallmayer

2004-01-01

54

Phonological Processes in Kannada-Speaking Adolescents with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some…

Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R.; Velleman, Shelley L.

2010-01-01

55

Development of Brain Mechanisms for Processing Orthographic and Phonologic Representations  

PubMed Central

Developmental differences in the neurocognitive networks for lexical processing were examined in 15 adults and 15 children (9- to 12-year-olds) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The lexical tasks involved spelling and rhyming judgments in either the visual or auditory modality. These lexical tasks were compared with nonlinguistic control tasks involving judgments of line patterns or tone sequences. The first main finding was that adults showed greater activation than children during the cross-modal lexical tasks in a region proposed to be involved in mapping between orthographic and phonologic representations. The visual rhyming task, which required conversion from orthography to phonology, produced greater activation for adults in the angular gyrus. The auditory spelling task, which required the conversion from phonology to orthography, also produced greater activation for adults in the angular gyrus. The greater activation for adults suggests they may have a more elaborated posterior heteromodal system for mapping between representational systems. The second main finding was that adults showed greater activation than children during the intra-modal lexical tasks in the angular gyrus. The visual spelling and auditory rhyming did not require conversion between orthography and phonology for correct performance but the adults showed greater activation in a system implicated for this mapping. The greater activation for adults suggests that they have more interactive convergence between representational systems during lexical processing.

Booth, James R.; Burman, Douglas D.; Meyer, Joel R.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Parrish, Todd B.; Mesulam, M. Marsel

2005-01-01

56

The Role of Speed of Processing, Rapid Naming, and Phonological Awareness in Reading Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the role of speed of processing, rapid naming, and phonological awareness in reading achievement. Measures of response time in motor, visual, lexical, grammatical, and phonological tasks were administered to 279 children in third grade. Measures of rapid object naming, phonological awareness, and reading achievement were given in second and fourth grades. Reading group com- parisons indicated that

Hugh W. Catts; Matthew Gillispie; Laurence B. Leonard; Robert V. Kail; Carol A. Miller

2002-01-01

57

Phonological processes as predictors of specific reading skills in children at risk for reading failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children at risk for reading disability were evaluated as kindergartners and again as first graders to determine (1) intercorrelations among phonological processing tasks and (2) the relationship of such tasks to word identification and word attack. With IQ controlled, there were no intercorrelations among measures of phonological awareness, phonetic recoding in working memory, and phonological recoding in lexical access. Thus,

Rebecca H. Felton; Idalyn S. Brown

1990-01-01

58

Are Phonological Processes Separate from the Processes Underlying Naming Speed in a Shallow Orthography?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The present study examined the contributions of phonological decoding skills and rapid naming to the prediction of reading skills in Spanish-speaking children with dyslexia. Method: Thirty-eight dyslexic readers with phonological decoding processing deficits (mean age 9;11) were assessed on reading speed, reading comprehension, word…

Lopez-Escribano, Carmen; Katzir, Tami

2008-01-01

59

Phonological Awareness of Young Children with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The findings from a sample of 22 young children with visual impairments and no additional disabilities suggest that potential readers of braille or dual media had better syllable-segmentation, sound-isolation, and sound-segmentation skills than potential readers of print. Potential readers of print seemed to have slightly better…

Hatton, Deborah D.; Erickson, Karen A.; Lee, Donna Brostek

2010-01-01

60

Developmental dyslexia: exploring how much phonological and visual attention span disorders are linked to simultaneous auditory processing deficits.  

PubMed

The simultaneous auditory processing skills of 17 dyslexic children and 17 skilled readers were measured using a dichotic listening task. Results showed that the dyslexic children exhibited difficulties reporting syllabic material when presented simultaneously. As a measure of simultaneous visual processing, visual attention span skills were assessed in the dyslexic children. We presented the dyslexic children with a phonological short-term memory task and a phonemic awareness task to quantify their phonological skills. Visual attention spans correlated positively with individual scores obtained on the dichotic listening task while phonological skills did not correlate with either dichotic scores or visual attention span measures. Moreover, all the dyslexic children with a dichotic listening deficit showed a simultaneous visual processing deficit, and a substantial number of dyslexic children exhibited phonological processing deficits whether or not they exhibited low dichotic listening scores. These findings suggest that processing simultaneous auditory stimuli may be impaired in dyslexic children regardless of phonological processing difficulties and be linked to similar problems in the visual modality. PMID:22829423

Lallier, Marie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane

2012-07-25

61

Impaired Phonological and Orthographic Word Representations among Adult Dyslexic Readers: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors examined the processing of phonological and orthographic word representations among 17 dyslexic and 16 normal college-level readers using Event-Related Potential measures. They focused on 2 early components--the P200 and the P300. The results revealed P200 and P300 components of lower amplitude and later latency among dyslexic readers…

Meyler, Ann; Breznitz, Zvia

2005-01-01

62

Neural dynamics of phonological processing in the dorsal auditory stream.  

PubMed

Neuroanatomical models hypothesize a role for the dorsal auditory pathway in phonological processing as a feedforward efferent system (Davis and Johnsrude, 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Hickok et al., 2011). But the functional organization of the pathway, in terms of time course of interactions between auditory, somatosensory, and motor regions, and the hemispheric lateralization pattern is largely unknown. Here, ambiguous duplex syllables, with elements presented dichotically at varying interaural asynchronies, were used to parametrically modulate phonological processing and associated neural activity in the human dorsal auditory stream. Subjects performed syllable and chirp identification tasks, while event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance images were concurrently collected. Joint independent component analysis was applied to fuse the neuroimaging data and study the neural dynamics of brain regions involved in phonological processing with high spatiotemporal resolution. Results revealed a highly interactive neural network associated with phonological processing, composed of functional fields in posterior temporal gyrus (pSTG), inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and ventral central sulcus (vCS) that were engaged early and almost simultaneously (at 80-100 ms), consistent with a direct influence of articulatory somatomotor areas on phonemic perception. Left hemispheric lateralization was observed 250 ms earlier in IPL and vCS than pSTG, suggesting that functional specialization of somatomotor (and not auditory) areas determined lateralization in the dorsal auditory pathway. The temporal dynamics of the dorsal auditory pathway described here offer a new understanding of its functional organization and demonstrate that temporal information is essential to resolve neural circuits underlying complex behaviors. PMID:24068810

Liebenthal, Einat; Sabri, Merav; Beardsley, Scott A; Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Desai, Anjali

2013-09-25

63

Phonological processes and the perception of phonotactically illegal consonant clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perception of consonant clusters that are phonotactically illegal word initially in English (e.g., \\/tl\\/, \\/sr\\/) was investigated\\u000a to determine whether listeners’ phonological knowledge of the language influences speech processing. Experiment 1 examined\\u000a whether the phonotactic context effect (Massaro & Cohen, 1983), a bias toward hearing illegal sequences (e.g., \\/tl\\/) as legal\\u000a (e.g., \\/tr\\/), is more likely due to knowledge

Mark A. Pitt

1998-01-01

64

Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

2013-01-01

65

Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

2013-01-01

66

Specialization of phonological and semantic processing in Chinese word reading  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the neurocognitive network for processing visual word forms in native Chinese speakers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In order to compare the processing of phonological and semantic representations, we developed parallel rhyming and meaning association judgment tasks that required explicit access and manipulation of these representations. Subjects showed activation in left inferior/middle frontal gyri, bilateral medial frontal gyri, bilateral middle occipital/fusiform gyri, and bilateral cerebella for both the rhyming and meaning tasks. A direct comparison of the tasks revealed that the rhyming task showed more activation in the posterior dorsal region of the inferior/middle frontal gyrus (BA 9/44) and in the inferior parietal lobule (BA 40). The meaning task showed more activation in the anterior ventral region of the inferior/middle frontal gyrus (BA 47) and in the superior/middle temporal gyrus (BA 22,21). These findings are consistent with previous studies in English that suggest specialization of inferior frontal regions for the access and manipulation of phonological vs. semantic representations, but also suggest that this specialization extends to the middle frontal gyrus for Chinese. These findings are also consistent with the suggestion that the left middle temporal gyrus is involved in representing semantic information and the left inferior parietal lobule is involved in mapping between orthographic and phonological representations.

Booth, James R.; Lu, Dong; Burman, Douglas D.; Chou, Tai-Li; Jin, Zhen; Peng, Dan-Ling; Zhang, Lei; Ding, Guo-Sheng; Deng, Yuan; Liu, Li

2008-01-01

67

Computational modelling of phonological dyslexia: How does the DRC model fare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the patterns of reading impairment in phonological dyslexia using computational modelling with the dual-route cascaded model of reading (DRC, Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001). Systematic lesioning of nonlexical and phonological processes in DRC demonstrates that different lesions and severity of those lesions can reproduce features of phonological dyslexia including impaired reading of nonwords, relatively spared

Lyndsey Nickels; Britta Biedermann; Max Coltheart; Steve Saunders; Jeremy J. Tree

2008-01-01

68

Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

2011-01-01

69

Rapid Naming and Phonological Processing as Predictors of Reading and Spelling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationships between the cognitive processes of rapid naming and phonological processing and various literacy skills. Variables measured and used in this analysis were phonological processing, rapid naming, reading comprehension, isolated and nonsense word reading, and spelling. Data were collected from 65 second-to-fifth…

Christo, Catherine; Davis, Jack

2008-01-01

70

Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

2011-01-01

71

The Role of Speed of Processing, Rapid Naming, and Phonological Awareness in Reading Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the role of speed of processing, rapid naming, and phonological awareness in reading achievement of 279 third-graders. Poor readers were proportionally slower than good readers across response time measures and on the rapid object-naming task. Processing speed, IQ, and phonological awareness explained variance in reading…

Catts, Hugh W.; Gillispie, Matthew; Leonard, Laurence B.; Kail, Robert V.; Miller, Carol A.

2002-01-01

72

Response Inhibition and Its Relationship to Phonological Processing in Children with and without Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates response inhibition and its relationship to phonological processing in third-graders with and without dyslexia. Children with dyslexia (n = 20) and children without dyslexia (n = 16) were administered a stop signal task and a digit span forwards task. Initial analyses revealed phonological processing deficits in terms of a…

Schmid, Johanna M.; Labuhn, Andju S.; Hasselhorn, Marcus

2011-01-01

73

Phonological Representations in Children with SLI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It has been hypothesized that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty processing sound-based information, including storing and accessing phonological representations in the lexicon. Tasks are emerging in the literature that provide a measure of the quality of stored phonological representations, without requiring a…

Claessen, Mary; Leitao, Suze

2012-01-01

74

Using a Phonological Framework to Describe Speech Errors of Orally Trained, Hearing-Impaired School-Agers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A phonological framework was used to describe the speech errors of 13 orally trained hearing-impaired children, ages 6 to 16. Among findings were that initial consonant inventories were larger than final consonant inventories and that production accuracy was significantly related to size of consonant inventories. (Author/DB)

Abraham, Suzanne

1989-01-01

75

Inequality between the classes: Phonological and distributional typicality as predictors of lexical processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about the syntactic category of a word can be derived from a number of complementary sources. We focus here on phonological and distributional cues for distinguishing nouns and verbs that have been proposed as useful for language acquisition. In this paper we assessed the extent to which this information affects lexical processing in adults. We hypothesised that the phonological

Morten H. Christiansen

76

Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS instrument was used to monitor the concentration changes of each hemoglobin species when Chinese children did the task of phonological processing and recognition test. The NIRS recorded the hemodynamic changes in the left prefrontal cortex of the children. 20 dyslexia-reading children (10~12 years old) and 20 normal-reading children took part in the phonological processing of Chinese characters including the phonological awareness section and the phonological decoding section. During the phonological awareness section, the changed concentration of deoxy-hemoglobin in dyslexia-reading children were significantly higher (p<0.05) than normal-reading children in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). While in the phonological decoding section, both normal and dyslexic reading children had more activity in the left VLPFC, but only normal-reading children had activity in the left middorsal prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, both dyslexic and normal-reading children have activity in the left prefrontal cortex, but the degree and the areas of the prefrontal cortex activity are different between them when they did phonological processing.

Zhang, Zhili; Li, Ting; Zheng, Yi; Luo, Qingming; Song, Ranran; Gong, Hui

2006-03-01

77

FMRI of two measures of phonological processing in visual word recognition: Ecological validity matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the role of phonological processing by utilizing nonword rhyming decision tasks (e.g., Pugh et al., 1996). Although such tasks clearly engage phonological components of visual word recognition, it is clear that decision tasks are more cognitively involved than the simple overt naming tasks, which more closely map onto normal reading behavior.

William J. Owen; Ron Borowsky; Gordon E. Sarty

2004-01-01

78

Rate of Acquiring and Processing L2 Color Words in Relation to L1 Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of first language (L1) phonological awareness on the rate of learning new second language (L2) color terms and the rate of processing old color terms. Two groups of 37 children participated; they differed on L1 phonological awareness measured at Grade 3. At Grade 5, over multiple trials, the children learned new L2…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2008-01-01

79

Effects of instruction on the decoding skills of children with phonological-processing problems.  

PubMed

This article reviews research carried out by the Bowman Gray Learning Disabilities Project concerning the role of instruction in the acquisition of word-identification (decoding) skills in children at risk for reading disabilities. A group of 81 kindergarten children were identified as at risk for reading disabilities based on teacher assessment and weak or deficient phonological-processing skills. These children were classified as to type of phonological-processing problem (i.e., phonological awareness or retrieval of phonological information) and were randomly assigned to either a Code or Context instructional method for first and second grades. Children who received Code instruction scored higher than children receiving context instruction on a variety of reading and spelling measures at the end of first and second grades. The elements of the Code instructional program considered critical to the success of a beginning reading instruction program for children with phonological processing problems are discussed. PMID:8283124

Felton, R H

1993-11-01

80

Phonological universals constrain the processing of nonspeech stimuli  

PubMed Central

Domain-specific systems are hypothetically specialized with respect to the outputs they compute and the inputs they allow (Fodor, 1983). Here, we examine whether these two conditions for specialization are dissociable. An initial experiment suggests that English speakers could extend a putatively universal phonological restriction to inputs identified as nonspeech. A subsequent comparison of English and Russian participants indicates that the processing of nonspeech inputs is modulated by linguistic experience. Striking, qualitative differences between English and Russian participants suggest that they rely on linguistic principles, both universal and language-particular, rather than generic auditory processing strategies. Thus, the computation of idiosyncratic linguistic outputs is apparently not restricted to speech inputs. This conclusion presents various challenges to both domain-specific and domain-generalist accounts of cognition.

Berent, Iris; Balaban, Evan; Lennertz, Tracy; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

2011-01-01

81

Phonological Processing Skills and Early Reading Abilities in Hong Kong Chinese Kindergarteners Learning to Read English as a Second Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present 9-month longitudinal study investigated relations between Chinese native language phonological processing skills and early Chinese and English reading abilities among 227 kindergarteners in Hong Kong. Phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and short-term verbal memory differed in their relations to concurrent and subsequent Chinese and English word recognition. The significant bidirectional relations between phonological awareness and Chinese reading ability

Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow; Catherine McBride-Chang; Stephen Burgess

2005-01-01

82

Relations between the Neural Bases of Dynamic Auditory Processing and Phonological Processing: Evidence from fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine how the brain responds to temporal compression of speech and to determine whether the same regions are also involved in phonological processes associated with reading. Recorded speech was temporally compressed to varying degrees and presented in a sentence verification task. Regions involved in phonological processing were identified in a separate scan

Russell A. Poldrack; Elise Temple; Athanassios Protopapas; Srikantan Nagarajan; Paula Tallal; Michael Merzenich; John D. E. Gabrieli

2001-01-01

83

Phonological Working Memory Impairments in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Where Does the Problem Lie?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which factors contribute to the lexical learning deficits of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Participants included 40 7-8-year old participants, half of whom were diagnosed with SLI and half of whom had normal language skills. We tested hypotheses about the contributions…

Alt, Mary

2011-01-01

84

Processing Abilities Associated with Phonologic and Orthographic Skills in Adult Learning Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of orthographic and phonologic skills were related to co-normed Woodcock Johnson-Revised (WJ-R) cognitive measures in 138 college age, learning problem adults. Only orthographic deficits were associated with a processing disorder (p<.001). Selective processing abilities were associated with phonologic (p<.001, ?adj R=.053) and orthographic (p<.001, ?adj R=.047) skills after removal of variance associated with general intelligence. Analyses found common processing

David C. Osmon; Michelle M. Braun; Elizabeth A. Plambeck

2005-01-01

85

What phonological deficit?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review a series of experiments aimed at understanding the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia. These experiments investigate input and output phonological representations, phonological grammar, foreign speech perception and production, and unconscious speech processing and lexical access. Our results converge on the observation that the phonological representations of people with dyslexia may be intact, and that the

Franck Ramus; Gayaneh Szenkovits

2008-01-01

86

Mapping the reading circuitry for skilled deaf readers: an fMRI study of semantic and phonological processing.  

PubMed

We examined word-level reading circuits in skilled deaf readers whose primary language is American Sign Language, and hearing readers matched for reading ability (college level). During fMRI scanning, participants performed a semantic decision (concrete concept?), a phonological decision (two syllables?), and a false-font control task (string underlined?). The groups performed equally well on the semantic task, but hearing readers performed better on the phonological task. Semantic processing engaged similar left frontotemporal language circuits in deaf and hearing readers. However, phonological processing elicited increased neural activity in deaf, relative to hearing readers, in the left precentral gyrus, suggesting greater reliance on articulatory phonological codes, and in bilateral parietal cortex, suggesting increased phonological processing effort. Deaf readers also showed stronger anterior-posterior functional segregation between semantic and phonological processes in left inferior prefrontal cortex. Finally, weaker phonological decoding ability did not alter activation in the visual word form area for deaf readers. PMID:23747332

Emmorey, Karen; Weisberg, Jill; McCullough, Stephen; Petrich, Jennifer A F

2013-06-05

87

Phonologic Processing in Adults Who Stutter: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), judgment accuracy, and reaction times (RTs) were obtained for 11 adults who stutter and 11 normally fluent speakers as they performed a rhyme judgment task of visually presented word pairs. Half of the word pairs (i.e., prime and target) were phonologically and orthographically congruent across words. That…

Weber-Fox, Christine; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Spruill, John E., III; Smith, Anne

2004-01-01

88

Phonological Universals Constrain the Processing of Nonspeech Stimuli  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Domain-specific systems are hypothetically specialized with respect to the outputs they compute and the inputs they allow (Fodor, 1983). Here, we examine whether these 2 conditions for specialization are dissociable. An initial experiment suggests that English speakers could extend a putatively universal phonological restriction to inputs…

Berent, Iris; Balaban, Evan; Lennertz, Tracy; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered

2010-01-01

89

A meta-analysis of fMRI studies on Chinese orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing.  

PubMed

A growing body of neuroimaging evidence has shown that Chinese character processing recruits differential activation from alphabetic languages due to its unique linguistic features. As more investigations on Chinese character processing have recently become available, we applied a meta-analytic approach to summarize previous findings and examined the neural networks for orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing of Chinese characters independently. The activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method was used to analyze eight studies in the orthographic task category, eleven in the phonological and fifteen in the semantic task categories. Converging activation among three language-processing components was found in the left middle frontal gyrus, the left superior parietal lobule and the left mid-fusiform gyrus, suggesting a common sub-network underlying the character recognition process regardless of the task nature. With increasing task demands, the left inferior parietal lobule and the right superior temporal gyrus were specialized for phonological processing, while the left middle temporal gyrus was involved in semantic processing. Functional dissociation was identified in the left inferior frontal gyrus, with the posterior dorsal part for phonological processing and the anterior ventral part for semantic processing. Moreover, bilateral involvement of the ventral occipito-temporal regions was found for both phonological and semantic processing. The results provide better understanding of the neural networks underlying Chinese orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing, and consolidate the findings of additional recruitment of the left middle frontal gyrus and the right fusiform gyrus for Chinese character processing as compared with the universal language network that has been based on alphabetic languages. PMID:22759996

Wu, Chiao-Yi; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel

2012-07-01

90

They played with the trade: MEG investigation of the processing of past tense verbs and their phonological twins.  

PubMed

How regular and irregular verbs are processed remains a matter of debate. Some English-speaking patients with nonfluent aphasia are especially impaired on regular past-tense forms like played, whether the task requires production, comprehension or even the judgement that "play" and "played" sound different. Within a dual-mechanism account of inflectional morphology, these deficits reflect disruption to the rule-based process that adds (or strips) the suffix -ed to regular verb stems; but the fact that the patients are also impaired at detecting the difference between word pairs like "tray" and "trade" (the latter being a phonological but not a morphological twin to "played") suggests an important role for phonological characteristics of the regular past tense. The present study examined MEG brain responses in healthy participants evoked by spoken regular past-tense forms and phonological twin words (plus twin pseudowords and a non-speech control) presented in a passive oddball paradigm. Deviant forms (played, trade, kwade/kwayed) relative to their standards (play, tray, kway) elicited a pronounced neuromagnetic response at approximately 130 ms after the onset of the affix; this response was maximal at sensors over temporal areas of both hemispheres but stronger on the left, especially for played and kwayed. Relative to the same standards, a different set of deviants ending in /t/--plate, trait and kwate--produced stronger difference responses especially over the right hemisphere. Results are discussed with regard to dual- and single-mechanism theories of past tense processing and the need to consider neurobiological evidence in attempts to understand inflectional morphology. PMID:23103839

Holland, Rachel; Brindley, Lisa; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Patterson, Karalyn

2012-10-24

91

They played with the trade: MEG investigation of the processing of past tense verbs and their phonological twins  

PubMed Central

How regular and irregular verbs are processed remains a matter of debate. Some English-speaking patients with nonfluent aphasia are especially impaired on regular past-tense forms like played, whether the task requires production, comprehension or even the judgement that “play” and “played” sound different. Within a dual-mechanism account of inflectional morphology, these deficits reflect disruption to the rule-based process that adds (or strips) the suffix -ed to regular verb stems; but the fact that the patients are also impaired at detecting the difference between word pairs like “tray” and “trade” (the latter being a phonological but not a morphological twin to “played”) suggests an important role for phonological characteristics of the regular past tense. The present study examined MEG brain responses in healthy participants evoked by spoken regular past-tense forms and phonological twin words (plus twin pseudowords and a non-speech control) presented in a passive oddball paradigm. Deviant forms (played, trade, kwade/kwayed) relative to their standards (play, tray, kway) elicited a pronounced neuromagnetic response at approximately 130 ms after the onset of the affix; this response was maximal at sensors over temporal areas of both hemispheres but stronger on the left, especially for played and kwayed. Relative to the same standards, a different set of deviants ending in /t/?—plate, trait and kwate—?produced stronger difference responses especially over the right hemisphere. Results are discussed with regard to dual- and single-mechanism theories of past tense processing and the need to consider neurobiological evidence in attempts to understand inflectional morphology.

Holland, Rachel; Brindley, Lisa; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Patterson, Karalyn

2012-01-01

92

The processing of English regular inflections: Phonological cues to morphological structure  

PubMed Central

Previous studies suggest that different neural and functional mechanisms are involved in the analysis of irregular (caught) and regular (filled) past tense forms in English. In particular, the comprehension and production of regular forms is argued to require processes of morpho-phonological assembly and disassembly, analysing these forms into a stem plus an inflectional affix (e.g., {fill} + {-ed}), as opposed to irregular forms, which do not have an overt stem + affix structure and must be analysed as full forms [Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Tyler, L. K. (1997). Dissociating types of mental computation. Nature, 387, 592–594; Marslen-Wilson, W. D., & Tyler, L. K. (1998). Rules, representations, and the English past tense. Trends in Cognitive Science, 2, 428–435]. On this account, any incoming string that shows the critical diagnostic properties of an inflected form – a final coronal consonant (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/) that agrees in voicing with the preceding segment as in filled, mild, or nilled – will automatically trigger an attempt at segmentation. We report an auditory speeded judgment experiment which explored the contribution of these critical morpho-phonological properties (labelled as the English inflectional rhyme pattern) to the processing of English regular inflections. The results show that any stimulus that can be interpreted as ending in a regular inflection, whether it is a real inflection (filled–fill), a pseudo-inflection (mild–mile) or a phonologically matched nonword (nilled–nill), is responded to more slowly than an unambiguously monomorphemic stimulus pair (e.g., belt–bell). This morpho-phonological effect was independent of phonological effects of voicing and syllabicity. The findings are interpreted as evidence for a basic morpho-phonological parsing process that applies to all items with the criterial phonological properties.

Post, Brechtje; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K.

2008-01-01

93

The Influence of Working Memory and Phonological Processing on English Language Learner Children's Bilingual Reading and Language Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we explored whether the contribution of working memory (WM) to children's (N = 471) 2nd language (L2) reading and language acquisition was best accounted for by processing efficiency at a phonological level and/or by executive processes independent of phonological processing. Elementary school children (Grades 1, 2, & 3) whose 1st…

Swanson, H. Lee; Orosco, Michael J.; Lussier, Cathy M.; Gerber, Michael M.; Guzman-Orth, Danielle A.

2011-01-01

94

The Nature of Preschool Phonological Processing Abilities and Their Relations to Vocabulary, General Cognitive Abilities, and Print Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of reading-related phonological processing abilities represents an important developmental milestone in the process of learning to read. In this cross-sectional study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of phonological processing abilities in 129 younger preschoolers (M = 40.88 months, SD = 4.65) and 304…

Lonigan, Christopher J.; Anthony, Jason L.; Phillips, Beth M.; Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; McQueen, Jessica D.

2009-01-01

95

ERP correlates of the development of orthographical and phonological processing during Chinese sentence reading.  

PubMed

An event-related potential (ERP) experiment was conducted to investigate the development of orthographic and phonological processing during Chinese sentence reading between school children and adult readers. Participants were visually presented with sentences, word-by-word, and were asked to judge whether the sentences were semantically acceptable. The crucial manipulation was on the sentence-final two-character compound words, which were either correct or incorrect. For the incorrect compounds, the second characters of the base words were replaced by homophonic or orthographically similar characters. ERP results showed that, across participant groups, the peak of P200 appeared earlier for the homophonic condition than for the orthographic and the baseline conditions. Importantly, for both child and adult readers, relative to the baseline, both orthographic mismatch in the homophonic condition and phonological mismatch in the orthographic condition elicited N400 effects. While for adults these effects appeared to be equal in size, the peak of the N400 component appeared earlier for orthographic mismatch than for phonological mismatch. For children the N400 effect was larger for orthographic mismatch than for phonological mismatch. The N400 component was also more negative for children than for adults in the homophonic condition, and its peak appeared later for children than for adults in the homophonic and the baseline conditions. Moreover, the offset of the N400 effects appeared earlier for adults than for children and for orthographic mismatch than for phonological mismatch. These findings suggest that both Chinese adult readers and school children rely more on orthographic information than on phonological information to access lexical semantics in reading Chinese sentences. However, the differential effects between orthography and phonology may have different ERP manifestations in adults and children. PMID:18539265

Meng, Xiangzhi; Jian, Jie; Shu, Hua; Tian, Xiaomei; Zhou, Xiaolin

2008-04-27

96

A Comparison of Phonological Processing Skills of Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Children with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999), the researchers compared strengths and weaknesses in phonological processing skills in three groups: 21 children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), 29 children with dyslexia, and 30 age-matched controls. The MSNH group showed…

Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J.

2012-01-01

97

A Comparison of Phonological Processing Skills of Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Children with Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999), the researchers compared strengths and weaknesses in phonological processing skills in three groups: 21 children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), 29 children with dyslexia, and 30 age-matched controls. The MSNH group showed…

Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J.

2012-01-01

98

Learning Letter Names and Sounds: Effects of Instruction, Letter Type, and Phonological Processing Skill  

PubMed Central

Preschool-aged children (n = 58) were randomly assigned to receive instruction in letter names and sounds, letter sounds only, or numbers (control). Multilevel modeling was used to examine letter name and sound learning as a function of instructional condition and characteristics of both letters and children. Specifically, learning was examined in light of letter name structure, whether letter names included cues to their respective sounds, and children’s phonological processing skills. Consistent with past research, children receiving letter name and sound instruction were most likely to learn the sounds of letters whose names included cues to their sounds, regardless of phonological processing skills. Only children with higher phonological skills showed a similar effect in the control condition. Practical implications are discussed.

Piasta, Shayne B.; Wagner, Richard K.

2010-01-01

99

Phonological and lexical encoding processes in beginning readers: Effects of age and word characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was two-fold. First to find out whether the prelexical phonological route develops prior to the visual route or whether the direct visual route develops first in the process of learning to read Greek. Second, to see whether the subjects' chronological age deviation affects decisively the overall reading accuracy and the processes employed in word reading.

C. D. Porpodas; S. N. Pantelis; E. Hantziou

1990-01-01

100

Preschool impairments in auditory processing and speech perception uniquely predict future reading problems.  

PubMed

Developmental dyslexia is characterized by severe reading and spelling difficulties that are persistent and resistant to the usual didactic measures and remedial efforts. It is well established that a major cause of these problems lies in poorly specified phonological representations. Many individuals with dyslexia also present impairments in auditory temporal processing and speech perception, but it remains debated whether these more basic perceptual impairments play a role in causing the reading problem. Longitudinal studies may help clarifying this issue by assessing preschool children before they receive reading instruction and by following them up through literacy development. The current longitudinal study shows impairments in auditory frequency modulation (FM) detection, speech perception and phonological awareness in kindergarten and in grade 1 in children who receive a dyslexia diagnosis in grade 3. FM sensitivity and speech-in-noise perception in kindergarten uniquely contribute to growth in reading ability, even after controlling for letter knowledge and phonological awareness. These findings indicate that impairments in auditory processing and speech perception are not merely an epiphenomenon of reading failure. Although no specific directional relations were observed between auditory processing, speech perception and phonological awareness, the highly significant concurrent and predictive correlations between all these variables suggest a reciprocal association and corroborate the evidence for the auditory deficit theory of dyslexia. PMID:21236633

Boets, Bart; Vandermosten, Maaike; Poelmans, Hanne; Luts, Heleen; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

2011-01-13

101

Functional Connectivity in an fMRI Study of Semantic and Phonological Processes and the Effect of L-Dopa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe an fMRI experiment examining the functional connectivity (FC) between regions of the brain associated with semantic and phonological processing. We wished to explore whether L-Dopa administration affects the interaction between language network components in semantic and phonological categorization tasks, as revealed by FC. We…

Tivarus, Madalina E.; Hillier, Ashleigh; Schmalbrock, Petra; Beversdorf, David Q.

2008-01-01

102

Interaction of Phonological Awareness and "Magnocellular" Processing during Normal and Dyslexic Reading: Behavioural and fMRI Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated whether phonological deficits are a consequence of magnocellular processing deficits in dyslexic and control children. In Experiment 1, children were tested for reading ability, phonological awareness, visuo-magnocellular motion perception, and attention shifting (sometimes considered as magnocellular function). A two-step cluster…

Heim, Stefan; Grande, Marion; Pape-Neumann, Julia; van Ermingen, Muna; Meffert, Elisabeth; Grabowska, Anna; Huber, Walter; Amunts, Katrin

2010-01-01

103

The Relationship between Phonological and Auditory Processing and Brain Organization in Beginning Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We employed brain-behavior analyses to explore the relationship between performance on tasks measuring phonological awareness, pseudoword decoding, and rapid auditory processing (all predictors of reading (dis)ability) and brain organization for print and speech in beginning readers. For print-related activation, we observed a shared set of…

Pugh, Kenneth R.; Landi, Nicole; Preston, Jonathan L.; Mencl, W. Einar; Austin, Alison C.; Sibley, Daragh; Fulbright, Robert K.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Molfese, Peter; Frost, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

104

Processing Interactions between Phonology and Melody: Vowels Sing but Consonants Speak  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to determine if two dimensions of song, the phonological part of lyrics and the melodic part of tunes, are processed in an independent or integrated way. In a series of five experiments, musically untrained participants classified bi-syllabic nonwords sung on two-tone melodic intervals. Their response had to be based on…

Kolinsky, Regine; Lidji, Pascale; Peretz, Isabelle; Besson, Mireille; Morais, Jose

2009-01-01

105

Processing interactions between phonology and melody: Vowels sing but consonants speak  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine if two dimensions of song, the phonological part of lyrics and the melodic part of tunes, are processed in an independent or integrated way. In a series of five experiments, musically untrained participants classified bi-syllabic nonwords sung on two-tone melodic intervals. Their response had to be based on pitch contour, on nonword

Régine Kolinsky; Pascale Lidji; Isabelle Peretz; Mireille Besson; José Morais

2009-01-01

106

The Effects of Concurrent Cognitive Load on Phonological Processing in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To determine whether phonological processing in adults who stutter (AWS) is disrupted by increased amounts of cognitive load in a concurrent attention-demanding task. Method: Nine AWS and 9 adults who do not stutter (AWNS) participated. Using a dual-task paradigm, the authors presented word pairs for rhyme judgments and, concurrently,…

Jones, Robin M.; Fox, Robert A.; Jacewicz, Ewa

2012-01-01

107

How Is Phonological Processing Related to Individual Differences in Children's Arithmetic Skills?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there is evidence for an association between the development of reading and arithmetic, the precise locus of this relationship remains to be determined. Findings from cognitive neuroscience research that point to shared neural correlates for phonological processing and arithmetic as well as recent behavioral evidence led to the present…

De Smedt, Bert; Taylor, Jessica; Archibald, Lisa; Ansari, Daniel

2010-01-01

108

Evaluating Phonological Processing Skills in Children with Prelingual Deafness Who Use Cochlear Implants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the phonological processing skills of 29 children with prelingual, profound hearing loss with 4 years of cochlear implant experience. Results were group matched with regard to word-reading ability and mother's educational level with the performance of 29 hearing children. Results revealed that it is possible to obtain a…

Spencer, Linda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

2009-01-01

109

A functional toolkit for morphological and phonological processing, application to a Sanskrit tagger  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the Zen toolkit for morphological and phonological processing of natural lan- guages. This toolkit is presented in literate programming style, in the Pidgin ML subset of the Objective Caml functional programming language. This toolkit is based on a sys- tematic representation of nite state automata and transducers as decorated lexical trees. All operations on the state space data

Gérard P. Huet

2005-01-01

110

Literacy Ability and Phonological Processing Skills amongst Dyslexic and Non-Dyslexic Speakers of Arabic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper investigates the relationship between phonological processing and reading ability amongst grade 4 and grade 5 Arabic speaking children in Egypt. In addition to measuring reading level, the study assessed the children's ability to identify rhymes, delete individual phonemes from words, retain and manipulate sequences of digit names and…

Elbeheri, Gad; Everatt, John

2007-01-01

111

Individual Differences in Categorical Perception Are Related to Sublexical/Phonological Processing in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the relationship between individual differences in speech perception and sublexical/phonological processing in reading. We used an auditory phoneme identification task in which a /ba/-/pa/ syllable continuum measured sensitivity to classify participants into three performance groups: poor, medium, and good categorizers. A…

Lopez-Zamora, Miguel; Luque, Juan L.; Alvarez, Carlos J.; Cobos, Pedro L.

2012-01-01

112

Recursive Patterns in Phonological Phrases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we investigate an instance of phonological recursion, more specifically we investigate iterative rule application in phonological phrases. The question is whether or not edge-marking processes, such as early pitch accent placement, can be applied recursively to phonological phrases that are embedded in larger phonological phrases. 1. Overview

Maartje Schreuder; Dicky Gilbers

113

An fMRI study of multi-modal semantic and phonological processing in reading disabled adolescents  

PubMed Central

Using fMRI we investigated multimodal (visual and auditory) semantic and unimodal (visual only) phonological processing in reading disabled (RD) adolescents and non-impaired (NI) control participants. We found reduced activation for RD relative to NI in a number of left-hemisphere reading-related areas across all processing tasks regardless of task type (semantic vs. phonological) or modality (auditory vs. visual modality). Moreover, activation differences in these regions, which included the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the occipitotemporal region (OT), was largely independent of in-scanner performance in our auditory semantic task. That is, although RD participants and NI participants differed in performance in visually presented conditions, they did not differ significantly in the auditory condition, yet similar patterns of reduced activation were observed in these regions across conditions. These findings indicate a neurobiological marker in RD that is independent of task, modality or performance. These findings are discussed in the context of current neurobiological models of RD.

Landi, Nicole; Mencl, W. Einar; Frost, Stephen J.; Sandak, Rebecca; Pugh, Kenneth R.

2010-01-01

114

Developmental Differences of Neurocognitive Networks for Phonological and Semantic Processing in Chinese Word Reading  

PubMed Central

Developmental differences in the neurocognitive networks for phonological and semantic processing in Chinese word reading were examined in 13 adults and 13 children using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Rhyming and semantic association judgments were made to two-character words that were presented sequentially in the visual modality. These lexical tasks were compared with a nonlinguistic control task involving judgment of line patterns. The first main finding was that adults showed greater activation than children in right middle occipital gyrus on both the meaning and rhyming task, suggesting adults more effectively engage right hemisphere brain regions involved in the visual-spatial analysis of Chinese characters. The second main finding was that adults showed greater activation than children in left inferior parietal lobule for the rhyming as compared with the meaning task, suggesting greater specialization of phonological processing in adults. The third main finding was that children who had better performance in the rhyming task on characters with conflicting orthographic and phonological information relative to characters with nonconflicting information showed greater activation in left middle frontal gyrus, suggesting greater engagement of brain regions involved in the integration of orthography and phonology.

Cao, Fan; Peng, Danling; Liu, Li; Jin, Zhen; Fan, Ning; Deng, Yuan; Booth, James R.

2010-01-01

115

Cross-language transfer of phonological and orthographic processing skills from Spanish L1 to English L2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous cross-language research has focused on L1 phonological processing and its relation to L2 reading. Less extensive\\u000a is the research on the effect that L1 orthographic processing skill has on L2 reading and spelling. This study was designed\\u000a to investigate how reading and spelling acquisition in English (L2) is influenced by phonological and orthographic processing\\u000a skills in Spanish (L1) in

M. Kendra Sun-Alperin; Min Wang

2011-01-01

116

The relationship between speech impairment, phonological awareness and early literacy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although children with speech impairment are at increased risk for impaired literacy, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. Around half the children with speech impairment have delayed acquisition, making errors typical of a normally developing younger child (e.g. reducing consonant clusters so that spoon is pronounced as ‘poon’). A smaller group make disordered speech errors that are atypical

Judy Harris; Nicola Botting; Lucy Myers; Barbara Dodd

2010-01-01

117

The relationship between speech impairment, phonological awareness and early literacy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although children with speech impairment are at increased risk for impaired literacy, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. Around half the children with speech impairment have delayed acquisition, making errors typical of a normally developing younger child (e.g. reducing consonant clusters so that spoon is pronounced as ‘poon’). A smaller group make disordered speech errors that are atypical

Judy Harris; Nicola Botting; Lucy Myers; Barbara Dodd

2011-01-01

118

Toddlers' processing of phonological alternations: early compensation for assimilation in English and French.  

PubMed

Using a picture pointing task, this study examines toddlers' processing of phonological alternations that trigger sound changes in connected speech. Three experiments investigate whether 2;5- to 3-year-old children take into account assimilations--processes by which phonological features of one sound spread to adjacent sounds--for the purpose of word recognition (e.g., in English, ten pounds can be produced as te[mp]ounds). English toddlers (n = 18) show sensitivity to native place assimilations during lexical access in Experiment 1. Likewise, French toddlers (n = 27) compensate for French voicing assimilations in Experiment 2. However, French toddlers (n = 27) do not take into account a hypothetical non-native place assimilation rule in Experiment 3, suggesting that compensation for assimilation is already language specific. PMID:22957776

Skoruppa, Katrin; Mani, Nivedita; Peperkamp, Sharon

2012-09-09

119

Phonological Processes in the Speech of Jordanian Arabic Children with Cleft Lip and/or Palate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The controlled and free speech of 15 Jordanian male and female children with cleft lip and/or palate was analyzed to account for the different phonological processes exhibited. Study participants were divided into three main age groups, 4 years 2 months to 4 years 7 months, 5 years 3 months to 5 years 6 months, and 6 years 4 months to 6 years 6…

Al-Tamimi, Feda Y.; Owais, Arwa I.; Khabour, Omar F.; Khamaiseh, Zaidan A.

2011-01-01

120

Study the left prefrontal cortex activity of Chinese children with dyslexia in phonological processing by NIRS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental dyslexia, a kind of prevalent psychological disease, represents that dyslexic children have unexpected difficulties in phonological processing and recognition test of Chinese characters. Some functional imaging technologies, such as fMRI and PET, have been used to study the brain activities of the children with dyslexia whose first language is English. In this paper, a portable, 16-channel, continuous-wave (CW) NIRS

Zhili Zhang; Ting Li; Yi Zheng; Qingming Luo; Ranran Song; Hui Gong

2006-01-01

121

Phonological basis in reading disability: A review and analysis of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poor readers are known to do consistently worsethan their normal reading peers on tasks ofphonological processing. They are characterizedby their difficulties in printed wordrecognition, phonological awareness andphonological decoding. An increasing body ofevidence points to deficits in speechperception as a source of subtle but ramifyingeffects in reading impaired children andadults. These deficits may be traced to poorlycoded phonological representations. Thisarticle will

Maria Mody

2003-01-01

122

The Time Course of Grammatical and Phonological Processing During Speaking: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor-related brain potentials were used to examine the time course of grammatical and phonological processes during noun phrase production in Dutch. In the experiments, participants named colored pictures using a no-determiner noun phrase. On half of the trials a syntactic–phonological classification task had to be performed before naming. Depending on the outcome of the classifications, a left or a right

Miranda van Turennout; Peter Hagoort; Colin Brown

1999-01-01

123

Variation in the application of natural processes: Language-dependent constraints in the phonological acquisition of bilingual children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies phonological processes and constraints on early phonological and lexical development, as well as the strategies employed by a young Spanish-, Portuguese-, and Hebrew-speaking child—Nurit (the author's niece)—in the construction of her early lexicon. Nurit's linguistic development is compared to that of another Spanish-, Portuguese-, and Hebrew-speaking child—Noam (the author's son). Noam and Nurit's linguistic development is contrasted

Eduardo D. Faingold

1996-01-01

124

Working memory and phonological processing as predictors of children’s mathematical problem solving at different ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study explored the contribution of working memory (WM) to mathematical problem solving in younger (8-year-old) and older\\u000a (11-year-old) children. The results showed that (1) significant agerelated differences in WM performance were maintained when\\u000a measures of phonological processing (i.e., digit naming speed, short-term memory, phonological deletion) were partialed from\\u000a the analysis; (2) WM predicted solution accuracy of word problems independently

H. Lee Swanson

2004-01-01

125

Phonological facilitation of object naming in agrammatic and logopenic primary progressive aphasia (PPA).  

PubMed

Phonological processing deficits are characteristic of both the agrammatic and logopenic subtypes of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G and PPA-L). However, it is an open question which substages of phonological processing (i.e., phonological word form retrieval, phonological encoding) are impaired in these subtypes of PPA, as well as how phonological processing deficits contribute to anomia. In the present study, participants with PPA-G (n?=?7), participants with PPA-L (n?=?7), and unimpaired controls (n?=?17) named objects as interfering written words (phonologically related/unrelated) were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 0, +100, +300, and +500?ms. Phonological facilitation (PF) effects (faster naming times with phonologically related interfering words) were found for the controls and PPA-L group only at SOA?=?0 and +100?ms. However, the PPA-G group exhibited protracted PF effects (PF at SOA?=?0, +100, and +300?ms). These results may reflect deficits in phonological encoding in PPA-G, but not in PPA-L, supporting the neuropsychological reality of this substage of phonological processing and the distinction between these two PPA subtypes. PMID:24070176

Mack, Jennifer E; Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Kloet, James D; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M-Marsel; Thompson, Cynthia K

2013-09-27

126

Relationships Between First and Second Language Phonological Processing Skills and Reading in Chinese?English Speakers living in English?Speaking Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between phoneme categorisation, phonological processing, and reading performance were examined in Chinese?English speaking children in an English?speaking environment. Second language (L2, i.e., English) phonological processing but not phoneme categorisation was related to L2 reading. First language (L1) oral language skills were related to Chinese reading with L1 phonological processing being related to the Chinese reading task with a

Alexandra Gottardo; Penny Chiappe; Bernice Yan; Linda Siegel; Yan Gu

2006-01-01

127

Rhythmic Priming Enhances the Phonological Processing of Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While natural speech does not possess the same degree of temporal regularity found in music, there is recent evidence to suggest that temporal regularity enhances speech processing. The aim of this experiment was to examine whether speech processing would be enhanced by the prior presentation of a rhythmical prime. We recorded…

Cason, Nia; Schon, Daniele

2012-01-01

128

Changing Relations Between Phonological Processing Abilities and Word-Level Reading as Children Develop From Beginning to Skilled Readers: A 5Year Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between phonological processing abilities and word-level reading skills were examined in a longitudinal correlational study of 216 children. Phonological processing abilities, word-level reading skills, and vocabulary were assessed annually from kindergarten through 4th grade, as the children developed from beginning to skilled readers. Individual differences in phonological awareness were related to subsequent individual differences in word-level reading for every

Richard K. Wagner; Joseph K. Torgesen; Carol A. Rashotte; Steve A. Hecht; Theodore A. Barker; Stephen R. Burgess; John Donahue; Tamara Garon

1997-01-01

129

Changing relations between phonological processing abilities and word-level reading as children develop from beginning to skilled readers: A 5-year longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between phonological processing abilities and word-level reading skills were examined in a longitudinal correlational study of 216 children. Phonological processing abilities, word-level reading skills, and vocabulary were assessed annually from kindergarten through 4th grade, as the children developed from beginning to skilled readers. Individual differences in phonological aware- ness were related to subsequent individual differences in word-level reading for

Richard K. Wagner; Joseph K. Torgesen; Carol A. Rashotte; Steve A. Hecht

1997-01-01

130

Phonological Working Memory in Spanish-English Bilingual Children with and without Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined the performance of sequential bilingual children with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI), who had Spanish as an L1 and English as their L2, on an auditory non-word repetition task using Spanish phonotactic patterns. We also analyzed the accuracy with which this task distinguished these children (according to children's and…

Girbau, Dolors; Schwartz, Richard G.

2008-01-01

131

FMRI of two measures of phonological processing in visual word recognition: ecological validity matters.  

PubMed

Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the role of phonological processing by utilizing nonword rhyming decision tasks (e.g., Pugh et al., 1996). Although such tasks clearly engage phonological components of visual word recognition, it is clear that decision tasks are more cognitively involved than the simple overt naming tasks, which more closely map onto normal reading behavior. Our research aim for this study was to examine the advantages of overt naming tasks for fMRI studies of word recognition processes. Process models are presented to highlight the similarities and differences between two cognitive tasks that are used in the word recognition literature, pseudohomophone naming (e.g., pronounce BRANE) and rhyming decision (e.g., do LEAT and JEAT rhyme?). An fMRI study identified several differences in cortical activation associated with the differences observed in the process models. Specifically, the results show that the overt naming task involved the insular cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, whereas the rhyming decision task engaged the temporal-parietal regions. It is argued that future fMRI research examining the neuroanatomical components of basic visual word recognition utilize overt naming tasks. PMID:15172523

Owen, William J; Borowsky, Ron; Sarty, Gordon E

132

The Interface between Morphology and Phonology: Exploring a Morpho-Phonological Deficit in Spoken Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…

Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

2013-01-01

133

Effects of Phonological Contrast on Auditory Word Discrimination in Children with and without Reading Disability: A Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor readers perform worse than their normal reading peers on a variety of speech perception tasks, which may be linked to their phonological processing abilities. The purpose of the study was to compare the brain activation patterns of normal and impaired readers on speech perception to better understand the phonological basis in reading…

Wehner, Daniel T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Mody, Maria

2007-01-01

134

Effects of Phonological Contrast on Auditory Word Discrimination in Children with and without Reading Disability: A Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Poor readers perform worse than their normal reading peers on a variety of speech perception tasks, which may be linked to their phonological processing abilities. The purpose of the study was to compare the brain activation patterns of normal and impaired readers on speech perception to better understand the phonological basis in reading…

Wehner, Daniel T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Mody, Maria

2007-01-01

135

Visual Spatial Attention and Speech Segmentation are Both Impaired in Preschoolers at Familial Risk for Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phonological skills are foundational of reading acquisition and impaired phonological processing is widely assumed to characterize dyslexic individuals. However, reading by phonological decoding also requires rapid selection of sublexical orthographic units through serial attentional orienting, and recent studies have shown that visual spatial…

Facoetti, Andrea; Corradi, Nicola; Ruffino, Milena; Gori, Simone; Zorzi, Marco

2010-01-01

136

Role of Visual Speech in Phonological Processing by Children With Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Purpose This research assessed the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by children with hearing loss (HL). Method Children with HL and children with normal hearing (NH) named pictures while attempting to ignore auditory or audiovisual speech distractors whose onsets relative to the pictures were either congruent, conflicting in place of articulation, or conflicting in voicing—for example, the picture “pizza” coupled with the distractors “peach,” “teacher,” or “beast,” respectively. Speed of picture naming was measured. Results The conflicting conditions slowed naming, and phonological processing by children with HL displayed the age-related shift in sensitivity to visual speech seen in children with NH, although with developmental delay. Younger children with HL exhibited a disproportionately large influence of visual speech and a negligible influence of auditory speech, whereas older children with HL showed a robust influence of auditory speech with no benefit to performance from adding visual speech. The congruent conditions did not speed naming in children with HL, nor did the addition of visual speech influence performance. Unexpectedly, the /?/-vowel congruent distractors slowed naming in children with HL and decreased articulatory proficiency. Conclusions Results for the conflicting conditions are consistent with the hypothesis that speech representations in children with HL (a) are initially disproportionally structured in terms of visual speech and (b) become better specified with age in terms of auditorily encoded information.

Jerger, Susan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Herve

2011-01-01

137

Task Effects in the Mid-Fusiform Gyrus: A Comparison of Orthographic, Phonological, and Semantic Processing of Chinese Characters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The left mid-fusiform gyrus is repeatedly reported to be involved in visual word processing. Nevertheless, it is controversial whether this area responds to orthographic processing of reading. To examine this idea, neural activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in the present study while subjects performed phonological,…

Guo, Yi; Burgund, E. Darcy

2010-01-01

138

Task Effects in the Mid-Fusiform Gyrus: A Comparison of Orthographic, Phonological, and Semantic Processing of Chinese Characters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The left mid-fusiform gyrus is repeatedly reported to be involved in visual word processing. Nevertheless, it is controversial whether this area responds to orthographic processing of reading. To examine this idea, neural activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in the present study while subjects performed phonological,…

Guo, Yi; Burgund, E. Darcy

2010-01-01

139

The relationship between phonological processing skills and word and nonword identification performance in children with mild intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

Word and nonword identification skills were examined in a sample of 80 elementary school age students with mild intellectual disabilities and mixed etiologies who were described as struggling to learn to read by their teachers. Performance on measures of receptive and expressive vocabulary, measures of phonological awareness, and measures of word and nonword identification were included for analyses. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for chronological age and vocabulary knowledge, phonological processing accounted for a large and significant amount of unique variance of both word and nonword identification. In addition, the pattern of results found in this study is similar to that obtained with typically developing learners. As with typically developing children, measures of phonological awareness were significantly correlated with measures of both reading achievement and vocabulary knowledge. PMID:20846821

Wise, Justin C; Sevcik, Rose A; Romski, Maryann; Morris, Robin D

2010-09-16

140

Effective Speech Processing for Various Impaired Listeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal hearing listeners are able to understand speech with different types of degradation, because speech has redundancy in the spectro-temporal domains. On the other hand, hearing impaired listeners have less such capability. Because of this, speech signal processing for hearing impairment needs to preserve important landmarks when enhancing a speech signal. The hearing impairments are characterized by high-frequency hearing loss,

Takayuki Arai; Keiichi Yasu; Nao Hodoshima

141

The interaction between phonological processing, syntactic awareness, and naming speed in the reading and spelling performance of first-grade children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of 267 first-grade children was examined on tasks assessing phonological processing, syntactic awareness, and naming speed. The children were also given several measures of word and pseudoword reading, reading comprehension, and pseudoword and dictation spelling. A series of hierarchical analyses indicated that three variables (phonological awareness, syntactic awareness, and naming speed) were still predictors of reading and spelling

Monique Plaza; Henri Cohen

2003-01-01

142

Are Phonological Processes the Same or Different in Low Literacy Adults and Children with or without Reading Disabilities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary purpose of the study reported here was to examine whether phonological processes are the same or different in low literacy adults and children with or without reading disabilities in a consistent orthography. A sample of 150 subjects was selected and organized into four different groups: 53 low literacy adults, 29 reading disabled…

Jimenez, Juan E.; Garcia, Eduardo; Venegas, Enrique

2010-01-01

143

Contributions of Phonological Processing Skills to Reading Skills in Arabic Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This cross-sectional study investigated contributions of phonological awareness (Elision and blending), rapid naming (object, color, letter, and digit), and phonological memory (nonword repetition and Digit Span) to basic decoding and fluency skills in Arabic. Participants were 237 Arabic speaking children from Grades K-3. Dependent measures…

Taibah, Nadia J.; Haynes, Charles W.

2011-01-01

144

Neural Correlates of Phonological Processing in Speech Sound Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Speech sound disorders (SSD) are the largest group of communication disorders observed in children. One explanation for these disorders is that children with SSD fail to form stable phonological representations when acquiring the speech sound system of their language due to poor phonological memory (PM). The goal of this study was to examine PM…

Tkach, Jean A.; Chen, Xu; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Holland, Scott K.; Lewis, Barbara A.

2011-01-01

145

Electrophysiological Indices of Spatial Attention during Global/Local Processing in Good and Poor Phonological Decoders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous research suggests a relationship between spatial attention and phonological decoding in developmental dyslexia. The aim of this study was to examine differences between good and poor phonological decoders in the allocation of spatial attention to global and local levels of hierarchical stimuli. A further aim was to investigate the…

Matthews, Allison Jane; Martin, Frances Heritage

2009-01-01

146

Neural Correlates of Phonological Processing in Speech Sound Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech sound disorders (SSD) are the largest group of communication disorders observed in children. One explanation for these disorders is that children with SSD fail to form stable phonological representations when acquiring the speech sound system of their language due to poor phonological memory (PM). The goal of this study was to examine PM in…

Tkach, Jean A.; Chen, Xu; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Holland, Scott K.; Lewis, Barbara A.

2011-01-01

147

Phonological Involvement in the Processing of Japanese at the Lexical and Sentence Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents 3 experiments that examine whether Japanese readers activate phonological information when reading kanji compound words and sentences and if so, how they do it. Suggests that readers activate phonological information of two-kanji compound words when reading for comprehension but not for simple proofreading. (SG)|

Morita, Aiko; Tamaoka, Katsuo

2002-01-01

148

Spatiotemporal distribution of cortical processing of first and second languages in bilinguals. II. Effects of phonologic and semantic priming.  

PubMed

This study determined the effects of phonology and semantics on the distribution of cortical activity to the second of a pair of words in first and second language (mixed pairs). The effects of relative proficiency in the two languages and linguistic setting (monolinguistic or mixed) are reported in a companion paper. Ten early bilinguals and 14 late bilinguals listened to mixed pairs of words in Arabic (L1) and Hebrew (L2) and indicated whether both words in the pair had the same or different meanings. The spatio-temporal distribution of current densities of event-related potentials were estimated for each language and according to semantic and phonologic relationship (same or different) compared with the first word in the pair. During early processing (<300 ms), brain activity in temporal and temporoparietal auditory areas was enhanced by phonologic incongruence between words in the pair and in Wernicke's area by both phonologic and semantic priming. In contrast, brain activities during late processing (>300 ms) were enhanced by semantic incongruence between the two words, particularly in temporal areas and in left hemisphere Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The latter differences were greater when words were in L2. Surprisingly, no significant effects of relative proficiency on processing the second word in the pair were found. These results indicate that the distribution of brain activity to the second of two words presented bilingually is affected differently during early and late processing by both semantic and phonologic priming by- and incongruence with the immediately preceding word. Hum Brain Mapp 34:2882-2898, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22696304

Pratt, Hillel; Abbasi, Dalal Abu-Amneh; Bleich, Naomi; Mittelman, Nomi; Starr, Arnold

2012-06-13

149

Do Nonword Repetition Errors in Children with Specific Language Impairment Reflect a Weakness in an Unidentified Skill Specific to Nonword Repetition or a Deficit in Simultaneous Processing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Commentary supports Gathercole's (2006) proposal on a double deficit in children with specific language impairment (SLI). The author suggests that these children have a limited phonological storage combined with a particular problem of processing novel speech stimuli. According to Gathercole, there are three areas of skill contributing to…

Marton, Klara

2006-01-01

150

Auditory phonological priming in children and adults during word repetition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-term auditory phonological priming effects involve changes in the speed with which words are processed by a listener as a function of recent exposure to other similar-sounding words. Activation of phonological/lexical representations appears to persist beyond the immediate offset of a word, influencing subsequent processing. Priming effects are commonly cited as demonstrating concurrent activation of word/phonological candidates during word identification. Phonological priming is controversial, the direction of effects (facilitating versus slowing) varying with the prime-target relationship. In adults, it has repeatedly been demonstrated, however, that hearing a prime word that rhymes with the following target word (ISI=50 ms) decreases the time necessary to initiate repetition of the target, relative to when the prime and target have no phonemic overlap. Activation of phonological representations in children has not typically been studied using this paradigm, auditory-word + picture-naming tasks being used instead. The present study employed an auditory phonological priming paradigm being developed for use with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children. Initial results from normal-hearing adults replicate previous reports of faster naming times for targets following a rhyming prime word than for targets following a prime having no phonemes in common. Results from normal-hearing children will also be reported. [Work supported by NIH-NIDCD T32DC000039.

Cleary, Miranda; Schwartz, Richard G.

2001-05-01

151

Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number…

Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

2012-01-01

152

Interactive processing of phonological information in reading Japanese Kanji character words and their phonemic radicals.  

PubMed

Kanji are categorized into four types based on the combinations of "subword validity" (when the right phonemic radical represents the same On-reading as the whole Kanji character) and "radical-neighbor consistency" (when the whole Kanji character represents the same On-reading as all of its neighbor characters). The study demonstrated that both subword validity and radical-neighbor consistency affect naming latencies and error rates regardless of character frequency. The study also demonstrated that the subword validity affects ease of extraction of a subword's phonology. These results suggest that the phonology of the whole Kanji competes with the subword's phonology. Moreover, the competition is stronger when the radical-neighbors aid in extracting the phonology of the whole Kanji. PMID:12081412

Masuda, Hisashi; Saito, Hirofumi

153

Phonological sensitivity and memory in children with a foreign language learning difficulty.  

PubMed

The phonological processing and memory skills of 12- and 13-year-old Italian children with difficulty in learning English as a foreign language (foreign language learning difficulty, FLLD) were examined and compared with those of a control group matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Three experiments were conducted. A dissociation between verbal and visuo-spatial working memory was observed when compared to the control group; children with FLLD showed a poorer performance in a phonological working memory task but performed to a comparable level in a visuo-spatial working memory task (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2 the word length and the response modality of an auditory word span task were manipulated in order to examine the efficiency of the phonological loop and the relevance of the spoken output. The FLLD group did not show sensitivity to the word length effect and showed no advantage in the picture pointing recall condition. In Experiment 3 children with FLLD were shown to be sensitive to phonological similarity but again they showed neither a word length effect nor a slower articulation speed. Furthermore, in all three experiments children with FLLD were shown to be less efficient in phonological sensitivity tasks and this deficit appeared to be independent of the phonological memory problem. All three experiments consistently showed that children with FLLD have an impairment in phonological memory and phonological processing, which appear to be independent from one other but both contribute to the children's difficulty in learning a second language. PMID:18569688

Palladino, Paola; Ferrari, Marcella

2008-01-01

154

Processing interactions between phonology and melody: vowels sing but consonants speak.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine if two dimensions of song, the phonological part of lyrics and the melodic part of tunes, are processed in an independent or integrated way. In a series of five experiments, musically untrained participants classified bi-syllabic nonwords sung on two-tone melodic intervals. Their response had to be based on pitch contour, on nonword identity, or on the combination of pitch and nonword. When participants had to ignore irrelevant variations of the non-attended dimension, patterns of interference and facilitation allowed us to specify the processing interactions between dimensions. Results showed that consonants are processed more independently from melodic information than vowels are (Experiments 1-4). This difference between consonants and vowels was neither related to the sonority of the phoneme (Experiment 3), nor to the acoustical correlates between vowel quality and pitch height (Experiment 5). The implication of these results for our understanding of the functional relationships between musical and linguistic systems is discussed in light of the different evolutionary origins and linguistic functions of consonants and vowels. PMID:19409537

Kolinsky, Régine; Lidji, Pascale; Peretz, Isabelle; Besson, Mireille; Morais, José

2009-05-05

155

Who Is at Risk for Dyslexia? Phonological Processing in Five-to Seven-Year-Old Dutch-Speaking Children with SLI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A disproportionally high number of children with specific language impairment (SLI) develop dyslexia. Yet it is hard to predict which individual child is at risk. This article presents a longitudinal study of phonological and early literacy development of 18 Dutch-speaking children with SLI, compared to 18 typically developing controls over a…

Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

2010-01-01

156

Trajectories emerging from discrete versus continuous processing models in phonological competitor tasks: a commentary on Spivey, Grosjean, and Knoblich (2005).  

PubMed

M. J. Spivey, M. Grosjean, and G. Knoblich showed that in a phonological competitor task, participants' mouse cursor movements showed more curvature toward the competitor item when the competitor and target were phonologically similar than when the competitor and target were phonologically dissimilar. Spivey et al. interpreted this result as evidence for continuous cascading of information during the processing of spoken words. Here we show that the results of Spivey et al.need not be ascribed to continuous speech processing. Instead, their results can be ascribed to discrete processing of speech, provided one appeals to an already supported model of motor control that asserts that switching movements from 1 target to another relies on superposition of the 2nd movement onto the 1st. The latter process is a continuous cascade, a fact that indirectly strengthens the plausibility of continuous cascade models. However, the fact that we can simulate the results of Spivey et al.with a continuous motor output model and a discrete perceptual model shows that the implications of Spivey et al.'s experiment are less clear than these authors supposed. PMID:19331511

van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Eder, Jeffrey R; Mitchel, Aaron D; Walsh, Matthew M; Rosenbaum, David A

2009-04-01

157

Mathematical Problem Solving and Working Memory in Children with Learning Disabilities: Both Executive and Phonological Processes Are Important  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to explore the relationship between working memory (WM) and mathematical problem solving in children with learning disabilities (LD). Children with LD (age 11.5 years) were compared to chronologically age-matched (CA-M) and younger comprehension\\/computation achievement-matched children (age 8.9 years) on measures of verbal and visual-spatial WM, phonological processing, components of problem solving, and word-problem solving

H. Lee Swanson; Carole Sachse-Lee

2001-01-01

158

[Perception-production relations in substitution phonological processes in children with language disorders].  

PubMed

It is generally agreed that the auditory perception skills of children with developmental language disorders are more limited than those of typically developing children. It is not easy to determine exactly how the capacity to discriminate and the capacity to pronounce phonemes influence each other in children with language disorders. For most authors, the inability to discriminate certain phonemes accurately causes a developmental delay in pronunciation, whereas others claim the influence is mutual. The aim of this study is to determine in which consonants perceptive difficulty is more likely to occur and in which cases there is a greater probability of difficulty when it comes to articulating them. The sample used in the study consisted of 86 children with a mean age of 4 years and 7 months. The phonological processes involved in simplifying speech were identified. Their errors were used as the basis on which to construct and apply a specific speech perception test. The relationship between the articulatory and perceptive skills of children with substitutive processes were analysed by means of two comparisons: first, in all the processes detected taken as a whole and, second, in the three most frequent substitutive processes. These analyses were carried out to determine whether the nature of the consonant implied a greater probability of perceptive difficulty. The findings provide information about a relation between the articulatory and perceptive skills, and about whether the nature of the consonant determines a higher probability of perceptive or articulatory difficulties. These results can be of value in the assessment, design and effectiveness of speech therapy programmes. PMID:23446715

Ygual-Fernández, Amparo; Cervera-Mérida, José Francisco

2013-02-22

159

An Investigation to Validate the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) Test to Identify Children with Specific Language Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe extraordinarily high incidence of grammatical language impairments in developmental disorders suggests that this uniquely human cognitive function is “fragile”. Yet our understanding of the neurobiology of grammatical impairments is limited. Furthermore, there is no “gold-standard” to identify grammatical impairments and routine screening is not undertaken. An accurate screening test to identify grammatical abilities would serve the research, health and

Heather K. J. van der Lely; Elisabeth Payne; Alastair McClelland

2011-01-01

160

Directional Effects between Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Deficient rapid auditory processing (RAP) has been associated with early language impairment and dyslexia. Using an auditory masking paradigm, children with language disabilities perform selectively worse than controls at detecting a tone in a backward masking (BM) condition (tone followed by white noise) compared to a forward masking…

Johnson, Erin Phinney; Pennington, Bruce F.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Boada, Richard

2009-01-01

161

Directional Effects between Rapid Auditory Processing and Phonological Awareness in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Deficient rapid auditory processing (RAP) has been associated with early language impairment and dyslexia. Using an auditory masking paradigm, children with language disabilities perform selectively worse than controls at detecting a tone in a backward masking (BM) condition (tone followed by white noise) compared to a forward masking…

Johnson, Erin Phinney; Pennington, Bruce F.; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Boada, Richard

2009-01-01

162

Preventing reading failure in young children with phonological processing disabilities: Group and individual responses to instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative effectiveness of three instructional approaches for the prevention of reading disabilities in young children with weak phonological skills was examined. Two programs varying in the intensity of instruction in phonemic decoding were contrasted with each other and with a third approach that supported the children's regular classroom reading program. The children were provided with 88 hours of one-to-one

Joseph K. Torgesen; Richard K. Wagner; Carol A. Rashotte; Elaine Rose; Patricia Lindamood; Tim Conway; Cyndi Garvan

1999-01-01

163

Preventing Reading Failure in Young Children With Phonological Processing Disabilities: Group and Individual Responses to Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative effectiveness of 3 instructional approaches for the prevention of reading disabilities in young children with weak phonological skills was examined. Two programs varying in the intensity of instruction in phonemic decoding were contrasted with each other and with a 3rd approach that supported the children's regular classroom reading program. The children were provided with 88 hr of one-to-one

Joseph K. Torgesen; Richard K. Wagner; Carol A. Rashotte; Elaine Rose; Patricia Lindamood; Tim Conway; Cyndi Garvan

1999-01-01

164

Reading Aloud Is Not Automatic: Processing Capacity Is Required to Generate a Phonological Code from Print  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present experiments tested the claim that phonological recoding occurs "automatically" by assessing whether it uses central attention in the context of the psychological refractory period paradigm. Task 1 was a tone discrimination task and Task 2 was reading aloud. The joint effects of long-lag word repetition priming and stimulus onset…

Reynolds, Michael; Besner, Derek

2006-01-01

165

Sequential Processing of Lexical, Grammatical, and Phonological Information Within Broca's Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Words, grammar, and phonology are linguistically distinct, yet their neural substrates are difficult to distinguish in macroscopic brain regions. We investigated whether they can be separated in time and space at the circuit level using intracranial electrophysiology (ICE), namely by recording local field potentials from populations of neurons using electrodes implanted in language-related brain regions while people read words verbatim

Ned T. Sahin; Steven Pinker; Sydney S. Cash; Donald Schomer; Eric Halgren

2009-01-01

166

Semantic and Phonological Task-Set Priming and Stimulus Processing Investigated Using Magnetoencephalography (MEG)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study the neural substrates of semantic and phonological task priming and task performance were investigated using single word task-primes. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were analysed using Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry (SAM) to determine the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of cortical responses. Comparisons were made…

McNab, F.; Rippon, G.; Hillebrand, A.; Singh, K. D.; Swithenby, S. J.

2007-01-01

167

Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number naming…

Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

2012-01-01

168

Young Readers' Use of Phonological Information: Phonological Awareness, Memory, and Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we explored the relationship between beginning readers' phonological awareness and other aspects of phonological processing, specifically as manifested in short-term memory and comprehension tasks. The theoretical questions underlying the study were (a) what roles phonological processes play in children's beginning reading, from…

Gray, Audra; McCutchen, Deborah

2006-01-01

169

Impaired parietal magnitude processing in developmental dyscalculia.  

PubMed

Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a specific learning disability affecting the acquisition of school-level mathematical abilities in the context of otherwise normal academic achievement, with prevalence estimates in the order of 3-6%. Behavioural studies show deficits in elementary numerical processing among individuals with pure DD, indicating that deficits in higher-level mathematical skills may stem from impaired representation and processing of basic numerical magnitude. Adult neuropsychological and neuroimaging research points to the intraparietal sulcus as a key region for the representation and processing of numerical magnitude. This raises the possibility of a parietal dysfunction as a root cause of DD. We show that, in children with pure DD, the right intraparietal sulcus is not modulated in response to numerical processing demands to the same degree as in typically developing children. This finding provides the first direct evidence for a specific impairment of parietal magnitude systems in DD during non-symbolic numerosity processing. PMID:18088583

Price, Gavin R; Holloway, Ian; Räsänen, Pekka; Vesterinen, Manu; Ansari, Daniel

2007-12-18

170

Trajectories Emerging from Discrete versus Continuous Processing Models in Phonological Competitor Tasks: A Commentary on Spivey, Grosjean, and Knoblich (2005)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|M. J. Spivey, M. Grosjean, and G. Knoblich (2005) showed that in a phonological competitor task, participants' mouse cursor movements showed more curvature toward the competitor item when the competitor and target were phonologically similar than when the competitor and target were phonologically dissimilar. Spivey et al. interpreted this result…

Van Der Wel, Robrecht P. R. D.; Eder, Jeffrey R.; Mitchel, Aaron D.; Walsh, Matthew M.; Rosenbaum, David A.

2009-01-01

171

Emotional context processing is impaired in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Following considerable evidence for impaired context processing and facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia, this study examined the ability of schizophrenia patients to utilise contextual information when judging the meaning of facial expressions. Methods. 22 healthy and 20 schizophrenia participants completed the “vignette–face” task (Carroll & Russell, 1996) in which target facial expressions are preceded by vignettes describing situational information

Melissa Jayne Green; Jennifer H. Waldron; Max Coltheart

2007-01-01

172

Early Contribution of Phonological Awareness and Later Influence of Phonological Memory throughout Reading Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The acquisition of reading skills is known to rely on early phonological abilities, but only a few studies have investigated the independent contribution of the different steps involved in phonological processing. This 1-year longitudinal study, spanning the initial year of reading instruction, aimed at specifying the development of phonological

Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle; Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Leybaert, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

173

The relationships between morphological and phonological errors in aphasic speech: data from a word repetition task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current theories of single-word processing predict that in some cases brain damage should selectively impair morphological processes, resulting in the selective occurrence of morphological errors. However, such a selective pattern of errors has never been documented, and the available case studies report the systematic association of morphological and phonological (segmental) errors in the same subject. The number of relevant case

Gabriele Miceli; Rita Capasso; Alfonso Caramazza

2004-01-01

174

A DYNAMIC LOOK AT L2 PHONOLOGICAL LEARNING: Seeking Processing Explanations for Implicational Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether L2 phonological learning can be characterized as a gradual and systematically patterned replacement of non-native segments by native segments in learners' speech, conforming to a two-stage implicational scale. The study adopted a dynamic approach to language variation based on Gatbonton's (1978) gradual diffusion framework. Participants were 40 Québec Francophones, representing different English proficiency levels, who produced

Pavel Trofimovich; Elizabeth Gatbonton; Norman Segalowitz

2007-01-01

175

A tractography study in dyslexia: neuroanatomic correlates of orthographic, phonological and speech processing.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging tractography is a structural magnetic resonance imaging technique allowing reconstruction and assessment of the integrity of three dimensional white matter tracts, as indexed by their fractional anisotropy. It is assumed that the left arcuate fasciculus plays a crucial role for reading development, as it connects two regions of the reading network, the left temporoparietal region and the left inferior frontal gyrus, for which atypical functional activation and lower fractional anisotropy values have been reported in dyslexic readers. In addition, we explored the potential role of the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, which might connect a third region of the reading network, the left ventral occipitotemporal region with the left inferior frontal gyrus. In the present study, 20 adults with dyslexia and 20 typical reading adults were scanned using diffusion tensor imaging, and the bilateral arcuate fasciculus and the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were delineated. Group comparisons show a significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in the left arcuate fasciculus of adults with dyslexia, in particular in the segment that directly connects posterior temporal and frontal areas. This fractional anisotropy reduction might reflect a lower degree of myelination in the dyslexic sample, as it co-occurred with a group difference in radial diffusivity. In contrast, no significant group differences in fractional anisotropy were found in the right arcuate fasciculus or in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Correlational analyses (controlled for reading status) demonstrated a specific relation between performance on phoneme awareness and speech perception and the integrity of left arcuate fasciculus as indexed by fractional anisotropy, and between orthographic processing and fractional anisotropy values in left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. The present study reveals structural anomalies in the left arcuate fasciculus in adults with dyslexia. This finding corroborates current hypotheses of dyslexia as a disorder of network connections. In addition, our study demonstrates a correlational double dissociation, which might reflect neuroanatomical correlates of the dual route reading model: the left arcuate fasciculus seems to sustain the dorsal phonological route underlying grapheme-phoneme decoding, while the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus seems to sustain the ventral orthographic route underlying reading by direct word access. PMID:22327793

Vandermosten, Maaike; Boets, Bart; Poelmans, Hanne; Sunaert, Stefan; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

2012-02-10

176

The nature of the phonological processing in French dyslexic children: evidence for the phonological syllable and linguistic features' role in silent reading and speech discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the status of phonological representations in French dyslexic children (DY) compared with reading\\u000a level- (RL) and chronological age-matched (CA) controls. We focused on the syllable’s role and on the impact of French linguistic\\u000a features. In Experiment 1, we assessed oral discrimination abilities of pairs of syllables that varied as a function of voicing,\\u000a mode or place of

Norbert Maïonchi-Pino; Annie Magnan; Jean Écalle

2010-01-01

177

Lexical and nonlexical processing in developmental dyslexia: a case for different resources and different impairments.  

PubMed

In a group of adult dyslexics word reading and, especially, word spelling are predicted more by what we have called lexical learning (tapped by a paired-associate task with pictures and written nonwords) than by phonological skills. Nonword reading and spelling, instead, are not associated with this task but they are predicted by phonological tasks. Consistently, surface and phonological dyslexics show opposite profiles on lexical learning and phonological tasks. The phonological dyslexics are more impaired on the phonological tasks, while the surface dyslexics are equally or more impaired on the lexical learning tasks. Finally, orthographic lexical learning explains more variation in spelling than in reading, and subtyping based on spelling returns more interpretable results than that based on reading. These results suggest that the quality of lexical representations is crucial to adult literacy skills. This is best measured by spelling and best predicted by a task of lexical learning. We hypothesize that lexical learning taps a uniquely human capacity to form new representations by recombining the units of a restricted set. PMID:18781498

Romani, Cristina; Di Betta, Anna Maria; Tsouknida, Effie; Olson, Andrew

2008-09-01

178

Between-word processes in children with speech difficulties: insights from a usage-based approach to phonology.  

PubMed

There are some children with speech and/or language difficulties who are significantly more difficult to understand in connected speech than in single words. The study reported here explores the between-word behaviours of three such children, aged 11;8, 12;2 and 12;10. It focuses on whether these patterns could be accounted for by lenition, as suggested by a usage-based approach to phonology. The children carried out a repetition task, with sentences containing environments that can trigger assimilation and elision. Speech elicited was examined using a combination of perceptual and electropalatographic (EPG) analysis. All of the children produced instances of word boundary behaviours reported in adult speech, as well as some which are considered to be atypical. It is argued that all of these phenomena can be viewed as lenition, and that a usage-based approach to phonology has potential for providing a valuable framework for the description of between-word processes in disordered speech. PMID:22774930

Newton, Caroline

2012-08-01

179

Spelling via semantics and phonology: exploring the effects of age, Alzheimer’s disease, and primary semantic impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spelling performance across a common set of stimuli was examined in young adults, healthy older adults, individuals with early stage dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (DAT), and four individuals with a primary semantic impairment (PSI). The stimuli included homophones and low-frequency sound-to-spelling consistent (i.e. words with more predictable spellings) and inconsistent words (i.e. words with less predictable spellings). The results

Michael J. Cortese; David A. Balota; Susan D. Sergent-Marshall; Randy L. Buckner

2003-01-01

180

Nondeclarative learning in children with Specific Language Impairment: Predicting regularities in the visuomotor, phonological, and cognitive domains.  

PubMed

Ullman (2004) suggested that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) results from a general procedural learning deficit. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated children with SLI via procedural learning tasks exploring the verbal, motor, and cognitive domains. Results showed that compared with a Control Group, the children with SLI (a) were unable to learn a phonotactic learning task, (b) were able but less efficiently to learn a motor learning task and (c) succeeded in a cognitive learning task. Regarding the motor learning task (Serial Reaction Time Task), reaction times were longer and learning slower than in controls. The learning effect was not significant in children with an associated Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), and future studies should consider comorbid motor impairment in order to clarify whether impairments are related to the motor rather than the language disorder. Our results indicate that a phonotactic learning but not a cognitive procedural deficit underlies SLI, thus challenging Ullmans' general procedural deficit hypothesis, like a few other recent studies. PMID:23062060

Mayor-Dubois, C; Zesiger, P; Van der Linden, M; Roulet-Perez, E

2012-10-15

181

The Gogi (word-meaning) syndrome with impaired kanji processing: alexia with agraphia.  

PubMed

Two cases, one with probable Pick's disease and one with herpes simplex encephalitis, are presented, focusing on Gogi (word-meaning) aphasia-like syndrome as their salient clinical feature. Their aphasic symptoms were characterized by impaired kanji processing and preserved kana processing in writing and oral reading known as a defining feature of Gogi aphasia, but little evidence of so-called "phonetic use of kanji in writing" and "confusion between on- and kun-readings of kanji in oral reading" often observed in Gogi aphasia. Systematic neuropsychological test batteries administered to them showed that the selective impairment of kanji processing did not always arise from a disturbance of a specific ability known to be essential to Gogi aphasia (i.e., failure in comprehending the semantic content of spoken and written language), but rather from an amnestic disruption in the ability to access the correct orthographic and phonological forms of kanji words. This selective impairment of kanji processing may be compatible with "alexia with agraphia of kanji," recently known to be attributable to left posterotemporal lesions. These results suggest that Gogi aphasia (or similar syndromes) is not necessarily a real syndrome but a polytypic constellation of symptoms. PMID:8353730

Jibiki, I; Yamaguchi, N

1993-07-01

182

Impaired holistic processing in congenital prosopagnosia  

PubMed Central

It has long been argued that face processing requires disproportionate reliance on holistic or configural processing, relative to that required for non-face object recognition, and that a disruption of such holistic processing may be causally implicated in prosopagnosia. Previously, we demonstrated that individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) did not show the normal face inversion effect (better performance for upright compared to inverted faces) and evinced a local (rather than the normal global) bias in a compound letter global/local (GL) task, supporting the claim of disrupted holistic processing in prosopagnosia. Here, we investigate further the nature of holistic processing impairments in CP, first by confirming, in a large sample of CP individuals, the absence of the normal face inversion effect and the presence of the local bias on the GL task, and, second, by employing the composite face paradigm, often regarded as the gold standard for measuring holistic face processing. In this last task, we show that, in contrast with normal individuals, the CP group perform equivalently with aligned and misaligned faces and was impervious to (the normal) interference from the task-irrelevant bottom part of faces. Interestingly, the extent of the local bias evident in the composite task is correlated with the abnormality of performance on diagnostic face processing tasks. Furthermore, there is a significant correlation between the magnitude of the local bias in the GL and performance on the composite task. These results provide further evidence for impaired holistic processing in CP and, moreover, corroborate the critical role of this type of processing for intact face recognition.

Avidan, Galia; Tanzer, Michal; Behrmann, Marlene

2011-01-01

183

Impaired holistic processing in congenital prosopagnosia.  

PubMed

It has long been argued that face processing requires disproportionate reliance on holistic or configural processing, relative to that required for non-face object recognition, and that a disruption of such holistic processing may be causally implicated in prosopagnosia. Previously, we demonstrated that individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) did not show the normal face inversion effect (better performance for upright compared to inverted faces) and evinced a local (rather than the normal global) bias in a compound letter global/local (GL) task, supporting the claim of disrupted holistic processing in prosopagnosia. Here, we investigate further the nature of holistic processing impairments in CP, first by confirming, in a large sample of CP individuals, the absence of the normal face inversion effect and the presence of the local bias on the GL task, and, second, by employing the composite face paradigm, often regarded as the gold standard for measuring holistic face processing. In this last task, we show that, in contrast with controls, the CP group perform equivalently with aligned and misaligned faces and was impervious to (the normal) interference from the task-irrelevant bottom part of faces. Interestingly, the extent of the local bias evident in the composite task is correlated with the abnormality of performance on diagnostic face processing tasks. Furthermore, there is a significant correlation between the magnitude of the local bias in the GL and performance on the composite task. These results provide further evidence for impaired holistic processing in CP and, moreover, corroborate the critical role of this type of processing for intact face recognition. PMID:21601583

Avidan, Galia; Tanzer, Michal; Behrmann, Marlene

2011-05-12

184

A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Verbal Short-Term Memory and Phonological Processing in 8-Year-Olds with a History of Repetitive Otitis Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…

Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial

2005-01-01

185

Do Phonological and Executive Processes in English Learners at Risk for Reading Disabilities in Grade 1 Predict Performance in Grade 2?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study determined the degree to which the phonological and executive components of memory reflect language-specific capacities in reading achievement. We tested whether the memory processes in a sample of English-language learners that played a major role in predicting second-language acquisition and risk for reading disability (RD) in Grade…

Lee Swanson, H.; Sez, Leilani; Gerber, Michael

2004-01-01

186

Contribution of Temporal Processing Skills to Reading Comprehension in 8-Year-Olds: Evidence for a Mediation Effect of Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study tested whether the association between temporal processing (TP) and reading is mediated by phonological awareness (PA) in a normative sample of 615 eight-year-olds. TP was measured with auditory and bimodal (visual-auditory) temporal order judgment tasks and PA with a phoneme deletion task. PA partially mediated the association between…

Malenfant, Nathalie; Grondin, Simon; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Robaey, Philippe; Dionne, Ginette

2012-01-01

187

Contribution of Temporal Processing Skills to Reading Comprehension in 8-Year-Olds: Evidence for a Mediation Effect of Phonological Awareness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether the association between temporal processing (TP) and reading is mediated by phonological awareness (PA) in a normative sample of 615 eight-year-olds. TP was measured with auditory and bimodal (visual-auditory) temporal order judgment tasks and PA with a phoneme deletion task. PA partially mediated the association between…

Malenfant, Nathalie; Grondin, Simon; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Robaey, Philippe; Dionne, Ginette

2012-01-01

188

The neural basis of inhibitory effects of semantic and phonological neighbors in spoken word production.  

PubMed

Theories of word production and word recognition generally agree that multiple word candidates are activated during processing. The facilitative and inhibitory effects of these "lexical neighbors" have been studied extensively using behavioral methods and have spurred theoretical development in psycholinguistics, but relatively little is known about the neural basis of these effects and how lesions may affect them. This study used voxel-wise lesion overlap subtraction to examine semantic and phonological neighbor effects in spoken word production following left hemisphere stroke. Increased inhibitory effects of near semantic neighbors were associated with inferior frontal lobe lesions, suggesting impaired selection among strongly activated semantically related candidates. Increased inhibitory effects of phonological neighbors were associated with posterior superior temporal and inferior parietal lobe lesions. In combination with previous studies, these results suggest that such lesions cause phonological-to-lexical feedback to more strongly activate phonologically related lexical candidates. The comparison of semantic and phonological neighbor effects and how they are affected by left hemisphere lesions provides new insights into the cognitive dynamics and neural basis of phonological, semantic, and cognitive control processes in spoken word production. PMID:23647518

Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M

2013-05-06

189

Working Memory Capacity and Language Processes in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the interaction between working memory and language comprehension in children with specific language impairment (SLI), focusing on the function of the central executive component and its interaction with the phonological loop (A. D. Baddeley, 1986) in complex working memory tasks. Thirteen children with SLI and 13 age-matched…

Marton, Klara; Schwartz, Richard G.

2003-01-01

190

Preschool Impairments in Auditory Processing and Speech Perception Uniquely Predict Future Reading Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developmental dyslexia is characterized by severe reading and spelling difficulties that are persistent and resistant to the usual didactic measures and remedial efforts. It is well established that a major cause of these problems lies in poorly specified phonological representations. Many individuals with dyslexia also present impairments in…

Boets, Bart; Vandermosten, Maaike; Poelmans, Hanne; Luts, Heleen; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquiere, Pol

2011-01-01

191

Dynamics of phonological-phonetic encoding in word production: evidence from diverging ERPs between stroke patients and controls.  

PubMed

While the dynamics of lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological encoding in word production have been investigated in several event-related potential (ERP) studies, the estimated time course of phonological-phonetic encoding is the result of rather indirect evidence. We investigated the dynamics of phonological-phonetic encoding combining ERP analyses covering the entire encoding process in picture naming and word reading tasks by comparing ERP modulations in eight brain-damaged speakers presenting impaired phonological-phonetic encoding relative to 16 healthy controls. ERPs diverged between groups in terms of local waveform amplitude and global topography at ?400 ms after stimulus onset in the picture naming task and at ?320-350 ms in word reading and sustained until 100 ms before articulation onset. These divergences appeared in later time windows than those found in patients with underlying lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological impairment in previous studies, providing evidence that phonological-phonetic encoding is engaged around 400 ms in picture naming and around 330 ms in word reading. PMID:23707932

Laganaro, Marina; Python, Grégoire; Toepel, Ulrike

2013-05-23

192

Modeling the Control of Phonological Encoding in Bilingual Speakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…

Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim

2006-01-01

193

Orthographic vs. Phonologic Syllables in Handwriting Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

French children program the words they write syllable by syllable. We examined whether the syllable the children use to segment words is determined phonologically (i.e., is derived from speech production processes) or orthographically. Third, 4th and 5th graders wrote on a digitiser words that were mono-syllables phonologically (e.g. "barque" =…

Kandel, Sonia; Herault, Lucie; Grosjacques, Geraldine; Lambert, Eric; Fayol, Michel

2009-01-01

194

Phonological disorder  

MedlinePLUS

... structures work to create speech (such as from cerebral palsy ). ... intellectual disability ) Hearing impairment Neurological conditions (such as cerebral palsy) Physical problems (such as cleft palate) The health ...

195

A quantitative and qualitative assessment of verbal short-term memory and phonological processing in 8-year-olds with a history of repetitive otitis media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3. Relative to a control group with no history of

Steve Majerus; Pierre Amand; Vincent Boniver; Jean-Pierre Demanez; Laurent Demanez; Martial Van der Linden

2005-01-01

196

Incremental Phonological Encoding during Unscripted Sentence Production  

PubMed Central

We investigate phonological encoding during unscripted sentence production, focusing on the effect of phonological overlap on phonological encoding. Previous work on this question has almost exclusively employed isolated word production or highly scripted multi-word production. These studies have led to conflicting results: some studies found that phonological overlap between two words facilitates phonological encoding, while others found inhibitory effects. One worry with many of these paradigms is that they involve processes that are not typical to everyday language use, which calls into question to what extent their findings speak to the architectures and mechanisms underlying language production. We present a paradigm to investigate the consequences of phonological overlap between words in a sentence while leaving speakers much of the lexical and structural choices typical in everyday language use. Adult native speakers of English described events in short video clips. We annotated the presence of disfluencies and the speech rate at various points throughout the sentence, as well as the constituent order. We find that phonological overlap has an inhibitory effect on phonological encoding. Specifically, if adjacent content words share their phonological onset (e.g., hand the hammer), they are preceded by production difficulty, as reflected in fluency and speech rate. We also find that this production difficulty affects speakers’ constituent order preferences during grammatical encoding. We discuss our results and previous works to isolate the properties of other paradigms that resulted in facilitatory or inhibitory results. The data from our paradigm also speak to questions about the scope of phonological planning in unscripted speech and as to whether phonological and grammatical encoding interact.

Jaeger, T. Florian; Furth, Katrina; Hilliard, Caitlin

2012-01-01

197

[Phonological and orthographic processes of reading and spelling in young adolescents and adults with and without dyslexia in German and English: impact on foreign language learning].  

PubMed

The present study addressed the question whether there is a relationship between phonological and orthographic processes of reading and spelling in adolescents and young adults with and without dyslexia in German and English. On the evidence of the Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis and results of the latest research in foreign language learning the hypothesis is tested if there is a relationship between phonological and orthographic knowledge on the one hand and decoding and spelling performance on the other hand in German adolescents and young adults reading and spelling German and English words. This hypothesis was tested with the statistical method of structural equation modeling and therefore the research population was divided into the following groups: group 1 with dyslexia in reading (n = 93), group 2 with dyslexia in spelling (n = 93), group 3 without dyslexia in reading (n = 95), and group 4 without dyslexia in spelling (n = 95). Results of data analysis show that the postulated prediction model fits only the data of the dyslexia group for reading and spelling, but not for the control group. Also the model for both groups does not fit. The results of the pilot study show that it is necessary to modify diagnostic instruments of measurement and to separate scales of phonological and orthographic processes. PMID:15914994

Romonath, Roswitha; Wahn, Claudia; Gregg, Noel

198

What Aspects of Face Processing Are Impaired in Developmental Prosopagnosia?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a severe impairment in identifying faces that is present from early in life and that occurs despite no apparent brain damage and intact visual and intellectual function. Here, we investigated what aspects of face processing are impaired/spared in developmental prosopagnosia by examining a relatively large group…

Le Grand, Richard; Cooper, Philip A.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Sagiv, Noam; de Gelder, Beatrice; Maurer, Daphne

2006-01-01

199

What aspects of face processing are impaired in developmental prosopagnosia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a severe impairment in identifying faces that is present from early in life and that occurs despite no apparent brain damage and intact visual and intellectual function. Here, we investigated what aspects of face processing are impaired\\/spared in developmental prosopagnosia by examining a relatively large group of individuals with DP (n=8) using an extensive battery of

Richard Le Grand; Philip A. Cooper; Catherine J. Mondloch; Terri L. Lewis; Noam Sagiv; Beatrice de Gelder; Daphne Maurer

2006-01-01

200

A Cross-Linguistic fMRI Study of Spectral and Temporal Cues Underlying Phonological Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It remains a matter of controversy precisely what kind of neural mechanisms underlie functional asymmetries in speech processing. Whereas some studies support speech-specific circuits, others suggest that lateralization is dictated by relative computational demands of complex auditory signals in the spectral or time domains. To examine how the brain processes linguistically relevant spectral and temporal information, a functional magnetic resonance

Jack Gandour; Donald Wong; Mark Lowe; Mario Dzemidzic; Nakarin Satthamnuwong; Yunxia Tong; Xiaojian Li

2002-01-01

201

Visual and Phonological Processing of Words: A Comparison of Good and Poor Readers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigating how good and poor readers process words, a study examined the spelling and reading processes of 80 middle-class first grade students from three schools in Houston, Texas, 40 who were receiving whole word instruction, and 40 receiving phonics instruction. Based on scores from the Gates-McGinitie Reading Test, Basic R (administered in…

Foorman, Barbara R.; Liberman, Dov

202

Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

2013-01-01

203

An electrophysiological investigation of semantic and phonological processing in skilled and less-skilled comprehenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most prominent theories of reading consider reading comprehension ability to be a direct consequence of lower-level reading skills. Recently however, research has shown that some children with poor comprehension ability perform normally on tests of lower-level skills (e.g., decoding). One promising line of behavioral research has found semantic processing differences between good and poor comprehenders and suggests that impoverished

Nicole Landi; Charles A. Perfetti

2007-01-01

204

An electrophysiological investigation of semantic and phonological processing in skilled and less-skilled comprehenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most prominent theories of reading consider reading comprehension ability to be a direct consequence of lower-level reading skills. Recently however, research has shown that some children with poor comprehension ability perform normally on tests of lower-level skills (e.g., decoding). One promising line of behavioral research has found semantic processing diVerences between good and poor comprehend- ers and suggests that

Nicole Landi; Charles A. Perfetti

2006-01-01

205

Sensory Contributions to Impaired Emotion Processing in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Both emotion and visual processing deficits are documented in schizophrenia, and preferential magnocellular visual pathway dysfunction has been reported in several studies. This study examined the contribution to emotion-processing deficits of magnocellular and parvocellular visual pathway function, based on stimulus properties and shape of contrast response functions. Experiment 1 examined the relationship between contrast sensitivity to magnocellular- and parvocellular-biased stimuli and emotion recognition using the Penn Emotion Recognition (ER-40) and Emotion Differentiation (EMODIFF) tests. Experiment 2 altered the contrast levels of the faces themselves to determine whether emotion detection curves would show a pattern characteristic of magnocellular neurons and whether patients would show a deficit in performance related to early sensory processing stages. Results for experiment 1 showed that patients had impaired emotion processing and a preferential magnocellular deficit on the contrast sensitivity task. Greater deficits in ER-40 and EMODIFF performance correlated with impaired contrast sensitivity to the magnocellular-biased condition, which remained significant for the EMODIFF task even when nonspecific correlations due to group were considered in a step-wise regression. Experiment 2 showed contrast response functions indicative of magnocellular processing for both groups, with patients showing impaired performance. Impaired emotion identification on this task was also correlated with magnocellular-biased visual sensory processing dysfunction. These results provide evidence for a contribution of impaired early-stage visual processing in emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and suggest that a bottom-up approach to remediation may be effective.

Butler, Pamela D.; Abeles, Ilana Y.; Weiskopf, Nicole G.; Tambini, Arielle; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Legatt, Michael E.; Zemon, Vance; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C.; Javitt, Daniel C.

2009-01-01

206

The effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers.  

PubMed

The present experiment investigated the effect of a music program on phonological awareness in preschoolers. In particular, the effects of a music program and a phonological skills program on phonological awareness were compared. If language and music share basic processing mechanisms, the effect of both programs on enhancing phonological awareness should be similar. Forty-one preschoolers (22 boys) were randomly assigned to a phonological skills program, a music program, and a control group that received sports training (from which no effect was expected). Preschoolers were trained for 10?min on a daily basis over a period of 20?weeks. In a pretest, no differences were found between the three groups in regard to age, gender, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and phonological awareness. Children in the phonological skills group and the music group showed significant increases in phonological awareness from pre- to post-test. The children in the sports group did not show a significant increase from pre- to post-test. The enhancement of phonological awareness was basically driven by positive effects of the music program and the phonological skills program on phonological awareness for large phonological units. The data suggests that phonological awareness can be trained with a phonological skills program as well as a music program. These results can be interpreted as evidence of a shared sound category learning mechanism for language and music at preschool age. PMID:21734895

Degé, Franziska; Schwarzer, Gudrun

2011-06-20

207

Effects of phonological and semantic deficits on facilitative and inhibitory consequences of item repetition in spoken word comprehension.  

PubMed

Repeating a word can have both facilitative and inhibitory effects on subsequent processing. The present study investigated these dynamics by examining the facilitative and inhibitory consequences of different kinds of item repetition in two individuals with aphasia and a group of neurologically intact control participants. The two individuals with aphasia were matched on overall aphasia severity, but had deficits at different levels of processing: one with a phonological deficit and spared semantic processing, the other with a semantic deficit and spared phonological processing. Participants completed a spoken word-to-picture matching task in which they had to pick which of four object images matched the spoken word. The trials were grouped into pairs such that exactly two objects from the first trial in a pair were present on screen during the second trial in the pair. When the second trial's target was the same as the first trial's target, compared to control participants, both participants with aphasia exhibited equally larger repetition priming effects. When the second trial's target was one of the new items, the participant with a phonological deficit exhibited a significantly more negative effect (i.e., second trial response slower than first trial response) than the control participants and the participant with a semantic deficit. Simulations of a computational model confirmed that this pattern of results could arise from (1) normal residual activation being functionally more significant when overall lexical processing is slower and (2) residual phonological activation of the previous trial's target having a particularly strong inhibitory effect specifically when phonological processing is impaired because the task was phonologically-driven (the spoken input specified the target). These results provide new insights into perseveration errors and lexical access deficits in aphasia. PMID:23770302

Mirman, Daniel; Britt, Allison E; Chen, Qi

2013-06-14

208

Complexity and Hemispheric Abilities: Evidence for a Differential Impact on Semantics and Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main goal of this study was to determine whether the phonological and semantic processing of words are similarly influenced by an increase in processing complexity. Thirty-six French-speaking young adults performed both semantic and phonological word judgment tasks, using a divided visual field procedure. The phonological complexity of words…

Tremblay, Tania; Monetta, Laura; Joanette, Yves

2009-01-01

209

Developmental Dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment: Same or Different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental dyslexia and specific language impairment (SLI) were for many years treated as distinct disorders but are now often regarded as different manifestations of the same underlying problem, differing only in severity or developmental stage. The merging of these categories has been motivated by the reconceptualization of dyslexia as a language disorder in which phonological processing is deficient. The authors

Dorothy V. M. Bishop; Margaret J. Snowling

2004-01-01

210

Community structure in the phonological network  

PubMed Central

Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language.

Siew, Cynthia S. Q.

2013-01-01

211

Language Deficits in Dyslexic Children: Speech Perception, Phonology, and Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between dyslexia and three aspects of language: speech perception, phonology, and morphology. Reading and language tasks were administered to dyslexics aged 8–9 years and to two normal reader groups (age-matched and reading-level matched). Three dyslexic groups were identified: phonological dyslexics (PD), developmentally language impaired (LI), and globally delayed (delay-type dyslexics). The LI and PD groups exhibited

Marc F. Joanisse; Franklin R. Manis; Patricia Keating; Mark S. Seidenberg

2000-01-01

212

The Link between Prosody and Language Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and/or Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are known to have impairments in various aspects of phonology, which have been claimed to cause their language and literacy impairments. However, "phonology" encompasses a wide range of skills, and little is known about whether these phonological impairments extend to…

Marshall, C. R.; Harcourt-Brown, S.; Ramus, F.; van der Lely, H. K. J.

2009-01-01

213

Strategic Processing and Episodic Memory Impairment in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that nonverbal memory problems in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are mediated by impaired strategic processing. Although many studies have found verbal memory to be normal in OCD, these studies did not use tests designed to stress organizational strategies. This study examined verbal and nonverbal memory performance in 33 OCD patients and 30 normal control participants with the

Cary R. Savage; Thilo Deckersbach; Sabine Wilhelm; Scott L. Rauch; Lee Baer; Tracey Reid; Michael A. Jenike

2000-01-01

214

Single?word semantic judgements in semantic dementia: Do phonology and grammatical class count?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Listeners make active use of phonological regularities such as word length to facilitate higher?level syntactic and semantic processing. For example, nouns are longer than verbs, and abstract words are longer than concrete words. Patients with semantic dementia (SD) experience conceptual loss with preserved syntax and phonology. The extent to which patients with SD exploit phonological regularities to support language

Jamie Reilly; Katy Cross; Vanessa Troiani; Murray Grossman

2007-01-01

215

The interaction between orthographic and phonological information in children: An fMRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the neural representations of orthographic and phonological processing in chil- dren, while manipulating the consistency between orthographic and phonological information. Partici- pants, aged 9-15, were scanned while performing rhyming and spelling judgments on pairs of visually presented words. The orthographic and phonological similarity between words in the pair was inde- pendently manipulated, resulting in four conditions. In the

Tali Bitan; Douglas D. Burman; Tai-Li Chou; Dong Lu; Nadia E. Cone; Fan Cao; Jordan D. Bigio; James R. Booth

2007-01-01

216

A Longitudinal Study of the Phonological Development of Two Cantonese-English Bilingual Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents longitudinal case studies of the successive phonological acquisition of two Cantonese-English bilingual children, aged 2;3 to 3;1 years and 2;9 to 3; and 5 years. Children were assessed at four-week intervals. Phoneme-acquisition data and phonological process data revealed that both children had separate phonological systems for the two…

Holm, Alison; Dodd, Barbara

1999-01-01

217

Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

2013-01-01

218

The Role of Phonology in Children's Acquisition of the Plural  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correct use of an affix, such as the English plural suffix, may reflect mastery of a morphological process, but it may also depend on children's syntactic, semantic, and phonological abilities. The present article reports a set of experiments in support of this latter view, specifically focusing on the importance of the phonological make-up of plural forms for both production

Marc Ettlinger; Jennifer Zapf

2011-01-01

219

Evidence for Right Hemisphere Phonology in a Backward Masking Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The extent to which orthographic and phonological processes are available during the initial moments of word recognition within each hemisphere is under specified, particularly for the right hemisphere. Few studies have investigated whether each hemisphere uses orthography and phonology under constraints that restrict the viewing time of words…

Halderman, Laura K.

2011-01-01

220

Frenchville French: A case study in phonological attrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the phonetic and phonological properties of a contracting variety of French spoken in Frenchville, PA, a linguistic enclave community. Specifically, we analyze a pattern of convergence versus preservation that cannot be convincingly explained or understood given current proposals of the process of phonological convergence and attrition in a bilingual contact situation. We demonstrate that our speakers preserve

Barbara E. Bullock; Chip Gerfen

2004-01-01

221

The Emerging Phonological System of an Autistic Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case report provides a phonological investigation of the speech of an eight-year-old autistic boy. Speech was elicited using delayed imitation, object naming, and a connected speech sample. The subject's use of phonological processes resulted in extensive homonymy which contributed to severely reduced intelligibility. Both typical and unusual…

Wolk, Lesley; Edwards, Mary Louise

1993-01-01

222

Visual print tuning deficits in dyslexic adolescents under minimized phonological demands.  

PubMed

The left ventral occipitotemporal cortex is reliably activated by visual orthographic stimulation and has repeatedly been found underactivated in developmental dyslexia. However, previous studies have made little effort to specifically probe orthographic processing while minimizing the need for higher-order reading related operations, especially phonological processing. Phonological deficits are well documented in dyslexia but may limit interpretations of ventral occipitotemporal underactivation as a primarily orthographic coding deficit, considering that different processing modes occur highly parallel. We therefore used a task that restricts higher-order processing to better isolate orthographic deficits. Thirteen dyslexic adolescents and twenty-two matched typical readers performed a low-level target detection task combined with rapidly presented stimuli of increasing similarity to real words during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The clear deviance found in impaired readers' left ventral occipitotemporal organization suggested deficits in print sensitivity at bottom-up processing stages that are largely independent of phonological operations. This finding elucidates print processing during a critical developmental transition from child- to adulthood and extends current accounts on left ventral occipitotemporal functionality. PMID:23428569

Kronschnabel, Jens; Schmid, Raffaella; Maurer, Urs; Brandeis, Daniel

2013-02-18

223

Reading with partial phonology: Developmental phonological dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent psycholinguistic investigations have advanced our understanding of the acquired dyslexias. Developmental analogues have been described to some of these disorders. A new case of developmental phonological dyslexia is described here. A.H. is an intelligent 10-year-old boy with no neurological abnormality. Reading and spelling are below age level. A.H. is poorer at reading words than nonwords. The majority of his

Christine M. Temple

1985-01-01

224

1. Voxel-based Lesion Analysis of Phonological, Lexical, and Syntactic Production Deficits in Post-stroke Aphasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with aphasia vary in the extent to which lexical, phonological, and syntactic impairments underlie their language production difficulties. Most aphasic individuals have a combination of these impairments that cannot be always predicted from their aphasia classification. The present study investigated the lesion correlates of lexical, phonological and syntactic production deficits and examined the findings in the context of current

225

Phonological decisions require both the left and right supramarginal gyri  

PubMed Central

Recent functional imaging studies demonstrated that both the left and right supramarginal gyri (SMG) are activated when healthy right-handed subjects make phonological word decisions. However, lesion studies typically report difficulties with phonological processing after left rather than right hemisphere damage. Here, we used a unique dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approach to test whether the SMG in the right hemisphere contributes to modality-independent (i.e., auditory and visual) phonological decisions. To test task-specificity, we compared the effect of real or sham TMS during phonological, semantic, and perceptual decisions. To test laterality and anatomical specificity, we compared the effect of TMS over the left, right, or bilateral SMG and angular gyri. The accuracy and reaction times of phonological decisions were selectively disrupted relative to semantic and perceptual decisions when real TMS was applied over the left, right, or bilateral SMG. These effects were not observed for TMS over the angular gyri. A follow-up experiment indicated that the threshold-intensity for inducing a disruptive effect on phonological decisions was identical for unilateral TMS over the right or left SMG. Taken together, these findings provide converging evidence that the right SMG contributes to accurate and efficient phonological decisions in the healthy brain, with no evidence that the left and right SMG can compensate for one another during TMS. Our findings motivate detailed studies of phonological processing in patients with acute or long-term damage of the right SMG.

Hartwigsen, Gesa; Baumgaertner, Annette; Price, Cathy J.; Koehnke, Maria; Ulmer, Stephan; Siebner, Hartwig R.

2010-01-01

226

Auditory processing efficiency deficits in children with developmental language impairments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.

Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.

2002-12-01

227

Short-Term and Working Memory Skills in Primary School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment and Children with Pragmatic Language Impairment: Phonological, Linguistic and Visuo-Spatial Aspects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) are consistently reported to have short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) difficulties. Aim: To compare STM and WM abilities in CwSLI with children with pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI). Methods & Procedures: Primary school-aged CwSLI (n = 12) and CwPLI (n = 23) were…

Freed, Jenny; Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine

2012-01-01

228

Dyslexics are impaired on implicit higher-order sequence learning, but not on implicit spatial context learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental dyslexia is characterized by poor reading ability and impairments on a range of tasks including phonological processing and processing of sensory information. Some recent studies have found deficits in implicit sequence learning using the serial reaction time task, but others have not. Other skills, such as global visuo-spatial processing may even be enhanced in dyslexics, although deficits have also

James H. Howard; Darlene V. Howard; Karin C. Japikse; Guinevere F. Eden

2006-01-01

229

Parental phonological memory contributes to prediction of outcome of late talkers from 20 months to 4 years: a longitudinal study of precursors of specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Many children who are late talkers go on to develop normal language, but others go on to have longer-term language difficulties. In this study, we considered which factors were predictive of persistent problems in late talkers. Methods Parental report of expressive vocabulary at 18 months of age was used to select 26 late talkers and 70 average talkers, who were assessed for language and cognitive ability at 20 months of age. Follow-up at 4 years of age was carried out for 24 late and 58 average talkers. A psychometric test battery was used to categorize children in terms of language status (unimpaired or impaired) and nonverbal ability (normal range or more than 1 SD below average). The vocabulary and non-word repetition skills of the accompanying parent were also assessed. Results Among the late talkers, seven (29%) met our criteria for specific language impairment (SLI) at 4 years of age, and a further two (8%) had low nonverbal ability. In the group of average talkers, eight (14%) met the criteria for SLI at 4 years, and five other children (8%) had low nonverbal ability. Family history of language problems was slightly better than late-talker status as a predictor of SLI.. The best predictors of SLI at 20 months of age were score on the receptive language scale of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the parent's performance on a non-word repetition task. Maternal education was not a significant predictor of outcome. Conclusions In this study, around three-quarters of late talkers did not have any language difficulties at 4 years of age, provided there was no family history of language impairment. A family history of language-literacy problems was found to be a significant predictor for persisting problems. Nevertheless, there are children with SLI for whom prediction is difficult because they did not have early language delay.

2012-01-01

230

The Structure of Phonological Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al. (2005).…

Samuels, Bridget D.

2009-01-01

231

The Structure of Phonological Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation takes a Minimalist approach to phonology, treating the phonological module as a system of abstract symbolic computation, divorced from phonetic content. I investigate the position of the phonological module within the architecture of grammar and the evolutionary scenario developed by Hauser et al. (2002a) and Fitch et al.…

Samuels, Bridget D.

2009-01-01

232

Left and right basal ganglia and frontal activity during language generation: contributions to lexical, semantic, and phonological processes.  

PubMed

fMRI was used to determine the frontal, basal ganglia, and thalamic structures engaged by three facets of language generation: lexical status of generated items, the use of semantic vs. phonological information during language generation, and rate of generation. During fMRI, 21 neurologically normal subjects performed four tasks: generation of nonsense syllables given beginning and ending consonant blends, generation of words given a rhyming word, generation of words given a semantic category at a fast rate (matched to the rate of nonsense syllable generation), and generation of words given a semantic category at a slow rate (matched to the rate of generating of rhyming words). Components of a left pre-SMA-dorsal caudate nucleus-ventral anterior thalamic loop were active during word generation from rhyming or category cues but not during nonsense syllable generation. Findings indicate that this loop is involved in retrieving words from pre-existing lexical stores. Relatively diffuse activity in the right basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and putamen) also was found during word-generation tasks but not during nonsense syllable generation. Given the relative absence of right frontal activity during the word generation tasks, we suggest that the right basal ganglia activity serves to suppress right frontal activity, preventing right frontal structures from interfering with language production. Current findings establish roles for the left and the right basal ganglia in word generation. Hypotheses are discussed for future research to help refine our understanding of basal ganglia functions in language generation. PMID:14738287

Crosson, Bruce; Benefield, Hope; Cato, M Allison; Sadek, Joseph R; Moore, Anna Bacon; Wierenga, Christina E; Gopinath, Kaundinya; Soltysik, David; Bauer, Russell M; Auerbach, Edward J; Gökçay, Didem; Leonard, Christiana M; Briggs, Richard W

2003-11-01

233

Phonological and semantic priming: evidence for task-independent effects.  

PubMed

The questions asked in the present experiments concern the generality of semantic and phonological priming effects: Do these effects arise automatically regardless of target task, or are these effects restricted to target tasks that specifically require the retrieval of the primed information? In Experiment 1, subjects produced faster color matching times on targets preceded by a masked rhyming prime than on targets preceded by an orthographic control or an unrelated prime. This result suggests that automatic priming effects on the basis of phonological similarity can be obtained even when the target task does not make use of phonological information. This claim was reinforced in Experiment 2 in which a rhyme priming effect and a semantic priming effect were found in a semantic categorization task. In Experiment 3, the target task was phonological (rhyme detection), and, again, both phonological and semantic priming effects were observed. Finally, in Experiments 4 and 5, in a replication and an extension of Experiment 1, phonological and semantic priming effects were found in a color matching task, a task involving neither phonological nor semantic processing. These results are most straightforwardly interpreted by assuming that both semantic and phonological priming effects are, at least in part, due to automatic activation of memorial representations. PMID:10355233

Rouibah, A; Tiberghien, G; Lupker, S J

1999-05-01

234

Phonological awareness of Cantonese-speaking pre-school children with cochlear implants.  

PubMed

The study investigated the phonological awareness abilities of Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. Participants were 15 Cantonese-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) aged 3.08-6.10, chronological-age-matched with 15 children with normal hearing. Each participant performed 10 tasks evaluating different levels of phonological awareness abilities and phonological knowledge. The results showed that pre-schoolers with cochlear implants and their normal hearing peers had similar levels of syllable awareness, phoneme awareness and rhyme awareness. However, cochlear implant users showed significantly poorer performance on tone awareness and phonological knowledge tasks than their normal hearing peers. Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants were able to develop phonological awareness. However, the cochlear implants might not provide enough tonal information for children with hearing impairment for tonal lexical comprehension. Incomplete speech and language stimulation may affect phonological knowledge development in Cantonese-speaking pre-schoolers with cochlear implants. PMID:22257071

Tse, Wing Ting; So, Lydia K H

2012-02-01

235

Divergence of verbal expression and embodied knowledge: Evidence from speech and gesture in children with speciéc language impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that phonological working memory serves to link speech comprehension to production. We suggest further that impairments in phonological working memory may inèuence the way in which children represent and express their knowledge about the world around them. In particular, children with severe phonological working memory deécits may have diféculty retaining stable representations of phonological forms, which

Julia L. Evans; Martha W. Alibali; Nicole M. McNeil

2001-01-01

236

Auditory Sensitivity, Speech Perception, and Reading Development and Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While the importance of phonological sensitivity for understanding reading acquisition and impairment across orthographies is well documented, what underlies deficits in phonological sensitivity is not well understood. Some researchers have argued that speech perception underlies variability in phonological representations. Others have…

Zhang, Juan; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2010-01-01

237

Phonology is fundamental in skilled reading: evidence from ERPs.  

PubMed

Research consistently indicates the importance of phonological processing in early reading development, yet the role of phonology in skilled reading is still not well understood. Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments investigated the nature and time course of phonological processing during skilled visual word recognition using a masked priming paradigm. Phonological syllable priming was examined by presenting prime-target pairs either with the same first syllable, or with one letter more or fewer. In this visually matched design, items like po## -PONY and pon### -PONDER appeared in the congruent condition. Conversely, pon# -PONY and po#### -PONDER appeared in the incongruent condition. In both experiments, the magnitude of the first negative peak (N1) was reduced in the phonologically congruent condition as compared to the incongruent condition. This syllable congruency effect is the first neurophysiological evidence for phonological syllable activation in the initial moments of visual word recognition. The early time course of this activation indicates that suprasegmental phonological processing is fundamental to skilled reading. PMID:20081167

Ashby, Jane

2010-02-01

238

Impairment in preattentive visual processing in patients with Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

We explored the possibility of whether preattentive visual processing is impaired in Parkinson's disease. With this aim, visual discrimination thresholds for orientation texture stimuli were determined in two separate measurement sessions in 16 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results were compared with those of 16 control subjects age-matched and 16 young healthy volunteers. Discrimination thresholds were measured in a four-alternative spatial forced-choice paradigm, in which subjects judged the location of a target embedded in a background of distractors. Four different stimulus configurations were employed: (i) a group of vertical targets among horizontal distractors ('vertical line targets'); (ii) targets with varying levels of orientation difference on a background of spatially filtered vertically oriented noise ('Gaussian filtered noise'); (iii) one 'L' among 43 '+' signs ('texton'), all of which assess preattentive visual processing; and (iv) control condition, of one 'L' among 43 'T' distractors ('non-texton' search target), which reflects attentive visual processing. In two of the preattentive tasks (filtered noise and texton), patients with Parkinson's disease required significantly greater orientation differences and longer stimulus durations, respectively. In contrast, their performance in the vertical line target and non-texton search target was comparable to that of the matched control subjects. These differences were more pronounced in the first compared with the second session. Duration of illness and age within the patient group correlated significantly with test performance. In all conditions tested, the young control subjects performed significantly better than the more elderly control group, further indicating an effect of age on this form of visual processing. The results suggest that, in addition to the well documented impairment in retinal processing, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is associated with a deficit in preattentive cortical visual processing. PMID:10071058

Lieb, K; Brucker, S; Bach, M; Els, T; Lücking, C H; Greenlee, M W

1999-02-01

239

A Phonological Rules System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A phonological rules system has been implemented as a language extension of SDC INFIX LISP. The system can be used in two modes: as an interactive rule tester, and as a library of functions with other LISP programs. The key language capabilities are: defi...

J. A. Barnett

1975-01-01

240

Neglect Impairs Explicit Processing of the Mental Number Line  

PubMed Central

Converging evidence suggests that visuospatial attention plays a pivotal role in numerical processing, especially when the task involves the manipulation of numerical magnitudes. Visuospatial neglect impairs contralesional attentional orienting not only in perceptual but also in numerical space. Indeed, patients with left neglect show a bias toward larger numbers when mentally bisecting a numerical interval, as if they were neglecting its leftmost part. In contrast, their performance in parity judgments is unbiased, suggesting a dissociation between explicit and implicit processing of numerical magnitude. Here we further investigate the consequences of these visuospatial attention impairments on numerical processing and their interaction with task demands. Patients with right hemisphere damage, with and without left neglect, were administered both a number comparison and a parity judgment task that had identical stimuli and response requirements. Neglect patients’ performance was normal in the parity task, when processing of numerical magnitude was implicit, whereas they showed characteristic biases in the number comparison task, when access to numerical magnitude was explicit. Compared to patients without neglect, they showed an asymmetric distance effect, with slowing of the number immediately smaller than (i.e., to the left of) the reference and a stronger SNARC effect, particularly for large numbers. The latter might index an exaggerated effect of number-space compatibility after ipsilesional (i.e., rightward) orienting in number space. Thus, the effect of neglect on the explicit processing of numerical magnitude can be understood in terms of both a failure to orient to smaller (i.e., contralesional) magnitudes and a difficulty to disengage from larger (i.e., ipsilesional) magnitudes on the number line, which resembles the disrupted pattern of attention orienting in visual space.

Zorzi, Marco; Bonato, Mario; Treccani, Barbara; Scalambrin, Giovanni; Marenzi, Roberto; Priftis, Konstantinos

2012-01-01

241

Auditory Sensitivity, Speech Perception, and Reading Development and Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the importance of phonological sensitivity for understanding reading acquisition and impairment across orthographies\\u000a is well documented, what underlies deficits in phonological sensitivity is not well understood. Some researchers have argued\\u000a that speech perception underlies variability in phonological representations. Others have investigated the role of more general\\u000a auditory sensitivity for reading development and reading difficulties, arguing that poor phonological representations

Juan Zhang; Catherine McBride-Chang

2010-01-01

242

The Contribution of Processing Impairments to SLI: Insights from Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Slowed speed of processing and impaired rapid temporal processing (RTP) have been proposed to underlie specific language impairment (SLI), but it is not clear that these dysfunctions are unique to SLI. We considered the contribution of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which frequently co-occurs with language impairments, to…

Oram Cardy, Janis E.; Tannock, Rosemary; Johnson, Andrew M.; Johnson, Carla J.

2010-01-01

243

Dual-Task Information Processing in Schizotypal Personality Disorder: Evidence of Impaired Processing Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory theories heavily rely on the concept of processing resources and the their efficient deployment. Some recent work with schizophrenia-spectrum patients has suggested that many associated cognitive impairments may be reduced to deficits in working memory, possibly related to reductions in information-processing capacity resources. In this study, 38 patients with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), 22 patients with other personality

Philip D. Harvey; Abraham Reichenberg; Michelle Romero; Eric Granholm; Larry J. Siever

2006-01-01

244

Effect size in clinical phonology  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and evaluation of generalization learning, both of which are key to experimental studies in clinical phonology.

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

245

Predictors of phonological change following intervention.  

PubMed

To date, predictor variables strongly associated with phonological change as a result of intervention have not been identified. The purpose of this study was to determine the best predictor or combination of predictors of change in percentage of consonants correct (PCC; L. D. Shriberg and J. Kwiatkowski, 1982) as a result of speech-language intervention for a group of 20 participants and to replicate this procedure with a second group of 20. Participants were preschool children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 5;11, with impairments in phonology and morphosyntax who received intervention focused on both phonology and morphosyntax in different goal attack configurations. The relationship of predictor variables chronological age, inventory size, error consistency, and expressive language to the criterion variable, change in PCC, was investigated. In both the initial study and the replication, the mean change in PCC following a 24-week intervention period was 13.1%. In the initial study, error consistency and a finite morpheme composite (FMC; L. M. Bedore and L. B. Leonard, 1998) accounted for 52% of the variance for the criterion variable. Error consistency at the first step in the regression accounted for 31.6% of the variance. In the replication, error consistency was the only variable related to PCC change, again accounting for 31% of the variance. Further research examining overall error consistency is warranted. PMID:12971818

Tyler, Ann A; Lewis, Kerry E; Welch, Carissa M

2003-08-01

246

Korean-English Biliteracy Acquisition: Cross-Language Phonological and Orthographic Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-language phonological and orthographic relationship in the biliteracy acquisition of children learning to read Korean and English was investigated in this study. Forty-five Korean-English bilingual children were tested in first-language (L1; Korean) and 2nd-language (L2; English) reading skills focusing on 2 reading processes—phonological and orthographic processing. The authors found that phonological skills in L1 and L2 were strongly correlated, and

Min Wang; Yoonjung Park; Kyoung Rang Lee

2006-01-01

247

A dual-route perspective on poor reading in a regular orthography: Evidence from phonological and orthographic lexical decisions  

PubMed Central

Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit.

Bergmann, Jurgen; Wimmer, Heinz

2010-01-01

248

Preserved subliminal processing and impaired conscious access in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of visual backward masking have frequently revealed an elevated masking threshold in schizophrenia. This finding has frequently been interpreted as indicating a low-level visual deficit. However, more recent models suggest that masking may also involve late and higher-level integrative processes, while leaving intact early “bottom-up” visual processing. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that the backward masking deficit in schizophrenia corresponds to a deficit in the late stages of conscious perception, whereas the subliminal processing of masked stimuli is fully preserved. Method 28 patients with schizophrenia and 28 normal controls performed two backward-masking experiments. We used Arabic digits as stimuli and varied quasi-continuously the interval with a subsequent mask, thus allowing us to progressively “unmask” the stimuli. We finely quantified their degree of visibility using both objective and subjective measures to evaluate the threshold duration for access to consciousness. We also studied the priming effect caused by the variably masked numbers on a comparison task performed on a subsequently presented and highly visible target number. Results The threshold delay between digit and mask necessary for the conscious perception of the masked stimulus was longer in patients compared to control subjects. This higher consciousness threshold in patients was confirmed by an objective and a subjective measure, and both measures were highly correlated for patients as well as for controls. However, subliminal priming of masked numbers was effective and identical in patients compared to controls. Conclusions Access to conscious report of masked stimuli is impaired in schizophrenia, while fast bottom-up processing of the same stimuli, as assessed by subliminal priming, is preserved. These findings suggest a high-level origin of the masking deficit in schizophrenia, although they leave open for further research its exact relation to previously identified bottom-up visual processing abnormalities.

Del Cul, Antoine; Dehaene, Stanislas; Leboyer, Marion

2006-01-01

249

Phonological Short-Term Memory, Language and Literacy: Developmental Relationships in Early Adolescence in Young People with SLI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Research has consistently documented a relationship between phonological short-term memory skills (STM) and specific language impairment (SLI). This study reports on the development of phonological STM abilities over 3 years in 80 young adolescents with a history of SLI, investigating the nature of the relationship between…

Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin

2007-01-01

250

Electrophysiological Indices of Phonological Impairments in Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: A range of studies have shown difficulties in perceiving acoustic and phonetic information in dyslexia; however, much less is known about how such difficulties relate to the perception of individual words. The authors present data from event-related potentials (ERPs) examining the hypothesis that children with dyslexia have difficulties…

Desroches, Amy S.; Newman, Randy Lynn; Robertson, Erin K.; Joanisse, Marc F.

2013-01-01

251

Understanding Phonological Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Dissociation of Short-Term Storage and Articulatory Rehearsal Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study dissociated and examined the two primary components of the phonological working memory subsystem--the short-term store and articulatory rehearsal mechanism--in boys with ADHD (n = 18) relative to typically developing boys (n = 15). Word lists of increasing length (2, 4, and 6 words per trial) were presented to and recalled by…

Bolden, Jennifer; Rapport, Mark D.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

2012-01-01

252

The Role of Lip-reading and Cued Speech in the Processing of Phonological Information in French-educated Deaf Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deaf children exposed to Cued Speech (CS: system designed to reduce lip- reading ambiguity) either before age 2 (``early'') or later at school (``late'') were presented with words and pseudowords with or without CS. The ® rst goal was to examine the eŒects of adding CS to lip-reading on phonological perception. Results showed that CS substantially improved performance suggesting that

Sven Mattys

1999-01-01

253

Effect Size in Clinical Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to motivate the use of effect size (ES) for single-subject research in clinical phonology, with an eye towards meta-analyses of treatment effects for children with phonological disorders. Standard mean difference (SMD) is introduced and illustrated as one ES well suited to the multiple baseline (MBL) design and…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2011-01-01

254

Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

Davidson, Lisa

2005-01-01

255

Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

Davidson, Lisa

2005-01-01

256

Gesture and the Nature of Semantic Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Stokoe begins his seminal article in semantic phonology with complaints about the complexities of the sign phonologies that were emerging at the time. His insight was not just that phonology is somehow meaningful. Rather, semantic phonology suggests that language structures are built of components that are structurally identical to themselves:…

Armstrong, David F.; Wilcox, Sherman E.

2009-01-01

257

Phonological Accuracy and Intelligibility in Connected Speech of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome or Down Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose We compared the phonological accuracy and speech intelligibility of boys with fragile X syndrome with autism spectrum disorder (FXS-ASD), fragile X syndrome only (FXS-O), Down Syndrome (DS), and typically developing (TD) boys. Method Participants were 32 boys with FXS-O (3 to 14 years), 31 with FXS-ASD (5 to 15 years), 34 with DS (4 to16 years), and 45 TD boys of similar nonverbal mental age. We used connected speech samples to compute measures of phonological accuracy, phonological process occurrence, and intelligibility. Results The boys with FXS, regardless of autism status, did not differ from TD boys on phonological accuracy and phonological process occurrence but produced fewer intelligible words than TD boys. The boys with DS scored lower on measures of phonological accuracy and occurrence of phonological processes than all other groups and used fewer intelligible words than TD boys. The boys with FXS and the boys with DS did not differ on measures of intelligibility. Conclusion Boys with FXS, regardless of autism status, exhibit phonological characteristics similar to those of younger TD children but are less intelligible in connected speech. The boys with DS show greater delays in all phonological measures than the boys with FXS and TD boys.

Barnes, Elizabeth; Roberts, Joanne; Long, Steven H.; Martin, Gary E.; Berni, Mary C.; Mandulak, Kerry C.; Sideris, John

2008-01-01

258

Contributions of phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory, and rapid automated naming, toward decoding ability in students with mild intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual disability who commonly suffer from reading decoding problems. This study is aimed at determining the contributions of phonological awareness, phonological short-term memory, and rapid automated naming, as three well known phonological processing skills, to decoding ability among 60 participants with mild intellectual disability of unspecified origin ranging from 15 to 23 years old. The results of the correlation analysis revealed that all three aspects of phonological processing are significantly correlated with decoding ability. Furthermore, a series of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that after controlling the effect of IQ, phonological awareness, and rapid automated naming are two distinct sources of decoding ability, but phonological short-term memory significantly contributes to decoding ability under the realm of phonological awareness. PMID:23314249

Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

2013-01-09

259

Auditory Temporal Processing Impairment: Neither Necessary nor Sufficient for Causing Language Impairment in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen twin pairs, aged 8 to 10 years, were tested 3 times over 12 months; they included 11 children with language impairment (LI), 11 control children matched on nonverbal ability and age, and 6 co-twins who did not meet criteria for LI or control status. Thresholds were estimated for detecting a brief backward-masked tone (BM), detection of frequency modulation (FM),

D. V. M. Bishop; R. P. Carlyon; J. M. Deeks; S. J. Bishop

260

Validity of the Sensory Balance Test to Screen Children for Sensory Processing Impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the validity of the Sensory Balance Test (SBT), which uses the technology of computerized dynamic posturography, to screen children for sensory processing impairments. Twenty typically developing children and 20 children with sensory processing impairments were administered the SBT under six different sensory conditions. The results show that children's sensory balance composite scores (SBT summary score) are associated

Shu-Yuan Hu; Jim Hinojosa; Ping-Yen Chiang; Cheng-Shiun Leu

2010-01-01

261

Imaging phonology without print: assessing the neural correlates of phonemic awareness using fMRI.  

PubMed

Acquisition of phonological processing skills, such as the ability to segment words into corresponding speech sounds, is critical to the development of efficient reading. Prior neuroimaging studies of phonological processing have often relied on auditory stimuli or print-mediated tasks that may be problematic for various theoretical and empirical reasons. For the current study, we developed a task to evaluate phonological processing that used visual stimuli but did not require interpretation of orthographic forms. This task requires the subject to retrieve the names of objects and to compare their first sounds; then, the subject must indicate if the initial sounds of the names of the pictures are the same. The phonological analysis task was compared to both a baseline matching task and a more complex control condition in which the participants evaluated two different pictures and indicated whether they represented the same object. The complex picture-matching condition controls for the visual complexity of the stimuli but does not require phonological analysis of the names of the objects. While both frontal and ventral posterior areas were activated in response to phonological analysis of the names of pictures, only inferior and superior frontal gyrus exhibited differential sensitivity to the phonological comparison task as compared to the complex picture-matching control task. These findings suggest that phonological processing that is not mediated by print relies primarily on frontal language processing areas among skilled readers. PMID:15901490

Katzir, Tami; Misra, Maya; Poldrack, Russell A

2005-08-01

262

Phonological overlap affects lexical selection during sentence production.  

PubMed

Theories of lexical production differ in whether they allow phonological processes to affect lexical selection directly. Whereas some accounts, such as interactive activation accounts, predict (weak) early effects of phonological processes during lexical selection via feedback connections, strictly serial architectures do not make this prediction. We present evidence from lexical selection during unscripted sentence production that lexical selection is affected by the phonological form of recently produced words. In a video description experiment, participants described scenes that were compatible with several near-meaning-equivalent verbs. We found that speakers were less likely than expected by chance to select a verb form that would result in phonological onset overlap with the subject of the sentence. Additional evidence from the distribution of disfluencies immediately preceding the verb argues that this effect is due to early effects on lexical selection, rather than later corrective processes, such as self-monitoring. Taken together, these findings support accounts that allow early feedback from phonological processes to word-level nodes, even during lexical selection. PMID:22468803

Jaeger, T Florian; Furth, Katrina; Hilliard, Caitlin

2012-04-02

263

Phonological Complexity and Language Learnability  

PubMed Central

Purpose To extend formal models of language learnability to applications in clinical treatment of children with functional phonological delays. Method The focus of the narrative review is on phonological complexity. This follows from learnability theory, whereby complexity in the linguistic input to children has been shown to trigger language learning. Drawing from the literature, phonological complexity is defined from epistemic, ontological, and functional perspectives, with specific emphasis on the application of language universals in the selection of target sounds for treatment. Results The cascading effects of phonological complexity on children’s generalization learning are illustrated, and frequently asked questions about complexity in treatment are addressed. Conclusion The role of complexity in cognitive development is introduced to demonstrate the apparent robustness of effects.

Gierut, Judith A.

2008-01-01

264

Hearing Loss Severity: Impaired Processing of Formant Transition Duration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Normal hearing listeners exploit the formant transition (FT) detection to identify place of articulation for stop consonants. Neuro-imaging studies revealed that short FT induced less cortical activation than long FT. To determine the ability of hearing impaired listeners to distinguish short and long formant transitions (FT) from vowels of the…

Coez, A.; Belin, P.; Bizaguet, E.; Ferrary, E.; Zilbovicius, M.; Samson, Y.

2010-01-01

265

Hearing Loss Severity: Impaired Processing of Formant Transition Duration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Normal hearing listeners exploit the formant transition (FT) detection to identify place of articulation for stop consonants. Neuro-imaging studies revealed that short FT induced less cortical activation than long FT. To determine the ability of hearing impaired listeners to distinguish short and long formant transitions (FT) from vowels of the…

Coez, A.; Belin, P.; Bizaguet, E.; Ferrary, E.; Zilbovicius, M.; Samson, Y.

2010-01-01

266

The syndrome of Gogi (word meaning) aphasia. Selective impairment of kanji processing.  

PubMed

In 1943, Imura described an aphasic syndrome shown by Japanese patients and designated it as Gogi ("word-meaning") aphasia. Salient features are selective impairment of processing kanji or Chinese characters and difficulty in finding access to the lexicon in both production and reception, with preservation of processing kana or phonetic signs, and fluent oral repetition. A patient with this syndrome is presented, with emphasis on the nature of his kanji impairment. Cases of Gogi aphasia in the literature are reviewed and contrasted to cases of Broca's aphasia with selective impairment of kana processing. The implications for a neurolinguistic model of language processing in aphasia are discussed. PMID:1171393

Sasanuma, S; Monoi, H

1975-07-01

267

Neural Changes after Phonological Treatment for Anomia: An fMRI Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural processing characteristics associated with word retrieval abilities after a phonologically-based treatment for anomia in two stroke patients with aphasia. Neural activity associated with a phonological and a semantic task was compared before and after treatment with…

Rochon, Elizabeth; Leonard, Carol; Burianova, Hana; Laird, Laura; Soros, Peter; Graham, Simon; Grady, Cheryl

2010-01-01

268

Priming vs. Rhyming: Orthographic and Phonological Representations in the Left and Right Hemispheres  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The right cerebral hemisphere has long been argued to lack phonological processing capacity. Recently, however, a sex difference in the cortical representation of phonology has been proposed, suggesting discrete left hemisphere lateralization in males and more distributed, bilateral representation of function in females. To evaluate this…

Lindell, Annukka K.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

2008-01-01

269

Cross-Language Phonological Activation of Meaning: Evidence from Category Verification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study investigated phonological processing in bilingual reading for meaning. English-French and French-English bilinguals performed a category verification task in either their first or second language. Interlingual homophones (words that share phonology across languages but not orthography or meaning) and single language control words served…

Friesen, Deanna C.; Jared, Debra

2012-01-01

270

The Effect of Phonological Neighborhood Density on Eye Movements during Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research has indicated that phonological neighbors speed processing in a variety of isolated word recognition tasks. Nevertheless, as these tasks do not represent how we normally read, it is not clear if phonological neighborhood has an effect on the reading of sentences for meaning. In the research reported here, we evaluated whether…

Yates, Mark; Friend, John; Ploetz, Danielle M.

2008-01-01

271

Maintenance and Generalization Effects of Semantic and Phonological Treatments of Anomia: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anomia is one of the most frequent manifestations in aphasia. Model-based treatments for anomia usually focus on semantic and/or phonological levels of processing. This study reports treatment of anomia in an individual with chronic aphasia. After baseline testing, she received a training program in which semantic and phonological treatments were…

Macoir, Joel; Routhier, Sonia; Simard, Anne; Picard, Josee

2012-01-01

272

Multisensory Spatial Attention Deficits Are Predictive of Phonological Decoding Skills in Developmental Dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the dominant approach posits that developmental dyslexia arises from deficits in systems that are exclusively linguistic in nature (i.e., phonological deficit theory), dyslexics show a variety of lower level deficits in sensory and attentional processing. Although their link to the reading disorder remains contentious, recent empirical and computational studies suggest that spatial attention plays an important role in phonological

Andrea Facoetti; Anna Noemi Trussardi; Milena Ruffino; Maria Luisa Lorusso; Carmen Cattaneo; Raffaella Galli; Massimo Molteni; Marco Zorzi

2010-01-01

273

Multisensory Spatial Attention Deficits Are Predictive of Phonological Decoding Skills in Developmental Dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the dominant approach posits that developmental dyslexia arises from deficits in systems that are exclusively linguistic in nature (i.e., phonological deficit theory), dyslexics show a variety of lower level deficits in sensory and attentional processing. Although their link to the reading disorder remains contentious, recent empirical and computational studies suggest that spatial attention plays an important role in phonological

Andrea Facoetti; Anna Noemi Trussardi; Milena Ruffino; Maria Luisa Lorusso; Carmen Cattaneo; Raffaella Galli; Massimo Molteni; Marco Zorzi

2009-01-01

274

Phonology and Language Development in Italian Children: An Analysis of Production and Accuracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The principal aims of this study were to detect phonetic measures (consonant inventory, intelligibility, frequency, and types of phonological errors) associated with lexical and morphosyntactic ability and to analyze the types of phonological processes in children with different language skills. Method: The sample was composed of 30…

Zanobini, Mirella; Viterbori, Paola; Saraceno, Francesca

2012-01-01

275

The First Signs of Language: Phonological Development in British Sign Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A total of 1,018 signs in one deaf child's naturalistic interaction with her deaf mother, between the ages of 19 and 24 months were analyzed. This study summarizes regular modification processes in the phonology of the child sign's handshape, location, movement, and prosody. First, changes to signs were explained by the notion of phonological

Morgan, Gary; Barrett-Jones, Sarah; Stoneham, Helen

2007-01-01

276

Phonological oddballs in the focus of attention elicit a normal P3b in dyslexic adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Difficulties in phonological processing have been proposed to be the core symptom of developmental dyslexia. Phoneme awareness tasks have been shown to both index and predict individual reading ability. In a previous experiment, we observed that dyslexic adults fail to display a P3a modulation for phonological deviants within an alliterated word stream when concentrating primarily on a lexical decision task

Timothy Fosker; Guillaume Thierry

2005-01-01

277

The role of sensorimotor impairments in dyslexia: a multiple case study of dyslexic children.  

PubMed

This study attempts to investigate the role of sensorimotor impairments in the reading disability that characterizes dyslexia. Twenty-three children with dyslexia were compared to 22 control children, matched for age and non-verbal intelligence, on tasks assessing literacy as well as phonological, visual, auditory and motor abilities. The dyslexic group as a whole were significantly impaired on phonological, but not sensorimotor, tasks. Analysis of individual data suggests that the most common impairments were on phonological and visual stress tasks and the vast majority of dyslexics had one of these two impairments. Furthermore, phonological skill was able to account for variation in literacy skill, to the exclusion of all sensorimotor factors, while neither auditory nor motor skill predicted any variance in phonological skill. Visual stress seems to account for a small proportion of dyslexics, independently of the commonly reported phonological deficit. However, there is little evidence for a causal role of auditory, motor or other visual impairments. PMID:16669791

White, Sarah; Milne, Elizabeth; Rosen, Stuart; Hansen, Peter; Swettenham, John; Frith, Uta; Ramus, Franck

2006-05-01

278

Distinct genetic influences on grammar and phonological short-term memory deficits: evidence from 6-year-old twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with language impairments have limitations of phonological short-term memory (STM) and have dis- tinctive problems with certain aspects of grammar. Both deficits have been proposed as phenotypic markers of heritable language impairment. We studied 173 twin pairs, selected to be over-representative of children with risk of developmental language impairment, using a battery of standardized language and intelligence tests, a

D. V. M. Bishop; C. V. Adams; C. F. Norbury

2006-01-01

279

Disturbed visual processing contributes to impaired reading in Alzheimer’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between visual processing dysfunction and oral reading impairment was investigated in 17 patients with probable or possible Alzheimer’s disease (AD). When dementia severity was controlled, a significant relationship was found between single word oral reading impairments and difficulties discriminating words written in different fonts and photographs of objects in different orientations, which are all functions believed to be

Guila Glosser; Krista M. Baker; Jeroen J. de Vries; Abass Alavi; Murray Grossmana; Christopher M. Clark

2002-01-01

280

Brain potentials in a phonological matching task using Chinese characters.  

PubMed

In readers of English, involved in a rhyme judgement task, mismatch trials are associated with an enhanced N450 component of the Event Related Potentials (ERPs). It has been suggested that N450 is related to orthographic or phonological priming. In this paper ERPs were recorded during a phonological matching task, using pairs of logographically dissimilar Chinese characters. A pair was considered to match if they sounded alike with identical phoneme sequences. The subjects (native Chinese speakers) were instructed to ignore vowel-inflections, which in Chinese have lexical status. Since sublexical assembly of phonology is not used in reading Chinese characters, and the members of each pair were logographically dissimilar, match and mismatch trials did not suffer in the amount of orthographic or sublexical phonological priming. An enhanced negative component (latency near 400 msec), was observed in ERPs elicited by the second character in non-matching pairs. The negativity could be similar to N450. If this were so, then N450 could not be associated with orthographic priming, nor with sublexical phonology, but would probably be associated with postlexical processing. Also, in both readers of Chinese and English, the negativity enhanced in non-match trials is larger over the right side of the scalp, suggesting a similar brain lateralization of the underlying processes. PMID:8413905

Valdes-Sosa, M; Gonzalez, A; Xiang, L; Xiao-Lei, Z; Yi, H; Bobes, M A

1993-08-01

281

Children with Specific Language Impairment Also Show Impairment of Music-syntactic Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both language and music consist of sequences that are structured according to syntactic regularities. We used two specific event-related brain potential (ERP) components to investigate music-syntactic processing in children: the ERAN (early right anterior negativity) and the N5. The neural resources underlying these processes have been posited to overlap with those involved in the processing of linguistic syntax. Thus, we

Sebastian Jentschke; Stefan Koelsch; Stephan Sallat; Angela D. Friederici

2008-01-01

282

Formal and Substantive Approaches to Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Supplements Hans Basboll's state-of-the-art report on generative phonology (EJ 227 659), focusing on "abstract" v "concrete" approaches to surface data. Includes a summary of a discussion on phonology. (RL)|

Hooper, Joan Bybee

1980-01-01

283

Genetic variance in a component of the language acquisition device: ROBO1 polymorphisms associated with phonological buffer deficits.  

PubMed

The region containing ROBO1 (Chromosome 3p12.3) has been implicated as a susceptibility gene for reading disorder and language deficit by translocation and linkage data. No association studies have yet been reported supporting any candidate gene. Here we report the first association of this gene with language deficits, specifically with phonological buffer deficits (a phenotype implicated in language acquisition, Specific Language Impairment and Speech Sound Disorder) and dyslexia (reading and spelling ability traits) in an unselected sample of adolescent twins and their siblings. Family-based analyses were performed on 144 tag SNPs in ROBO1, typed in 538 families with up to five offspring and tested for association with a developmental marker of language impairment (phonological buffer capacity, assessed using non word repetition). A reading and spelling ability measure--based on validated measures of lexical processing (irregular word) and grapheme-phoneme decoding (pseudo word)--and measures of short-term and working memory were also analysed. Significant association for phonological buffer capacity was observed for 21 of 144 SNPs tested, peaking at 8.70 × 10(-05) and 9.30 × 10(-05) for SNPs rs6803202 and rs4535189 respectively for nonword repetition, values that survive correction for multiple testing. Twenty-two SNPs showed significant associations for verbal storage (forward digit span)--a trait linked to phonological span. By contrast, just 5 SNPs reached nominal significance for working-memory, not surviving correction, and, importantly, only one SNP in the 144 tested reached nominal significance (0.04) for association with reading and spelling ability. These results provide strong support for ROBO1 as a gene involved in a core trait underpinning language acquisition, with a specific function in supporting a short-term buffer for arbitrary phonological strings. These effects of ROBO1 appear to be unrelated to brain mechanisms underpinning reading ability, at least by adolescence. While replication will be critical, the present results strongly support ROBO1 as the first gene discovered to be associated with language deficits affecting normal variation in language ability. Its functional role in neuronal migration underlying bilateral symmetry and lateralization of neuronal function further suggests a role in the evolution of human language ability. PMID:20949370

Bates, Timothy C; Luciano, Michelle; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G

2010-10-15

284

Enhancing mobile phones for people with visual impairments through haptic icons: the effect of learning processes.  

PubMed

We report the results of a study on the learnability ofhaptic icons used in a system for incoming-call identification in mobile phones. The aim was to explore the feasibility of using haptic icons to create new assistive technologies for people with visual impairments. We compared the performance and satisfaction of users with different visual capacities (visually impaired vs. sighted) and using different learning processes (unimodal vs. multimodal). A better recognition rate and user experience were observed for the visually impaired than for sighted users and for multimodal rather than unimodal learning processes. PMID:23923690

Galdón, Pedro Maria; Madrid, R Ignacio; De La Rubia-Cuestas, Ernesto J; Diaz-Estrella, Antonio; Gonzalez, Lourdes

2013-01-01

285

Phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the area of phonological awareness has mainly focused on the nature of the relationship between reading ability and awareness of phonemes. However, a recent study of phonological awareness in children with Down syndrome questioned the existence of any neces- sary relationship (Cossu, Rossini & Marshall, 1993). This paper describes a study of phonological awareness in children with Down

Helen Fletcher; Sue Buckley

2002-01-01

286

On Some Claims of Atomic Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines some of the rules of atomic phonology so as to elucidate just what the theory is and is not capable of. The theory of atomic phonology maintains that all linguistic variation requiring distinctly varied formulations of phonological rules is predictable from a set of "atomic rules" and universal principles of grammar. (SED)|

Wheeler, Max W.

1985-01-01

287

Developmental Hierarchy of Arabic Phonological Awareness Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates a strong relationship between phonological awareness and reading success. Phonemic intervention programs clearly show the benefits of explicitly teaching phonological awareness skills. Phonological awareness skills vary in nature and degree of difficulty and appear to follow a developmental progression. This study examined a…

Tibi, Sana

2010-01-01

288

Phonological awareness: one key to the reading proficiency of deaf children.  

PubMed

A case is made for the importance of children's development of phonological awareness--whether they are hearing or deaf--if they are to reach their potential as readers. Relevant terms are defined (i.e., phonological awareness, phonological processes, and phonics) to assist the reader with the research review, which covers (a) the typical stages in the acquisition of phonological awareness and (b) phonological awareness and deafness. Suggestions for phonological awareness assessment are offered, along with the recommendation that the use of recently developed formal and informal measures of phonological awareness might facilitate the setting of goals and objectives when deaf educators or speech-language pathologists are evaluating the skills of deaf students and planning instruction for these students. Such tools yield information about skills that have been shown to correlate with literacy attainment and that are not commonly addressed by deaf educators or speech-language pathologists serving deaf students. Finally, research concerning the facilitation of phonological awareness and its application is explained. PMID:12448128

Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

2002-07-01

289

What eye fixations tell us about phonological recoding during reading.  

PubMed

Evidence for phonological recoding during reading has depended on paradigms requiring readers to make some response in addition to reading (e.g., proofreading, concurrent speaking). Our subjects simply read text for comprehension, and their eye movements were monitored for spontaneous disruptions when encountering homophonic errors (e.g., He wore blew jeans.) versus nonhomophonic errors (e.g., He wore blow jeans.). Eye fixation behaviour revealed that readers initially experienced as much difficulty when encountering a homophonic error as a nonhomophonic one; however homophony facilitated the recovery process, at least for homophones that shared the same length as their context correct mates (e.g., blew/blue but not war/wore). The results support a theory of lexical access in which phonological sources of activation and influence are delayed relative to orthographic sources, rather than a theory in which phonological codes predominate. PMID:8364528

Daneman, M; Reingold, E

1993-06-01

290

The Search for the Phonological Store: From Loop to Convolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract & The phonological,loop system,of Baddeley and colleagues’ Working,Memory,model,is a major,accomplishment,of the modern,era of cognitive psychology. It was,one,of the first information,processing models,to make,an explicit attempt,to accommodate,both traditional behavioral data and the results of neuropsychological case studies in an integrated theoretical framework. In the early and middle 1990s, the purview of the phonological,loop was expanded,to include the emerging,field of functional brain

Bradley R. Buchsbaum; Mark D'esposito

2008-01-01

291

Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

2012-01-01

292

Prefrontal cortex activity during response selection predicts processing speed impairment in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Processing speed is the most impaired neuropsychological domain in schizophrenia and a robust predictor of functional outcome. Determining the specific cognitive operations underlying processing speed dysfunction and identifying their neural correlates may assist in developing pro-cognitive interventions. Response selection, the process of mapping stimuli onto motor responses, correlates with neuropsychological tests of processing speed and may contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. This study investigated the relationship between behavioral and neural measures of response selection, and a neuropsychological index of processing speed in schizophrenia. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning during performance of two- and four-choice reaction time (RT) tasks and completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS) Processing Speed Index (PSI). Response selection, defined as RT slowing between two- and four-choice RT, was impaired in schizophrenia and correlated with psychometric processing speed. Greater activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) was observed in schizophrenia and correlated with poorer WAIS PSI scores. Deficient response selection and abnormal recruitment of the dorsolateral PFC during response selection contribute to processing speed impairment in schizophrenia. Interventions that improve response selection and normalize dorsolateral PFC function may improve processing speed in schizophrenia. PMID:23816240

Woodward, Neil D; Duffy, Brittney; Karbasforoushan, Haleh

2013-07-02

293

Phonological phrase boundaries constrain lexical access I. Adult dataq  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the effect of local lexical ambiguities while manipulating the type of prosodic boundary at which the ambi- guity occurred, using French sentences and participants. We observed delayed lexical access when a local lexical ambi- guity occurred within a phonological phrase (consistent with previous research; e.g., (un chat grincheux), containing the potential competitor word chagrin, was processed more slowly

Anne Christophe; Sharon Peperkamp; Christophe Pallier; Eliza Block; Jacques Mehler

294

Phonological Awareness Predicts Activation Patterns for Print and Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using fMRI, we explored the relationship between phonological awareness (PA), a measure of metaphonological knowledge of the segmental structure of speech, and brain activation patterns during processing of print and speech in young readers from 6 to 10 years of age. Behavioral measures of PA were positively correlated with activation levels for…

Frost, Stephen J.; Landi, Nicole; Mencl, W. Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Fulbright, Robert K.; Tejada, Eleanor T.; Jacobsen, Leslie; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Pugh, Kenneth R.

2009-01-01

295

Phonological and Semantic Components of Words in Beginning Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Words were used as the stimulus factors to test the two-stage reading process. The first stage is a decoding stage in which the words are perceived and translated into an acoustic code, and the second stage is a semantic matching stage in which words were categorized into three phonological factors (word length, vowel complexity, and regularity)…

Lucas, Jana M.

296

Effects of background music on phonological short-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immediate memory for visually presented verbal material is disrupted by concurrent speech, even when the speech is unattended and in a foreign language. Unattended noise does not produce a reliable decrement. These results have been interpreted in terms of a phonological short-term store that excludes non-speechlike sounds. The characteristics of this exclusion process were explored by studying the effects of

Pierre Salamé; Alan Baddeley

1989-01-01

297

Phonological Awareness Predicts Activation Patterns for Print and Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using fMRI, we explored the relationship between phonological awareness (PA), a measure of metaphonological knowledge of the segmental structure of speech, and brain activation patterns during processing of print and speech in young readers from 6 to 10 years of age. Behavioral measures of PA were positively correlated with activation levels for…

Frost, Stephen J.; Landi, Nicole; Mencl, W. Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Fulbright, Robert K.; Tejada, Eleanor T.; Jacobsen, Leslie; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Pugh, Kenneth R.

2009-01-01

298

The Dyslexia Spectrum: Continuities between Reading, Speech, and Language Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|D. V. M. Bishop and M. J. Snowling (2004) proposed that 2 dimensions of language are required to conceptualize the relationship between dyslexia and specific language impairment: phonological skills and wider language skills beyond phonology (grammatical, semantic, and pragmatic skills). In this article, we discuss the commonalities between…

Snowling, Margaret J.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.

2006-01-01

299

Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

2013-01-01

300

The Phonological Assimilation of Borrowing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Linguistic borrowing from English to Jordanian Arabic at the lexical level is described, focusing on phonology and the extent to which Jordanian Arabic has affected the phonetic structure of English loans assimilated partially or completely into it. Conspicuous distinctive sound features in the two languages that may affect non-native speakers'…

Suleiman, Saleh M.

301

Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…

Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

2012-01-01

302

Phonological Awareness Training. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Phonological Awareness Training" is a general practice aimed at enhancing young children's phonological awareness abilities. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to detect or manipulate the sounds in words independent of meaning. Phonological awareness is a precursor to reading. "Phonological Awareness Training" can involve various…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

2006-01-01

303

Infants' Learning of Phonological Status  

PubMed Central

There is a substantial literature describing how infants become more sensitive to differences between native phonemes (sounds that are both present and meaningful in the input) and less sensitive to differences between non-native phonemes (sounds that are neither present nor meaningful in the input) over the course of development. Here, we review an emergent strand of literature that gives a more nuanced notion of the problem of sound category learning. This research documents infants’ discovery of phonological status, signaled by a decrease in sensitivity to sounds that map onto the same phonemic category vs. different phonemic categories. The former phones are present in the input, but their difference does not cue meaning distinctions because they are tied to one and the same phoneme. For example, the diphthong I in I’m should map to the same underlying category as the diphthong in I’d, despite the fact that the first vowel is nasal and the second oral. Because such pairs of sounds are processed differently than those than map onto different phonemes by adult speakers, the learner has to come to treat them differently as well. Interestingly, there is some evidence that infants’ sensitivity to dimensions that are allophonic in the ambient language declines as early as 11?months. We lay out behavioral research, corpora analyses, and computational work which sheds light on how infants achieve this feat at such a young age. Collectively, this work suggests that the computation of complementary distribution and the calculation of phonetic similarity operate in concert to guide infants toward a functional interpretation of sounds that are present in the input, yet not lexically contrastive. In addition to reviewing this literature, we discuss broader implications for other fundamental theoretical and empirical questions.

Seidl, Amanda; Cristia, Alejandrina

2012-01-01

304

Bilateral Hemispheric Processing of Words and Faces: Evidence from Word Impairments in Prosopagnosia and Face Impairments in Pure Alexia.  

PubMed

Considerable research has supported the view that faces and words are subserved by independent neural mechanisms located in the ventral visual cortex in opposite hemispheres. On this view, right hemisphere ventral lesions that impair face recognition (prosopagnosia) should leave word recognition unaffected, and left hemisphere ventral lesions that impair word recognition (pure alexia) should leave face recognition unaffected. The current study shows that neither of these predictions was upheld. A series of experiments characterizing speed and accuracy of word and face recognition were conducted in 7 patients (4 pure alexic, 3 prosopagnosic) and matched controls. Prosopagnosic patients revealed mild but reliable word recognition deficits, and pure alexic patients demonstrated mild but reliable face recognition deficits. The apparent comingling of face and word mechanisms is unexpected from a domain-specific perspective, but follows naturally as a consequence of an interactive, learning-based account in which neural processes for both faces and words are the result of an optimization procedure embodying specific computational principles and constraints. PMID:23250954

Behrmann, Marlene; Plaut, David C

2013-06-13

305

Visuo-Spatial Processing and Executive Functions in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Individual differences in complex working memory tasks reflect simultaneous processing, executive functions, and attention control. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show a deficit in verbal working memory tasks that involve simultaneous processing of information. Aims: The purpose of the study was to examine executive…

Marton, Klara

2008-01-01

306

Ophthalmological, Cognitive, Electrophysiological and MRI Assessment of Visual Processing in Preterm Children without Major Neuromotor Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many studies report chronic deficits in visual processing in children born preterm. We investigated whether functional abnormalities in visual processing exist in children born preterm but without major neuromotor impairment (i.e. cerebral palsy). Twelve such children (less than 33 weeks gestation or birthweight less than 1000 g) without major…

O'Reilly, Michelle; Vollmer, Brigitte; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Neville, Brian; Connelly, Alan; Wyatt, John; Timms, Chris; De Haan, Michelle

2010-01-01

307

Decoding ability makes waves in reading: deficient interactions between attention and phonological analysis in developmental dyslexia.  

PubMed

Whilst there is general consensus that phonological processing is deficient in developmental dyslexia, recent research also implicates visuo-attentional contributions. Capitalising on the P3a wave of event-related potentials as an index of attentional capture, we tested dyslexic and normal readers on a novel variant of a visual oddball task to examine the interplay of orthographic-phonological integration and attentional engagement. Targets were animal words (10% occurrence). Amongst nontarget stimuli were two critical conditions: pseudohomophones of targets (10%) and control pseudohomophones (of fillers; 10%). Pseudohomophones of targets (but not control pseudohomophones) elicited a large P3 wave in normal readers only, revealing a lack of attentional engagement with these phonologically salient stimuli in dyslexic participants. Critically, both groups showed similar early phonological discrimination as indexed by posterior P2 modulations. Furthermore, phonological engagement, as indexed by P3a differences between pseudohomophone conditions, correlated with several measures of reading. Meanwhile, an analogous experiment using coloured shapes instead of orthographic stimuli failed to show group differences between experimental modulations in the P2 or P3 ranges. Overall, our results show that, whilst automatic aspects of phonological processing appear intact in developmental dyslexia, the breakdown in pseudoword reading occurs at a later stage, when attention is oriented to orthographic-phonological information. PMID:22426204

Savill, Nicola J; Thierry, Guillaume

2012-03-15

308

The Role of Visual and Auditory Temporal Processing for Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined temporal processing in relation to Chinese reading acquisition and impairment. The performances of 26 Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia on tasks of visual and auditory temporal order judgement, rapid naming, visual-orthographic knowledge, morphological, and phonological awareness were compared with…

Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Simpson W. L.; Cheung, Him; Penney, Trevor B.; Ho, Connie S. -H.

2008-01-01

309

Improving Phonological Awareness and Decoding Skills of High School Students from Diverse Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|High school students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds frequently struggle with the literacy demands of middle and high school curricula. Many students with severe impairments do not have basic phonological awareness and decoding skills. To improve the reading achievement of these students and promote their success in…

Algozzine, Bob, Ed.; McQuiston, Kathleen; O'Shea, Doris; McCollin, Michelle

2008-01-01

310

The contribution of phonological short-term memory to artificial grammar learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments investigated the contribution of phonological short-term memory (STM) to grammar learning by manipulating rehearsal during study of an auditory artificial grammar made up from a vocabulary of spoken Mandarin syllables. Experiment 1 showed that concurrent, irrelevant articulation impaired grammar learning compared with a nonverbal control task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding, showing that repeating the grammatical

Jackie Andrade; Alan Baddeley

2011-01-01

311

Perceptual Organization, Phonological Awareness, and Reading Comprehension in Adults with and without Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is not clear from research whether, or to what extent, reading comprehension is impaired in adults who have learning disabilities (LD). The influence of perceptual organization (PO) and phonological awareness (PA) on reading comprehension was investigated. PO and PA are cognitive functions that have been examined in previous research for their…

Stothers, Margot; Klein, Perry D.

2010-01-01

312

Spoken Word Recognition in School-Age Children with SLI: Semantic, Phonological, and Repetition Priming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this study was to contribute to the current understanding of how children with specific language impairment (SLI) organize their mental lexicons. The study examined semantic and phonological priming in children with and without SLI. Method: Thirteen children (7;0-11;3 [years;months]) with SLI and 13 age-matched children…

Velez, Melinda; Schwartz, Richard G.

2010-01-01

313

Density, Frequency and the Expressive Phonology of Children with Phonological Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

314

Density, Frequency and the Expressive Phonology of Children with Phonological Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were…

Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.

2012-01-01

315

Contrast Responsivity in MT+ Correlates with Phonological Awareness and Reading Measures in Children  

PubMed Central

There are several independent sets of findings concerning the neural basis of reading. One set demonstrates a powerful relationship between phonological processing and reading skills. Another set reveals a relationship between visual responses in the motion pathways and reading skills. It is widely assumed that these two findings are unrelated. We tested the hypothesis that phonological awareness is related to motion responsivity in children’s MT+. We measured BOLD signals to drifting gratings as a function of contrast. Subjects were 35 children ages 7–12y with a wide range of reading skills. Contrast responsivity in MT+, but not V1, was correlated with phonological awareness and to a lesser extent with two other measures of reading. No correlation was found between MT+ signals and rapid naming, age or general IQ measures. These results establish an important link between visual and phonological processing in children and suggest that MT+ responsivity is a marker for healthy reading development.

Ben-Shachar, Michal; Dougherty, Robert F.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Wandell, Brian A.

2007-01-01

316

Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?  

PubMed Central

Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes.

De-Torres, Irene; Davila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Sean Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

2013-01-01

317

Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?  

PubMed

Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460

De-Torres, Irene; Dávila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L; Walsh, Seán Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

2013-10-18

318

Factors associated with symbolic play development in preschoolers with hearing impairments and language processing delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A child's ability to play is dependent on various factors, both internal and environmental. This study examines the relationships between symbolic play development in children, language development in children, parental role behaviors and parenting stress. This project is specifically concerned with the development of play in relation to these other factors in a population of hearing impaired and language processing

Jennifer A Maltz

2003-01-01

319

Spectral vs. Temporal Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment: A Developmental ERP Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Pre-linguistic sensory deficits, especially in "temporal" processing, have been implicated in developmental language impairment (LI). However, recent evidence has been equivocal with data suggesting problems in the spectral domain. The present study examined event-related potential (ERP) measures of auditory sensory temporal and spectral…

Ceponiene, R.; Cummings, A.; Wulfeck, B.; Ballantyne, A.; Townsend, J.

2009-01-01

320

Processing of Mass/Count Information in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the processing of a specific linguistic distinction, the mass/count distinction, in patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Fourteen AD and 10 MCI subjects were tested using a sentence grammaticality judgement task where grammaticality violations were caused by determiner--noun…

Taler, Vanessa; Jarema, Gonia

2004-01-01

321

The Process of Including Elementary Students with Autism and Intellectual Impairments in Their Typical Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative case study methodology was used to examine the process of including three students with autism, intellectual impairments, and behavioral challenges in age-appropriate typical classrooms and home schools. Data were obtained over a 9-month period from field notes of a participant researcher and three paraeducators, structured…

Downing, June E.; And Others

322

The Neurobiology of Sensory and Language Processing in Language-Impaired Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical, behavioral, and neurophysiological studies of developmental language impairment (LI), including reading disability (RD), have variously emphasized different factors that may contribute to this disorder. These include abnormal sensory processing within both the auditory and visual modalities and deficits in linguistic skills and in general cognitive abilities. In this study we employed the event-related brain potential (ERP) technique in a

Helen J. Neville; Sharon A. Coffey; Phillip J. Holcomb; Paula Tallal

1993-01-01

323

Brainstem Correlates of Temporal Auditory Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Deficits in identification and discrimination of sounds with short inter-stimulus intervals or short formant transitions in children with specific language impairment (SLI) have been taken to reflect an underlying temporal auditory processing deficit. Using the sustained frequency following response (FFR) and the onset auditory brainstem…

Basu, Madhavi; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Weber-Fox, Christine

2010-01-01

324

Brainstem Correlates of Temporal Auditory Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deficits in identification and discrimination of sounds with short inter-stimulus intervals or short formant transitions in children with specific language impairment (SLI) have been taken to reflect an underlying temporal auditory processing deficit. Using the sustained frequency following response (FFR) and the onset auditory brainstem responses…

Basu, Madhavi; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Weber-Fox, Christine

2010-01-01

325

Assessing the US Clean Water Act 303(d) listing process for determining impairment of a waterbody  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the US Clean Water Act (CWA) Section 303(d) listing and delisting processes, based on historical and current federal and state guidelines, to determine whether there are regional differences in water quality assessment criteria used by various states to determine impairment of a waterbody for inclusion in the 303(d) list. A review of almost 50 total maximum daily

Arturo A. Keller; Lindsey Cavallaro

2008-01-01

326

Electrophysiologic Manifestations of Impaired Temporal Lobe Auditory Processing in Verbal Auditory Agnosia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the extent to which verbal auditory agnosia (VAA) is primarily a phonemic decoding disorder, as contrasted to a more global defect in acoustic processing. Subjects were six young adults who presented with VAA in childhood and who, at the time of testing, showed varying degrees of residual auditory discrimination impairment. They were compared to a group

S. K. Klein; D. Kurtzberg; A. Brattson; J. A. Kreuzer; D. R. Stapells; M. A. Dunn; I. Rapin; H. G. Vaughan

1995-01-01

327

Semantic, lexical, and phonological influences on the production of verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia  

PubMed Central

Verb inflection errors, often seen in agrammatic aphasic speech, have been attributed to either impaired encoding of diacritical features that specify tense and aspect, or to impaired affixation during phonological encoding. In this study we examined the effect of semantic markedness, word form frequency and affix frequency, as well as accuracy and error patterns, in an attempt to evaluate whether diacritical or affixation operations are impaired. Verb inflections (V + ing, V + ed, V + s, and V stem in present progressive, past, present 3rd person singular, and future tense contexts, respectively) were elicited in eight mild-moderate agrammatic aphasic individuals in a sentence context using a picture description task. Results revealed that the majority of verbs produced were affixed (75%) although accuracy was low (36%). Word form frequency was found to be a significant predictor of the accuracy with which verb inflections were produced; while affix frequency and semantic markedness were not found to influence accuracy. These results suggest that a diacritical deficit is more likely to undermine the production of verb inflections than a affixation deficit, and indicate that when diacritical processes are compromised, word form frequency is likely to influence production of verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia.

Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Thompson, Cynthia K.

2011-01-01

328

Phonological similarity neighborhoods and children’s short-term memory: Typical development and dyslexia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we explore whether structural characteristics of the phonological lexicon affect serial recall in typically\\u000a developing and dyslexic children. Recent work has emphasized the importance of long-term phonological representations in supporting\\u000a short-term memory performance. This occurs via redintegration (reconstruction) processes, which show significant neighborhood\\u000a density effects in adults. We assessed whether serial recall in children was affected by

Jennifer M. Thomson; Ulla Richardson; Usha Goswami

2005-01-01

329

Testing the attentional boundary conditions of subliminal semantic priming: the influence of semantic and phonological task sets  

PubMed Central

Recent studies challenged the classical notion of automaticity and indicated that even unconscious automatic semantic processing is under attentional control to some extent. In line with our attentional sensitization model, these data suggest that a sensitization of semantic pathways by a semantic task set is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to occur while non-semantic task sets attenuate priming. In the present study, we tested whether masked semantic priming is also reduced by phonological task sets using the previously developed induction task paradigm. This would substantiate the notion that attention to semantics is necessary for eliciting unconscious semantic priming. Participants first performed semantic and phonological induction tasks that should either activate a semantic or a phonological task set. Subsequent to the induction task, a masked prime word, either associated or non-associated with the following lexical decision target word, was presented. Across two experiments, we varied the nature of the phonological induction task (word phonology vs. letter phonology) to assess whether the attentional focus on the entire word vs. single letters modulates subsequent masked semantic priming. In both experiments, subliminal semantic priming was only found subsequent to the semantic induction task, but was attenuated following either phonological induction task. These results indicate that attention to phonology attenuates subsequent semantic processing of unconsciously presented primes whether or not attention is directed to the entire word or to single letters. The present findings therefore substantiate earlier evidence that an attentional orientation toward semantics is necessary for subliminal semantic priming to be elicited.

Adams, Sarah C.; Kiefer, Markus

2012-01-01

330

Auditory processing in children : a study of the effects of age, hearing impairment and language impairment on auditory abilities in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis we tested the hypotheses that the auditory system of children continues to mature until at least the age of 12 years and that the development of auditory processing in hearing-impaired and language-impaired children is often delayed or even genuinely disturbed. Data from a longitudinal study in 6- to 12-year-old normally developing children suggested that maturational effects play

Martin Hubertus Petrus Stollman

2003-01-01

331

Poor insight in traumatic brain injury mediated by impaired error processing? Evidence from electrodermal activity.  

PubMed

Impaired deficit awareness is common following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and is a major obstacle to rehabilitation. We have previously confirmed the presence of impaired error awareness in TBI using a highly discriminating go/no-go procedure. In the present study, we extend this work to try to identify more closely the nature of the error awareness deficit using measures of electrodermal activity (EDA). Sixteen participants with TBI and sixteen age-, sex-, and education-matched controls performed the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART), while EDA was recorded. TBI detected significantly fewer errors compared to controls. EDA was significantly attenuated for TBI participants even to errors of which they were aware; error detection rates and EDA amplitude were also correlated. These findings suggest that poor insight following TBI may result, in part, from impaired error processing abilities. PMID:15561506

O'Keeffe, Fiadhnait M; Dockree, Paul M; Robertson, Ian H

2004-12-01

332

Temporal Processing Deficits in Remediation-Resistant Reading-Impaired Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable interest in whether a deficit in temporal processing underlies specific learning and language disabilities in school-aged children. This view is particularly controversial in the area of developmental reading problems. The temporal-processing hypothesis was tested in a sample of normal children, 9–11 years of age, and in a sample of age-matched children with reading impairments, by assessing temporal-order

Anthony T. Cacace; Dennis J. McFarland; John R. Ouimet; Edward J. Schrieber; Peggy Marro

2000-01-01

333

Early ERP Signature of Hearing Impairment in Visual Rhyme Judgment  

PubMed Central

Postlingually acquired hearing impairment (HI) is associated with changes in the representation of sound in semantic long-term memory. An indication of this is the lower performance on visual rhyme judgment tasks in conditions where phonological and orthographic cues mismatch, requiring high reliance on phonological representations. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used for the first time to investigate the neural correlates of phonological processing in visual rhyme judgments in participants with acquired HI and normal hearing (NH). Rhyme task word pairs rhymed or not and had matching or mismatching orthography. In addition, the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) was manipulated to be either long (800?ms) or short (50?ms). Long ISIs allow for engagement of explicit, top-down processes, while short ISIs limit the involvement of such mechanisms. We hypothesized lower behavioral performance and N400 and N2 deviations in HI in the mismatching rhyme judgment conditions, particularly in short ISI. However, the results showed a different pattern. As expected, behavioral performance in the mismatch conditions was lower in HI than in NH in short ISI, but ERPs did not differ across groups. In contrast, HI performed on a par with NH in long ISI. Further, HI, but not NH, showed an amplified N2-like response in the non-rhyming, orthographically mismatching condition in long ISI. This was also the rhyme condition in which participants in both groups benefited the most from the possibility to engage top-down processes afforded with the longer ISI. Taken together, these results indicate an early ERP signature of HI in this challenging phonological task, likely reflecting use of a compensatory strategy. This strategy is suggested to involve increased reliance on explicit mechanisms such as articulatory recoding and grapheme-to-phoneme conversion.

Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Johansson, Mikael; Ronnberg, Jerker

2013-01-01

334

Early ERP Signature of Hearing Impairment in Visual Rhyme Judgment.  

PubMed

Postlingually acquired hearing impairment (HI) is associated with changes in the representation of sound in semantic long-term memory. An indication of this is the lower performance on visual rhyme judgment tasks in conditions where phonological and orthographic cues mismatch, requiring high reliance on phonological representations. In this study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used for the first time to investigate the neural correlates of phonological processing in visual rhyme judgments in participants with acquired HI and normal hearing (NH). Rhyme task word pairs rhymed or not and had matching or mismatching orthography. In addition, the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) was manipulated to be either long (800?ms) or short (50?ms). Long ISIs allow for engagement of explicit, top-down processes, while short ISIs limit the involvement of such mechanisms. We hypothesized lower behavioral performance and N400 and N2 deviations in HI in the mismatching rhyme judgment conditions, particularly in short ISI. However, the results showed a different pattern. As expected, behavioral performance in the mismatch conditions was lower in HI than in NH in short ISI, but ERPs did not differ across groups. In contrast, HI performed on a par with NH in long ISI. Further, HI, but not NH, showed an amplified N2-like response in the non-rhyming, orthographically mismatching condition in long ISI. This was also the rhyme condition in which participants in both groups benefited the most from the possibility to engage top-down processes afforded with the longer ISI. Taken together, these results indicate an early ERP signature of HI in this challenging phonological task, likely reflecting use of a compensatory strategy. This strategy is suggested to involve increased reliance on explicit mechanisms such as articulatory recoding and grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. PMID:23653613

Classon, Elisabet; Rudner, Mary; Johansson, Mikael; Rönnberg, Jerker

2013-05-06

335

Degree of illiteracy and phonological and metaphonological skills in unschooled adults.  

PubMed

Phonological and metaphonological skills are explored in 97 Brazilian illiterate and semiliterate adults. A simple letter- and word-reading task was used to define the degree of illiteracy. Phonemic awareness was strongly dependent on the level of letter and word reading ability. Phonological memory was very low in illiterates and unrelated to letter knowledge. Rhyme identification was relatively preserved in illiterates and semiliterates, and unrelated to letter and word reading level. Phonetic discrimination (minimal pairs) was fairly good and marginally related to reading ability. These results suggest that phonological sensitivity, phonological memory, rhyme identification, and phonemic awareness are distinctive cognitive processes, and that only phonemic awareness is clearly and strongly dependent on the alphabetical acquisition. PMID:15120540

Loureiro, Clara de Santos; Braga, Lucia Willadino; Souza, Ligia do Nascimento; Nunes Filho, Gilberto; Queiroz, Elizabeth; Dellatolas, Georges

2004-06-01

336

Phonological Priming in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological

Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.

2012-01-01

337

Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

2013-01-01

338

Phonological Priming and Cohort Effects in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult word recognition is influenced by prior exposure to phonologically or semantically related words ("cup" primes "cat" or "plate") compared to unrelated words ("door"), suggesting that words are organised in the adult lexicon based on their phonological and semantic properties and that word recognition implicates not just the heard word, but…

Mani, Nivedita; Plunkett, Kim

2011-01-01

339

Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

2013-01-01

340

The Acquisition of L2 Phonology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Acquisition of L2 Phonology is a wide-ranging new collection which focuses on various aspects of the acquisition of an L2 phonological system. The authors are researchers and practitioners from five different countries. The volume has been divided into three major sections. Phonetic Analysis presents five studies of language learners in both…

Wojtaszek, Adam; Arabski, Janusz

2011-01-01

341

Phonological Awareness in Young Chinese Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies explored the nature of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese. In Study 1, involving 146 children, awareness of phoneme onset did not differ from chance levels at ages 3-5 years in preschool but increased to 70% correct in first grade, when children first received phonological coding (Pinyin) instruction. Similarly, tone awareness was…

Shu, Hua; Peng, Hong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

2008-01-01

342

Auditory Deficit as a Consequence Rather than Endophenotype of Specific Language Impairment: Electrophysiological Evidence  

PubMed Central

Background Are developmental language disorders caused by poor auditory discrimination? This is a popular theory, but behavioural evidence has been inconclusive. Here we studied children with specific language impairment, measuring the brain’s electrophysiological response to sounds in a passive paradigm. We focused on the T-complex, an event-related peak that has different origins and developmental course from the well-known vertex response. Methods We analysed auditory event-related potentials to tones and syllables from 16 children and 16 adolescents with specific language impairment who were compared with 32 typically-developing controls, matched for gender, IQ and age. Results We replicated prior findings of significant reduction in Ta amplitude for both children and adolescents with specific language impairment, which was particularly marked for syllables. The topography of the T-complex to syllables indicated a less focal response in those with language impairments. To distinguish causal models, we considered correlations between size of the Ta response and measures of language and literacy in parents as well as children. The best-fitting model was one in which auditory deficit was a consequence rather than a cause of difficulties in phonological processing. Conclusions The T-complex to syllables has abnormal size and topography in children with specific language impairment, but this is more likely to be a consequence rather than a cause of difficulties in phonological processing.

Bishop, D. V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.

2012-01-01

343

A Probabilistic Model of Phonological Relationships from Contrast to Allophony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…

Hall, Kathleen Currie

2009-01-01

344

Down syndrome phonology: Developmental patterns and intervention strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes phonological development in children with Down syndrome paying particular attention to underlying defi cits and intervention strategies. The fi rst section provides an overview of factors believed to infl uence phonological development in this population. The second section describes four aspects of Down syndrome phonology: (1) the prelinguistic stage; (2) the transition to speech; (3) the phonology

Carol Stoel-Gammon

2001-01-01

345

Different roles of cytoarchitectonic BA 44 and BA 45 in phonological and semantic verbal fluency as revealed by dynamic causal modelling  

PubMed Central

The interactions of left cytoarchitectonic BA 44 and BA 45 during semantic and phonological verbal fluency tasks were investigated using dynamic causal modelling (DCM). Three different models were tested, all of which featured BA 44 and BA 45 as top-down driven interconnected nodes projecting to the motor cortex as the final output region. Model #1 represents the hypothesis that BA 45 is involved in lexical retrieval including both semantic and phonological processes, while BA 44 supports other phonological processes. Model #2 reflects the notion of a clear-cut segregation of computational processes sustained by BA 44 (phonological processing) and BA 45 (semantic processing). Model #3 was based on the hypothesis that both BA 44 and BA 45 support semantic and phonological processing. When these models were compared against each other by Bayesian model selection, evidence emerged in favour of the first model, implying that BA 45 supports word retrieval processes whereas BA 44 is involved in processing phonological information during word generation. In a subsequent analysis of the derived model parameters for model #1, all connection strengths were significantly positive except for the inhibitory coupling between BA 44 and BA 45. This inhibition may reflect how the phonological analysis in BA 44 during word generation constrains lexical word retrieval in BA 45. To conclude, DCM provided additional insights into the roles of BA 44 and BA 45 during verbal fluency revealing the involvement of BA 45 in lexical retrieval and the relevance of BA 44 for phonological processing during word generation.

Heim, Stefan; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Amunts, Katrin

2009-01-01

346

Density, frequency and the expressive phonology of children with phonological delay*  

PubMed Central

The effect of word-level variables on expressive phonology has not been widely studied, although the properties of words likely bear on the emergence of sound structure (Stoel-Gammon, 2011). Eight preschoolers, diagnosed with phonological delay, were assigned to treatment to experimentally induce gains in expressive phonology. Erred sounds were taught using stimulus words that varied orthogonally in neighborhood density and word frequency as the independent variables. Generalization was the dependent variable, defined as production accuracy of treated and untreated (erred) sounds. Blocked comparisons showed that dense neighborhoods triggered greater generalization, but frequency did not have a clear differential effect. Orthogonal comparisons revealed graded effects, with frequent words from dense neighborhoods being optimal for generalization. The results contrast with prior literature, which has reported a sparse neighborhood advantage for children with phonological delay. There is a suggestion that children with phonological delay require greater than usual cue redundancy and convergence to prompt expressive phonological learning.

GIERUT, JUDITH A.; MORRISETTE, MICHELE L.

2012-01-01

347

How the clustering of phonological neighbors affects visual word recognition.  

PubMed

In recent years, a new scientific field known as network science has been emerging. Network science is concerned with understanding the structure and properties of networks. One concept that is commonly used in describing a network is how the nodes in the network cluster together. The current research applied the idea of clustering to the study of how phonological neighbors influence visual word recognition. The results of 2 experiments converge to show that words with neighbors that are highly clustered (i.e., are closely related in terms of sound) are recognized more slowly than are those having neighbors that are less clustered. This result is explained in terms of the principles of interactive activation where the interplay between phoneme and phonological word units is affected by the neighborhood structure of the word. It is argued that neighbors in more clustered neighborhoods become more active and directly compete with the target word, thereby slowing processing. PMID:23565783

Yates, Mark

2013-04-08

348

Impaired conscious and preserved unconscious inhibitory processing in recent onset schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Impairments in inhibitory function have been found in studies of cognition in schizophrenia. These have been linked to a failure to adequately maintain the task demands in working memory. As response inhibition is known to occur in both voluntary and involuntary processes, an important question is whether both aspects of response inhibition are specifically impaired in people with schizophrenia. Method The subjects were 33 patients presenting with a first episode of psychosis (27 with schizophrenia and six with schizo-affective disorder) and 24 healthy controls. We administered two motor response tasks: voluntary response inhibition was indexed by the stop-signal task and involuntary response inhibition by the masked priming task. We also administered neuropsychological measures of IQ and executive function to explore their associations with response inhibition. Results Patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls showed significantly increased duration of the voluntary response inhibition process, as indexed by the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT). By contrast, there were no group differences on the pattern of priming on the masked priming task, indicative of intact involuntary response inhibition. Neuropsychological measures revealed that voluntary response inhibition is not necessarily dependent on working memory. Conclusions These data provide evidence for a specific impairment of voluntary response inhibition in schizophrenia.

Huddy, V. C.; Aron, A. R.; Harrison, M.; Barnes, T. R. E.; Robbins, T. W.; Joyce, E. M.

2009-01-01

349

The process of auditory distraction: Disrupted attention and impaired recall in a simulated lecture environment.  

PubMed

Literature on auditory distraction has generally focused on the effects of particular kinds of sounds on attention to target stimuli. In support of extensive previous findings that have demonstrated the special role of language as an auditory distractor, we found that a concurrent speech stream impaired recall of a short lecture, especially for verbatim language. But impaired recall effects were also found with a variety of nonlinguistic noises, suggesting that neither type of noise nor amplitude and duration of noise are adequate predictors of distraction. Rather, distraction occurred when it was difficult for a listener to process sounds and assemble coherent, differentiable streams of input, one task-salient and attended and the other task-irrelevant and inhibited. In 3 experiments, the effects of auditory distractors during a short spoken lecture were tested. Participants recalled details of the lecture and also reported their opinions of the sound quality. Our findings suggest that distractors that are difficult to designate as either task related or environment related (and therefore irrelevant) draw cognitive processing resources away from a target speech stream during a listening task, impairing recall. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23565786

Zeamer, Charlotte; Fox Tree, Jean E

2013-04-08

350

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate improves processing speed and memory in cognitively impaired MS patients: a phase II study.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes cognitive impairment including slowed processing speed and problems with learning and memory. Stimulants are attractive candidates for improving mental speed but carry risk of addiction and other adverse behavioral effects. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a D-amphetamine prodrug currently approved for attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder with the potential to be better tolerated due to its prolonged clinical effect. This phase II placebo-controlled, double-blind study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of LDX in cognitively impaired MS patients. Subjects were patients with clinically definite MS, aged 18-56 years, and impaired on either of two primary outcomes: the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) or the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Both SDMT and PASAT are measures of cognitive processing speed. Of 174 MS patients screened, 63 were randomized to 30 mg of LDX or placebo in a 2:1 fashion; the dose was increased as tolerated to 70 mg over 4 weeks and then maintained for another 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes were the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised (BVMTR), the California Verbal Learning Test 2nd edition (CVLT2), both measures of episodic memory, and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function for adults (BRIEF-A), a self-report measure of executive function. Fatigue and depression were also evaluated. There was significant improvement in the SDMT score (+4.6 vs. +1.3) and CVLT2 score (+4.7 vs. -0.9) in the LDX group compared with the placebo group among the 49 completers. There was no change on the other outcomes. A high proportion of both LDX-treated and placebo-treated subjects reported adverse events (73.5 % vs. 68.4 %). However, there were no serious adverse events noted in the study. These preliminary data indicate that LDX has the potential to be an efficacious treatment for MS patients with cognitive impairment. PMID:23001556

Morrow, Sarah A; Smerbeck, Audrey; Patrick, Kara; Cookfair, Diane; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B

2012-09-23

351

Cocaine users manifest impaired prosodic and cross-modal emotion processing.  

PubMed

Background: A small number of previous studies have provided evidence that cocaine users (CU) exhibit impairments in complex social cognition tasks, while the more basic facial emotion recognition is widely unaffected. However, prosody and cross-modal emotion processing has not been systematically investigated in CU so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess complex multisensory emotion processing in CU in comparison to controls and to examine a potential association with drug use patterns. Method: The abbreviated version of the comprehensive affect testing system (CATS-A) was used to measure emotion perception across the three channels of facial affect, prosody, and semantic content in 58 CU and 48 healthy control (HC) subjects who were matched for age, sex, verbal intelligence, and years of education. Results: CU had significantly lower scores than controls in the quotient scales of "emotion recognition" and "prosody recognition" and the subtests "conflicting prosody/meaning - attend to prosody" and "match emotional prosody to emotional face" either requiring to attend to prosody or to integrate cross-modal information. In contrast, no group difference emerged for the "affect recognition quotient." Cumulative cocaine doses and duration of cocaine use correlated negatively with emotion processing. Conclusion: CU show impaired cross-modal integration of different emotion processing channels particularly with regard to prosody, whereas more basic aspects of emotion processing such as facial affect perception are comparable to the performance of HC. PMID:24046750

Hulka, Lea M; Preller, Katrin H; Vonmoos, Matthias; Broicher, Sarah D; Quednow, Boris B

2013-09-05

352

Grammatical and Phonological Influences on Word Order  

PubMed Central

During the grammatical encoding of spoken multiword utterances, various kinds of information must be used to determine the order of words. For example, whereas in adjective-noun utterances like “red car”, word order can be determined on the basis of the word's grammatical class information, in noun-noun utterances like “…by car, bus, or…”, word order cannot be determined on the basis of a word's grammatical class information. We investigated whether a word's phonological properties play a role in grammatical encoding. In four experiments participants produced multiword utterances in which the words' onset phonology was manipulated. Phonological-onset relatedness yielded inhibitory effects in noun-noun utterances, no effects in noun-adjective utterances, and facilitatory effects in adjective-noun, noun-verb, and adjective-adjective-noun utterances. These results cannot be explained by differences in the stimulus displays used to elicit the utterances and suggest that grammatical encoding is sensitive to the phonological properties of words.

Janssen, Niels; Caramazza, Alfonso

2009-01-01

353

Phonological "Deviance" in British Sign Language Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the phonological deviance of the poetry of Dorothy Miles, who composed her work in both British Sign Language and English. Analysis is based on three poems performed by Miles herself. (Author/VWL)

Sutton-Spence, Rachel

2001-01-01

354

Phonological "Deviance" in British Sign Language Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on the phonological deviance of the poetry of Dorothy Miles, who composed her work in both British Sign Language and English. Analysis is based on three poems performed by Miles herself. (Author/VWL)|

Sutton-Spence, Rachel

2001-01-01

355

Dissociating Stimulus-Driven Semantic and Phonological Effect During Reading and Naming  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to dissociate the neural correlates of semantic and phonological processes during word reading and picture naming. Previous studies have addressed this issue by contrasting tasks involving semantic and phonological decisions. However, these tasks engage verbal short-term memory and executive functions that are not required for reading and naming. Here, 20 subjects were instructed to overtly name written words and pictures of objects while their neuronal responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Each trial consisted of a pair of successive stimuli that were either semantically related (e.g., “ROBIN-nest”), phonologically related (e.g., “BELL-belt”), unrelated (e.g., “KITE-lobster”), or semantically and phonologically identical (e.g., “FRIDGE-fridge”). In addition, a pair of stimuli could be presented in either the same modality (word-word or picture-picture) or a different modality (word-picture or picture-word). We report that semantically related pairs modulate neuronal responses in a left-lateralized network, including the pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus, the middle temporal gyrus, the angular gyrus, and the superior frontal gyrus. We propose that these areas are involved in stimulus-driven semantic processes. In contrast, phonologically related pairs modulate neuronal responses in bilateral insula. This region is therefore implicated in the discrimination of similar, competing phonological and articulatory codes. The above effects were detected with both words and pictures and did not differ between the two modalities even with a less conservative statistical threshold. In conclusion, this study dissociates the effects of semantic and phonological relatedness between successive items during reading and naming aloud. Hum Brain Mapp, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Mechelli, Andrea; Josephs, Oliver; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; McClelland, James L; Price, Cathy J

2007-01-01

356

Phonological priming in children's picture naming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined phonological priming in children and adults, using a cross-modal picture-word interference task. Pictures of familiar objects were presented on a computer screen, while interfering words (IWs) were presented over headphones. In terms of their relation to target pictures, IWs were either phonologically related, unrelated, neutral (the word go), or identical. Ninety children (30 aged 4;11 to 5;11,

PATRICIA J. BROOKS; BRIAN MACWHINNEY

2000-01-01

357

Confronting Professional Impairment During the Internship: Identification, Due Process, and Remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although increasing efforts have been made in recent years to address impairment in practicing psychologists, little regarding how to deal with impairment early in the professional career has been reported. The predoctoral internship is a pivotal training experience, which makes it a critical stage at which to assess and deal with impairment. We identify criteria of impairment, suggest components to

Douglas H. Lamb; Nan R. Presser; Karen S. Pfost; Michael C. Baum; Vivian R. Jackson; Paul A. Jarvis

1987-01-01

358

Impaired global, and compensatory local, biological motion processing in people with high levels of autistic traits.  

PubMed

People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are hypothesized to have poor high-level processing but superior low-level processing, causing impaired social recognition, and a focus on non-social stimulus contingencies. Biological motion perception provides an ideal domain to investigate exactly how ASD modulates the interaction between low and high-level processing, because it involves multiple processing stages, and carries many important social cues. We investigated individual differences among typically developing observers in biological motion processing, and whether such individual differences associate with the number of autistic traits. In Experiment 1, we found that individuals with fewer autistic traits were automatically and involuntarily attracted to global biological motion information, whereas individuals with more autistic traits did not show this pre-attentional distraction. We employed an action adaptation paradigm in the second study to show that individuals with more autistic traits were able to compensate for deficits in global processing with an increased involvement in local processing. Our findings can be interpreted within a predictive coding framework, which characterizes the functional relationship between local and global processing stages, and explains how these stages contribute to the perceptual difficulties associated with ASD. PMID:23630514

van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Lu, Hongjing

2013-04-23

359

What Models of Verbal Working Memory Can Learn from Phonological Theory: Decomposing the Phonological Similarity Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite developments in phonology over the last few decades, models of verbal working memory make reference to phoneme-sized phonological units, rather than to the features of which they are composed. This study investigates the influence on short-term retention of such features by comparing the serial recall of lists of syllables with varying…

Schweppe, Judith; Grice, Martine; Rummer, Ralf

2011-01-01

360

Phonological Awareness and the Use of Phonological Similarity in Letter-Sound Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…

de Jong, Peter F.

2007-01-01

361

Phonological abstraction without phonemes in speech perception.  

PubMed

Recent evidence shows that listeners use abstract prelexical units in speech perception. Using the phenomenon of lexical retuning in speech processing, we ask whether those units are necessarily phonemic. Dutch listeners were exposed to a Dutch speaker producing ambiguous phones between the Dutch syllable-final allophones approximant [r] and dark [l]. These ambiguous phones replaced either final /r/ or final /l/ in words in a lexical-decision task. This differential exposure affected perception of ambiguous stimuli on the same allophone continuum in a subsequent phonetic-categorization test: Listeners exposed to ambiguous phones in /r/-final words were more likely to perceive test stimuli as /r/ than listeners with exposure in /l/-final words. This effect was not found for test stimuli on continua using other allophones of /r/ and /l/. These results confirm that listeners use phonological abstraction in speech perception. They also show that context-sensitive allophones can play a role in this process, and hence that context-insensitive phonemes are not necessary. We suggest there may be no one unit of perception. PMID:23973464

Mitterer, Holger; Scharenborg, Odette; McQueen, James M

2013-08-24

362

Orthography effect on brain activities in the working memory process for phonologically ambiguous syllables: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using Japanese speakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

English \\/l\\/ and \\/r\\/ sounds are not distinctive for Japanese speakers and they are loosely associated with corresponding graphemes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the brain activities in the memory process for the graphemes containing ‘l’ and ‘r’ in Japanese speakers. Two functional magnetic resonance imaging (at 1.5T) experiments was conducted using syllable working memory tasks. The

Chika Sumiyoshi; Kayako Matsuo; Chikako Kato; Fukujirou Ozawa; Yasuo Takehara; Haruo Isoda; Satoshi Isogai; Harumi Sakahara; Toshiharu Nakai

2003-01-01

363

Neural Processing of Acoustic Duration and Phonological German Vowel Length: Time Courses of Evoked Fields in Response to Speech and Nonspeech Signals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent experiments showed that the perception of vowel length by German listeners exhibits the characteristics of categorical perception. The present study sought to find the neural activity reflecting categorical vowel length and the short-long boundary by examining the processing of non-contrastive durations and categorical length using MEG.…

Tomaschek, Fabian; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Hertrich, Ingo

2013-01-01

364

Gist-based conceptual processing of pictures remains intact in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Objective The picture superiority effect, better memory for pictures compared to words, has been found in young adults, healthy older adults, and, most recently, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. Although the picture superiority effect is widely found, there is still debate over what drives this effect. One main question is whether it is enhanced perceptual or conceptual information that leads to the advantage for pictures over words. In this experiment, we examined the picture superiority effect in healthy older adults and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to better understand the role of gist-based conceptual processing. Method We had participants study three exemplars of categories as either words or pictures. In the test phase, participants were again shown pictures or words and were asked to determine whether the item was in the same category as something they had studied earlier or whether it was from a new category. Results We found that all participants demonstrated a robust picture superiority effect, better performance for pictures than for words. Conclusions These results suggest that the gist-based conceptual processing of pictures is preserved in patients with MCI. While in healthy older adults preserved recollection for pictures could lead to the picture superiority effect, in patients with MCI it is most likely that the picture superiority effect is a result of spared conceptually-based familiarity for pictures, perhaps combined with their intact ability to extract and use gist information.

Deason, Rebecca G.; Hussey, Erin P.; Budson, Andrew E.; Ally, Brandon A.

2012-01-01

365

Impaired microRNA processing causes corpus luteum insufficiency and infertility in mice  

PubMed Central

The microRNA (miRNA) processing enzyme Dicer1 is required for zygotic and embryonic development, but the early embryonic lethality of Dicer1 null alleles in mice has limited our ability to address the role of Dicer1 in normal mouse growth and development. To address this question, we used a mouse mutant with a hypomorphic Dicer1 allele (Dicerd/d) and found that Dicer1 deficiency resulted in female infertility. This defect in female Dicerd/d mice was caused by corpus luteum (CL) insufficiency and resulted, at least in part, from the impaired growth of new capillary vessels in the ovary. We found that the impaired CL angiogenesis in Dicerd/d mice was associated with a lack of miR17-5p and let7b, 2 miRNAs that participate in angiogenesis by regulating the expression of the antiangiogenic factor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1. Furthermore, injection of miR17-5p and let7b into the ovaries of Dicerd/d mice partially normalized tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 expression and CL angiogenesis. Our data indicate that the development and function of the ovarian CL is a physiological process that appears to be regulated by miRNAs and requires Dicer1 function.

Otsuka, Motoyuki; Zheng, Min; Hayashi, Masaaki; Lee, Jing-Dwan; Yoshino, Osamu; Lin, Shengcai; Han, Jiahuai

2008-01-01

366

Spontaneous but not explicit processing of positive sentences impaired in Asperger's syndrome: pupillometric evidence.  

PubMed

Emotional prosody provides important cues for understanding the emotions of others in every day communication. Asperger's syndrome (AS) is a developmental disorder characterised by pronounced deficits in socio-emotional communication, including difficulties in the domain of prosody processing. We measured pupillary responses as an index of emotional prosodic processing when 15 participants with AS and 19 non-clinical control participants listened to positive, negative and neutral prosodic sentences. This occurred under a spontaneous and an explicit task instruction. In the explicit processing condition, the AS group and the non-clinical controls showed increased pupil dilations to positively and negatively intoned sentences when judging the valence of that prosodic sentence. This suggests higher processing demands for emotionally arousing information, as the effect was not found in comparison to neutrally intoned sentences. In the spontaneous processing condition, controls also responded with increased pupil dilations to positively intoned sentences, whilst individuals with AS showed increased pupil dilations to negative sentences. The latter result is further supported by diminished ratings of emotionally intense sentences in the AS group compared to healthy controls. Perception and recognition of positively valenced sentences in individuals with AS appears impaired and dependent on the general task set-up. Diminished pupil dilations in spontaneous positive processing conditions as well as reduced positive valence ratings give strong indications for a general negative processing bias of verbal information for adult individuals diagnosed with AS. PMID:21195104

Kuchinke, Lars; Schneider, Dana; Kotz, Sonja A; Jacobs, Arthur M

2010-12-30

367

Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Rapid Automated Naming, toward Decoding Ability in Students with Mild Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual…

Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

2013-01-01

368

Assessing the US Clean Water Act 303(d) listing process for determining impairment of a waterbody.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the US Clean Water Act (CWA) Section 303(d) listing and delisting processes, based on historical and current federal and state guidelines, to determine whether there are regional differences in water quality assessment criteria used by various states to determine impairment of a waterbody for inclusion in the 303(d) list. A review of almost 50 total maximum daily load (TMDL) and delisting documents revealed that the basis for listing or delisting a waterbody varies considerably and that, in many cases, determination of impairment was based on insufficient water quality information. Historical USEPA guidance on the 303(d) listing and delisting processes has been generally broad, resulting in wide interpretation of the assessment criteria by various states. This has led to unclear or conflicting listing methodologies among states, leading to inconsistencies in impairment determination. Common problems include inconsistent data quality and quantity, differences in frequency of monitoring, variable interpretation of narrative water quality standards, and differences in specificity of implementation and monitoring plans, resulting in significant difference in the basis for listing and delisting waterbodies. In response, several states have taken the initiative to provide much more specific guidance for their internal agencies. Listing and delisting criteria are generally clearer at the state level, but the development of differing state guidance documents has resulted in diversity in the development of the 303(d) lists and in the process of delisting a waterbody. While state guidelines are better able to address local considerations, such as variations in climate, landuse, and water quality objectives, as well as social and economic preferences, the variation in listing criteria has led to inconsistencies across state boundaries in the levels of attainment of national water quality objectives. For stakeholders that participate in the 303(d) listing process within a particular state, these types of discrepancies may not have a significant impact. However, these inconsistencies can lead to confusion for some stakeholders who participate in the process in multiples states, and must deal with differing and sometimes conflicting requirements depending on the location of their facilities. PMID:17270339

Keller, Arturo A; Cavallaro, Lindsey

2007-01-31

369

Visual processing impairments and decrements in regional brain activity in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The relationships between intermediate visual processes, involving object and space perception, and regional brain activity using positron emission tomography and single photon emission tomography were investigated in 16 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Significant region specific correlations were found between unfamiliar face matching and cerebral activity in the left occipito-temporal region and middle/inferior temporal regions bilaterally. Letter-word identification correlated significantly with brain activity in the angular gyri and occipital association cortices bilaterally, as well as a broad region of activation in the left hemisphere temporal, parietal and occipital lobes. Additionally, a significant correlation was found between ratings of performance of instrumental activities of daily living and brain activity in occipito-temporal and middle/inferior temporal regions. The present study demonstrates that the neuropathological distribution typically seen in Alzheimer's disease corresponds to impairments in specific aspects of intermediate visual perceptual processing, and it is related to the daily living skills of patients with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:14972690

van Rhijn, Salina J; Glosser, Guila; de Vries, Jeroen J; Clark, Christopher M; Newberg, Andrew B; Alavi, Abass

2004-02-01

370

A case for the involvement of phonological loop in sentence comprehension  

PubMed Central

The specific role of the phonological loop in sentence comprehension is still a matter of debate. We tested the behavioural consequences of activity disruption in left BA 40 and BA 44, key regions of the phonological loop, on language comprehension using 1 Hz rTMS. Comprehension was assessed by means of two tasks: a sentence-to-picture matching task, with sentences varying in length and syntactic complexity (Experiment 1), and a sentence verification task (Experiment 2). rTMS over left BA40 significantly reduced accuracy for syntactically complex sentences and long, but syntactically simpler sentences, while rTMS over left BA 44 significantly reduced accuracy only for syntactically complex sentences. rTMS applied over left BA40 also impaired performance on sentences in which word order was crucial. We suggest that the neural correlates of the phonological loop, left BA40 and BA44, are both involved in the comprehension of syntactically complex sentences, while only left BA40, corresponding to the short-term store, is recruited for the comprehension of long but syntactically simple sentences. Therefore, in contrast with the dominant view, we showed that sentence comprehension is a function of the phonological loop.

Romero Lauro, Leonor J.; Reis, Janine; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Cecchetto, Carlo; Papagno, Costanza

2010-01-01

371

Combined unilateral lesions of the amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex impair affective processing in rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

The amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex (PFo) interact as part of a system for affective processing. To assess whether there is a hemispheric functional specialization for the processing of emotion or reward or both in nonhuman primates, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with combined lesions of the amygdala and PFo in one hemisphere, either left or right, were compared with unoperated controls on a battery of tasks that tax affective processing, including two tasks that tax reward processing and two that assess emotional reactions. Although the two operated groups did not differ from each other, monkeys with unilateral lesions, left and right, showed altered reward-processing abilities as evidenced by attenuated reinforcer devaluation effects and an impairment in object reversal learning relative to controls. In addition, both operated groups showed blunted emotional reactions to a rubber snake. By contrast, monkeys with unilateral lesions did not differ from controls in their responses to an unfamiliar human (human "intruder"). Although the results provide no support for a hemispheric specialization of function, they yield the novel finding that unilateral lesions of the amygdala-orbitofrontal cortical circuit in monkeys are sufficient to significantly disrupt affective processing. PMID:14711973

Izquierdo, Alicia; Murray, Elisabeth A

2004-01-07

372

The impact of dental impairment on ring-tailed lemur food processing performance.  

PubMed

During mastication, foods are reduced into particles suitable for swallowing and digestion. Smaller particles possess a greater surface area per unit of volume on which digestive enzymes and bacteria may work than relatively larger particles, and are thus more readily digested. As dental morphology facilitates the breakdown of diets with specific mechanical properties, extensive dental wear and/or tooth loss may impede an individual's ability to break down and exploit foods. We present data demonstrating a relationship between dental impairment and particle size in 43 fecal samples from 33 ring-tailed lemurs at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve (BMSR), Madagascar. All fecal samples were sifted through three sieves of decreasing size (11.2 mm, 4.75 mm, and 1.0 mm). The resulting fraction in each sieve was then weighed and assessed in relation to individual dental impairment status. With increasing wear, the percentage of each sample within the 1.0 mm sieve decreases, whereas that in the 11.2 mm sieve increases with increasing postcanine wear, although these effects are not present when limited to individuals without tooth loss. Individuals with tooth loss also demonstrate larger proportions of fecal material 1.0-4.75 mm in size. Dental impairment results in larger food particles and potentially less efficient utilization of foods. When fecal material was examined by leaf vs. fruit content, individuals with tooth loss demonstrated reduced proportions of fruit in the 1.0 mm and 11.2 mm sieves. These data suggest individuals with tooth loss consume less fruit than those without loss, potentially reflecting a reduced ability to process tamarind fruit, a key fallback resource at BMSR. PMID:22610899

Millette, James B; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Ness, Jenifer L

2012-06-01

373

The Acquisition of Consonant Feature Sequences: Harmony, Metathesis, and Deletion Patterns in Phonological Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation examines three processes affecting consonants in child speech: harmony (long-distance assimilation) involving major place features as in "coat" [kouk]; long-distance metathesis as in "cup" [p[wedge]k]; and initial consonant deletion as in "fish" [is]. These processes are unattested in adult phonology, leading to proposals for…

Gerlach, Sharon Ruth

2010-01-01

374

Phonological Awareness and Reading Acquisition in English and Punjabi-Speaking Canadian Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the same component processes are involved in reading acquisition for native and nonnative speakers of English in the 1st grade. The performance of 88 children was examined on tasks assessing reading skill, phonological processing, and syntactic awareness. Fifty children were native English speakers (L1), and 38 children were from Punjabi-speaking families (ESL). Although measures of word

Penny Chiappe; Linda S. Siegel

1999-01-01

375

Long-term phonological learning begins at the level of word form.  

PubMed

Incidental learning of phonological structures through repeated exposure is an important component of native and foreign-language vocabulary acquisition that is not well understood at the neurophysiological level. It is also not settled when this type of learning occurs at the level of word forms as opposed to phoneme sequences. Here, participants listened to and repeated back foreign phonological forms (Korean words) and new native-language word forms (Finnish pseudowords) on two days. Recognition performance was improved, repetition latency became shorter and repetition accuracy increased when phonological forms were encountered multiple times. Cortical magnetoencephalography responses occurred bilaterally but the experimental effects only in the left hemisphere. Superior temporal activity at 300-600 ms, probably reflecting acoustic-phonetic processing, lasted longer for foreign phonology than for native phonology. Formation of longer-term auditory-motor representations was evidenced by a decrease of a spatiotemporally separate left temporal response and correlated increase of left frontal activity at 600-1200 ms on both days. The results point to item-level learning of novel whole-word representations. PMID:22836182

Nora, Anni; Hultén, Annika; Karvonen, Leena; Kim, Jeong-Young; Lehtonen, Minna; Yli-Kaitala, Hely; Service, Elisabet; Salmelin, Riitta

2012-07-23

376

Auditory processing in dyslexia and specific language impairment: is there a deficit? What is its nature? Does it explain anything?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much controversy about the extent to which auditory processing deficits are important in the genesis of language disorders, particularly specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia (or specific reading disability—SRD). A review of the available literature reveals that some but not all auditory skills are impaired, on average, in groups of SLI\\/SRD listeners. Typically only a minority of SLI\\/SRD

Stuart Rosen

2003-01-01

377

Impaired emotion processing from vocal and facial cues in frontotemporal dementia compared to right hemisphere stroke.  

PubMed

To advance our understanding about the emotional and cognitive deficits of patients with frontotemporal dementia with behavioral variant (bvFTD), the current study examined comprehension and expression of emotions from prosodic and facial cues in a 66-year-old woman. The patient diagnosed with bvFTD is compared to six patients with acute right hemisphere stroke. Recognition of emotion from prosodic cues was assessed using an identification task in four conditions with decreasing verbal demands (neutral sentences, language-like pseudo sentences, monosyllables, and asyllabic vowel sounds). Repetition of utterances with emotional connotations and self-generated conversations were analyzed to measure relative changes in mean fundamental frequency (f0), f0 variance, speech rate, and intensity along with the facial musculature pattern. The patient showed a marked deficit in identifying emotions in all four prosody conditions; and she did not show much variation in modulating mean f0, f0 variance, speech rate and intensity for all emotion categories when compared to neutral utterances. In addition, this patient demonstrated little to no facial expressions during emotionally provoking tasks, but demonstrated no difficulty recognizing emotions from facial expressions or verbal scenarios. Results show that the patient seems to have selective impairment in recognition of emotions from prosody and expression of emotions using both prosodic and facial features. Impaired processing of emotional prosody and facial expressions could be important for detecting bvFTD with greater right hemisphere atrophy. PMID:22827701

Dara, Chinar; Kirsch-Darrow, Lindsey; Ochfeld, E; Slenz, Jamie; Agranovich, Anna; Vasconcellos-Faria, Andreia; Ross, Elliott; Hillis, Argye E; Kortte, Kathleen B

2012-07-25

378

Evidence of Deficient Central Speech Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment: the T-Complex  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper examined neurophysiological correlates of speech in children with language impairment (LI) and typical language development (TLD) across four experiments using different speech stimuli and tasks. Method The T-complex event-related potential (ERP) components and other ERP components (e.g., mismatch negativity [MMN]; N400) were examined. A subset of the children participated in more than one of the experiments. Results 73% of the children with LI had poor T-complex measures compared to only 13% of children with TLD. The T-complex measures were more comparable, in terms of indicating typical versus deviant processing, to neurophysiological measures of language processing, such as lexical discrimination, than to other measures of auditory and speech processing, such as the MMN. Only one LI child showed no poor measures and 64% showed three or more poor neurophyisological measures. However, 50% of children with TLD showed no poor neurophysiological measures, and 82% of the TLD children showed no more than two poor measures. Conclusion These results suggest that poor auditory processing, as measured by the T-complex, is a marker for LI and that multiple deficits serve to mark LI. Significance The T-complex measures, indexing secondary auditory cortex, reflect an important aspect of processing in speech and language development.

Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.; Martin, Brett

2010-01-01

379

Verbal and Nonverbal Semantic Processing in Children with Developmental Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an effort to clarify whether semantic integration is impaired in verbal and nonverbal auditory domains in children with developmental language impairment (a.k.a., LI and SLI), the present study obtained behavioral and neural responses to words and environmental sounds in children with language impairment and their typically developing…

Cummings, Alycia; Ceponiene, Rita

2010-01-01

380

Verbal and Nonverbal Semantic Processing in Children with Developmental Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to clarify whether semantic integration is impaired in verbal and nonverbal auditory domains in children with developmental language impairment (a.k.a., LI and SLI), the present study obtained behavioral and neural responses to words and environmental sounds in children with language impairment and their typically developing…

Cummings, Alycia; Ceponiene, Rita

2010-01-01

381

Phonological Awareness Intervention for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness intervention to improve the speech production, phonological awareness and printed word decoding skills for three children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) aged 7;3, 6;3 and 6;10. The three children presented with severely delayed phonological awareness skills…

Moriarty, Brigid C.; Gillon, Gail T.

2006-01-01

382

Focusing on Phonology To Teach Morphological Form in French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues for the importance of phonological form in the second language (L2) classroom, proposing that a thorough grounding in L2 phonological patterns is essential for language learners. Suggests the importance of phonological information for the auditory detection of morphological form in French. (Author/VWL)

Arteaga, Deborah; Herschensohn, Julia; Gess, Randall

2003-01-01

383

Phonological Awareness Instruction for Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forty middle school students with learning disabilities identified as having phonological awareness deficits were provided with phonological awareness instruction to investigate the effectiveness of the instruction on phonological awareness and word recognition skills. Results indicated that following instruction, students improved on word…

Bhat, Preetha; Griffin, Cynthia C.; Sindelar, Paul T.

2003-01-01

384

Differential Effects of Phonological Priming on Chinese Character Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds phonological priming effects on compound targets (characters containing separate radical components); no evidence of phonological priming on integrated targets (those not containing separate radicals); semantic priming effects on both compound and integrated target recognition, suggesting that phonological and semantic activation are…

Weekes, B. S.; Chen, M. J.; Lin, Y-B.

1998-01-01

385

Damage to the lateral prefrontal cortex impairs familiarity but not recollection.  

PubMed

Frontal lobe lesions impair recognition memory but it is unclear whether the deficits arise from impaired recollection, impaired familiarity, or both. In the current study, recognition memory for verbal materials was examined in patients with damage to the left or right lateral prefrontal cortex. Words were incidentally encoded under semantic or phonological orienting conditions, and recognition memory was tested using a 6-point confidence procedure. Receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) were examined in order to measure the contributions of recollection and familiarity to recognition memory. In both encoding conditions, lateral prefrontal cortex damage led to a deficit in familiarity but not recollection. Similar deficits were observed in left and right hemisphere patients. The results indicate that the lateral prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in the monitoring or decision processes required for accurate familiarity-based recognition responses. PMID:21827792

Aly, Mariam; Yonelinas, Andrew P; Kishiyama, Mark M; Knight, Robert T

2011-07-30

386

Identification of a strategic brain network underlying processing speed deficits in vascular cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) commonly exhibit deficits in processing speed. This has been attributed to a disruption of frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits by ischemic lesions, but the exact mechanisms and underlying anatomical structures are poorly understood. We set out to identify a strategic brain network for processing speed by applying graph-based data-mining techniques to MRI lesion maps from patients with small vessel disease. We studied 235 patients with CADASIL, a genetic small vessel disease causing pure VCI. Using a probabilistic atlas in standard space we first determined the regional volumes of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and lacunar lesions (LL) within major white matter tracts. Conditional dependencies between the regional lesion volumes and processing speed were then examined using Bayesian network analysis. Exploratory analysis identified a network of five imaging variables as the best determinant of processing speed. The network included LL in the left anterior thalamic radiation and the left cingulum as well as WMH in the left forceps minor, the left parahippocampal white matter and the left corticospinal tract. Together these variables explained 34% of the total variance in the processing speed score. Structural equation modeling confirmed the findings obtained from the Bayesian models. In summary, using graph-based models we identified a strategic brain network having the highest predictive value for processing speed in our cohort of patients with pure small vessel disease. Our findings confirm and extend previous results showing a role of frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits, in particular dorsolateral prefrontal and cingulate circuits, in VCI. PMID:23153965

Duering, Marco; Gonik, Mariya; Malik, Rainer; Zieren, Nikola; Reyes, Sonia; Jouvent, Eric; Hervé, Dominique; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Opherk, Christian; Chabriat, Hugues; Dichgans, Martin

2012-11-13

387

Chemical processing does not always impair heterogeneous ice nucleation of mineral dust particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral dust particles are the most abundant heterogeneous ice nuclei in the atmosphere. They also frequently become mixed with secondary material during atmospheric transport. The effect that such atmospheric processing has on the ice nucleation properties of dust particles remains under investigation. We have studied changes in the ice nucleation ability of various mineral dust sources after exposure to nitric acid in an aerosol flow tube, and after heterogeneous nucleation of ?-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the AIDA cloud expansion chamber. Both chemical treatments altered and homogenized the dust particles’ heterogeneous ice nucleation properties below water-saturation, but had no apparent impact on the immersion-freezing fraction well above water saturation. The fraction of particles capable of nucleating ice at fixed mixed-phase cloud temperatures between -35 and -15 °C was determined using a continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) as the relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) was scanned from 75% to 110% RHw. Exposure to both nitric acid and SOA impaired essentially all ice nucleation in the deposition-regime below water saturation, while causing the onset of condensation-freezing to occur in a step-wise manner over a small range of RHw just below water saturation. We interpret this as the result of an increase in particle hygroscopicity following chemical treatment. This allows the mineral particles to absorb enough water to overcome solute freezing point depression effects and nucleate ice via condensation-freezing at a slightly smaller and narrower range of RHw than the less hygroscopic untreated dust can. Immersion-freezing above water saturation was not affected by either treatment. This is in stark contrast to earlier experiments where dust was exposed to sulfuric acid from a heated vapor source; ice nucleation was notably impaired in both the deposition and immersion-freezing regimes following sulfuric acid treatment.

Sullivan, R. C.; Demott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; Minambres, L.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Moehler, O.

2010-12-01

388

Phonological and Sensory Short-Term Memory Are Correlates and Both Affected in Developmental Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigated whether poor short-term memory (STM) in developmental dyslexia affects the processing of sensory stimulus sequences in addition to phonological material. STM for brief binary non-verbal stimuli (light flashes, tone bursts, finger touches, and their crossmodal combinations) was studied in 20 Finnish adults with dyslexia and 24…

Laasonen, Marja; Virsu, Veijo; Oinonen, Suvi; Sandbacka, Mirja; Salakari, Anita; Service, Elisabet

2012-01-01

389

Phonological Effects in Handwriting Production : Evidence from the Implicit Priming Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present article, we report 3 experiments using the odd-man-out variant of the implicit priming paradigm, aimed at determining the role played by phonological information during the handwriting process. Participants were asked to write a small set of words learned in response to prompts. Within each block, response words could share initial…

Afonso, Olivia; Alvarez, Carlos J.

2011-01-01

390

Unintentional Word Reading Via the Phonological Route: The Stroop Effect With Cross-Script Homophones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-route theories that argue that access to meaning is always mediated by phonology are consistent with process theories of automaticity. Dual-route theories, suggesting that reading skill results in direct access, are consistent with the notion of automaticity as memory retrieval. If word reading reflects memory retrieval, the Stroop effect should be absent in the absence of cues normally serving for

Joseph Tzelgov; Avishai Henik; Rinat Sneg; Oshrit Baruch

1996-01-01

391

Early phonological awareness and reading skills in children with Down syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, children with Down syndrome receive literacy instruction with the expectation of acquiring functional reading skills. Unfortunately, little is known about the processes underlying literacy skills in this special population. Phonological awareness contributes to literacy development in typically developing children, however, there is inconclusive evidence about these skills in younger children with Down syndrome. 9 children with Down syndrome (5;6

Esther J. Kennedy; Mark C. Flynn

2003-01-01

392

Fine-Tuned: Phonology and Semantics Affect First- to Second-Language Zooming In  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We investigate how L1 phonology and semantics affect processing of interlingual homographs by manipulating language context before, and auditory input during, a visual experiment in the L2. Three experiments contained German-English homograph primes ("gift" = German "poison") in English sentences and was performed by German (L1) learners of…

Elston-Guttler, Kerrie E.; Gunter, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

393

The Studies about Phonological Deficit Theory in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Developmental Dyslexia (DD) or Reading Disability (RD) that was part of a larger heterogeneous group of learning di sorders and characterized by unexpected problems in academic performance, despite average intelligence. Approach: Current opinions on the biological basis of dyslexia pointed to problems with phonolog ical processing deficits with resulting poor phonemic awareness. Though there was much support for

Emrah Caylak

2010-01-01

394

Event-Related Brain Potentials Elicited during Word Recognition by Adult Good and Poor Phonological Decoders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive processing of lexical and sub-lexical stimuli was compared for good and poor adult phonological decoders. Sixteen good decoders and 16 poor decoders, average age 19 years, silently read 150 randomly computer presented sentences ending in incongruous regular, irregular, or nonwords and 100 congruent filler sentences.…

Martin, Frances Heritage; Kaine, Alison; Kirby, Miriam

2006-01-01

395

Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence for Early and Automatic Detection of Phonological Equivalence in Variable Speech Inputs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Speech sounds are not always perceived in accordance with their acoustic-phonetic content. For example, an early and automatic process of perceptual repair, which ensures conformity of speech inputs to the listener's native language phonology, applies to individual input segments that do not exist in the native inventory or to sound sequences…

Kharlamov, Viktor; Campbell, Kenneth; Kazanina, Nina

2011-01-01

396

Fine-Tuned: Phonology and Semantics Affect First- to Second-Language Zooming In  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate how L1 phonology and semantics affect processing of interlingual homographs by manipulating language context before, and auditory input during, a visual experiment in the L2. Three experiments contained German-English homograph primes ("gift" = German "poison") in English sentences and was performed by German (L1) learners of…

Elston-Guttler, Kerrie E.; Gunter, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

397

Cortical Spatio-Temporal Dynamics Underlying Phonological Target Detection in Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Selective processing of task-relevant stimuli is critical for goal-directed behavior. We used electrocorticography to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical activation during a simple phonological target detection task, in which subjects press a button when a prespecified target syllable sound is heard. Simultaneous surface potential…

Chang, Edward F.; Edwards, Erik; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Fogelson, Noa; Dalal, Sarang S.; Canolty, Ryan T.; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Barbaro, Nicholas M.; Knight, Robert T.

2011-01-01

398

Effects of Background Television on Phonological and VisuoSpatial Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research during the 1990s has demonstrated the potential of television-as-background to interfere with performance on concurrent cognitive processing tasks. An experiment examined hypothesized structural interference effects of background television on working memory. To assess effects on phonologically based working memory, participants were tested on their memory for lists of letters and digits. Background television caused stronger deleterious effects on the

G. BLAKE ARMSTRONG; PRADEEP SOPORY

1997-01-01

399

Modeling and Estimating Recall Processing Capacity: Sensitivity and Diagnostic Utility in Application to Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

We investigate the potential for using latency-based measures of retrieval processing capacity to assess changes in perfomance specific to individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a reliable precursor state to Alzheimer's Disease. Use of these capacity measures is motivated in part by exploration of the effects of atrophy on a computational model of a basic hippocampal circuit. We use this model to suggest that capacity may be a more sensitive indicator of undelying atrophy than speed of processing, and test this hypothesis by adapting a standard behavioral measure of memory (the free and cued selective reminding test, FCSRT) to allow for the collection of cued recall latencies. Participants were drawn from five groups: college-aged, middle-aged, healthy elderly, those with a diagnosis of MCI, and a sample of MCI control participants. The measure of capacity is shown to offer increased classificatory sensitivity relative to the standard behavioral measures, and is also shown to be the behavioral measure that correlated most strongly with hippocampal volume.

Wenger, Michael K.; Negash, Selamawit; Petersen, Ronald C.; Petersen, Lyndsay

2009-01-01

400

A TARBP2 mutation in human cancer impairs microRNA processing and DICER1 function.  

PubMed

microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts. Recently, a miRNA expression profile of human tumors has been characterized by an overall miRNA downregulation. Explanations for this observation include a failure of miRNA post-transcriptional regulation, transcriptional silencing associated with hypermethylation of CpG island promoters and miRNA transcriptional repression by oncogenic factors. Another possibility is that the enzymes and cofactors involved in miRNA processing pathways may themselves be targets of genetic disruption, further enhancing cellular transformation. However, no loss-of-function genetic alterations in the genes encoding these proteins have been reported. Here we have identified truncating mutations in TARBP2 (TAR RNA-binding protein 2), encoding an integral component of a DICER1-containing complex, in sporadic and hereditary carcinomas with microsatellite instability. The presence of TARBP2 frameshift mutations causes diminished TRBP protein expression and a defect in the processing of miRNAs. The reintroduction of TRBP in the deficient cells restores the efficient production of miRNAs and inhibits tumor growth. Most important, the TRBP impairment is associated with a destabilization of the DICER1 protein. These results provide, for a subset of human tumors, an explanation for the observed defects in the expression of mature miRNAs. PMID:19219043

Melo, Sonia A; Ropero, Santiago; Moutinho, Catia; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Calin, George A; Rossi, Simona; Fernandez, Agustin F; Carneiro, Fatima; Oliveira, Carla; Ferreira, Bibiana; Liu, Chang-Gong; Villanueva, Alberto; Capella, Gabriel; Schwartz, Simo; Shiekhattar, Ramin; Esteller, Manel

2009-02-15

401

Face recognition impairments despite normal holistic processing and face space coding: Evidence from a case of developmental prosopagnosia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holistic processing and face space coding are widely considered primary perceptual mechanisms behind good face recognition. Here, however, we present the case of S.P., a developmental prosopagnosic who demonstrated severe impairments in face memory and face perception, yet showed normal holistic processing and face space coding. Across three composite experiments, S.P. showed normal-strength holistic processing for upright faces and no

Tirta Susilo; Elinor McKone; Hugh Dennett; Hayley Darke; Romina Palermo; Ashleigh Hall; Madeleine Pidcock; Amy Dawel; Linda Jeffery; C. Ellie Wilson; Gillian Rhodes

2010-01-01

402

Selective impairment of auditory processing in chronic fatigue syndrome: a comparison with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls.  

PubMed

The most consistent deficit observed in individuals with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome has been in efficiency of information processing. To examine the possibility of a modality-specific impairment, the present study examined subjects with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and healthy controls on an auditory-versus visual-paced serial-addition test. 20 subjects with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 20 subjects with clinically definite Multiple Sclerosis, and 20 sedentary healthy controls were compared. One-half of the subjects in each group were administered the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and the other half were administered the Paced Visual Serial Addition Test. The group with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome was differentially impaired on the auditory relative to the visual processing task. The group with Multiple Sclerosis was equally impaired on both versions of the task. The results are discussed within the framework of Baddeley's model of working memory. PMID:8873173

Johnson, S K; DeLuca, J; Diamond, B J; Natelson, B H

1996-08-01

403

THE PHONOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION OF SIGN LANGUAGES  

PubMed Central

Visually perceivable and movable parts of the body – the hands, facial features, head, and upper body – are the articulators of sign language. It is through these articulators that that words are formed, constrained, and contrasted with one another, and that prosody is conveyed. This article provides an overview of the way in which phonology is organized in the alternative modality of sign language.

SANDLER, WENDY

2013-01-01

404

How Abstract Is English Vowel Phonology?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses itself to the question of whether the high degree of abstractness in Chomsky's and Halle's analysis of English vowels is justified. Secondarily, two related topics are discussed: (1) limitations on the tongue-height features [+low] and [+high] and (2) the role of rule features in phonological rules. Numerous examples of a more…

Krohn, Robert

405

Phonological Precedence in Dyslexia: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A…

Schneider-Zioga, Patricia

2012-01-01

406

Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…

Suh, Yunju

2009-01-01

407

Towards a Phonology of Hong Kong English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses findings in the first part of a research project on Hong Kong English (HKE) phonology, including the underlying phonemic system of HKE speakers. Subjects were 15 undergraduates at Hong Kong Baptist University. Using spectrographic analysis, it was found that the typical HKE speaker operates with a considerably smaller set of vowel and…

Hung, Tony T. N.

2000-01-01

408

Phonological Precedence in Dyslexia: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A…

Schneider-Zioga, Patricia

2012-01-01

409

Activation of phonological competitors in visual search.  

PubMed

Recently, Meyer, Belke, Telling and Humphreys (2007) reported that competitor objects with homophonous names (e.g., boy) interfere with identifying a target object (e.g., buoy) in a visual search task, suggesting that an object name's phonology becomes automatically activated even in situations in which participants do not have the intention to speak. The present study explored the generality of this finding by testing a different phonological relation (rhyming object names, e.g., cat-hat) and by varying details of the experimental procedure. Experiment 1 followed the procedure by Meyer et al. Participants were familiarized with target and competitor objects and their names at the beginning of the experiment and the picture of the target object was presented prior to the search display on each trial. In Experiment 2, the picture of the target object presented prior to the search display was replaced by its name. In Experiment 3, participants were not familiarized with target and competitor objects and their names at the beginning of the experiment. A small interference effect from phonologically related competitors was obtained in Experiments 1 and 2 but not in Experiment 3, suggesting that the way the relevant objects are introduced to participants affects the chances of observing an effect from phonologically related competitors. Implications for the information flow in the conceptual-lexical system are discussed. PMID:23584102

Görges, Frauke; Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jörg D; Schriefers, Herbert

2013-04-10

410

Stuttering, Cluttering, and Phonological Complexity: Case Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phonological complexity of dysfluencies in those who clutter and/or stutter may help us better understand phonetic factors in these two types of fluency disorders. In this preliminary investigation, cases were three 14-year-old males, diagnosed as a Stutterer, a Clutterer, and a Stutterer-Clutterer. Spontaneous speech samples were transcribed,…

LaSalle, Lisa R.; Wolk, Lesley

2011-01-01

411

Preschool Phonological Awareness and Subsequent Literacy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an unresolved debate in the developmental literature regarding whether phonemic awareness is acquired naturally as part of phonological awareness, or whether it is instead an artefact of reading tuition. This ambiguity affects the interpretation of studies which show that pre?literate phonemic awareness is a powerful predictor of literacy attainment in school. There is also evidence to suggest that

Clare Wood; Colin Terrell

1998-01-01

412

Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial…

Suh, Yunju

2009-01-01

413

Phonological Networks and New Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first report of a connection between vocabulary learning and phonological short-term memory was published in 1988 (Baddeley, Papagno, & Vallar, 1988). At that time, both Susan Gathercole and I were involved in longitudinal studies, investigating the relation between nonword repetition and language learning. We both found a connection. Now,…

Service, Elisabet

2006-01-01

414

Topics in Mocho' Phonology and Morphology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation is a grammatical description of several features of the morphology and phonology of the Mocho' language. Mocho' (Motozintleco) is a moribund Mayan language spoken in the Chiapas region of Mexico near the border of Guatemala. This dissertation, based on data collected during several field trips and supplemented with…

Palosaari, Naomi Elizabeth

2011-01-01

415

Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2010-01-01

416

Persistence of Dyslexics' Phonological Awareness Deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the phonological awareness skills of dyslexic children, adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia, and good readers at various age levels. Comparisons of the dyslexics to good readers of the same age or the same reading level indicated that dyslexics do not acquire appropriate levels of phoneme awareness, regardless of their age or reading levels, although they eventually

Maggie Bruck

1992-01-01

417

Phonological Feature Representations in Auditory Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although phonemes are the smallest linguistic units that speakers are usually aware of, a good deal of linguistic evidence indicates that sub-phonemic features are the smallest building blocks of language. We present evidence from biomagnetic studies that indicate that representations of discrete phonological feature categories are available to left-hemisphere auditory cortex. Sequences of voiced (\\/bæ, dæ, gæ\\/) and voiceless (\\/pæ,

Colin Phillips; Thomas Pellathy

2000-01-01

418

Nonword Repetition, Phonological Storage, and Multiple Determinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The proposals that (a) nonword repetition and word learning both rely on phonological storage and (b) both are multiply determined are two of the major foci of Gathercole's (2006) Keynote Article, which marshals considerable evidence in support of each. In my view, the importance of these proposals cannot be overstated: these two notions go to…

Gupta, Prahlad

2006-01-01

419

A BINI GRAMMAR, PART 1--PHONOLOGY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A PHONOLOGY OF BINI GRAMMAR (A LANGUAGE OF WESTERN NIGERIA) HAS BEEN DESIGNED FOR A HIGHLY HETEROGENEOUS AUDIENCE. THE VOLUME IS AIMED AT (1) AREA SPECIALISTS INTERESTED IN LANGUAGE OR CULTURE STUDIES OF AFRICA, (2) ETHNOGRAPHERS FOCUSING ON THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE EDO-SPEAKING PEOPLES, (3) HISTORIANS WORKING ON THE BENIN PROJECT OF IBADAN…

WESCOTT, ROGER W.

420

A Phonological Model of French Intonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

French and in the degree of abstractness in the tonal representation, which isdue to the conceptual differences linked to the application of the model: the focus is either on acoustic,representation of models,relevant for speech synthesis and recognition, or on abstract representation for phonological description, or on both levels. Inthis paper, we propose a development of our previous model (Jun &

SUN-AH JUN; CÉCILE FOUGERON

2000-01-01

421

Role of Phonology in Foreign Language Acquisition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights the importance of phonology in second language learning, comparing phonetic mistakes made by adult native speakers of English learning Georgian and adult native speakers of Georgian learning English. It emphasizes the importance of a holistic, systemic approach to teaching second languages that involves making the first…

Meskhi, Anna

422

Phonological Networks and New Word Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first report of a connection between vocabulary learning and phonological short-term memory was published in 1988 (Baddeley, Papagno, & Vallar, 1988). At that time, both Susan Gathercole and I were involved in longitudinal studies, investigating the relation between nonword repetition and language learning. We both found a connection. Now,…

Service, Elisabet

2006-01-01

423

A Comparative Sketch of Pueblo Languages: Phonology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an attempt to determine some of the shared phonological traits among Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest, this paper compares the sound systems of Pueblo languages. The languages within the scope of this research are Zuni, Keresan (Acoma and Santa Ana), and Tanoan (Sandia, Taos, Jemez, and Santa Clara). It is noted that Pueblo Indians…

Yumitani, Yukihiro

424

Phonological Difficulties in High-Functioning Dyslexics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses some phonological tasks of well compensated, high-functioning dyslexics, aged 18, whose reading ability had improved to within one standard deviation of the normal population. Compares them with matched controls. Finds they performed well on word recognition tests but worse on nonword reading and spelling, and worse (in terms of speed) on…

Gallagher, A. M.; And Others

1996-01-01

425

Nonword Repetition, Phonological Storage, and Multiple Determinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proposals that (a) nonword repetition and word learning both rely on phonological storage and (b) both are multiply determined are two of the major foci of Gathercole's (2006) Keynote Article, which marshals considerable evidence in support of each. In my view, the importance of these proposals cannot be overstated: these two notions go to the…

Gupta, Prahlad

2006-01-01

426

Preserved frontal memorial processing for pictures in patients with mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) has been conceptualized as a transitional stage between healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, understanding which aspects of memory are impaired and which remain relatively intact in these patients can be useful in determining who will ultimately go on to develop AD, and subsequently designing interventions to help patients live more engaged and independent

Brandon A. Ally; Joshua D. McKeever; Jill D. Waring; Andrew E. Budson

2009-01-01

427

The attentional processes underlying impaired inhibition of threat in anxiety: The remote distractor effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study explored the proposition that anxiety is associated with impaired inhibition of threat. Using a modified version of the remote distractor paradigm, we considered whether this impairment is related to attentional capture by threat, difficulties disengaging from threat presented within foveal vision, or difficulties orienting to task-relevant stimuli when threat is present in central, parafoveal and peripheral locations

Helen J. Richards; Valerie Benson; Julie A. Hadwin

2012-01-01

428

Auditory Processing and Speech Perception in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Relations with Oral Language and Literacy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This longitudinal study investigated temporal auditory processing (frequency modulation and between-channel gap detection) and speech perception (speech-in-noise and categorical perception) in three groups of 6 years 3 months to 6 years 8 months-old children attending grade 1: (1) children with specific language impairment (SLI) and literacy…

Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

2012-01-01

429

Deficient relational binding processes in adolescents with psychosis: Evidence from impaired memory for source and temporal context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Findings from the literature consistently revealed episodic memory deficits in adolescents with psychosis. However, the nature of the dysfunction remains unclear. Based on a cognitive neuropsychological approach, a theoretically driven paradigm was used to generate valid interpretations about the underlying memory processes impaired in these patients.Methods. A total of 16 inpatient adolescents with psychosis and 19 individually matched controls

Marie-Claire Doré; Nicole Caza; Nathalie Gingras; Nancie Rouleau

2007-01-01

430

Selecting process quality indicators for the integrated care of vulnerable older adults affected by cognitive impairment or dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at evaluating face and content validity, feasibility and reliability of process quality indicators developed previously in the United States or other countries. The indicators can be used to evaluate care and services for vulnerable older adults affected by cognitive impairment or dementia within an integrated service system in Quebec, Canada. METHODS: A total of 33 clinical

Edeltraut Kröger; André Tourigny; Diane Morin; Lise Côté; Marie-Jeanne Kergoat; Paule Lebel; Line Robichaud; Shirley Imbeault; Solange Proulx; Zohra Benounissa

2007-01-01

431

Specific Language Impairment affects the early spelling process quantitatively but not qualitatively.  

PubMed

The present study investigated whether children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) need a special spelling education program, by examining whether the early spelling of children with SLI is quantitatively and qualitatively different from the spelling of typically developing children. Two groups of first grade children participated: 39 children with a typical language development between the age of 73 and 88 months, and 59 children with SLI between the age of 71 and 97 months. The results indicated that children with SLI do have a quantitative delay in both grapheme knowledge and spelling during first grade. However, there was no qualitative difference between the early spelling of children with SLI and typically developing children. This indicated that children with SLI have the same spelling processes as typically developing children, although they develop slower. For clinical practice, this means that teachers of children with SLI can practice the same skills as with typically developing children, but they have to practice substantially more than typically developing children. PMID:22502828

Cordewener, Kim A H; Bosman, Anna M T; Verhoeven, Ludo

2012-02-21

432

What Phonological Facilitation Tells about Semantic Interference: A Dual-Task Study  

PubMed Central

Despite increasing interest in the topic, the extent to which linguistic processing demands attentional resources remains poorly understood. We report an empirical re-examination of claims about lexical processing made on the basis of the picture–word interference task when merged in a dual-task psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm. Two experiments were conducted in which participants were presented with a tone followed, at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), by a picture–word stimulus. In Experiment 1, the phonological relatedness between pictures and words was manipulated. Begin- and end-related words decreased picture naming latencies relative to unrelated words. This effect was additive with SOA effects. In Experiment 2, both the semantic and the phonological relatedness between pictures and words were manipulated. Replicating Experiment 1, effects arising from the phonological manipulation were additive with SOA effects on picture naming latencies. In contrast, effects arising from the semantic manipulation were under additive with SOA effects on picture naming latencies, that is, semantic interference decreased as SOA was decreased. Such contrastive pattern suggests that semantic and phonological effects on picture naming latencies are characterized by distinguishable sources, the former prior to the PRP bottleneck and the latter at the PRP bottleneck or after. The present findings are discussed in relation to current models of language production.

Ayora, Pauline; Peressotti, Francesca; Alario, F.-Xavier; Mulatti, Claudio; Pluchino, Patrick; Job, Remo; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

2011-01-01

433

Voice Processing Abilities in Children with Autism, Children with Specific Language Impairments, and Young Typically Developing Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that people with autism have impaired face processing, but much less is known about voice processing in autism. Four experiments were therefore carried out to assess (1) familiar voice-face and sound-object matching; (2) familiar voice recognition; (3) unfamiliar voice discrimination; and (4) vocal aect naming and vocal-facial aect matching. In Experiments 1 and 2 language-matched children

Jill Boucher; Vicky Lewis; Glyn M. Collis

2000-01-01

434

An Evaluation of the Written Texts of Children with SLI: The Contributions of Oral Language, Reading and Phonological Short-Term Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we performed a fine grained analysis of writing by children with a specific language impairment (SLI) and examined the contribution of oral language, phonological short-term memory (STM), nonverbal ability, and word reading to three writing constructs (productivity, complexity and accuracy). Forty-six children with SLI were…

Mackie, Clare J.; Dockrell, Julie; Lindsay, Geoff

2013-01-01

435

Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-Term Memory--An Aggregate Analysis of Lesion and fMRI Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways,…

Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

2011-01-01

436

Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-Term Memory--An Aggregate Analysis of Lesion and fMRI Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways,…

Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

2011-01-01

437

Classroom-Based Phonological Sensitivity Intervention (PSI) Using a Narrative Platform: An Experimental Study of First Graders at Risk for a Reading Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of classroom-based phonological sensitivity intervention (PSI) using a narrative platform for children in first grade who are at risk for a reading disability. Participants consisted of 59 first graders identified as at risk for later reading impairments. At-risk designation was dictated…

Ritter, Michaela J.; Saxon, Terrill F.

2011-01-01

438

Visuo-spatial processing and executive functions in children with specific language impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Individual differences in complex working memory tasks reflect simultaneous processing, executive functions, and attention control. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show a deficit in verbal working memory tasks that involve simultaneous processing of information. Aims The purpose of the study was to examine executive functions and visuo-spatial processing and working memory in children with SLI and in their typically developing peers (TLD). Experiment 1 included 40 children with SLI (age=5;3–6;10) and 40 children with TLD (age=5;3–6;7); Experiment 2 included 25 children with SLI (age=8;2–11;2) and 25 children with TLD (age=8;3–11;0). It was examined whether the difficulties that children with SLI show in verbal working memory tasks are also present in visuo-spatial working memory. Methods & Procedures In Experiment 1, children's performance was measured with three visuo-spatial processing tasks: space visualization, position in space, and design copying. The stimuli in Experiment 2 were two widely used neuropsychological tests: the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test — 64 (WCST-64) and the Tower of London test (TOL). Outcomes & Results In Experiment 1, children with SLI performed more poorly than their age-matched peers in all visuo-spatial working memory tasks. There was a subgroup within the SLI group that included children whose parents and teachers reported a weakness in the child's attention control. These children showed particular difficulties in the tasks of Experiment 1. The results support Engle's attention control theory: individuals need good attention control to perform well in visuo-spatial working memory tasks. In Experiment 2, the children with SLI produced more perseverative errors and more rule violations than their peers. Conclusions Executive functions have a great impact on SLI children's working memory performance, regardless of domain. Tasks that require an increased amount of attention control and executive functions are more difficult for the children with SLI than for their peers. Most children with SLI scored either below average or in the low average range on the neuropsychological tests that measured executive functions.

Marton, Klara

2007-01-01

439

Damage to left anterior temporal cortex predicts impairment of complex syntactic processing: A lesion-symptom mapping study.  

PubMed

Sentence processing problems form a common consequence of left-hemisphere brain injury, in some patients to such an extent that their pattern of language performance is characterized as "agrammatic". However, the location of left-hemisphere damage that causes such problems remains controversial. It has been suggested that the critical site for syntactic processing is Broca's area of the frontal cortex or, alternatively, that a more widely distributed network is responsible for syntactic processing. The aim of this study was to identify brain regions that are required for successful sentence processing. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to identify brain regions where injury predicted impaired sentence processing in 50 native speakers of Icelandic with left-hemisphere stroke. Sentence processing was assessed by having individuals identify which picture corresponded to a verbally presented sentence. The VLSM analysis revealed that impaired sentence processing was best predicted by damage to a large left-hemisphere temporo-parieto-occipital area. This is likely due to the multimodal nature of the sentence processing task, which involves auditory and visual analysis, as well as lexical and syntactic processing. Specifically impaired processing of noncanonical sentence types, when compared with canonical sentence processing, was associated with damage to the left-hemisphere anterior superior and middle temporal gyri and the temporal pole. Anterior temporal cortex, therefore, appears to play a crucial role in syntactic processing, and patients with brain damage to this area are more likely to present with receptive agrammatism than patients in which anterior temporal cortex is spared. Hum Brain Mapp 34:2715-2723, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22522937

Magnusdottir, S; Fillmore, P; den Ouden, D B; Hjaltason, H; Rorden, C; Kjartansson, O; Bonilha, L; Fridriksson, J

2012-04-21

440

Are coffee and toffee served in a cup? Ortho-phonologically mediated associative priming.  

PubMed

We report three masked associative priming experiments with the lexical decision task that explore whether the initial activation flow of a visually presented word activates the semantic representations of that word's orthographic/phonological neighbours. The predictions of cascades and serial/modular models of lexical processing differ widely in this respect. Using a masked priming paradigm (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA = 50 ms), words preceded by ortho-phonologically mediated associated "neighbours" (oveja-MIEL, the Spanish for sheep-HONEY; note that oveja is a phonological neighbour of abeja, the Spanish for bee) were recognized more rapidly than words preceded by an unrelated word prime (Experiments 1 and 3). Furthermore, the magnitude of the ortho-phonologically mediated priming effect (oveja-MIEL) was similar to the magnitude of the associative priming effect (abeja-MIEL). With visible primes and a 250-ms SOA, only the directly associated words showed a priming effect (Experiment 2). These findings pose some problems for a modular account and are more easily interpreted in terms of cascaded models. PMID:19031156

Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel; Perea, Manuel

2008-01-01

441

CLEARPOND: Cross-Linguistic Easy-Access Resource for Phonological and Orthographic Neighborhood Densities  

PubMed Central

Past research has demonstrated cross-linguistic, cross-modal, and task-dependent differences in neighborhood density effects, indicating a need to control for neighborhood variables when developing and interpreting research on language processing. The goals of the present paper are two-fold: (1) to introduce CLEARPOND (Cross-Linguistic Easy-Access Resource for Phonological and Orthographic Neighborhood Densities), a centralized database of phonological and orthographic neighborhood information, both within and between languages, for five commonly-studied languages: Dutch, English, French, German, and Spanish; and (2) to show how CLEARPOND can be used to compare general properties of phonological and orthographic neighborhoods across languages. CLEARPOND allows researchers to input a word or list of words and obtain phonological and orthographic neighbors, neighborhood densities, mean neighborhood frequencies, word lengths by number of phonemes and graphemes, and spoken-word frequencies. Neighbors can be defined by substitution, deletion, and/or addition, and the database can be queried separately along each metric or summed across all three. Neighborhood values can be obtained both within and across languages, and outputs can optionally be restricted to neighbors of higher frequency. To enable researchers to more quickly and easily develop stimuli, CLEARPOND can also be searched by features, generating lists of words that meet precise criteria, such as a specific range of neighborhood sizes, lexical frequencies, and/or word lengths. CLEARPOND is freely-available to researchers and the public as a searchable, online database and for download at http://clearpond.northwestern.edu.

Marian, Viorica; Bartolotti, James; Chabal, Sarah; Shook, Anthony

2012-01-01

442

Semantic priming is affected by real-time phonological competition: Evidence for continuous cascading systems  

PubMed Central

Lexical-semantic access is affected by the phonological structure of the lexicon. What is less clear is whether such effects are the result of continuous activation between lexical form and semantic processing, or whether they arise from a more modular system in which the timing of accessing lexical form determines the timing of semantic activation. This study examined this issue using the visual world paradigm by investigating the time course of semantic priming as a function of the number of phonological competitors. Critical trials consisted of high or low density auditory targets (e.g. horse) and a visual display containing a target, a semantically related object (e.g. saddle), and two phonologically and semantically unrelated objects (e.g. chimney, bikini). Results showed greater magnitude of priming for semantically related objects of low than of high density words and no differences for high and low density word targets in the time course of looks to the word semantically related to the target. This pattern of results is consistent with models of cascading activation, which predict that lexical activation has continuous effects on the level of semantic activation, with no delays in the onset of semantic activation for phonologically-competing words.

Apfelbaum, Keith S.; Blumstein, Sheila E.; McMurray, Bob

2012-01-01

443

Basic Auditory Processing and Developmental Dyslexia in Chinese  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study explores the relationship between basic auditory processing of sound rise time, frequency, duration and intensity, phonological skills (onset-rime and tone awareness, sound blending, RAN, and phonological memory) and reading disability in Chinese. A series of psychometric, literacy, phonological, auditory, and character…

Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Huss, Martina; Hamalainen, Jarmo A.; Goswami, Usha

2012-01-01

444

Early phonological development: creating an assessment test.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills (PEEPS), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation ) differs from currently available assessments in that age of acquisition, based on lexical norms from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Developmental Inventories, served as the primary criterion for creating a word list. Phonetic and semantic properties of the words were also considered in selecting items for the test. Productions of words using the PEEPS protocol have been gathered from a group of children with typical development and another group with cleft lip and/or palate. By 24 months of age, the children with typical development produced more than 90% of the target words and the children with atypical development produced 73% of the words. Regarding administration, the time needed for administering the protocol decreased with age. PMID:23489340

Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A Lynn

2013-04-01

445

Aberrant N400 responses to phonological overlap during rhyme judgements in children at risk for dyslexia.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that dyslexia is associated with difficulties in phonological awareness and that rhyme awareness in young children can predict later reading success. However, little is known regarding the underlying phonological mechanisms of rhyme awareness in dyslexia, as rhyme awareness is typically assessed using explicit behavioural measures that represent only the endpoint of processing and often lack phonological distracters. We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to auditory word pairs that differed in phonological overlap during a rhyme judgement task given to 6-year-old beginning readers who were at risk for dyslexia (n=30) and typical-reading age-matched controls (n=29). ERPs were recorded in response to word pairs with various types of phonological overlap, including rhyming (e.g., wall-ball), non-rhyming overlapping (e.g., bell-ball) and non-rhyming unrelated (e.g., sock-ball) word pairs. Both groups of participants exhibited N400 responses for basic rhyme judgements vs. unrelated targets. In the typical-reading controls, the neural responses also differed between the rhyming targets and the non-rhyming overlapping targets, whereas neural responses to these targets were similar in the group of children at risk for dyslexia, indicating difficulties in their ability to process similar-sounding, non-rhyming targets. These findings suggest that typical-reading children solve the rhyme judgement task using a more analytical approach, whereas children who are at risk for dyslexia base their judgments on a comparison of overall sound similarity. PMID:24060646

Noordenbos, Mark W; Segers, Eliane; Wagensveld, Barbara; Verhoeven, Ludo

2013-09-21

446

Spared and impaired spoken discourse processing in schizophrenia: effects of local and global language context.  

PubMed

Individuals with schizophrenia are impaired in a broad range of cognitive functions, including impairments in the controlled maintenance of context-relevant information. In this study, we used ERPs in human subjects to examine whether impairments in the controlled maintenance of spoken discourse context in schizophrenia lead to overreliance on local associations among the meanings of individual words. Healthy controls (n = 22) and patients (n = 22) listened to short stories in which we manipulated global discourse congruence and local priming. The target word in the last sentence of each story was globally congruent or incongruent and locally associated or unassociated. ERP local association effects did not significantly differ between control participants and schizophrenia patients. However, in contrast to controls, patients only showed effects of discourse congruence when targets were primed by a word in the local context. When patients had to use discourse context in the absence of local priming, they showed impaired brain responses to the target. Our findings indicate that schizophrenia patients are impaired during discourse comprehension when demands on controlled maintenance of context are high. We further found that ERP measures of increased reliance on local priming predicted reduced social functioning, suggesting that alterations in the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension have functional consequences in the illness. PMID:24068824

Swaab, Tamara Y; Boudewyn, Megan A; Long, Debra L; Luck, Steve J; Kring, Ann M; Ragland, J Daniel; Ranganath, Charan; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Solomon, Marjorie; Mangun, George R; Carter, Cameron S

2013-09-25

447

Phonology in the bilingual Stroop effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a bilingual Stroop task, we examined between-language interference among proficient Japanese— English bilingual speakers.\\u000a Participants named ink colors either in Japanese or in English. The Japanese color terms were either phonologically similar\\u000a to (i.e., loan words) or dissimilar from (i.e., traditional color terms) English color terms. For both response languages,\\u000a a significant between-language Stroop effect was found despite the

Hiromi Sumiya; Alice F. Healy

2004-01-01

448

Do statistical segmentation abilities predict lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic abilities in children with and without SLI?  

PubMed

ABSTRACT This study tested the predictions of the procedural deficit hypothesis by investigating the relationship between sequential statistical learning and two aspects of lexical ability, lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic, in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Participants included forty children (ages 8;5-12;3), twenty children with SLI and twenty with typical development. Children completed Saffran's statistical word segmentation task, a lexical-phonological access task (gating task), and a word definition task. Poor statistical learners were also poor at managing lexical-phonological competition during the gating task. However, statistical learning was not a significant predictor of semantic richness in word definitions. The ability to track statistical sequential regularities may be important for learning the inherently sequential structure of lexical-phonological, but not as important for learning lexical-semantic knowledge. Consistent with the procedural/declarative memory distinction, the brain networks associated with the two types of lexical learning are likely to have different learning properties. PMID:23425593

Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L

2013-02-21

449

Phonological Awareness, Reading Accuracy and Spelling Ability of Children with Inconsistent Phonological Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Although children with speech disorder are at increased risk of literacy impairments, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. They are also a heterogeneous population in terms of the number and type of speech errors and their identified speech processing deficits. One problem lies in determining which preschool children with…

Holm, Alison; Farrier, Faith; Dodd, Barbara

2008-01-01

450

Anticipatory Sentence Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from Eye Movements during Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twenty-five children with specific language impairment (SLI; age 5 years, 3 months [5;3]-8;2), 50 typically developing children (3;3-8;2), and 31 normal adults participated in three eye-tracking experiments of spoken language comprehension that were designed to investigate the use of verb information during real-time sentence comprehension in…

Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Trueswell, John C.

2013-01-01

451

Cognitive processing impairments in a supra-second temporal discrimination task in rats with cerebellar lesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of interpositus nuclei (IN) in timing in the sub-second range is well supported in eyeblink conditioning studies. Timing impairments shown in the seconds range in patients with intermediate cerebellar lesion, and known intermediate cerebellar cortex projection to IN raise the question of a possible involvement of IN in timing in the supra-second range as well. To address this

Delphine Callu; Nicole El Massioui; Gérard Dutrieux; Bruce L. Brown; Valérie Doyere

2009-01-01

452

Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Specific Language Impairment: A New Look at an Old Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To explore the sensitivity of children with specific language impairment (SLI) to amplitude-modulated and durational cues that are important for perceiving suprasegmental speech rhythm and stress patterns. Method: Sixty-three children between 7 and 11 years of age were tested, 21 of whom had a diagnosis of SLI, 21 of whom were matched…

Corriveau, Kathleen; Pasquini, Elizabeth; Goswami, Usha

2007-01-01

453

Exploring Assessment Processes in Specialized Schools for Students Who Are Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative study, various professionals in specialized schools for students who are visually impaired provided information on assessment tools; how information was used to plan Individualized Education Programs; and their opinions on the reliability, validity, and usefulness of various measurements. The implications of the findings for…

Hannan, Cheryl Kamei

2007-01-01

454

Abnormal Parietal Cortex Activation During Working Memory in Schizophrenia: Verbal Phonological Coding Disturbances Versus Domain-General Executive Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The goal of this study was to determine whether the regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices showing abnormal activation among individuals with schizophrenia during working mem- ory tasks are associated with either 1) phonological coding processes that may be specific to verbal tasks (i.e., ventral pre- frontal and parietal cortices) or 2) do- main-general executive processes en- gaged

Deanna M. Barch; John G. Csernansky

2007-01-01

455

Graphophonological Processes in Dyslexic Readers of French: A Longitudinal Study of the Explicitness Effect of Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the well-acknowledged phonological deficit found in dyslexic children, this study was aimed at investigating graphophonological processes in dyslexic readers of French over a 1-year period. Among the different types of phonological processing can be distinguished those related to phonological awareness based on knowledge of the oral…

Daigle, Daniel; Berthiaume, Rachel; Plisson, Anne; Demont, Elisabeth

2012-01-01

456

Phonological awareness predicts activation patterns for print and speech  

PubMed Central

Using fMRI, we explored the relationship between phonological awareness (PA), a measure of metaphonological knowledge of the segmental structure of speech, and brain activation patterns during processing of print and speech in young readers from six to ten years of age. Behavioral measures of PA were positively correlated with activation levels for print relative to speech tokens in superior temporal and occipito-temporal regions. Differences between print-elicited activation levels in superior temporal and inferior frontal sites were also correlated with PA measures with the direction of the correlation depending on stimulus type: positive for pronounceable pseudowords and negative for consonant strings. These results support and extend the many indications in the behavioral and neurocognitive literature that PA is a major component of skill in beginning readers and point to a developmental trajectory by which written language engages areas originally shaped by speech for learners on the path toward successful literacy acquisition.

Frost, Stephen J.; Landi, Nicole; Mencl, W. Einar; Sandak, Rebecca; Fulbright, Robert K.; Tejada, Eleanor T.; Jacobsen, Leslie; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Constable, R. Todd; Pugh, Kenneth R.

2009-01-01

457

Children with Down Syndrome Use Phonological Knowledge in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses an experiment that links phonological awareness and reading performance in children with Down syndrome. Examines the results within the framework of the author's metalinguistic development theory in which alphabet reading is a pacemaker for the development of explicit phonological awareness. (PM)|

Gombert, Jean-Emile

2002-01-01

458

Auditory Cortex Accesses Phonological Categories: An MEG Mismatch Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies presented here use an adapted oddball paradigm to show evidence that representations of discrete phonological categories are available to the human auditory cortex. Brain activity was recorded using a 37-channel biomagnetometer while eight subjects listened passively to synthetic speech sounds. In the phonological condition, which contrasted stimuli from an acoustic \\/dæ\\/-\\/tæ\\/ continuum, a magnetic mismatch field (MMF) was

Colin Phillips; Thomas Pellathy; Alec Marantz; Elron Yellin; Kenneth Wexler; David Poeppel; Martha McGinnis; Timothy Roberts

2000-01-01

459

Visual versus Phonological Abilities in Spanish Dyslexic Boys and Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phonological and visual theories propose different primary deficits as part of the explanation for dyslexia. Both theories were put to test in a sample of Spanish dyslexic readers. Twenty-one dyslexic and 22 typically-developing children matched on chronological age were administered phonological discrimination and awareness tasks and coherent…

Bednarek, Dorota; Saldana, David; Garcia, Isabel

2009-01-01

460

Children with Down syndrome use phonological knowledge in reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the findings of Cossu, Rossini &Marshall [(1993a), Cognition 46: 129–138], the present experiment showed a clear link between phonological awareness and reading performance in children with Down syndrome. Although metaphonologicalperformance was lower in children with Downsyndrome than in normal controls of the samereading level, phonological awareness andreading were significantly correlated in bothgroups. However, children with Down syndromeremained deficient

Jean-Emile Gombert

2002-01-01

461

Language Intelligibility as a Constraint on Phonological Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Languages Change all the time. But communication across living generations does not break down. On-going phonological changes in Chinese dialects were examined. The highest number of changes involved only six types. Moreover, in terms of phonology the maximal loss of mutual intelligibility index across living generations in about 100 years was 0.08. As an exercise of the predictive power of

Chin-Chuan Cheng

462

Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

Proctor, Michael Ian

2009-01-01

463

Speech Perception Deficits by Chinese Children with Phonological Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. This study examined the relation in Chinese children using a more homogeneous sample--children with phonological dyslexia. Two experimental tasks were administered to a group of Chinese children with phonological dyslexia, a group…

Liu, Wenli; Shu, Hua; Yang, Yufang

2009-01-01

464

Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

Proctor, Michael Ian

2009-01-01

465

Phonology in syntax: The Somali optional agreement rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would

Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum

1983-01-01

466

Phonological Memory and Children's Second Language Grammar Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the role of phonological memory in second language (L2) grammar learning in a group of native French-speaking children undergoing a 5-month intensive English program. Phonological memory (as referenced by Arabic [ANWR] and English [ENWR] nonword repetition tasks), L2 vocabulary (receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge),…

French, Leif M.; O'Brien, Irena

2008-01-01

467

The Structure of Phonological Awareness Among Kindergarten Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phonological awareness, an understanding that spoken language is comprised of individual sounds, is an important construct that has implications for educational assessment and intervention. Unfortunately, the relationship between phonological awareness and its many operationalizations is ambiguous, resulting in both theoretical and practical difficulties. The present study clarified this situation by factor analyzing 23 preliteracy tests among a sample of 161

Timothy J. Runge; Marley W. Watkins

2006-01-01

468

Phonological Neighbors Influence Word Naming through the Least Supported Phoneme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research has shown that phonological neighborhood density facilitates naming latencies. In an attempt to extend this work, the authors evaluated the effect of phonological neighborhood distribution by comparing responding to words that consisted of 3 phonemes but differed in the number of phoneme positions that could be changed to form a…

Yates, Mark; Friend, John; Ploetz, Danielle M.

2008-01-01

469

Visual Feedback in Treatment of Residual Phonological Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of visual biofeedback in the treatment of individuals who have residual phonological errors is discussed. Biofeedback is conceptualized as a cognitive treatment that requires the client's analysis of visual information and then use of that information in developing correct productions of residual phonological errors. Results suggest the…

Ruscello, Dennis M.

1995-01-01