Sample records for impaired phonological processing

  1. Dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonology and Auditory Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Jill; Goswami, Usha; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    We explore potential similarities between developmental dyslexia (specific reading disability [SRD]) and specific language impairment (SLI) in terms of phonological skills, underlying auditory processing abilities, and nonphonological language skills. Children aged 9 to 11 years with reading and/or language difficulties were recruited and compared…

  2. Phonological Processing Deficits in Specific Reading Disability and Specific Language Impairment: Same or Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Genevieve; Castles, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if phonological processing deficits in specific reading disability (SRD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are the same or different. In four separate analyses, a different combination of reading and spoken language measures was used to divide 73 children into three subgroups: poor readers with average…

  3. Phonological Awareness Abilities of 6-Year-Old Children with Mild to Moderate Phonological Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gernand, Keri Leigh; Moran, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Standardized and nonstandardized assessments of phonological awareness skills were administered to two groups of 6-year-old children. Group 1 passed a language screening but exhibited mild or moderate phonological impairments on the "Assessment of Phonological Processes--Revised." Group 2 passed a language screening and exhibited no phonological

  4. Subject-Verb Agreement and Phonological Processing in Developmental Dyslexia and Specific Language Impairment (SLI): A Closer Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispens, Judith; Been, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    Background: Problems with subject-verb agreement and phonological (processing) skills have been reported to occur in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and in those with developmental dyslexia, but only a few studies have compared such problems in these two groups. Previous studies have claimed a causal relationship between…

  5. Phonological and lexical influences on phonological awareness in children with specific language impairment and dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Farquharson, Kelly; Centanni, Tracy M.; Franzluebbers, Chelsea E.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2014-01-01

    Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment have marked deficits in phonological processing, putting them at an increased risk for reading deficits. The current study sought to examine the influence of word-level phonological and lexical characteristics on phonological awareness. Children with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment were tested using a phoneme deletion task in which stimuli differed orthogonally by sound similarity and neighborhood density. Phonological and lexical factors influenced performance differently across groups. Children with dyslexia appeared to have a more immature and aberrant pattern of phonological and lexical influence (e.g., favoring sparse and similar features). Children with SLI performed less well than children who were typically developing, but followed a similar pattern of performance (e.g., favoring dense and dissimilar features). Collectively, our results point to both quantitative and qualitative differences in lexical organization and phonological representations in children with SLI and in children with dyslexia. PMID:25140161

  6. Verbal Memory and Phonological Processing in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijms, Jurgen

    2004-01-01

    This study examines whether two frequently reported causes of dyslexia, phonological processing problems and verbal memory impairments, represent a double-deficit or whether they are two expressions of the same deficit. Two-hundred-and-sixty-seven Dutch children aged 10-14 with dyslexia completed a list-learning task and several phonological

  7. Dyslexia Impairs Speech Recognition but Can Spare Phonological Competence

    PubMed Central

    Berent, Iris; Vaknin-Nusbaum, Vered; Balaban, Evan; Galaburda, Albert M.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslexia is associated with numerous deficits to speech processing. Accordingly, a large literature asserts that dyslexics manifest a phonological deficit. Few studies, however, have assessed the phonological grammar of dyslexics, and none has distinguished a phonological deficit from a phonetic impairment. Here, we show that these two sources can be dissociated. Three experiments demonstrate that a group of adult dyslexics studied here is impaired in phonetic discrimination (e.g., ba vs. pa), and their deficit compromises even the basic ability to identify acoustic stimuli as human speech. Remarkably, the ability of these individuals to generalize grammatical phonological rules is intact. Like typical readers, these Hebrew-speaking dyslexics identified ill-formed AAB stems (e.g., titug) as less wordlike than well-formed ABB controls (e.g., gitut), and both groups automatically extended this rule to nonspeech stimuli, irrespective of reading ability. The contrast between the phonetic and phonological capacities of these individuals demonstrates that the algebraic engine that generates phonological patterns is distinct from the phonetic interface that implements them. While dyslexia compromises the phonetic system, certain core aspects of the phonological grammar can be spared. PMID:23028654

  8. Development of Phonological Processing Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment with and without Literacy Delay: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the development of phonological skills in children with specific language impairment (SLI) with and without literacy delay and to examine whether kindergarten phonological skills could discriminate these 2 groups. Method: In a longitudinal study, 8 children with SLI and literacy delay, 10 children with SLI and normal literacy,…

  9. Impaired Letter-String Processing in Developmental Dyslexia: What Visual-to-Phonology Code Mapping Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdois, Sylviane; Lassus-Sangosse, Delphine; Lobier, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Poor parallel letter-string processing in developmental dyslexia was taken as evidence of poor visual attention (VA) span, that is, a limitation of visual attentional resources that affects multi-character processing. However, the use of letter stimuli in oral report tasks was challenged on its capacity to highlight a VA span disorder. In…

  10. Phonological simplifications, apraxia of speech and the interaction between phonological and phonetic processing.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Claudia; Bureca, Ivana; Guariglia, Cecilia; Romani, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Research on aphasia has struggled to identify apraxia of speech (AoS) as an independent deficit affecting a processing level separate from phonological assembly and motor implementation. This is because AoS is characterized by both phonological and phonetic errors and, therefore, can be interpreted as a combination of deficits at the phonological and the motoric level rather than as an independent impairment. We apply novel psycholinguistic analyses to the perceptually phonological errors made by 24 Italian aphasic patients. We show that only patients with relative high rate (>10%) of phonetic errors make sound errors which simplify the phonology of the target. Moreover, simplifications are strongly associated with other variables indicative of articulatory difficulties - such as a predominance of errors on consonants rather than vowels - but not with other measures - such as rate of words reproduced correctly or rates of lexical errors. These results indicate that sound errors cannot arise at a single phonological level because they are different in different patients. Instead, different patterns: (1) provide evidence for separate impairments and the existence of a level of articulatory planning/programming intermediate between phonological selection and motor implementation; (2) validate AoS as an independent impairment at this level, characterized by phonetic errors and phonological simplifications; (3) support the claim that linguistic principles of complexity have an articulatory basis since they only apply in patients with associated articulatory difficulties. PMID:25772602

  11. Different Origin of Auditory and Phonological Processing Problems in Children with Language Impairment: Evidence from a Twin Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, D. V. M.; Bishop, Sonia J.; Bright, Peter; James, Cheryl; Delaney, Tom; Tallal, Paula

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 55 children with a language impairment and 76 with normal language investigated the heritability of auditory processing impairment in same-sex twins (ages 7 to 13, selected from a sample of 37 pairs). Although correlations between co-twins were high, lack of significant difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins suggested…

  12. Different Origin of Auditory and Phonological Processing Problems in Children With Language Impairment: Evidence From a Twin Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. M. Bishop; Sonia J. Bishop; Peter Bright; Cheryl James; Tom Delaney; Paula Tallal

    This study investigated the heritability of auditory processing impairment, as assessed by Tallal's Auditory Repetition Test (ART). The sample consisted of 37 same-sex twin pairs who had previously been selected because one or both twins met criteria for language impairment (LI) and 104 same-sex twin pairs in the same age range (7 to 13 years) from the general population. These

  13. Phonological processing among good and poor readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayland, Ratree

    2001-05-01

    Many researchers believe that a connection exists between phonological processing skills and reading ability, and phonological deficits have often been cited as possible explanation for reading disability among both children and adults. This study will present research findings on phonological processing of various speech sounds among school-aged children who were classified as good and poor readers by standardized tests. These subjects will be administered speech discrimination tests using a variety of speech stimuli. Results of their performance on these tasks will be presented and a relationship between their reading and phonological processing abilities will be discussed.

  14. Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes

    MedlinePLUS

    Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes What are speech sound disorders ? Can adults have speech sound ... with individuals with speech sound disorders ? What are speech sound disorders? Most children make some mistakes as ...

  15. Learning Novel Phonological Representations in Developmental Dyslexia: Associations with Basic Auditory Processing of Rise Time and Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jennifer M.; Goswami, Usha

    2010-01-01

    Across languages, children with developmental dyslexia are known to have impaired lexical phonological representations. Here, we explore associations between learning new phonological representations, phonological awareness, and sensitivity to amplitude envelope onsets (rise time). We show that individual differences in learning novel phonological

  16. Phonological deficits in specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia: towards a multidimensional model

    PubMed Central

    Ramus, Franck; Marshall, Chloe R.; Rosen, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    An on-going debate surrounds the relationship between specific language impairment and developmental dyslexia, in particular with respect to their phonological abilities. Are these distinct disorders? To what extent do they overlap? Which cognitive and linguistic profiles correspond to specific language impairment, dyslexia and comorbid cases? At least three different models have been proposed: the severity model, the additional deficit model and the component model. We address this issue by comparing children with specific language impairment only, those with dyslexia-only, those with specific language impairment and dyslexia and those with no impairment, using a broad test battery of language skills. We find that specific language impairment and dyslexia do not always co-occur, and that some children with specific language impairment do not have a phonological deficit. Using factor analysis, we find that language abilities across the four groups of children have at least three independent sources of variance: one for non-phonological language skills and two for distinct sets of phonological abilities (which we term phonological skills versus phonological representations). Furthermore, children with specific language impairment and dyslexia show partly distinct profiles of phonological deficit along these two dimensions. We conclude that a multiple-component model of language abilities best explains the relationship between specific language impairment and dyslexia and the different profiles of impairment that are observed. PMID:23413264

  17. Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su-Yeon

    2011-01-01

    In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…

  18. Phonological Processing and Reading in Children with Speech Sound Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rvachew, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between phonological processing skills prior to kindergarten entry and reading skills at the end of 1st grade, in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). Method: The participants were 17 children with SSD and poor phonological processing skills (SSD-low PP), 16 children with SSD and good phonological

  19. A Phonologically Based Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: Implications for Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Michaela J.; Park, Jungjun; Saxon, Terrill F.; Colson, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted utilizing a quasi-experimental pre- and postgroup design to examine the effects of a phonologically based intervention aimed to improve phonological awareness (PA) and reading abilities in school-age children with language impairment (LI) in Grades 1 through 3. The intervention included instruction in PA and sound-symbol…

  20. Nonword Repetition: The Relative Contributions of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Phonological Representations in Children with Language and Reading Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rispens, Judith; Baker, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the relative contributions of phonological short-term memory and phonological representations to nonword repetition (NWR). This was evaluated in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and/or reading impairment (RI); it was also studied from a developmental perspective by comparing 2 groups of typically…

  1. Phonological Neighbors Speed Visual Word Processing: Evidence from Multiple Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The author investigated the role of phonological neighborhood on visual word recognition. Using a lexical decision task, the author showed in Experiment 1 that words with large phonological neighborhoods were processed more rapidly than those with smaller phonological neighborhoods. This facilitative effect was obtained even when the nonword…

  2. Learning novel phonological representations in developmental dyslexia: associations with basic auditory processing of rise time and phonological awareness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M. Thomson; Usha Goswami

    2010-01-01

    Across languages, children with developmental dyslexia are known to have impaired lexical phonological representations. Here,\\u000a we explore associations between learning new phonological representations, phonological awareness, and sensitivity to amplitude\\u000a envelope onsets (rise time). We show that individual differences in learning novel phonological representations are related\\u000a to individual differences in both rise time categorization and rise time discrimination when non-verbal IQ

  3. Auditory Processing, Speech Perception and Phonological Ability in Pre-School Children at High-Risk for Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study of the Auditory Temporal Processing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether the core bottleneck of literacy-impairment should be situated at the phonological level or at a more basic sensory level, as postulated by supporters of the auditory temporal processing theory. Phonological ability, speech perception and low-level auditory processing were assessed in a group of 5-year-old pre-school…

  4. Comparing Phonological Skills and Spelling Abilities in Children with Reading and Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Rebecca F.; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Bishop and Snowling (2004) proposed that children with language impairments (LI) and children with reading difficulties (RD) can be considered to be on a (phonological) continuum of risk for reading impairments. Aims: The first aim of the present study was to address two specific hypotheses about the relationship between RD and LI. The…

  5. Patterns of Impairments in AOS and Mechanisms of Interaction between Phonological and Phonetic Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laganaro, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: One reason why the diagnosis of apraxia of speech (AOS) and its underlying impairment are often debated may lie in the fact that most patients do not display pure patterns of AOS. Mixed patterns are clearly acknowledged at other levels of impairment (e.g., lexical-semantic and lexical-phonological), and they have contributed to debate…

  6. What Is the deficit in Phonological Processing Deficits: Auditory Sensitivity, Masking, or Category Formation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nittrouer, Susan; Shune, Samantha; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2011-01-01

    Although children with language impairments, including those associated with reading, usually demonstrate deficits in phonological processing, there is minimal agreement as to the source of those deficits. This study examined two problems hypothesized to be possible sources: either poor auditory sensitivity to speech-relevant acoustic properties,…

  7. Phonological Processing and Arithmetic Fact Retrieval: Evidence from Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Boets, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The triple-code model, cognitive neuroimaging and developmental behavioral data suggest a specific association between phonological processing and arithmetic fact retrieval. Accordingly, individuals with deficits in phonological processing, such as individuals with developmental dyslexia, are expected to show difficulties in arithmetic fact…

  8. Beyond decoding: Phonological processing during silent reading in beginning readers.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Hazel I; Pagán, Ascensión; Dodd, Megan

    2015-07-01

    In this experiment, the extent to which beginning readers process phonology during lexical identification in silent sentence reading was investigated. The eye movements of children aged seven to nine years and adults were recorded as they read sentences containing either a correctly spelled target word (e.g., girl), a pseudohomophone (e.g., gerl), or a spelling control (e.g., garl). Both children and adults showed a benefit from the valid phonology of the pseudohomophone, compared to the spelling control during reading. This indicates that children as young as seven years old exhibit relatively skilled phonological processing during reading, despite having moved past the use of overt phonological decoding strategies. In addition, in comparison to adults, children's lexical processing was more disrupted by the presence of spelling errors, suggesting a developmental change in the relative dependence upon phonological and orthographic processing in lexical identification during silent sentence reading. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25528096

  9. Executive and Phonological Processes in Second-Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a latent variable study exploring the specific links among executive processes of working memory, phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness, and proficiency in first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) languages in 8- to 9-year-olds experiencing multilingual education. Children completed multiple L1-measures of…

  10. Low Intensity Phonological Awareness Training in a Preschool Classroom for Children with Communication Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Sandra P.; Espeland, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Phonological awareness is a term that refers to one's knowledge of the sound structure of spoken language. Children who understand that sounds in language represent the letters used in reading and writing typically learn to read more easily than children who do not. Children with language and/or speech impairments often demonstrate a lack of…

  11. Children's Recognition of Their Own Recorded Voice: Influence of Age and Phonological Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strombergsson, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Children with phonological impairment (PI) often have difficulties perceiving insufficiencies in their own speech. The use of recordings has been suggested as a way of directing the child's attention toward his/her own speech, despite a lack of evidence that children actually recognize their recorded voice as their own. We present two studies of…

  12. Differential Effects of Orthographic and Phonological Consistency in Cortex for Children with and without Reading Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Donald J.; Minas, Jennifer; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

    2008-01-01

    One of the central challenges in mastering English is becoming sensitive to consistency from spelling to sound (i.e. phonological consistency) and from sound to spelling (i.e. orthographic consistency). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of consistency in 9-15-year-old Normal and Impaired Readers…

  13. The Structure of Phonological Processing and Its Relationship to Basic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will; Denis, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated various structural models of phonological processing and the relationship of phonological processing abilities to basic reading. Data were collected on 116 kindergarten and first grade students. The specific ability model, which included phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid automatized naming as separate…

  14. Reading Impairments in Schizophrenia Relate to Individual Differences in Phonological Processing and Oculomotor Control: Evidence from a Gaze-Contingent Moving Window Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitford, Veronica; O'Driscoll, Gillian A.; Pack, Christopher C.; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok; Titone, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Language and oculomotor disturbances are 2 of the best replicated findings in schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined skilled reading in schizophrenia (e.g., Arnott, Sali, Copland, 2011; Hayes & O'Grady, 2003; Revheim et al., 2006; E. O. Roberts et al., 2012), and none have examined the contribution of cognitive and motor processes that…

  15. A Working Memory Deficit among Dyslexic Readers with No Phonological Impairment as Measured Using the N-Back Task: An fNIR Study

    PubMed Central

    Sela, Itamar; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Izzetoglu, Kurtulus; Onaral, Banu

    2012-01-01

    Data indicated that dyslexic individuals exhibited difficulties on tasks involving Working Memory (WM). Previous studies have suggested that these deficits stem from impaired processing in the Phonological Loop (PL). The PL impairment was connected to poor phonological processing. However, recent data has pointed to the Central Executive (CE) system as another source of WM deficit in dyslexic readers. This opened a debate whether the WM deficit stems solely from PL or can also be seen as an outcome of poor CE processing. In an attempt to verify this question, the current study compared adult skilled and compensated dyslexic readers with no impairment of phonological skills. The participants’ PL and CE processing were tested by using the fNIR device attached to the frontal lobe and measured the changes in brain oxygen values when performing N-back task. As it was previously suggested, the N?=?0 represented PL and N?=?1 to 3 represent CE processing. It was hypothesized that dyslexic readers who show non-impaired phonological skills will exhibit deficits mainly in the CE subsystem and to a lesser extent in the PL. Results indicated that the two reading level groups did not differ in their accuracy and reaction times in any of the N-Back conditions. However, the dyslexic readers demonstrated significant lower maximum oxyHb values in the upper left frontal lobe, mainly caused due to a significant lower activity under the N?=?1 condition. Significant task effects were found in the medial left hemisphere, and the high medial right hemisphere. In addition, significant correlations between fNIR-features, reading performance and speed of processing were found. The higher oxyHb values, the better reading and speed of processing performance obtained. The results of the current study support the hypothesis that at least for the group of dyslexics with non-impaired PL, WM deficit stems from poor CE activity. PMID:23152750

  16. The interface between morphology and phonology: Exploring a morpho-phonological deficit in spoken production

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a word's phonological well-formedness that must be addressed by the phonology. We report the case of an aphasic individual (WRG) who exhibits an impairment at the morpho-phonological interface. WRG was tested on his ability to produce phonologically complex sequences (specifically, coda clusters of varying sonority) in heteromorphemic and tautomorphemic environments. WRG made phonological errors that reduced coda sonority complexity in multimorphemic words (e.g., passed?[pæst?d]) but not in monomorphemic words (e.g., past). WRG also made similar insertion errors to repair stress clash in multimorphemic environments, confirming his sensitivity to cross-morpheme well-formedness. We propose that this pattern of performance is the result of an intact phonological grammar acting over the phonological content of morphemic representations that were weakly joined because of brain damage. WRG may constitute the first case of a morpho-phonological impairment—these results suggest that the processes that combine morphemes constitute a crucial component of morpho-phonological processing. PMID:23466641

  17. Performance of School Age Reading Disabled Students on the Phonological Awareness Subtests of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Dorothy; Christo, Catherine; Davis, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the performance of reading disabled children on the two Phonological Awareness Subtests of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). Participants performed significantly different on these two subtests with a poorer performance on the Elision subtest than Blending Words. In addition, the two subtests were not…

  18. Phonological representations in children with SLI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Claessen; Suze Leitão

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty processing sound-based information, including storing and accessing phonological representations in the lexicon. Tasks are emerging in the literature that provide a measure of the quality of stored phonological representations, without requiring a verbal response. This article describes the performance of children with specific language impairment (SLI) (n

  19. Speech Perception and Phonological Short-Term Memory Capacity in Language Impairment: Preliminary Evidence from Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucas, Tom; Riches, Nick Greatorex; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Simonoff, Emily; Chandler, Susie; Baird, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Background: The cognitive bases of language impairment in specific language impairment (SLI) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were investigated in a novel non-word comparison task which manipulated phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and speech perception, both implicated in poor non-word repetition. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the…

  20. Evidence for a Preserved Sensitivity to Orthographic Redundancy and an Impaired Access to Phonological Syllables in French Developmental Dyslexics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doignon-Camus, Nadège; Seigneuric, Alix; Perrier, Emeline; Sisti, Aurélie; Zagar, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the orthographic and phonological processing skills of developmental dyslexics, we (a) examined their abilities to exploit properties of orthographic redundancy and (b) tested whether their phonological deficit extends to spelling-to-sound connections for large-grain size units such as syllables. To assess the processing skills in…

  1. Role of left posterior superior temporal gyrus in phonological processing for speech perception and production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley R. Buchsbaum; Gregory Hickok; Colin Humphries

    2001-01-01

    Models of both speech perception and speech production typically postulate a processing level that involves some form of phonological processing. There is disagreement, however, on the question of whether there are separate phonological systems for speech input versus speech output. We review a range of neuroscientific data that indicate that input and output phonological systems partially overlap. An important anatomical

  2. Neural Correlates of Sublexical Processing in Phonological Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E.; Eisner, Frank; Marshall, Chloe R.; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Scott, Sophie K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural…

  3. PET Studies of Phonological Processing: A Critical Reply to Poeppel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Démonet; J. A. Fiez; E. Paulesu; S. E. Petersen; R. J. Zatorre

    1996-01-01

    Poeppel (1996) raises a number of criticisms about the methods and reported results for eight studies of phonological processing from six different neuroimaging laboratories. We would freely admit that valid criticisms of PET methodology can be made and that, like any method, it has limitations; in fact, we and others have engaged in such critical commentary (Steinmetz & Seitz, 1991;

  4. Phonological Processes in Kannada-Speaking Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupela, Vani; Manjula, R.; Velleman, Shelley L.

    2010-01-01

    Phonological process analysis was carried out using a 40-word imitation task with 30 11;6-14;6 year old Kannada-speaking persons with Down syndrome in comparison with 15 non-verbal mental age matched typically developing children. Percentages of occurrence were significantly higher for the Down syndrome group with certain exceptions. Some…

  5. Articulation of Phonologically Similar Items Disrupts Free Recall of Nonwords

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Ryoji; Ukita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to clarify whether phonological similarity of encoded information impairs free recall performance (the phonological similarity effect: PSE) for nonwords. Five experiments examined the influence of the encoding process on the PSE in a step-by-step fashion, by using lists that consisted of phonologically similar (decoy)…

  6. Phonological processes as predictors of specific reading skills in children at risk for reading failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca H. Felton; Idalyn S. Brown

    1990-01-01

    Children at risk for reading disability were evaluated as kindergartners and again as first graders to determine (1) intercorrelations among phonological processing tasks and (2) the relationship of such tasks to word identification and word attack. With IQ controlled, there were no intercorrelations among measures of phonological awareness, phonetic recoding in working memory, and phonological recoding in lexical access. Thus,

  7. Subject Pronoun and Article Omissions in the Speech of Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Phonological Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Karla K.; Leonard, Laurence B.

    1994-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their normally developing (ND) peers imitated proper nouns, the pronouns "he" and "you," and the article "the" in subject phrases. Both groups showed significantly more omissions of the function words than the proper nouns. A phonological explanation of subject article and pronoun omission is…

  8. Influence of Phonology on Morpho-Syntax in Romance Languages in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Serra-Raventos, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    Background: The profiles of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ greatly according to the language they speak. The Surface Hypothesis attempts to explain these differences through the theory that children with SLI will incorrectly produce elements in their language with low phonological weights or that are produced in a…

  9. Research Note Processing of Phonological Variation

    E-print Network

    Allen, Jont

    impairments, using hearing aids (n = 10) or cochlear implants (n = 17), and 19 children with normal hearing A dvances in cochlear implantation, digital hearing aids, and early diagnosis and aiding after universal with cochlear implants (CIs), with place of articu- lation differences being among the latest features acquired

  10. Children's recognition of their own recorded voice: influence of age and phonological impairment.

    PubMed

    Strömbergsson, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    Children with phonological impairment (PI) often have difficulties perceiving insufficiencies in their own speech. The use of recordings has been suggested as a way of directing the child's attention toward his/her own speech, despite a lack of evidence that children actually recognize their recorded voice as their own. We present two studies of children's self-voice identification, one exploring developmental aspects, and one exploring potential effects of having a PI. The results indicate that children from 4 to 8 years recognize their recorded voice well (around 80% accuracy), regardless of whether they have a PI or not. A subtle change in this ability from 4 to 8 years is observed that could be linked to a development in short-term memory. Clinically, one can indeed expect an advantage of using recordings in therapy; this could constitute an intermediate step toward the more challenging task of online self-monitoring. PMID:23237416

  11. Phonological Representations in Children with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessen, Mary; Leitao, Suze

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty processing sound-based information, including storing and accessing phonological representations in the lexicon. Tasks are emerging in the literature that provide a measure of the quality of stored phonological representations, without requiring a verbal…

  12. A Model of Phonological Processing, Language, and Reading for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R. Michael; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-aged children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using structural equation modeling. Phonological processing consisted of two distinct but correlated latent abilities: phonological awareness and naming speed. Phonological awareness had strong relationships with expressive and receptive language and reading skills. Naming speed had moderate relationships with these variables. Results suggest that children with ID bring the same skills to the task of learning to read as children with typical development, highlighting that phonologically based reading instruction should be considered a viable approach. PMID:24245730

  13. Basic Auditory Processing Skills and Phonological Awareness in Low-IQ Readers and Typically Developing Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppen, Sarah; Huss, Martina; Fosker, Tim; Fegan, Natasha; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationships between basic auditory processing, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in a sample of 95 children, 55 typically developing children, and 40 children with low IQ. All children received nonspeech auditory processing tasks, phonological processing and literacy measures, and a receptive vocabulary task.…

  14. Post-Lexical and Prosodic Phonological Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Paul; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the incidence of segmental and prosodic contrasts in recorded sentence materials and the use of such distinctions in the processing of utterances. The chosen materials involve sites of parsing ambiguity. Results show that in the immediate interpretation of spoken language input, intonational contrasts function as clear structural…

  15. Phonological Processes in Fricative Acquisition. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Mary Louise

    The research reported here was carried out to help establish the normal course of fricative acquisition as a basis for comparisons with abnormal development. Three questions concerning phonological processes were investigated as part of a larger study of fricative acquisition: (1) the phonological processes that underlie children's fricative…

  16. A Model of Phonological Processing, Language, and Reading for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, R. Michael; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-age children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using…

  17. Rhythmic priming enhances the phonological processing of speech.

    PubMed

    Cason, Nia; Schön, Daniele

    2012-09-01

    While natural speech does not possess the same degree of temporal regularity found in music, there is recent evidence to suggest that temporal regularity enhances speech processing. The aim of this experiment was to examine whether speech processing would be enhanced by the prior presentation of a rhythmical prime. We recorded electrophysiological (EEG) and behavioural (reaction time) data while participants listened to nonsense words preceded by a simple rhythm. Results showed that speech processing was enhanced by the temporal expectations generated by the prime. Interestingly, beat and metrical structure of the prime had an effect on different ERP components elicited by the following word (N100, P300). These results indicate that using a musical-like rhythmic prime matched to the prosodic features of speech enhances phonological processing of spoken words and thus reveal a cross-domain effect of musical rhythm on the processing of speech rhythm. PMID:22828660

  18. Phonological profile of Spanish-Catalan children with specific language impairment at age 4: are there any changes over time?

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Mediavilla, Eva; Serra-Raventós, Miquel

    2006-01-01

    The phonology of a group of Spanish-Catalan children with specific language impairment (SLI, n = 5), who had been analysed at age 3;10, is now analysed at age 4;09 and compared with two control groups: an age-matched control (n = 5) and a language level control (measured using the mean length of utterance by words; n = 5). The children with SLI continue to show a delay in the acquisition of segments, syllabic structures and in the use of the simplification processes, but not in word structures, compared with their age-matched controls. Children with SLI also display significant differences compared with their language level controls, but not in the same areas as observed at age 3: the differences are now in nasals and liquids at the segmental level, and in CCV, CVC and other complex structures at the syllabic level. There are also some simplification processes that seem to be more prevalent in these children than in their language level controls: absence of trill, cluster reductions and consonant deletions. The results enable us to interpret SLI as more than a delayed development and to show the differences in the profiles over time. PMID:17108698

  19. The Development and Treatment of Phonological Processes in Spanish Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian; Iglesias, Aquiles

    The Assessment of Phonological Disabilities measure was administered to 39 normally developing children and 10 speech-delayed children who were Spanish speaking, of Puerto Rican descent, and ranging in age from 3 to 4. Data were analyzed by comparing phonological processes against the "standard referent" and the "Puerto Rican referent." The…

  20. Phonological Awareness Development as a Discrete Process: Evidence for an Integrative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassady, Jerrell C.; Smith, Lawrence L.; Putman, S. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The theoretical and practical implications of examining young children's acquisitions of phonological awareness skills with specific and differentiated processing tasks are explored in this study. The study presents data from 269 kindergarten children completing a phonological awareness protocol that provided information on 14 discrete…

  1. The Role of Sign Phonology and Iconicity during Sign Processing: The Case of Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the influence of sign phonology and iconicity during sign processing in deaf children, the roles of these sign features were examined using an experimental sign-picture verification paradigm. Participants had to make decisions about sign-picture pairs, manipulated according to phonological sign features (i.e., hand shape, movement,…

  2. Efficacy of temporal processing training to improve phonological awareness among dyslexic and normal reading students.

    PubMed

    Fostick, Leah; Eshcoly, Reut; Shtibelman, Hila; Nehemia, Revital; Levi, Hadas

    2014-10-01

    One of the leading theories for dyslexia suggests that it is the result of a difficulty in auditory temporal processing (ATP). This theory, as well as others, is supported by studies showing group differences and correlation between phonological awareness and ATP. However, these studies do not provide causal relationship. In the current study the authors aimed to test causal relationship between ATP and phonological awareness by comparing the performance of dyslexic and normal reader students in phonological awareness tasks before and after a short-term (5-day) training in either temporal processing (dichotic temporal order judgment; TOJ), nontemporal processing (intensity discrimination), or no training. TOJ training resulted in significant reduction of TOJ threshold and increase in phonological awareness tasks' scores. Intensity discrimination training resulted in a decrease of intensity discrimination threshold, but with no change in phonological awareness tasks. Those who had no training, had no change in TOJ and intensity discrimination thresholds, as well as in the phonological awareness tasks. These results show that (a) a short-term training in temporal processing with no other perceptual cues for adult dyslexic and normal readers can be efficient in improving their phonological awareness; and (b) phonological awareness (dis) ability has causal relationship to ATP. PMID:25089573

  3. Temporal auditory processing and phonological awareness in children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

    PubMed

    Amaral, M I R; Casali, R L; Boscariol, M; Lunardi, L L; Guerreiro, M M; Colella-Santos, M F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze temporal auditory processing and phonological awareness in school-age children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Patient group (GI) consisted of 13 children diagnosed with BECTS. Control group (GII) consisted of 17 healthy children. After neurological and peripheral audiological assessment, children underwent a behavioral auditory evaluation and phonological awareness assessment. The procedures applied were: Gaps-in-Noise test (GIN), Duration Pattern test, and Phonological Awareness test (PCF). Results were compared between the groups and a correlation analysis was performed between temporal tasks and phonological awareness performance. GII performed significantly better than the children with BECTS (GI) in both GIN and Duration Pattern test (P < 0.001). GI performed significantly worse in all of the 4 categories of phonological awareness assessed: syllabic (P = 0.001), phonemic (P = 0.006), rhyme (P = 0.015) and alliteration (P = 0.010). Statistical analysis showed a significant positive correlation between the phonological awareness assessment and Duration Pattern test (P < 0.001). From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that children with BECTS may have difficulties in temporal resolution, temporal ordering, and phonological awareness skills. A correlation was observed between auditory temporal processing and phonological awareness in the suited sample. PMID:25685775

  4. Neural correlates of sublexical processing in phonological working memory.

    PubMed

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Warren, Jane E; Eisner, Frank; Marshall, Chloe R; Shanmugalingam, Pradheep; Scott, Sophie K

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated links between working memory and speech processing systems. We used delayed pseudoword repetition in fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of sublexical structure in phonological working memory (pWM). We orthogonally varied the number of syllables and consonant clusters in auditory pseudowords and measured the neural responses to these manipulations under conditions of covert rehearsal (Experiment 1). A left-dominant network of temporal and motor cortex showed increased activity for longer items, with motor cortex only showing greater activity concomitant with adding consonant clusters. An individual-differences analysis revealed a significant positive relationship between activity in the angular gyrus and the hippocampus, and accuracy on pseudoword repetition. As models of pWM stipulate that its neural correlates should be activated during both perception and production/rehearsal [Buchsbaum, B. R., & D'Esposito, M. The search for the phonological store: From loop to convolution. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 762-778, 2008; Jacquemot, C., & Scott, S. K. What is the relationship between phonological short-term memory and speech processing? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 480-486, 2006; Baddeley, A. D., & Hitch, G. Working memory. In G. H. Bower (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 8, pp. 47-89). New York: Academic Press, 1974], we further assessed the effects of the two factors in a separate passive listening experiment (Experiment 2). In this experiment, the effect of the number of syllables was concentrated in posterior-medial regions of the supratemporal plane bilaterally, although there was no evidence of a significant response to added clusters. Taken together, the results identify the planum temporale as a key region in pWM; within this region, representations are likely to take the form of auditory or audiomotor "templates" or "chunks" at the level of the syllable [Papoutsi, M., de Zwart, J. A., Jansma, J. M., Pickering, M. J., Bednar, J. A., & Horwitz, B. From phonemes to articulatory codes: an fMRI study of the role of Broca's area in speech production. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 2156-2165, 2009; Warren, J. E., Wise, R. J. S., & Warren, J. D. Sounds do-able: auditory-motor transformations and the posterior temporal plane. Trends in Neurosciences, 28, 636-643, 2005; Griffiths, T. D., & Warren, J. D. The planum temporale as a computational hub. Trends in Neurosciences, 25, 348-353, 2002], whereas more lateral structures on the STG may deal with phonetic analysis of the auditory input [Hickok, G. The functional neuroanatomy of language. Physics of Life Reviews, 6, 121-143, 2009]. PMID:20350182

  5. Metathesis as a Phonological Process: A Case Study in Gascon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumenil, Annie

    Metathesis, usually described in descriptive or historical linguistics as sporadic change, is investigated as a systematic phonological change using data from Gascon, an Occitan dialect. In the first chapter, the controversy over metathesis as a phonological change is presented and discussed from the standpoint of historical development. In…

  6. Unexpectedly Poor Spelling and Phonological-Processing Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Virginia M.; Quinn, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the phonological skills of university students who were unexpectedly poor spellers relative to their word reading accuracy. Compared with good spellers, unexpectedly poor spellers showed no deficits in phonological memory, selection of appropriate graphemes for phonemes in word misspellings and nonword spellings, and…

  7. How is phonological processing related to individual differences in children's arithmetic skills?

    PubMed

    De Smedt, Bert; Taylor, Jessica; Archibald, Lisa; Ansari, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    While there is evidence for an association between the development of reading and arithmetic, the precise locus of this relationship remains to be determined. Findings from cognitive neuroscience research that point to shared neural correlates for phonological processing and arithmetic as well as recent behavioral evidence led to the present hypothesis that there exists a highly specific association between phonological awareness and single-digit arithmetic with relatively small problem sizes. The present study examined this association in 37 typically developing fourth and fifth grade children. Regression analyses revealed that phonological awareness was specifically and uniquely related to arithmetic problems with a small but not large problem size. Further analysis indicated that problems with a high probability of being solved by retrieval, but not those typically associated with procedural problem-solving strategies, are correlated with phonological awareness. The specific association between phonological awareness and arithmetic problems with a small problem size and those for which a retrieval strategy is most common was maintained even after controlling for general reading ability and phonological short-term memory. The present findings indicate that the quality of children's long-term phonological representations mediates individual differences in single-digit arithmetic, suggesting that more distinct long-term phonological representations are related to more efficient arithmetic fact retrieval. PMID:20443971

  8. They played with the trade: MEG investigation of the processing of past tense verbs and their phonological twins

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Rachel; Brindley, Lisa; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Patterson, Karalyn

    2012-01-01

    How regular and irregular verbs are processed remains a matter of debate. Some English-speaking patients with nonfluent aphasia are especially impaired on regular past-tense forms like played, whether the task requires production, comprehension or even the judgement that “play” and “played” sound different. Within a dual-mechanism account of inflectional morphology, these deficits reflect disruption to the rule-based process that adds (or strips) the suffix -ed to regular verb stems; but the fact that the patients are also impaired at detecting the difference between word pairs like “tray” and “trade” (the latter being a phonological but not a morphological twin to “played”) suggests an important role for phonological characteristics of the regular past tense. The present study examined MEG brain responses in healthy participants evoked by spoken regular past-tense forms and phonological twin words (plus twin pseudowords and a non-speech control) presented in a passive oddball paradigm. Deviant forms (played, trade, kwade/kwayed) relative to their standards (play, tray, kway) elicited a pronounced neuromagnetic response at approximately 130 ms after the onset of the affix; this response was maximal at sensors over temporal areas of both hemispheres but stronger on the left, especially for played and kwayed. Relative to the same standards, a different set of deviants ending in /t/?—plate, trait and kwate—?produced stronger difference responses especially over the right hemisphere. Results are discussed with regard to dual- and single-mechanism theories of past tense processing and the need to consider neurobiological evidence in attempts to understand inflectional morphology. PMID:23103839

  9. Mutation of Dcdc2 in mice leads to impairments in auditory processing and memory ability.

    PubMed

    Truong, D T; Che, A; Rendall, A R; Szalkowski, C E; LoTurco, J J; Galaburda, A M; Holly Fitch, R

    2014-11-01

    Dyslexia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reading ability despite normal intellect, and is associated with specific difficulties in phonological and rapid auditory processing (RAP), visual attention and working memory. Genetic variants in Doublecortin domain-containing protein 2 (DCDC2) have been associated with dyslexia, impairments in phonological processing and in short-term/working memory. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sensory and behavioral impairments can result directly from mutation of the Dcdc2 gene in mice. Several behavioral tasks, including a modified pre-pulse inhibition paradigm (to examine auditory processing), a 4/8 radial arm maze (to assess/dissociate working vs. reference memory) and rotarod (to examine sensorimotor ability and motor learning), were used to assess the effects of Dcdc2 mutation. Behavioral results revealed deficits in RAP, working memory and reference memory in Dcdc2(del2/del2) mice when compared with matched wild types. Current findings parallel clinical research linking genetic variants of DCDC2 with specific impairments of phonological processing and memory ability. PMID:25130614

  10. JECP 2003, 84, 194-217 Development of Phonological and Orthographic Processing in Reading Aloud, in Silent

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for reading acquisition. Key words Phonological processing, Orthographic processing, Reading acquisition to the dual-route model, written words can be processed either by an orthographic procedure based on lexical and of the phonological procedures. Developmental models based on this dual-route account of written word processing

  11. Phonological Universals Constrain the Processing of Nonspeech Stimuli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris Berent; Evan Balaban; Tracy Lennertz; Vered Vaknin-Nusbaum

    2010-01-01

    Domain-specific systems are hypothetically specialized with respect to the outputs they compute and the inputs they allow (Fodor, 1983). Here, we examine whether these 2 conditions for specialization are dissociable. An initial experiment suggests that English speakers could extend a putatively universal phonological restriction to inputs identified as nonspeech. A subsequent comparison of English and Russian participants indicates that the

  12. Phonologic Processing in Adults Who Stutter: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Spencer, Rebecca M.C.; Spruill, John E., III; Smith, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), judgment accuracy, and reaction times (RTs) were obtained for 11 adults who stutter and 11 normally fluent speakers as they performed a rhyme judgment task of visually presented word pairs. Half of the word pairs (i.e., prime and target) were phonologically and orthographically congruent across words. That…

  13. The Influence of Working Memory and Phonological Processing on English Language Learner Children's Bilingual Reading and Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee; Orosco, Michael J.; Lussier, Cathy M.; Gerber, Michael M.; Guzman-Orth, Danielle A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether the contribution of working memory (WM) to children's (N = 471) 2nd language (L2) reading and language acquisition was best accounted for by processing efficiency at a phonological level and/or by executive processes independent of phonological processing. Elementary school children (Grades 1, 2, & 3) whose 1st…

  14. Phonological and semantic influences on auditory word perception in children with and without reading impairments using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG)

    E-print Network

    Wehner, Daniel T

    2007-01-01

    Children with dyslexia struggle with learning to read despite adequate intelligence, motivation, and schooling. Over the years, there has been a growing consensus about the role of phonological processing in reading ...

  15. Early emergence of deviant frontal fMRI activity for phonological processes in poor beginning readers.

    PubMed

    Bach, Silvia; Brandeis, Daniel; Hofstetter, Christoph; Martin, Ernst; Richardson, Ulla; Brem, Silvia

    2010-11-01

    Phonological awareness refers to the ability to perceive and manipulate the sound structure of language and is especially important when children learn to read. Poor phonological awareness is considered the major cause for the emergence of reading difficulties. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined the brain correlates of phonological processing in young beginning readers (aged 8.3+/-0.4 y, 2nd grade) with poor (<25th percentile) or normal, age-appropriate reading skills (>40th percentile) using a covert reading and mental letter substitution task. Letter substitution in words and nonwords induced pronounced activity in a left frontal language network related to phonological processing, with maxima in the left inferior frontal gyrus and in the insula. The activation within this frontal network increased with better reading skills and differentiated between normal and poor reading young children. Lateralization indices of overall frontal activity for normal and poor readers pointed to stronger left hemispheric involvement in normal readers as compared to the more bilateral activation pattern in poor readers. To summarize, young children with age-appropriate reading skills display a left hemispheric dominance characteristic for language processing already by grade two. The more bilateral activation pattern in poor readers points to an increased effort and the emergence of compensatory strategies for reading and phonological processing just 1.5 years after the start of formal reading instruction. PMID:20600985

  16. The Relationship between Speech Impairment, Phonological Awareness and Early Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judy; Botting, Nicola; Myers, Lucy; Dodd, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Although children with speech impairment are at increased risk for impaired literacy, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. Around half the children with speech impairment have delayed acquisition, making errors typical of a normally developing younger child (e.g. reducing consonant clusters so that "spoon" is pronounced as "poon"). A…

  17. A Comparison of Phonological Processing Skills of Children with Mild to Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jungjun; Lombardino, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes (Wagner, Torgesen, & Rashotte, 1999), the researchers compared strengths and weaknesses in phonological processing skills in three groups: 21 children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MSNH group), 29 children with dyslexia, and 30 age-matched controls. The MSNH group showed…

  18. Process Dissociation of Sight Vocabulary and Phonetic Decoding in Reading: A New Perspective on Surface and Phonological Dyslexias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Patricia; Borowsky, Ron; MacKinnon, G. E.; Hymel, Shelley

    2005-01-01

    Recent research on developmental dyslexia has suggested a phonological core deficit hypothesis (e.g., Manis, Seidenberg, Doi, McBride-Chang, & Peterson, 1996; Stanovich, Siegel, & Gottardo, 1997) whereby pure cases of developmental phonological dyslexia (dysfunctional phonetic decoding processing but normal sight vocabulary processing) can exist,…

  19. Orthographic and Phonological Preview Benefits: Parafoveal Processing in Skilled and Less-skilled Deaf Readers

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Many deaf individuals do not develop the high-level reading skills that will allow them to fully take part into society. To attempt to explain this widespread difficulty in the deaf population, much research has honed in on the use of phonological codes during reading. The hypothesis that the use of phonological codes is associated with good reading skills in deaf readers, though not well supported, still lingers in the literature. We investigated skilled and less-skilled adult deaf readers’ processing of orthographic and phonological codes in parafoveal vision during reading by monitoring their eye movements and using the boundary paradigm. Orthographic preview benefits were found in early measures of reading for skilled hearing, skilled deaf, and less-skilled deaf readers, but only skilled hearing readers processed phonological codes in parafoveal vision. Crucially, skilled and less-skilled deaf readers showed a very similar pattern of preview benefits during reading. These results support the notion that reading difficulties in deaf adults are not linked to their failure to activate phonological codes during reading. PMID:23768045

  20. Functional Connectivity in an fMRI Study of Semantic and Phonological Processes and the Effect of L-Dopa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tivarus, Madalina E.; Hillier, Ashleigh; Schmalbrock, Petra; Beversdorf, David Q.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an fMRI experiment examining the functional connectivity (FC) between regions of the brain associated with semantic and phonological processing. We wished to explore whether L-Dopa administration affects the interaction between language network components in semantic and phonological categorization tasks, as revealed by FC. We…

  1. Impairment: The Case of Phonotactic Probability and Nonword Repetition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Cristina; Letts, Carolyn; Howard, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to explore the relationship between lexical and phonological knowledge in children with primary language impairment (PLI) through the application of a developmental methodology. Specifically, they tested whether there is evidence for an impairment in the process of phonological abstraction in this group of…

  2. Recursive Patterns in Phonological Phrases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maartje Schreuder; Dicky Gilbers

    In this paper we investigate an instance of phonological recursion, more specifically we investigate iterative rule application in phonological phrases. The question is whether or not edge-marking processes, such as early pitch accent placement, can be applied recursively to phonological phrases that are embedded in larger phonological phrases. 1. Overview

  3. Role of Visual Speech in Phonological Processing by Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerger, Susan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research assessed the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by children with hearing loss (HL). Method: Children with HL and children with normal hearing (NH) named pictures while attempting to ignore auditory or audiovisual speech distractors whose onsets relative to the pictures were either congruent, conflicting in…

  4. Modelling Relations between Sensory Processing, Speech Perception, Orthographic and Phonological Ability, and Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; De Smedt, Bert; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2008-01-01

    The general magnocellular theory postulates that dyslexia is the consequence of a multimodal deficit in the processing of transient and dynamic stimuli. In the auditory modality, this deficit has been hypothesized to interfere with accurate speech perception, and subsequently disrupt the development of phonological and later reading and spelling…

  5. Evaluating Phonological Processing Skills in Children with Prelingual Deafness Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Linda J.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the phonological processing skills of 29 children with prelingual, profound hearing loss with 4 years of cochlear implant experience. Results were group matched with regard to word-reading ability and mother's educational level with the performance of 29 hearing children. Results revealed that it is possible to obtain a…

  6. General Auditory Processing, Speech Perception and Phonological Awareness Skills in Chinese-English Biliteracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Cheung, Him; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the associations of general auditory processing, speech perception, phonological awareness and word reading in Cantonese-speaking children from Hong Kong learning to read both Chinese (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). Children in Grades 2--4 ("N" = 133) participated and were administered measures of…

  7. The Influence of Semantic Processing on Phonological Decisions in Children and Adults: A Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehner, Daniel T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Mody, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the behavioral effects and neural activation patterns associated with implicit semantic processing influences on phonological judgments during reading in children and adults. Method: Whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were obtained from 2 groups, children (9-13 years) and adults, performing a homophone judgment…

  8. How Is Phonological Processing Related to Individual Differences in Children's Arithmetic Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Taylor, Jessica; Archibald, Lisa; Ansari, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    While there is evidence for an association between the development of reading and arithmetic, the precise locus of this relationship remains to be determined. Findings from cognitive neuroscience research that point to shared neural correlates for phonological processing and arithmetic as well as recent behavioral evidence led to the present…

  9. An Analysis of Phonological Process Use in Young Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buhler, Helen C.; DeThomasis, Betty; Chute, Pat; DeCora, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Phonological process use was investigated in five children who used Nucleus 24 cochlear implants (CIs). All participants were less than 3 years of age at the time of cochlear implantation and ranged from 4;2 to 4;7 years of age at onset of study. Speech samples obtained from the GFTA-2 were analyzed using the KLPA-2 to evaluate participants'…

  10. The Processing of English Regular Inflections: Phonological Cues to Morphological Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Brechtje; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that different neural and functional mechanisms are involved in the analysis of irregular ("caught") and regular ("filled") past tense forms in English. In particular, the comprehension and production of regular forms is argued to require processes of morpho-phonological assembly and disassembly, analysing these forms into…

  11. A functional toolkit for morphological and phonological processing, application to a Sanskrit tagger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérard P. Huet

    2005-01-01

    We present the Zen toolkit for morphological and phonological processing of natural lan- guages. This toolkit is presented in literate programming style, in the Pidgin ML subset of the Objective Caml functional programming language. This toolkit is based on a sys- tematic representation of nite state automata and transducers as decorated lexical trees. All operations on the state space data

  12. A Closer Look at Phonology as a Predictor of Spoken Sentence Processing and Word Reading.

    PubMed

    Myers, Suzanne; K Robertson, Erin

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N [Formula: see text] 377) completed standardized tests of pA ('Elision') and pSTM ('Nonword Repetition') from the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing. Concepts and Following Directions (CFD) and Formulated Sentences (FS) were taken from the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Fourth Edition, as measures of sentence comprehension and production, respectively. Children also completed the Word Identification (Word Id) and Word Attack (Word Att) subtests of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Third Edition. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for age and nonverbal IQ revealed that Elision was the only significant predictor of CFD and FS. While Elision was the strongest predictor of Word Id and Word Att, Nonword Repetition accounted for additional variance in both reading measures. These results emphasize the usefulness of breaking down phonological processing into multiple components and they also have implications language and reading disordered populations. PMID:24627225

  13. Age-related differences in the neural bases of phonological and semantic processes.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Michele T; Johnson, Micah A; Burke, Deborah M; Madden, David J

    2014-12-01

    Changes in language functions during normal aging are greater for phonological compared with semantic processes. To investigate the behavioral and neural basis for these age-related differences, we used fMRI to examine younger and older adults who made semantic and phonological decisions about pictures. The behavioral performance of older adults was less accurate and less efficient than younger adults' in the phonological task but did not differ in the semantic task. In the fMRI analyses, the semantic task activated left-hemisphere language regions, and the phonological task activated bilateral cingulate and ventral precuneus. Age-related effects were widespread throughout the brain and most often expressed as greater activation for older adults. Activation was greater for younger compared with older adults in ventral brain regions involved in visual and object processing. Although there was not a significant Age × Condition interaction in the whole-brain fMRI results, correlations examining the relationship between behavior and fMRI activation were stronger for younger compared with older adults. Our results suggest that the relationship between behavior and neural activation declines with age, and this may underlie some of the observed declines in performance. PMID:24893737

  14. Phonological, visual and temporal processing in adults with and without reading disability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerri D. Edwards; Amanda C. Walley; Karlene K. Ball

    2003-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to comparethree theoretical accounts of readingdisability (RD) by simultaneously studyingphonological, visual, and temporal processingskills. Adults with and without RD werecompared on measures of phonological processingwith the Auditory Analysis Test (AAT) and theWoodcock Reading Mastery Test (WRMT-R) WordAttack subtest. Visual processing was assessedwith the Useful Field of View test (UFOV®)and the Frequency Doubling Technology

  15. Speech Perception Deficits in Poor Readers: Auditory Processing or Phonological Coding?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Mody; Michael Studdert-Kennedy; Susan Brady

    1997-01-01

    Poor readers are inferior to normal-reading peers in aspects of speech perception. Two hypotheses have been proposed to account for their deficits: (i) a speech-specific failure in phonological representation and (ii) a general deficit in auditory “temporal processing,” such that they cannot easily perceive the rapid spectral changes of formant transitions at the onset of stop-vowel syllables. To test these

  16. Effects of Phonological Contrast on Auditory Word Discrimination in Children with and without Reading Disability: A Magnetoencephalography (MEG) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehner, Daniel T.; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Mody, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Poor readers perform worse than their normal reading peers on a variety of speech perception tasks, which may be linked to their phonological processing abilities. The purpose of the study was to compare the brain activation patterns of normal and impaired readers on speech perception to better understand the phonological basis in reading…

  17. Relationships Between First and Second Language Phonological Processing Skills and Reading in Chinese?English Speakers living in English?Speaking Contexts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Gottardo; Penny Chiappe; Bernice Yan; Linda Siegel; Yan Gu

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between phoneme categorisation, phonological processing, and reading performance were examined in Chinese?English speaking children in an English?speaking environment. Second language (L2, i.e., English) phonological processing but not phoneme categorisation was related to L2 reading. First language (L1) oral language skills were related to Chinese reading with L1 phonological processing being related to the Chinese reading task with a

  18. Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

  19. Auditory temporal information processing in preschool children at family risk for dyslexia: relations with phonological abilities and developing literacy skills.

    PubMed

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquière, Pol

    2006-04-01

    In this project, the hypothesis of an auditory temporal processing deficit in dyslexia was tested by examining auditory processing in relation to phonological skills in two contrasting groups of five-year-old preschool children, a familial high risk and a familial low risk group. Participants were individually matched for gender, age, non-verbal IQ, school environment, and parental educational level. Psychophysical thresholds were estimated for gap-detection, frequency modulation detection, and tone-in-noise detection using a three-interval forced-choice adaptive staircase paradigm embedded within a computer game. Phonological skills were measured by tasks assessing phonological awareness, rapid serial naming, and verbal short-term memory. Significant group differences were found for phonological awareness and letter knowledge. In contrast, none of the auditory tasks differentiated significantly between both groups. However, both frequency modulation and tone-in-noise detection were significantly related to phonological awareness. This relation with phonological skills was not present for gap-detection. PMID:16112723

  20. phonological processing and analysis (e.g., Wagner & Torgesen 1987; see also Ramus 2003 for a review). Moreover, a significant body of neuroimaging research has now established a

    E-print Network

    #12;phonological processing and analysis (e.g., Wagner & Torgesen 1987; see also Ramus 2003 processing or make explicit demands on phonological processing or analysis, e.g., a rhyme task (e.g for RD readers have been observed in print tasks that emphasize lexical or semantic processing (e.g

  1. Processing Problems and Language Impairment in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Ruth V.

    1990-01-01

    The article reviews studies on the assessment of rapid auditory processing abilities. Issues in auditory processing research are identified including a link between otitis media with effusion and language learning problems. A theory that linguistically impaired children experience difficulty in perceiving and processing low phonetic substance…

  2. Phonological iconicity

    PubMed Central

    Schmidtke, David S.; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2014-01-01

    The arbitrariness of the linguistic sign is a fundamental assumption in modern linguistic theory. In recent years, however, a growing amount of research has investigated the nature of non-arbitrary relations between linguistic sounds and semantics. This review aims at illustrating the amount of findings obtained so far and to organize and evaluate different lines of research dedicated to the issue of phonological iconicity. In particular, we summarize findings on the processing of onomatopoetic expressions, ideophones, and phonaesthemes, relations between syntactic classes and phonology, as well as sound-shape and sound-affect correspondences at the level of phonemic contrasts. Many of these findings have been obtained across a range of different languages suggesting an internal relation between sublexical units and attributes as a potentially universal pattern. PMID:24575062

  3. Rhythmic Priming Enhances the Phonological Processing of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cason, Nia; Schon, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    While natural speech does not possess the same degree of temporal regularity found in music, there is recent evidence to suggest that temporal regularity enhances speech processing. The aim of this experiment was to examine whether speech processing would be enhanced by the prior presentation of a rhythmical prime. We recorded electrophysiological…

  4. The Interface between Morphology and Phonology: Exploring a Morpho-Phonological Deficit in Spoken Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M.; Cholin, Joana; Miozzo, Michele; Rapp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Morphological and phonological processes are tightly interrelated in spoken production. During processing, morphological processes must combine the phonological content of individual morphemes to produce a phonological representation that is suitable for driving phonological processing. Further, morpheme assembly frequently causes changes in a…

  5. Exploring the Phenotype of Phonological Reading Disability as a Function of the Phonological Deficit Severity: Evidence from the Error Analysis Paradigm in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Haitham; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Khateb, Asaid

    2014-01-01

    The dominant error types were investigated as a function of phonological processing (PP) deficit severity in four groups of impaired readers. For this aim, an error analysis paradigm distinguishing between four error types was used. The findings revealed that the different types of impaired readers were characterized by differing predominant error…

  6. Phonological Process and Accuracy Measures in Typically Developing Punjabi Speaking Children between 3-5 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Simran; John, Sunila; Veena, K. D.; Rajashekhar, B.

    2013-01-01

    Phonology is an area of linguistics that is concerned with the sounds of language. Since each language has its own unique system of sound patterns, there is a need to study phonological development in different languages. However, lack of published data necessitates the present study on phonological developmental pattern in Punjabi language…

  7. White matter pathway supporting phonological encoding in speech production: a multi-modal imaging study of brain damage patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Zaizhu; Ma, Yujun; Gong, Gaolang; Huang, Ruiwang; Song, Luping; Bi, Yanchao

    2014-10-31

    In speech production, an important step before motor programming is the retrieval and encoding of the phonological elements of target words. It has been proposed that phonological encoding is supported by multiple regions in the left frontal, temporal and parietal regions and their underlying white matter, especially the left arcuate fasciculus (AF) or superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). It is unclear, however, whether the effects of AF/SLF are indeed related to phonological encoding for output and whether there are other white matter tracts that also contribute to this process. We comprehensively investigated the anatomical connectivity supporting phonological encoding in production by studying the relationship between the integrity of all major white matter tracts across the entire brain and phonological encoding deficits in a group of 69 patients with brain damage. The integrity of each white matter tract was measured both by the percentage of damaged voxels (structural imaging) and the mean fractional anisotropy value (diffusion tensor imaging). The phonological encoding deficits were assessed by various measures in two oral production tasks that involve phonological encoding: the percentage of nonword (phonological) errors in oral picture naming and the accuracy of word reading aloud with word comprehension ability regressed out. We found that the integrity of the left SLF in both the structural and diffusion tensor imaging measures consistently predicted the severity of phonological encoding impairment in the two phonological production tasks. Such effects of the left SLF on phonological production remained significant when a range of potential confounding factors were considered through partial correlation, including total lesion volume, demographic factors, lesions on phonological-relevant grey matter regions, or effects originating from the phonological perception or semantic processes. Our results therefore conclusively demonstrate the central role of the left SLF in phonological encoding in speech production. PMID:25359657

  8. Does Success in the Reading Recovery Program Depend on Developing Proficiency in Phonological-Processing Skills? A Longitudinal Study in a Whole Language Instructional Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, James W.; Tunmer, William E.; Prochnow, Jane E.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relation between the development of phonological processing skills and the effectiveness of Reading Recovery (RR) in a whole language instructional context. Finds that: RR and poor reader comparison groups had deficiencies in phonological-processing skills before participation; participation in the program did not reduce these…

  9. "Bempen" or "Bemben": Differences between Children At-Risk of Dyslexia and Children with SLI on a Morpho-Phonological Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bree, Elise; Kerkhoff, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses morpho-phonological alternation in plural formation by 5-year-old Dutch children with a familial risk of dyslexia, children with specific language impairment (SLI), and typically developing children. The morpho-phonological process investigated is the voicing alternation in Dutch singular-plural pairs such as bed [t] "bed"…

  10. The articulatory basis of positional asymmetries in phonological acquisition

    E-print Network

    McAllister, Tara Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Child phonological processes that lack counterparts in adult phonological typology have long posed a problem for formal modeling of phonological acquisition. This dissertation investigates child-specific processes with a ...

  11. Role of Visual Speech in Phonological Processing by Children With Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Jerger, Susan; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Abdi, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This research assessed the influence of visual speech on phonological processing by children with hearing loss (HL). Method Children with HL and children with normal hearing (NH) named pictures while attempting to ignore auditory or audiovisual speech distractors whose onsets relative to the pictures were either congruent, conflicting in place of articulation, or conflicting in voicing—for example, the picture “pizza” coupled with the distractors “peach,” “teacher,” or “beast,” respectively. Speed of picture naming was measured. Results The conflicting conditions slowed naming, and phonological processing by children with HL displayed the age-related shift in sensitivity to visual speech seen in children with NH, although with developmental delay. Younger children with HL exhibited a disproportionately large influence of visual speech and a negligible influence of auditory speech, whereas older children with HL showed a robust influence of auditory speech with no benefit to performance from adding visual speech. The congruent conditions did not speed naming in children with HL, nor did the addition of visual speech influence performance. Unexpectedly, the /?/-vowel congruent distractors slowed naming in children with HL and decreased articulatory proficiency. Conclusions Results for the conflicting conditions are consistent with the hypothesis that speech representations in children with HL (a) are initially disproportionally structured in terms of visual speech and (b) become better specified with age in terms of auditorily encoded information. PMID:19339701

  12. Brain activation during phonological and semantic processing of Chinese characters in deaf signers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Peng, Danling; Liu, Li; Booth, James R; Ding, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies found altered brain function in deaf individuals reading alphabetic orthographies. However, it is not known whether similar alterations of brain function are characteristic of non-alphabetic writing systems and whether alterations are specific to certain kinds of lexical tasks. Here we examined differences in brain activation between Chinese congenitally deaf individuals (CD) and hearing controls (HC) during character reading tasks requiring phonological and semantic judgments. For both tasks, we found that CD showed less activation than HC in left inferior frontal gyrus, but greater activation in several right hemisphere regions including inferior frontal gyrus, angular gyrus, and inferior temporal gyrus. Although many group differences were similar across tasks, greater activation in right middle frontal gyrus was more pronounced for the rhyming compared to the meaning task. Finally, within the deaf individuals better performance on the rhyming task was associated with less activation in right inferior parietal lobule and angular gyrus. Our results in Chinese CD are broadly consistent with previous studies in alphabetic languages suggesting greater engagement of inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal cortex for reading that is largely independent of task, with the exception of right middle frontal gyrus for phonological processing. The brain behavior correlations potentially indicate that CD that more efficiently use the right hemisphere are better readers. PMID:24795593

  13. Connectionism, phonology, reading, and regularity in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Brown, G D

    1997-09-01

    Tests of the "phonological deficit" account of developmental dyslexia have produced apparently inconsistent results. We show how a connectionist approach to dyslexic reading development can resolve the paradox. A "dyslexic" model of reading was created by reducing the quality of the phonological representations available to the model during learning. The model behaved similarly to dyslexic children in that it had a selectively reduced ability to process nonwords, but showed normal effects of words' spelling-to-sound regularity. An experimental test of the model's predictions confirmed that dyslexic children perform similarly, in that they are impaired on irregular words to the same extent as nondyslexic children. It is concluded that developmentally dyslexic reading can indeed be understood in terms of impaired phonological representations and that the adoption of a modeling approach resolves an apparent paradox in the experimental literature. PMID:9299065

  14. Neural Processing of Spoken Words in Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helenius, Paivi; Parviainen, Tiina; Paetau, Ritva; Salmelin, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Young adults with a history of specific language impairment (SLI) differ from reading-impaired (dyslexic) individuals in terms of limited vocabulary and poor verbal short-term memory. Phonological short-term memory has been shown to play a significant role in learning new words. We investigated the neural signatures of auditory word recognition…

  15. Phonological processing in post-lingual deafness and cochlear implant outcome Lazard D.S1,2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Phonological processing in post-lingual deafness and cochlear implant outcome Lazard D.S1,2 , Lee e-mail: diane.lazard@bjn.aphp.fr Running title: Predictors of cochlear implant outcome inserm.neuroimage.2009.11.013 #12;2 Abstract Cochlear implants work well, yet the outcome is not fully accounted

  16. Are Phonological Processes the Same or Different in Low Literacy Adults and Children with or without Reading Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Juan E.; Garcia, Eduardo; Venegas, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study reported here was to examine whether phonological processes are the same or different in low literacy adults and children with or without reading disabilities in a consistent orthography. A sample of 150 subjects was selected and organized into four different groups: 53 low literacy adults, 29 reading disabled…

  17. Relationships among Rapid Digit Naming, Phonological Processing, Motor Automaticity, and Speech Perception in Poor, Average, and Good Readers and Spellers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Robert S.; Frederickson, Norah; Goodwin, Roz; Patni, Ulla; Smith, Nicola; Tuersley, Louise

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we explore the relationship between rapid automatized naming (RAN) and other cognitive processes among below-average, average, and above-average readers and spellers. Nonsense word reading, phonological awareness, RAN, automaticity of balance, speech perception, and verbal short-term and working memory were measured. Factor…

  18. Phonological sensitivity and memory in children with a foreign language learning difficulty.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Paola; Ferrari, Marcella

    2008-01-01

    The phonological processing and memory skills of 12- and 13-year-old Italian children with difficulty in learning English as a foreign language (foreign language learning difficulty, FLLD) were examined and compared with those of a control group matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Three experiments were conducted. A dissociation between verbal and visuo-spatial working memory was observed when compared to the control group; children with FLLD showed a poorer performance in a phonological working memory task but performed to a comparable level in a visuo-spatial working memory task (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2 the word length and the response modality of an auditory word span task were manipulated in order to examine the efficiency of the phonological loop and the relevance of the spoken output. The FLLD group did not show sensitivity to the word length effect and showed no advantage in the picture pointing recall condition. In Experiment 3 children with FLLD were shown to be sensitive to phonological similarity but again they showed neither a word length effect nor a slower articulation speed. Furthermore, in all three experiments children with FLLD were shown to be less efficient in phonological sensitivity tasks and this deficit appeared to be independent of the phonological memory problem. All three experiments consistently showed that children with FLLD have an impairment in phonological memory and phonological processing, which appear to be independent from one other but both contribute to the children's difficulty in learning a second language. PMID:18569688

  19. A Closer Look at Phonology as a Predictor of Spoken Sentence Processing and Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Suzanne; Robertson, Erin K.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to tease apart the roles of phonological awareness (pA) and phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in sentence comprehension, sentence production, and word reading. Children 6- to 10-years of age (N = 377) completed standardized tests of pA ("Elision") and pSTM ("Nonword Repetition") from the…

  20. Neural Correlates of Phonological Processing in Speech Sound Disorder: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tkach, Jean A.; Chen, Xu; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Holland, Scott K.; Lewis, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Speech sound disorders (SSD) are the largest group of communication disorders observed in children. One explanation for these disorders is that children with SSD fail to form stable phonological representations when acquiring the speech sound system of their language due to poor phonological memory (PM). The goal of this study was to examine PM in…

  1. Impaired holistic processing in congenital prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Avidan, Galia; Tanzer, Michal; Behrmann, Marlene

    2011-01-01

    It has long been argued that face processing requires disproportionate reliance on holistic or configural processing, relative to that required for non-face object recognition, and that a disruption of such holistic processing may be causally implicated in prosopagnosia. Previously, we demonstrated that individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) did not show the normal face inversion effect (better performance for upright compared to inverted faces) and evinced a local (rather than the normal global) bias in a compound letter global/local (GL) task, supporting the claim of disrupted holistic processing in prosopagnosia. Here, we investigate further the nature of holistic processing impairments in CP, first by confirming, in a large sample of CP individuals, the absence of the normal face inversion effect and the presence of the local bias on the GL task, and, second, by employing the composite face paradigm, often regarded as the gold standard for measuring holistic face processing. In this last task, we show that, in contrast with normal individuals, the CP group perform equivalently with aligned and misaligned faces and was impervious to (the normal) interference from the task-irrelevant bottom part of faces. Interestingly, the extent of the local bias evident in the composite task is correlated with the abnormality of performance on diagnostic face processing tasks. Furthermore, there is a significant correlation between the magnitude of the local bias in the GL and performance on the composite task. These results provide further evidence for impaired holistic processing in CP and, moreover, corroborate the critical role of this type of processing for intact face recognition. PMID:21601583

  2. Computational Phonology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Bird

    2002-01-01

    Phonology, as it is practiced, is deeply computational. Phonological analysis\\u000ais data-intensive and the resulting models are nothing other than specialized\\u000adata structures and algorithms. In the past, phonological computation -\\u000amanaging data and developing analyses - was done manually with pencil and\\u000apaper. Increasingly, with the proliferation of affordable computers, IPA fonts\\u000aand drawing software, phonologists are seeking to

  3. Testing the role of phonology in reading: focus on sentence processing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Hoan

    2009-08-01

    Most reading research investigating the role of phonology in word recognition has focused on studies employing an individual word as the sole stimulus. The bulk of such research has offered support for the phonological recoding hypothesis, the conjecture that access to a printed word's meaning requires activation of the word's phonology (i.e., meaning is not typically activated via orthography alone). A criticism of such studies is that by presenting participants with only a single word on each experimental trial (a nonecological manipulation), participants may alter their typical strategy of reading in such a way as to artificially favor the phonological recoding hypothesis. The present study avoided a focus on single words by requiring participants to read sentences and paragraphs for comprehension. Experiment 1 showed that, in reading a paragraph of connected sentences, eliminating a letter in a word that altered the phonology was more deleterious than eliminating a letter that did. Experiment 2 focused on the reading of each sentence itself rather than on the paragraph and provided additional control conditions. The results were similar to those of Experiment 1, consistent with the phonological recoding hypothesis. PMID:19048378

  4. Attentional Processes in Young Children with Congenital Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadic, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated attentional processes of 32 preschool children with congenital visual impairment (VI). Children with profound visual impairment (PVI) and severe visual impairment (SVI) were compared to a group of typically developing sighted children in their ability to respond to adult directed attention in terms of establishing,…

  5. Raspberry, not a car: context predictability and a phonological advantage in early and late learners’ processing of speech in noise

    PubMed Central

    Gor, Kira

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners perform worse than native speakers under adverse listening conditions, such as speech in noise (SPIN). No data are available on heritage language speakers’ (early naturalistic interrupted learners’) ability to perceive SPIN. The current study fills this gap and investigates the perception of Russian speech in multi-talker babble noise by the matched groups of high- and low-proficiency heritage speakers (HSs) and late second language learners of Russian who were native speakers of English. The study includes a control group of Russian native speakers. It manipulates the noise level (high and low), and context cloze probability (high and low). The results of the SPIN task are compared to the tasks testing the control of phonology, AXB discrimination and picture-word discrimination, and lexical knowledge, a word translation task, in the same participants. The increased phonological sensitivity of HSs interacted with their ability to rely on top–down processing in sentence integration, use contextual cues, and build expectancies in the high-noise/high-context condition in a bootstrapping fashion. HSs outperformed oral proficiency-matched late second language learners on SPIN task and two tests of phonological sensitivity. The outcomes of the SPIN experiment support both the early naturalistic advantage and the role of proficiency in HSs. HSs’ ability to take advantage of the high-predictability context in the high-noise condition was mitigated by their level of proficiency. Only high-proficiency HSs, but not any other non-native group, took advantage of the high-predictability context that became available with better phonological processing skills in high-noise. The study thus confirms high-proficiency (but not low-proficiency) HSs’ nativelike ability to combine bottom–up and top–down cues in processing SPIN. PMID:25566130

  6. The relationships between morphological and phonological errors in aphasic speech: data from a word repetition task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriele Miceli; Rita Capasso; Alfonso Caramazza

    2004-01-01

    Current theories of single-word processing predict that in some cases brain damage should selectively impair morphological processes, resulting in the selective occurrence of morphological errors. However, such a selective pattern of errors has never been documented, and the available case studies report the systematic association of morphological and phonological (segmental) errors in the same subject. The number of relevant case

  7. Left dorsal speech stream components and their contribution to phonological processing.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takenobu; Kell, Christian A; Restle, Julia; Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Ziemann, Ulf

    2015-01-28

    Models propose an auditory-motor mapping via a left-hemispheric dorsal speech-processing stream, yet its detailed contributions to speech perception and production are unclear. Using fMRI-navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we virtually lesioned left dorsal stream components in healthy human subjects and probed the consequences on speech-related facilitation of articulatory motor cortex (M1) excitability, as indexed by increases in motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude of a lip muscle, and on speech processing performance in phonological tests. Speech-related MEP facilitation was disrupted by rTMS of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), the sylvian parieto-temporal region (SPT), and by double-knock-out but not individual lesioning of pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), and not by rTMS of the ventral speech-processing stream or an occipital control site. RTMS of the dorsal stream but not of the ventral stream or the occipital control site caused deficits specifically in the processing of fast transients of the acoustic speech signal. Performance of syllable and pseudoword repetition correlated with speech-related MEP facilitation, and this relation was abolished with rTMS of pSTS, SPT, and pIFG. Findings provide direct evidence that auditory-motor mapping in the left dorsal stream causes reliable and specific speech-related MEP facilitation in left articulatory M1. The left dorsal stream targets the articulatory M1 through pSTS and SPT constituting essential posterior input regions and parallel via frontal pathways through pIFG and dPMC. Finally, engagement of the left dorsal stream is necessary for processing of fast transients in the auditory signal. PMID:25632119

  8. Left Dorsal Speech Stream Components and Their Contribution to Phonological Processing

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Takenobu; Kell, Christian A.; Restle, Julia; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Models propose an auditory-motor mapping via a left-hemispheric dorsal speech-processing stream, yet its detailed contributions to speech perception and production are unclear. Using fMRI-navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), we virtually lesioned left dorsal stream components in healthy human subjects and probed the consequences on speech-related facilitation of articulatory motor cortex (M1) excitability, as indexed by increases in motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude of a lip muscle, and on speech processing performance in phonological tests. Speech-related MEP facilitation was disrupted by rTMS of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), the sylvian parieto-temporal region (SPT), and by double-knock-out but not individual lesioning of pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), and not by rTMS of the ventral speech-processing stream or an occipital control site. RTMS of the dorsal stream but not of the ventral stream or the occipital control site caused deficits specifically in the processing of fast transients of the acoustic speech signal. Performance of syllable and pseudoword repetition correlated with speech-related MEP facilitation, and this relation was abolished with rTMS of pSTS, SPT, and pIFG. Findings provide direct evidence that auditory-motor mapping in the left dorsal stream causes reliable and specific speech-related MEP facilitation in left articulatory M1. The left dorsal stream targets the articulatory M1 through pSTS and SPT constituting essential posterior input regions and parallel via frontal pathways through pIFG and dPMC. Finally, engagement of the left dorsal stream is necessary for processing of fast transients in the auditory signal. PMID:25632119

  9. Selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates initial encoding of auditory words within the left hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Yoncheva, Yuliya; Maurer, Urs; Zevin, Jason D; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2014-08-15

    Selective attention to phonology, i.e., the ability to attend to sub-syllabic units within spoken words, is a critical precursor to literacy acquisition. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence has demonstrated that a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and posterior language regions, including the visual word form area, supports this skill. The current event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the temporal dynamics of selective attention to phonology during spoken word perception. We tested the hypothesis that selective attention to phonology dynamically modulates stimulus encoding by recruiting left-lateralized processes specifically while the information critical for performance is unfolding. Selective attention to phonology was captured by manipulating listening goals: skilled adult readers attended to either rhyme or melody within auditory stimulus pairs. Each pair superimposed rhyming and melodic information ensuring identical sensory stimulation. Selective attention to phonology produced distinct early and late topographic ERP effects during stimulus encoding. Data-driven source localization analyses revealed that selective attention to phonology led to significantly greater recruitment of left-lateralized posterior and extensive temporal regions, which was notably concurrent with the rhyme-relevant information within the word. Furthermore, selective attention effects were specific to auditory stimulus encoding and not observed in response to cues, arguing against the notion that they reflect sustained task setting. Collectively, these results demonstrate that selective attention to phonology dynamically engages a left-lateralized network during the critical time-period of perception for achieving phonological analysis goals. These findings suggest a key role for selective attention in on-line phonological computations. Furthermore, these findings motivate future research on the role that neural mechanisms of attention may play in phonological awareness impairments thought to underlie developmental reading disabilities. PMID:24746955

  10. Preschool Impairments in Auditory Processing and Speech Perception Uniquely Predict Future Reading Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; Vandermosten, Maaike; Poelmans, Hanne; Luts, Heleen; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2011-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is characterized by severe reading and spelling difficulties that are persistent and resistant to the usual didactic measures and remedial efforts. It is well established that a major cause of these problems lies in poorly specified phonological representations. Many individuals with dyslexia also present impairments in…

  11. Production and Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement in Monolingual Dutch Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. Method: An SLI…

  12. Literacy and linguistic development in bilingual deaf children: implications of the "and" for phonological processing.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Lynn; Parrila, Rauno

    2014-01-01

    Cumulating evidence suggests that the establishment of high-quality phonological representations is the cognitive precursor that facilitates the acquisition of language (spoken, signed, and written). The authors present two studies that contrast the nature of bilingual profoundly deaf children's phonological representations derived from a spoken language and from a signed language using the framework of "functional equivalence" as outlined in McQuarrie and Parilla (2009). The authors argue further that a signed-language phonological system is suited in establishing the "functional" representational base that will support reading acquisition for bilingual deaf learners. They highlight rapidly developing empirical research on dual-language interactions between signed language and written language is highlighted, and discuss the need to take such data into account in any discussion of fundamental skills necessary to support reading achievement in bilingual profoundly deaf learners. PMID:25669019

  13. Processing Phonological Information in a Semi-Syllabic Script: Developmental Data from Telugu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasanta, Duggirala

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments were undertaken to examine second and fifth grade Telugu-speaking children's awareness of phonological and orthographic properties of familiar Telugu words. Experiment 1 focused on the strategies the children used in completing word fragments. Experiment 2 examined the children's ability to judge and generate rhyming words, and…

  14. Reading Aloud Is Not Automatic: Processing Capacity Is Required to Generate a Phonological Code from Print

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Michael; Besner, Derek

    2006-01-01

    The present experiments tested the claim that phonological recoding occurs "automatically" by assessing whether it uses central attention in the context of the psychological refractory period paradigm. Task 1 was a tone discrimination task and Task 2 was reading aloud. The joint effects of long-lag word repetition priming and stimulus onset…

  15. Chinese Children's Character Recognition: Visuo-Orthographic, Phonological Processing and Morphological Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hong; Shu, Hua; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Peng, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Tasks tapping visual skills, orthographic knowledge, phonological awareness, speeded naming, morphological awareness and Chinese character recognition were administered to 184 kindergarteners and 273 primary school students from Beijing. Regression analyses indicated that only syllable deletion, morphological construction and speeded number naming…

  16. Semantic and Phonological Task-Set Priming and Stimulus Processing Investigated Using Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, F.; Rippon, G.; Hillebrand, A.; Singh, K. D.; Swithenby, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the neural substrates of semantic and phonological task priming and task performance were investigated using single word task-primes. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were analysed using Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry (SAM) to determine the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of cortical responses. Comparisons were made…

  17. Sequential Processing of Lexical, Grammatical, and Phonological Information Within Broca's Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ned T. Sahin; Steven Pinker; Sydney S. Cash; Donald Schomer; Eric Halgren

    2009-01-01

    Words, grammar, and phonology are linguistically distinct, yet their neural substrates are difficult to distinguish in macroscopic brain regions. We investigated whether they can be separated in time and space at the circuit level using intracranial electrophysiology (ICE), namely by recording local field potentials from populations of neurons using electrodes implanted in language-related brain regions while people read words verbatim

  18. A Dynamic Look at L2 Phonological Learning: Seeking Processing Explanations for Implicational Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Segalowitz, Norman

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether second language (L2) phonological learning can be characterized as a gradual and systematically patterned replacement of nonnative segments by native segments in learners' speech, conforming to a two-stage implicational scale. We adopt a dynamic approach to language variation based on Gatbonton's (1975, 1978)…

  19. Trajectories Emerging from Discrete versus Continuous Processing Models in Phonological Competitor Tasks: A Commentary on Spivey, Grosjean, and Knoblich (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Wel, Robrecht P. R. D.; Eder, Jeffrey R.; Mitchel, Aaron D.; Walsh, Matthew M.; Rosenbaum, David A.

    2009-01-01

    M. J. Spivey, M. Grosjean, and G. Knoblich (2005) showed that in a phonological competitor task, participants' mouse cursor movements showed more curvature toward the competitor item when the competitor and target were phonologically similar than when the competitor and target were phonologically dissimilar. Spivey et al. interpreted this result…

  20. Demonstrating the effects of phonological similarity and frequency on item and order memory in Down syndrome using process dissociation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth; Jarrold, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    It is important to distinguish between memory for item information and memory for order information when considering the nature of verbal short-term memory (vSTM) performance. Although other researchers have attempted to make this distinction between item and order memory in children, none has done so using process dissociation. This study shows that such an approach can be particularly useful and informative. Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) tend to experience a vSTM deficit. These two experiments explored whether phonological similarity (Experiment 1) and item frequency (Experiment 2) affected vSTM for item and order information in a group of individuals with DS compared with typically developing (TD) vocabulary-matched children. Process dissociation was used to obtain measures of item and order memory via Nairne and Kelley's procedure (Journal of Memory and Language, 50 (2004) 113-133). Those with DS were poorer than the matched TD group for recall of both item and order information. However, in both populations, phonologically similar items reduced order memory but enhanced item memory, whereas high-frequency items resulted in improvements in both item and order memory-effects that are in line with previous research in the adult literature. These results indicate that, despite poorer vSTM performance in DS, individuals experience phonological coding of verbal input and a contribution of long-term memory knowledge to recall. These findings inform routes for interventions for those with DS, highlighting the need to enhance both item and order memory. Moreover, this work demonstrates that process dissociation is applicable and informative for studying special populations and children. PMID:25089885

  1. The Nature of the Phonological Processing in French Dyslexic Children: Evidence for the Phonological Syllable and Linguistic Features' Role in Silent Reading and Speech Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the status of phonological representations in French dyslexic children (DY) compared with reading level- (RL) and chronological age-matched (CA) controls. We focused on the syllable's role and on the impact of French linguistic features. In Experiment 1, we assessed oral discrimination abilities of pairs of syllables that…

  2. Recognition of gated verbs by children with Grammatical-Specific Language Impairment: Effects of inflection and frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chloe R. Marshall

    2008-01-01

    A common feature of language disorders, particularly in English, is an impairment in inflectional morphology. One view claims that this deficit is caused by impaired speech processing and resulting impoverished phonological representations. We investigated the accuracy of spoken word recognition in Specific Language Impairment (SLI) using a successive forward gating paradigm, with target verbs manipulated for frequency and past tense

  3. Early Contribution of Phonological Awareness and Later Influence of Phonological Memory throughout Reading Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nithart, Christelle; Demont, Elisabeth; Metz-Lutz, Marie-Noelle; Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Leybaert, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of reading skills is known to rely on early phonological abilities, but only a few studies have investigated the independent contribution of the different steps involved in phonological processing. This 1-year longitudinal study, spanning the initial year of reading instruction, aimed at specifying the development of phonological

  4. Test Review: Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., & Pearson, N. A., "Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing-2nd Ed. (CTOPP-2)." Austin, Texas: Pro-Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Rachel H.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Tarar, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing-Second Edition (CTOPP-2; Wagner, Torgesen, Rashotte, & Pearson, 2013) is a norm-referenced test that measures phonological processing skills related to reading for individuals aged 4 to 24. According to its authors, the CTOPP-2 may be used to identify individuals who are markedly below their…

  5. Diagnostics of phonological lexical processing: Pseudohomophone naming advantages, disadvantages, and base-word frequency effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Borowsky; William J. Owen; Michael E. J. Masson

    2002-01-01

    Phonological lexical access has been investigated by examining both a pseudohomophone (e.g.,brane) base-word frequency effect and a pseudohomophone advantage over pronounceable nonwords (e.g.,frane) in a single mixed block of naming trials. With a new set of pseudohomophones and nonwords presented in a mixed block, we\\u000a replicated the standard finding in the naming literature: no reliable base-word frequency effect, and a

  6. The neural basis of inhibitory effects of semantic and phonological neighbors in spoken word production

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Graziano, Kristen M.

    2014-01-01

    Theories of word production and word recognition generally agree that multiple word candidates are activated during processing. The facilitative and inhibitory effects of these “lexical neighbors” have been studied extensively using behavioral methods and have spurred theoretical development in psycholinguistics, but relatively little is known about the neural basis of these effects and how lesions may affect them. The present study used voxel-wise lesion overlap subtraction to examine semantic and phonological neighbor effects in spoken word production following left hemisphere stroke. Increased inhibitory effects of near semantic neighbors were associated with inferior frontal lobe lesions, suggesting impaired selection among strongly activated semantically-related candidates. Increased inhibitory effects of phonological neighbors were associated with posterior superior temporal and inferior parietal lobe lesions. In combination with previous studies, these results suggest that such lesions cause phonological-to-lexical feedback to more strongly activate phonologically-related lexical candidates. The comparison of semantic and phonological neighbor effects and how they are affected by left hemisphere lesions provides new insights into the cognitive dynamics and neural basis of phonological, semantic, and cognitive control processes in spoken word production. PMID:23647518

  7. Recursion in phonology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maartje Schreuder; Dicky Gilbers; Hugo Quené

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates phonological recursion by means of early accent placement (stress shift), which marks the initial boundary of a phonological phrase. The question is whether or not this early pitch accent placement can be applied recursively to phonological phrases that are embedded in larger phonological phrases. This was investigated in a map task experiment, with various Dutch phonological phrases

  8. Current state of knowledge: perceptual processing by children with hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Jerger, Susan

    2007-12-01

    Perception concerns the identification and interpretation of sensory stimuli in our external environment. The purpose of this review is to survey contemporary views about effects of mild to severe sensorineural hearing impairment (HI) in children on perceptual processing. The review is one of a series of papers resulting from a workshop on Outcomes Research in Children with Hearing Loss sponsored by The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders/National Institutes of Health. Children with HI exhibit heterogeneous patterns of results. In general, however, perceptual processing of the (a) auditory properties of nonspeech reveals some problems in processing spectral information, but not temporal information; (b) auditory properties of speech reveals some problems in processing temporal sequences, variation in spatial location, and voice onset times, but not in processing talker-gender, weighting acoustic cues, or covertly orienting to the spatial location of sound; (c) linguistic properties of speech reveals some problems in processing general linguistic content, semantic content, and phonological content. The normalcy/abnormalcy of results varies as a function of degree of loss and task demands. As a general rule, children with severe HI have more abnormalities than children with mild to moderate HI. Auditory linguistic properties are also generally processed more abnormally than auditory nonverbal properties. This outcome implies that childhood HI has less effect on more physical, developmentally earlier properties that are characterized by less contingent processing. Some perceptual properties that are processed in a more automatic manner by normal listeners are processed in a more controlled manner by children with HI. This outcome implies that deliberate perceptual processing in the presence of childhood HI requires extra effort and more mental resources, thus limiting the availability of processing resources for other tasks. PMID:17982363

  9. Seriality of semantic and phonological processes during overt speech in Mandarin as revealed by event-related brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuebing; Damian, Markus F; Zhang, Qingfang

    2015-05-01

    How is information transmitted across semantic and phonological levels in spoken word production? Recent evidence from speakers of Western languages such as English and Dutch suggests non-discrete transmission, but it is not clear whether this view can be generalized to other languages such as Mandarin, given potential differences in phonological encoding across languages. The present study used Mandarin speakers and combined a behavioral picture-word interference task with event-related potentials. The design factorially crossed semantic and phonological relatedness. Results showed semantic and phonological effects both in behavioral and electrophysiological measurements, with statistical additivity in latencies, and discrete time signatures (250-450ms and 450-600ms after picture onset for the semantic and phonological condition, respectively). Overall, results suggest that in Mandarin spoken production, information is transmitted from semantic to phonological levels in a sequential fashion. Hence, temporal signatures associated with spoken word production might differ depending on target language. PMID:25880902

  10. A Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Verbal Short-Term Memory and Phonological Processing in 8-Year-Olds with a History of Repetitive Otitis Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Amand, Pierre; Boniver, Vincent; Demanez, Jean-Pierre; Demanez, Laurent; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Language outcome in children experiencing fluctuant hearing loss due to otitis media (OME) remains highly equivocal. In the current study, we assessed performance on highly sensitive verbal short-term memory (STM), new word learning and phonological processing tasks in 8-year-old children who had suffered from recurrent OME before the age of 3.…

  11. Strategic processing and episodic memory impairment in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Savage, C R; Deckersbach, T; Wilhelm, S; Rauch, S L; Baer, L; Reid, T; Jenike, M A

    2000-01-01

    There is evidence that nonverbal memory problems in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are mediated by impaired strategic processing. Although many studies have found verbal memory to be normal in OCD, these studies did not use tests designed to stress organizational strategies. This study examined verbal and nonverbal memory performance in 33 OCD patients and 30 normal control participants with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and the California Verbal Learning Test. OCD patients were impaired on verbal and nonverbal measures of organizational strategy and free recall. Multiple regression modeling indicated that free recall problems in OCD were mediated by impaired organizational strategies used during learning trials. Therefore, verbal and nonverbal episodic memory deficits in OCD are affected by impaired strategic processing. Results are consistent with neurobiological models proposing frontal-striatal system dysfunction in OCD. PMID:10674806

  12. The Role of Orthographic and Phonological Processing Skills in the Reading and Spelling of Monolingual Persian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahbari, Noriyeh; Senechal, Monique; Arab-Moghaddam, Narges

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of phonological and orthographic skills to Persian reading and spelling. The Persian language is of interest because it has very consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences, but somewhat inconsistent phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences. Reading, spelling, phonological, and…

  13. A Casual-Comparative Study of the Phonological Processing of Romanian and American Third-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winget, Cheryl McCowan

    2013-01-01

    When considering the most discernible indicator of dyslexia, most researchers have agreed that phonological awareness is perhaps the most pertinent sign (Gillon, 2004; Hallahan & Kauffman, 2006; Lyon, Shaywitz, & Shaywitz, 2003). However, is this true in languages other than English? How does orthography affect phonological

  14. Auditory sequence analysis and phonological skill

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Manon; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Cooper, Freya E.; Turton, Stuart; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    This work tests the relationship between auditory and phonological skill in a non-selected cohort of 238 school students (age 11) with the specific hypothesis that sound-sequence analysis would be more relevant to phonological skill than the analysis of basic, single sounds. Auditory processing was assessed across the domains of pitch, time and timbre; a combination of six standard tests of literacy and language ability was used to assess phonological skill. A significant correlation between general auditory and phonological skill was demonstrated, plus a significant, specific correlation between measures of phonological skill and the auditory analysis of short sequences in pitch and time. The data support a limited but significant link between auditory and phonological ability with a specific role for sound-sequence analysis, and provide a possible new focus for auditory training strategies to aid language development in early adolescence. PMID:22951739

  15. Phonological and Phonetic Biases in Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Michael Parrish

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how knowledge of phonological generalizations influences speech perception, with a particular focus on evidence that phonological processing is autonomous from (rather than interactive with) auditory processing. A model is proposed in which auditory cue constraints and markedness constraints interact to determine a…

  16. PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IN THE LAST 50 YEARS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Ladefoged

    In the last 50 years there have been steady gains in phonetic knowledge and punctuated equilibrium in phononological theories. Phonetics and phonology meet most obviously in the definition of the set of features used to describe phonological processes. The Jakobsonian statement of distinctive feature theory in the 1952 caused a paradigm shift in the relations between phonetics and phonology. Changes

  17. Modeling the Control of Phonological Encoding in Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…

  18. Neural deficits in second language reading: fMRI evidence from Chinese children with English reading impairment.

    PubMed

    You, Hanlin; Gaab, Nadine; Wei, Na; Cheng-Lai, Alice; Wang, Zhengke; Jian, Jie; Song, Meixia; Meng, Xiangzhi; Ding, Guosheng

    2011-08-01

    In alphabetic language systems, converging evidence indicates that developmental dyslexia represents a disorder of phonological processing both behaviorally and neurobiologically. However, it is still unknown whether, impaired phonological processing remains the core deficit of impaired English reading in individuals with English as their second language and how it is represented in the neural cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural responses to letter rhyming judgment (phonological task) and letter same/different judgment (orthographic task) in Chinese school children with English and Chinese reading impairment compared to typically developing children. Whole brain analyses with multiple comparison correction revealed reduced activation within the left lingual/calcarine gyrus during orthographic processing in children with reading impairment compared to typical readers. An independent region of interest analysis showed reduced activation in occipitotemporal regions during orthographic processing, and reduced activation in parietotemporal regions during phonological processing, consistent with previous studies in English native speakers. These results suggest that similar neural deficits are involved for impaired phonological processing in English as both the first and the second language acquired. These findings pose implications for reading remediation, educational curriculum design, and educational policy for second language learners. PMID:21146615

  19. Neural deficits in second language reading: fMRI evidence from Chinese children with English reading impairment

    PubMed Central

    You, Hanlin; Gaab, Nadine; Wei, Na; Cheng-Lai, Alice; Wang, Zhengke; Jian, Jie; Song, Meixia; Meng, Xiangzhi; Ding, Guosheng

    2012-01-01

    In alphabetic language systems, converging evidence indicates that developmental dyslexia represents a disorder of phonological processing both behaviorally and neurobiologically. However, it is still unknown whether, impaired phonological processing remains the core deficit of impaired English reading in individuals with English as their second language and how it is represented in the neural cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated the neural responses to letter rhyming judgment (phonological task) and letter same/different judgment (orthographic task) in Chinese school children with English and Chinese reading impairment compared to typically developing children. Whole brain analyses with multiple comparison correction revealed reduced activation within the left lingual/calcarine gyrus during orthographic processing in children with reading impairment compared to typical readers. An independent region of interest analysis showed reduced activation in occipitotemporal regions during orthographic processing, and reduced activation in parietotemporal regions during phonological processing, consistent with previous studies in English native speakers. These results suggest that similar neural deficits are involved for impaired phonological processing in English as both the first and the second language acquired. These findings pose implications for reading remediation, educational curriculum design, and educational policy for second language learners. PMID:21146615

  20. Prevalence and Profile of Phonological and Surface Subgroups in College Students With a History of Reading Disability.

    PubMed

    Birch, Stacy L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify and characterize surface and phonological subgroups of readers among college students with a prior diagnosis of developmental reading disability (RD). Using a speeded naming task derived from Castles and Coltheart's subtyping study, we identified subgroups of readers from among college students with RD and then compared them on a number of component reading tasks. Most of our adults with RD showed a discrepancy in lexical versus sublexical reading skills. The majority of classified individuals were in the phonological dyslexia group, and this group's performance was worse than that of other groups on a range of reading-related tasks. Specifically, being relatively less skilled at reading nonwords compared to irregular words was associated with deficits in both sublexical and lexical tasks, and with unique deficits compared to the surface dyslexia group not only in an independent measure of phonological coding but also in spelling, rapid automatized naming, and speeded oral reading. The surface dyslexia group was small, and the pattern of results for these readers was not consistent with the predicted profile of a specific deficit in lexical and automatized reading processes. Our surface group did not show reduced skill in lexical mechanisms specifically, nor any unique deficit compared to the phonological group. These results seem more supportive of models of reading that place phonological processing impairments at the core of RD, with all other impairments being clearly subsidiary. PMID:25297383

  1. Spelling English Words: Contributions of Phonological, Morphological and Orthographic Processing Skills of Turkish EFL Students in Grades 6-8 

    E-print Network

    Unal, Melike

    2014-11-12

    , and socio-cultural (SES) factors. The present study investigates the concurrent influence of multi-level metalinguistic skills including phonological, morphological, and orthographic knowledge in English as well as the impact of socio-cultural factors on EFL...

  2. The Word Complexity Measure: Description and Application to Developmental Phonology and Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Miccio's work included a number of articles on the assessment of phonology in children with phonological disorders, typically using measures of correct articulation, using the PCC, or analyses of errors, using the framework of phonological processes. This paper introduces an approach to assessing phonology by examining the phonetic complexity of…

  3. Phonological Processing of Second Language Phonemes: A Selective Deficit in a Bilingual Aphasic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eviatar, Zohar; Leikin, Mark; Ibrahim, Raphiq

    1999-01-01

    A case study of a Russian-Hebrew bilingual woman with transcortical sensory aphasia showed that overall, aphasic symptoms were similar in the two languages, with Hebrew somewhat more impaired. The woman revealed a difference in her ability to perceive phonemes in the context of Hebrew words that depended on whether they were presented in a Russian…

  4. The role of orthographic and phonological processing skills in the reading and spelling of monolingual Persian children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriyeh Rahbari; Monique Sénéchal; Narges Arab-Moghaddam

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of phonological and orthographic skills to Persian\\u000a reading and spelling. The Persian language is of interest because it has very consistent grapheme-to-phoneme correspondences,\\u000a but somewhat inconsistent phoneme-to-grapheme correspondences. Reading, spelling, phonological, and orthographic skills were\\u000a tested in a sample of 109 monolingual Persian students (mean age = 8;1, SD = 4 mo) attending

  5. The Link between Prosody and Language Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and/or Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, C. R.; Harcourt-Brown, S.; Ramus, F.; van der Lely, H. K. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) and dyslexia are known to have impairments in various aspects of phonology, which have been claimed to cause their language and literacy impairments. However, "phonology" encompasses a wide range of skills, and little is known about whether these phonological impairments extend to…

  6. Impaired allocentric spatial processing in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirsten V; Burgess, Neil; Brewin, Chris R; King, John A

    2015-03-01

    A neurobiological dual representation model of PTSD proposes that reduced hippocampus-dependent contextual processing contributes to intrusive imagery due to a loss of control over hippocampus-independent sensory and affective representations. We investigated whether PTSD sufferers show impaired allocentric spatial processing indicative of reduced hippocampal functioning. Trauma-exposed individuals with (N=29) and without (N=30) a diagnosis of PTSD completed two tests of spatial processing: a topographical recognition task comprising perceptual and memory components, and a test of memory for objects' locations within a virtual environment in which the test is from either the same viewpoint as presentation (solvable with egocentric memory) or a different viewpoint (requiring allocentric memory). Participants in the PTSD group performed significantly worse on allocentric spatial processing than trauma-exposed controls. Groups performed comparably on egocentric memory and non-spatial memory for lists of objects. Exposure to repeated incident trauma was also associated with significantly worse spatial processing in the PTSD group. Results show a selective impairment in allocentric spatial processing, implicating weak hippocampal functioning, as predicted by a neurobiological dual representation model of PTSD. These findings have important clinical implications for cognitive therapy. PMID:25636201

  7. Impaired allocentric spatial processing in posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kirsten V.; Burgess, Neil; Brewin, Chris R.; King, John A.

    2015-01-01

    A neurobiological dual representation model of PTSD proposes that reduced hippocampus-dependent contextual processing contributes to intrusive imagery due to a loss of control over hippocampus-independent sensory and affective representations. We investigated whether PTSD sufferers show impaired allocentric spatial processing indicative of reduced hippocampal functioning. Trauma-exposed individuals with (N = 29) and without (N = 30) a diagnosis of PTSD completed two tests of spatial processing: a topographical recognition task comprising perceptual and memory components, and a test of memory for objects’ locations within a virtual environment in which the test is from either the same viewpoint as presentation (solvable with egocentric memory) or a different viewpoint (requiring allocentric memory). Participants in the PTSD group performed significantly worse on allocentric spatial processing than trauma-exposed controls. Groups performed comparably on egocentric memory and non-spatial memory for lists of objects. Exposure to repeated incident trauma was also associated with significantly worse spatial processing in the PTSD group. Results show a selective impairment in allocentric spatial processing, implicating weak hippocampal functioning, as predicted by a neurobiological dual representation model of PTSD. These findings have important clinical implications for cognitive therapy. PMID:25636201

  8. Impaired tactile processing in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Puts, Nicolaas A J; Wodka, Ericka L; Tommerdahl, Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Edden, Richard A E

    2014-05-01

    Impaired responses to tactile stimulation are a commonly reported symptom among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Furthermore, impairments in filtering or habituation to tactile input have been described in ASD. This study measured different aspects of tactile processing to investigate atypical touch sensitivity in children with ASD, methodology that has not been previously used in this population. Sixty-seven typically developing children (TDC) and 32 children with ASD (ages 8-12) completed vibrotactile tasks assessing: reaction time (RT); static and dynamic detection threshold (DT); amplitude discrimination with and without single-site adaptation; frequency discrimination; and temporal order judgment (TOJ) with and without concurrent stimulation. Children with ASD showed raised static detection thresholds and an absence of the effect of a dynamically increasing subthreshold stimulus on static detection threshold. Children with ASD also showed poorer amplitude discrimination than TDC, as well as decreased adaptation. There were no significant differences in frequency discrimination or TOJ performance between the groups. Differences in the effect of dynamic stimulation on detection threshold suggest impaired feed-forward inhibition in autism, which may be linked to poor sensory filtering. Increased baseline amplitude discrimination thresholds in ASD suggest that lateral inhibitory connections are weaker in ASD, and an absence of the effect of adaptation suggests impaired modulation of lateral inhibitory connections in ASD, which may relate to aberrant habituation. These results suggest a functional deficit in the somatosensory inhibitory system in autism. Understanding the specific mechanisms underlying sensory symptoms in autism may allow for more specific therapeutic or drug targeting in the near future. PMID:24523518

  9. Phonological Processing Deficits and the Acquisition of the Alphabetic Principle in a Severely Delayed Reader: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Catherine G.; Drover, James; Dyck, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    At the end of first grade, TM did not know the alphabet and could read no words. He could not tap syllables in words, had difficulty producing rhyming words and retrieving the phonological representations of words, and he could not discriminate many phoneme contrasts. He learned letter-sound correspondences first for single-consonant onsets and…

  10. Phonological Activation of Category Coordinates during Speech Planning is Observable in Children but Not in Adults: Evidence for Cascaded Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Hahne, Anja; Hoffmann, Stefanie; Wagner, Valentin

    2006-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate in the area of speech production on the question of whether only words selected for articulation are phonologically activated (as maintained by serial-discrete models) or whether this is also true for their semantic competitors (as maintained by forward-cascading and interactive models). Past research has addressed…

  11. Left and right basal ganglia and frontal activity during language generation: Contributions to lexical, semantic, and phonological processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUCE CROSSON; HOPE BENEFIELD; M. ALLISON CATO; JOSEPH R. SADEK; ANNA BACON MOORE; CHRISTINA E. WIERENGA; KAUNDINYA GOPINATH; DAVID SOLTYSIK; RUSSELL M. BAUER; EDWARD J. AUERBACH; DIDEM GÖKÇAY; CHRISTIANA M. LEONARD; RICHARD W. BRIGGS

    2003-01-01

    f MRI was used to determine the frontal, basal ganglia, and thalamic structures engaged by three facets of language generation: lexical status of generated items, the use of semantic vs. phonological information during language generation, and rate of generation. During f MRI, 21 neurologically normal subjects performed four tasks: generation of nonsense syllables given beginning and ending consonant blends, generation

  12. Spelling English Words: Contributions of Phonological, Morphological and Orthographic Processing Skills of Turkish EFL Students in Grades 6-8

    E-print Network

    Unal, Melike

    2014-11-12

    spelling of Turkish 6th, 7th, and 8th grade pupils (N= 367). Measures tapping phonological, morphological, and orthographic skills in English (L2) and a background questionnaire were administered to Turkish 6th to 8th grade EFL children recruited...

  13. The phonetics of metrical prominence and its consequences on segmental phonology

    E-print Network

    Giavazzi, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Only very few phonological processes are reported to be conditioned by stress. There are two major patterns of stress-sensitive processes: segments are lengthened under stress, and vowels become louder. Two other phonological ...

  14. The Contribution of Processing Impairments to SLI: Insights from Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oram Cardy, Janis E.; Tannock, Rosemary; Johnson, Andrew M.; Johnson, Carla J.

    2010-01-01

    Slowed speed of processing and impaired rapid temporal processing (RTP) have been proposed to underlie specific language impairment (SLI), but it is not clear that these dysfunctions are unique to SLI. We considered the contribution of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which frequently co-occurs with language impairments, to…

  15. Poorer results of mice with latent toxoplasmosis in learning tests: impaired learning processes or the

    E-print Network

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    Poorer results of mice with latent toxoplasmosis in learning tests: impaired learning processes host. Among other changes, the infected rodents were shown to have impaired learning capability. All the observed impairment of learning processes was a result of acute or latent toxoplasmosis, i.e. whether

  16. Representing the Environments for Phonological Processes in an Accent-Independent Lexicon for Synthesis of English 

    E-print Network

    Fitt, Susan; Isard, Stephen

    This paper reports on work developing an accent-independent lexicon for use in synthesising speech in English. Developing a lexicon for a new accent is a long process, and one potential solution to this problem involves ...

  17. Re-Evaluating the Time Course of Gender and Phonological Encoding during Silent Monitoring Tasks Estimated by ERP: Serial or Parallel Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camen, Christian; Morand, Stephanie; Laganaro, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Neurolinguistic and psycholinguistic studies suggest that grammatical (gender) and phonological information are retrieved independently and that gender can be accessed before phonological information. This study investigated the relative time courses of gender and phonological encoding using topographic evoked potentials mapping methods.…

  18. Reading and phonological skills in boys with fragile x syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W; Mirrett, Penny L; Hatton, Deborah D; Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Jane E; Bailey, Donald B

    2015-06-01

    Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in standardized assessments of reading and phonological skills. Phonological skills were impaired in FXS, while reading was on-par with that of controls. Phonological awareness predicted reading ability and ASD severity predicted poorer phonological abilities in FXS. Boys with FXS are capable of attaining reading skills that are commensurate with developmental level and phonological awareness skills may play a critical role in reading achievement in FXS. PMID:25448919

  19. Effects of phonological and semantic deficits on facilitative and inhibitory consequences of item repetition in spoken word comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Mirman, Daniel; Britt, Allison E.; Chen, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Repeating a word can have both facilitative and inhibitory effects on subsequent processing. The present study investigated these dynamics by examining the facilitative and inhibitory consequences of different kinds of item repetition in two individuals with aphasia and a group of neurologically intact control participants. The two individuals with aphasia were matched on overall aphasia severity, but had deficits at different levels of processing: one with a phonological deficit and spared semantic processing, the other with a semantic deficit and spared phonological processing. Participants completed a spoken word-to-picture matching task in which they had to pick which of four object images matched the spoken word. The trials were grouped into pairs such that exactly two objects from the first trial in a pair were present on screen during the second trial in the pair. When the second trial's target was the same as the first trial's target, compared to control participants, both participants with aphasia exhibited equally larger repetition priming effects. When the second trial's target was one of the new items, the participant with a phonological deficit exhibited a significantly more negative effect (i.e., second trial response slower than first trial response) than the control participants and the participant with a semantic deficit. Simulations of a computational model confirmed that this pattern of results could arise from (1) normal residual activation being functionally more significant when overall lexical processing is slower and (2) residual phonological activation of the previous trial's target having a particularly strong inhibitory effect specifically when phonological processing is impaired because the task was phonologically-driven (the spoken input specified the target). These results provide new insights into perseveration errors and lexical access deficits in aphasia. PMID:23770302

  20. Impairment of the face processing network in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Galia; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current paper is to review recent findings concerning the neural basis of congenital prosopagnosia (CP), a lifelong impairment in face processing that occurs in the absence of explicit brain damage. As such, CP offers a unique model for exploring the psychological and neural bases of normal face processing. We start by providing background about face perception and representation, and then review behavioral evidence gleaned from individuals with CP. We then review recent functional and structural neural investigations which offer a comprehensive account of the mechanisms underlying CP and support a characterization of this impairment as a disconnection syndrome rather than as a syndrome related to focal brain malfunction. We end the paper by offering a general framework for CP which, we believe, best integrates the behavioral and neural findings, and offers a platform for generating hypotheses for future studies. There remain many open issues in our understanding of CP and, to address these unanswered questions, we lay out several future research directions and testable hypotheses for further investigation. PMID:24896205

  1. Sub-Lexical Phonological and Semantic Processing of Semantic Radicals: A Primed Naming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lin; Peng, Gang; Zheng, Hong-Ying; Su, I-Fan; Wang, William S.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Most sinograms (i.e., Chinese characters) are phonograms (phonetic compounds). A phonogram is composed of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical, with the former usually implying the meaning of the phonogram, and the latter providing cues to its pronunciation. This study focused on the sub-lexical processing of semantic radicals which are…

  2. Short-Term and Working Memory Skills in Primary School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment and Children with Pragmatic Language Impairment: Phonological, Linguistic and Visuo-Spatial Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freed, Jenny; Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) are consistently reported to have short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) difficulties. Aim: To compare STM and WM abilities in CwSLI with children with pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI). Methods & Procedures: Primary school-aged CwSLI (n = 12) and CwPLI (n = 23) were…

  3. Developmental differences in the influence of phonological similarity on spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese.

    PubMed

    Malins, Jeffrey G; Gao, Danqi; Tao, Ran; Booth, James R; Shu, Hua; Joanisse, Marc F; Liu, Li; Desroches, Amy S

    2014-11-01

    The developmental trajectory of spoken word recognition has been well established in Indo-European languages, but to date remains poorly characterized in Mandarin Chinese. In this study, typically developing children (N=17; mean age 10; 5) and adults (N=17; mean age 24) performed a picture-word matching task in Mandarin while we recorded ERPs. Mismatches diverged from expectations in different components of the Mandarin syllable; namely, word-initial phonemes, word-final phonemes, and tone. By comparing responses to different mismatch types, we uncovered evidence suggesting that both children and adults process words incrementally. However, we also observed key developmental differences in how subjects treated onset and rime mismatches. This was taken as evidence for a stronger influence of top-down processing on spoken word recognition in adults compared to children. This work therefore offers an important developmental component to theories of Mandarin spoken word recognition. PMID:25278419

  4. Altered neuronal response during rapid auditory processing and its relation to phonological processing in prereading children at familial risk for dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Raschle, Nora M; Stering, Patrice L; Meissner, Sarah N; Gaab, Nadine

    2014-09-01

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a learning disability affecting 5-17% of children. Although researchers agree that DD is characterized by deficient phonological processing (PP), its cause is debated. It has been suggested that altered rapid auditory processing (RAP) may lead to deficient PP in DD and studies have shown deficient RAP in individuals with DD. Functional neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have implicated hypoactivations in left prefrontal brain regions during RAP in individuals with DD. When and how these neuronal alterations evolve remains unknown. In this article, we investigate functional networks during RAP in 28 children with (n = 14) and without (n = 14) a familial risk for DD before reading onset (mean: 5.6 years). Results reveal functional alterations in left-hemispheric prefrontal regions during RAP in prereading children at risk for DD, similar to findings in individuals with DD. Furthermore, activation during RAP in left prefrontal regions positively correlates with prereading measures of PP and with neuronal activation during PP in posterior dorsal and ventral brain areas. Our results suggest that neuronal differences during RAP predate reading instruction and thus are not due to experience-dependent brain changes resulting from DD itself and that there is a functional relationship between neuronal networks for RAP and PP within the prereading brain. PMID:23599167

  5. Parental phonological memory contributes to prediction of outcome of late talkers from 20 months to 4 years: a longitudinal study of precursors of specific language impairment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many children who are late talkers go on to develop normal language, but others go on to have longer-term language difficulties. In this study, we considered which factors were predictive of persistent problems in late talkers. Methods Parental report of expressive vocabulary at 18 months of age was used to select 26 late talkers and 70 average talkers, who were assessed for language and cognitive ability at 20 months of age. Follow-up at 4 years of age was carried out for 24 late and 58 average talkers. A psychometric test battery was used to categorize children in terms of language status (unimpaired or impaired) and nonverbal ability (normal range or more than 1 SD below average). The vocabulary and non-word repetition skills of the accompanying parent were also assessed. Results Among the late talkers, seven (29%) met our criteria for specific language impairment (SLI) at 4 years of age, and a further two (8%) had low nonverbal ability. In the group of average talkers, eight (14%) met the criteria for SLI at 4 years, and five other children (8%) had low nonverbal ability. Family history of language problems was slightly better than late-talker status as a predictor of SLI.. The best predictors of SLI at 20 months of age were score on the receptive language scale of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the parent's performance on a non-word repetition task. Maternal education was not a significant predictor of outcome. Conclusions In this study, around three-quarters of late talkers did not have any language difficulties at 4 years of age, provided there was no family history of language impairment. A family history of language-literacy problems was found to be a significant predictor for persisting problems. Nevertheless, there are children with SLI for whom prediction is difficult because they did not have early language delay. PMID:22958373

  6. Community structure in the phonological network

    PubMed Central

    Siew, Cynthia S. Q.

    2013-01-01

    Community structure, which refers to the presence of densely connected groups within a larger network, is a common feature of several real-world networks from a variety of domains such as the human brain, social networks of hunter-gatherers and business organizations, and the World Wide Web (Porter et al., 2009). Using a community detection technique known as the Louvain optimization method, 17 communities were extracted from the giant component of the phonological network described in Vitevitch (2008). Additional analyses comparing the lexical and phonological characteristics of words in these communities against words in randomly generated communities revealed several novel discoveries. Larger communities tend to consist of short, frequent words of high degree and low age of acquisition ratings, and smaller communities tend to consist of longer, less frequent words of low degree and high age of acquisition ratings. Real communities also contained fewer different phonological segments compared to random communities, although the number of occurrences of phonological segments found in real communities was much higher than that of the same phonological segments in random communities. Interestingly, the observation that relatively few biphones occur very frequently and a large number of biphones occur rarely within communities mirrors the pattern of the overall frequency of words in a language (Zipf, 1935). The present findings have important implications for understanding the dynamics of activation spread among words in the phonological network that are relevant to lexical processing, as well as understanding the mechanisms that underlie language acquisition and the evolution of language. PMID:23986735

  7. Repetition priming in oral text reading: a therapeutic strategy for phonologic text alexia.

    PubMed

    Lott, Susan Nitzberg; Sperling, Anne J; Watson, Nora L; Friedman, Rhonda B

    2009-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Phonologic text alexia (PhTA) is a reading disorder in which reading of pseudowords is impaired, but reading of real words is impaired only when reading text. Oral reading accuracy remains well preserved when words are presented individually, but when presented in text the part-of-speech effect that is often seen in phonologic alexia (PhA) emerges. AIMS: To determine whether repetition priming could strengthen and/or maintain the activation of words during text reading. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: We trained NYR, a patient with PhTA, to use a strategy, Sentence Building, designed to improve accuracy of reading words in text. The strategy required NYR to first read the initial word, and then build up the sentence by adding on sequential words, in a step-wise manner, utilizing the benefits of repetition priming to enhance accuracy. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: When using the strategy, NYR displayed improved accuracy not only for sentences she practiced using the strategy, but unpracticed sentences as well. Additionally, NYR performed better on a test of comprehension when using the strategy, as compared to without the strategy. CONCLUSIONS: In light of research linking repetition priming to increased neural processing efficiency, our results suggest that use of this compensatory strategy improves reading accuracy and comprehension by temporarily boosting phonologic activation levels. PMID:20664804

  8. Dystypia: isolated typing impairment without aphasia, apraxia or visuospatial impairment.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Mika; Soma, Yoshiaki; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term 'dystypia' for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient's typing impairment was not attributable to a disturbance of the linguistic process, since he had no aphasia or agraphia. The impairment was not attributable to the impairment of the motor execution process either, since he had no apraxia. Thus, his typing impairment was deduced to be based on a disturbance of the intermediate process where the linguistic phonological information is converted into the corresponding performance. We hypothesized that there is a specific process for typing which branches from the motor programming process presented in neurolinguistic models. The foot of the left second frontal convolution and the operculum may play an important role in the manifestation of 'dystypia'. PMID:11914550

  9. Efficacy and Cross-Domain Effects of a Morphosyntax and a Phonology Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Ann A.; Lewis, Kerry E.; Haskill, Allison; Tolbert, Leslie C.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty preschoolers with impairments in both morphosyntax and phonology were assigned to an intervention of two 12-week blocks beginning with either a block of phonology first (n=10) or a block of morphosyntax first (n=10). Both interventions were effective. The morphosyntax first sequence led to slightly better overall morphosyntactic…

  10. Phonological Repetition-Suppression in Bilateral Superior Temporal Sulci

    PubMed Central

    Vaden, Kenneth I.; Muftuler, L. Tugan; Hickok, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated that posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is critically involved in phonological processing during speech perception, although there are conflicting accounts regarding the degree of lateralization. The current fMRI experiment aimed to identify phonological processing during speech perception through repetition-suppression effects. Repetition-suppression occurs when brain activity decreases from repetitive presentation of stimulus characteristics, in regions of cortex that process those characteristics. We manipulated the degree of phonological repetition among words in short lists to obtain systematic decreases in brain response, indicative of phonological processing. The fMRI experiment presented seventeen participants with recorded wordlists, of low, medium, or high phonological repetition, defined by how many phonemes were shared among words. Bilaterally, middle STS demonstrated activity differences consistent with our prediction of repetition-suppression, as responses decreased systematically with each increase in phonological repetition. Phonological repetition-suppression in bilateral STS converges with neuroimaging evidence for phonological processing, and word deafness resulting from bilateral superior temporal lesions. PMID:19651222

  11. The Development of Orthographic and Phonological Strategies for the Decoding of Words in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Frances; Claydon, Elizabeth; Morton, Adam; Binns, Sonia; Pratt, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Examines the use of orthographic and phonological deletion strategies by children in the 6-16 year age range. Reveals that younger readers were more accurate when using phonological strategies than when using orthographic strategies, whereas older readers showed superior orthographic and phonological processing abilities. Supports the suggestion…

  12. Conceptual Coherence Affects Phonological Activation of Context Objects during Object Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Schriefers, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    In 4 picture-word interference experiments, speakers named a target object that was presented with a context object. Using auditory distractors that were phonologically related or unrelated either to the target object or the context object, the authors assessed whether phonological processing was confined to the target object or not. Phonological

  13. Phonological Skills and Vocabulary Knowledge Mediate Socioeconomic Status Effects in Predicting Reading Outcomes for Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and…

  14. Learning Novel Words: Detail and Vulnerability of Initial Representations for Children with Specific Language Impairment and Typically Developing Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Mary; Suddarth, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the phonological representations that children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers (TD) have during the initial process of word learning. The goals of this study were to determine if children with SLI attended to different components of words than peers, and whether they were more vulnerable…

  15. Evidence for Right Hemisphere Phonology in a Backward Masking Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halderman, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which orthographic and phonological processes are available during the initial moments of word recognition within each hemisphere is under specified, particularly for the right hemisphere. Few studies have investigated whether each hemisphere uses orthography and phonology under constraints that restrict the viewing time of words and…

  16. On the Nature of Phonological Assembly: Evidence from Backward Masking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Conrad; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2002-01-01

    Used backward masking paradigm to investigate nature and time course of phonological assembly. Two experiments examined to what extent phonological assembly is a serial process. One showed recognition rates in a backward masking task varied as a function of the serial position of phonemes that were shared between backward masks and target words;…

  17. Englishization of Yoruba Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ufomata, Titilayo

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of the phonological influence of English on Yoruba found such influences as violation of phonotactic constraints, assimilation of English sounds with those of Yoruba sounds, irregular phoneme correspondences, and resistance to new syllable types. (19 references) (Author/CB)

  18. The Role of Phonological Short-Term Memory in Syntactic Parsing: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romani, Cristina

    1994-01-01

    Describes memory task performance of a 50-year-old female with a phonological short-term memory (STM) impairment. The patient showed a deficit of syntactic parsing restricted to the auditory modality, possibility because of an impaired STM and an impaired syntactic parser. Test material and results are appended. (Contains 39 references.) (Author)

  19. Genetic Covariation Underlying Reading, Language and Related Measures in a Sample Selected for Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Jessica; Petrill, Stephen A.; Flax, Judy; Justice, Laura M.; Hou, Liping; Bassett, Anne S.; Tallal, Paula; Brzustowicz, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    Specific language impairment is a developmental language disorder characterized by failure to develop language normally in the absence of a specific cause. Previous twin studies have documented the heritability of reading and language measures as well as the genetic correlation between those measures. This paper presents results from an alternative to the classical twin designs by estimating heritability from extended pedigrees. These pedigrees were previously studied as part of series of molecular genetic studies of specific language impairment where the strongest genetic findings were with reading phenotypes rather than language despite selecting pedigrees based on language impairments. To explore the relationship between reading and language in these pedigrees, variance components estimates of heritability of reading and language measures were conducted showing general agreement with the twin literature, as were genetics correlations between reading and language. Phonological short-term memory, phonological awareness and auditory processing were evaluated as candidate mediators of the reading-language genetic correlations. Only phonological awareness showed significant genetic correlations with all reading measures and several language measures while phonological short-term memory and auditory processing did not. PMID:21193955

  20. Contrasting Effects of Phonological Priming in Aphasic Word Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilshire, Carolyn E.; Saffran, Eleanor M.

    2005-01-01

    Two fluent aphasics, IG and GL, performed a phonological priming task in which they repeated an auditory prime then named a target picture. The two patients both had selective deficits in word production: they were at or near ceiling on lexical comprehension tasks, but were significantly impaired in picture naming. IG's naming errors included both…

  1. On the role of phonological short-term memory in sentence processing: ERP single case evidence on modality-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Kotz, Sonja A; von Cramon, Yves D; Friederici, Angela D

    2005-01-01

    The present study explored a possible interaction between distinct language processes and components of phonological short-term memory (pSTM) in a patient with a pSTM profile. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while HG and age-matched controls engaged in auditory and visual sentence correctness tasks. Stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was varied in the visual modality. Controls showed an early anterior negativity followed by a P600 for syntactic violations and an N400 for semantic violations in the auditory and the short visual SOA condition. In the long visual SOA condition only a P600 and an N400 were observed. Across all tasks, HG displayed a comparable early anterior negativity and N400 pattern to controls. However, the P600 was replaced by a centro-parietal negativity (500-800 ms) that was followed by a very late positivity (900-1300 ms) in the visual modality, indicating that late syntactic processes are sensitive to SOA manipulation. This result implies that the cortical regions lesioned in HG may be part of a neural network that engages the pSTM system during "temporally variable" late syntactic processing in the visual modality. The combined results indicate that the pSTM system differentially impacts semantic and late syntactic processes. PMID:21038285

  2. Neonatal nicotine exposure impairs nicotinic enhancement of central auditory processing and auditory learning in

    E-print Network

    Weinberger, Norman M.

    Neonatal nicotine exposure impairs nicotinic enhancement of central auditory processing. Clinical studies have implicated developmental exposure to nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient an animal model to determine how neonatal nicotine exposure affects adult auditory function. In adult

  3. Understanding the nature of face processing impairment in autism: insights from behavioral and electrophysiological studies.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara Jane; McPartland, James

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews behavioral and electrophysiological studies of face processing and discusses hypotheses for understanding the nature of face processing impairments in autism. Based on results of behavioral studies, this study demonstrates that individuals with autism have impaired face discrimination and recognition and use atypical strategies for processing faces characterized by reduced attention to the eyes and piecemeal rather than configural strategies. Based on results of electrophysiological studies, this article concludes that face processing impairments are present early in autism, by 3 years of age. Such studies have detected abnormalities in both early (N170 reflecting structural encoding) and late (NC reflecting recognition memory) stages of face processing. Event-related potential studies of young children and adults with autism have found slower speed of processing of faces, a failure to show the expected speed advantage of processing faces versus nonface stimuli, and atypical scalp topography suggesting abnormal cortical specialization for face processing. Other electrophysiological studies have suggested that autism is associated with early and late stage processing impairments of facial expressions of emotion (fear) and decreased perceptual binding as reflected in reduced gamma during face processing. This article describes two types of hypotheses-cognitive/perceptual and motivational/affective--that offer frameworks for understanding the nature of face processing impairments in autism. This article discusses implications for intervention. PMID:15843104

  4. A dual-route perspective on poor reading in a regular orthography: Evidence from phonological and orthographic lexical decisions

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Jürgen; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Impairments of the lexical and the nonlexical reading route were examined for German-speaking dyslexic readers by measuring accuracy and speed of phonological and orthographic lexical decisions. Different from English-based findings, we found little difficulty with the phonological distinction between pseudohomophones and nonwords, but a major difficulty with the orthographic distinction between words and pseudohomophones. Subtyping identified pure surface dyslexia cases but no case of pure phonological dyslexia. Dyslexic speed impairments were traced to three loci in the dual-route model: an impoverished orthographic lexicon, slow access from orthographic to phonological lexicon entries (lexical route) and from graphemes to phonemes (nonlexical route). A review of distal cognitive deficits suggested that the orthographic lexicon is affected by phonological deficits and that the slow functioning of the lexical and the nonlexical route reflects a general visual-verbal speed impairment and not a purely visual-attentional deficit. PMID:18642138

  5. Language and Learning in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: Syntactic Processing and the Role of Phonological Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, Sara T.

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability. Most boys with fragile X syndrome have impaired cognition and language deficits, with significant within-syndrome variability. Syntax may be especially delayed relative to nonverbal cognition; however, little is known about the specificity of delay, the sources of that…

  6. Impaired processing of binaural temporal cues to auditory scene analysis in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Natasha; Todd, Juanita; Mannion, Damien J; Finnigan, Simon; Catts, Stanley; Michie, Patricia T

    2013-05-01

    It is well established that individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate alterations in auditory perception beginning at the very earliest stages of information processing. However, it is not clear how these impairments in basic information processing translate into high-order cognitive deficits. Auditory scene analysis allows listeners to group auditory information into meaningful objects, and as such provides an important link between low-level auditory processing and higher cognitive abilities. In the present study we investigated whether low-level impairments in the processing of binaural temporal information impact upon auditory scene analysis ability. Binaural temporal processing ability was investigated in 19 individuals with schizophrenia and 19 matched controls. Individuals with schizophrenia showed impaired binaural temporal processing ability on an inter-aural time difference (ITD) discrimination task. In addition, patients demonstrated impairment in two measures of auditory scene analysis. Specifically, patients had reduced ability to use binaural temporal cues to extract signal from noise in a masking level difference paradigm, and to separate the location of a source sound in the presence of an echo in the precedence effect paradigm. These findings demonstrate that individuals with schizophrenia have impairments in the accuracy with which simple binaural temporal information is encoded in the auditory system, and furthermore, this impairment has functional consequences in terms of the use of these cues to extract information in complex auditory environments. PMID:23466188

  7. Language evolution: syntax before phonology?

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Katie; Bickel, Balthasar; van Schaik, Carel P.; Manser, Marta B.; Townsend, Simon W.

    2014-01-01

    Phonology and syntax represent two layers of sound combination central to language's expressive power. Comparative animal studies represent one approach to understand the origins of these combinatorial layers. Traditionally, phonology, where meaningless sounds form words, has been considered a simpler combination than syntax, and thus should be more common in animals. A linguistically informed review of animal call sequences demonstrates that phonology in animal vocal systems is rare, whereas syntax is more widespread. In the light of this and the absence of phonology in some languages, we hypothesize that syntax, present in all languages, evolved before phonology. PMID:24943364

  8. Phonological Awareness for American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…

  9. Learning Phonological Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, John; Xanthos, Aris

    2009-01-01

    This article describes in detail several explicit computational methods for approaching such questions in phonology as the vowel/consonant distinction, the nature of vowel harmony systems, and syllable structure, appealing solely to distributional information. Beginning with the vowel/consonant distinction, we consider a method for its discovery…

  10. Aspects of Phonological Fusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, James E.

    1975-01-01

    Phonological fusion occurs when the phonemes of two different speech stimuli are combined into a new percept that is longer and linguistically more complex than either of the two inputs. The present article is an investigation of the conditions necessary and sufficient for fusion to occur. (Editor/RK)

  11. Profiles of Impaired, Spared, and Recovered Neuropsychological Processes in Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Valmas, Mary M.; Sawyer, Kayle S.; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Luhar, Riya B.; Gravitz, Zoe R.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term chronic alcoholism is associated with disparate and widespread residual consequences for brain functioning and behavior, and alcoholics suffer a variety of cognitive deficiencies and emotional abnormalities. Alcoholism has heterogeneous origins and outcomes, depending upon factors such as family history, age, gender, and mental or physical health. Consequently, the neuropsychological profiles associated with alcoholism are not uniform among individuals. Moreover, within and across research studies, variability among participants is substantial and contributes to characteristics associated with differential treatment outcomes after detoxification. In order to refine our understanding of alcoholism-related impaired, spared, and recovered abilities, we focus on five specific functional domains: (1) memory, (2) executive functions, (3) emotion and psychosocial skills, (4) visuospatial cognition, and (5) psychomotor abilities. The brain systems that are most vulnerable to alcoholism are the frontocerebellar and mesocorticolimbic circuitries. Over time, with abstinence from alcohol, the brain appears to become reorganized to provide compensation for structural and behavioral deficits. By relying on a combination of clinical and scientific approaches, future research will help to refine the compensatory roles of healthy brain systems, the degree to which abstinence and treatment facilitate the reversal of brain atrophy and dysfunction, and the importance of individual differences to outcome. PMID:25307576

  12. Ophthalmological, Cognitive, Electrophysiological and MRI Assessment of Visual Processing in Preterm Children without Major Neuromotor Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Michelle; Vollmer, Brigitte; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Neville, Brian; Connelly, Alan; Wyatt, John; Timms, Chris; De Haan, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Many studies report chronic deficits in visual processing in children born preterm. We investigated whether functional abnormalities in visual processing exist in children born preterm but without major neuromotor impairment (i.e. cerebral palsy). Twelve such children (less than 33 weeks gestation or birthweight less than 1000 g) without major…

  13. Visuo-Spatial Processing and Executive Functions in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Klara

    2008-01-01

    Background: Individual differences in complex working memory tasks reflect simultaneous processing, executive functions, and attention control. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show a deficit in verbal working memory tasks that involve simultaneous processing of information. Aims: The purpose of the study was to examine executive…

  14. Decision-Making Process of Family Caregivers Regarding Placement of a Cognitively Impaired Elderly Relative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine Ducharme; Mélanie Couture; Julie Lamontagne

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory served to develop a model of the family caregiver decision-making process regarding placement of a cognitively impaired elderly relative. Eighteen caregivers were interviewed every six months over an average 20 months. Results show the process is activated when the caregiver or a healthcare professional introduces the possibility of placement. The caregiver's assessment of the pros and cons of

  15. Real-Time Language Processing in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Background:School-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit slower real-time (i.e. immediate) language processing relative to same-age peers and younger, language-matched peers. Results of the few studies that have been done seem to indicate that the slower language processing of children with SLI is due to inefficient…

  16. Let's face it: facial emotion processing is impaired in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Van Rheenen, Tamsyn Elizabeth; Rossell, Susan Lee

    2014-02-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have difficulty in recognizing and discriminating facial emotions. However, beyond this broad finding, existing literature is equivocal about the specific nature of impairments, and progress toward adequately profiling facial emotion processing in BD is hampered by methodological inconsistencies. The current study aimed to advance the literature by comparing 50 BD patients and 52 controls on a series of facial emotion processing tasks. Results indicated that patients with BD had a small, yet consistent impairment in emotion processing overall. This impairment did not vary as a function of specific emotions, tasks, or intensities between groups, and was not influenced by current mood state. These results suggest that past inconsistencies in the literature are unlikely to be attributable to task related artifacts influencing the estimation of an effect. These findings add to our understanding of social cognition in BD, and have important implications for clinicians treating patients with the disorder. PMID:24423084

  17. Perception of Temporally Processed Speech by Listeners with Hearing Impairment

    E-print Network

    Carney, Laurel H.

    judgments were obtained at different strengths of SPC processing. Design: Fifteen listeners, 12-processing style (or phenomenological) physiological models of the audi- tory system (e.g., Heinz, Zhang, Bruce, 1995; Florentine, Buus, Scharf, & Zwicker, 1980; Leek & Summers, 1993; Moore, 1985; Moore, Vickers

  18. Effects of Onset Density in Preschool Children: Implications for Development of Phonological Awareness and Phonological Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Judith G.; Mann, Virginia A.

    2009-01-01

    Neighborhood density influences adult performance on several word processing tasks. Some studies show age-related effects of density on children's performance, reflecting a developmental restructuring of the mental lexicon from holistic into segmental representations that may play a role in phonological awareness. To further investigate density…

  19. Beyond phonological and morphological processing: pure copying as a marker of dyslexia in Chinese but not poor reading of English.

    PubMed

    Kalindi, Sylvia Chanda; McBride, Catherine; Tong, Xiuhong; Wong, Natalie Lok Yee; Chung, Kien Hoa Kevin; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2015-07-01

    To examine cognitive correlates of dyslexia in Chinese and reading difficulties in English as a foreign language, a total of 14 Chinese dyslexic children (DG), 16 poor readers of English (PE), and 17 poor readers of both Chinese and English (PB) were compared to a control sample (C) of 17 children, drawn from a statistically representative sample of 177 second graders. Children were tested on pure copying of unfamiliar stimuli, rapid automatized naming (RAN), phoneme deletion, syllable deletion, and morphological awareness. With children's ages and Raven's nonverbal reasoning statistically controlled, the PE and PB groups were significantly lower than the C group on phoneme deletion and RAN tasks, while the DG performed significantly better than the PB group on the RAN task. The copying task distinguished the DG group from the C group. Findings particularly highlight the importance of phoneme awareness for word reading in English (but not Chinese), the potential need for fluency training for children with reading difficulties in both Chinese and English, and the important role that copying skills could have specifically in understanding impairment of literacy skills in Chinese (but not English). PMID:25876887

  20. Understanding Phonological Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Dissociation of Short-Term Storage and Articulatory Rehearsal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Jennifer; Rapport, Mark D.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study dissociated and examined the two primary components of the phonological working memory subsystem--the short-term store and articulatory rehearsal mechanism--in boys with ADHD (n = 18) relative to typically developing boys (n = 15). Word lists of increasing length (2, 4, and 6 words per trial) were presented to and recalled by…

  1. What Is the Role of Working Memory in Reading Relative to the Big Three Processing Variables (Orthography, Phonology, and Rapid Naming)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, R. Steve; Bell, Sherry Mee; Wood, Margaret Scruggs; Below, Jaime L.; Choate, Stephani M.; McCane, Sara J.

    2006-01-01

    Zero-order correlation coefficients show significant relationships between orthography, phonology, rapid naming, visual and auditory memory, and reading and spelling for 143 second through sixth graders. Although coefficients ranged from 0.05 to 0.71, most were statistically significant (65 out of 78). In addition, multiple regression analyses…

  2. The Role of Visual and Phonological Representations in the Processing of Written Words by Readers with Diagnosed Dyslexia: Evidence from a Working Memory Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul; Kupfermann, Amirit

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate the nature and efficiency of the strategies that readers with phonological dyslexia use for temporary retention of written words in Working Memory (WM). Data was gathered through a paradigm whereby participants had to identify serially presented written (target) words from within larger word pools according to…

  3. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  4. THE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM OF CANTONESE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHENG, TERESA

    THIS STUDY OF THE CANTONESE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM IS A CASE STUDY OF THE PHONOLOGICAL COMPONENT OF A GENERATIVE GRAMMAR. ATTEMPTS ARE MADE IN CHAPTER III TO SOLVE SOME OLD PROBLEMS CONNECTED WITH THE ANALYSIS OF CANTONESE WITHIN THIS NEW THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK. MOST OF THE PROBLEMS ARE PSEUDO-PROBLEMS, IN THE SENSE THAT THEY POSE DIFFICULTIES ONLY…

  5. Phonological Awareness Is Child's Play!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Hallie Kay; Yopp, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Noticing and being able to manipulate the sounds of spoken language-phonological awareness-is highly related to later success in reading and spelling. The authors define and explain the levels of phonological awareness-syllable awareness, onset-rime awareness, phoneme awareness. They give teachers step-by-step instructions for implementing a…

  6. The Dynamics of Phonological Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roon, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a dynamical computational model of the timecourse of phonological parameter setting. In the model, phonological representations embrace phonetic detail, with phonetic parameters represented as activation fields that evolve over time and determine the specific parameter settings of a planned utterance. Existing models of…

  7. Orthographic and Phonological Contributions to Reading Development: Tracking Developmental Trajectories Using Masked Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Bertrand, Daisy; Lété, Bernard; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a variant of masked priming to track the development of 2 marker effects of orthographic and phonological processing from Grade 1 through Grade 5 in a cross-sectional study. Pseudohomophone (PsH) priming served as a marker for phonological processing, whereas transposed-letter (TL) priming was a marker for coarse-grained…

  8. The Neurobiology of Sensory and Language Processing in Language-Impaired Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen J. Neville; Sharon A. Coffey; Phillip J. Holcomb; Paula Tallal

    1993-01-01

    Clinical, behavioral, and neurophysiological studies of developmental language impairment (LI), including reading disability (RD), have variously emphasized different factors that may contribute to this disorder. These include abnormal sensory processing within both the auditory and visual modalities and deficits in linguistic skills and in general cognitive abilities. In this study we employed the event-related brain potential (ERP) technique in a

  9. Assessing the US Clean Water Act 303(d) listing process for determining impairment of a waterbody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arturo A. Keller; Lindsey Cavallaro

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the US Clean Water Act (CWA) Section 303(d) listing and delisting processes, based on historical and current federal and state guidelines, to determine whether there are regional differences in water quality assessment criteria used by various states to determine impairment of a waterbody for inclusion in the 303(d) list. A review of almost 50 total maximum daily

  10. Preserved subliminal processing and1 impaired conscious access in Schizophrenia.3

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Preserved subliminal processing and1 2 impaired conscious access in Schizophrenia.3 4 5 6 7 Authors threshold in schizophrenia. This finding has frequently been interpreted as indicating a low-36 level visual the hypothesis that the backward masking deficit in schizophrenia41 corresponds to a deficit in the late stages

  11. Using Compressed Speech to Measure Simultaneous Processing in Persons with and without Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, William J.; Jones, W. Paul; Loe, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the use of compressed speech as a modality for assessment of the simultaneous processing function for participants with visual impairment. A 24-item compressed speech test was created using a sound editing program to randomly remove sound elements from aural stimuli, holding pitch constant, with the objective to emulate the…

  12. Impaired interleukin-1 signaling is associated with deficits in hippocampal memory processes and neural plasticity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avi Avital; Inbal Goshen; Ariel Kamsler; Menahem Segal; Kerstin Iverfeldt; Gal Richter-Levin; Raz Yirmiya

    2003-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is produced by peripheral immune cells as well as glia and neurons within the brain; it plays a major role in immune to brain communication and in modulation of neural, neuroen- docrine, and behavioral systems during illness. Although previous studies demonstrated that excess levels of IL-1 impaired memory processes and neural plasticity, it has been suggested

  13. Electrophysiological differentiation of phonological and semantic integration in word and sentence contexts

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Michele T.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2006-01-01

    During auditory language comprehension, listeners need to rapidly extract meaning from the continuous speech-stream. It is a matter of debate when and how contextual information constrains the activation of lexical representations in meaningful contexts. Electrophysiological studies of spoken language comprehension have identified an event-related potential (ERP) that was sensitive to phonological properties of speech, which was termed the phonological mismatch negativity (PMN). With the PMN, early lexical processing could potentially be distinguished from processes of semantic integration in spoken language comprehension. However, the sensitivity of the PMN to phonological processing per se has been questioned, and it has additionally been suggested that the “PMN” is not separable from the N400, an ERP that is sensitive to semantic aspects of the input. Here, we investigated whether or not a separable PMN exists and if it reflects purely phonological aspects of the speech input. In the present experiment, ERPs were recorded from healthy young adults (N =24) while they listened to sentences and word lists, in which we manipulated semantic and phonological expectation and congruency of the final word. ERPs sensitive to phonological processing were elicited only when phonological expectancy was violated in lists of words, but not during normal sentential processing. This suggests a differential role of phonological processing in more or less meaningful contexts and indicates a very early influence of the overall context on lexical processing in sentences. PMID:16952338

  14. Musical plus phonological input for young foreign language readers.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Mora, M C; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María

    2015-01-01

    Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7-8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills. PMID:25852604

  15. Musical plus phonological input for young foreign language readers

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Mora, M. C.; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María

    2015-01-01

    Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7–8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills. PMID:25852604

  16. Preserved feedforward but impaired top-down processes in the vegetative state.

    PubMed

    Boly, Melanie; Garrido, Marta Isabel; Gosseries, Olivia; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Boveroux, Pierre; Schnakers, Caroline; Massimini, Marcello; Litvak, Vladimir; Laureys, Steven; Friston, Karl

    2011-05-13

    Frontoparietal cortex is involved in the explicit processing (awareness) of stimuli. Frontoparietal activation has also been found in studies of subliminal stimulus processing. We hypothesized that an impairment of top-down processes, involved in recurrent neuronal message-passing and the generation of long-latency electrophysiological responses, might provide a more reliable correlate of consciousness in severely brain-damaged patients, than frontoparietal responses. We measured effective connectivity during a mismatch negativity paradigm and found that the only significant difference between patients in a vegetative state and controls was an impairment of backward connectivity from frontal to temporal cortices. This result emphasizes the importance of top-down projections in recurrent processing that involve high-order associative cortices for conscious perception. PMID:21566197

  17. Asynchrony of visual-orthographic and auditory-phonological word recognition processes: An underlying factor in dyslexia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zvia Breznitz

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated whether asynchrony ofspeed of processing (SOP) betweenvisual-orthographic and auditory-phonologicalmodalities can account for word recognitiondeficits among dyslexic readers. SOP amongelementary school dyslexic readers was comparedto that of chronologically age-matched normalreaders. SOP was assessed using nonlinguisticand linguistic auditory and visual low-leveltasks and higher-level orthographic andphonological tasks. Behavioral andelectrophysiological (ERP) measures of SOP wereobtained. Data indicated that dyslexic readerswere significantly

  18. Differences in somatosensory processing due to dominant hemispheric motor impairment in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although cerebral palsy (CP) is usually defined as a group of permanent motor disorders due to non-progressive disturbances in the developing fetal or infant brain, recent research has shown that CP individuals are also characterized by altered somatosensory perception, increased pain and abnormal activation of cortical somatosensory areas. The present study was aimed to examine hemispheric differences on somatosensory brain processing in individuals with bilateral CP and lateralized motor impairments compared with healthy controls. Nine CP individuals with left-dominant motor impairments (LMI) (age range 5–28 yrs), nine CP individuals with right-dominant motor impairments (RMI) (age range 7–29 yrs), and 12 healthy controls (age range 5–30 yrs) participated in the study. Proprioception, touch and pain thresholds, as well as somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) elicited by tactile stimulation of right and left lips and thumbs were compared. Results Pain sensitivity was higher, and lip stimulation elicited greater beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with CP than in healthy controls. In addition, although there was no significant differences between individuals with RMI and LMI on pain or touch sensitivity, lip and thumb stimulation elicited smaller beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with LMI than with RMI. Conclusions Our data revealed that brain processing of somatosensory stimulation was abnormal in CP individuals. Moreover, this processing was different depending if they presented right- or left-dominant motor impairments, suggesting that different mechanisms of sensorimotor reorganization should be involved in CP depending on dominant side of motor impairment. PMID:24410983

  19. Phonological Patterns in the Conversational Speech of Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flipsen, Peter, Jr.; Parker, Rhonda G.

    2008-01-01

    In this descriptive, longitudinal study, phonological patterns (i.e., natural phonological processes) were examined in a set of conversational speech samples obtained from six young children fitted with cochlear implants. Both developmental and non-developmental patterns were observed. This is consistent with findings from previous studies of the…

  20. Regularisation of Nonwords in Dyslexia: Contributions of Visual Orthographic and Phonological Onsets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caney, Annaliese; Martin, Frances Heritage

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the contributions of visual orthographic (analogy) and phonological processes in mediating nonword reading in children with dyslexia. Finds that children with dyslexia were the least likely to regularize nonword pronunciation and secondly, that all groups displayed an overall preference for words that were phonologically manipulated.…

  1. Maintenance and Generalization Effects of Semantic and Phonological Treatments of Anomia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macoir, Joel; Routhier, Sonia; Simard, Anne; Picard, Josee

    2012-01-01

    Anomia is one of the most frequent manifestations in aphasia. Model-based treatments for anomia usually focus on semantic and/or phonological levels of processing. This study reports treatment of anomia in an individual with chronic aphasia. After baseline testing, she received a training program in which semantic and phonological treatments were…

  2. Reading and Spelling Acquisition in French: The Role of Phonological Mediation and Orthographic Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliane Sprenger-Charolles; Linda S. Siegel; Philippe Bonnet

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the development of reading and spelling in French. The two main hypotheses were that (1) phonological mediation is the primary process in the acquisition of these skills and that (2) the use of phonological mediation may allow the construction of the orthographic lexicon. In January and June, first graders (n= 57) were

  3. Priming vs. Rhyming: Orthographic and Phonological Representations in the Left and Right Hemispheres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Annukka K.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2008-01-01

    The right cerebral hemisphere has long been argued to lack phonological processing capacity. Recently, however, a sex difference in the cortical representation of phonology has been proposed, suggesting discrete left hemisphere lateralization in males and more distributed, bilateral representation of function in females. To evaluate this…

  4. Phonology and Language Development in Italian Children: An Analysis of Production and Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanobini, Mirella; Viterbori, Paola; Saraceno, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The principal aims of this study were to detect phonetic measures (consonant inventory, intelligibility, frequency, and types of phonological errors) associated with lexical and morphosyntactic ability and to analyze the types of phonological processes in children with different language skills. Method: The sample was composed of 30…

  5. The Role of Visual and Auditory Temporal Processing for Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Simpson W. L.; Cheung, Him; Penney, Trevor B.; Ho, Connie S. -H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined temporal processing in relation to Chinese reading acquisition and impairment. The performances of 26 Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia on tasks of visual and auditory temporal order judgement, rapid naming, visual-orthographic knowledge, morphological, and phonological awareness were compared with…

  6. Toward a Resolution of Inconsistencies in the Phonological Deficit Theory of Reading Disorders: Phonological Reading Difficulties Are More Severe in High-IQ Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Rhona S.; Morrison, Marjorie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether high-and low-IQ poor readers differed in patterns of reading performance. Ten-year-old poor readers with IQ scores of 110 and higher showed difficulty in taking a phonological approach to reading, failing to show an advantage in reading high-frequency regular versus irregular words and showing impaired nonword reading…

  7. Lexical processing deficits in children with developmental language disorder: An event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Kornilov, Sergey A; Magnuson, James S; Rakhlin, Natalia; Landi, Nicole; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-05-01

    Lexical processing deficits in children with developmental language disorder (DLD) have been postulated to arise as sequelae of their grammatical deficits (either directly or via compensatory mechanisms) and vice versa. We examined event-related potential indices of lexical processing in children with DLD (n = 23) and their typically developing peers (n = 16) using a picture-word matching paradigm. We found that children with DLD showed markedly reduced N400 amplitudes in response both to auditorily presented words that had initial phonological overlap with the name of the pictured object and to words that were not semantically or phonologically related to the pictured object. Moreover, this reduction was related to behavioral indices of phonological and lexical but not grammatical development. We also found that children with DLD showed a depressed phonological mapping negativity component in the early time window, suggesting deficits in phonological processing or early lexical access. The results are partially consistent with the overactivation account of lexical processing deficits in DLD and point to the relative functional independence of lexical/phonological and grammatical deficits in DLD, supporting a multidimensional view of the disorder. The results also, although indirectly, support the neuroplasticity account of DLD, according to which language impairment affects brain development and shapes the specific patterns of brain responses to language stimuli. PMID:25997765

  8. Fall 2012 Phonetics and Phonology

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    80282 Fall 2012 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will learn to make phonetic transcriptions of raw data from unfamiliar

  9. Patients with impaired verb-tense processing: do they know that yesterday is past?

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Karalyn; Holland, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This paper begins with a focus on the task of stem inflection, where participants are given a verb stem and asked to produce the verb's past-tense form, which can produce a neuropsychological double dissociation with respect to regular versus irregular verbs. Two differing theoretical interpretations are outlined: one is based on specifically morphological and separate brain mechanisms for processing regular versus irregular verbs; the other argues that the two sides of the dissociation can arise from one procedure, which is not specifically morphological, and which relies to differing extents on phonological versus semantic information for regular versus irregular verbs. We then present data from a different version of the task, in which patients were given past-tense forms and asked to produce the present-tense or stem forms (talked ? talk and ate ? eat). This change yielded a very different pattern of performance in four non-fluent aphasic patients as a function of the regular–irregular manipulation, an outcome which is argued to be more compatible with the single- than the dual-mechanism account. Finally, we present a small amount of data from a task in which the patient was asked to judge whether spoken regular and irregular verb stems and past-tense forms indicated actions occurring today or yesterday. This task produced an even more different and intriguing pattern of performance suggesting a deficit in morpho-syntactic knowledge: not how to produce past-tense forms but what such forms mean and how that understanding interacts with verb regularity. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the research field of acquired disorders of tense processing might advance as a result of new approaches, in particular those informed by studies of developmental disorders. PMID:24324243

  10. Phonological spelling errors among dyslexic children learning a transparent orthography: the case of Czech.

    PubMed

    Caravolas, M; Volín, J

    2001-01-01

    Substantial evidence from studies of English-speaking dyslexic children's spelling suggests that these individuals have a persistent impairment in representing the phonological structure and content of words in writing. In contrast, several studies of German dyslexic children (Landerl & Wimmer, 2000) suggest that, among learners of transparent orthographies, the above impairment is transient and resolves by the end of grade 2; instead dyslexic spelling is characterised by a persistent impairment in learning inconsistent spelling patterns. In order to determine whether phonological spelling difficulties are transient among dyslexic spellers of other transparent orthographies, we analysed phonological accuracy in the spellings of 43 dyslexic children, 43 age-matched control and 43 spelling-matched control children attending primary schools in Prague. Czech dyslexic children presented an interesting test case because Czech has a transparent orthography. Czech dyslexics as old as 11 years (grade 5) continued to produce high rates of phonologically inaccurate spellings relative to their age peers; thus their difficulties with phonological representation in spelling had not resolved. This pattern is consistent with findings from studies of English-speaking dyslexics, and it suggests that orthographic depth may impact less dramatically on the manifestation of dyslexia than has been proposed previously. PMID:11881783

  11. Optimizing the assessment of pain in children who are cognitively impaired through the quality improvement process.

    PubMed

    Chen-Lim, Mei Lin; Zarnowsky, Colleen; Green, Renee; Shaffer, Susan; Holtzer, Brenda; Ely, Elizabeth

    2012-12-01

    Pain assessment in children with cognitive impairment (CI) is challenging. A quality improvement (QI) project involving evidence-based review of pain assessment tools, feedback from the Family Advisory Council, trialing of selected tools within clinical settings including obtaining feedback from nurses, and parents caring for nonverbal children with developmental delay was reported. Synthesized evidence supported the adoption of revised Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability pain assessment tool into clinical practice. Results of postimplementation audit and challenges of staff nurse involvement in the QI process were also discussed. The 24-month-long QI process and its impact on changing practice were described in detail. PMID:22497741

  12. Cocaine Users Manifest Impaired Prosodic and Cross-Modal Emotion Processing

    PubMed Central

    Hulka, Lea M.; Preller, Katrin H.; Vonmoos, Matthias; Broicher, Sarah D.; Quednow, Boris B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A small number of previous studies have provided evidence that cocaine users (CU) exhibit impairments in complex social cognition tasks, while the more basic facial emotion recognition is widely unaffected. However, prosody and cross-modal emotion processing has not been systematically investigated in CU so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess complex multisensory emotion processing in CU in comparison to controls and to examine a potential association with drug use patterns. Method: The abbreviated version of the comprehensive affect testing system (CATS-A) was used to measure emotion perception across the three channels of facial affect, prosody, and semantic content in 58 CU and 48 healthy control (HC) subjects who were matched for age, sex, verbal intelligence, and years of education. Results: CU had significantly lower scores than controls in the quotient scales of “emotion recognition” and “prosody recognition” and the subtests “conflicting prosody/meaning – attend to prosody” and “match emotional prosody to emotional face” either requiring to attend to prosody or to integrate cross-modal information. In contrast, no group difference emerged for the “affect recognition quotient.” Cumulative cocaine doses and duration of cocaine use correlated negatively with emotion processing. Conclusion: CU show impaired cross-modal integration of different emotion processing channels particularly with regard to prosody, whereas more basic aspects of emotion processing such as facial affect perception are comparable to the performance of HC. PMID:24046750

  13. Formal and Substantive Approaches to Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Joan Bybee

    1980-01-01

    Supplements Hans Basboll's state-of-the-art report on generative phonology (EJ 227 659), focusing on "abstract" v "concrete" approaches to surface data. Includes a summary of a discussion on phonology. (RL)

  14. Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Syllables without vowels: phonetic and phonological evidence from Tashlhiyt Berber* Rachid Ridouane syllables do exist in Tashlhiyt, both at the phonetic and phonological levels. Acoustic, fibrescopic due to subject consultants for their participation to the phonetic experiments. Any errors

  15. Variability in Speed of Information Processing: A New Measure of Cognitive Impairment in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    E-print Network

    Bodling, Angela Michelle

    2010-06-14

    Cognitive slowing has been firmly established as one of the few primary cognitive deficits associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Numerous studies have documented impairments in speed of information processing for MS patients relative to healthy...

  16. Phonological awareness skills in the two languages of Mandarin-English bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H; Zhao, Jing; Bernhardt, May

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that bilingual children have an advantage when performing on phonological awareness tasks, particularly in their stronger language. Little research has been done to date, examining the effects of bilingualism on both languages of bilingual children. In this study Mandarin-English bilingual children's performance on phonological awareness tests was compared with that of Mandarin monolingual children and English monolingual children. The Mandarin-English bilinguals performed better than English monolinguals on the Elision and Blending sub-tests of the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). Similarly, Mandarin-English bilinguals also performed better than their Mandarin monolingual counterparts on most of the experimental Mandarin phonological awareness tasks. The results from the study are discussed in terms of the effects of bilingualism on phonological awareness in both languages of bilingual children. Further clinical and educational implications of these results are also discussed. PMID:20345266

  17. Phonology and arithmetic in the language-calculation network.

    PubMed

    Andin, Josefine; Fransson, Peter; Rönnberg, Jerker; Rudner, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Arithmetic and language processing involve similar neural networks, but the relative engagement remains unclear. In the present study we used fMRI to compare activation for phonological, multiplication and subtraction tasks, keeping the stimulus material constant, within a predefined language-calculation network including left inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus (AG) as well as superior parietal lobule and the intraparietal sulcus bilaterally. Results revealed a generally left lateralized activation pattern within the language-calculation network for phonology and a bilateral activation pattern for arithmetic, and suggested regional differences between tasks. In particular, we found a more prominent role for phonology than arithmetic in pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus but domain generality in pars triangularis. Parietal activation patterns demonstrated greater engagement of the visual and quantity systems for calculation than language. This set of findings supports the notion of a common, but regionally differentiated, language-calculation network. PMID:25797099

  18. Developmental Hierarchy of Arabic Phonological Awareness Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tibi, Sana

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates a strong relationship between phonological awareness and reading success. Phonemic intervention programs clearly show the benefits of explicitly teaching phonological awareness skills. Phonological awareness skills vary in nature and degree of difficulty and appear to follow a developmental progression. This study examined a…

  19. Epithelial cell senescence impairs repair process and exacerbates inflammation after airway injury

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genotoxic stress, such as by exposure to bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and cigarette smoke, induces premature cell senescence. Recent evidence indicates that cellular senescence of various types of cells is accelerated in COPD patients. However, whether the senescence of airway epithelial cells contributes to the development of airway diseases is unknown. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that premature senescence of airway epithelial cells (Clara cells) impairs repair processes and exacerbates inflammation after airway injury. Methods C57/BL6J mice were injected with the Clara-cell-specific toxicant naphthalene (NA) on days 0, 7, and 14, and each NA injection was followed by a daily dose of BrdU on each of the following 3 days, during which regenerating cells were allowed to incorporate BrdU into their DNA and to senesce. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 was injected 30 minutes before each BrdU dose. Mice were sacrificed at different times until day 28 and lungs of mice were obtained to investigate whether Clara cell senescence impairs airway epithelial regeneration and exacerbates airway inflammation. NCI-H441 cells were induced to senesce by exposure to BrdU or the telomerase inhibitor MST-312. Human lung tissue samples were obtained from COPD patients, asymptomatic smokers, and nonsmokers to investigate whether Clara cell senescence is accelerated in the airways of COPD patients, and if so, whether it is accompanied by p38 MAPK activation. Results BrdU did not alter the intensity of the airway epithelial injury or inflammation after a single NA exposure. However, after repeated NA exposure, BrdU induced epithelial cell (Clara cell) senescence, as demonstrated by a DNA damage response, p21 overexpression, increased senescence-associated ?-galactosidase activity, and growth arrest, which resulted in impaired epithelial regeneration. The epithelial senescence was accompanied by p38 MAPK-dependent airway inflammation. Senescent NCI-H441 cells impaired epithelial wound repair and secreted increased amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner. Clara cell senescence in COPD patients was accelerated and accompanied by p38 MAPK activation. Conclusions Senescence of airway epithelial cells impairs repair processes and exacerbates p38 MAPK-dependent inflammation after airway injury, and it may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:21663649

  20. Towards a Further Characterization of Phonological and Literacy Problems in Dutch-Speaking Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boets, Bart; De Smedt, Bert; Cleuren, Leen; Vandewalle, Ellen; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the development of phonology and literacy in Dutch-speaking children at family risk of dyslexia and in matched controls. Measures were administered in kindergarten (before the start of formal reading instruction), in first and in third grade. Children, diagnosed with dyslexia in third grade, showed impaired

  1. Modeling Phonological Core Deficits Within a Working Memory Architecture in Children and Adults With Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.; Thomson, Jennifer; Wagner, Richard; Swanson, H. Lee; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Raskind, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical advances in working memory guided analyses of cognitive measures in 122 children with dyslexia and their 200 affected biological parents in families with a multigenerational history of dyslexia. Both children and adults were most severely impaired, on average, in three working memory components- phonological word-form storage,…

  2. Visual rapid naming and phonological abilities: different subtypes in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Susana; Pacheco, Andreia; Faísca, Luís; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2010-12-01

    One implication of the double-deficit hypothesis for dyslexia is that there should be subtypes of dyslexic readers that exhibit rapid naming deficits with or without concomitant phonological processing problems. In the current study, we investigated the validity of this hypothesis for Portuguese orthography, which is more consistent than English orthography, by exploring different cognitive profiles in a sample of dyslexic children. In particular, we were interested in identifying readers characterized by a pure rapid automatized naming deficit. We also examined whether rapid naming and phonological awareness independently account for individual differences in reading performance. We characterized the performance of dyslexic readers and a control group of normal readers matched for age on reading, visual rapid naming and phonological processing tasks. Our results suggest that there is a subgroup of dyslexic readers with intact phonological processing capacity (in terms of both accuracy and speed measures) but poor rapid naming skills. We also provide evidence for an independent association between rapid naming and reading competence in the dyslexic sample, when the effect of phonological skills was controlled. Altogether, the results are more consistent with the view that rapid naming problems in dyslexia represent a second core deficit rather than an exclusive phonological explanation for the rapid naming deficits. Furthermore, additional non-phonological processes, which subserve rapid naming performance, contribute independently to reading development. PMID:22044084

  3. Spatial and Object Working Memory Deficits in Parkinson’s Disease are Due to Impairment in Different Underlying Processes

    PubMed Central

    Possin, Katherine L.; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Song, David D.; Salmon, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Working memory maintenance processes for visual-spatial and visual-object information were evaluated in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD patients and controls performed a working memory task with two conditions that differed only in the aspect of the stimuli that the participant was instructed to remember: their locations or shapes. Maintenance processes were investigated by measuring accuracy over 1 s, 5 s, and 10 s delays. Results indicated that patients were impaired in maintaining object information over the delay. In contrast, the patients showed impairment on the spatial condition only when the to-be-remembered stimulus was highly similar in location to the probe, but this impairment was equivalent across the delays, suggesting that this deficit was not due to maintenance impairment. These results suggest that deficits in working memory for spatial and object information are mediated by distinct cognitive processes in nondemented patients with PD and may differ in their pathophysiological basis. PMID:18763878

  4. Wots that Werd? Pseudowords (Non-Words) May Be a Misleading Measure of Phonological Skills in Young Learner Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Brenda; Crewther, David P.; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2006-01-01

    Pseudoword (non-word) reading tasks are a commonly used measure of phonological processing across diverse fields of reading research. However, whether pseudoword reading gives any more information about phonological processing in young learner readers than does the reading of real words has seldom been considered. Here we show that pseudoword and…

  5. Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired childrenameliorated by training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M. Merzenich; W. M. Jenkins; Paul Johnston; Christoph Schreiner; S. L. Miller; Paula Tallal; Peter R. Schreiner

    1996-01-01

    Children with language-based learning impairments (LLIs) have major\\u000a\\u0009deficits in their recognition of some rapidly successive phonetic\\u000a\\u0009elements and nonspeech sound stimuli. In the current study, LLI children\\u000a\\u0009were engaged in adaptive training exercises mounted as computer ''games''\\u000a\\u0009designed to drive improvements in their ''temporal processing'' skills.\\u000a\\u0009With 8 to 16 hours of training during a 20-day period, LLI children

  6. Children with speech sound disorder: comparing a non-linguistic auditory approach with a phonological intervention approach to improve phonological skills.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Cristina F B; Pagan-Neves, Luciana O; Wertzner, Haydée F; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder (SSD). A total of 17 children, aged 7-12 years, with SSD were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2) or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2). The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills) and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production, and phonological awareness skills). The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (e.g., backward masking and frequency discrimination), whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (e.g., phonological organization and awareness). Both interventions consisted of 12 45-min sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of 9 h. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills. PMID:25698997

  7. Clinical applications of a cognitive phonology.

    PubMed

    Ball, Martin J

    2003-01-01

    It is noted that much previous work in phonology has attempted to provide economical theories of sound systems without explicitly attempting to provide theories that have psycholinguistic validity. The work of Bybee on a cognitive approach to phonology is described, and its possible application to disordered speech is considered. It is discussed that cognitive phonology, coupled with gestural phonology, provides descriptive as well as explanatory accounts of disordered speech, and has specific implications for approaches to therapy. The article concludes with a case study of child with severely unintelligible speech, where it seems that the insights of cognitive phonology provide both an explanation for and a description of her speech behaviors. PMID:14582829

  8. On the Status of the Word in French Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochet, B.

    It is generally agreed among French linguists that the word has no phonetic or phonological status in French. This position reflects mostly pedagogical considerations and preoccupation with surface phonetic facts and demarcative signals. Investigation of processes of a more abstract nature reveals, however, that a certain number of rules…

  9. AUTOMATIC DETECTION AND VERIFICATION OF DUTCH PHONOLOGICAL RULES

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    varied, ranging from using hyper-articulated speech to very sloppy speech. This enormous variation). By using available knowledge about frequent phonological processes we managed to model part of the within that recognition performance can improve even further if we are able to model more of the variation

  10. When Phonology Fails: Orthographic Neighbourhood Effects in Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavidor, Michal; Johnston, Rhona; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2006-01-01

    Both cerebral hemispheres contain phonological, orthographic and semantic representations of words, however there are between-hemisphere differences in the relative engagement and specialization of the different representations. Taking orthographic processing for example, previous studies suggest that orthographic neighbourhood size (N) has…

  11. Acquiring the phonology of lexical tone in infancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phil Harrison

    2000-01-01

    Phonology is bimodular: prosody (relational aspects) and melody (‘phonetic’ aspects) are to some extent autonomous in steady-state (adult) language. Therefore the acquisition of individual melodic and prosodic modules and their subsequent orientation with respect to one another must constitute three different developmental tasks. The acquisition of melodic primes may take place independently of any other process. If infant perception has

  12. Literacy Outcomes for Students with Speech Impairment: Long-Term Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitao, Suze; Fletcher, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Background: Theoretical and empirical support now exists for the finding that many children with expressive phonological impairment experience problems in acquiring phonological awareness and early literacy skills. Few studies, however, have examined the long-term academic and literacy outcomes for this population, in particular as the…

  13. Poka-yoke process controller: designed for individuals with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, R F; Sant, D

    1998-01-01

    Poka-yoke is a Japanese term meaning "error proofing." Poka-yoke techniques were developed to achieve zero defects in manufacturing and assembly processes. The application of these techniques tends to reduce both the physical and cognitive demands of tasks and thereby make them more accessible. Poka-yoke interventions create a dialogue between the worker and the process, and this dialogue provides the feedback necessary for workers to prevent errors. For individuals with cognitive impairments, weighing and counting tasks can be difficult or impossible. Interventions that provide sufficient feedback to workers without disabilities tend to be too subtle for workers with cognitive impairments; hence, the feedback must be enhanced. The Poka-Yoke Controller (PYC) was designed to assist individuals with counting and weighing tasks. The PYC interfaces to an Ohaus CT6000 digital scale for weighing parts and for counting parts by weight. It also interfaces to sensors and switches for object counting tasks. The PYC interfaces to a variety of programmable voice output devices so that voice feedback or prompting can be provided at specific points in the weighing or counting process. The PYC can also be interfaced to conveyor systems, indexed turntables, and other material handling systems for coordinated counting and material handling operations. In all of our applications to date, we have observed improved worker performance, improved process quality, and greater worker independence. These observed benefits have also significantly reduced the need for staff intervention. The process controller is described and three applications are presented: a weighing task and two counting applications. PMID:10339278

  14. Repeating with the right hemisphere: reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic systems in crossed aphasia?

    PubMed Central

    De-Torres, Irene; Dávila, Guadalupe; Berthier, Marcelo L.; Walsh, Seán Froudist; Moreno-Torres, Ignacio; Ruiz-Cruces, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on the patterns of repetition amongst individuals who develop language deficits in association with right hemisphere lesions (crossed aphasia) is very limited. Available data indicate that repetition in some crossed aphasics experiencing phonological processing deficits is not heavily influenced by lexical-semantic variables (lexicality, imageability, and frequency) as is regularly reported in phonologically-impaired cases with left hemisphere damage. Moreover, in view of the fact that crossed aphasia is rare, information on the role of right cortical areas and white matter tracts underpinning language repetition deficits is scarce. In this study, repetition performance was assessed in two patients with crossed conduction aphasia and striatal/capsular vascular lesions encompassing the right arcuate fasciculus (AF) and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), the temporal stem and the white matter underneath the supramarginal gyrus. Both patients showed lexicality effects repeating better words than non-words, but manipulation of other lexical-semantic variables exerted less influence on repetition performance. Imageability and frequency effects, production of meaning-based paraphrases during sentence repetition, or better performance on repeating novel sentences than overlearned clichés were hardly ever observed in these two patients. In one patient, diffusion tensor imaging disclosed damage to the right long direct segment of the AF and IFOF with relative sparing of the anterior indirect and posterior segments of the AF, together with fully developed left perisylvian white matter pathways. These findings suggest that striatal/capsular lesions extending into the right AF and IFOF in some individuals with right hemisphere language dominance are associated with atypical repetition patterns which might reflect reduced interactions between phonological and lexical-semantic processes. PMID:24151460

  15. Acute Neuroinflammation Impairs Context Discrimination Memory and Disrupts Pattern Separation Processes in Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Czerniawski, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Although it is known that immune system activation can impair cognition, no study to date has linked cognitive deficits during acute neuroinflammation to dysregulation of task-relevant neuronal ensemble activity. Here, we assessed both neural circuit activity and context discrimination memory retrieval, in a within-subjects design, of male rats given systemic administration of saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were exposed over several days to two similar contexts: one of which was paired with weak foot shock and the other was not. After reaching criteria for discriminative freezing, rats were given systemic LPS or saline injection and tested for retrieval of context discrimination 6 h later. Importantly, LPS administration produced an acute neuroinflammatory response in dorsal hippocampus at this time (as assessed by elevation of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA levels) and abolished retrieval of the previously acquired discrimination. The impact of neuroinflammation on hippocampal CA3 and CA1 neural circuit activity was assessed using the Arc/Homer1a cellular analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization imaging method. Whereas the saline-treated subjects discriminated and had low overlap of hippocampal ensembles activated in the two contexts, LPS-treated subjects did not discriminate and had greater ensemble overlap (i.e., reduced orthogonalization). Additionally, retrieval of standard contextual fear conditioning, which does not require context discrimination, was not affected by pretesting LPS administration. Together, the behavioral and circuit analyses data provide compelling evidence that LPS administration impairs context discrimination memory by disrupting cellular pattern separation processes within the hippocampus, thus linking acute neuroinflammation to disruption of specific neural circuit functions and cognitive impairment. PMID:25209285

  16. Increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in subjects with early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, Itziar; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Monseny, Rosa; Ortega, Laura; Franch, Joan; Lawrie, Stephen M; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with <3 years of illness, 23 high-risk subjects). Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery, and prolactin levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines) recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population. PMID:24586772

  17. Verbal and Nonverbal Semantic Processing in Children with Developmental Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Alycia; Ceponiene, Rita

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to clarify whether semantic integration is impaired in verbal and nonverbal auditory domains in children with developmental language impairment (a.k.a., LI and SLI), the present study obtained behavioral and neural responses to words and environmental sounds in children with language impairment and their typically developing…

  18. Phonetics and Phonology Course goals

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    80282 Fall 2013 Phonetics and Phonology Course goals: This course picks up where Nature of Language leaves off in the investigation of the phonetic descriptions of sounds and phonemic patterns in languages. Students will practice reading and producing phonetic transcriptions of data from natural languages

  19. Identification of Prelinguistic Phonological Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsdell, Heather L.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Ethington, Corinna A.; Chorna, Lesya

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The prelinguistic infant's babbling repertoire of "syllables"--the phonological categories that form the basis for early word learning--is noticed by caregivers who interact with infants around them. Prior research on babbling has not explored the caregiver's role in recognition of early vocal categories as foundations for word learning.…

  20. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  1. Impaired context processing as a potential marker of psychosis risk state

    PubMed Central

    Niendam, Tara A.; Lesh, Tyler A; Yoon, Jong; Westphal, Andrew J.; Hutchison, Natalie; Ragland, J. Daniel; Solomon, Marjorie; Minzenberg, Michael; Carter, Cameron S.

    2013-01-01

    While structural abnormalities of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) may pre-date and predict psychosis onset, the relationships between functional deficits, cognitive and psychosocial impairments has yet to be explored in the at-risk period. An established measure of cognitive control (AXCPT) was administered to demographically matched clinical-high-risk (CHR; n=25), first-episode schizophrenia (FE; n=35), and healthy control (HC; n=35) participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate these relationships. CHR and FE individuals demonstrated impaired context processing and reduced DLPFC activation relative to HC individuals during increased cognitive control demands. FE and CHR individuals’ ability to increase DLPFC activity in response to cognitive control demands was associated with better task performance. Task performance was also associated with severity of disorganization and poverty symptoms in FE participants. These findings support more extensive studies using fMRI to examine the clinical significance of prefrontal cortical functioning in the earliest stages of psychosis. PMID:24120302

  2. Impaired context processing as a potential marker of psychosis risk state.

    PubMed

    Niendam, Tara A; Lesh, Tyler A; Yoon, Jong; Westphal, Andrew J; Hutchison, Natalie; Daniel Ragland, J; Solomon, Marjorie; Minzenberg, Michael; Carter, Cameron S

    2014-01-30

    While structural abnormalities of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) may pre-date and predict psychosis onset, the relationships between functional deficits, cognitive and psychosocial impairments has yet to be explored in the at-risk period. An established measure of cognitive control (AXCPT) was administered to demographically matched clinical-high-risk (CHR; n=25), first-episode schizophrenia (FE; n=35), and healthy control (HC; n=35) participants during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate these relationships. CHR and FE individuals demonstrated impaired context processing and reduced DLPFC activation relative to HC individuals during increased cognitive control demands. FE and CHR individuals' ability to increase DLPFC activity in response to cognitive control demands was associated with better task performance. Task performance was also associated with severity of disorganization and poverty symptoms in FE participants. These findings support more extensive studies using fMRI to examine the clinical significance of prefrontal cortical functioning in the earliest stages of psychosis. PMID:24120302

  3. Wots that werd? Pseudowords (non-words) may be a misleading measure of phonological skills in young learner readers.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Brenda; Crewther, David P; Crewther, Sheila G

    2006-11-01

    Pseudoword (non-word) reading tasks are a commonly used measure of phonological processing across diverse fields of reading research. However, whether pseudoword reading gives any more information about phonological processing in young learner readers than does the reading of real words has seldom been considered. Here we show that pseudoword and real word reading are so strongly correlated (r=0.94) in the first 4 years of school as to be representative of the same construct. Two of the subskills of phonological processing, phonological awareness and rapid automatic naming also predict almost identical amounts of variance in pseudoword and real word reading. A divergence in the correlations between word and pseudoword reading and phonological awareness and rapid naming only emerges in the fourth year, while a significant correlation between phonological awareness and rapid automatic naming is evident only in the first year of schooling. Thus these results suggest that, at least in young children learning to read, care should be taken when using pseudoword reading to measure either phonological processing ability or phonological awareness as this may misinform the choice of therapy for a child showing symptoms of dyslexia. PMID:17152344

  4. Prefinal version to appear in Handbook of Laboratory Phonology. Chapter 13b. The relationship between synchronic variation and diachronic change

    E-print Network

    Harrington, Jonathan

    1 Prefinal version to appear in Handbook of Laboratory Phonology. Chapter 13b. The relationship Processing, University of Munich, Germany. 1. Introduction The dramatic effect of sound change on phonology change may be propagated by imitation. For example, the considerable variation synchronically in syllable

  5. The motor planning abilities of phonologically disordered children.

    PubMed

    Bradford, A; Dodd, B

    1994-01-01

    The motor planning abilities of three subgroups of speech-disordered children were compared to normally speaking age- and comprehension-matched controls. There were 10 phonologically delayed children who used sound-pattern errors typical of chronologically aged younger children (delayed group); 10 children whose phonological system was characterised by the consistent use of non-developmental phonological processes (deviant consistent group); and 10 children whose production of specific lexical items and phonological features was variable (inconsistent group). The groups were compared on tasks that assessed simple and complex motor planning for hand movements and expressive and receptive novel-word learning. The groups did not differ on a simple task of motor planning for hand movements. However, the inconsistent group performed more poorly than all the other groups on a more complex, timed motor-planning task. Although the groups performed equally well on a task assessing receptive novel-word learning, the inconsistent group performed more poorly than all the other groups on an expressive novel-word learning task. The results provide support for the hypothesis that speech-disordered children with different surface error patterns have different underlying deficits in the speech-processing chain. Specifically, inconsistent error patterns are associated with a deficit in some aspects of fine motor planning. PMID:7647386

  6. Gradient phonological inconsistency affects vocabulary learning.

    PubMed

    Muench, Kristin L; Creel, Sarah C

    2013-09-01

    Learners frequently experience phonologically inconsistent input, such as exposure to multiple accents. Yet, little is known about the consequences of phonological inconsistency for language learning. The current study examines vocabulary acquisition with different degrees of phonological inconsistency, ranging from no inconsistency (e.g., both talkers call a picture /vig/) to mild but detectable inconsistency (e.g., one talker calls a picture a /vig/, and the other calls it a /vIg/), up to extreme inconsistency (e.g., the same picture is both a /vig/ and a /dId?/). Previous studies suggest that learners readily extract consistent phonological patterns, given variable input. However, in Experiment 1, adults acquired phonologically inconsistent vocabularies more slowly than phonologically consistent ones. Experiment 2 examined whether word-form inconsistency alone, without phonological competition, was a source of learning difficulty. Even without phonological competition, listeners learned faster in 1 accent than in 2 accents, but they also learned faster in 2 accents (/vig/ = /vIg/) than with completely different labels (/vig/ = /dId?/). Overall, results suggest that learners exposed to multiple accents may experience difficulty learning when 2 forms mismatch by more than 1 phonological feature, plus increased phonological competition due to a greater number of word forms. Implications for learning from variable input are discussed. PMID:23647379

  7. Neural decoding reveals impaired face configural processing in the right fusiform face area of individuals with developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiedong; Liu, Jia; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-01-28

    Most of human daily social interactions rely on the ability to successfully recognize faces. Yet ?2% of the human population suffers from face blindness without any acquired brain damage [this is also known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP) or congenital prosopagnosia]). Despite the presence of severe behavioral face recognition deficits, surprisingly, a majority of DP individuals exhibit normal face selectivity in the right fusiform face area (FFA), a key brain region involved in face configural processing. This finding, together with evidence showing impairments downstream from the right FFA in DP individuals, has led some to argue that perhaps the right FFA is largely intact in DP individuals. Using fMRI multivoxel pattern analysis, here we report the discovery of a neural impairment in the right FFA of DP individuals that may play a critical role in mediating their face-processing deficits. In seven individuals with DP, we discovered that, despite the right FFA's preference for faces and it showing decoding for the different face parts, it exhibited impaired face configural decoding and did not contain distinct neural response patterns for the intact and the scrambled face configurations. This abnormality was not present throughout the ventral visual cortex, as normal neural decoding was found in an adjacent object-processing region. To our knowledge, this is the first direct neural evidence showing impaired face configural processing in the right FFA in individuals with DP. The discovery of this neural impairment provides a new clue to our understanding of the neural basis of DP. PMID:25632131

  8. The relationship between two types of impaired emotion processing: repressive coping and alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Lynn B.; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2015-01-01

    The constructs of repressive coping and alexithymia are both related to impaired emotion processing, yet individuals with a repressive coping style (repressors) score lower than controls on standard self-report measures of alexithymia. A large body of evidence indicates that repressors avoid negative affect. Therefore, the current study examined the relationship between repressive coping and alexithymia by using independently-rated interviews with the aim of bypassing repressors’ tendency of avoiding negative affect. Results showed that repressors scored high on alexithymia, similar to anxious individuals on the independently-rated interview, but scored low on alexithymia on a questionnaire measure. Our findings confirm a link between alexithymia and repressive coping and stress the need for non-standard measures in exploring the nature of the relationship between repressive coping and alexithymia. PMID:26136706

  9. Impaired autophagy and APP processing in Alzheimer's disease: The potential role of Beclin 1 interactome.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu; Ojala, Johanna; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Soininen, Hilkka; Hiltunen, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of amyloid-?-containing neuritic plaques and intracellular tau protein tangles are key histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This type of pathology clearly indicates that the mechanisms of neuronal housekeeping and protein quality control are compromised in AD. There is mounting evidence that the autophagosome-lysosomal degradation is impaired, which could disturb the processing of APP and provoke AD pathology. Beclin 1 is a molecular platform assembling an interactome with stimulating and suppressive components which regulate the initiation of the autophagosome formation. Recent studies have indicated that the expression Beclin 1 is reduced in AD brain. Moreover, the deficiency of Beclin 1 in cultured neurons and transgenic mice provokes the deposition of amyloid-? peptides whereas its overexpression reduces the accumulation of amyloid-?. There are several potential mechanisms, which could inhibit the function of Beclin 1 interactome and thus impair autophagy and promote AD pathology. The mechanisms include (i) reduction of Beclin 1 expression or its increased proteolytic cleavage by caspases, (ii) sequestration of Beclin 1 to non-functional locations, such as tau tangles, (iii) formation of inhibitory complexes between Beclin 1 and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins or inflammasomes, (iv) interaction of Beclin 1 with inhibitory neurovirulent proteins, e.g. herpex simplex ICP34.5, or (v) inhibition of the Beclin 1/Vps34 complex through the activation of CDK1 and CDK5. We will shortly introduce the function of Beclin 1 interactome in autophagy and phagocytosis, review the recent evidence indicating that Beclin 1 regulates autophagy and APP processing in AD, and finally examine the potential mechanisms through which Beclin 1 dysfunction could be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:23827971

  10. Impaired Temporal Processing of Tactile and Proprioceptive Stimuli in Cerebellar Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Peretti, Alessia; Mariotti, Caterina; Panzeri, Marta; Fiorio, Mirta; Fasano, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Performance of timed motor sequences relies on the cerebellum and basal ganglia, which integrate proprioceptive information during the motor task and set internal timing mechanisms. Accordingly, these structures are also involved in other temporal processes, such as the discrimination of the different afferent information in the domain of time. In the present study we tested temporal processing of proprioceptive and tactile stimuli in 20 patients with neurodegenerative cerebellar ataxia and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Tactile temporal discrimination threshold was defined as the value at which subjects recognized the two stimuli as asynchronous. Temporal discrimination movement threshold of the first dorsal interosseous and flexor carpi radialis was defined as the shortest interval between two paired electrical stimuli in which the subjects blindfolded perceived two separate index finger abductions and wrist flexions. Both tactile and movement temporal discrimination thresholds were higher in patients with cerebellar ataxia. No correlation was found with disease duration and severity. Our study demonstrates that temporal processing of tactile and proprioceptive stimuli is impaired in patients with cerebellar neurodegeneration and highlights the involvement of cerebellum in temporal processing of somatosensory stimuli of different type. PMID:24244328

  11. Automatic activation of word phonology from print in deep dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Katz, R B; Lanzoni, S M

    1992-11-01

    The performance of deep dyslexics in oral reading and other tasks suggests that they are poor at activating the phonology of words and non-words from printed stimuli. As the tasks ordinarily used to test deep dyslexics require controlled processing, it is possible that the phonology of printed words can be better activated on an automatic basis. This study investigated this possibility by testing a deep dyslexic patient on a lexical decision task with pairs of stimuli presented simultaneously. In Experiment 1, which used content words as stimuli, the deep dyslexic, like normal subjects, showed faster reaction times on trials with rhyming, similarly spelled stimuli (e.g. bribe-tribe) than on control trials (consisting of non-rhyming, dissimilarly spelled words), but slower reaction times on trials with non-rhyming, similarly spelled stimuli (e.g. couch-touch). When the experiment was repeated using function words as stimuli, the patient no longer showed a phonological effect. Therefore, the phonological activation of printed content words by deep dyslexics may be better than would be expected on the basis of their oral reading performance. PMID:1484974

  12. The Relationship between Phonological Memory, Phonological Sensitivity, and Incidental Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra; Hewitt, Lynne E.; Brackenbury, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive abilities needed to succeed at incidental word learning, specifically by examining the role of phonological memory and phonological sensitivity in novel word learning by 4-year-olds who were typically developing. Forty 4-year-olds were administered a test of nonword repetition (to investigate phonological

  13. Signal-Processing Strategy for Restoration of Cross-Channel Suppression in Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Gorga, Michael P.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    Because frequency components interact nonlinearly with each other inside the cochlea, the loudness growth of tones is relatively simple in comparison to the loudness growth of complex sounds. The term suppression refers to a reduction in the response growth of one tone in the presence of a second tone. Suppression is a salient feature of normal cochlear processing and contributes to psychophysical masking. Suppression is evident in many measurements of cochlear function in subjects with normal hearing, including distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Suppression is also evident, to a lesser extent, in subjects with mild-to-moderate hearing loss. This paper describes a hearing-aid signal-processing strategy that aims to restore both loudness growth and two-tone suppression in hearing-impaired listeners. The prescription of gain for this strategy is based on measurements of loudness by a method known as categorical loudness scaling. The proposed signal-processing strategy reproduces measured DPOAE suppression tuning curves and generalizes to any number of frequency components. The restoration of both normal suppression and normal loudness has the potential to improve hearing-aid performance and user satisfaction. PMID:23925364

  14. Reduced Sensory Oscillatory Activity during Rapid Auditory Processing as a Correlate of Language-Learning Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Sabine; Friedman, Jennifer Thomas; Keil, Andreas; Benasich, April A.

    2010-01-01

    Successful language acquisition has been hypothesized to involve the ability to integrate rapidly presented, brief acoustic cues in sensory cortex. A body of work has suggested that this ability is compromised in language-learning impairment (LLI). The present research aimed to examine sensory integration during rapid auditory processing by means of electrophysiological measures of oscillatory brain activity using data from a larger longitudinal study. Twenty-nine children with LLI and control participants with typical language development (n=18) listened to tone doublets presented at a temporal interval that is essential for accurate speech processing (70-ms interstimulus interval). The children performed a deviant (pitch change of second tone) detection task, or listened passively. The electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 electrodes. Data were source-projected to the auditory cortices and submitted to wavelet analysis, resulting in time-frequency representations of electrocortical activity. Results show significantly reduced amplitude and phase-locking of early (45–75 ms) oscillations in the gamma-band range (29–52 Hz), specifically in the LLI group, for the second stimulus of the tone doublet. This suggests altered temporal organization of sensory oscillatory activity in LLI when processing rapid sequences. PMID:21822356

  15. Is reading different for deaf individuals? Reexamining the role of phonology.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Connie; Trezek, Beverly J

    2014-01-01

    Quarter century ago, Hanson (1989) asked, "Is reading different for deaf individuals?" (p. 85). Appealing to evidence available at the time, she argued that skilled deaf readers, like their hearing counterparts, relied on their knowledge of English structure, including phonological information. This perspective on the role phonology plays in the reading process for deaf learners continues to generate much debate in the field, and little consensus exists on whether it is a necessary aspect of learning to read for this population. The present article revisits this question in terms of what is known about phonology and reading in typically developing learners, and in light of two reviews of the research from the field of deafness. The authors conclude that there is stronger empirical evidence for the argument for a relationship between phonology and reading in the population of deaf readers than for the counter-argument. PMID:25669018

  16. Neural correlates of impaired emotion processing in manifest Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Imis; Saß, Christian; Mirzazade, Shahram; Kleiman, Alexandra; Werner, Cornelius J.; Pohl, Anna; Schiefer, Johannes; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Schulz, Jörg B.; Shah, N. Jon

    2014-01-01

    The complex phenotype of Huntington’s disease (HD) encompasses motor, psychiatric and cognitive dysfunctions, including early impairments in emotion recognition. In this first functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated emotion-processing deficits in 14 manifest HD patients and matched controls. An emotion recognition task comprised short video clips displaying one of six basic facial expressions (sadness, happiness, disgust, fear, anger and neutral). Structural changes between patients and controls were assessed by means of voxel-based morphometry. Along with deficient recognition of negative emotions, patients exhibited predominantly lower neural response to stimuli of negative valences in the amygdala, hippocampus, striatum, insula, cingulate and prefrontal cortices, as well as in sensorimotor, temporal and visual areas. Most of the observed reduced activity patterns could not be explained merely by regional volume loss. Reduced activity in the thalamus during fear correlated with lower thalamic volumes. During the processing of sadness, patients exhibited enhanced amygdala and hippocampal activity along with reduced recruitment of the medial prefrontal cortex. Higher amygdala activity was related to more pronounced amygdala atrophy and disease burden. Overall, the observed emotion-related dysfunctions in the context of structural neurodegeneration suggest both disruptions of striatal-thalamo-cortical loops and potential compensation mechanism with greater disease severity in manifest HD. PMID:23482620

  17. Selecting process quality indicators for the integrated care of vulnerable older adults affected by cognitive impairment or dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edeltraut Kröger; André Tourigny; Diane Morin; Lise Côté; Marie-Jeanne Kergoat; Paule Lebel; Line Robichaud; Shirley Imbeault; Solange Proulx; Zohra Benounissa

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed at evaluating face and content validity, feasibility and reliability of process quality indicators developed previously in the United States or other countries. The indicators can be used to evaluate care and services for vulnerable older adults affected by cognitive impairment or dementia within an integrated service system in Quebec, Canada. METHODS: A total of 33 clinical

  18. Auditory Processing and Speech Perception in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Relations with Oral Language and Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewalle, Ellen; Boets, Bart; Ghesquiere, Pol; Zink, Inge

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated temporal auditory processing (frequency modulation and between-channel gap detection) and speech perception (speech-in-noise and categorical perception) in three groups of 6 years 3 months to 6 years 8 months-old children attending grade 1: (1) children with specific language impairment (SLI) and literacy delay…

  19. Effect of Phonological Training in French Children with SLI: Perspectives on Voicing Identification, Discrimination and Categorical Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, G.; Colin, C.; Serniclaes, W.; Hoonhorst, I.; Markessis, E.; Deltenre, P.; Leybaert, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of auditory training on voicing perception in French children with specific language impairment (SLI). We used an adaptive discrimination training that was centred across the French phonological boundary (0 ms voice onset time--VOT). One group of nine children with SLI attended eighteen…

  20. Phonological Priming in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Irena; Grela, Bernard G.; Gilbert, Harvey R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the speed of phonological encoding between adults who stutter (AWS) and adults who do not stutter (ANS). Fifteen male AWS and 15 age- and gender-matched ANS participated in the study. Speech onset latency was obtained for both groups and stuttering frequency was calculated for AWS during three phonological

  1. Phonological Awareness in Young Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shu, Hua; Peng, Hong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Two studies explored the nature of phonological awareness (PA) in Chinese. In Study 1, involving 146 children, awareness of phoneme onset did not differ from chance levels at ages 3-5 years in preschool but increased to 70% correct in first grade, when children first received phonological coding (Pinyin) instruction. Similarly, tone awareness was…

  2. Assessment of Individual Differences in Phonological Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Jason L.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Aghara, Rachel G.; Dunkelberger, Martha; Novak, Barbara; Mukherjee, Anuja Divatia

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in abilities to form, access, and hone phonological representations of words are implicated in the development of oral and written language. This study addressed two important gaps in the literature concerning measurement of individual differences in phonological representation. First, we empirically examined the…

  3. A Phonology of Akan: Akuapem, Asante, Fante.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Paul; Fromkin, Victoria

    In this preliminary report the authors compare a part of the phonological systems of Akuapem, Asante, and Fante--the major dialects of Akan. The comparison reveals the features common to all three dialects as well as the features which distinguish the dialects from one another. The description of the phonological systems of these dialects is…

  4. Phonological Awareness Intervention: Beyond the Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuele, C. Melanie; Boudreau, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to advance practitioners' knowledge base of best practices in phonological awareness intervention to facilitate the implementation of evidence- or research-based practices in everyday clinical practice. Although most speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have a basic knowledge of phonological awareness, this…

  5. Redundancy and Phonological Rules in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Gil, Fernando

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes three recent models of phonological representation (underspecification theory, autosegmental spreading of features, and feature hierarchy), focusing on such diachronic and synchronic issues of Spanish phonology as the rule of voicing of voiceless obstruents, vowel raising cum desyllabification, homorganic nasal/lateral assimilation, and…

  6. Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in that age of…

  7. How Phonological Reductions Sometimes Help the Listener

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitterer, Holger; Russell, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    In speech production, high-frequency words are more likely than low-frequency words to be phonologically reduced. We tested in an eye-tracking experiment whether listeners can make use of this correlation between lexical frequency and phonological realization of words. Participants heard prefixed verbs in which the prefix was either fully produced…

  8. The Acquisition of L2 Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtaszek, Adam; Arabski, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition of L2 Phonology is a wide-ranging new collection which focuses on various aspects of the acquisition of an L2 phonological system. The authors are researchers and practitioners from five different countries. The volume has been divided into three major sections. Phonetic Analysis presents five studies of language learners in both…

  9. Voice Processing Abilities in Children with Autism, Children with Specific Language Impairments, and Young Typically Developing Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Boucher; Vicky Lewis; Glyn M. Collis

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that people with autism have impaired face processing, but much less is known about voice processing in autism. Four experiments were therefore carried out to assess (1) familiar voice-face and sound-object matching; (2) familiar voice recognition; (3) unfamiliar voice discrimination; and (4) vocal aect naming and vocal-facial aect matching. In Experiments 1 and 2 language-matched children

  10. Low dose radiation induced senescence of human mesenchymal stromal cells and impaired the autophagy process.

    PubMed

    Alessio, Nicola; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Capasso, Stefania; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Cipollaro, Marilena; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2015-04-10

    Low doses of radiation may have profound effects on cellular function. Individuals may be exposed to low doses of radiation either intentionally for medical purposes or accidentally, such as those exposed to radiological terrorism or those who live near illegal radioactive waste dumpsites.We studied the effects of low dose radiation on human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), which contain a subpopulation of stem cells able to differentiate in bone, cartilage, and fat; support hematopoiesis; and contribute to body's homeostasis.The main outcome of low radiation exposure, besides reduction of cell cycling, is the triggering of senescence, while the contribution to apoptosis is minimal. We also showed that low radiation affected the autophagic flux. We hypothesize that the autophagy prevented radiation deteriorative processes, and its decline contributed to senescence.An increase in ATM staining one and six hours post-irradiation and return to basal level at 48 hours, along with persistent gamma-H2AX staining, indicated that MSC properly activated the DNA repair signaling, though some damages remained unrepaired, mainly in non-cycling cells. This suggested that the impaired DNA repair capacity of irradiated MSC seemed mainly related to the reduced activity of a non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) system rather than HR (homologous recombination). PMID:25544750

  11. Spatial working memory in children with high-functioning autism: intact configural processing but impaired capacity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Capistrano, Christian G; Palm, Bryce E

    2014-02-01

    Visual attention and visual working memory exert severe capacity limitations on cognitive processing. Impairments in both functions may exacerbate the social and communication deficits seen in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study characterizes spatial working memory and visual attention in school-age children with high-functioning autism. Children with ASD, and age, gender, and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children performed 2 tasks: a spatial working memory task and an attentive tracking task. Compared with TD children, children with ASD showed a more pronounced deficit in the spatial working memory task than the attentive tracking task, even though the latter placed significant demands on sustained attention, location updating, and distractor inhibition. Because both groups of children were sensitive to configuration mismatches between the sample and test arrays, the spatial working memory deficit was not because of atypical organization of spatial working memory. These findings show that attention and working memory are dissociable, and that children with ASD show a specific deficit in buffering visual information across temporal discontinuity. PMID:24661175

  12. Manipulability impairs association-memory: revisiting effects of incidental motor processing on verbal paired-associates.

    PubMed

    Madan, Christopher R

    2014-06-01

    Imageability is known to enhance association-memory for verbal paired-associates. High-imageability words can be further subdivided by manipulability, the ease by which the named object can be functionally interacted with. Prior studies suggest that motor processing enhances item-memory, but impairs association-memory. However, these studies used action verbs and concrete nouns as the high- and low-manipulability words, respectively, confounding manipulability with word class. Recent findings demonstrated that nouns can serve as both high- and low-manipulability words (e.g., CAMERA and TABLE, respectively), allowing us to avoid this confound. Here participants studied pairs of words that consisted of all possible pairings of high- and low-manipulability words and were tested with immediate cued recall. Recall was worse for pairs that contained high-manipulability words. In free recall, participants recalled more high- than low-manipulability words. Our results provide further evidence that manipulability influences memory, likely occurring through automatic motor imagery. PMID:24686239

  13. Low dose radiation induced senescence of human mesenchymal stromal cells and impaired the autophagy process

    PubMed Central

    Alessio, Nicola; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Capasso, Stefania; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Cipollaro, Marilena; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Low doses of radiation may have profound effects on cellular function. Individuals may be exposed to low doses of radiation either intentionally for medical purposes or accidentally, such as those exposed to radiological terrorism or those who live near illegal radioactive waste dumpsites. We studied the effects of low dose radiation on human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), which contain a subpopulation of stem cells able to differentiate in bone, cartilage, and fat; support hematopoiesis; and contribute to body's homeostasis. The main outcome of low radiation exposure, besides reduction of cell cycling, is the triggering of senescence, while the contribution to apoptosis is minimal. We also showed that low radiation affected the autophagic flux. We hypothesize that the autophagy prevented radiation deteriorative processes, and its decline contributed to senescence. An increase in ATM staining one and six hours post-irradiation and return to basal level at 48 hours, along with persistent gamma-H2AX staining, indicated that MSC properly activated the DNA repair signaling, though some damages remained unrepaired, mainly in non-cycling cells. This suggested that the impaired DNA repair capacity of irradiated MSC seemed mainly related to the reduced activity of a non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) system rather than HR (homologous recombination). PMID:25544750

  14. A Probabilistic Model of Phonological Relationships from Contrast to Allophony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kathleen Currie

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of phonological relationships, the Probabilistic Phonological Relationship Model (PPRM), that quantifies how predictably distributed two sounds in a relationship are. It builds on a core premise of traditional phonological analysis, that the ability to define phonological relationships such as contrast and…

  15. Gaze position reveals impaired attentional shift during visual word recognition in dysfluent readers.

    PubMed

    Hautala, Jarkko; Parviainen, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Effects reflecting serial within-word processing are frequently found in pseudo- and non-word recognition tasks not only among fluent, but especially among dyslexic readers. However, the time course and locus of these serial within-word processing effects in the cognitive hierarchy (i.e., orthographic, phonological, lexical) have remained elusive. We studied whether a subject's eye movements during a lexical decision task would provide information about the temporal dynamics of serial within-word processing. We assumed that if there is serial within-word processing proceeding from left to right, items with informative beginnings would attract the gaze position and (micro-)saccadic eye movements earlier in time relative to those with informative endings. In addition, we compared responses to word, non-word, and pseudo-word items to study whether serial within-word processing stems mainly from a lexical, orthographic, or phonological processing level, respectively. Gaze positions showed earlier responses to anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word beginnings rather than endings, whereas informative word beginnings or endings did not affect gaze positions. The overall pattern of results suggests parallel letter processing of real words and rapid serial within-word processing when reading novel words. Dysfluent readers' gaze position responses toward anomalies located at pseudo- and non-word endings were delayed substantially, suggesting impairment in serial processing at an orthographic processing level. PMID:25268909

  16. Dysfunction of the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex is Primarily Responsible for Impaired Attentional Processing in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jee Wook; Kim, Ji-Woong

    2008-01-01

    Objective The results for finding the deficit in the anterior cingulate (ACC) in schizophrenic patients (SZ) have been inconsistent according to the studies that used different Stroop tasks, which is unlike the deficit in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In order to explore for the core region that's responsible for the selective attention deficit in SZ, we examined the results of a functional neuroimaging study, which involved the performance of the Stroop task using high or low prefrontal cortex related loads in SZ. Methods Ten schizophrenic patients and healthy controls (HC) received functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a Short/Long-term latency Stroop task. The changes in the neural activity were determined in well-known Stroop related regions of interest (ROIs) that consisted of the DLPFC, ACC, the parietal lobule and in the whole brain regions for both the main and interaction effects of latency, and the results of the short-term and long-term latency Stroop conditions were compared. Results The response times for both the congruency and latency effects were more prolonged in the schizophrenics than in the HC. For the congruency effect, the schizophrenics showed significantly less activation in the same site of the left DLPFC in both the short-term and long-term latency conditions, as compared with the HC. For the latency effect, the regions of the left-side language network were over- or under-activated in the schizophrenics, as compared with the HC. Any interaction effect was not found for both the behavioral and fMRI results. Conclusion Our results indicate that the deficit in the left DLPFC is the core impairment of attentional processing in schizophrenics, regardless of other possible interactions such as the latency effect. PMID:20046409

  17. The relationship between phonological memory, phonological sensitivity, and incidental word learning.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, Vijayachandra; Hewitt, Lynne E; Brackenbury, Tim

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated the cognitive abilities needed to succeed at incidental word learning, specifically by examining the role of phonological memory and phonological sensitivity in novel word learning by 4-year-olds who were typically developing. Forty 4-year-olds were administered a test of nonword repetition (to investigate phonological memory), rhyming and phoneme alliteration tasks (to investigate phonological sensitivity), and an incidental word learning task (via a computer-based presentation of a cartoon story). A multiple regression analysis revealed that nonword repetition scores did not contribute significantly to incidental word learning. Phonological sensitivity scores were significant predictors of incidental word learning. These findings provide support for a model of lexical acquisition in which phonological knowledge plays an important role. PMID:20872250

  18. Spared and impaired spoken discourse processing in schizophrenia: effects of local and global language context.

    PubMed

    Swaab, Tamara Y; Boudewyn, Megan A; Long, Debra L; Luck, Steve J; Kring, Ann M; Ragland, J Daniel; Ranganath, Charan; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Solomon, Marjorie; Mangun, George R; Carter, Cameron S

    2013-09-25

    Individuals with schizophrenia are impaired in a broad range of cognitive functions, including impairments in the controlled maintenance of context-relevant information. In this study, we used ERPs in human subjects to examine whether impairments in the controlled maintenance of spoken discourse context in schizophrenia lead to overreliance on local associations among the meanings of individual words. Healthy controls (n = 22) and patients (n = 22) listened to short stories in which we manipulated global discourse congruence and local priming. The target word in the last sentence of each story was globally congruent or incongruent and locally associated or unassociated. ERP local association effects did not significantly differ between control participants and schizophrenia patients. However, in contrast to controls, patients only showed effects of discourse congruence when targets were primed by a word in the local context. When patients had to use discourse context in the absence of local priming, they showed impaired brain responses to the target. Our findings indicate that schizophrenia patients are impaired during discourse comprehension when demands on controlled maintenance of context are high. We further found that ERP measures of increased reliance on local priming predicted reduced social functioning, suggesting that alterations in the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension have functional consequences in the illness. PMID:24068824

  19. Spared and Impaired Spoken Discourse Processing in Schizophrenia: Effects of Local and Global Language Context

    PubMed Central

    Boudewyn, Megan A.; Long, Debra L.; Luck, Steve J.; Kring, Ann M.; Ragland, J. Daniel; Ranganath, Charan; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Solomon, Marjorie; Mangun, George R.; Carter, Cameron S.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia are impaired in a broad range of cognitive functions, including impairments in the controlled maintenance of context-relevant information. In this study, we used ERPs in human subjects to examine whether impairments in the controlled maintenance of spoken discourse context in schizophrenia lead to overreliance on local associations among the meanings of individual words. Healthy controls (n = 22) and patients (n = 22) listened to short stories in which we manipulated global discourse congruence and local priming. The target word in the last sentence of each story was globally congruent or incongruent and locally associated or unassociated. ERP local association effects did not significantly differ between control participants and schizophrenia patients. However, in contrast to controls, patients only showed effects of discourse congruence when targets were primed by a word in the local context. When patients had to use discourse context in the absence of local priming, they showed impaired brain responses to the target. Our findings indicate that schizophrenia patients are impaired during discourse comprehension when demands on controlled maintenance of context are high. We further found that ERP measures of increased reliance on local priming predicted reduced social functioning, suggesting that alterations in the neural mechanisms underlying discourse comprehension have functional consequences in the illness. PMID:24068824

  20. Adapting for Impaired Patrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.…

  1. Dissociating Stimulus-Driven Semantic and Phonological Effect During Reading and Naming

    PubMed Central

    Mechelli, Andrea; Josephs, Oliver; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; McClelland, James L; Price, Cathy J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to dissociate the neural correlates of semantic and phonological processes during word reading and picture naming. Previous studies have addressed this issue by contrasting tasks involving semantic and phonological decisions. However, these tasks engage verbal short-term memory and executive functions that are not required for reading and naming. Here, 20 subjects were instructed to overtly name written words and pictures of objects while their neuronal responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Each trial consisted of a pair of successive stimuli that were either semantically related (e.g., “ROBIN-nest”), phonologically related (e.g., “BELL-belt”), unrelated (e.g., “KITE-lobster”), or semantically and phonologically identical (e.g., “FRIDGE-fridge”). In addition, a pair of stimuli could be presented in either the same modality (word-word or picture-picture) or a different modality (word-picture or picture-word). We report that semantically related pairs modulate neuronal responses in a left-lateralized network, including the pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus, the middle temporal gyrus, the angular gyrus, and the superior frontal gyrus. We propose that these areas are involved in stimulus-driven semantic processes. In contrast, phonologically related pairs modulate neuronal responses in bilateral insula. This region is therefore implicated in the discrimination of similar, competing phonological and articulatory codes. The above effects were detected with both words and pictures and did not differ between the two modalities even with a less conservative statistical threshold. In conclusion, this study dissociates the effects of semantic and phonological relatedness between successive items during reading and naming aloud. Hum Brain Mapp, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:16767767

  2. Phonological working memory and reading in students with dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Carolina A. F.; Kida, Adriana de S. B.; Capellini, Simone A.; de Avila, Clara R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate parameters related to fluency, reading comprehension and phonological processing (operational and short-term memory) and identify potential correlation between the variables in Dyslexia and in the absence of reading difficulties. Method: One hundred and fifteen students from the third to eighth grade of elementary school were grouped into a Control Group (CG) and Group with Dyslexia (GDys). Reading of words, pseudowords and text (decoding); listening and reading comprehension; phonological short-term and working memory (repetition of pseudowords and Digit Span) were evaluated. Results: The comparison of the groups showed significant differences in decoding, phonological short-term memory (repetition of pseudowords) and answers to text-connecting questions (TC) on reading comprehension, with the worst performances identified for GDys. In this group there were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both on listening comprehension. No correlations were found between operational and short-term memory (Digit Span) and parameters of fluency and reading comprehension in dyslexia. For the sample without complaint, there were positive correlations between some parameters of reading fluency and repetition of pseudowords and also between answering literal questions in listening comprehension and repetition of digits on the direct and reverse order. There was no correlation with the parameters of reading comprehension. Conclusion: GDys and CG showed similar performance in listening comprehension and in understanding of explicit information and gap-filling inference on reading comprehension. Students of GDys showed worst performance in reading decoding, phonological short-term memory (pseudowords) and on inferences that depends on textual cohesion understanding in reading. There were negative correlations between pseudowords repetition and TC answers and total score, both in listening comprehension. PMID:25101021

  3. An Across-Frequency Processing Deficit in Listeners with Hearing Impairment Is Supported by Acoustic Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Eric W.; Kannabiran, Anand; Bacon, Sid P.

    2005-01-01

    It has been recently suggested that listeners having a sensorineural hearing impairment (HI) may possess a deficit in their ability to integrate speech information across different frequencies. When presented with a task that required across-frequency integration of speech patterns, listeners with HI performed more poorly than their normal-hearing…

  4. Information Processing and Proactive Interference in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Eichorn, Naomi; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a deficit in inhibition control, but research isolating specific abilities is scarce. The goal of this study was to examine whether children with SLI differ from their peers in resistance to proactive interference under different conditions. Method: An…

  5. Specific Language Impairment Affects the Early Spelling Process Quantitatively but Not Qualitatively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) need a special spelling education program, by examining whether the early spelling of children with SLI is quantitatively and qualitatively different from the spelling of typically developing children. Two groups of first grade children participated: 39…

  6. Anticipatory Sentence Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Evidence from Eye Movements during Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Trueswell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-five children with specific language impairment (SLI; age 5 years, 3 months [5;3]-8;2), 50 typically developing children (3;3-8;2), and 31 normal adults participated in three eye-tracking experiments of spoken language comprehension that were designed to investigate the use of verb information during real-time sentence comprehension in…

  7. A case for the involvement of phonological loop in sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Romero Lauro, Leonor J.; Reis, Janine; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Cecchetto, Carlo; Papagno, Costanza

    2010-01-01

    The specific role of the phonological loop in sentence comprehension is still a matter of debate. We tested the behavioural consequences of activity disruption in left BA 40 and BA 44, key regions of the phonological loop, on language comprehension using 1 Hz rTMS. Comprehension was assessed by means of two tasks: a sentence-to-picture matching task, with sentences varying in length and syntactic complexity (Experiment 1), and a sentence verification task (Experiment 2). rTMS over left BA40 significantly reduced accuracy for syntactically complex sentences and long, but syntactically simpler sentences, while rTMS over left BA 44 significantly reduced accuracy only for syntactically complex sentences. rTMS applied over left BA40 also impaired performance on sentences in which word order was crucial. We suggest that the neural correlates of the phonological loop, left BA40 and BA44, are both involved in the comprehension of syntactically complex sentences, while only left BA40, corresponding to the short-term store, is recruited for the comprehension of long but syntactically simple sentences. Therefore, in contrast with the dominant view, we showed that sentence comprehension is a function of the phonological loop. PMID:20969883

  8. Speech synthesis by phonological structure matching. 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Paul; Black, Alan W

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for speech synthesis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonological trees, and using a selection algorithm which ...

  9. AMAR: A Computational Model of Autosegmental Phonology

    E-print Network

    Albro, Daniel M.

    1993-10-01

    This report describes a computational system with which phonologists may describe a natural language in terms of autosegmental phonology, currently the most advanced theory pertaining to the sound systems of human ...

  10. Phonological "Deviance" in British Sign Language Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the phonological deviance of the poetry of Dorothy Miles, who composed her work in both British Sign Language and English. Analysis is based on three poems performed by Miles herself. (Author/VWL)

  11. Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Rapid Automated Naming, toward Decoding Ability in Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltani, Amanallah; Roslan, Samsilah

    2013-01-01

    Reading decoding ability is a fundamental skill to acquire word-specific orthographic information necessary for skilled reading. Decoding ability and its underlying phonological processing skills have been heavily investigated typically among developing students. However, the issue has rarely been noticed among students with intellectual…

  12. THE PROCESS OF SELF-REPORT OF IMPAIRMENT IN CLINICAL RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    LUBORSKY, MARK R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how labels for impairment are negotiated by people with disabilities during clinical assessment. It builds on Robert Murphy’s (1987) explanations of the disability experience as rooted in the individual’s sense of having multiple past, present and intended future body-selves. Using transcripts of five consecutive daily clinical research assessments, it describes the conduct of clinical research assessments with an older man with stroke-related motor impairments and dysphoria. It also examines how the researcher as Other shapes a person’s sense of identity, experience and quality of life by regulating the medical labels for personal experience, and by authoring socially authoritative scientific models of disabilities. Points of dissension (regarding identity, discourse and time perspectives) and collaboration are identified and then illustrated with excerpts from the transcripts. Analysis reveals how salient personal experiences are locally asserted in discourse, and selectively misrepresented in the clinical research record. PMID:7667650

  13. Grammatical Morpheme Effects on Sentence Processing by School-Aged Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.; Miller, Carol A.; Finneran, Denise A.

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen-year-olds with specific language impairment (SLI), nonspecific language impairment (NLI), and those showing typical language development (TD) responded to target words in sentences that were either grammatical or contained a grammatical error immediately before the target word. The TD participants showed the expected slower response times (RTs) when errors preceded the target word, regardless of error type. The SLI and NLI groups also showed the expected slowing, except when the error type involved the omission of a tense/agreement inflection. This response pattern mirrored an early developmental period of alternating between using and omitting tense/agreement inflections that is characteristic of SLI and NLI. The findings could not be readily attributed to factors such as insensitivity to omissions in general or insensitivity to the particular phonetic forms used to mark tense/agreement. The observed response pattern may represent continued difficulty with tense/agreement morphology that persists in subtle form into adolescence. PMID:19690626

  14. [Two-way deficit between phonological and arabic representation of numbers after left parieto-occipital hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Kazumi; Endo, Keiko; Okada, Kazue; Yamadori, Atsushi; Mori, Etsuro

    2011-05-01

    A 52-year-old right-handed man developed a deficit of two-way transcoding between phonological and Arabic representations of numbers after cerebral hemorrhage in the left occipital lobe, intraparietal sulcus, and the surrounding of inferior parietal lobule. He showed right hemianopia, mild Wernicke's aphasia, agraphia, and phonological dyslexia. Calculation, comparison between numbers and comprehension of arithmetic signs were almost preserved. Retrieval of the mnemonic rhymes for the multiplication table (kuku) was moderately compromised. He showed good performance in the following tasks: selecting coins corresponding to the number orally designated by the experimenter, reporting orally the amount of arranged coins, selecting coins according to written amount, indicating the amount of arranged coins by writing numbers, and choosing the amount of arranged coins from several alternatives of written numbers. Thus, encoding the phonological and visual representations of numbers from the meanings as well as decoding from these 2 representations into their meanings were preserved. However, he showed grave difficulty in dictation of numbers, in choosing the verbally indicated numbers from among a set of written numbers, and in reading aloud a number. Thus, two-way impairment of association between phonological and visual representations of numbers was confirmed. Regarding other categories of nouns, marked deterioration was detected only in dictation and writing the names of indicated objects. We taught him a strategy of imaging the coins when he transcoded from Arabic representation of numbers to phonological representation and vice versa. This strategy improved his performance to some extent. These results suggest that there is a direct, bi-directional transcoding route between phonological and visual representations of numbers, which is not mediated by semantic representation. This route can be impaired by a lesion located in the left parieto-occipital cortex. PMID:21515930

  15. Phonological Awareness and the Use of Phonological Similarity in Letter-Sound Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the phonological similarity between a letter sound and the sound in a spoken word, and phonological awareness on letter-sound learning were examined. Two groups of 41 kindergartners were taught four letter sounds. First, both groups had to learn the associations between four symbols and four familiar words. Next, both groups were…

  16. Cognitive impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy: role of online and offline processing of single cell information.

    PubMed

    Titiz, A S; Mahoney, J M; Testorf, M E; Holmes, G L; Scott, R C

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common comorbidity in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and is often considered more detrimental to quality of life than seizures. While it has been previously shown that the encoding of memory during behavior is impaired in the pilocarpine model of TLE in rats, how this information is consolidated during the subsequent sleep period remains unknown. In this study, we first report marked deficits in spatial memory performance and severe cell loss in the CA1 layer of the hippocampus lower spatial coherence of firing in TLE rats. We then present the first evidence that the reactivation of behavior-driven patterns of activity of CA1 place cells in the hippocampus is intact in TLE rats. Using a template-matching method, we discovered that real-time (3-5 s) reactivation structure was intact in TLE rats. Furthermore, we estimated the entropy rate of short time scale (?250 ms) bursting activity using block entropies and found that significant, extended temporal correlations exist in both TLE and control rats. Fitting a first-order Markov Chain model to these bursting time series, we found that long sequences derived from behavior were significantly enriched in the Markov model over corresponding models fit on randomized data confirming the presence of replay in shorter time scales. We propose that the persistent consolidation of poor spatial information in both real time and during bursting activity may contribute to memory impairments in TLE rats. PMID:24799359

  17. The Effect of Automatization of the Phonological Component on the Reading Comprehension of ESP Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Mohammad; Fat'hi, Jalil

    2011-01-01

    Prompted by the recent shift of attention from just focusing on the top-down processing in L2 reading towards considering the basic component, bottom-up processing, the role of phonological component has also enjoyed popularity among a selected circle of SLA investigators (Koda, 2005). This study investigated the effect of the automatization of…

  18. Phonological Neighborhood Effects in Spoken Word Production: An fMRI Study D. Peramunage1

    E-print Network

    Reber, Paul J.

    realization of the word. Current models also assume that at each level of processing, there is automatic (as shown by decreased processing times). For example, lexical decision latencies are slower for wordsForReview Only Phonological Neighborhood Effects in Spoken Word Production: An fMRI Study D

  19. The Acquisition of Consonant Feature Sequences: Harmony, Metathesis, and Deletion Patterns in Phonological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Sharon Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines three processes affecting consonants in child speech: harmony (long-distance assimilation) involving major place features as in "coat" [kouk]; long-distance metathesis as in "cup" [p[wedge]k]; and initial consonant deletion as in "fish" [is]. These processes are unattested in adult phonology, leading to proposals for…

  20. Neural Processing of Acoustic Duration and Phonological German Vowel Length: Time Courses of Evoked Fields in Response to Speech and Nonspeech Signals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaschek, Fabian; Truckenbrodt, Hubert; Hertrich, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    Recent experiments showed that the perception of vowel length by German listeners exhibits the characteristics of categorical perception. The present study sought to find the neural activity reflecting categorical vowel length and the short-long boundary by examining the processing of non-contrastive durations and categorical length using MEG.…

  1. Impairments in Episodic-Autobiographical Memory and Emotional and Social Information Processing in CADASIL during Mid-Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Staniloiu, Angelica; Woermann, Friedrich G.; Markowitsch, Hans J.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) – is the most common genetic source of vascular dementia in adults, being caused by a mutation in NOTCH3 gene. Spontaneous de novo mutations may occur, but their frequency is largely unknown. Ischemic strokes and cognitive impairments are the most frequent manifestations, but seizures affect up to 10% of the patients. Herein, we describe a 47-year-old male scholar with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of CADASIL (Arg133Cys mutation in the NOTCH3 gene) and a seemingly negative family history of CADASIL illness, who was investigated with a comprehensive neuropsychological testing battery and neuroimaging methods. The patient demonstrated on one hand severe and accelerated deteriorations in multiple cognitive domains such as concentration, long-term memory (including the episodic-autobiographical memory domain), problem solving, cognitive flexibility and planning, affect recognition, discrimination and matching, and social cognition (theory of mind). Some of these impairments were even captured by abbreviated instruments for investigating suspicion of dementia. On the other hand the patient still possessed high crystallized (verbal) intelligence and a capacity to put forth a façade of well-preserved intellectual functioning. Although no definite conclusions can be drawn from a single case study, our findings point to the presence of additional cognitive changes in CADASIL in middle adulthood, in particular to impairments in the episodic-autobiographical memory domain and social information processing (e.g., social cognition). Whether these identified impairments are related to the patient’s specific phenotype or to an ascertainment bias (e.g., a paucity of studies investigating these cognitive functions) requires elucidation by larger scale research. PMID:25009481

  2. Time perception, phonological skills and executive function in children with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gooch, Debbie; Snowling, Margaret; Hulme, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background Deficits in time perception (the ability to judge the duration of time intervals) have been found in children with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia. This paper investigates time perception, phonological skills and executive functions in children with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms (AS). Method Children with dyslexia-only (n = 17), AS-only (n = 17), comorbid dyslexia+AS (n = 25), and typically developing controls (n = 42), matched for age and non-verbal ability, were assessed on measures of phonological skills, executive function and time perception (duration discrimination and time reproduction). Results Children with dyslexia were impaired on measures of phonological skill and duration discrimination compared to children without dyslexia (though problems on duration discrimination appeared to be attributable to mild symptoms of inattention in this group). In contrast, children with AS exhibited impairments on measures of both time perception and executive function compared to children without AS. Children with dyslexia+AS showed an additive combination of the deficits associated with dyslexia-only and AS-only. Conclusions Dyslexia and AS appear to be associated with distinct patterns of cognitive deficit, which are present in combination in children with dyslexia+AS. PMID:20860755

  3. Tip-of-the-tongue for proper names in mild cognitive impairment. Semantic or post-semantic impairments?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Onésimo Juncos-Rabadán; Nelly Rodríguez; David Facal; José Cuba; Arturo X. Pereiro

    2011-01-01

    Difficulty in recalling the names of people is very common in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is not known whether the difficulty in naming people in MCI reflects problems associated with lexical access or with semantic access. The aims of the present study were to investigate semantic and phonological access to

  4. Models of phonology in the education of speech-language pathologists.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ryan; Ball, Martin J

    2003-01-01

    We discuss developments in theoretical phonology and, in particular, at the divide between theories aiming to be adequate accounts of the data, as opposed to those claiming psycholinguistic validity. It would seem that the latter might have greater utility for thye speech-language pathologist. However, we need to know the dominant models of clinical phonology, in both clinical education and practise, before we can promote other theoretical approaches. This article describes preliminary results from a questionnaire designed to discover what models of phonology are taught in institutions training speech-language pathologists in the United States. Results support anecdotal evidence that only a limited number of approaches (phonemic, distinctive features, and processes) are taught in many instances. They also demonstrate that some correspondents were unable to distinguish aspects of theoretical phonology from similar sounding (but radically different) models of intervention. This ties in with the results showing that some instructors of phonology courses have little or no background in the subject. PMID:12945616

  5. Detection of Phonological Features in Continuous Speech using Neural Networks 

    E-print Network

    King, Simon; Taylor, Paul

    We report work on the first component of a two stage speech recognition architecture based on phonological features rather than phones. The paper reports experimentson three phonological feature systems: 1) the Sound Pattern ...

  6. Aspects of phonetics, phonology and morphophonology of Thok Reel 

    E-print Network

    Reid, Tatiana

    2010-11-24

    of Thok Reel phonetics, phonology and morphophonology. The description follows the topics on word and syllable structure, consonants, vowels, and tone. Each section accounts for the phonological distinctions and provides the phonetic description...

  7. Orthographic and phonological neighborhood effects within a priming context

    E-print Network

    Fugett-Fuller, April

    2008-01-01

    effects of priming and of SOA. There was also a significant three-way interaction between orthographic and phonological neighborhood size and relatedness, whereby, in the related condition, words from both a small orthographic and a small phonological...

  8. Lexical learning and lexical processing in children with developmental language impairments

    PubMed Central

    Nation, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Lexical skills are a crucial component of language comprehension and production. This paper reviews evidence for lexical-level deficits in children and young people with developmental language impairment (LI). Across a range of tasks, LI is associated with reduced vocabulary knowledge in terms of both breadth and depth and difficulty with learning and retaining new words; evidence is emerging from on-line tasks to suggest that low levels of language skill are associated with differences in lexical competition in spoken word recognition. The role of lexical deficits in understanding the nature of LI is also discussed. PMID:24324231

  9. Impaired Early Attentional Processes in Parkinson’s Disease: A High-Resolution Event-Related Potentials Study

    PubMed Central

    Bocquillon, Perrine; Bourriez, Jean-Louis; Palmero-Soler, Ernesto; Defebvre, Luc; Derambure, Philippe; Dujardin, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The selection of task-relevant information requires both the focalization of attention on the task and resistance to interference from irrelevant stimuli. A previous study using the P3 component of the event-related potentials suggested that a reduced ability to resist interference could be responsible for attention disorders at early stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD), with a possible role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Methods Our objective was to better determine the origin of this impairment, by studying an earlier ERP component, the N2, and its subcomponents, as they reflect early inhibition processes and as they are known to have sources in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is involved together with the DLPFC in inhibition processes. Fifteen early-stage PD patients and 15 healthy controls (HCs) performed a three-stimulus visual oddball paradigm, consisting in detecting target inputs amongst standard stimuli, while resisting interference from distracter ones. A 128-channel electroencephalogram was recorded during this task and the generators of the N2 subcomponents were identified using standardized weighted low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (swLORETA). Results PD patients displayed fewer N2 generators than HCs in both the DLPFC and the ACC, for all types of stimuli. In contrast to controls, PD patients did not show any differences between their generators for different N2 subcomponents. Conclusion Our data suggest that impaired inhibition in PD results from dysfunction of the DLPFC and the ACC during the early stages of attentional processes. PMID:26135906

  10. Phonological bases for L2 morphological learning.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2010-08-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g., inflate - inflation) from multiple exposures. Experiment 2 further assessed children's ability to use morphological cues for syntactic categorization through exposures to novel morphologically varying forms (e.g., lutate vs. lutant) presented in the corresponding sentential positions (noun vs. verb). The third-grade EFL learners revealed emergent sensitivity to the morphological cues in the input but failed in fully processing intraword variations. The learners with poorer L1 PA were likely to encounter difficulties in identifying morphological alternation rules and in discovering the syntactic properties of L2 morphology. In addition to L1 PA, L2 vocabulary knowledge also contributed significantly to L2 morphological learning. PMID:20091121

  11. The recognition of phonologically assimilated words does not depend on specific language experience.

    PubMed

    Mitterer, Holger; Csépe, Valéria; Honbolygo, Ferenc; Blomert, Leo

    2006-05-01

    In a series of 5 experiments, we investigated whether the processing of phonologically assimilated utterances is influenced by language learning. Previous experiments had shown that phonological assimilations, such as /lean#bacon/ ? [leam bacon], are compensated for in perception. In this article, we investigated whether compensation for assimilation can occur without experience with an assimilation rule using automatic event-related potentials. Our first experiment indicated that Dutch listeners compensate for a Hungarian assimilation rule. Two subsequent experiments, however, failed to show compensation for assimilation by both Dutch and Hungarian listeners. Two additional experiments showed that this was due to the acoustic properties of the assimilated utterance, confirming earlier reports that phonetic detail is important in compensation for assimilation. Our data indicate that compensation for assimilation can occur without experience with an assimilation rule, in line with phonetic-phonological theories that assume that speech production is influenced by speech-perception abilities. PMID:21702822

  12. Phonological Defici~ncies: Effective Predictors of Future

    E-print Network

    a battery of phonological tests and a test of reading ability each year between kindergarten and first grade. The test battery was concentrated on three areas of phonological skill: V awareness of phonological in working memory, and it paired tests of these abilities with non-linguistic tests that c

  13. Relations among Socioeconomic Status, Age, and Predictors of Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Kimberly D.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Goldstein, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study simultaneously examined predictors of phonological awareness within the framework of 2 theories: the phonological distinctness hypothesis and the lexical restructuring model. Additionally, age as a moderator of the relations between predictor variables and phonological awareness was examined. Method: This cross-sectional…

  14. Early Precursor of Reading: Acquisition of Phonological Awareness Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Figen; Gul, Gozde

    2008-01-01

    Phonological awareness skills begin to develop at preschool ages and support reading skills during school ages. Studies on phonological awareness show great relationship with reading skills development. Since literacy talents such as phonological awareness and vocabulary represent future success in reading, assisting literacy skills during…

  15. Quality of Phonological Representations: A Window into the Lexicon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessen, Mary; Heath, Steve; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John; Leitao, Suze

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is a great deal of evidence to support the robust relationship between phonological awareness and literacy development. Researchers are beginning to understand the relationship between the accuracy and distinctiveness of stored phonological representations and performance on phonological awareness tasks. However, many of the…

  16. An Evaluation of the Written Texts of Children with SLI: The Contributions of Oral Language, Reading and Phonological Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackie, Clare J.; Dockrell, Julie; Lindsay, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we performed a fine grained analysis of writing by children with a specific language impairment (SLI) and examined the contribution of oral language, phonological short-term memory (STM), nonverbal ability, and word reading to three writing constructs (productivity, complexity and accuracy). Forty-six children with SLI were compared…

  17. Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-Term Memory--An Aggregate Analysis of Lesion and fMRI Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways,…

  18. Not All Phonological Awareness Tests Are Created Equal: Considering the Practical Validity of Phonological Manipulation versus Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Based upon extensive evidence, researchers have almost universally accepted that phonological awareness (also called phonological sensitivity) is strongly associated with the development of word-level reading skills, with rare voices that either deny or downplay its significance. Phonological awareness is a construct that includes the ability to…

  19. Downregulation of the microtubule associated protein Tau impairs process outgrowth and myelin basic protein mRNA transport in oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Seiberlich, Veronika; Bauer, Nina G; Schwarz, Lisa; Ffrench-Constant, Charles; Goldbaum, Olaf; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane

    2015-09-01

    Oligodendrocytes, the myelin forming cells of the CNS, are characterized by their numerous membranous extensions, which enwrap neuronal axons and form myelin sheaths. During differentiation oligodendrocytes pass different morphological stages, downregulate the expression of the proteoglycan NG2, and acquire major myelin specific proteins, such as myelin basic proteins (MBP) and proteolipid protein. MBP mRNA is transported in RNA granules along the microtubules (MTs) to the periphery and translated locally. MTs participate in the elaboration and stabilization of the myelin forming extensions and are essential for cellular sorting processes. Their dynamic properties are regulated by microtubule associated proteins (MAPs). The MAP tau is present in oligodendrocytes and involved in the regulation and stabilization of the MT network. To further elucidate the functional significance of tau in oligodendrocytes, we have downregulated tau by siRNA technology and studied the effects on cell differentiation and neuron-glia contact formation. The data show that tau knockdown impairs process outgrowth and leads to a decrease in MBP expression. Furthermore, MBP mRNA transport to distant cellular extensions is impaired and cells remain in the NG2 stage. In myelinating cocultures with dorsal root ganglion neurons, oligodendrocyte precursor cells after tau miR RNA lentiviral knockdown develop into NG2 positive cells with very long and thin processes, contacting axons loosely, but fail to form internodes. This demonstrates that tau is important for MBP mRNA transport and involved in process formation. The disturbance of the balance of tau leads to abnormalities in oligodendrocyte differentiation, neuron-glia contact formation and the early myelination process. GLIA 2015;63:1621-1635. PMID:25847153

  20. Physiologic discrimination of stop consonants relates to phonological skills in pre-readers: a biomarker for subsequent reading ability?†

    PubMed Central

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Reading development builds upon the accurate representation of the phonological structure of spoken language. This representation and its neural foundations have been studied extensively with respect to reading due to pervasive performance deficits on basic phonological tasks observed in children with dyslexia. The subcortical auditory system – a site of intersection for sensory and cognitive input – is exquisitely tuned to code fine timing differences between phonemes, and so likely plays a foundational role in the development of phonological processing and, eventually, reading. This temporal coding of speech varies systematically with reading ability in school age children. Little is known, however, about subcortical speech representation in pre-school age children. We measured auditory brainstem responses to the stop consonants [ba] and [ga] in a cohort of 4-year-old children and assessed their phonological skills. In a typical auditory system, brainstem responses to [ba] and [ga] are out of phase (i.e., differ in time) due to formant frequency differences in the consonant-vowel transitions of the stimuli. We found that children who performed worst on the phonological awareness task insufficiently code this difference, revealing a physiologic link between early phonological skills and the neural representation of speech. We discuss this finding in light of existing theories of the role of the auditory system in developmental dyslexia, and argue for a systems-level perspective for understanding the importance of precise temporal coding for learning to read. PMID:24399956

  1. Association of IFN-? Signal Transduction Defects with Impaired HLA Class I Antigen Processing in Melanoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Respa, Annedore; Bukur, Juergen; Ferrone, Soldano; Pawelec, Graham; Zhao, Yingdong; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Seliger, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Abnormalities in the constitutive and IFN-?–inducible HLA class I surface antigen expression of tumor cells is often associated with an impaired expression of components of the antigen processing machinery (APM). Hence, we analyzed whether there exists a link between the IFN-? signaling pathway, constitutive HLA class I APM component expression, and IFN-? resistance. Experimental Design The basal and IFN-?–inducible expression profiles of HLA class I APM and IFN-? signal transduction cascade components were assessed in melanoma cells by real-time PCR (RT-PCR), Western blot analysis and/or flow cytometry, the integrity of the Janus activated kinase (JAK) 2 locus by comparative genomic hybridization. JAK2 was transiently overexpressed in JAK2? cells. The effect of IFN-? on the cell growth was assessed by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-S-sulfophenynl)-H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt] assay. Results The analysis of 8 melanoma cell lines linked the IFN-? unresponsiveness of Colo 857 cells determined by lack of inducibility of HLA class I surface expression on IFN-? treatment to a deletion of JAK2 on chromosome 9, whereas other IFN-? signaling pathway components were not affected. In addition, the constitutive HLA class I APM component expression levels were significantly reduced in JAK2? cells. Furthermore, JAK2-deficient cells were also resistant to the antiproliferative effect of IFN-?. Transfection of wild-type JAK2 into JAK2? Colo 857 not only increased the basal APM expression but also restored their IFN-? sensitivity. Conclusions Impaired JAK2 expression in melanoma cells leads to reduced basal expression of MHC class I APM components and impairs their IFN-? inducibility, suggesting that malfunctional IFN-? signaling might cause HLA class I abnormalities. PMID:21248298

  2. Diffusion and Focusing: Phonological Variation and Social Networks in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salami, L. Oladipo

    1991-01-01

    Reports on the application of the concept of social network to the process of language usage among Yoruba-speaking city dwellers in Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. The study focuses on phonetic/phonological variation within common spoken Yoruba. (41 references) (GLR)

  3. Orthographic and phonological contributions to reading development: tracking developmental trajectories using masked priming.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Johannes C; Bertrand, Daisy; Lété, Bernard; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    The present study used a variant of masked priming to track the development of 2 marker effects of orthographic and phonological processing from Grade 1 through Grade 5 in a cross-sectional study. Pseudohomophone (PsH) priming served as a marker for phonological processing, whereas transposed-letter (TL) priming was a marker for coarse-grained orthographic processing. The results revealed a clear developmental picture. First, the PsH priming effect was significant and remained stable across development, suggesting that phonology not only plays an important role in early reading development but continues to exert a robust influence throughout reading development. This finding challenges the view that more advanced readers should rely less on phonological information than younger readers. Second, the TL priming effect increased monotonically with grade level and reading age, which suggests greater reliance on coarse-grained orthographic coding as children become better readers. Thus, TL priming effects seem to be a good marker effect for children's ability to use coarse-grained orthographic coding to speed up direct lexical access in alphabetic languages. The results were predicted by the dual-route model of orthographic processing, which suggests that direct orthographic access is achieved through coarse-grained orthographic coding that tolerates some degree of flexibility in letter order. PMID:24294878

  4. Decoding Ability Makes Waves in Reading: Deficient Interactions between Attention and Phonological Analysis in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savill, Nicola J.; Thierry, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Whilst there is general consensus that phonological processing is deficient in developmental dyslexia, recent research also implicates visuo-attentional contributions. Capitalising on the P3a wave of event-related potentials as an index of attentional capture, we tested dyslexic and normal readers on a novel variant of a visual oddball task to…

  5. Phonological Effects in Handwriting Production : Evidence from the Implicit Priming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afonso, Olivia; Alvarez, Carlos J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, we report 3 experiments using the odd-man-out variant of the implicit priming paradigm, aimed at determining the role played by phonological information during the handwriting process. Participants were asked to write a small set of words learned in response to prompts. Within each block, response words could share initial…

  6. Phonological and Semantic Activation in Reading Two-Kanji Compound Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Aiko; Matsuda, Fumiko

    2000-01-01

    Examined whether phonological information was activated automatically in processing two kanji compound words. In one experiment, participants judged whether pairs of words were homophones, while others judged whether pairs were synonyms. In the second, participants were asked to make one of the two judgments, as in experiment one. Findings support…

  7. The Studies about Phonological Deficit Theory in Children with Developmental Dyslexia: Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emrah Caylak

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Developmental Dyslexia (DD) or Reading Disability (RD) that was part of a larger heterogeneous group of learning di sorders and characterized by unexpected problems in academic performance, despite average intelligence. Approach: Current opinions on the biological basis of dyslexia pointed to problems with phonolog ical processing deficits with resulting poor phonemic awareness. Though there was much support for

  8. Modeling the Length Effect: Specifying the Relation with Visual and Phonological Correlates of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Boer, Madelon; de Jong, Peter F.; Haentjens-van Meeteren, Marleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning readers' reading latencies increase as words become longer. This length effect is believed to be a marker of a serial reading process. We examined the effects of visual and phonological skills on the length effect. Participants were 184 second-grade children who read 3- to 5-letter words and nonwords. Results indicated that reading…

  9. The Roles of Semantic and Phonological Information in Word Production: Evidence from Spanish-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennison, Shelia M.; Fernandez, Elaine C.; Bowers, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    The research investigated the roles of semantic and phonological processing in word production. Spanish-English bilingual individuals produced English target words when cued with definitions that were also written in English. When the correct word was not produced, a secondary task was performed in which participants rated the ease of…

  10. Fine-Tuned: Phonology and Semantics Affect First- to Second-Language Zooming In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elston-Guttler, Kerrie E.; Gunter, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how L1 phonology and semantics affect processing of interlingual homographs by manipulating language context before, and auditory input during, a visual experiment in the L2. Three experiments contained German-English homograph primes ("gift" = German "poison") in English sentences and was performed by German (L1) learners of…

  11. Time course analyses of orthographic and phonological priming effects during word recognition in a transparent orthography.

    PubMed

    Zeguers, M H T; Snellings, P; Huizenga, H M; van der Molen, M W

    2014-10-01

    In opaque orthographies, the activation of orthographic and phonological codes follows distinct time courses during visual word recognition. However, it is unclear how orthography and phonology are accessed in more transparent orthographies. Therefore, we conducted time course analyses of masked priming effects in the transparent Dutch orthography. The first study used targets with small phonological differences between phonological and orthographic primes, which are typical in transparent orthographies. Results showed consistent orthographic priming effects, yet phonological priming effects were absent. The second study explicitly manipulated the strength of the phonological difference and revealed that both orthographic and phonological priming effects became identifiable when phonological differences were strong enough. This suggests that, similar to opaque orthographies, strong phonological differences are a prerequisite to separate orthographic and phonological priming effects in transparent orthographies. Orthographic and phonological priming appeared to follow distinct time courses, with orthographic codes being quickly translated into phonological codes and phonology dominating the remainder of the lexical access phase. PMID:24456311

  12. Phonological or orthographic training for children with phonological or orthographic decoding deficits.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Stefan; Ferreira, Janna; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2007-08-01

    In a longitudinal intervention study, Swedish reading disabled children in grades 2-3 received either a phonological (n = 41) or an orthographic (n = 39) training program. Both programs were computerized and interventions took place in ordinary school settings with trained special instruction teachers. Two comparison groups, ordinary special instruction and normal readers, were also included in the study. Results showed strong average training effects on text reading and general word decoding for both phonological and orthographic training, but not significantly higher improvements than for the comparison groups. The main research finding was a double dissociation: children with pronounced phonological problems improved their general word decoding skill more from phonological than from orthographic training, whereas the opposite was observed for children with pronounced orthographic problems. Thus, in this population of children, training should focus on children's relative weakness rather than their relative strength in word decoding. PMID:17624906

  13. Impaired reward processing by anterior cingulate cortex in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, Akina; Lukie, Carmen N; Kerns, Kimberly A; Müller, Ulrich; Holroyd, Clay B

    2014-06-01

    Decades of research have examined the neurocognitive mechanisms of cognitive control, but the motivational factors underlying task selection and performance remain to be elucidated. We recently proposed that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) utilizes reward prediction error signals carried by the midbrain dopamine system to learn the value of tasks according to the principles of hierarchical reinforcement learning. According to this position, disruption of the ACC-dopamine interface can disrupt the selection and execution of extended, task-related behaviors. To investigate this issue, we recorded the event-related brain potential (ERP) from children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is strongly associated with ACC-dopamine dysfunction, and from typically developing children while they navigated a simple "virtual T-maze" to find rewards. Depending on the condition, the feedback stimuli on each trial indicated that the children earned or failed to earn either money or points. We found that the reward positivity, an ERP component proposed to index the impact of dopamine-related reward signals on ACC, was significantly larger with money feedback than with points feedback for the children with ADHD, but not for the typically developing children. These results suggest that disruption of the ACC-dopamine interface may underlie the impairments in motivational control observed in childhood ADHD. PMID:24874420

  14. Auditory processing deficits in children with reading and language impairments: can they (and should they) be treated?

    PubMed

    McArthur, G M; Ellis, D; Atkinson, C M; Coltheart, M

    2008-06-01

    Sixty-five children with specific reading disability (SRD), 25 children with specific language impairment (SLI), and 37 age-matched controls were tested for their frequency discrimination, rapid auditory processing, vowel discrimination, and consonant-vowel discrimination. Subgroups of children with SRD or SLI produced abnormal frequency discrimination (42%), rapid auditory processing (12%), vowel discrimination (23%), or consonant-vowel discrimination (18%) thresholds for their age. Twenty-eight of these children trained on a programme that targeted their specific auditory processing deficit for 6 weeks. Twenty-five of these 28 trainees produced normal thresholds for their targeted processing skill after training. These gains were not explained by gains in auditory attention, in the ability to do psychophysical tasks in general, or by test-retest effects. The 25 successful trainees also produced significantly higher scores on spoken language and spelling tests after training. However, an untrained control group showed test-retest effects on the same tests. These results suggest that auditory processing deficits can be treated successfully in children with SRD and SLI but that this does not help them acquire new reading, spelling, or spoken language skills. PMID:18262177

  15. Arch Gen Psychiatry . Author manuscript Preserved subliminal processing and impaired conscious access in

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ; Neuropsychological Tests ; statistics & numerical data ; Perceptual Masking ; physiology ; Psychomotor Performance-up visual processing." " Objectives We tested the hypothesis that the backward masking deficit

  16. Changes in Inflammatory Processes Associated With Selective Vulnerability Following Mild Impairment of Oxidative Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Karuppagounder, Saravanan S.; Shi, Qingli; Xu, Hui; Gibson, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in oxidative metabolism and reductions of thiamine-dependent enzymes accompany many age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Thiamine deficiency (TD) produces a cascade of events including mild impairment of oxidative metabolism, activation of microglia, astrocytes and endothelial cells that leads to neuronal loss in select brain regions. The earliest changes occur in a small, well-defined brain region, the submedial thalamic nucleus (SmTN). In the present study, a micropunch technique was used to evaluate quantitatively the selective regional changes in mRNA and protein levels. To test whether this method can distinguish between changes in vulnerable and non-vulnerable regions, markers for neuronal loss (NeuN) and endothelial cells (eNOS) and inflammation (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?) in SmTN and cortex of control and TD mice were assessed. TD significantly reduced NeuN and increased CD11b, GFAP and ICAM-1 immunoreactivity in SmTN as revealed by immunocytochemistry. When assessed on samples obtained by the micropunch method, NeuN protein declined (-49%), while increased mRNA levels were observed for eNOS (3.7 fold), IL-1? (43 fold), IL-6 (44 fold) and TNF-? (64 fold) in SmTN with TD. The only TD-induced change that occurred in cortex with TD was an increase in TNF-? (22 fold) mRNA levels. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? protein levels increased in TD brains and colocalized with glial markers. The consistency of these quantitative results with immunocytochemical measurements validates the micropunch technique. The results demonstrate that TD induces quantitative, distinct inflammatory responses and oxidative stress in vulnerable and non-vulnerable regions that may underlie selective vulnerability. PMID:17398105

  17. Cantonese loanword phonology and optimality theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yip Moira

    1993-01-01

    I will argue that loanword phonology in Cantonese does not exist as a separate component of the grammar and that the differences between English language source forms and their Cantonese equivalents can be understood as the result of subjecting non-native inputs to the constraints that define well-formed Cantonese words. I adopt Silverman's proposal that Cantonese speakers do not perceive all

  18. Perspectives on Interlanguage Phonetics and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroy, Rafael, Ed.; Gutierrez, Francisco, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this special issue include the following: "Allophonic Splits in L2 Phonology: The Questions of Learnability" (Fred R. Eckman, Abdullah Elreyes, Gregory K. Iverson); "Native Language Influence in Learners' Assessment of English Focus" (M. L. Garcia Lecumberri); "Obstruent Voicing in English and Polish. A Pedagogical Perspective" (Wiktor…

  19. Phonological Precedence in Dyslexia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider-Zioga, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is believed to involve a phonological deficit of which the exact properties have not been clearly established. This article presents the findings of a longitudinal case study that suggest that, at least for some people with dyslexia, the fundamental problem involves a disturbance of temporal-spatial ordering abilities. A…

  20. Persistence of Dyslexics' Phonological Awareness Deficits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maggie Bruck

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the phonological awareness skills of dyslexic children, adults with childhood diagnoses of dyslexia, and good readers at various age levels. Comparisons of the dyslexics to good readers of the same age or the same reading level indicated that dyslexics do not acquire appropriate levels of phoneme awareness, regardless of their age or reading levels, although they eventually

  1. Modulation of Brain Activity during Phonological Familiarization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, S.; Van der Linden, M.; Collette, F.; Laureys, S.; Poncelet, M.; Degueldre, C.; Delfiore, G.; Luxen, A.; Salmon, E.

    2005-01-01

    We measured brain activity in 12 adults for the repetition of auditorily presented words and nonwords, before and after repeated exposure to their phonological form. The nonword phoneme combinations were either of high (HF) or low (LF) phonotactic frequency. After familiarization, we observed, for both word and nonword conditions, decreased…

  2. Stuttering, Cluttering, and Phonological Complexity: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaSalle, Lisa R.; Wolk, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    The phonological complexity of dysfluencies in those who clutter and/or stutter may help us better understand phonetic factors in these two types of fluency disorders. In this preliminary investigation, cases were three 14-year-old males, diagnosed as a Stutterer, a Clutterer, and a Stutterer-Clutterer. Spontaneous speech samples were transcribed,…

  3. Levels of Phonological Awareness in Three Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Bialystok, Ellen; Chong, Karen K. Y.; Li, Yanping

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on syllable phoneme onset levels of phonological awareness in relation to reading of Chinese and English in kindergarten and first-grade children from Xian (China), Hong Kong, and Toronto, cultures that differ substantially in approaches to reading instruction. English syllable awareness among native Chinese speakers was as good…

  4. How Abstract Is English Vowel Phonology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Robert

    This paper addresses itself to the question of whether the high degree of abstractness in Chomsky's and Halle's analysis of English vowels is justified. Secondarily, two related topics are discussed: (1) limitations on the tongue-height features [+low] and [+high] and (2) the role of rule features in phonological rules. Numerous examples of a more…

  5. Topics in Mocho' Phonology and Morphology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palosaari, Naomi Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a grammatical description of several features of the morphology and phonology of the Mocho' language. Mocho' (Motozintleco) is a moribund Mayan language spoken in the Chiapas region of Mexico near the border of Guatemala. This dissertation, based on data collected during several field trips and supplemented with unpublished…

  6. Lexical and Phrasal Phonology of Yoruba Nouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folarin, Antonia Y.

    A detailed analysis of nouns derived from Noun + Noun structures in the African language Yoruba is presented. These nouns are categorized into two types: compound and phrasal nouns. Assuming some of the basic principles of lexical phonology, it is argued that compound nouns should be derived in the lexicon, while phrasal nouns are derived in the…

  7. Teaching the Phonology via Articulatory Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erazmus, Edward T.

    The failure of the phonological approach in establishing native-like speech in the learner is examined in connection with new knowledge derived from articulatory setting theory. This theory is based on the work of Honikman (1964) who demonstrated that there is an intimate relationship between the tongue and teeth in speech production.…

  8. Rational Transductions for Phonetic Conversion and Phonology

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Rational Transductions for Phonetic Conversion and Phonology Eric Laporte Institut Gaspard-Monge France laporte@univ-mlv.fr August 1995 Abstract Phonetic conversion, and other conversion problems related to phonetics, can be performed by nite-state tools. We present a nite-state conversion system, Bi

  9. The Phonology and Phonetics of Tone Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramadoss, Deepti

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies the perception of tones in Thai, and aims to contribute to a formal characterization of speech perception more generally. Earlier work had argued that perception of tones involves retrieval of some abstract "autosegmental" representation provided by the phonology, while another line of work had argued for the…

  10. The Complexities of Complex Memory Span: Storage and Processing Deficits in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the verbal and visuospatial processing and storage skills of children with SLI and typically developing children. Fourteen school-age children with SLI, and two groups of typically developing children matched either for age or language abilities, completed measures of processing speed and storage capacity, and a set of…

  11. Temporal Processing Impairment in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jia; Yang, Bin-rang; Zou, Xiao-bing; Jing, Jin; Pen, Gang; McAlonan, Grainne M.; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate temporal processing in Chinese children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) using time production, time reproduction paradigm and duration discrimination tasks. A battery of tests specifically designed to measure temporal processing was administered to 94 children with ADHD and 100…

  12. Trichotomous Processes in Early Memory Development, Aging, and Neurocognitive Impairment: A Unified Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Howe, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most extensively investigated topics in the adult memory literature, dual memory processes, has had virtually no impact on the study of early memory development. The authors remove the key obstacles to such research by formulating a trichotomous theory of recall that combines the traditional dual processes of recollection and…

  13. Toward an executive origin for acquired phonological dyslexia: a case of specific deficit of context-sensitive grapheme-to- phoneme conversion rules.

    PubMed

    Auclair-Ouellet, Noémie; Fossard, Marion; St-Pierre, Marie-Catherine; Macoir, Joël

    2013-01-01

    Phonological dyslexia is a written language disorder characterized by poor reading of nonwords when compared with relatively preserved ability in reading real words. In this study, we report the case of FG, a 74-year-old man with phonological dyslexia. The nature and origin of his reading impairment were assessed using tasks involving activation and explicit manipulation of phonological representations as well as reading of words and nonwords in which the nature and complexity of grapheme-to-phoneme conversion rules (GPC rules) were manipulated. FG also underwent an extensive neuropsychological assessment battery in which he showed impaired performance in tests exploring verbal working memory and executive functions. FG showed no phonological impairment, and his performance was also largely unimpaired for reading words, with no effect of concreteness, grammatical class, morphological complexity, length or nature and complexity of the GPC rules. However, he showed substantial difficulties when asked to read nonwords with contextual GPC rules. The contribution of FG's executive deficits to his performance in reading is discussed. PMID:22713417

  14. What Phonological Facilitation Tells about Semantic Interference: A Dual-Task Study

    PubMed Central

    Ayora, Pauline; Peressotti, Francesca; Alario, F.-Xavier; Mulatti, Claudio; Pluchino, Patrick; Job, Remo; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in the topic, the extent to which linguistic processing demands attentional resources remains poorly understood. We report an empirical re-examination of claims about lexical processing made on the basis of the picture–word interference task when merged in a dual-task psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm. Two experiments were conducted in which participants were presented with a tone followed, at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), by a picture–word stimulus. In Experiment 1, the phonological relatedness between pictures and words was manipulated. Begin- and end-related words decreased picture naming latencies relative to unrelated words. This effect was additive with SOA effects. In Experiment 2, both the semantic and the phonological relatedness between pictures and words were manipulated. Replicating Experiment 1, effects arising from the phonological manipulation were additive with SOA effects on picture naming latencies. In contrast, effects arising from the semantic manipulation were under additive with SOA effects on picture naming latencies, that is, semantic interference decreased as SOA was decreased. Such contrastive pattern suggests that semantic and phonological effects on picture naming latencies are characterized by distinguishable sources, the former prior to the PRP bottleneck and the latter at the PRP bottleneck or after. The present findings are discussed in relation to current models of language production. PMID:21716584

  15. Basic Auditory Processing and Developmental Dyslexia in Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Huss, Martina; Hamalainen, Jarmo A.; Goswami, Usha

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between basic auditory processing of sound rise time, frequency, duration and intensity, phonological skills (onset-rime and tone awareness, sound blending, RAN, and phonological memory) and reading disability in Chinese. A series of psychometric, literacy, phonological, auditory, and character…

  16. Sensory Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Keating; R. Neill Hadder

    Anthropological studies of sensory impairment address biological conditions and cultural disablement while contributing to theoretical discussions of cultural competence, communicative practices, the role of narrative, and features of identity, ideologies, and technology. As boundary cases, impairments can disclose essential aspects of the senses in human life. Sensory impairment studies navigate the complexities of comparing dominant sensory discourses with individual sense

  17. Sensory Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Keating; R. Neill Hadder

    2010-01-01

    Anthropological studies of sensory impairment address biological conditions and cultural disablement while contributing to theoretical discussions of cultural competence, communicative practices, the role of narrative, and features of identity, ideologies, and technology. As boundary cases, impairments can disclose essential aspects of the senses in human life. Sensory impairment studies navigate the complexities of comparing dominant sensory discourses with individual sense

  18. Acoustics and sociolinguistics: Patterns of communication in hearing impairing classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKellin, William; Shahin, Kimary; Jamieson, Janet; Hodgson, Murray; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen

    2005-04-01

    In elementary school classes, noise during student led activities is often taken as evidence of successful interaction and learning. In this complex social environment of elementary school classrooms, acquisition of complex language and social skills-the focus of activities in early education-is expected to take place in hearing-hostile environments. Communication and language processing in these contexts requires interactive strategies, discourse forms, and syntactic structures different from the educationally desired forms used in acoustically advantageous environments. Recordings were made of the interaction of groups of students in grades 1-3, 5, and 7 during collaborative group work in their regular classrooms. Each student wore microphones at the ear level and head-mounted video cameras. Each group as a whole was also audio- and videotaped and noise level readings were recorded. Analysis of the acoustical and phonological properties of language heard by each student has demonstrated that the language variety used in these noisy and reverberant settings is similar to that of individuals with hearing impairments. This paper reports similarities between the syntactic structures and pragmatic strategies used by hearing impaired children and normally hearing children in noisy contexts. [Work supported by Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, University of British Columbia.

  19. Do statistical segmentation abilities predict lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic abilities in children with and without SLI?

    PubMed Central

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the predictions of the procedural deficit hypothesis by investigating the relationship between sequential statistical learning and two aspects of lexical ability, lexical-phonological and lexical-semantic, in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Participants included 40 children (ages 8;5–12;3), 20 children with SLI and 20 with typical development. Children completed Saffran’s statistical word segmentation task, a lexical-phonological access task (gating task), and a word definition task. Poor statistical learners were also poor at managing lexical-phonological competition during the gating task. However, statistical learning was not a significant predictor of semantic richness in word definitions. The ability to track statistical sequential regularities may be important for learning the inherently sequential structure of lexical-phonology, but not as important for learning lexical-semantic knowledge. Consistent with the procedural/declarative memory distinction, the brain networks associated with the two types of lexical learning are likely to have different learning properties. PMID:23425593

  20. Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata with Steamed and Fermented Process on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.

    PubMed

    Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hee-Chul; Chung, Jae Youn; Ma, Choong Je

    2013-09-30

    Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) traditionally have been used as a tonic and to treat patients with lung abscesses. Recently, it was proposed that the extract and some compounds isolated from C. lanceolata reversed scopolamine-induced memory and learning deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the improvement of cognitive enhancing effect of C. lanceolata by steam and fermentation process in scopolamine-induced memory impairment mice models by passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. The extract of C. lanceolata or the extract of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFCE) was orally administered to male mice at the doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight. As a result, mice treated with steamed and fermented C. lanceolata extract (SFCE) (300 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) showed shorter escape latencies than those with C. lanceolata extract or the scopolamine-administered group in Morris water maze test. Also, it exerted longer step-through latency time than scopolamine treated group in passive avoidance test. Furthermore, neuroprotective effect of SFCE on glutamate-induced cytotoxicity was assessed in HT22 cells. Only SFCE-treated cells showed significant protection at 500 ?g/ml. Interestingly, steamed C. lanceolata with fermentation contained more phenolic acid including gallic acid and vanillic acid than original C. lanceolata. Collectively, these results suggest that steam and fermentation process of C. lanceolata increased cognitive enhancing activity related to the memory processes and neuroprotective effect than original C. lanceolata. PMID:24244829

  1. Defective Number Module or Impaired Access? Numerical Magnitude Processing in First Graders with Mathematical Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Smedt, Bert; Gilmore, Camilla K.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined numerical magnitude processing in first graders with severe and mild forms of mathematical difficulties, children with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) and children with low achievement (LA) in mathematics, respectively. In total, 20 children with MLD, 21 children with LA, and 41 regular achievers completed a numerical…

  2. Spontaneous but Not Explicit Processing of Positive Sentences Impaired in Asperger's Syndrome: Pupillometric Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, Lars; Schneider, Dana; Kotz, Sonja A.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional prosody provides important cues for understanding the emotions of others in every day communication. Asperger's syndrome (AS) is a developmental disorder characterised by pronounced deficits in socio-emotional communication, including difficulties in the domain of prosody processing. We measured pupillary responses as an index of…

  3. Auditory Working Memory Load Impairs Visual Ventral Stream Processing: Toward a Unified Model of Attentional Load

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Klemen; Christian Büchel; Mira Bühler; Mareike M. Menz; Michael Rose

    2010-01-01

    Attentional interference between tasks performed in parallel is known to have strong and often undesired effects. As yet, however, the mechanisms by which interference operates remain elusive. A better knowledge of these processes may facilitate our understanding of the effects of attention on human performance and the debilitating consequences that disruptions to attention can have. According to the load theory

  4. Auditory Working Memory Load Impairs Visual Ventral Stream Processing: Toward a Unified Model of Attentional Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemen, Jane; Buchel, Christian; Buhler, Mira; Menz, Mareike M.; Rose, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Attentional interference between tasks performed in parallel is known to have strong and often undesired effects. As yet, however, the mechanisms by which interference operates remain elusive. A better knowledge of these processes may facilitate our understanding of the effects of attention on human performance and the debilitating consequences…

  5. Altered Evoked Gamma-Band Responses Reveal Impaired Early Visual Processing in ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Daniel; Krauel, Kerstin; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Schadow, Jeanette; Hinrichs, Hermann; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2010-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies yield contrary results whether attentional problems of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to early visual processing deficits or not. Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs), being among the first cortical responses occurring as early as 90 ms after visual stimulation in human EEG, have…

  6. Processing Limitations in Children With Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Executive Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancie Im-Bolter; Janice Johnson; Juan Pascual-Leone

    2006-01-01

    tempted to evaluate more precisely the hypothesis that children with SLI have limited processing capacity. We investigated mental attentional (M) capacity and other cognitive resources (inhibition, updating of working memory, and shifting mental sets) in children with SLI and children with normally developing language (NL), within a comprehensive theoretical framework (Pascual-Leone's theory of constructive operators (TCO)), to determine how these

  7. A Selective Impairment in the Processing of Sad and Fearful Expressions in Children with Psychopathic Tendencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. R. Blair; E. Colledge; L. Murray; D. G. V. Mitchell

    2001-01-01

    The processing of emotional expressions is fundamental for normal socialisation and interaction. Reduced responsiveness to the expressions of sadness and fear has been implicated in the development of psychopathy (R. J. R. Blair, 1995). The current study investigates the sensitivity of children with psychopathic tendencies to facial expressions. Children with psychopathic tendencies and a comparison group, as defined by the

  8. Beyond Words: Phonological Short-Term Memory and Syntactic Impairment in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of nonword repetition in children goes back at least to 1974, when the Goldman-Fristoe-Woodcock Auditory Skills Battery was published, including a subtest (Sound Mimicry) assessing nonword repetition (Goldman, Fristoe, & Woodcock, 1974). Nevertheless, it was not until 20 years later, when Gathercole and Baddeley (1990) reported a…

  9. CLEARPOND: Cross-Linguistic Easy-Access Resource for Phonological and Orthographic Neighborhood Densities

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Viorica; Bartolotti, James; Chabal, Sarah; Shook, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated cross-linguistic, cross-modal, and task-dependent differences in neighborhood density effects, indicating a need to control for neighborhood variables when developing and interpreting research on language processing. The goals of the present paper are two-fold: (1) to introduce CLEARPOND (Cross-Linguistic Easy-Access Resource for Phonological and Orthographic Neighborhood Densities), a centralized database of phonological and orthographic neighborhood information, both within and between languages, for five commonly-studied languages: Dutch, English, French, German, and Spanish; and (2) to show how CLEARPOND can be used to compare general properties of phonological and orthographic neighborhoods across languages. CLEARPOND allows researchers to input a word or list of words and obtain phonological and orthographic neighbors, neighborhood densities, mean neighborhood frequencies, word lengths by number of phonemes and graphemes, and spoken-word frequencies. Neighbors can be defined by substitution, deletion, and/or addition, and the database can be queried separately along each metric or summed across all three. Neighborhood values can be obtained both within and across languages, and outputs can optionally be restricted to neighbors of higher frequency. To enable researchers to more quickly and easily develop stimuli, CLEARPOND can also be searched by features, generating lists of words that meet precise criteria, such as a specific range of neighborhood sizes, lexical frequencies, and/or word lengths. CLEARPOND is freely-available to researchers and the public as a searchable, online database and for download at http://clearpond.northwestern.edu. PMID:22916227

  10. The neural bases of the pseudohomophone effect: Phonological constraints on lexico-semantic access in reading.

    PubMed

    Braun, M; Hutzler, F; Münte, T F; Rotte, M; Dambacher, M; Richlan, F; Jacobs, A M

    2015-06-01

    We investigated phonological processing in normal readers to answer the question to what extent phonological recoding is active during silent reading and if or how it guides lexico-semantic access. We addressed this issue by looking at pseudohomophone and baseword frequency effects in lexical decisions with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed greater activation in response to pseudohomophones than for well-controlled pseudowords in the left inferior/superior frontal and middle temporal cortex, left insula, and left superior parietal lobule. Furthermore, we observed a baseword frequency effect for pseudohomophones (e.g., FEAL) but not for pseudowords (e.g., FEEP). This baseword frequency effect was qualified by activation differences in bilateral angular and left supramarginal, and bilateral middle temporal gyri for pseudohomophones with low- compared to high-frequency basewords. We propose that lexical decisions to pseudohomophones involves phonology-driven lexico-semantic activation of their basewords and that this is converging neuroimaging evidence for automatically activated phonological representations during silent reading in experienced readers. PMID:25805695

  11. Semantic priming is affected by real-time phonological competition: evidence for continuous cascading systems.

    PubMed

    Apfelbaum, Keith S; Blumstein, Sheila E; McMurray, Bob

    2011-02-01

    Lexical-semantic access is affected by the phonological structure of the lexicon. What is less clear is whether such effects are the result of continuous activation between lexical form and semantic processing or whether they arise from a more modular system in which the timing of accessing lexical form determines the timing of semantic activation. This study examined this issue using the visual world paradigm by investigating the time course of semantic priming as a function of the number of phonological competitors. Critical trials consisted of high or low density auditory targets (e.g., horse) and a visual display containing a target, a semantically related object (e.g., saddle), and two phonologically and semantically unrelated objects (e.g., chimney, bikini). Results showed greater magnitude of priming for semantically related objects of low than of high density words, and no differences for high and low density word targets in the time course of looks to the word semantically related to the target. This pattern of results is consistent with models of cascading activation, which predict that lexical activation has continuous effects on the level of semantic activation, with no delays in the onset of semantic activation for phonologically competing words. PMID:21327343

  12. A single stage approach to learning phonological categories: Insights from Inuktitut

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Brian; Dunbar, Ewan; Idsardi, William

    2014-01-01

    To acquire one’s native phonological system, language-specific phonological categories and relationships must be extracted from the input. The acquisition of the categories and relationships have each in their own right been the focus of intense research. However, it is remarkable that research on the acquisition of categories and the relations between them have proceeded, for the most part, independent of one another. We argue that this has led to the implicit view that phonological acquisition is a ‘two-stage’ process: phonetic categories are first acquired, and then subsequently mapped onto abstract phoneme categories. We present simulations that suggest two problems with this view: first, the learner might mistake the phoneme-level categories for phonetic-level categories and thus be unable to learn the relationships between phonetic-level categories; on the other hand, the learner might construct inaccurate phonetic-level representations that prevent it from finding regular relations among them. We suggest an alternative conception of the phonological acquisition problem that sidesteps this apparent inevitability, and acquires phonemic categories in a single stage. Using acoustic data from Inuktitut, we show that this model reliably converges on a set of phoneme-level categories and phonetic-level relations among subcategories, without making use of a lexicon. PMID:23137418

  13. Are coffee and toffee served in a cup? Ortho-phonologically mediated associative priming.

    PubMed

    Duñabeitia, Jon Andoni; Carreiras, Manuel; Perea, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    We report three masked associative priming experiments with the lexical decision task that explore whether the initial activation flow of a visually presented word activates the semantic representations of that word's orthographic/phonological neighbours. The predictions of cascades and serial/modular models of lexical processing differ widely in this respect. Using a masked priming paradigm (stimulus onset asynchrony, SOA = 50 ms), words preceded by ortho-phonologically mediated associated "neighbours" (oveja-MIEL, the Spanish for sheep-HONEY; note that oveja is a phonological neighbour of abeja, the Spanish for bee) were recognized more rapidly than words preceded by an unrelated word prime (Experiments 1 and 3). Furthermore, the magnitude of the ortho-phonologically mediated priming effect (oveja-MIEL) was similar to the magnitude of the associative priming effect (abeja-MIEL). With visible primes and a 250-ms SOA, only the directly associated words showed a priming effect (Experiment 2). These findings pose some problems for a modular account and are more easily interpreted in terms of cascaded models. PMID:19031156

  14. Central correlates of impaired information processing in people with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, Ilario; Tran, Yvonne; Wijesuriya, Nirupama; Craig, Ashley

    2013-02-01

    This investigation examined the impact of spinal cord injury (SCI) on task-relevant processing using event-related potentials. Thirty-seven participants with chronic SCI and 37 healthy able-bodied controls were tested in this study. An auditory two-tone button press oddball discrimination paradigm was used to evoke the N100, P200, N200, and P300 components of the event-related potential. During the early sensory/perceptual stages of target stimulus processing, the SCI group showed an earlier right posterior P200 latency relative to the controls. In the later more cognitive stages, a pattern of diminished left and right posterior P300 amplitude was also evident. This was further coupled with increased false-positive errors and greater variability of response time in the SCI group. The results of this study indicate that people with SCI show disturbances in inhibitory function and alterations in both early perceptual encoding processes and in later executive functioning that engages contextual/memory-updating operations. PMID:23377444

  15. Do children with Specific Language Impairment use different problem-solving strategies from their typically developing peers? Does processing capacity play a

    E-print Network

    Abstract Do children with Specific Language Impairment use different problem-solving strategies? If strategy use depends on processing capacity, then children with SLI should use less mature strategies than investigated these ideas in a study of children's abilities to determine "what comes next" in pattern

  16. Real-Time Sentence Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Contribution of Lexicosemantic, Syntactic, and World-Knowledge Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizzioli, Fabrizio; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated how lexicosemantic information, syntactic information, and world knowledge are integrated in the course of oral sentence processing in children with specific language impairment (SLI) as compared to children with typical language development. A primed lexical-decision task was used where participants had to make a…

  17. Sensory Processing of Backward-Masking Signals in Children with Language-Learning Impairment as Assessed with the Auditory Brainstem Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marler, Jeffrey A.; Champlin, Craig A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possible contribution of sensory mechanisms to an auditory processing deficit shown by some children with language-learning impairment (LLI). Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were measured from 2 groups of school-aged (8-10 years) children. One group consisted of 10 children with LLI, and the other…

  18. Brief Report: Atypical Social Cognition and Social Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder--A Different Way of Processing Rather than an Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kate; Kirk, Ian

    2008-01-01

    A central question to autism research is whether autism is largely the result of an impairment in social cognition and/or motivation or the result of a more general processing difference. This review discusses problems with the "social deficit" model of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is suggested that superior attention to low-level perceptual…

  19. Failing to get the gist of what's being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, John E.; Ljung, Robert; Nöstl, Anatole; Threadgold, Emma; Campbell, Tom A.

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a “gap” between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg et al., 2008). Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore…) was associated with a “critical” lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep). Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26052289

  20. Failing to get the gist of what's being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Marsh, John E; Ljung, Robert; Nöstl, Anatole; Threadgold, Emma; Campbell, Tom A

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a "gap" between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg et al., 2008). Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore…) was associated with a "critical" lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep). Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:26052289

  1. Thought disorder in schizophrenia: impairment in contextual processing via integrative failures in cognition.

    PubMed

    Patniyot, Nicholas S

    2011-10-01

    Formal thought disorder is a critical dysfunction in schizophrenia whose cause remains uncertain, but whose explanation may greatly further our understanding of the disease. Thought disorder in patients with schizophrenia has been hypothesized to involve a disturbance in the internal representation of context. Positive symptoms of schizophrenia attributable to thought disorder display a lack of organization that may be accounted for by an absence of normal contextual processing occurring within the operations of the executive system. But the precise nature and pervasiveness of the deficient cognitive operation remain undistinguished. It is proposed here that the assimilatory functions of the brain appear to lack the ability to perform a particular type of integrative operation when presented with heterogeneous information. This deficit involves committing cognitive misattributions through a confusion of mental terms via a process in thought analogous to a linguistic failure to correctly interpret deictic referents. Both proposed deficits in mental deixis and analogous "metarepresentational" deficits in schizophrenia potentially involve a failure to draw information for a conclusion from a separate framework of relations in integrative fashion. These deficits appear to involve a failure to take an interpreted piece of information as an output from a particular mental task and incorporate it into a new operational scheme, and a central attribute to the deficit is that there is a loss of an effective or adequate integration of separate strata of information. Potential neurobiological correlates to such a system based on current knowledge about schizophrenia neurocircuitry, as well as implications for testing, are also discussed. PMID:21752552

  2. The effects of context processing on social cognition impairments in adults with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baez, Sandra; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition-the basis of all communicative and otherwise interpersonal relationships-is embedded in specific contextual circumstances which shape intrinsic meanings. This domain is compromised in the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), including Asperger's syndrome (AS) (DSM-V). However, the few available reports of social cognition skills in adults with AS have largely neglected the effects of contextual factors. Moreover, previous studies on this population have also failed to simultaneously (a) assess multiple social cognition domains, (b) examine executive functions, (c) follow strict sample selection criteria, and (d) acknowledge the cognitive heterogeneity typical of the disorder. The study presently reviewed (Baez et al., 2012), addressed all these aspects in order to establish the basis of social cognition deficits in adult AS patients. Specifically, we assessed the performance of AS adults in multiple social cognition tasks with different context-processing requirements. The results suggest that social cognition deficits in AS imply a reduced ability to implicitly encode and integrate contextual cues needed to access social meaning. Nevertheless, the patients' performance was normal when explicit social information was presented or when the situation could be navigated with abstract rules. Here, we review the results of our study and other relevant data, and discuss their implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AS and other neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, frontotemporal dementia). Finally, we analyze previous results in the light of a current neurocognitive model of social-context processing. PMID:25232301

  3. Influences of the Aging Process on Acute Perioperative Pain Management in Elderly and Cognitively Impaired Patients

    PubMed Central

    Halaszynski, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background The aging process results in physiological deterioration and compromise along with a reduction in the reserve capacity of the human body. Because of the reduced reserves of mammalian organ systems, perioperative stressors may result in compromise of physiologic function or clinical evidence of organ insult secondary to surgery and anesthesia. The purpose of this review is to present evidence-based indications and best practice techniques for perioperative pain management in elderly surgical patients. Results In addition to pain, cognitive dysfunction in elderly surgical patients is a common occurrence that can often be attenuated with appropriate drug therapy. Modalities for pain management must be synthesized with intraoperative anesthesia and the type of surgical intervention and not simply considered a separate entity. Conclusions Pain in elderly surgical patients continues to challenge physicians and healthcare providers. Current studies show improved surgical outcomes for geriatric patients who receive multimodal therapy for pain control. PMID:23789010

  4. Missing the Big Picture: Impaired Development of Global Shape Processing in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, K. Suzanne; Luna, Beatriz; Kimchi, Ruth; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with autism exhibit hypersensitivity to local elements of the input, which may interfere with the ability to group visual elements perceptually. We investigated the development of perceptual grouping abilities in high-functioning individuals with autism (HFA) across a wide age range (8–30 years) using a classic compound letter global/ local (GL) task and a more fine-grained microgenetic prime paradigm (MPP), including both few- and many-element hierarchical displays. In the GL task, contrary to the typically developing (TD) controls, HFA participants did not develop an increasing sensitivity to the global information with age. In the MPP, like the TD controls, individuals with autism at all three age groups evinced a bias to individuate the few-element displays. However, contrary to the TD controls, the HFA group failed to show age-related improvements in the ability to encode the global shape of the many-element displays. In fact, across the age range, the HFA group was consistently faster than the TD controls at perceiving the local elements in these displays. These results indicate that in autism the full process of garnering shape information from perceptual grouping, which is essential for the ability to do fast and efficient object recognition and identification, never matures, and this is especially evident in adolescence when this ability begins to improve in TD individuals. The atypical development of these perceptual organizational abilities may disrupt processing of visually presented objects, which may, in turn, fundamentally impede the development of major aspects of the social and emotional behaviors in individuals with autism. PMID:19360658

  5. Individual differences in the effect of orthographic/phonological conflict on rhyme and spelling decisions.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Suzanne E; Alton, Amanda C

    2015-01-01

    In typical readers, orthographic knowledge has been shown to influence phonological decisions. In the present study, we used visual rhyme and spelling tasks to investigate the interaction of orthographic and phonological information in adults with varying reading skill. Word pairs that shared both orthography and phonology (e.g., throat/boat), differed in both orthography and phonology (e.g., snow/arm), shared only orthography (e.g., farm/warm), and shared only phonology (e.g., vote/boat) were visually presented to university students who varied in reading ability. For rhyme judgment, participants were slower and less accurate to accept rhyming pairs when words were spelled differently and to reject non-rhyming pairs when words were spelled similarly. Similarly, for spelling judgments, participants were slower and less accurate when indicating that word endings were spelled differently when words rhymed, and slower and less accurate when indicating that words were spelled similarly when words did not rhyme. Crucially, while these effects were clear at the group level, there were large individual differences in the extent to which participants were impacted by conflict. In two separate samples, reading skill was associated with the extent to which orthographic conflict impacted rhyme decisions such that individuals with better nonword reading performance were less impacted by orthographic conflict. Thus, university students with poorer reading skills may differ from their peers either in the reading strategies they use or in the degree to which they automatically access word form information. Understanding these relationships is important for understanding the roles that reading processes play in readers of different skill. PMID:25751539

  6. Alternate Reading Strategies and Variable Asymmetry of the Planum Temporale in Adult Resilient Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Leonard, Christiana M.; Chiarello, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Resilient readers are characterized by impaired phonological processing despite skilled text comprehension. We investigated orthographic and semantic processing in resilient readers to examine mechanisms of compensation for poor phonological decoding. Performance on phonological (phoneme deletion, pseudoword reading), orthographic (orthographic…

  7. Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule

    PubMed Central

    Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X?XX)—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal. PMID:24959158

  8. mir-30d Regulates multiple genes in the autophagy pathway and impairs autophagy process in human cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaojun [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States) [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Department of General Surgery, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu 710000 (China); Zhong, Xiaomin [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States) [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200011 (China); Tanyi, Janos L.; Shen, Jianfeng [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)] [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Xu, Congjian [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200011 (China)] [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Female Reproductive Endocrine Related Diseases, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200011 (China); Gao, Peng [Department of General Surgery, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu 710000 (China)] [Department of General Surgery, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu 710000 (China); Zheng, Tim M. [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)] [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); DeMichele, Angela [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)] [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zhang, Lin, E-mail: linzhang@mail.med.upenn.edu [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)] [Ovarian Cancer Research Center and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ? Gene set enrichment analysis indicated mir-30d might regulate the autophagy pathway. ? mir-30d represses the expression of BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5 and ATG2. ? BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5 and ATG2 are direct targets of mir-30d. ? mir-30d inhibits autophagosome formation and LC3B-I conversion to LC3B-II. ? mir-30d regulates the autophagy process. -- Abstract: In human epithelial cancers, the microRNA (miRNA) mir-30d is amplified with high frequency and serves as a critical oncomir by regulating metastasis, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. Autophagy, a degradation pathway for long-lived protein and organelles, regulates the survival and death of many cell types. Increasing evidence suggests that autophagy plays an important function in epithelial tumor initiation and progression. Using a combined bioinformatics approach, gene set enrichment analysis, and miRNA target prediction, we found that mir-30d might regulate multiple genes in the autophagy pathway including BECN1, BNIP3L, ATG12, ATG5, and ATG2. Our further functional experiments demonstrated that the expression of these core proteins in the autophagy pathway was directly suppressed by mir-30d in cancer cells. Finally, we showed that mir-30d regulated the autophagy process by inhibiting autophagosome formation and LC3B-I conversion to LC3B-II. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the oncomir mir-30d impairs the autophagy process by targeting multiple genes in the autophagy pathway. This result will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanism of mir-30d in tumorigenesis and developing novel cancer therapy strategy.

  9. Impaired hepatic handling and processing of lysophosphatidylcholine in rats with liver cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Angelico, M.; Alvaro, D.; Cantafora, A.; Masella, R.; Gaudio, E.; Gandin, C.; Ginanni Corradini, S.; Ariosto, F.; Riggio, O.; Capocaccia, L. (II Division of Gastroenterology, University of Rome La Sapienza (Italy))

    1991-07-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine is a major metabolic product in the plasma and cellular turnover of phospholipids, with well-known membrane-toxic and proinflammatory properties. Because the liver plays a key role in plasma lysophosphatidylcholine removal and biotransformation and because virtually nothing is known of these processes in a diseased organ, the hepatobiliary metabolism of lysophosphatidylcholine was investigated in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver cirrhosis. Twelve adult male Wistar rats with histologically confirmed cirrhosis and 8 control animals were fitted with jugular and biliary catheters and allowed to recover. The animals were kept under constant IV infusion of taurocholate (1 mumol/min). Two microcuries of sn-1{sup 14}Cpalmitoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine was administered as a single bolus. The fate of the injected radioactivity, including removal from plasma, uptake, and subcellular location in the liver and molecular and aggregative forms, was studied by combined chromatographic and radiochemical methods. Major findings were (a) that lysophosphatidylcholine has a prolonged permanence in plasma of cirrhotic rats, due both to decreased hepatic clearance and to depressed conversion into phosphatidylcholine; (b) that the rate of lysophosphatidylcholine acylation is much slower in the cirrhotic than in the normal liver, both at the microsomal and at the cytosolic level; (c) that cytosolic lysophosphatidylcholine in the cirrhotic liver, but not in the normal liver, is predominantly non-protein bound; (d) that the strict molecular selectivity of lysophosphatidylcholine acylation observed in controls is partially lost in cirrhosis; and (e) that a consistent fraction of lysophosphatidylcholine is converted into triacylglycerols in cirrhotics but not in controls.

  10. Specific Language Impairment Across Languages

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.

    2014-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those areas of language that are relatively challenging for younger typically developing children. Although these children's deficits warrant clinical and educational attention, their weaknesses might reflect the extreme end of a language aptitude continuum rather than a distinct, separable condition. PMID:24765105

  11. Cold pressor-induced pain does not impair WAIS-IV processing speed index or working memory index performance.

    PubMed

    Etherton, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain frequently involves cognitive complaints such as concentration and memory deficits, but studies of the effects of pain on cognition have not consistently demonstrated deficits and have not typically utilized standard neuropsychological instruments. Effects of cold pressor-induced pain on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Processing Speed Index (PSI) and Working Memory Index (WMI) performance was examined in nonclinical volunteers (n = 40). All took one PSI subtest and one WMI subtest normally, and then took different PSI and WMI subtests during cold pressor-induced pain or painless warm-water immersion. Scaled scores for normal administration versus pain or painless water immersion did not differ and there was no interaction between group (control vs. pain) and manner of administration, despite moderately severe mean pain ratings (M = 6.8 on a 0-10 pain-rating scale). Results indicate that induced pain in nonclinical volunteers does not impair PSI or WMI performance, and they suggest that chronic pain per se should not be expected to substantially affect these cognitive functions. However, patients with chronic pain may differ from nonclinical volunteers in their experience of pain, potentially limiting generalizability. PMID:24826491

  12. Impaired social processing in autism and its reflections in memory: a deeper view of encoding and retrieval processes.

    PubMed

    Brezis, Rachel S; Galili, Tal; Wong, Tiffany; Piggot, Judith I

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies of memory in autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have consistently shown that persons with ASC have reduced memories for social information, relative to a spared memory for non-social facts. The current study aims to reproduce these findings, while examining the possible causes leading to this difference. Participants' memory for trait-words was tested after they had viewed the words in three study contexts: visuo-motor, letter-detection, and social judgment. While participants with ASC showed a levels-of-processing effect, such that their memory for words viewed in the social judgment context was greater than their memory for words viewed in the letter-detection context, their memory for socially-processed words was reduced relative to comparison participants. This interaction effect could not be explained by a speed/accuracy trade-off, nor could it be explained solely by differences in encoding. These results suggest that social memory deficits in ASC arise from difficulties both in orienting towards and encoding social content, as well as retaining and retrieving it. Implications for theory and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:24214241

  13. Training Pseudoword Reading in Acquired Dyslexia: A Phonological Complexity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Ellyn A.; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with acquired phonological dyslexia experience difficulty associating written letters with corresponding sounds, especially in pseudowords. Previous studies have shown that reading can be improved in these individuals by training letter-sound correspondence, practicing phonological skills, or using combined approaches. However, generalization to untrained items is typically limited. Aims We investigated whether principles of phonological complexity can be applied to training letter-sound correspondence reading in acquired phonological dyslexia to improve generalization to untrained words. Based on previous work in other linguistic domains, we hypothesized that training phonologically “more complex” material (i.e., consonant clusters with small sonority differences) would result in generalization to phonologically “less complex” material (i.e., consonant clusters with larger sonority differences), but this generalization pattern would not be demonstrated when training the “less complex” material. Methods & Procedures We used a single-participant, multiple baseline design across participants and behaviors to examine phonological complexity as a training variable in five individuals. Based on participants' error data from a previous experiment, a “more complex” onset and a “less complex” onset were selected for training for each participant. Training order assignment was pseudo-randomized and counterbalanced across participants. Three participants were trained in the “more complex” condition and two in the “less complex” condition while tracking oral reading accuracy of both onsets. Outcomes & Results As predicted, participants trained in the “more complex” condition demonstrated improved pseudoword reading of the trained cluster and generalization to pseudowords with the untrained, “simple” onset, but not vice versa. Conclusions These findings suggest phonological complexity can be used to improve generalization to untrained phonologically related words in acquired phonological dyslexia. These findings also provide preliminary support for using phonological complexity theory as a tool for designing more effective and efficient reading treatments for acquired dyslexia.

  14. Gaussian process classification of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment from resting-state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Challis, Edward; Hurley, Peter; Serra, Laura; Bozzali, Marco; Oliver, Seb; Cercignani, Mara

    2015-05-15

    Multivariate pattern analysis and statistical machine learning techniques are attracting increasing interest from the neuroimaging community. Researchers and clinicians are also increasingly interested in the study of functional-connectivity patterns of brains at rest and how these relations might change in conditions like Alzheimer's disease or clinical depression. In this study we investigate the efficacy of a specific multivariate statistical machine learning technique to perform patient stratification from functional-connectivity patterns of brains at rest. Whilst the majority of previous approaches to this problem have employed support vector machines (SVMs) we investigate the performance of Bayesian Gaussian process logistic regression (GP-LR) models with linear and non-linear covariance functions. GP-LR models can be interpreted as a Bayesian probabilistic analogue to kernel SVM classifiers. However, GP-LR methods confer a number of benefits over kernel SVMs. Whilst SVMs only return a binary class label prediction, GP-LR, being a probabilistic model, provides a principled estimate of the probability of class membership. Class probability estimates are a measure of the confidence the model has in its predictions, such a confidence score may be extremely useful in the clinical setting. Additionally, if miss-classification costs are not symmetric, thresholds can be set to achieve either strong specificity or sensitivity scores. Since GP-LR models are Bayesian, computationally expensive cross-validation hyper-parameter grid-search methods can be avoided. We apply these methods to a sample of 77 subjects; 27 with a diagnosis of probable AD, 50 with a diagnosis of a-MCI and a control sample of 39. All subjects underwent a MRI examination at 3T to obtain a 7minute and 20second resting state scan. Our results support the hypothesis that GP-LR models can be effective at performing patient stratification: the implemented model achieves 75% accuracy disambiguating healthy subjects from subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment and 97% accuracy disambiguating amnesic mild cognitive impairment subjects from those with Alzheimer's disease, accuracies are estimated using a held-out test set. Both results are significant at the 1% level. PMID:25731993

  15. Phonological development of first language isiXhosa-speaking children aged 3;0-6;0 years: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Maphalala, Zinhle; Pascoe, Michelle; Smouse, Mantoa Rose

    2014-03-01

    Standardized assessments of children's isiXhosa phonology have not yet been developed and there is limited information about developmental norms in this language. This article reports on the phonological development of 24 typically developing first language isiXhosa-speaking children aged 3;0-6;0 years, in Cape Town, South Africa. The order and age of acquisition of isiXhosa phonemes, emergence and elimination of phonological processes and percentage consonants and vowels correct are described. A set of culturally and linguistically appropriate pictures was used to elicit single word responses that were recorded and transcribed. The study found that children had acquired most isiXhosa phonemes by 3;0 years although aspirated plosives, affricates, fricatives and clicks were still developing. In particular, the affricates and aspirated plosives were still developing in the 5-year-old children in this sample, suggesting that these may be the latest acquired segments. Children were able to produce basic word shapes by 3;0 years, but some of the words of 4-6 syllables were still being mastered by the 4- and 5-year-old children. Phonological processes that have been well documented for other languages were used by children in this sample (e.g. deaffrication, stopping and gliding of liquids). Findings presented for this pre-school-aged sample are related to theories of phonological acquisition to provide normative data on phonological development in isiXhosa-speaking children. PMID:24456520

  16. Children with Specific Language Impairment: An Investigation of Their Narratives and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodwell, Kristy; Bavin, Edith L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Narratives have been used by a number of researchers to investigate the language of children with specific language impairment (SLI). While a number of explanations for SLI have been proposed, there is now mounting evidence that children with SLI have limited memory resources. Phonological memory has been the focus of the research on…

  17. Motor Control and Nonword Repetition in Specific Working Memory Impairment and SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Lisa M. D.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Munson, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Debate around the underlying cognitive factors leading to poor performance in the repetition of nonwords by children with developmental impairments in language has centered around phonological short-term memory, lexical knowledge, and other factors. This study examines the impact of motor control demands on nonword repetition in groups of…

  18. Are Children with Specific Language Impairment Competent with the Pragmatics and Logic of Quantification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsos, Napoleon; Roqueta, Clara Andres; Estevan, Rosa Ana Clemente; Cummins, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is understood to be a disorder that predominantly affects phonology, morphosyntax and/or lexical semantics. There is little conclusive evidence on whether children with SLI are challenged with regard to Gricean pragmatic maxims and on whether children with SLI are competent with the logical meaning of quantifying…

  19. Word-Finding Intervention for Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Multiple Single-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragard, Anne; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne; Snyers, Perrine; James, Deborah G. H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effectiveness of a combined phonological and semantic intervention for children with specific language impairment who had word-finding difficulties (WFDs). Method: To evaluate the intervention, a multiple single-case design was implemented with 4 children, ages 9;6 (years;months) to 13;9, who had WFDs. Some items…

  20. Accurately Predicting Future Reading Difficulty for Bilingual Latino Children at Risk for Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Douglas B.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    Sixty-three bilingual Latino children who were at risk for language impairment were administered reading-related measures in English and Spanish (letter identification, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and sentence repetition) and descriptive measures including English language proficiency (ELP), language ability (LA),…

  1. The Development of Multisensory Integration in High-Functioning Autism: High-Density Electrical Mapping and Psychophysical Measures Reveal Impairments in the Processing of Audiovisual Inputs

    PubMed Central

    Brandwein, Alice B.; Foxe, John J.; Butler, John S.; Russo, Natalie N.; Altschuler, Ted S.; Gomes, Hilary; Molholm, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Successful integration of auditory and visual inputs is crucial for both basic perceptual functions and for higher-order processes related to social cognition. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social cognition and are associated with abnormalities in sensory and perceptual processes. Several groups have reported that individuals with ASD are impaired in their ability to integrate socially relevant audiovisual (AV) information, and it has been suggested that this contributes to the higher-order social and cognitive deficits observed in ASD. However, successful integration of auditory and visual inputs also influences detection and perception of nonsocial stimuli, and integration deficits may impair earlier stages of information processing, with cascading downstream effects. To assess the integrity of basic AV integration, we recorded high-density electrophysiology from a cohort of high-functioning children with ASD (7–16 years) while they performed a simple AV reaction time task. Children with ASD showed considerably less behavioral facilitation to multisensory inputs, deficits that were paralleled by less effective neural integration. Evidence for processing differences relative to typically developing children was seen as early as 100 ms poststimulation, and topographic analysis suggested that children with ASD relied on different cortical networks during this early multisensory processing stage. PMID:22628458

  2. Phonological and Morphosyntactic Intervention for a Twin Pair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feehan, Angela; Francis, Charmaine; Bernhardt, B. May; Colozzo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Two 6-year-old male fraternal twins each received 8 weeks of morphosyntactic and phonological intervention in counterbalanced order. Progress occurred for most targets and measures, with each child making greater progress for either phonology or morphosyntax during the corresponding unitary-domain block. Gains were maintained during the subsequent…

  3. Semantic and Phonological Activation in First and Second Language Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2012-01-01

    No consensus has been reached on whether phonological information is activated in reading Chinese. Further, semantic activation has not been well-studied in the context of orthographic depth. To contribute to these issues, this dissertation investigated semantic and phonological activation in reading Chinese and English. This dissertation also…

  4. Connectionism, Phonology, Reading, and Regularity in Developmental Dyslexia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon D. A. Brown

    1997-01-01

    Tests of the “phonological deficit” account of developmental dyslexia have produced apparently inconsistent results. We show how a connectionist approach to dyslexic reading development can resolve the paradox. A “dyslexic” model of reading was created by reducing the quality of the phonological representations available to the model during learning. The model behaved similarly to dyslexic children in that it had

  5. Promoting phonological awareness skills of Egyptian kindergarteners through dialogic reading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randa Abdelaleem Elmonayer

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of dialogic reading (DR) on the promotion of Arabic phonological awareness skills (including syllable awareness, rhyme awareness, and phoneme awareness) of Egyptian kindergarteners. The participants were 67 children enrolled in the second level of kindergarten (ages 5–6), assigned to an experimental group (n?=?35) or a control group (n?=?32). Kindergarten Inventory of Phonological Awareness was

  6. Interaction between Phonological and Semantic Representations: Time Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qi; Mirman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling and eye-tracking were used to investigate how phonological and semantic information interact to influence the time course of spoken word recognition. We extended our recent models (Chen & Mirman, 2012; Mirman, Britt, & Chen, 2013) to account for new evidence that competition among phonological neighbors influences…

  7. Phonological Mediation in Visual Masked Priming: Evidence from Phonotactic Repair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Pierre A.; Dominguez, Alberto; Cuetos, Fernando; Segui, Juan

    2008-01-01

    In a series of 4 experiments, the authors show that phonological repair mechanisms, known to operate in the auditory modality, are directly translated in the visual modality. This holds with the provision that printed stimuli are presented for a very brief duration and that the effect of phonological repair is tested after a delay of some 100 ms…

  8. An Evaluative Comparison of Present Methods for Teaching English Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardhaugh, Ronald

    1970-01-01

    Urges that the teaching of English phonology should go beyond the mere mastery of sounds as emphasized in the audiolingual method to the mastery of the total phonological system as presented in Chomsky and Halle's The Sound Pattern of English." (FB)

  9. Phonology, Reading, and Chomsky and Halle's Optimal Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Danny D.

    1973-01-01

    Challenges three of Chomsky and Halle's basic phonological assumptions that their vowel shift rule is valid, that the underlying phonological representations are the only sound representation to be listed in the lexicon, and that derived words do not appear as wholes in the lexicon. Reprint requests should be addressed to Danny D. Steinberg,…

  10. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  11. Phonological Awareness and Decoding Skills in Deaf Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravenstede, L.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the phonological awareness skills of a group of deaf adolescents and how these skills correlated with decoding skills (single word and non-word reading) and receptive vocabulary. Twenty, congenitally profoundly deaf adolescents with at least average nonverbal cognitive skills were tested on a range of phonological awareness…

  12. Gestural Characterization of a Phonological Class: The Liquids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Michael Ian

    2009-01-01

    Rhotics and laterals pattern together in a variety of ways that suggest that they form a phonological class (Walsh-Dickey 1997), yet capturing the relevant set of consonants and describing the behavior of its members has proven difficult under feature-based phonological theory (Wiese 2001). In this dissertation, I argue that an articulatory…

  13. Dynamic Assessment in Phonological Disorders: The Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaspey, Amy M.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic assessment is applied to phonological disorders with the Scaffolding Scale of Stimulability (SSS). The SSS comprises a 21-point hierarchical scale of cues and linguistic environments. With the SSS, clinicians assess stimulability as a diagnostic indicator and use the measure to monitor progress across treatment. Unlike other phonological

  14. Phonological Meanings in Literary Prose Texts and Their Translations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventola, Eija

    This article discusses phonological meanings and their realization in fiction texts and the problematics of their translations. The various views linguists appear to have about what phonological meanings are and how they are expressed linguistically are examined. Furthermore two linguistically oriented approaches on translation theory, Nida's and…

  15. Hyphenation can improve reading in acquired phonological dyslexia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor A. Harley; David A. OMara

    2006-01-01

    Background: We describe JD, a person with severe phonological dyslexia. JD is good at reading words yet is extremely poor at reading nonwords. She shows no effect of word regularity on her reading performance. However, she has only a very mild general phonological deficit. Although it is known that teaching grapheme–phoneme correspondence rules and learning bigraph syllables can improve dyslexic

  16. Doublets in Arabic: Notes towards a Diachronic Phonological Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahadin, Radwan S.

    1989-01-01

    Examines doublets in Arabic, discussing the alterations between the determinants in the doublets, and shows that the alterations are the result of phonological changes. It is concluded that the phonological changes are in agreement with changes that have occurred in other Semitic languages and in modern Arabic dialects. (30 references) (Author/VWL)

  17. Phonological Representations in Deaf Children: Rethinking the "Functional Equivalence" Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuarrie, Lynn; Parrila, Rauno

    2009-01-01

    The sources of knowledge that individuals use to make similarity judgments between words are thought to tap underlying phonological representations. We examined the effects of perceptual similarity between stimuli on deaf children's ability to make judgments about the phonological similarity between words at 3 levels of linguistic structure…

  18. THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    THE PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY OF INTONATIONAL PHRASING IN ROMANCE* SÓNIA FROTA1 , MARIAPAOLA D, 5 Universidade do Minho Abstract This paper examines the phonetics and phonology of intonational rise (H) and sustained pitch (!H). A detailed analysis of the phonetics of the H boundary tone, which

  19. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  20. PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IN THE LAST 50 YEARS Peter Ladefoged

    E-print Network

    Port, Robert

    1 PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY IN THE LAST 50 YEARS Peter Ladefoged Dept. Linguistics, UCLA, Los Angeles Communication, MIT, 11-13 June 2004.] ABSTRACT In the last 50 years there have been steady gains in phonetic knowledge and punctuated equilibrium in phononological theories. Phonetics and phonology meet most obviously

  1. On Rejecting Emotional Lures Created by Phonological Neighborhood Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starns, Jeffrey J.; Cook, Gabriel I.; Hicks, Jason L.; Marsh, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted 2 experiments to assess how phonologically related lures are rejected in a false memory paradigm. Some phonological lures were emotional (i.e., taboo) words, and others were not. The authors manipulated the presence of taboo items on the study list and reduced the ability to use controlled rejection strategies by dividing…

  2. Phonology in syntax: The Somali optional agreement rule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold M. Zwicky; Geoffrey K. Pullum

    1983-01-01

    The conclusion we draw from our extended discussion of the interesting descriptive problem Hetzron provides is that Somali offers no support to the view his paper defended: that syntax and phonology are partially intermingled domains. Merely letting the agreement rules of Somali have access to phonological properties of morphemes would not, in any case, suffice for the statement Hetzron would

  3. The Phonological Representation of Taiwan Mandarin Vowels: A Psycholinguistic Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I-Ping Wan; Jeri J. Jaeger

    2003-01-01

    One of the fundamental goals of every phonological theory is to account for the nature of the basic units of speech sounds, and the relationships between these units and their contextual variants. This relationship is equally crucial to phonological theory whether it is called `phonemes and allophones', `underlying and surface forms', or `input and output'. However, purely structural analyses of

  4. Phonological Memory and Rule Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John N.; Lovatt, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Our research reflects the current trend to relate individual differences in second language learning to underlying cognitive processes e.g., Robinson, 2002. We believe that such investigations, apart from being of practical importance, can also shed light on the cognitive mechanisms underlying the language learning process. Here we focus on the…

  5. Rapid processing of letters, digits and symbols: what purely visual-attentional deficit in developmental dyslexia?

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Johannes C; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Dufau, Stéphane; Grainger, Jonathan

    2010-07-01

    Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit strings but not for symbol strings. This finding is difficult to explain for visual-attentional theories of dyslexia which postulate identical deficits for letters, digits and symbols. Moreover, dyslexics showed normal W-shaped serial position functions for letter and digit strings, which suggests that their deficit is not due to an abnormally small attentional window. Finally, the size of the deficit was identical for letters and digits, which suggests that poor letter perception is not just a consequence of the lack of reading. Together then, our results show that symbols that map onto phonological codes are impaired (i.e. letters and digits), whereas symbols that do not map onto phonological codes are not impaired. This dissociation suggests that impaired symbol-sound mapping rather than impaired visual-attentional processing is the key to understanding dyslexia. PMID:20590718

  6. Learning Phonologically Specific New Words Fosters Rhyme Awareness in Dutch Preliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Goch, Merel M.; McQueen, James M.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    How do children use phonological knowledge about spoken language in acquiring literacy? Phonological precursors of literacy include phonological awareness, speech decoding skill, and lexical specificity (i.e., the richness of phonological representations in the mental lexicon). An intervention study investigated whether early literacy skills can…

  7. The Acquisition of Phonological Awareness and Its Relationship to Reading in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Kim Kyoung; Kemp, Coral

    2006-01-01

    A review of research into the acquisition of phonological awareness skills in individuals with intellectual disabilities, the relationship between phonological awareness and reading in these individuals and the effect of phonological awareness training on the development of their phonological skills is presented. Research indicates that children…

  8. Levels of phonological representation in skilled reading and in learning to read

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Morais

    2003-01-01

    This paper refers to and discusses empiricalevidence supporting the general idea that bothskilled reading and learning to read capitalizeon underlying phonological representations.These representations must be specified interms of degree of abstractness, unitsrepresented and degree of conscious access tothese units. In skilled reading, pre-lexicalrepresentations, at different levels ofphonological structure, are unconsciously,mandatorily and automatically activated, inconnection with correspondent orthographicrepresentations. This process is

  9. Phonological Segmentation Assessment Is Not Enough: A Comparison of Three Phonological Awareness Tests with First and Second Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research on phonological awareness and reading, there has been little effort to study practical questions that would assist practitioners regarding the choice and interpretation of the phonological awareness tests available to them. This study examined the relationship between decoding (real and pseudowords) and three…

  10. Critical role of inflammatory cytokines in impairing biochemical processes for learning and memory after surgery in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with postoperative cognitive dysfunction have poor outcomes. Neuroinflammation may be the underlying pathophysiology for this dysfunction. We determined whether proinflammatory cytokines affect the trafficking of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors to the plasma membrane, a fundamental biochemical process for learning and memory. Methods Four-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were subjected to right carotid exposure under isoflurane anesthesia. Some rats received intravenous lidocaine infusion during anesthesia. Rats were tested two weeks later by Barnes maze. The hippocampus was harvested six hours after the surgery for western blotting of interleukin (IL)-1? or IL-6. Hippocampal slices were prepared from control rats or rats subjected to surgery two weeks previously. They were incubated with tetraethylammonium, an agent that can induce long term potentiation, for determining the trafficking of GluR1, an ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor subunit. Results Surgery or anesthesia increased the time to identify the target box during the Barnes maze test training sessions and one day after the training sessions. Surgery also prolonged the time to identify the target box eight days after the training sessions. Surgery increased IL-1? and IL-6 in the hippocampus. The tetraethylammonium–induced GluR1 phosphorylation and trafficking were abolished in the hippocampal slices of rats after surgery. These surgical effects were partly inhibited by lidocaine. The incubation of control hippocampal slices with IL-1? and IL-6 abolished tetraethylammonium–induced GluR1 trafficking and phosphorylation. Lidocaine minimally affected the effects of IL-1? on GluR1 trafficking. Conclusions Our results suggest that surgery increases proinflammatory cytokines that then inhibit GluR1 trafficking, leading to learning and memory impairment. PMID:24884762

  11. Some Problems of American Students in Mastering Persian Phonology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadessy, Esmael

    1988-12-01

    An adult learning to speak a foreign language normally retains an "accent" which may affect the intelligibility of certain sounds, but more often simply conveys the fact that the speaker is a non-native speaker. Various scholars have experimented and discussed the elements involved in a foreign accent. However, in Iran very few researchers have attempted to verify scientifically what are the phonetic and phonological aspects of an "accent." This author tried to determine whether or not a selected group of words, emphasizing stop voicing, produced by native speakers of Persian had significant phonetic and phonemic differences from those achieved by the American students. Subjects for the experiments were three groups of students, one Iranian, two American. A contrastive analysis of the Persian and the English stop consonants was made. An identical measurement test for all three groups was administered. Utilized was a Kay Sona-graph for acoustic analysis, and all spoken data from the Iranian group were compared with those of the American groups. An examination of acoustic correlates of Tehran stops produced by American students shows that the phonetically different but similar feature of /voice/ found in Tehran, Persian and English stops is intuitive to the Americans, and that the language learner cannot readily disassociate a phonological feature from habits of articulation. The results of this research support using the phonetic method for adult learners who want to improve their pronunciation ability. Further research and experimentation is necessary on the effect of the suprasegmental elements on a foreign accent and the most effective teaching materials and methods and to explore other possible techniques in the teaching process.

  12. Phonetic and phonological imitation of intonation in two varieties of Italian

    PubMed Central

    D’Imperio, Mariapaola; Cavone, Rossana; Petrone, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether both phonetic and phonological representations of intonation can be rapidly modified when imitating utterances belonging to a different regional variety of the same language. Our main hypothesis was that tonal alignment, just as other phonetic features of speech, would be rapidly modified by Italian speakers when imitating pitch accents of a different (Southern) variety of Italian. In particular, we tested whether Bari Italian (BI) speakers would produce later peaks for their native rising L + H* (question pitch accent) in the process of imitating Neapolitan Italian (NI) rising L* + H accents. Also, we tested whether BI speakers are able to modify other phonetic properties (pitch level) as well as phonological characteristics (changes in tonal composition) of the same contour. In a follow-up study, we tested if the reverse was also true, i.e., whether NI speakers would produce earlier peaks within the L* + H accent in the process of imitating the L + H* of BI questions, despite the presence of a contrast between two rising accents in this variety. Our results show that phonetic detail of tonal alignment can be successfully modified by both BI and NI speakers when imitating a model speaker of the other variety. The hypothesis of a selective imitation process preventing alignment modifications in NI was hence not supported. Moreover the effect was significantly stronger for low frequency words. Participants were also able to imitate other phonetic cues, in that they modified global utterance pitch level. Concerning phonological convergence, speakers modified the tonal specification of the edge tones in order to resemble that of the other variety by either suppressing or increasing the presence of a final H%. Hence, our data show that intonation imitation leads to fast modification of both phonetic and phonological intonation representations including detail of tonal alignment and pitch scaling. PMID:25408676

  13. Auditory-motor entrainment and phonological skills: precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH).

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Phonological skills are enhanced by music training, but the mechanisms enabling this cross-domain enhancement remain unknown. To explain this cross-domain transfer, we propose a precise auditory timing hypothesis (PATH) whereby entrainment practice is the core mechanism underlying enhanced phonological abilities in musicians. Both rhythmic synchronization and language skills such as consonant discrimination, detection of word and phrase boundaries, and conversational turn-taking rely on the perception of extremely fine-grained timing details in sound. Auditory-motor timing is an acoustic feature which meets all five of the pre-conditions necessary for cross-domain enhancement to occur (Patel, 2011, 2012, 2014). There is overlap between the neural networks that process timing in the context of both music and language. Entrainment to music demands more precise timing sensitivity than does language processing. Moreover, auditory-motor timing integration captures the emotion of the trainee, is repeatedly practiced, and demands focused attention. The PATH predicts that musical training emphasizing entrainment will be particularly effective in enhancing phonological skills. PMID:25505879

  14. The gradual emergence of phonological form in a new language

    PubMed Central

    Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Padden, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The division of linguistic structure into a meaningless (phonological) level and a meaningful level of morphemes and words is considered a basic design feature of human language. Although established sign languages, like spoken languages, have been shown to be characterized by this bifurcation, no information has been available about the way in which such structure arises. We report here on a newly emerging sign language, Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language, which functions as a full language but in which a phonological level of structure has not yet emerged. Early indications of formal regularities provide clues to the way in which phonological structure may develop over time. PMID:22223927

  15. Learning to read as the formation of a dynamic system: evidence for dynamic stability in phonological recoding

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher-Flinn, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Two aspects of dynamic systems approaches that are pertinent to developmental models of reading are the emergence of a system with self-organizing characteristics, and its evolution over time to a stable state that is not easily modified or perturbed. The effects of dynamic stability may be seen in the differences obtained in the processing of print by beginner readers taught by different approaches to reading (phonics and text-centered), and more long-term effects on adults, consistent with these differences. However, there is little direct evidence collected over time for the same participants. In this study, lexicalized (implicit) phonological processing, and explicit phonological and letter-sound skills are further examined in a precocious reader whose early development at 3 and 5 years has been extensively described (Cognition, 2000, 2004). At ages 10 and 14 years, comparisons were made with these earlier reports and skilled adult readers, using the same tasks for evidence of changes in reading processes. The results showed that along with an increase of reading accuracy and speed, her pattern of lexicalized phonological responses for reading did not change over time. Neither did her pattern of explicit phonological and letter-sound skills, aspects of which were inferior to her lexicalized phonological processing, and word reading. These results suggest dynamic stability of the word reading system. The early emergence of this system with minimal explicit skill development calls into question developmental reading theories that require such skills for learning to read. Currently, only the Knowledge Sources theory of reading acquisition can account for such findings. Consideration of these aspects of dynamic systems raise theoretical issues that could result in a paradigm shift with regard to best practice and intervention. PMID:25071635

  16. Effect of phonological training in French children with SLI: perspectives on voicing identification, discrimination and categorical perception.

    PubMed

    Collet, G; Colin, C; Serniclaes, W; Hoonhorst, I; Markessis, E; Deltenre, P; Leybaert, J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of auditory training on voicing perception in French children with specific language impairment (SLI). We used an adaptive discrimination training that was centred across the French phonological boundary (0 ms voice onset time--VOT). One group of nine children with SLI attended eighteen twenty-minute training sessions with feedback, and a control group of nine children with SLI did not receive any training. Identification, discrimination and categorical perception were evaluated before, during and after training as well as one month following the final session. Phonological awareness and vocabulary were also assessed for both groups. The results showed that children with SLI experienced strong difficulties in the identification, discrimination and categorical perception of the voicing continuum prior to training. However, as early as after the first nine training sessions, their performance in the identification and discrimination tasks increased significantly. Moreover, phonological awareness scores improved during training, whereas vocabulary scores remained stable across sessions. PMID:22699254

  17. A causal test of the motor theory of speech perception: A case of impaired speech production and spared speech perception

    PubMed Central

    Stasenko, Alena; Bonn, Cory; Teghipco, Alex; Garcea, Frank E.; Sweet, Catherine; Dombovy, Mary; McDonough, Joyce; Mahon, Bradford Z.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the debate about the causal role of the motor system in speech perception has been reignited by demonstrations that motor processes are engaged during the processing of speech sounds. However, the exact role of the motor system in auditory speech processing remains elusive. Here we evaluate which aspects of auditory speech processing are affected, and which are not, in a stroke patient with dysfunction of the speech motor system. The patient’s spontaneous speech was marked by frequent phonological/articulatory errors, and those errors were caused, at least in part, by motor-level impairments with speech production. We found that the patient showed a normal phonemic categorical boundary when discriminating two nonwords that differ by a minimal pair (e.g., ADA-AGA). However, using the same stimuli, the patient was unable to identify or label the nonword stimuli (using a button-press response). A control task showed that he could identify speech sounds by speaker gender, ruling out a general labeling impairment. These data suggest that the identification (i.e. labeling) of nonword speech sounds may involve the speech motor system, but that the perception of speech sounds (i.e., discrimination) does not require the motor system. This means that motor processes are not causally involved in perception of the speech signal, and suggest that the motor system may be used when other cues (e.g., meaning, context) are not available. PMID:25951749

  18. Extracting phonological patterns for L2 word learning: the effect of poor phonological awareness.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-10-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning. PMID:24043509

  19. Revisiting attentional processing of non-emotional cues in social anxiety: A specific impairment for the orienting network of attention.

    PubMed

    Heeren, Alexandre; Maurage, Pierre; Philippot, Pierre

    2015-07-30

    People with social anxiety disorder (SAD) exhibit an attentional bias for threat (AB). Nevertheless, the focus on AB for emotional stimuli has led to neglect the exploration of basic attention deficits for non-emotional material among SAD patients. This study aimed to investigate the integrity of the attentional system in SAD. The Attention Network Test was used to precisely explore attentional deficits, and centrally the differential deficit across the three attentional networks, namely alerting (allowing to achieve and maintain a state of alertness), orienting (allowing to select information from sensory input by engaging or disengaging attention to one stimulus among others and/or shifting the attentional resources from one stimulation to another), and executive control (involving the top-down control of attention and allowing to resolve response conflicts). Twenty-five patients with SAD were compared to 25 matched controls. SAD patients exhibited a specific impairment for the orienting network (p<0.001) but preserved performance for the alerting and executive networks. Complementary analyses revealed that this impairment may result from a faster attentional engagement to task-irrelevant material. The orienting impairment was highly correlated with the intensity of the social anxiety symptoms, but did not correlate either with trait-anxiety, state-anxiety, or depressive symptoms. PMID:25957649

  20. The Limit of Structure Preservation in Dakota Lexical Phonology

    E-print Network

    Kyle, John

    1994-01-01

    Some of the earliest papers on Lexical Phonology claim that structure preservation applies throughout a Lexical derivation and may only he shut off by exiting the Lexicon. Work by Kellogg (1991) in Lakota attempts to uphold ...

  1. GraPHIA: a computational model for identifying phonological jokes.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Narayanan; Pariyadath, Vani

    2009-02-01

    Currently in humor research, there exists a dearth of computational models for humor perception. The existing theories are not quantifiable and efforts need to be made to quantify the models and incorporate neuropsychological findings in humor research. We propose a new computational model (GraPHIA) for perceiving phonological jokes or puns. GraPHIA consists of a semantic network and a phonological network where words are represented by nodes in both the networks. Novel features based on graph theoretical concepts are proposed and computed for the identification of homophonic jokes. The data set for evaluating the model consisted of homophonic puns, normal sentences, and ambiguous nonsense sentences. The classification results show that the feature values result in successful identification of phonological jokes and ambiguous nonsense sentences suggesting that the proposed model is a plausible model for humor perception. Further work is needed to extend the model for identification of other types of phonological jokes. PMID:18618159

  2. Phonological Awareness Development of Preschool Children with Cochlear Implants

    E-print Network

    Ambrose, Sophie Eva

    2009-12-04

    Purpose: 1) To assess whether very early access to speech sounds provided by the cochlear implant (CI) enabled children with severe to profound hearing loss to develop age-appropriate phonological awareness abilities during their preschool years. 2...

  3. Phonological awareness of English by Chinese and Korean bilinguals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyunjoo; Schmidt, Anna; Cheng, Tse-Hsuan

    2002-05-01

    This study examined non-native speakers phonological awareness of spoken English. Chinese speaking adults, Korean speaking adults, and English speaking adults were tested. The L2 speakers had been in the US for less than 6 months. Chinese and Korean allow no consonant clusters and have limited numbers of consonants allowable in syllable final position, whereas English allows a variety of clusters and various consonants in syllable final position. Subjects participated in eight phonological awareness tasks (4 replacement tasks and 4 deletion tasks) based on English phonology. In addition, digit span was measured. Preliminary analysis indicates that Chinese and Korean speaker errors appear to reflect L1 influences (such as orthography, phonotactic constraints, and phonology). All three groups of speakers showed more difficulty with manipulation of rime than onset, especially with postvocalic nasals. Results will be discussed in terms of syllable structure, L1 influence, and association with short term memory.

  4. Does "reading" develop "phonological awareness" in Down's syndrome?

    E-print Network

    Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    casual relationship for alphabetic scripts. Results discussed in this paper do not support this view as far as reading ability and phonological awareness go in Down's syndrome. The present study compared a sample of children with Down's syndrome (N=10...

  5. Do Dyslexics Have Auditory Input Processing Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether a group of dyslexics had word level receptive…

  6. Phonological phrase boundaries constrain lexical access II. Infant data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariel Gout; Anne Christophe; James L. Morgan

    2004-01-01

    The location of phonological phrase boundaries was shown to affect lexical access by English-learning infants of 10 and 13 months of age. Experiments 1 and 2 used the head-turn preference procedure: infants were familiarized with two bisyllabic words, then presented with sentences that either contained the familiarized words or contained both their syllables separated by a phonological phrase boundary. Ten-month-olds

  7. Orthographic and phonological activation in auditory and visual word recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael K. Tanenhaus; Helen P. Flanigan; Mark S. Seidenberg

    1980-01-01

    A discrete-trials color naming (Stroop)’paradigm was used to examine activation along orthographic and phonological dimensions\\u000a in visual and auditory word recognition. Subjects were presented a prime word, either auditorily or visually, followed 200\\u000a msec later by a target word printed in a color. The orthographic and phonological similarity of prime-target pairs varied.\\u000a Color naming latencies were longer when the primes

  8. Effectiveness of Computerised Spelling Training in Children with Language Impairments: A Comparison of Modified and Unmodified Speech Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dorothy; Adams, Caroline; Lehtonen, Annukka; Rosen, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated a computerised program for training spelling in 8- to 13-year-olds with receptive language impairments. The training program involved children typing words corresponding to pictured items whose names were spoken. If the child made an error or requested help, the program gave phonological and orthographic cues to build up the…

  9. Unraveling phonological conspiracies: A case study.

    PubMed

    Dinnsen, Daniel A; Gierut, Judith A; Morrisette, Michele L; Rose, Darcy E

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on three seemingly unrelated error patterns in the sound system of a child with a phonological delay, Child 218 (male, age 4 years 6 months) and ascribes those error patterns to a larger conspiracy to eliminate fricatives from the phonetic inventory. Employing Optimality Theory for its advantages in characterizing conspiracies, our analysis offers a unified account of the observed repairs. The contextual restrictions on those repairs are, moreover, attributed to early developmental prominence effects, which are independently manifested in another error pattern involving rhotic consonants. Comparisons are made with a published case study involving a different implementation of the same conspiracy, the intent being to disambiguate the force behind certain error patterns. The clinical implications of the account are also considered. PMID:25000372

  10. Basic auditory processing and developmental dyslexia in Chinese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiao-Lan Sharon Wang; Martina Huss; Jarmo A. Hämäläinen; Usha Goswami

    The present study explores the relationship between basic auditory processing of sound rise time, frequency, duration and\\u000a intensity, phonological skills (onset-rime and tone awareness, sound blending, RAN, and phonological memory) and reading disability\\u000a in Chinese. A series of psychometric, literacy, phonological, auditory, and character processing tasks were given to 73 native\\u000a speakers of Mandarin with an average age of 9.7 years.

  11. Second language phonology influences first language word naming.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Kalinka; Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Ceusters, Ilse; Schiller, Niels O

    2014-06-01

    The Masked Onset Priming Effect (MOPE) has been reported in speakers' first languages (L1). The aims of the present study are to investigate whether second language (L2) phonology is active during L1 reading, and to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology in reading aloud. To this end, Dutch-English bilinguals read aloud L1 target words primed by L2 words, while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The onset of the primes was manipulated to disentangle the contributions of orthography and phonology (i.e. O+P+: kite - KUNST, 'art'; O+P-: knee - KUNST; O-P+: crime - KUNST; O-P-: mine - KUNST). Phonological but not orthographic overlap facilitated RTs. However, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed both orthographic and phonological priming starting 125 ms after target presentation. Taken together, we gained insights into the time course of cross-linguistic priming and demonstrated that L2 phonology is activated rapidly in an L1 environment. PMID:24735994

  12. Phonological acquisition of a Korean child: An acoustic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Sun-Ah

    2005-09-01

    Studies on child phonology suggest that there exist phonological universals in the timing of phonological events and the ordering of phonological categories, but the acquisition of speech sounds is influenced by the language-specific aspects of the ambient language such as phonetics, phonology, and the frequency of the sound in child-directed speech. This study investigates a Korean child's phonological acquisition based on tape recordings of longitudinal data (from 2 months to 2 years, recorded in 1- to 2-week intervals). Special attention is given to the change in prosody and the acquisition of the Korean three-way manner contrast (fortis, aspirated, lenis). It is known that Korean fortis and aspirated obstruents trigger high pitch at vowel onset while lenis obstruents trigger low pitch [Jun (1993), (1998)]. Preliminary results suggest that fortis obstruents are acquired first, followed by aspirated, and then lenis. The segmental properties (e.g., voice onset time, breathy phonation) appropriate for the lenis category were acquired later than the pitch. In addition, unlike the universal tendencies, velar and labial consonants were acquired earlier than alveolar consonants. Factors affecting the order of acquisition, including frequency effect and perceptual salience, will be discussed.

  13. Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Learning to Read: Print Tuning in Beginning Readers Related to Word-Reading Fluency and Semantics but Not Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K.; Jost, Lea B.; Raith, Margit; Maurer, Urs

    2015-01-01

    During reading acquisition children learn to recognize orthographic stimuli and link them to phonology and semantics. The present study investigated neurocognitive processes of learning to read after one year of schooling. We aimed to elucidate the cognitive processes underlying neural tuning for print that has been shown to play an important role…

  14. A mouse model suggests two mechanisms for thyroid alterations in infantile cystinosis: decreased thyroglobulin synthesis due to endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response and impaired lysosomal processing.

    PubMed

    Gaide Chevronnay, H P; Janssens, V; Van Der Smissen, P; Liao, X H; Abid, Y; Nevo, N; Antignac, C; Refetoff, S; Cherqui, S; Pierreux, C E; Courtoy, P J

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid hormones are released from thyroglobulin (Tg) in lysosomes, which are impaired in infantile/nephropathic cystinosis. Cystinosis is a lysosomal cystine storage disease due to defective cystine exporter, cystinosin. Cystinotic children develop subclinical and then overt hypothyroidism. Why hypothyroidism is the most frequent and earliest endocrine complication of cystinosis is unknown. We here defined early alterations in Ctns(-/-) mice thyroid and identified subcellular and molecular mechanisms. At 9 months, T4 and T3 plasma levels were normal and TSH was moderately increased (?4-fold). By histology, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of most follicles preceded colloid exhaustion. Increased immunolabeling for thyrocyte proliferation and apoptotic shedding indicated accelerated cell turnover. Electron microscopy revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dilation, apical lamellipodia indicating macropinocytic colloid uptake, and lysosomal cystine crystals. Tg accumulation in dilated ER contrasted with mRNA down-regulation. Increased expression of ER chaperones, glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa and protein disulfide isomerase, associated with alternative X-box binding protein-1 splicing, revealed unfolded protein response (UPR) activation by ER stress. Decreased Tg mRNA and ER stress suggested reduced Tg synthesis. Coordinated increase of UPR markers, activating transcription factor-4 and C/EBP homologous protein, linked ER stress to apoptosis. Hormonogenic cathepsins were not altered, but lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 immunolabeling disclosed enlarged vesicles containing iodo-Tg and impaired lysosomal fusion. Isopycnic fractionation showed iodo-Tg accumulation in denser lysosomes, suggesting defective lysosomal processing and hormone release. In conclusion, Ctns(-/-) mice showed the following alterations: 1) compensated primary hypothyroidism and accelerated thyrocyte turnover; 2) impaired Tg production linked to ER stress/UPR response; and 3) altered endolysosomal trafficking and iodo-Tg processing. The Ctns(-/-) thyroid is useful to study disease progression and evaluate novel therapies. PMID:25811319

  15. All Vision Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    All Vision Impairment Listen Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the best-corrected visual acuity ... being blind by the U.S. definition.) The category “All Vision Impairment” includes both low vision and blindness. ...

  16. Developmental links of very early phonological and language skills to second grade reading outcomes: strong to accuracy but only minor to fluency.

    PubMed

    Puolakanaho, Anne; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Eklund, Kenneth; Leppänen, Paavo H T; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Tolvanen, Asko; Torppa, Minna; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined second grade reading accuracy and fluency and their associations via letter knowledge to phonological and language predictors assessed at 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 years in children in the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. Structural equation modeling showed that a developmentally highly stable factor (early phonological and language processing [EPLP]) behind key dyslexia predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, short-term memory, rapid naming, vocabulary, and pseudoword repetition) could already be identified at 3.5 years. EPLP was significantly associated with reading and spelling accuracy and by age with letter knowledge. However, EPLP had only a minor link with reading fluency, which was additionally explained by early letter knowledge. The results show that reading accuracy is well predicted by early phonological and language skills. Variation in fluent reading skills is not well explained by early skills, suggesting factors other than phonological core skills. Future research is suggested to explore the factors behind the development of fast and accurate decoding skills. PMID:18560022

  17. Reduction of flaps: Speech style, phonological environment, and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Natasha L.

    2005-09-01

    Normal connected speech contains a tremendous amount of variability in how a given sound is realized. The current work examines American English /t/ and /d/ in flapping environments. Flaps can be reduced to an approximant or even deleted in connected speech, and this study compares reduction of flaps to reduction of other stops (/p, b, k, g/) in the same environments. The effects of segmental environment (target followed by /l/, syllabic /r/, /?/, word boundary, etc.), stress (target following stressed syllable versus between two unstressed syllables), and speech style (casual conversation, reading connected text, and word list reading) are analyzed. Target segments are analyzed for presence/absence of a burst and of formants during closure, for duration of the segment and of closure voicing, and for amplitude during the closure or constriction. This project documents the degree of variability in reduction both within and across speakers. Preliminary results show that flaps are reduced to approximants surprisingly often, even in the most careful speech style. The results also suggest that flaps are far more likely to reduce than /p/ or /k/, suggesting that there is a categorical, phonological process at work as well as gradient variability.

  18. Relation between Deaf Children's Phonological Skills in Kindergarten and Word Recognition Performance in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colin, S.; Magnan, A.; Ecalle, J.; Leybaert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was twofold: 1) to determine whether phonological skills measured in deaf prereaders predict their later phonological and reading skills after one year of reading instruction as is the case for hearing children; 2) to examine whether the age of exposure to a fully specified phonological input such as Cued…

  19. The Effect of Dialect Experience on Chinese Children's Mandarin Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sumei; Li, Rongbao; Li, Guangze; Wang, Youkun; Wu, Liqiong

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on bilingual phonological awareness suggested that children who were able to speak a second language performed better in phonological awareness tasks; some studies however found different results. This study revisited the issue by investigating the effect of Min dialect experience on Chinese children's Mandarin phonological

  20. Phonological Memory and the Acquisition of Grammar in Child L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul; Messer, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological memory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. The current study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 grammar in more detail than has been done earlier. Specifically, we asked how phonological memory…